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Sample records for brush border membranes

  1. Comparison of the transport characteristics of ceftibuten in rat renal and intestinal brush-border membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naasani, I; Sato, K; Iseki, K; Sugawara, M; Kobayashi, M; Miyazaki, K

    1995-09-12

    The transport characteristics of ceftibuten, a dianionic cephem antibiotic, in rat renal and intestinal brush-border membranes were compared. Ceftibuten transport was mediated by two transport systems in the renal brush-border membrane and by one transport system in the intestinal brush-border membrane. The apparent kinetic parameters for the uptake of ceftibuten by the renal brush-border membrane vesicles, respectively, were: Km1, Km2 values of 26 and 1946 microM and Vmax1, Vmax2 values of 105 and 1400 pmol/mg protein per 30 s. The apparent kinetic parameters for the uptake by the intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles were: Km of 425 microM and Vmax of 1701 pmol/mg protein per 30 s. In the renal brush-border membrane, L-Ala-L-Pro was partially competitive and competitive inhibitor for the uptake by the high and low affinity systems, respectively. However, L-Ala-L-Pro was a non-competitive inhibitor for the uptake by the intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. L-Carnosine was a specific and competitive inhibitor for the high affinity system in the renal brush-border membrane, while it had no effect on the low affinity system of the kidney or on the transport system of the intestine. It was concluded that the transport characteristics of ceftibuten in the renal and intestinal brush-border membranes are similar in some aspects but they are not identical.

  2. Dietary free fatty acids form alkaline phosphatase-enriched microdomains in the intestinal brush border membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acids released during intralumenal digestion of dietary fat must pass through the enterocyte brush border membrane before triacylglycerol reassembly and subsequent chylomicron delivery to the lymph system. In the present work fluorescent BODIPY fatty acid analogs were used to study......-linked enzyme is the membrane protein in the brush border with the highest affinity for lipid rafts, this implies that free fatty acids selectively insert stably into these membrane microdomains. We have previously shown that absorption of dietary lipids transiently induce a selective endocytosis of AP from...

  3. Transport mechanism of ceftibuten, a dianionic cephem, in rat renal brush-border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naasani, I; Sugawara, M; Kobayashi, M; Iseki, K; Miyazaki, K

    1995-04-01

    The uptake mechanism of ceftibuten by rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles was investigated. Uptake was found to be independent of a Na+ gradient and partially dependent on an inwardly directed H(+)-gradient. Competition experiments between ceftibuten and several compounds demonstrated that the peptide-like structural features of inhibitors are more essential than their charge properties for inhibiting uptake. Anionic compound, such as p-aminohippuric acid, also inhibited ceftibuten uptake by renal brush-border membrane vesicles in the presence of an H(+)-gradient. We conclude that ceftibuten, in spite of its anionic structure, is transported via the dipeptide transport systems, rather than the organic anion transport system.

  4. Lipid rafts exist as stable cholesterol-independent microdomains in the brush border membrane of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Immerdal, Lissi; Thorsen, Evy

    2001-01-01

    antibodies were preferentially captured by beads coated with the respective antibody (p removed >70...... rafts, on microvillar vesicles from the enterocyte brush border membrane. Magnetic beads coated with either anti-galectin-4 or anti-lactase antibodies were used for immunoisolation of vesicles followed by double immunogold labeling of the two proteins. A morphometric analysis revealed subpopulations...

  5. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takito, J.; Shinki, T.; Sasaki, T.; Suda, T. (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 alpha,25(OH)2D3). The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane.

  6. Characterization of Ca2+ transport in rat renal brush-border membranes and its modulation by phosphatidic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Somermeyer, M G; Knauss, T C; Weinberg, J M; Humes, H D

    1983-01-01

    The Ca2+ transport process by isolated renal brush-border membranes was characterized and the influence of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PtdA) on this transport process was assessed. Ca2+ uptake by brush-border membranes exhibited saturation kinetics. It was inhibitable by a variety of multivalent cations, as well as by Ca2+-entry inhibitors, including verapamil, Ruthenium Red and gentamicin. It was selective for Ca2+ compared with Mg2+. This process was also electrophoretic sinc...

  7. Thyroid hormones increase Na -H exchange activity in renal brush border membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsella, J.; Sacktor, B.

    1985-06-01

    Na -H exchange activity, i.e., amiloride-sensitive Na and H flux, in renal proximal tubule brush border (luminal) membrane vesicles was increased in the hyperthyroid rat and decreased in the hypothyroid rat, relative to the euthyroid animal. A positive correlation was found between Na -H exchange activity and serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The thyroid status of the animal did not alter amiloride-insensitive Na uptake. The rate of passive pH gradient dissipation was higher in membrane vesicles from hyperthyroid rats compared to the rate in vesicles from hypothyroid animals, a result which would tend to limit the increase in Na uptake in vesicles from hyperthyroid animals. Na -dependent phosphate uptake was increased in membrane vesicles from hyperthyroid rats; Na -dependent D-glucose and L-proline uptakes were not changed by the thyroid status of the animal. The effect of thyroid hormones in increasing the uptake of Na in the brush border membrane vesicle is consistent with the action of the hormones in enhancing renal Na reabsorption.

  8. Generation of stable lipid raft microdomains in the enterocyte brush border by selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Michael Danielsen

    Full Text Available The small intestinal brush border has an unusually high proportion of glycolipids which promote the formation of lipid raft microdomains, stabilized by various cross-linking lectins. This unique membrane organization acts to provide physical and chemical stability to the membrane that faces multiple deleterious agents present in the gut lumen, such as bile salts, digestive enzymes of the pancreas, and a plethora of pathogens. In the present work, we studied the constitutive endocytosis from the brush border of cultured jejunal explants of the pig, and the results indicate that this process functions to enrich the contents of lipid raft components in the brush border. The lipophilic fluorescent marker FM, taken up into early endosomes in the terminal web region (TWEEs, was absent from detergent resistant membranes (DRMs, implying an association with non-raft membrane. Furthermore, neither major lipid raft-associated brush border enzymes nor glycolipids were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in subapical punctae resembling TWEEs. Finally, two model raft lipids, BODIPY-lactosylceramide and BODIPY-GM1, were not endocytosed except when cholera toxin subunit B (CTB was present. In conclusion, we propose that constitutive, selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane acts as a sorting mechanism to enrich the brush border contents of lipid raft components, such as glycolipids and the major digestive enzymes. This sorting may be energetically driven by changes in membrane curvature when molecules move from a microvillar surface to an endocytic invagination.

  9. Faecal excretion of brush border membrane enzymes in patients with clostridium difficile diarrhoea

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    Katyal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To look for the presence of intestinal brush border membrane (BBM enzymes in the faecal samples of patients with Clostridium difficile association. METHODS: One hundred faecal samples were investigated for C.difficile toxin (CDT. Simultaneous assays for faecal excretion of intestinal BBM enzymes viz., disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase (AP and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP were also done. RESULTS: C.difficile toxin was detected in 25 (25% of the samples with a titre ranging from 10 to 160. No significant difference (p>0.05 was seen between the CDT positive and negative groups with any of the disaccharidases studied. However, significant increase (pC.difficile diarrhoea.

  10. Characteristics of glutamine transport in dog jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulus, N M; Abumrad, N N; Ghishan, F K

    1989-07-01

    The present study characterizes glutamine transport across brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from dog jejunum. The purity of these vesicles was demonstrated by a 20-fold enrichment of leucine aminopeptidase, a marker for BBM. Glutamine uptake was found to occur into an osmotically active space with no membrane binding and to exhibit temperature and pH dependence (optimal uptake at pH 7-7.5). Glutamine uptake was driven by an inwardly directed Na+ gradient with a distinct overshoot not observed under K+ gradient. Lithium could not substitute for Na+ as a stimulator of glutamine uptake. Na+-dependent glutamine uptake was not inhibited by methylaminoisobutyric acid, a typical substrate for system A, and was found to be electrogenic and saturable with a Km of 0.97 +/- 0.58 mM and a Vmax of 3.93 +/- 0.99 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1. A Na+-glutamine coupling ratio of 1:1 could be demonstrated by a plot of Hill transformation. Na+-independent glutamine uptake was found to be electroneutral and saturable with a Km of 3.70 +/- 0.66 mM and a Vmax of 2.70 +/- 1.55 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1. Inhibition studies confirmed the presence of a Na+-dependent as well as a Na+-independent carrier for glutamine uptake. We conclude that glutamine uptake across dog BBMV occurs via two transport systems: a Na+-dependent high-affinity system similar to the neutral brush-border system and a Na+-independent lower-affinity system similar to system L.

  11. Maturational Changes in Rabbit Renal Brush Border Membrane Vesicle Urea Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Raymond; Flynn, Marisa; Baum, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is thought to occur by passive diffusion through the lipid bilayers of the cell membranes. The lipid composition of cell membranes changes during maturation and may directly affect urea permeability of proximal tubule membranes. The present study examined the maturation of urea transport in rabbit renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). BBMV from adult and neonatal (9- to 11-d-old) New Zealand white rabbits were loaded with 500 mM urea and mixed with an iso-osmotic mannitol solution using a stop-flow instrument. Vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, was followed with light scattering and urea permeability was calculated from an exponential fit of the data. Urea permeability was significantly lower in the neonatal BBMV than the adult at 25°C (0.34 ± 0.04 × 10−6 versus 0.56 ± 0.03 × 10−6 cm/sec; p excretion. This may also play a role in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:9890623

  12. Transport of citrate across renal brush border membrane: effects of dietary acid and alkali loading

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    Jenkins, A.D.; Dousa, T.P.; Smith, L.H.

    1985-10-01

    Dietary acid or alkali loading was given to rats by providing 150 mM NH4Cl or 150 mM NaHCO3 in place of drinking water for 6 days; control animals received 150 mM NaCl. After 6 days, the citrate clearance was 0.04 +/- 0.01 ml/min (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 0.9 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control group, and 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min in the alkali-loaded group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed, and the Na gradient-dependent citrate uptake was measured in brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from each group. At 0.3 min, the ( UC)citrate uptake was 198 +/- 8 pmol/mg protein (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 94 +/- 16 pmol/mg protein in the control group, and 94 +/- 13 pmol/mg protein in the alkali-loaded group. The rate of Na -independent (NaCl in medium replaced by KCl) ( UC)-citrate uptake by BBM vesicles was the same for acid-loaded, control, and alkali-loaded animals. Thus, the increased capacity of the proximal tubular BBM to transport citrate from the tubular lumen into the cell interior may be an important factor that contributes to decreased urinary citrate in the presence of metabolic acidosis induced by chronic dietary acid loading.

  13. Nateglinide uptake by a ceftibuten transporter in the rat kidney brush-border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Saito, Yoshitaka; Itagaki, Shirou; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2005-08-30

    Nateglinide, a novel oral hypoglycemic agent, possesses a carbonyl group and a peptide-type bond in its structure. We previously reported that nateglinide transport occurs via a single system that may be identical to the ceftibuten/H(+) cotransport system by the rat small intestine. We speculated that the absorption system present on the intestinal epithelium may be similar to that found on the renal tubular epithelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the transporters on the apical side of the kidney that may contribute to the reabsorption of ceftibuten and nateglinide. The uptake of nateglinide by rat renal brush-border membranes is associated with an H(+)-coupled transport system. Ceftibuten competitively inhibited H(+)-dependent nateglinide uptake. In contrast, Gly-Sar, cephradine and cephalexin had no effect on nateglinide uptake. Nateglinide competitively inhibited H(+)-driven transporter-mediated ceftibuten uptake. We conclude that nateglinide transport occurs via a single system that is H(+)-dependent and may be identical to the ceftibuten/H(+) cotransport system.

  14. Cimetidine transport in rabbit renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles

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    McKinney, T.D.; Kunnemann, M.E.

    1987-03-01

    Cimetidine is an organic cation and commonly prescribed drug that is eliminated primarily by proximal renal tubular secretion. The present studies evaluated cimetidine transport in rabbit renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). (/sup 3/H)Cimetidine uptake varied inversely with media osmolarity and was stimulated with uphill transport above equilibrium values (overshoot) produced by an initial proton gradient directed from the vesicle interior outwardly. Uphill transport occurred earlier and was of greater magnitude at 25/sup 0/C than at 5/sup 0/C. pH-stimulated (/sup 3/H)cimetidine uptake was inhibited by excess nonradiolabeled cimetidine, quinidine, and procainamide but was affected little by probenecid. Tetraethylammonium inhibited cimetidine uptake in the presence and absence of an initial proton gradient, indicating that nonionic diffusion and simple diffusion cannot totally account for cimetidine transport in BBMV. Preloading BBMV with an excess of procainamide enhanced cimetidine uptake. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that cimetidine is transported across BBMV by organic cation-proton exchange.

  15. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine.

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    Takanari Nakano

    Full Text Available Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1, an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to

  16. Sulfate-bicarbonate exchange in brush-border membranes from rat renal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, J.B.

    1987-02-01

    Under Na/sup +/-free conditions /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ uptake by rat renal brush-border membrane (BBM) vesicles could be driven by imposition of a HCO/sup -//sub 3/ gradient (in greater than out). The initial rate of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ uptake was stimulated 10-fold, and peak overshoot exceeded equilibrium uptake by 2-3 times. Cl/sup -/, SCN/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, I/sup -/, and OH/sup -/ were able to substitute for HCO/sub 3//sup -/. Divalent anions, including /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ itself, were less effective as counterions. HCO/sub 3//sup -/-SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ exchange was cis-inhibited by disulfonic stilbenes, ((SITS)(DIDS)), phloretin, Hg, and S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/. HCO/sub 3//sup -/-driven /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ uptake was saturable, with an apparent K/sub m/ of 0.4 mM for SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. Simultaneous imposition of Na/sup +/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ gradients produced approximately additive stimulation of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ uptake. The HCO/sub 3//sup -/-driven component of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ uptake, but not the component driven by Na/sup +/, was inhibited by SITS. Finally, Na/sup +/-driven SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ accumulation could be reduced by imposing an out greater than in HCO/sub 3//sup +/ gradient, conditions accelerating exchange driven SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ efflux. These findings indicate the presence of separate Na/sup +/-SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ cotransport and SO /sub 4//sup 2 -/-anion exchange pathways in the same BBM vesicles.

  17. Studies on rabbit kidney brush border membranes: relationship between phosphate transport, alkaline phosphatase and NAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufi, A N; Dousa, T P

    1987-01-01

    In previous studies we found that intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NiAm) to rats resulted in increased NAD+ content in proximal tubules, inhibition of brush border membrane (BBM) transport of phosphate (Pi) and decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP). We now studied the effect of NiAm injection on rabbit kidney BBM prepared either directly by Ca2+ precipitation method, or prepared indirectly from sheets of BBM. In BBM vesicles prepared directly from NiAm-injected rabbits, Na+-dependent Pi uptake was inhibited, but no inhibition was found in BBM vesicles prepared by an indirect method. Incubation of both directly prepared BBM vesicles and of BBM sheets with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released about 85% of AP from BBM. In BBM vesicles prepared indirectly from BBM sheets, incubation with PI-PLC increased by 100% the capacity for Pi transport, but PI-PLC had no effect on Pi transport if rabbits were injected with NiAm. On the other hand, incubation of directly prepared BBM vesicles with PI-PLC did not alter Pi transport capacity both in controls and in NiAm-treated rabbits, although it released AP. Treatment with NiAm decreases significantly AP activity both in BBM vesicles prepared directly or prepared indirectly from BBM sheets. These results suggest that NiAm-induced inhibition of BBM transport system for Pi is reversed by prolonged washing and incubation in the course of indirect preparation of BBM vesicles. Results also suggest that an increase in tissue NAD+ decreases susceptibility of BBM to treatment with PI-PLC in altering Pi transport. Removal of the majority of AP from BBM does not impair Na+-gradient-dependent Pi transport system.

  18. Leucine transport in brush border membrane vesicles from freshwater insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Matilde; Berra, Elisa; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Leucine transport across brush border membrane vesicles prepared from four insect species common to European freshwater streams has been characterized. The species studied were: Ephemera danica (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), Isoperla grammatica (Plecoptera: Perlodidae), Hydropsyche pellucidula (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae), and Hybomitra bimaculata (Diptera: Tabanidae). The transport differed among the studied taxa for several features, including pH and sodium dependence, substrate affinity and specificity, and efficiency. In H. pellucidula and E. danica, leucine uptake was higher at pH 7.4 than at more alkaline or acidic pH values, whereas in I. grammatica and H. bimaculata, the uptake was rather constant when pH varied from 5.0 to 7.4, then strongly decreased at pH 8.8. All but E. danica displayed a transient intravescicular leucine accumulation in the presence of sodium, suggesting the existence of a cation-leucine symport mechanism. The sodium dependence ranged according to the following order: H. pellucidula > I. grammatica > H. bimaculata > E. danica. Moreover, in H. pellucidula and I. grammatica, the sodium-dependence was stronger at pH 8.8 than at pH 7.4. In E. danica, leucine uptake was sodium-independent at all pH values. The highest value of V(max) (45.3 pmol.s(-1).mg proteins(-1)) was in E. danica, which, however, displayed the lowest affinity (K(m) 137 muM) when compared to the kinetic parameters of other taxa. The V(max) and K(m) values were: 40 and 52.5, 32.1 and 12.5, and 4.5 and 230 for H. bimaculata, H. pellucidula, and I. grammatica, respectively. The obtained results are discussed within our current knowledge of amino acid transport systems in insects. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  20. Influence of dietary partially hydrogenated fat high in trans fatty acids on lipid composition and function of intestinal brush border membrane in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorunissa, S A.I.

    2001-02-01

    The effect of dietary hydrogenated fat (Indian vanaspati) high in trans fatty acids (6 en%) on lipid composition, fluidity and function of rat intestinal brush border membrane was studied at 2 and 8 en% of linoleic acid. Three groups of weanling rats were fed rice-pulse based diet containing 10% fat over a ten week period: Group I (groundnut oil), Group II (vanaspati), Group III (vanaspati + safflower oil). The functionality of the brush border membrane was assessed by the activity of membrane bound enzymes and transport of D-glucose and L-leucine. The levels of total cholesterol and phospholipids were similar in all groups. The data on fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids showed that, at 2 en% of linoleic acid in the diet, trans fatty acids lowered arachidonic acid and increased linoleic acid contents indicating altered polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased while the activities of sucrase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and transport of D-glucose and L-leucine were not altered by dietary trans fatty acids. However at higher intake of linoleic acid in the diet, trans fatty acids have no effect on polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal brush border membrane. These data suggest that feeding dietary fat high in trans fatty acids is associated with alteration in intestinal brush border membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and alkaline phosphatase activity only when the dietary linoleic acid is low.

  1. K⁺-dependent ³H-D-glucose transport by hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles of a marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Ijeoma E; Sterling, Kenneth M; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of sodium, potassium, sugar inhibitors, and membrane potential on ³H-D-glucose uptake by hepatopancreatic epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the Atlantic marine shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were investigated. Brush border membrane vesicles were prepared using a MgCl₂/EGTA precipitation method and uptake experiments were conducted using a high speed filtration technique. ³H-D-Glucose uptake was stimulated by both sodium and potassium and these transport rates were almost doubled in the presence of an inside-negative-induced membrane potential. Kinetics of ³H-D-glucose influx were hyperbolic functions of both external Na⁺ or K⁺, and an induced membrane potential increased influx J(max) and lowered K(m) in both salts. ³H-D-Glucose influx versus [glucose] in both Na⁺ or K⁺ media also displayed Michaelis-Menten properties that were only slightly affected by induced membrane potential. Phloridzin was a poor inhibitor of 0.5 mM ³H-D-glucose influx, requiring at least 5 mM in NaCl and 10 mM in KCl to significantly reduce hexose transport. Several sugars (D-galactose, α-methyl-D-gluco-pyranoside, unlabeled D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-mannose) were used at 75 mM as potential inhibitors of 0.1 mM ³H-D-glucose influx. Only unlabeled D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-mannose significantly (p glucose transport. An additional experiment using increasing concentrations of D-mannose (0, 10, 25, 75, and 100 mM) showed this hexose to be an effective inhibitor of 0.1 mM ³H-D-glucose uptake at concentrations of 75 mM and higher. As a whole these results suggest that ³H-D-glucose transport by hepatopancreatic BBMV occurs by a carrier system that is able to use both Na⁺ and K⁺ as drivers, is enhanced by membrane potential, is relatively refractory to phloridzin, and is only inhibited by itself, D-fructose, and D-mannose. These properties are similar to those exhibited by the mammalian SLC5A9/SGLT4 transporter, suggesting that an

  2. Isolation and partial characterization of gypsy moth BTR-270, an anionic brush border membrane glycoconjugate that binds Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with high affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; Jeremy L. Jenkins; Mi Kyong Lee; Donald H. Dean; Karen J. Garner

    2001-01-01

    BTR-270, a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) brush border membrane molecule that binds Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins with high affinity, was purified by preparative gel electrophoresis. Rabbit antibodies specific for the Bt toxin-binding molecule were raised. Attempts to label BTR-270 by protein-directed techniques were...

  3. Effects of fatty acid sucrose esters on ceftibuten transport by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, K; Murakami, M; Kawashima, S

    1998-07-01

    The effects of fatty acid sucrose esters on membrane lipid dynamics and ceftibuten transport by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were examined to clarify the differences in the action of mono- and poly-acyl sucrose esters on the drug transport. Fatty acid sucrose mono-acyl ester (SS) inhibited ceftibuten transport by BBMV similar to the action of polyoxyethylene sorbitans (Tweens), while fatty acid sucrose polyacyl ester mixtures (F-160 and F-140) did not affect the drug transport by BBMV. SS but not F-160 and F-140 caused an increase in the anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)- and 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene iodide (TMA-DPH)-labeled BBMV in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, the uptake of ceftibuten by BBMV was strongly correlated with the lipid fluidity of BBMV, in the outer layer and in the inner hydrophobic regions; however, there was no strong correlation between the membrane lipid fluidity and the drug uptake by BBMV. The micelle size and the size distribution of F-160 and F-140 were larger and more widely dispersed, respectively, compared to those of SS and Tweens. These results suggest that the effects of fatty acid sucrose esters on ceftibuten transport by BBMV are related to the dispersion parameter of these pharmaceutical adjuvants.

  4. Binding kinetics of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B to intestinal brush border membranes from infant and adult hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, R.D. (Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, Lubbock (USA))

    1991-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the relative resistance of neonates and infants to Clostridium difficile-associated intestinal disease can be related to age-dependent differences in intestinal receptors for C. difficile toxins A and B. Brush border membranes (BBMs) from the small intestines of adult and infant hamsters were examined for their ability to bind radiolabeled toxins A and B. (125I)toxin A bound to both infant and adult hamster BBMs at physiological temperature, whereas (125I)toxin B did not bind to the BBMs under any of the conditions examined. The number of (125I)toxin A molecules bound at saturation was approximately 4 x 10(10) per micrograms of membrane protein for adult BBMs and 1 x 10(11) per micrograms of membrane protein for infant BBMs. Scatchard plot analysis suggested the presence of a single class of toxin A binding sites on both infant and adult hamster BBMs. Maximal binding capacity and Kd values were 0.63 pmol/mg of protein and 66.7 nM, respectively, for the infant BBMs, and 0.24 pmol/mg of protein and 27 nM, respectively, for the adult BBMs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analyses of extracted BBM proteins revealed differences in the proteins of infant and adult BBMs. However, there were not any detectable differences in the protein bands which bound (125I)toxin A between infant and adult hamsters. The results from these investigations indicate that differences in the binding kinetics of toxins A and/or B to infant and adult hamster BBMs do not account for the observed differences in their susceptibility to C. difficile-associated intestinal disease.

  5. Rotavirus NSP4114-135 peptide has no direct, specific effect on chloride transport in rabbit brush-border membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseur Monique

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The direct effect of the rotavirus NSP4114-135 and Norovirus NV464-483 peptides on 36Cl uptake was studied by using villus cell brush border membrane (BBM isolated from young rabbits. Both peptides inhibited the Cl-/H+ symport activity about equally and partially. The interaction involved one peptide-binding site per carrier unit. Whereas in vitro NSP4114-135 caused nonspecific inhibition of the Cl-/H+ symporter, the situation in vivo is different. Because rotavirus infection in young rabbits accelerated both Cl- influx and Cl- efflux rates across villi BBM without stimulating Cl- transport in crypt BBM, we conclude that the NSP4114-135 peptide, which causes diarrhea in young rodents, did not have any direct, specific effect on either intestinal absorption or secretion of chloride. The lack of direct effect of NSP4 on chloride transport strengthens the hypothesis that NSP4 would trigger signal transduction pathways to enhance net chloride secretion at the onset of rotavirus diarrhea.

  6. H+-dependent transport mechanism of nateglinide in the brush-border membrane of the rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Shirou; Saito, Yoshitaka; Kubo, Sayaka; Otsuka, Yukio; Yamamoto, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2005-01-01

    (-)-N-(trans-4-Isopropylcyclohexanecarbonyl)-D-phenylalanine (nateglinide) is a novel oral hypoglycemic agent possessing a carboxyl group and a peptide-type bond in its structure. Although nateglinide quickly reaches the maximal serum concentration after oral administration, nateglinide itself is not transported by PepT1 or MCT1. The aim of this study was to characterize the transporters on the apical side of the small intestine that are responsible for the rapid absorption of nateglinide. The uptake of nateglinide by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles is associated with a proton-coupled transport system. Ceftibuten competitively inhibited H(+)-dependent nateglinide uptake. Glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar), cephradine, and cephalexin did not significantly inhibit the uptake of nateglinide. The combination of Gly-Sar and nateglinide greatly reduced the uptake of ceftibuten. The effect of the combined treatment was significantly greater than that of Gly-Sar alone. Furthermore, nateglinide competitively inhibited H(+)-driven ceftibuten transporter-mediated ceftibuten uptake. Ceftibuten transport occurs via at least two H(+)-dependent transport systems: one is PepT1, and the other is the ceftibuten/H(+) cotransport system. On the other hand, we demonstrated that nateglinide transport occurs via a single system that is H(+) dependent but is distinct from PepT1 and may be identical to the ceftibuten/H(+) cotransport system.

  7. The inhibitory effects of cephalosporin and dipeptide on ceftibuten uptake by human and rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, M; Toda, T; Kobayashi, M; Iseki, K; Miyazaki, K; Shiroto, H; Uchino, J; Kondo, Y

    1994-08-01

    The types of inhibitory effects caused by compound V (an analogue of ceftibuten) and alanylproline (dipeptide) on the uptake of ceftibuten by brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from human and rat small intestine were analysed. In the presence of an inward H(+)-gradient, the initial uptake rate of ceftibuten by both human and rat intestinal BBMV was concentration-dependent with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.35 mM and 2.052 nmol (mg protein)-1 min-1 for human BBMV, and 0.50 mM and 3.056 nmol (mg protein)-1 min-1 for rat BBMV, respectively. For both human and rat BBMV, kinetic analysis by Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the uptake of ceftibuten was competitively inhibited by compound V, whereas inhibition by alanylproline was noncompetitive or partially competitive. These results suggest that there is a stereospecific transport system which is common to ceftibuten and compound V, and that this system is not identical to the carrier system for the dipeptide, alanylproline.

  8. Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

    2012-01-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.

  9. Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ma

    Full Text Available The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV. Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.

  10. Lipid rafts in epithelial brush borders: atypical membrane microdomains with specialized functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-01-01

    of the apical surface sterically accessible for membrane fusion/budding events. Many of these invaginations appear as pleiomorphic, deep apical tubules that extend up to 0.5-1 microm into the underlying terminal web region. Their sensitivity to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggests them to contain cholesterol...

  11. Binding of isolectins from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to purified rat brush-border membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, D H; Banwell, J G

    1985-12-13

    Ingestion of red kidney bean phytohemagglutinin causes impaired growth and intestinal malabsorption, and facilitates bacterial colonization in the small intestine of weanling rats. We have studied interactions of the highly purified phytohemagglutinin erythroagglutinating (E4) and mitogenic (L4) isolectins with microvillous membrane vesicles prepared from rat small intestines. E4 and L4 were radioiodinated with 125I by the chloramine-T technique. E4 and L4 isolectins both bound to microvillous membrane vesicles. Binding was saturable and reversible. Each mg of membrane protein bound 744 +/- 86 micrograms E4 and 213 +/- 21 micrograms L4. The apparent Ka for E4 and L4 binding was 2.5 x 10(-6) and 13.0 x 10(-6) M-1, respectively. Binding of each 125I-labelled isolectin was abolished by 100-fold excess of unlabelled isolectin. In each case binding also was inhibited by appropriate oligosaccharide inhibitors, indicating that isolectin-microvillous membrane interactions were mediated by carbohydrate recognition. Patterns of saccharide inhibition of isolectin binding were different for E4 and L4. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated mutual noncompetitive inhibition of E4 and L4 binding consistent with steric hindrance. Therefore, E4 and L4 each bound to its own set of receptors. Based on the known saccharide specificities of E4 and L4, these data indicate that there are differences in expression of complex asparagine-linked biantennary and tri- or tetraantennary oligosaccharides at the microvillous surface. The data also provide the possibility that direct interactions of one or more phytohemagglutinin isolectins with intestinal mucosa in vivo may contribute to the antinutritional effects associated with ingestion of crude red kidney beans.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding glycoconjugates present on the brush border membrane and in the peritrophic membrane of the Douglas-fir tussock moth are peritrophins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; John D. Podgwaite

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxin-binding sites in the Douglas fir tussock moth (DFTM) larval gut were localized using immunofluorescence microscopy. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac all bound strongly to the DFTM peritrophic membrane (PM); weaker binding of the Cry1A toxins was observed along the apical brush border of the midgut epithelium....

  13. Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins is correlated with the presence of high-affinity binding sites in the brush border membrane of target insect midguts.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, C; Vanderbruggen, H; Höfte, H.; Van Rie, J.; Jansens, S.; Van Mellaert, H

    1988-01-01

    Binding studies were performed with two 125I-labeled Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins on brush border membrane vesicles prepared from the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta or the cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae. One delta-endotoxin, Bt2-protoxin, is a 130-kDa recombinant crystalline protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. berliner. It kills larvae of both insect species. The active Bt2-toxin is a 60-kDa proteolytic fragment of the Bt2-protoxin. It binds saturably and ...

  14. Immunoelectrophoretic studies on pig intestinal brush border proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1977-01-01

    Brush borders were prepared from pig intestinal mucosa and the membrane proteins solubilized with either Triton X-100 or papain. Proteins, thus released, were used as antigens to raise antisera in rabbits. The immunoglobulin G fractions were isolated and shown by the double layer immunofluorescence...

  15. Competitive, uncompetitive, and mixed inhibitors of the alkaline phosphatase activity associated with the isolated brush border membrane of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, P W; Leiby, D A

    1989-06-01

    Several compounds were tested as inhibitors of the alkaline phosphatase (AlkPase) activity associated with the isolated brush border membrane of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Molybdate, arsenate, arsenite and beta-glycerophosphate (BGP) were competitive inhibitors of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, while levamisole and clorsulon were uncompetitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Molybdate was also a competitive inhibitor of the hydrolysis of BGP and 5'-adenosine monophosphate, and levamisole was an uncompetitive inhibitor of BGP hydrolysis. The apparent inhibitor constants (Ki') for molybdate and levamisole were virtually identical regardless of the substrate, and these data support the hypothesis that the AlkPase activity is represented by a single membrane-bound enzyme with low substrate specificity. Quinacrine, Hg2+, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate were also potent inhibitors of the AlkPase activity, but the mechanisms by which these latter three inhibitors function were not clear.

  16. A Tenebrio molitor GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is involved in binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa to brush border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Gómez, Isabel; Peña, Guadalupe; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins recognizes their target cells in part by the binding to glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchored proteins such as aminopeptidase-N (APN) or alkaline phosphatases (ALP). Treatment of Tenebrio molitor brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) with phospholipase C that cleaves out GPI-anchored proteins from the membranes, showed that GPI-anchored proteins are involved in binding of Cry3Aa toxin to BBMV. A 68 kDa GPI-anchored ALP was shown to bind Cry3Aa by toxin overlay assays. The 68 kDa GPI-anchored ALP was preferentially expressed in early instar larvae in comparison to late instar larvae. Our work shows for the first time that GPI-anchored ALP is important for Cry3Aa binding to T. molitor BBMV suggesting that the mode of action of Cry toxins is conserved in different insect orders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Correction by 1-25-dihydroxycholecalciferol of the abnormal fluidity and lipid composition of enterocyte brush border membranes in vitamin D-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasitus, T A; Dudeja, P K; Eby, B; Lau, K

    1986-12-15

    Weanling male Wistar rats were deprived of dietary and light sources of vitamin D for 11-18 weeks along with age-matched diet vitamin D-repleted controls to evaluate the role of lipid fluidity in the stimulatory effect of calcitriol on Ca transport. The "static" component of fluidity of proximal small intestine brush border membrane, as assessed by steady-state fluorescence techniques using the fluorophore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, was similar between these two groups. In contrast, the "dynamic" component of fluidity, as assessed by DL-2-(9-anthroyl)-stearic acid and DL-12-(9-anthroyl)-stearic acid, was decreased in membranes of D-deprived animals. Lipid composition was analyzed to evaluate the potential mechanism mediating these fluidity changes. In vitamin D-deprived rats, linoleic (18:2) and arachidonic (20:4) acids of the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine fractions of the membrane were decreased, whereas palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids were increased in the phosphatidylethanolamine fraction of the membrane. These associated fatty acyl alterations could explain, at least in part, the differences in membrane fluidity between D-repleted and D-deprived rats. Membrane fluidity, lipid composition, and duodenal Ca transport were also analyzed 1, 2, and 5 h after the acute administration of 1-25-dihydroxycholecalciferol to D-deprived animals. In D-deprived rats, within 1-2 h, this hormone restored to levels of vitamin D-repleted controls the dynamic component of fluidity and concentrations of the same membrane phospholipid fatty acids. Since these changes temporally precede detectable increases in Ca absorption (demonstrable only during the 5th h), these data support the hypothesis that alterations in membrane fluidity and lipid composition may play an important role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium transport by calcitriol.

  18. Purification by ceftibuten-affinity chromatography and the functional reconstitution of oligopeptide transporter(s) in rat intestinal brush-border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, K; Yonemura, K; Kikuchi, T; Naasani, I; Sugawara, M; Kobayashi, M; Kohri, N; Miyazaki, K

    1998-03-06

    The transport activity of ceftibuten, a dianionic peptide-like compound, was extracted from rat intestinal brush-border membrane by n-octylglucoside and reconstituted into asolectin liposomes by dialysis. The proteoliposomes prepared from the membrane extract showed an inward H+-gradient-dependent uptake of ceftibuten and glycylsarcosine. Ceftibuten-immobilized affinity chromatography of the membrane extract permitted the isolation of two polypeptides (apparent molecular mass of 117 and 127 kDa) that can recognize the dianionic peptide structure of ceftibuten. Proteoliposomes prepared from reconstituting the isolated proteins into asolectin vesicles showed an overshooting uptake of ceftibuten in the presence of an inwardly directed H+ gradient, and this uptake could be inhibited by L-valyl-L-proline. N-glycanase digestion of the isolated proteins, 117 and 127 kDa, trimmed them into 78 and 120 kDa products, respectively. The protein core size of the smaller protein was in agreement with the calculated molecular mass of approximately 79 kDa for the rat PepT1 transporter obtained by other investigators. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Probing endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border using fluorescent lipophilic dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border is a specialized cell membrane that needs to withstand the solubilizing effect of bile salts during assimilation of dietary nutrients and to achieve detergent resistance; it is highly enriched in glycolipids organized in lipid raft microdomains. In the present work......-toluenesulfonate), and CellMask Orange plasma membrane stain were used to study endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border of organ-cultured porcine mucosal explants. All the dyes readily incorporated into the brush border but were not detectably endocytosed by 5 min, indicating a slow uptake compared with other cell types...

  20. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E; Srai, Surjit K; Unwin, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Marks, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush border. In the type II diabetic model, this is accompanied by increased SGLT- and GLUT-mediated glucose uptake. A fasted model of metabolic disruption (high-fat diet) demonstrated increased GLUT2 expression only. The differential alterations of glucose transporters in response to varying metabolic stress offer insight into the therapeutic value of inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors are now in clinical use to reduce hyperglycaemia in type II diabetes. However, renal glucose reabsorption across the brush border membrane (BBM) is not completely understood in diabetes. Increased consumption of a Western diet is strongly linked to type II diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the adaptations that occur in renal glucose transporters in response to experimental models of diet-induced insulin resistance. The study used Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rats and normal rats rendered insulin resistant using junk-food or high-fat diets. Levels of protein kinase C-βI (PKC-βI), GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 were determined by Western blotting of purified renal BBM. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated d-[(3) H]glucose uptake by BBM vesicles was measured in the presence and absence of the SGLT inhibitor phlorizin. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated glucose transport was elevated in type II diabetic rats, accompanied by increased expression of GLUT2, its upstream regulator PKC-βI and SGLT1 protein. Junk-food and high-fat diet feeding also caused higher membrane expression of GLUT2 and its upstream regulator PKC

  1. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: selective endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border during fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte; Immerdal, Lissi

    2007-01-01

    explants. By immunofluorescence microscopy, fat absorption caused a translocation of IAP from the enterocyte brush border to the interior of the cell, whereas other brush-border enzymes were unaffected. By electron microscopy, the translocation occurred by a rapid (5 min) induction of endocytosis via....... A lipid analysis revealed that fat absorption caused a marked increase in the microvillar membrane contents of free fatty acids. In conclusion, fat absorption rapidly induces a transient clathrin-dependent endocytosis via coated pits from the enterocyte brush border. The process selectively internalizes...

  2. Lack of intestinal transport of [3H]-demethylphalloin: comparative studies with phallotoxins and bile acids on isolated small intestinal cells and ileal brush border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, E; Burckhardt, G; Schwenk, M; Faulstich, H

    1982-08-01

    Several earlier studies suggested that the uptake of phallotoxins by liver cells is a carrier mediated process using a transport system normally handling bile acids (see Frimmer 1982). In this study we have shown whether ileal cells, well known to transport bile acids too, are able to take up phallotoxins. Isolated epithelial cells prepared from guinea pig ileum accumulated [14C]-cholate, whereas [3H]-demethylphalloin ([3H]-DMP) was not taken up. The same observation was made with isolated jejunal cells but the uptake of [14C]-cholate was much slower. [3H]-DMP, however, was partly bound to intestinal cells. This process was not inhibited by cholate, iodipamide, oligomycin and carbonylcyano-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), compounds known to decrease the uptake of phallotoxins into liver cells. Substituting Na+ for choline+ and also Cl- for SCN- did not influence the binding of [3H]-DMP. Frozen intestinal cells from the guinea pig bound two time more [3H]-DMP after thawing compared with intact cells. Supplementary uptake experiments on isolated brush border membrane vesicles from rat ileum revealed that phalloidin does not inhibit taurocholate uptake and that taurocholate does not interfere with [3H]-DMP binding. The results suggest that [3H]-demethylphalloin is not recognized by the bile acid carrier of the guinea pig and the rat ileum. It is concluded that the transport system for bile acids present in ileal cell is different from that of liver cells.

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Periplocoside P from Periploca sepium on Brush Border Membrane Vesicles in Midgut Epithelium of Mythimna separata Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periplocoside P (PSP, a novel compound isolated from Periploca sepium Bunge, possesses insecticidal activity against some lepidopterans, such as Mythimna separata. In M. separata, the brush border membrane vesicles of the midgut epithelium are the initial site of action of periplocosides. We conducted two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry analysis to analyze differentially expressed proteins (DEPs from periplocoside P (PSP-treated M. separata. We successfully isolated seven up-regulated and three down-regulated DEPs that have been previously identified, as well as a novel DEP. The DEPs are implicated in protein degradation, transporter, folding, and synthesis, and in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. DEPs involved in the oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism pathway are enriched. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, we confirmed that vma1 expression is significantly up-regulated expression levels in PSP-treated M. separata larvae. Enzymology validation further indicated that PSP can significantly inhibit V-type ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Given these results, we speculate that in M. separata, the V-type ATPase A subunit in the midgut epithelium is the putative target binding site of periplocosides. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the mode of action of periplocosides.

  4. Multiplicity of the H+-dependent transport mechanism of dipeptide and anionic beta-lactam antibiotic ceftibuten in rat intestinal brush-border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, K; Sugawara, M; Sato, K; Naasani, I; Hayakawa, T; Kobayashi, M; Miyazaki, K

    1999-04-01

    To elucidate the transport characteristics of the H+/dipeptide carrier that recognizes the orally active beta-lactam antibiotic ceftibuten, the uptake behaviors were compared of ceftibuten and Gly-Sar by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. The results show that 1) both the uptake of ceftibuten and that of Gly-Sar were dependent on an inwardly directed H+ gradient; 2) anionic compounds such as hippurylphenyllactic acid competitively inhibited ceftibuten uptake in the presence of H+ gradient, whereas this anion did not inhibit Gly-Sar uptake; and 3) the carrier-mediated uptake of ceftibuten did not disappear even in the presence of 20 mM Gly-Sar. The results provide an evidence that several transporters with different features are potentially responsible for the uptake of beta-lactam antibiotics into the intestinal cells. It is suggested that the dianionic beta-lactam antibiotics that carry a net negative charge such as ceftibuten use multiple H+-dependent transport systems for absorption.

  5. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    to galectin-4 to coimmunoprecipitate aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase. Furthermore, galectin-4 was released from microvillar, right-side-out vesicles as well as from mucosal explants by a brief wash with 100 mM lactose, confirming its extracellular localization. Galectin-4 is therefore secreted...... that galectin-4 is indeed an intestinal brush border protein; we also localized galectin-4 throughout the cell, mainly associated with membraneous structures, including small vesicles, and to the rootlets of microvillar actin filaments. This was confirmed by subcellular fractionation, showing about half...

  6. Dietary flaxseed oil supplementation mitigates the effect of lead on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and oxidative stress in rat kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Sana; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Khan, Farah

    2013-06-01

    Lead is a heavy metal widely distributed in the environment. Lead is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that is capable of causing numerous acute and chronic illnesses. Human and animal exposure demonstrates that lead is nephrotoxic. However, attempts to reduce lead-induced nephrotoxicity were not found suitable for clinical use. Recently, flaxseed oil (FXO), a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and lignans, has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain types of cardiovascular and renal disorders. In view of this, the present study investigates the protective effect of FXO on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced renal damage. Rats were pre-fed normal diet and the diet rich in FXO for 14 days, and then, four doses of lead acetate (25 mg/kg body weight) were administered intraperitoneally while still on diet. Various serum parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), and oxidative stress were analyzed in rat kidney. PbAc nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. PbAc increased the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme, whereas it decreased malate and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and BBM enzyme activities. PbAc caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. In contrast, FXO alone enhanced the enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, BBM, and antioxidant defense system. FXO feeding to PbAc-treated rats markedly enhanced resistance to PbAc-elicited deleterious effects. In conclusion, dietary FXO supplementation ameliorated PbAc-induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage by empowering antioxidant defense mechanism and improving BBM integrity and energy metabolism.

  7. Increased calcium absorption in prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rat. Role of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels and intestinal brush border membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K; Langman, C B; Gafter, U; Dudeja, P K; Brasitus, T A

    1986-10-01

    Changes in Ca absorption have been described in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rats. In 3.5-wk-old SHR and age-matched WKy controls, we measured direct arterial blood pressure, Ca absorption, and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] levels and small intestine brush border membrane (BBM) fluidity and lipid composition. The two objectives were (a) to define the nature of the absorptive changes before detectable hypertension and (b) to evaluate the potential mechanism(s). We found that even at this normotensive stage (106 +/- 4 vs. 107 +/- 2 torr for the female and 109 +/- 3 vs. 104 +/- 3 torr for the male), the SHR (a) absorbed more Ca (1.46 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.14 +/- 0.08 mmol/d and 1.53 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.06 mmol/d, respectively) and retained more Ca, (b) had higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels (340 +/- 36 vs. 160 +/- 18 pg/ml and 230 +/- 25 vs. 150 +/- 16 pg/ml, respectively), and (c) possessed BBM with increased fluidity and with reduced fatty acyl saturation index owing to decreased stearic (32.2 +/- 2.6% vs. 38.2 +/- 0.9%) but increased linoleic acids (12.2 +/- 2.0% vs. 7.6 +/- 1.6%). These results demonstrate increased Ca absorption in prehypertensive SHR associated with increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, increased intestinal BBM fluidity, and reduced saturation index, which singly or in combination could produce the changes in intestinal Ca transport.

  8. Rabbit antibodies reacting with brush border of rodent renal tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, H. J. C.; McGiven, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The immunofluorescent staining characteristics of antibodies against rat and mouse kidney tubule brush border, produced in rabbits immunized with microsomal or mitochondrial fractions of rat kidney, were compared with those of human antibodies against mitochondria obtained from patients with biliary cirrhosis. With the rabbit antisera, brush border staining was confined to the epithelium of the proximal renal tubules while the human antimitochondrial sera stained proximal and distal tubules. Absorptions with a mitochondrial fraction prepared from rat liver inhibited the human serum activity but had no effect on brush border activity in the rabbit serum which was inhibited only by the rat kidney subcellular fractions. PMID:4931856

  9. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    A number of transmembrane digestive enzymes of the porcine small intestinal brush border membrane were found to be partially Triton X-100-insoluble at 0 degree C and colocalized in gradient centrifugation experiments with the GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase in low-density, detergent......%), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) was essentially fully soluble in detergent. In radioactively labeled, mucosal explants, the newly synthesized brush border enzymes began to associate with detergent-insoluble complexes while still in their transient, high mannose-glycosylated form......, and their insolubility increased to that of the steady-state level soon after they achieved their mature, complex glycosylation, i.e., after passage through the Golgi complex. Detergent-insoluble complexes isolated by density gradient centrifugation were highly enriched in brush border enzymes, and the enrichment...

  10. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Gert H.; Pedersen, Jens,; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte; Immerdal, Lissi; Danielsen, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The brush border of small intestinal enterocytes is highly enriched in cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-containing membrane microdomains, commonly termed as lipid 'rafts'. Functionally, transcytosis of IgA and exocytosis of newly made brush-border proteins in enterocytes occur through apical lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electro...

  11. Galectin-2 at the enterocyte brush border of the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martha Kampp; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2009-01-01

    The brush border of pig small intestine is a local hotspot for beta-galactoside-recognizing lectins, as evidenced by its prominent labeling with fluorescent lectin PNA. Previously, galectins 3-4, intelectin, and lectin-like anti-glycosyl antibodies have been localized to this important body...... boundary. Together with the membrane glycolipids these lectins form stable lipid raft microdomains that also harbour several of the major digestive microvillar enzymes. In the present work, we identified a lactose-sensitive 14-kDa protein enriched in a microvillar detergent resistant fraction as galectin-2....... Its release from closed, right-side-out microvillar membrane vesicles shows that at least some of the galectin-2 resides at the lumenal surface of the brush border, indicating that it plays a role in the organization/stabilization of the lipid raft domains. Galectin-2 was released more effectively...

  12. Preliminary Studies on Attachment of the ‘Bacteroides fragilis group’ to Porcine Intestinal Brush Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Haugstad, May Britt; Næss, Vigfrid; Hofstad, T.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion was studied by phase contrast microscopy, scanning (SEM), and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Twenty-three of 26 Bacteroides fragilis strains adhered to the isolated brush border membranes. The percentage of bacterial cells that adhered varied between strains from 10 to 38. Seven of 25 strains belonging to the other species within the ‘Bacteroides fragilis group’ contained cells that adhered. The attached bacteria showed no outer appendages or outer ruthenium red ...

  13. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  14. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E.; Srai, Surjit K.; Unwin, Robert J.; Debnam, Edward S.; Marks, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush bord...

  15. The Secretion and Action of Brush Border Enzymes in the Mammalian Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooton, Diane; Lentle, Roger; Monro, John; Wickham, Martin; Simpson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Microvilli are conventionally regarded as an extension of the small intestinal absorptive surface, but they are also, as latterly discovered, a launching pad for brush border digestive enzymes. Recent work has demonstrated that motor elements of the microvillus cytoskeleton operate to displace the apical membrane toward the apex of the microvillus, where it vesiculates and is shed into the periapical space. Catalytically active brush border digestive enzymes remain incorporated within the membranes of these vesicles, which shifts the site of BB digestion from the surface of the enterocyte to the periapical space. This process enables nutrient hydrolysis to occur adjacent to the membrane in a pre-absorptive step. The characterization of BB digestive enzymes is influenced by the way in which these enzymes are anchored to the apical membranes of microvilli, their subsequent shedding in membrane vesicles, and their differing susceptibilities to cleavage from the component membranes. In addition, the presence of active intracellular components of these enzymes complicates their quantitative assay and the elucidation of their dynamics. This review summarizes the ontogeny and regulation of BB digestive enzymes and what is known of their kinetics and their action in the peripheral and axial regions of the small intestinal lumen.

  16. Solubilization and reconstitution characteristics of the carrier protein(s) responsible for the transport of ceftibuten, a substrate for the oligopeptide transporters, in rat renal brush-border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naasani, I; Kikuchi, T; Sugawara, M; Kobayashi, M; Iseki, K; Miyazaki, K

    1996-09-04

    Optimal procedures for the reconstitution of the transport activity of ceftibuten, a dianionic beta-lactam antibiotic, from rat kidney brush-border membrane were developed. The uptake activity into reconstituted proteoliposomes appeared to be particularly sensitive to the extraction conditions, and to the lipid composition used for reconstitution. Changes in the concentration of octyl glucoside significantly affected the extraction of ceftibuten transport activity, and optimal extraction was achieved at a concentration of 60 mM. Optimal reconstitution was achieved using a lipid composition of asolectin, cholesterol and phosphatidylserine in a w/w percent ratio of 60:30:10, respectively, and with a lipid-to-protein ratio of 10. The uptake of ceftibuten into the resulting proteoliposomes showed temperature and pH dependency, was inhibitable by a range of cephem antibiotics, oligopeptides and the organic anion PAH, and was trans-stimulated by cephalexin and dipeptides. This reconstitution system will likely prove useful in future studies on the functional analysis of the peptide transport system in a purified form.

  17. Small molecule pinocytosis and clathrin-dependent endocytosis at the intestinal brush border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2016-01-01

    compartments, indicating the existence of two different uptake mechanisms operating simultaneously at the brush border. CTB is internalized by clathrin-dependent receptor mediated endocytosis, but surprisingly the toxin also caused a rapid disappearance from the apical cell surface of two major brush border...

  18. Lipid raft organization and function in the small intestinal brush border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge

    2008-01-01

    and several brush border proteins, including some of the major hydrolases. These supramolecular complexes are further stabilized by intelectin, a 35 kDa trimeric lectin that also functions as an intestinal lactoferrin receptor. As a result, brush border hydrolases, otherwise sensitive to pancreatic...

  19. Inhibition of brush border sucrase by polyphenols in mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shiffalli; Mahmood, Safrun; Khan, Rizwan H; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2009-11-23

    The interactions of gallic acid and tannic acid with purified brush border sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48) from mouse intestine have been studied. These findings indicate that both gallic acid and tannic acid inhibit sucrase activity, which is pH dependent. Kinetic analysis revealed that enzyme inhibition by gallic acid is a pure V effect at pH 5.0, which changes to mixed type at pH 7.2, and pure K effect at pH 8.5. In contrast, sucrase inhibition by tannic acid was a pure K effect at acidic pH and uncompetitive type in the alkaline pH range. Far-CD spectroscopic analysis revealed an increase in the helicity of the enzyme at acidic pH in the presence of tannic acid but no change at alkaline pH. Fluorescence spectra revealed a red shift in lambdamax of the enzyme, suggesting that tryptophan residues come to a more hydrophilic environment in the presence of polyphenols. These findings suggest that inhibition of mice sucrase by polyphenols is pH dependent, and is associated with conformational modifications of the enzyme.

  20. Effect of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, nimesulide and celecoxib on the disaccharide hydrolases and histoarchitecture of the rat intestinal brush border membrane Efecto de diferentes fármacos anti-inflamatorios no esteroideos, aspirina, nimesulida y celecoxib, sobre las hidrolasas de disacárido y la histo-arquitectura de la membrana del borde en cepillo intestinal de la rata

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sood; N. Kaushal; S. N. Sanyal

    2008-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to cause gastrointestinal damage. New anti-inflammatory drugs have been developed in an attemptto improve their gastrointestinal side effect profile which however failed to do so. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the effect of three different NSAIDs, aspirin, nimesulide and celecoxib on the intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) marker enzymes and correlate these alterations to the histoarchtecture of the int...

  1. Anti-glycosyl antibodies in lipid rafts of the enterocyte brush border: a possible host defense against pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Pedersen, Esben D K; Immerdal, Lissi

    2005-01-01

    a major part of the immunoglobulins at the lumenal surface of the gut. The antibodies were associated with lipid rafts at the brush border, and they frequently (52%) coclustered with the raft marker galectin 4. A lactose wash increased the susceptibility of the brush border toward lectin peanut agglutin...

  2. Post-translational suppression of expression of intestinal brush border enzymes by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1989-01-01

    The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature am...... cotranslational glycosylation that in turn triggers a rapid proteolytic breakdown. Our findings suggest that renewal of digestive brush border enzymes is transiently suppressed during intake of fructose- or sucrose-rich meals.......The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature...... aminopeptidase N and severely reduced that of sucrase-isomaltase. The instantly occurring and reversible suppressive effect manifested itself as a leupeptin-sensitive degradation of newly synthesized brush border enzymes. The likely mechanism of action of the dietary sugar is by causing an abnormal...

  3. Role of intestinal brush border peptidases in the simulated digestion of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Miralles, Beatriz; Mamone, Gianfranco; Sánchez-Rivera, Laura; Recio, Isidra; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the "often neglected" intestinal brush border membranes (BBMs) hydrolases on dietary peptides, exploring the possibility that the disintegration of proteins progressed in the small intestine up to a "core" of intrinsically stable oligopeptides, persisting independently on the up-stream breakdown. Samples of sodium caseinate, skim milk powder, and whey protein isolate were submitted to in vitro simulated gastropancreatic digestion using two different procedures: (i) a simplified model involving the main compartmental specific proteases; (ii) a static digestion method based on a frameset of parameters inferred from in vivo. The gastroduodenal digesta were further hydrolyzed with peptidases from porcine jejunal BBM. The peptidomes arising from the two digestion models, characterized by combined HPLC and MS techniques, differed to some extent. However, only specific protein domains survived digestion, among which are potential bioactive or immunogenic (food allergy) peptides. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) after BBM digestion (70-77%) practically did not differ between the digestion models and significantly increased the DH after duodenal steps. Any in vitro digestion model should be supplemented with a jejunal phase to realistically determine the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of dietary peptides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben Rønn

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell-cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most...... role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border....

  5. Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterial Results in Disruption of Brush Borders in Epithelia Models in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, James J.

    Engineered nanoparticles (NP; 10-9 m) have found use in a variety of consumer goods and medical devices because of the unique changes in material properties that occur when synthesized on the nanoscale. Although many definitions for nanoparticle exist, from the perspective of size, nanoparticle is defined as particles with diameters less than 100 nm in any external dimension. Examples of their use include titanium dioxide added as a pigment in products intended to be ingested by humans, silicon dioxide NPs are used in foods as an anticaking agent, and gold or iron oxide NPs can be used as vectors for drug delivery or contrast agents for specialized medical imaging. Although the intended use of these NPs is often to improve human health, it has come to the attention of investigators that NPs can have unintended or even detrimental effects on the organism. This work describes one such unintended effect of NP exposure from the perspective of exposure via the oral route. First, this Dissertation will explain an event referred to as brush border disruption that occurred after nanoparticles interacted with an in vitro model of the human intestinal epithelium. Second, this Dissertation will identify and characterize several consumer goods that were shown to contain titanium dioxide that are intended to be ingested. Third, this Dissertation shows that sedimentation due to gravity does not artifactually result in disruption of brush borders as a consequence of exposure to food grade titanium dioxide in vitro. Finally, this Dissertation will demonstrate that iron oxide nanoparticles elicited similar effects after exposure to an in vitro brush border expressing model of the human placenta. Together, these data suggest that brush border disruption is not an artifact of the material/cell culture model, but instead represents a bona fide biological response as a result of exposure to nanomaterial.

  6. IgG trafficking in the adult pig small intestine: one- or bidirectional transfer across the enterocyte brush border?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Rebecca; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer in opposite directions across the small intestinal brush border serves different purposes in early life and in adulthood. In the neonate, maternal IgG is taken up from the gut lumen into the blood, conferring passive immunity to the offspring, whereas in the adult immunoglobulins, including IgG made by plasma cells in the lamina propria, are secreted via the brush border to the lumen as part of the mucosal defense. Here, IgG has been proposed to perform a luminal immune surveillance which eventually includes a reuptake through the brush border as pathogen-containing immune complexes. In the present work, we studied luminal uptake of FITC-conjugated and gold-conjugated IgG in cultured pig jejunal mucosal explants. After 1 h, binding to the brush border was seen in upper crypts and lower parts of the villi. However, no endocytotic uptake into EEA-1-positive compartments was detected, neither at neutral nor acidic pH, despite an ongoing constitutive endocytosis from the brush border, visualized by the polar tracer CF594. The 40-kDa neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, was present in the microvillus fraction, but noteworthy, a 37 kDa band, most likely a proteolytic cleavage product, bound IgG in a pH-dependent manner more efficiently than did the full-length FcRn. In conclusion, our work does not support the theory that bidirectional transfer of IgG across the intestinal brush border is part of the luminal immune surveillance in the adult.

  7. Protein purification with polymeric affinity membranes containing functionalized poly(acid) brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Vyas, Mukesh Kumar; Geiger, James H; Baker, Gregory L; Bruening, Merlin L

    2010-04-12

    Porous nylon membranes modified with poly(acid) brushes and their derivatives can rapidly purify proteins via ion-exchange and metal-ion affinity interactions. Membranes containing poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl succinate) (poly(MES)) brushes bind 118 +/- 8 mg of lysozyme per cm(3) of membrane and facilitate purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Moreover, functionalization of the poly(MES) brushes with nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-Ni(2+) complexes yields membranes that bind poly(histidine)-tagged (His-tagged) ubiquitin with a capacity of 85 +/- 2 mg of protein per cm(3) of membrane. Most importantly, the membranes modified with poly(MES)-NTA-Ni(2+) allow isolation of His-tagged cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein directly from a cell extract in membranes containing functionalized poly(MES) brushes are attractive candidates for rapid, high-capacity purification of His-tagged proteins from cell extracts.

  8. LDL Receptor-Related Protein 2 (Megalin) as a Target Antigen in Human Kidney Anti-Brush Border Antibody Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christopher P; Trivin-Avillach, Claire; Coles, Paige; Collins, A Bernard; Merchant, Michael; Ma, Hong; Wilkey, Daniel W; Ambruzs, Josephine M; Messias, Nidia C; Cossey, L Nicholas; Rosales, Ivy A; Wooldridge, Thomas; Walker, Patrick D; Colvin, Robert B; Klein, Jon; Salant, David J; Beck, Laurence H

    2017-10-26

    Primary renal tubulointerstitial disease resulting from proximal tubule antigen-specific antibodies and immune complex formation has not been well characterized in humans. We report a cohort of patients with a distinct, underappreciated kidney disease characterized by kidney antibrush border antibodies and renal failure (ABBA disease). We identified ten patients with ABBA disease who had a combination of proximal tubule damage, IgG-positive immune deposits in the tubular basement membrane, and circulating antibodies reactive with normal human kidney proximal tubular brush border. All but one of the patients also had segmental glomerular deposits on renal biopsy specimen. Patients with ABBA disease were elderly and presented with AKI and subnephrotic proteinuria. Serum from all patients but not controls recognized a high molecular weight protein in renal tubular protein extracts that we identified as LDL receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2), also known as megalin, by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Immunostaining revealed that LRP2 specifically colocalized with IgG in the tubular immune deposits on the ABBA biopsy specimen but not the control specimen analyzed. Finally, ABBA serum samples but not control samples showed reactivity against recombinantly expressed N-terminal LRP2 fragments on Western blots and immunoprecipitated the recombinantly expressed N-terminal region of LRP2. This case series details the clinicopathologic findings of patients with ABBA disease and shows that the antigenic target of these autoantibodies is LRP2. Future studies are needed to determine the disease prevalence, stimulus for ABBA, and optimal treatment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  10. Control of biofouling on reverse osmosis polyamide membranes modified with biocidal nanoparticles and antifouling polymer brushes

    KAUST Repository

    Rahaman, Md. Saifur

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are prone to biofouling due to their inherent physicochemical surface properties. In order to address the biofouling problem, we have developed novel surface coatings functionalized with biocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and antifouling polymer brushes via polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly. The novel surface coating was prepared with polyelectrolyte LBL films containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), with the latter being either pure PEI or silver nanoparticles coated with PEI (Ag-PEI). The coatings were further functionalized by grafting of polymer brushes, using either hydrophilic poly(sulfobetaine) or low surface energy poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The presence of both LBL films and sulfobetaine polymer brushes at the interface significantly increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface, while PDMS brushes lowered the membrane surface energy. Overall, all surface modifications resulted in significant reduction of irreversible bacterial cell adhesion. In microbial adhesion tests with E. coli bacteria, a normalized cell adhesion in the range of only 4 to 16% on the modified membrane surfaces was observed. Modified surfaces containing silver nanoparticles also exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. Membranes coated with LBL films of PAA/Ag-PEI achieved over 95% inactivation of bacteria attached to the surface within 1 hour of contact time. Both the antifouling and antimicrobial results suggest the potential of using these novel surface coatings in controlling the fouling of RO membranes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  11. Smart polymer brush nanostructures guide the self-assembly of pore-spanning lipid bilayers with integrated membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, G.W.; Demarche, S.; Santonicola, M.G.; Tiefenauer, L.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2014-01-01

    Nanopores in arrays on silicon chips are functionalized with pH-responsive poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes and used as supports for pore-spanning lipid bilayers with integrated membrane proteins. Robust platforms are created by the covalent grafting of polymer brushes using surface-initiated

  12. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  13. Endocytic trafficking from the small intestinal brush border probed with FM dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    and intensity increased by 1 h, but trafficking further into the enterocyte was not observed except in immature epithelial cells of the crypts. A powerful ligand for receptor-mediated endocytosis, cholera toxin B subunit, increased apical endocytosis and caused membrane trafficking to proceed to compartments...

  14. Anti-Fouling Double-Skinned Forward Osmosis Membrane with Zwitterionic Brush for Oily Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chi Siang; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lau, Woei Jye; Goh, Pei Sean; Lai, Gwo Sung; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Ong, Yue Seong

    2017-07-31

    Despite its attractive features for energy saving separation, the performance of forward osmosis (FO) has been restricted by internal concentration polarization and fast fouling propensity that occur in the membrane sublayer. These problems have significantly affected the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. In this study, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with excellent anti-fouling properties has been developed for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between a highly dense polyamide (PA) layer for salt rejection and a fairly loose dense bottom zwitterionic layer for emulsified oil particle removal. The top dense PA layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization meanwhile the bottom layer was made up of a zwitterionic polyelectrolyte brush - (poly(3-(N-2-methacryloxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl) ammonatopropanesultone), abbreviated as PMAPS layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibited a high water flux of 13.7 ± 0.3 L/m(2).h and reverse salt transport of 1.6 ± 0.2 g/m(2).h under FO mode using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution and emulsified oily solution as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation.

  15. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in pig enterocytes: trafficking from the brush border to lipid droplets during fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte W; Immerdal, Lissi

    2003-01-01

    but its role in the small intestine remains unclear. AIM AND METHODS: To gain insight into the possible function of pig SR-BI during uptake of dietary fat, its localisation in enterocytes was studied in the fasting state and during fat absorption by immunogold electron microscopy and subcellular...... fat, SR-BI is endocytosed from the enterocyte brush border and accumulates in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Internalisation of the receptor occurs mainly by clathrin coated pits rather than by a caveolae/lipid raft based mechanism....

  16. High flux, positively charged loose nanofiltration membrane by blending with poly (ionic liquid) brushes grafted silica spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Liang [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Yatao, E-mail: zhangyatao@zzu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); UNESCO Center for Membrane Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang, Yuanming; Zhang, Haoqin [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Liu, Jindun, E-mail: liujindun@zzu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • SiO{sub 2} spheres were modified by poly (ionic liquid) brushes via RATRP. • Positively charged NF membranes were fabricated by incorporation of SiO{sub 2}-PIL. • The membranes exhibited higher rejection for dyes and superior penetration for salts. - Abstract: Silica spheres modified by poly (ionic liquid) brushes, a novel positively charged nanomaterial is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A high flux positively charged loose nanofiltration membrane is fabricated via “blending-phase inversion” method. The morphology structures, hydrophilicity, thermal and mechanical properties, permeation performance of these membranes are investigated in detail. The results reveal that the hybrid membranes have enhanced surface hydrophilicity, water permeability, thermal stability, and mechanical properties. Characterization of membrane separation properties shows that the hybrid membranes possess higher salt permeability and relatively higher rejection for reactive dyes, which may open opportunities for the recycling of reactive dyes wastewater. Moreover, such hybrid membranes have an outstanding operational stability and salts concentration showed little effect on the separation properties.

  17. FERRIREDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN LOBSTER HEPATOPANCREATIC BRUSH BORDER MEMBRANE VESICLES (BBMV). (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. CALCIUM TRANSPORT PROCESSES OF LOBSTER HEPATOPANCREATIC BRUSH BORDER MEMBRANE VESICLES. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. ZINC UPTAKE BY LOBSTER HEPATOPANCREATIC BRUSH BORDER MEMBRANE VESICLES. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) sensitive organic cation/H/sup +/ antiporter in renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokol, P.P.; Holohan, P.D.; Ross, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that organic cation transport in BBMV is coupled to the countertransport of a H/sup +/ by employing a prototypic organic cation, N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide (NMN), and a rapid filtration assay. Two H/sup +/ gradient uncouplers, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)/sub 3/ and gramicidin D were effective in dissipating H/sup +/ driven (/sup 3/H)NMN transport. Nigericin, a K/sup +//H/sup +/ exchanger, generated a H/sup +/ gradient in situ which drove the net accumulation of NMN. The molecular mechanism of H/sup +/ coupling was examined employing DCCD, a hydrophobic carbodiimide, which inactivates essential carboxylate groups, the putative H/sup +/ receptor. DCCD inactivated NMN transport irreversibly with an IC/sub 50/ of 2.6..mu..M whereas the hydrophilic carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide, did not. DCCD inactivation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was not affected by NMN. A double logarithmic plot of the apparent rate constants vs. (DCCD) gave a slope of 0.8. The data are consistent with a simple bimolecular reaction mechanism and imply that one molecule of DCCD inactivates one carboxylate group per active transport unit. The results show that (1) the transport of organic cations is coupled to the countermovement of a H/sup +/ and (2) a carboxylate group is essential for H/sup +/ binding and translocation.

  1. "Nonclassical" secretion of annexin A2 to the lumenal side of the enterocyte brush border membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; van Deurs, Bo; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-01-01

    side of the microvilli, showing an apical secretion by a "nonclassical" mechanism. In addition, annexin A2 was associated with surface-connected, deep apical tubules in the apical terminal web region and with an underlying pleiomorphic, tubulo-vesicular compartment (subapical compartment...

  2. Hemocompatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane grafted with network-like and brush-like antifouling layer controlled via plasma-induced surface PEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung; Shih, Yu-Ju; Ko, Chao-Yin; Jhong, Jheng-Fong; Liu, Ying-Ling; Wei, Ta-Chin

    2011-05-03

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of PEGylated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) microporous membranes with varying grafting coverage and structures via plasma-induced surface PEGylation was studied. Network-like and brush-like PEGylated layers on PVDF membrane surfaces were achieved by low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment. The chemical composition, physical morphology, grafting structure, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability of prepared membranes were determined to illustrate the correlations between grafting qualities and hemocompatibility of PEGylated PVDF membranes in contact with human blood. Plasma protein adsorption onto different PEGylated PVDF membranes from single-protein solutions and the complex medium of 100% human plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Hemocompatibility of the PEGylated membranes was evaluated by the antifouling property of platelet adhesion observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the anticoagulant activity of the blood coagulant determined by testing plasma-clotting time. The control of grafting structures of PEGylated layers highly regulates the PVDF membrane to resist the adsorption of plasma proteins, the adhesion of platelets, and the coagulation of human plasma. It was found that PVDF membranes grafted with brush-like PEGylated layers presented higher hydration capability with binding water molecules than with network-like PEGylated layers to improve the hemocompatible character of plasma protein and blood platelet resistance in human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PEGylated polymers by controlling grafting structures gives them great potential in the molecular design of antithrombogenic membranes for use in human blood.

  3. Proper Brushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both the tooth surface and the gumline. Gently brush the outer tooth surfaces of 2-3 teeth using a vibrating ... along all of the inner tooth surfaces. Tilt brush vertically behind the front teeth. Make several up & down strokes using the front ...

  4. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with brush border membrane vesicles of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Nain, Vikrant; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Kumar, P A

    2011-02-01

    Maize stem borer (Chilo partellus) is a major insect pest of maize and sorghum in Asia and Africa. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxins have been found effective against C. partellus, both in diet-overlay assay and in transgenic plants. Gene stacking as one of the resistance management strategies in Bt maize requires an understanding of receptor sharing and binding affinity of δ-endotoxins. In the present study, binding affinity of three fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled Cry1A toxins showed high correlation with the toxicity of respective δ-endotoxins. Competitive binding studies showed that Cry1Ab toxins share some of the binding sites with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac with low affinity and that Cry1Ab may have additional binding sites that are unavailable to the other two toxins tested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CD2+ AND H+ STIMULATE UPTAKE OF 59FE2+ IN LOBSTER HEPATOPANCREATIC BRUSH BORDER MEMBRANE VESICLES. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. ZINC STIMULATES L-PROLINE TRANSPORT BY THE IMINO SYSTEM IN LOBSTER HEPATOPANCREATIC BRUSH BORDER MEMBRANE VESICLES. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Interaction of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin with midgut brush border membrane vesicles proteins and its stability in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Harpal; Ranjan, Amol; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-12-01

    Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) binds to several proteins in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera and causes toxicity. Most of these were glycosylated. Six ASAL-binding proteins were selected for identification. PMF and MS/MS data showed their similarity with midgut aminopeptidase APN2, polycalins and alkaline phosphatase of H. armigera, cadherin-N protein (partial AGAP009726-PA) of Acyrthosiphon pisum, cytochrome P450 (CYP315A1) of Manduca sexta and alkaline phosphatase of Heliothis virescens. Some of the ASAL-binding midgut proteins were similar to the larval receptors responsible for the binding of δ-endotoxin proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Galanthus nivalis agglutinin also interacted with most of the ASAL-binding proteins. The ASAL showed resistance to midgut proteases and was detected in the larval hemolymph and excreta. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of ASAL in the body tissue also. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of pit membranes in bordered pits with respect to cavitation resistance in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Aude; Herbette, Stephane; Jansen, Steven; Capron, Marie; Tordjeman, Philippe; Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Various correlations have been identified between anatomical features of bordered pits in angiosperm xylem and vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting that the mechanical behaviour of the pits may play a role. Theoretical modelling of the membrane behaviour has been undertaken, but it requires input of parameters at the nanoscale level. However, to date, no experimental data have indicated clearly that pit membranes experience strain at high levels during cavitation events. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in order to quantify the pit micromorphology of four tree species that show contrasting differences in vulnerability to cavitation, namely Sorbus aria, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica and Populus tremula. This allowed anatomical characters to be included in a mechanical model that was based on the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory. A mechanistic model was developed that included the geometric features of the pits that could be measured, with the purpose of evaluating the pit membrane strain that results from a pressure difference being applied across the membrane. This approach allowed an assessment to be made of the impact of the geometry of a pit on its mechanical behaviour, and provided an estimate of the impact on air-seeding resistance. The TEM observations showed evidence of residual strains on the pit membranes, thus demonstrating that this membrane may experience a large degree of strain during cavitation. The mechanical modelling revealed the interspecific variability of the strains experienced by the pit membrane, which varied according to the pit geometry and the pressure experienced. The modelling output combined with the TEM observations suggests that cavitation occurs after the pit membrane has been deflected against the pit border. Interspecific variability of the strains experienced was correlated with vulnerability to cavitation. Assuming that air-seeding occurs at a given pit membrane strain, the pressure predicted by the model

  9. Polymer brushes: promises and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yameen, Basit; Farrukh, Aleeza

    2013-08-01

    Surface-tethered polymers, or "polymer brushes", are emerging as key elements in the context of regulating the surface characteristics of materials. Their properties, such as biocompatibility, antifouling, colloidal stability, wettability, and corrosion resistance, play a vital role in ascertaining their potential applications. The availability of straightforward procedures for polymer brush synthesis, which are applicable to a wide range of monomers and are adaptable to a range of substrates, is a clear advantage over other surface-modification strategies. Herein, the important advancements that are pertinent to the fabrication of polymer brushes are outlined. Furthermore, an exhaustive up-to-date overview of the developments in different application domains, including smart drug-delivery systems, biosensing, antifouling, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and ion-conducting membranes, that benefit from the developments in the field of polymer brushes, is presented. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The short-term effects of various oral care methods in dependent elderly: comparison between toothbrushing, tongue cleaning with sponge brush and wiping on oral mucous membrane by chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Kazuhisa; Katoh, Tamiko; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hirai, Kaname; Andoh, Nobuyuki; Makii, Kakuma; Matsuo, Kouichiro; Ogasawara, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    To explore the short-term effects from toothbrushing, tongue cleaning with sponge brush and wiping on oral mucous membrane by chlorhexidine. Numerous reports have been seen in recent years proving the effectiveness of mouth cleaning with a toothbrush for the prevention of respiratory infections among the dependent elderly. However, the short-term effects from each oral care method have not yet been clarified. Hence, an investigation was conducted by having each subject independently perform various oral care methods for five consecutive days. The subjects consisted of 12 assistance-dependent elderly who have difficulties with tooth brushing by themselves, have 10 or more residual teeth and are not yet using plate dentures. After the pre-intervention examination, each of the following oral care methods were performed on the same subject on an approximately three week basis: 1) Tooth brushing 2) Tongue cleaning with sponge brush 3) Wiping on oral mucous with sponge brush by chlorhexidine. Each method was performed independently, once a day for 5 consecutive days and the subjects were reexamined on the sixth day for comparative verification. Consequently, toothbrushing decreased the plaque index and gingival index significantly and an improvement of oral malodour was also acknowledged (p brush decreased the tongue coat score significantly (p brush soaked in chlorhexidine significantly decreased opportunistic infections in the pharynx region (p < 0.05). It was suggested that the use of not only a toothbrush but also chlorhexidine gluconate may be indicated for dependent elderly people in whom pathogens of opportunistic infection are detected. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Effects of protease, phytase and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial on nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal brush border digestive enzyme activity and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentration in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathi R Murugesan

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of protease and phytase (PP and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial (DFM on dietary energy and nutrient utilization in broiler chickens. In the first experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed diets supplemented with PP and DFM in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The 4 diets (control (CON, CON + PP, CON + DFM, and CON + PP + DFM were fed from 15-21 days of age. In Experiment 1, significant interaction (P≤0.01 between PP and DFM on the apparent ileal digestibility coefficient for starch, crude protein, and amino acid indicated that both additives increased the digestibility. Both additives increased the nitrogen retention coefficient with a significant interaction (P≤0.01. Although no interaction was observed, significant main effects (P≤0.01 for nitrogen-corrected apparent ME (AMEn for PP or DFM indicated an additive response. In a follow-up experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed the same experimental diets from 1-21 days of age. Activities of ileal brush border maltase, sucrase, and L-alanine aminopeptidase were increased (P≤0.01 by PP addition, while a trend (P = 0.07 for increased sucrase activity was observed in chickens fed DFM, in Experiment 2. The proportion of cecal butyrate was increased (P≤0.01 by DFM addition. Increased nutrient utilization and nitrogen retention appear to involve separate but complementary mechanisms for PP and DFM, however AMEn responses appear to have separate and additive mechanisms.

  12. Let the Brushing Games Begin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on bedtime brushing, technically speaking, your goal of brushing teeth is to clean food off of them, and ... adults we know make a regular habit of brushing their teeth throughout the day. Start having your child brush ...

  13. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  14. Fouling-resistant polymer brush coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse

    2011-11-01

    A major problem to be addressed with thin composite films used in processes such as coatings or water purification is the biofouling of the surface. To address this problem in a model system, functionalized polyaramide membranes containing an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator were synthesized as a versatile approach to easily modify the surface properties of the polyaramide. Poly(methacrylic acid) brushes were grown using surface initiated ATRP followed by the functionalization of the poly(methacrylic acid) brushes with different side-chains chosen to reduce adhesion between the membrane and foulant. The relation between membrane fouling and the physicochemical properties of the surface was investigated in detail. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Modification of Memebrane Lipid composition by lipophilic agents, and its effect on the activity of membrane-bound enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, B; Hütter, H J

    1992-07-01

    Rat jejunum was perfused for two and a half hours with aqueous ethanol (volume fraction 0.05) or aqueous carbon tetrachloride (volume fraction 0.005). Membrane vesicles subsequently prepared from the brush border displayed markedly decreased contents of cholesterol and phospholipids, as well as decreases in the activities of membrane-bound enzymes. These decreases were more pronounced in vesicles prepared after carbon tetrachloride than after ethanol perfusion. It is suggested that the anchoring of membrane-bound enzymes is decreased by physical chemical alterations in the hydrophobic region of the membrane.

  16. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco, E-mail: ozahiga@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de, E-mail: alencar@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Quimica

    2013-07-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar{sup +} ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  17. Endobiliary brush biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Sven; Olsen, Marianne; Jendresen, Marianne Bille

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obtaining cytological specimens by wire-guided endobiliary brushing at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a convenient way to reach a diagnosis. Sensitivity for malignant disease is generally around 50% and specificity around 100%. The present study wa...

  18. Brushing Your Child's Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000769.htm Brushing Your Child's Teeth To use the sharing features on this page, ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ... among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn ...

  19. DNA decontamination of fingerprint brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkuta, Bianca; Oorschot, Roland A H van; Ballantyne, Kaye N

    2017-08-01

    Genetic profiling of DNA collected from fingerprints that have been exposed to various enhancement techniques is routine in many forensic laboratories. As a result of direct contact with fingermark residues during treatment, there is concern around the DNA contamination risk of dusting fingermarks with fingerprint brushes. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for cross-contamination between evidentiary items through various mechanisms, highlighting the risk of using the same fingerprint brush to powder multiple surfaces within and between crime-scenes. Experiments were performed to assess the contamination risk of reused fingerprint brushes through the transfer of dried saliva and skin deposits from and to glass surfaces with new unused squirrel hair and fiberglass brushes. Additional new unused brushes and brushes previously used in casework were also tested for their ability to contaminate samples. In addition, the ability to eradicate DNA from used squirrel hair and fiberglass fingerprint brushes was assessed using a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and a 5% solution of a commercially available alternative, Virkon. DNA profiling results from surfaces contacted by treated and untreated brushes were compared to determine the effectiveness of the devised cleaning protocol. Brush durability was also assessed over multiple wash/rinse/dry cycles with both agents. Varying amounts of DNA-containing material were collected and transferred by squirrel hair and fiberglass brushes, with detectability on the secondary surface dependent on the biological nature of the material being transferred. The impact of DNA contamination from dirty fingerprint brushes was most apparent in simulations involving the transfer of dried saliva and brushes previously used in casework, while minimal transfer of touch DNA was observed. Alarmingly, large quantities of DNA were found to reside on new unused squirrel hair brushes, while no DNA was detected on new unused fiberglass

  20. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...... to challenge the conventional wisdom and put border markets at the center of trade policies....... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...

  1. Bottle-Brush Brushes: Cylindrical Molecular Brushes of Poly(2-oxazoline) on Glassy Carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-07-28

    We report on the synthesis of brushes of bottle-brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s on polished glassy carbon (GC) substrates. First, homogeneous and stable poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) brush layers with thicknesses up to 160 nm were created directly onto GC by the self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline (IPOx). Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. In a second reaction, the pendant 2-oxazoline ring of the PIPOx brushes were used for the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (LCROP) with different substituted 2-oxazoline monomers to form the side chains. Also for the second surface-initiatedLCROPfrom the surface-bound macroinitiator brushes, the thickness increase with the polymerization time was found to be linear and reproducible. Characterization of the resulting bottle-brush brushes by FTIR spectroscopy,contact angle, and AFM indicates a high side chain grafting density and quantitative reactions. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility of functionalizing the bottle-brush brushes side chain end groups with sterically demanding molecules. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Sponge Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Cimadomo, Guido; Martínez Ponce, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The latest expansion of the EU towards the East has again modified its borders, showing once again the intangibility and flexibility of the latter. The very definition of border acquires different meanings depending on which theme is being discussed: an impenetrable barrier against migratory flows and the introduction of goods, transforming itself into a strainer for the exporting of national products. The new Internal Affairs Commissioner for the EU, Rocco Buttiglione, affirms on the on...

  3. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-06

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions.

  4. Microvillar membrane microdomains exist at physiological temperature. Role of galectin-4 as lipid raft stabilizer revealed by "superrafts"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braccia, Anita; Villani, Maristella; Immerdal, Lissi

    2003-01-01

    function and even existence in vivo. The nonionic detergent Brij 98 was used to isolate lipid rafts from microvillar membrane vesicles of intestinal brush borders at physiological temperature to compare with rafts, obtained by "conventional" extraction using Triton X-100 at low temperature. Microvillar...... at increasing temperature to define a fraction of highly detergent-resistant "superrafts." These were enriched in galectin-4, a beta-galactoside-recognizing lectin residing on the extracellular side of the membrane. Superrafts also harbored the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alkaline phosphatase...

  5. Immobilization of biological membranes by sonication and freeze-thawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T.; Kikuchi, K. [Akita Univ. (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    A rapid and convenient means of immobilizing biological membranes is described. Sonication for formation of small vesicles, diffusion of the vesicles in support beads, and freeze-thawing is carried out in an immobilized multi-enzyme system. Large amounts of brush border membranes from bovine kidney were immobilized in Sepharose CL-6B, Sephacryl S-500, and Sephacryl S-1000 and increased in that order. For the latter two beads, the amounts were further increased with repetition of freeze-thawing up to a maximum of three times. Particle distribution analysis reveals that small vesicles are enlarged by the freeze-thawing repetition, suggesting an immobilization mode in which enlarged vesicles are physically entrapped in the beads. The bead-immobilized membrane vesicles were relatively stable, exhibiting constant enzyme activities for at least 6 h under packed column operation. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Membraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner......Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner...

  7. Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2017-02-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Area Selective Polymer Brush Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cian; Shaw, Matthew T; Morris, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    Polymer brush films with chemical functionality to attach to site specific substrate areas are introduced for area selective deposition (ASD) application. It is demonstrated that polymer brushes with chemically defined end sites can be selectively bound to copper-specific regions of patterned copper/silica (Cu/SiO2 ) substrates. The process described overcomes various limitations of currently used technology including cost, complexity, and throughput, with potential implications for future electronic devices and nanomanufacturing. A comparative study of amine-terminated polystyrene and amine-terminated poly-2-vinyl pyridine polymer brushes (i.e., PS-NH2 and P2VP-NH2 ) with similar molecular weights display contrasting behavior on patterned Cu/SiO2 line features. Further, a thiol terminated poly-2-vinyl pyridine polymer brush (i.e., P2VP-SH) is investigated as a direct spin-on process to fabricate a metal oxide layer atop Cu areas only. The results presented here detail a novel methodology and open a new exciting process for ASD practices that can facilitate the precise deposition of dense metal, semiconductor, or dielectric films. We also discuss the applicability of polymer brushes to ASD uses going forward. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Macroion Interaction at Polyelectrolyte Brush Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chen

    2015-03-01

    The effect of macroions, including synthetic polyelectrolytes, DNA and proteins, on the structure and surface properties of charged polymer thin films remains inadequately understood partially due to the complexity involving the hydrophobic effect and the conformational change of polymeric macroions. In this work, we explore a group of inorganic nanocluster based macroions, hydrophilic polyoxometalates (POMs) of robust nanocluster structure and carrying high surface charges (~ 2-42 negative charges) to investigate their interaction with surface tethered poly-2-vinylpyridine (P2VP) brush-like thin films immersed in aqueous solution. We observe the collapse of swollen P2VP chains by adding POM macroions of increased concentration by AFM, QCM and contact goniometer measurements, in sharp contrast to the increased chain stretching by adding monovalent salts. A careful comparison is made between distinct POMs based on their charge, size and chemical nature. These findings serve as a good reference for theoretical model modification and design of new mesoporous composite membranes.

  10. 21 CFR 884.1100 - Endometrial brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial brush. 884.1100 Section 884.1100 Food... Endometrial brush. (a) Identification. An endometrial brush is a device designed to remove samples of the... endometrial cytology (cells). (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this device are: (1) FDA...

  11. 75 FR 13489 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration (A-570-501) Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's... order on natural bristle paint brushes and brush heads from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...; Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads From the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 5580 (February 14...

  12. 75 FR 44939 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Changed... duty order on natural bristle paint brushes and brush heads from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... antidumping duty order on natural paint brushes and brush head in March 1986. See Antidumping Duty Order...

  13. Nanotribology of charged polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jacob

    Polymers at surfaces, whose modern understanding may be traced back to early work by Sam Edwards1, have become a paradigm for modification of surface properties, both as steric stabilizers and as remarkable boundary lubricants2. Charged polymer brushes are of particular interest, with both technological implications and especially biological relevance where most macromolecules are charged. In the context of biolubrication, relevant in areas from dry eye syndrome to osteoarthritis, charged polymer surface phases and their complexes with other macromolecules may play a central role. The hydration lubrication paradigm, where tenaciously-held yet fluid hydration shells surrounding ions or zwitterions serve as highly-efficient friction-reducing elements, has been invoked to understand the excellent lubrication provided both by ionized3 and by zwitterionic4 brushes. In this talk we describe recent advances in our understanding of the nanotribology of such charged brush systems. We consider interactions between charged end-grafted polymers, and how one may disentangle the steric from the electrostatic surface forces5. We examine the limits of lubrication by ionized brushes, both synthetic and of biological origins, and how highly-hydrated zwitterionic chains may provide extremely effective boundary lubrication6. Finally we describe how the lubrication of articular cartilage in the major joints, a tribosystem presenting some of the greatest challenges and opportunities, may be understood in terms of a supramolecular synergy between charged surface-attached polymers and zwitterionic groups7. Work supported by European Research Council (HydrationLube), Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society, ISF-NSF China Joint Program.

  14. Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo Hou; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separa...

  15. Tooth brushing for oral prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruaki Hayasaki, DDS, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of plaque and debris is essential for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal diseases and dental caries, because plaque is the primary etiological factor in the introduction and development of both of these infection-oriented diseases. Plaque removal with a toothbrush is the most frequently used method of oral hygiene. Powered toothbrushes were developed beginning in the 1960s and are now widely used in developed countries. The bristles of a toothbrush should be able to reach and clean efficiently most areas of the mouth, and recently the design of both manual and powered toothbrushes has focused on the ability to reach and clean interproximal tooth surfaces. An individual's tooth brushing behavior, including force, duration, motivation and motion, are also critical to tooth brushing efficacy. Dental floss and the type of toothpaste play additional important roles as auxiliary tools for oral prophylaxis. Dental professionals should help their care-receivers’ meet the requirements of oral hygiene to maintain their QOL. This article reviews these topics.

  16. Border information flow architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  17. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  18. BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, WTE; Iakovlev, PA; Norde, W; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2005-01-01

    BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N = 770) and short (N = 48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the

  19. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  20. A prospective randomised study of dense Infinity cytological brush versus regularly used brush in pancreaticobiliary malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylänpää, Leena; Boyd, Sonja; Ristimäki, Ari; Lindström, Outi; Udd, Marianne; Halttunen, Jorma

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a cytological sample is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of the aetiology of biliary stricture. Our aim was to evaluate whether a more dense Infinity® cytological brush is more sensitive in diagnosing malignancy than the regularly used brush. We recruited 60 patients with a biliary stricture suspicious for malignancy for a randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to an Infinity® brush group (n = 30) and a regularly used cytology brush group (n = 30). All the patients had verified cancer during follow-up. Crossing the brush over the stricture was possible in each case without dilatation of the biliary duct. Brush cytology yield was good or excellent in 86.7% of cases with the Infinity® brush and 96.7% with the regular brush (p = 0.161). The cytological sample showed clear malignancy in three patients (10.0%) in the Infinity® group and in 12 (40.0%) patients of the regular brush group (p = 0.007). The cytological diagnosis was highly suspicious for malignancy or malignant in 14 patients (46.7%) in the Infinity® group and in 23 patients (76.7%) in the regular brush group (p = 0.017). The result was benign in 10 patients (33.3%) in the Infinity® group and in four patients (13.6%) in the regular brush group (p = 0.067). With the standardised technique, the sensitivity of brush cytology is fairly good. The dense Infinity® brush does not show any advantage regarding sensitivity compared with the conventional cytology brush.

  1. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  2. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occuring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  3. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occuring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  4. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  5. [Tooth brushing in babies and toddlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Nievaart, M A; Veerkamp, J S J

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth brushing in toddlers and children younger than 4 years of age and the experiences of their parents. This study was performed in 3 towns in the middle of the Netherlands at the Office for Parent and Childcare. 99.4% of the children were brushed at least once a day during 0.5-1 minute. Tooth brushing is considered as a part of daily health care. Most children are cooperative and their parents enjoy brushing the teeth of their children. 17.5% of all parents experience problems with brushing teeth of their toddler or young child; 46% of them would like more information. But as the total number of children in a family increases, the parents' pleasure in brushing decreases. The Office for Parent and Childcare in the Netherlands has an important place in providing information on oral healthcare and especially tooth brushing for toddlers and children younger than 4 years of age. It would be useful to investigate how these healthcare workers get their dental information.

  6. Interfacial Friction and Adhesion of Polymer Brushes

    KAUST Repository

    Landherr, Lucas J. T.

    2011-08-02

    A bead-probe lateral force microscopy (LFM) technique is used to characterize the interfacial friction and adhesion properties of polymer brushes. Our measurements attempt to relate the physical structure and chemical characteristics of the brush to their properties as thin-film, tethered lubricants. Brushes are synthesized at several chain lengths and surface coverages from polymer chains of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS), and a poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer (PPG/PEG). At high surface coverage, PDMS brushes manifest friction coefficients (COFs) that are among the lowest recorded for a dry lubricant film (μ ≈ 0.0024) and close to 1 order of magnitude lower than the COF of a bare silicon surface. Brushes synthesized from higher molar mass chains exhibit higher friction forces than those created using lower molar mass polymers. Increased grafting density of chains in the brush significantly reduces the COF by creating a uniform surface of stretched chains with a decreased surface viscosity. Brushes with lower surface tension and interfacial shear stresses manifest the lowest COF. In particular, PDMS chains exhibit COFs lower than PS by a factor of 3.7 and lower than PPG/PEG by a factor of 4.7. A scaling analysis conducted on the surface coverage (δ) in relation to the fraction (ε) of the friction force developing from adhesion predicts a universal relation ε ∼ δ4/3, which is supported by our experimental data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Na+-independent D-glucose transport in rabbit renal basolateral membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, P.T.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1988-05-01

    To define the mechanism by which glucose is transported across the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell, we measured D-(14C)glucose uptake in basolateral membrane vesicles from rabbit kidney. Na+-dependent D-glucose transport, demonstrable in brush-border vesicles, could not be demonstrated in basolateral membrane vesicles. In the absence of Na+, the uptake of D-(14C)glucose in basolateral vesicles was more rapid than that of L-(3H)glucose over a concentration range of 1-50 mM. Subtraction of the latter from the former uptakes revealed a saturable process with apparent Km of 9.9 mM and Vmax of 0.80 nmol.mg protein-1.s-1. To characterize the transport component of D-glucose uptake in basolateral vesicles, we measured trans stimulation of 2 mM D-(14C)glucose entry in the absence of Na+. Trans stimulation could be effected by preloading basolateral vesicles with D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, or 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, but not with L-glucose or alpha-methyl-D-glucoside. Trans-stimulated D-(14C)glucose uptake was inhibited by 0.1 mM phloretin or cytochalasin B but not phlorizin. In contrast, Na+-dependent D-(14C)glucose transport in brush-border vesicles was inhibited by phlorizin but not phloretin or cytochalasin B. Our findings are consistent with the presence of a Na+-independent D-glucose transporter in the proximal tubular basolateral membrane with characteristics similar to those of transporters present in nonepithelial cells.

  8. Oral Health: Brush Up on Dental Care Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these brushing basics from the American Dental Association: Brush your teeth twice a day . When you brush, don't ... as a dental pick, pre-threaded flosser, tiny brushes that reach between teeth, a water flosser or wooden or silicone plaque ...

  9. Does apical membrane GLUT2 have a role in intestinal glucose uptake? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4w6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Naftalin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the non-saturable component of intestinal glucose absorption, apparent following prolonged exposure to high intraluminal glucose concentrations, is mediated via the low affinity glucose and fructose transporter, GLUT2, upregulated within the small intestinal apical border. The evidence that the non-saturable transport component is mediated via an apical membrane sugar transporter is that it is inhibited by phloretin, after exposure to phloridzin. Since the other apical membrane sugar transporter, GLUT5, is insensitive to inhibition by either cytochalasin B, or phloretin, GLUT2 was deduced to be the low affinity sugar transport route. As in its uninhibited state, polarized intestinal glucose absorption depends both on coupled entry of glucose and sodium across the brush border membrane and on the enterocyte cytosolic glucose concentration exceeding that in both luminal and submucosal interstitial fluids, upregulation of GLUT2 within the intestinal brush border will usually stimulate downhill glucose reflux to the intestinal lumen from the enterocytes; thereby reducing, rather than enhancing net glucose absorption across the luminal surface. These states are simulated with a computer model generating solutions to the differential equations for glucose, Na and water flows between luminal, cell, interstitial and capillary compartments. The model demonstrates that uphill glucose transport via SGLT1 into enterocytes, when short-circuited by any passive glucose carrier in the apical membrane, such as GLUT2, will reduce transcellular glucose absorption and thereby lead to increased paracellular flow. The model also illustrates that apical GLUT2 may usefully act as an osmoregulator to prevent excessive enterocyte volume change with altered luminal glucose concentrations.

  10. Antialgal activity of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes against the marine alga Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandi, Wetra; Mieszkin, Sophie; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Finlay, John A; Liedberg, Bo; Ederth, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Marine biofouling has detrimental effects on the environment and economy, and current antifouling coatings research is aimed at environmentally benign, non-toxic materials. The possibility of using contact-active coatings is explored, by considering the antialgal activity of cationic poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The antialgal activity was investigated via zoospore settlement and sporeling growth assays of the marine algae Ulva linza and U. lactuca. The assay results for PDMAEMA brushes were compared to those for anionic and neutral surfaces. It was found that only PDMAEMA could disrupt zoospores that come into contact with it, and that it also inhibits the subsequent growth of normally settled spores. Based on the spore membrane properties, and characterization of the PDMAEMA brushes over a wide pH range, it is hypothesized that the algicidal mechanisms are similar to the bactericidal mechanisms of cationic polymers, and that further development could lead to successful contact-active antialgal coatings.

  11. Three-Wheel Brush-Wheel Sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Geoffrey A.; Liu, Jun; Brown, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    A new sampler is similar to a common snow blower, but is robust and effective in sample collection. The brush wheels are arranged in a triangle shape, each driven by a brushless DC motor and planetary gearhead embedded in the wheel shaft. Its speed can be varied from 800 - 2,000 rpm, depending on the surface regolith resistance. The sample-collecting flow path, and internal features, are designed based on flow dynamics, and the sample-collecting rates have consistently exceeded the requirement under various conditions that span the range of expected surface properties. The brush-wheel sampler (BWS) is designed so that the flow channel is the main body of the apparatus, and links the brush-wheel assembly to the sample canister. The combination of the three brush wheels, the sample flow path, and the canister location make sample collection, storage, and transfer an easier task.

  12. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  13. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  14. Border Crossing Points, US-Mexico Border, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for the United States. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other...

  15. Border Crossings, US-Mexico Border, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for Region 9. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other important...

  16. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  17. Application of tooth brushing behavior to active rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadachi, Hidetoshi; Murakami, Yoshinori; Tonomura, Manabu; Yada, Yukihiro; Simoyama, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of tooth brushing with toothpaste as active rest using the flicker value as a physiological parameter and a subjective questionnaire as a psychological parameter. Seventeen healthy, right-handed subjects (12 males and 5 females) aged 22.5 +/- 1.5 yr (mean +/- standard deviation) were randomly divided into tooth brushing with toothpaste (N=9) and non-tooth brushing groups (N=8). The subjects performed a serial calculation task for 20 min using personal computers. Subsequently, the tooth brushing group brushed their teeth, and the flicker value and mood were compared before and after the tooth brushing. The flicker value significantly increased in the tooth brushing group compared with the non-tooth brushing group (pbrushing group, the incidence of a "feeling of being refreshed" significantly increased (pbrushing activated cerebral activity, producing refreshing effects. These results suggest the applicability of tooth brushing to active rest.

  18. Stratified polymer brushes from microcontact printing of polydopamine initiator on polymer brush surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiangbing; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Stratified polymer brushes are fabricated using microcontact printing (μCP) of initiator integrated polydopamine (PDOPBr) on polymer brush surfaces and the following surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). It is found that the surface energy, chemically active groups, and the antifouling ability of the polymer brushes affect transfer efficiency and adhesive stability of the polydopamine film. The stickiness of the PDOPBr pattern on polymer brush surfaces is stable enough to perform continuous μCP and SI-ATRP to prepare stratified polymer brushes with a 3D topography, which have broad applications in cell and protein patterning, biosensors, and hybrid surfaces. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Bidirectional Brush Seals: Post-Test Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Wilson, Jack; Wu, Tom Y.; Flower, Ralph; Mullen, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    A post-test analysis of a set of inside-diameter/outside-diameter (ID/OD) bidirectional brush seals used in three-port wave rotor tests was undertaken to determine brush bristle and configuration wear, pullout, and rotor coating wear. The results suggest that sharp changes in the pressure profiles were not well reflected in bristle tip configuration patterns or wear. Also, positive-to-negative changes in axial pressure gradients appeared to have little effect on the backing plates. Although the brushes had similar porosities, they had very different unpacked arrays. This difference could explain the departure of experimental data from computational fluid dynamics flow predictions for well-packed arrays at higher pressure drops. The rotor wear led to "car-track" scars (upper and lower wear bands) with a whipped surface between the bands. Those bands may have resulted from bristle stiffening at the fence and gap plates during alternate portions of the rotor cycle. Within the bristle response range the wear surface reflected the pressure distribution effect on bristle motion. No sacrificial metallurgical data were taken. The bristles did wear, with correspondingly more wear on the ID brush configurations than on the OD configurations; the complexity in constructing the ID brush was a factor.

  20. Self-Assembling Brush Polymers Bearing Multisaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongchan; Kim, Jin Chul; Lee, Hoyeol; Song, Sungjin; Kim, Heesoo; Ree, Moonhor

    2017-06-01

    Three different series of brush polymers bearing glucosyl, maltosyl, or maltotriosyl moiety at the bristle end are successfully prepared by using cationic ring-opening polymerization and two sequential postmodification reactions. All brush polymers, except for the polymer containing 100 mol% maltotriosyl moiety, demonstrate the formation of multibilayer structure in films, always providing saccharide-enriched surface. These self-assembling features are remarkable, regarding the bulkiness of saccharide moieties and the kink in the bristle due to the triazole linker. The saccharide-enriched film surfaces reveal exceptionally high specific binding affinity to concanavalin A but suppress nonspecific binding of plasma proteins severely. Overall, the brush polymers bearing saccharide moieties of various kinds in this study are highly suitable materials for biomedical applications including biosensors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Parents' reasons for brushing or not brushing their child's teeth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubey, Rob J; Moore, Simon C; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent improvements in oral health, dental caries remains a significant source of morbidity for young children. Research has shown that regular toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste reduces the risk of dental caries, but the factors that influence parental decisions about whether or not to brush their infant children's teeth at home are poorly understood. To develop an in-depth understanding of the issues that parents face from socio-economically deprived areas when trying to brush their young children's teeth at home. Fifteen parents of children aged 3-6 years took part in semi-structured telephone interviews, discussing factors relating to brushing their child's teeth at home. Thematic analysis was used to develop three themes. Parents discussed the difficulty of brushing their children's teeth in the evening, due to changing day-to-day routines, and the subsequent difficulty of forming a toothbrushing habit. Motivating factors for brushing children's teeth were largely short term. Satisfaction with brushing frequency was influenced more by perceptions of how often other parents brushed children's teeth than by the 'twice a day' norm or health outcomes. Results are discussed in relation to research and theories from the psychology and behavioural economics literature, and comparisons are drawn with assumptions inherent in more traditional oral health promotion messages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  2. Interfacial properties of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, P. M.; Naderi, A.; Iruthayaraj, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article is focused on interfacial properties of bottle brush polyelectrolytes, where side-chains are attached along a polymer backbone. This class of polymer has been much less studied than block copolymers, which is particularly true for bottle brush polyelectrolytes with a high graft density...... whereas on silica both electrostatic forces and interactions between silica and ethylene oxide chains drive the adsorption. On silica the adsorbed amount is very sensitive to solution ionic strength and pH. We also report on surface interactions and frictional forces obtained between surfaces coated...

  3. Polymer brushes: routes toward mechanosensitive surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünsow, Johanna; Kelby, Tim S; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2010-03-16

    Soft nanotechnology involves both understanding the behavior of soft matter and using these components to build useful nanoscale structures and devices. However, molecular scale properties such as Brownian motion, diffusion, surface forces, and conformational flexibility dominate the chemistry and physics in soft nanotechnology, and therefore the design rules for generating functional structures from soft, self-assembled materials are still developing. Biological motors illustrate how wet nanoscale machines differ from their macroscopic counterparts. These molecular machines convert chemical energy into mechanical motion through an isothermal process: chemical reactions generate chemical potential and diffusion of ions, leading to conformational changes in proteins and the production of mechanical force. Because the actuation steps form a thermodynamic cycle that is reversible, the application of mechanical forces can also generate a chemical potential. This reverse process of mechanotransduction is the underlying sensing and signaling mechanism for a wide range of physiological phenomena such as hearing, touch, and growth of bone. Many of the biological systems that respond to mechanical stimuli do this via complex stress-activated ion channels or remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. These biological actuation and mechanosensing processes are rather different from nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS and MEMS) produced via semiconductor fabrication technologies. In our group, we are working to emulate biological mechanotransduction by systematically developing building blocks based on polymer brushes. In this soft nanotechnology approach to mechanotransduction, the chemical building blocks are polymer chains whose conformational changes and actuation can be investigated at a very basic level in polymer brushes, particularly polyelectrolyte brushes. Because these polymer brushes are easily accessible synthetically with control over parameters such as

  4. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  5. Antifouling Properties of Fluoropolymer Brushes toward Organic Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-01-01

    Fluoropolymer brushes are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric or biological materials due to their strongly hydrophobic character. Herein, a series of fluoropolymer brushes with different compositions, thicknesses and molecular architectures was prepared via

  6. Effect of Probenecid on Tetraethyl Ammonium (TEA) Transport Across Basolateral Membrane of Rabbit Proximal Tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Lyong; Kim, Yong Keun

    1992-01-01

    The effect of probenecid on the transport of tetraethylammonium (TEA) was investigated in rabbit reanal cortical slices in an attempt to ascertain the interaction of organic anion with the organic cation transport system in proximal tubule. Probenecid reversibly inhibited TEA uptake by cortical slices in a dose-dependent manner over the concentration range of 1 and 5 mM. The efflux of TEA was not affected by the presence of 3 mM probenecid. Kinetic analysis indicated that probenecid decreased Vmax without a significant change in Km. Probenecid inhibited significantly tissue oxgen consumption at concentrations of 3 and 5 mM. However, probenecid did not significantly reduce TEA uptake in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from renal cortex even at higher concentration of 10 mM. These results indicate that probenecid reduces TEA uptake in cortical slices by inhibiting the tissue metabolism rather than by the interaction with the organic cation transporter. PMID:1306074

  7. Synthesis and characterization of metal oxide nanorod brushes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanorod brushes of -Al2O3, MoO3 and ZnO have been synthesized using amorphous carbon nanotube (-CNT) brushes as the starting material. The brushes of -Al2O3 and MoO3 are made up of single crystalline nanorods. In the case of ZnO brushes, the nanorod bristles are made by the fusion of 15–25 nm size ...

  8. Social ranking effects on tooth-brushing behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, John; Paterson, Kevin; Day, Liz; Jones, Ceri; Kinnear, Hayley; Buchanan, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A tooth-brushing social rank hypothesis is tested suggesting tooth-brushing duration is influenced when individuals position their behaviour in a rank when comparing their behaviour with other individuals.\\ud Design: Study 1 used a correlation design, Study 2 used a semi-experimental design, and Study 3 used a randomized intervention design to examine the tooth-brushing social rank hypothesis in terms of self-reported attitudes, cognitions, and behaviour towards tooth-brushing dura...

  9. Antioxidant defenses preserve membrane transport activity in Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Matilde; Berra, Elisa; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    Changes in enzyme activities, metabolite concentrations, and membrane transport activity underlying the Chironomus riparius larvae adaptive response to anoxia were investigated. Trehalose, malate, and aspartate degradation and alanine accumulation were recorded. During anoxia exposure, there was a boost of antioxidant defenses as shown by an increase of the specific activity of the enzymes catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-synthase, malic enzyme, and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. The ratio, glutathione reduced over glutathione oxidized, decreased. Except for alanine and catalase, the parameters return to their basal value when larvae are transferred to normoxic conditions. To test whether antioxidant defenses had protective effects on membrane functionality, L-leucine uptake into brush border membrane vesicles and membrane lipid peroxidation was measured. No difference between membranes prepared from larvae exposed to anoxia and control larvae was found. The amino acid alanine, when present inside the vesicles, trans-stimulated leucine uptake. This effect could represent a mechanism to stimulate amino acid uptake and catabolism in vivo when free alanine concentration increases during hypoxic periods.

  10. Brushes and soap : grafted polymers and their interactions with nanocolloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, E.P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Layers of polymer chains end-attached to a grafting plane at high densities, so-called brushes, are a curious state of matter. The (average) monomer density within the brush is as high as in a semi-dilute polymer solution, resulting in a high osmotic pressure in the brush. Due to the

  11. Switching the Interpenetration of Confined Asymmetric Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, Stephen B.; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Mears, Laura L.E.; Skoda, Maximilian W.A.; Dalgliesh, Robert; Edmondson, Steve; Richardson, Robert M.; Prescott, Stuart W.

    2016-01-01

    The interpenetration of two polymer brushes on approaching flat surfaces has been investigated. When compacting polymer brushes with an asymmetric charge on each surface, one neutral and the other weakly charged, we find that the brush interpenetration becomes a parameter that can be controlled by

  12. Increasing operational life of brush-contact device in the turbine generator due to using lubricating molybdenum disulphide brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, A. I.; Fominykh, A. A.; Nikulin, S. V.; Prokoshev, D. K.; Legoti, A. B.; Timina, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    A way of reducing irregular current distribution in multi-brush systems of sliding current transfer with its wear reduction due to installing lubricating molybdenum disulphide brushes on slip rings to ensure a greasing nano-sized cover on the slip ring surface is proposed. The authors give the results of industrial tests estimated on the performance effectiveness of lubricating brushes on slip rings of the TBB-320-2UZ-type turbine generator. The results showed that the lubricating brushes reduce a) the wear of 6110 OM+M and EG2AF+M brushes by 1.2 and 2.1 times respectively, b) current distribution irregularity in parallel operating brushes due to stabilizing the contact arc, and c) the temperature of the electrical brush-contact device due to the friction reduction in brushes.

  13. Design and Testing of High Performance Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Electric Brushes SARA DILLICH AND DORIS KUHLMANN-WILSDORF Abi Vtcv-The brus resitance of silver graphite (Stackpole SG142, 75 TABLE I wt% All, 25 wt...the performance of Stackpole SG 142 sliding contacts themselves produce (75 w/o Ag, 25 w/o C) silver graphite heat and are thus prone to introduce

  14. Responsive polymer brushes for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkilic, Namik; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Zhang, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    The development of biomedical devices, biosensors, and medical implants is critically dependent on the engineering of “smart” surfaces that can adapt or respond to their local environment. The responsive polymer brush can be considered one of the most promising systems to create such smart surfaces.

  15. Cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, and perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted among four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, perceived efficacy in oral self-care and preventing gingivodental diseases among them. The result showed that the perceived ...

  16. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  17. Numerical simulation of motor brush dynamic behavior; Motor brush kyodo no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Takasaki, K.; Yokota, M.; Ishii, T.; Kizuka, K.; Ina, K. [Calsonic Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    A model that simulates automobile motor brush behavior is introduced, constructed with the aid of an ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) software program. The basic model is a commutation section consisting of a brush, holder, presser spring, and a commutator. The external forces imposed on the brush include the spring pressure on the brush, the impingement of commutator slits on the brush, the repulsion by and friction with the commutator segments, and the repulsion by and friction with the holder, and each of them is worked out by calculation. An experiment is performed to verify the appropriateness of the simulation and findings are collected, some of which are outlined below. The waveforms of oscillating acceleration on the real-time basis at a point on a commutator rotating at 1000rpm contains impingements of commutator slits occurring at intervals of 5 milliseconds and stabilization returning after approximately 3 oscillations after each impingement, and this is confirmed by the outcome of the experiment. The result of calculation performed on the real-time basis for the lateral and longitudinal oscillating acceleration on the brush with the rotor running at the same speed agrees roughly with the outcome of the experiment. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  18. The effect of prostaglandin synthase inhibitor, aspirin on the rat intestinal membrane structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, G; Kaur, J; Mittal, N; Nath Sanyal, S

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight was found to decrease the activity of the rat intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) - associated enzymes such as the sucrase, lactase, maltase and alkaline phosphatase. Aspirin treatment also led to a decrease in the microviscosity in the native as well as the benzyl alcohol treated membrane which might be due to the lipid peroxidative damage in the membrane. Physical correlation of the membrane oxidative damage was evident as the Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR) study of the Aspirin treated membrane, which include an increased proportion of gauche to trans conformer, shift in the methylene C-H asymmetric and symmetric stretching frequencies, C = O double bond stretching, NH bending, antisymmetric (N)-CH3 bending, C-N stretching and antisymmetric CNC stretching while there was no change in the CH2 wagging and twisting as well as in NH-bending amide bond I and II. Aspirin treatment also caused an alteration in the glucose and histidine transport, as evident by a decreased Vmax value while the apparent Km remaining unchanged in the control and Aspirin-treated animals confirming that there was no change in the substrate affinity constant of the membrane transport proteins for the glucose and the basic amino acid, although the rate of transport decreased considerably. There was a decrease noted in the energy of activation of glucose and histidine transport when studied at different temperature but no change in the temperature of phase transition in the BBM with Aspirin treatment, thus implying that perhaps the thermotropic phase transition in the membrane may have relatively little effect on the transport processes. The result suggests an underlying molecular mechanism indicating the implied membrane damage by Aspirin, an important member of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) family which could possibly through an oxidative damage may lead to an altered molecular structure, physical state and biological

  19. Receptors for short-chain fatty acids in brush cells at the gastric groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Anna-Maria Eberle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the stomach of rodents clusters of brush cells are arranged at the gastric groove, immediately at the transition zone from the non-glandular reservoir compartment to the glandular digestive compartment. Based on their taste cell-like molecular phenotype it has been speculated that the cells may be capable to sense constituents of the ingested food, however, searches for nutrient receptors have not been successful. In this study, it was hypothesized that the cells may express receptors for short-chain fatty acids, metabolites generated by microorganisms during the storage of ingested food in the murine forestomach, which lacks the acidic milieu of more posterior regions of the stomach and is colonized with numerous microbiota. Experimental approaches, including RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemical studies, revealed that the majority of these brush cells express the G-protein coupled receptor types GPR41 (FFAR3 and GPR43 (FFAR2, which are activated by short-chain fatty acids. Both, the GPR41 receptor proteins as well as an appropriate G-protein, α-gustducin, were found to be segregated at the apical brush border of the cells, indicating a direct contact with the luminal content of this gastric region. The exposure of microvillar processes with appropriate receptors and signaling elements to the gastric lumen suggests that the brush cells may in fact be capable to sense the short-chain fatty acids which originate from fermentation processes during the retention of ingested food in the anterior part of the stomach.

  20. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also study the trade-offs faced by traders between embeddedness and brokerage and find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....

  1. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...... of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...

  2. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  3. Elastic Constants of Polymer-Grafted Lipid Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Derek

    2001-01-01

    The surface expansion that is induced by the lateral pressure in the brush region of lipid membranes containing grafted polymers is deduced from the scaling and mean-field theories for the polymer brush, together with the equation of state for a lipid monolayer at the equivalence pressure with fluid lipid bilayers. Depending on the length and mole fraction of the polymer lipid, the membrane expansion can be appreciable. Direct experimental evidence for this lateral expansion comes from recent...

  4. Antifouling polymer brushes displaying antithrombogenic surface properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Sheikh, S.; Blaszykowski, C.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Fedorov, K.; Thompson, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 1179-1185 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * surface characterization * antifouling surfaces Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  5. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the Europe......, the description format developed for this case can be useful for visualizing and analyzing other supply chains involving collaborations across borders....

  6. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration func...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  7. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the origin and development of Illela Border Market in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The paper shows that attempts by Nigeria to promote social and economic activities with her neighbours encourage the establishment of Border Markets and Illela Border Market is not an exception. The article sheds light on the ...

  8. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  9. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  10. Dynamics of Brush-grafted Nanoparticles in Polymer Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composto, Russell; Lin, Chia-Chun; Ohno, Kohji; Hore, Michael; Meth, Jeffrey; Clarke, Nigel; Winey, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Grafting a polymer brush to nanoparticles is an effective approach to achieve a good dispersion of nanoparticles in a polymer melt and the structure of this dispersion has been well studied. However, the interplay between the structure of the brush and nanoparticle diffusion is lacking. Here, we study the diffusion of poly (methyl methacrylate), or PMMA,-grafted iron oxide nanoparticles (core diameter=5nm) in PMMA melts. Different brush architectures are obtained by tuning brush molecular weight (16 and 21kg/mol), brush grafting density (0.17, 0.33 and 0.55 chains/nm2) and PMMA matrix molecular weight (4-70kg/mol). Preliminary results show that the diffusion of nanoparticles is slowed down relative to predictions of the classic Stokes-Einstein relation applied to a 5nm particle suggesting that the interpenetration between the brush and matrix influences nanoparticle mobility. Self-consistent field theory is performed to predict the structure of brush and matrix in the vicinity of the particle to quantify the effect of brush-matrix interpenetration. These experiments demonstrate that the structure of the brush could affect nanoparticle center of mass diffusion and the brush-nanoparticle interpenetration should be considered. Primary supports from NSF/EPSRC Materials World Network DMR 1210379 (KIW, RJC) and EP/5065373/1 (NC).

  11. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  12. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  13. Professional brushing study comparing the effectiveness of sonic brush heads with manual toothbrushes: a single blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelka, Anna-Kristina; Nagler, Tonia; Hopp, Imke; Petschelt, Anselm; Pelka, Matthias Anton

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the plaque removal efficacy of four toothbrushes: the Philips Sonicare Elite with medium and mini brush heads, the Elmex Sensitive, and the American Dental Association (ADA) reference toothbrush. This study was a randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, four-brush crossover design study, which examined plaque removal following a consecutive repeated use. All brushes were used on each participant in a randomly assigned quadrant of the mouth. A total of 90 subjects participated in the study. Prior to the experiment, they received a professional prophylaxis and were requested to refrain from toothbrushing for 48 h. Teeth were professionally brushed consecutively for 10 to 90 s per quadrant. A Turesky-modified Quigley Hein Index score was assessed at baseline and after each brushing interval by one blinded investigator. Results showed reduction of mean plaque scores for all brushes with time from 10 to 90 s. After 30 s (2-min whole mouth equivalent) of brushing, the Sonicare brushes cleaned 19, the ADA brush 16, and the Elmex Sensitive 10 of in average 28 tooth surfaces. With time, the number of additional cleaned surfaces decreased. Time is an important variable in the evaluation of plaque-removing efficacy since absolute efficacy increases with time and differs per toothbrush. No differences could be found between the two brush heads of the Sonicare.

  14. Alterations in gut microflora populations and brush border functionality following intra-amniotic daidzein administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidzein is an isoflavone found primarily in soybean and various soy-based products such as tofu. In the intestines, daidzein is reductively transformed to its constituent metabolites equol and O-desmethylangolensin. Although the ingestion of daidzein has been associated with marked physiological im...

  15. Intestinal microbiota differentially affect brush border enzyme activity and gene expression in the neonatal gnotobiotic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, B P; Van Kessel, A G

    2009-10-01

    To study microbial influence on intestinal development pertaining to nutrient digestion, two separate gnotobiotic experiments were performed, each with 16 piglets allocated to four treatment groups: germfree (GF), monoassociation with Escherichia coli, monoassociation with Lactobacillus fermentum or conventionalization with faecal bacteria (CV). Enzyme activity and gene expression of lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and aminopeptidase N (APN) were measured in isolated enterocytes, harvested on day 14, using specific substrates and quantitative PCR respectively. Enterocytes of CV pigs had reduced APN activity, but had increased gene expression relative to GF, making the specific activity:mRNA (A:G) ratio dramatically lower (p pigs as compared with GF. The results of co-incubation of L. fermentum, E. coli and faecal bacteria with APN indicate a direct relationship between enzyme inactivation and specific A:G ratio in enterocytes. We conclude that enterocyte up-regulation of APN expression occurs as either a direct response to microbial colonization or as a feedback mechanism in response to reduced enzyme activity through microbial degradation. This mechanism may play a role in ensuring effective competition of the host with the intestinal microbiota for available nutrients.

  16. [Clinical relevance of tooth brushing in relation to dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; Pombo-Sánchez, Antonio; Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan; Novio-Mallón, Silvia; Rivas-Mundiña, Berta; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    To determine the impact and clinical relevance of tooth brushing on oral health. Prevalence study. Fontiñas Health Centre. (Santiago de Compostela, Spain). Prevalence study (n=281 children aged 5-14 years. Odontological examination according to WHO methodology, to determine the frequency of tooth brushing, frequency of sweet consumption and their impact on the prevalence of caries. Logistic regression and estimation of the relative prevalence difference (RPD) and the Number Needed to Treat in order to prevent one additional bad outcome (NNT). The children who never brush their teeth have a 40% (95% CI: 24.3%-57.8%) of early caries, while those who brush their teeth several times a day have 15.3% (95% CI: 9.4%-23.7%). An association between not brushing the teeth and caries in primary teeth (OR=2.3; 95% CI:1.05-5.3) was observed after adjusting for age, sweet consumption and visits to the dentist. The same occurred with final teeth (OR=3.9; 95% CI:1.4-10.3). The RPD was 62%(95% CI: 30%-79%), meaning that prevalence of caries is 62% lower in children who brush their teeth several times a day as compared to those who never brush their teeth. The NNT is 4 (95% CI: 2.4-14), so for every 4 children who brush their teeth several times a day, there is one less case of caries, compared to those who never brush their teeth. There is a dose-response relationship between prevalence of caries and brushing frequency. The same effect was observed with definitive caries: RPD=55% (95% CI:16%-76%), NNT=5 (95% CI:2.8-53.3). Tooth brushing is related to oral health, with a major clinical impact. The positive effect of tooth brushing was superior to that of a correct diet. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... the borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...

  18. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  19. Social ranking effects on tooth-brushing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Paterson, Kevin; Day, Liz; Jones, Ceri; Kinnear, Hayley; Buchanan, Heather

    2016-05-01

    A tooth-brushing social rank hypothesis is tested suggesting tooth-brushing duration is influenced when individuals position their behaviour in a rank when comparing their behaviour with other individuals. Study 1 used a correlation design, Study 2 used a semi-experimental design, and Study 3 used a randomized intervention design to examine the tooth-brushing social rank hypothesis in terms of self-reported attitudes, cognitions, and behaviour towards tooth-brushing duration. Study 1 surveyed participants to examine whether the perceived health benefits of tooth-brushing duration could be predicted from the ranking of each person's tooth-brushing duration. Study 2 tested whether manipulating the rank position of the tooth-brushing duration influenced participant-perceived health benefits of tooth-brushing duration. Study 3 used a longitudinal intervention method to examine whether messages relating to the rank positions of tooth-brushing durations causally influenced the self-report tooth-brushing duration. Study 1 demonstrates that perceptions of the health benefits from tooth-brushing duration are predicted by the perceptions of how that behaviour ranks in comparison to other people's behaviour. Study 2 demonstrates that the perceptions of the health benefits of tooth-brushing duration can be manipulated experimentally by changing the ranked position of a person's tooth-brushing duration. Study 3 experimentally demonstrates the possibility of increasing the length of time for which individuals clean their teeth by focusing on how they rank among their peers in terms of tooth-brushing duration. The effectiveness of interventions using social-ranking methods relative to those that emphasize comparisons made against group averages or normative guidelines are discussed. What is already known on this subject? Individual make judgements based on social rank information. Social rank information has been shown to influence positive health behaviours such as exercise

  20. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  1. Antifouling Properties of Fluoropolymer Brushes toward Organic Polymers: The Influence of Composition, Thickness, Brush Architecture, and Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-07-05

    Fluoropolymer brushes are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric or biological materials due to their strongly hydrophobic character. Herein, a series of fluoropolymer brushes with different compositions, thicknesses and molecular architectures was prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Subsequently, the antifouling properties of these fluoropolymer brushes against organic polymers were studied in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and polystyrene as a representative fouling polymer. Among all of the molecular architectures studied, homopolymerized methacrylate-based fluoropolymer brushes (PMAF17) show the best antifouling properties. Annealing the fluoropolymer brushes improves the antifouling property dramatically due to the reregulated surface composition. These fluoropolymer brushes can be combined with, e.g., micro- and nanostructuring and other advanced materials properties to yield even better long-term antifouling behavior under harsh environments.

  2. Polymer absorption in dense polymer brushes vs. polymer adsorption on the brush-solvent interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, Andrey; Binder, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of a dense brush of flexible polymers (of type A) interacting with a long flexible macromolecule (of type B) are presented, considering the case of an attractive AB interaction, while effective interactions between AA and BB pairs of monomers are repulsive. Varying the strength \\varepsilon_{AB} of the attraction between unlike monomers, an adsorption transition at some critical value \\varepsilon^c_{AB} is found, where the B-chain is bound to the brush-solvent interface, similar to the adsorption on a planar solid substrate. However, when \\varepsilon_{AB} is much higher than \\varepsilon^c_{AB} , the long macromolecule is gradually “sucked in” the brush, developing many pieces that are locally stretched in the z-direction perpendicular to the substrate, in order to fit between the brush chains. The resulting hairpin-like structures of the absorbed chain shows up via oscillatory decay of the bond vector autocorrelation function. Chain relaxation is only possible via reptation.

  3. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  4. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  5. Collaborating Across Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  6. The Effects of a Brushing Procedure on Stereotypical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a brushing protocol on stereotyped behavior of a young boy with autism. First, a functional analysis was conducted which showed that the participant's stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next, the Wilbarger Protocol, a brushing intervention, was implemented. An ABA design was implemented…

  7. A Critique of the Brushing for Life Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Martin C.; Drugan, Caroline S.; Blinkhorn, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Background and objective: Brushing for Life is intended to promote regular brushing of children's teeth with fluoride toothpaste. The programme is delivered by health visitors who provide toothbrushes, toothpaste and dental health education material at children's 8, 18 and 36 month development checks. The purpose of the present paper was to…

  8. Wildlife response to brush management: a contemporary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush management has been widely practiced with the general intent of curtailing or reversing the proliferation of shrubs and trees in grasslands and savannas. The traditional aim of brush management has been to increase livestock forage or to improve water yield. Its potential role for restoring h...

  9. Carbazole functionalized isocyanide brushes in heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, E.; Gao, F.; Schwartz, E.; Schwartz, E.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Nolte, R.J.M.; Rowan, A.E.; Greenham, N.C.; Do, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, carbazole-containing polyisocyanide (PIACz) brushes were used for photovoltaic devices. A photovoltaic device was fabricated on top of the brushes by spin-coating a suitable acceptor and evaporating an Al cathode. Devices with a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) bulk polymer were also

  10. Polymer brushes on planar TiO2 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiming; Hou, Liman; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Ning; Liang, Yongjiu; Tian, Wenjing; Dong, Dewen

    2014-07-01

    A facile and universal method is presented for the preparation of polymer brushes on amorphous TiO2 film. Homogeneous and stable poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, poly(4-vinylpyridine), and poly(N-vinyl imidazole) (PNVI) brushes up to 550 nm are directly created onto TiO2 via UV-induced photopolymerization of corresponding monomers. Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. Characterization of the resulting polymer brushes by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicates an efficient UV-grafting reaction. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility in converting the PNVI brushes to poly(vinyl imidazolium bromide), i.e., poly(ionic liquid) brushes by polymer-analogous reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Tooth-brushing behaviour in 6-12 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Anna; Cressey, Janet; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2011-01-01

    A common clinical finding is that many schoolchildren display a nonacceptable oral hygiene. To evaluate the tooth-brushing behaviour in children aged 6-12 years. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Children aged 6, 8, 10, and 12 years in an elementary school in a middle class area in Umeå, a city in northern Sweden, were invited and 82 (82%) consented. Visible plaque on buccal surfaces of incisors and canines was recorded from photographs of the participant's teeth before and after brushing using the scores of the Green and Vermillion Oral Hygiene Index. Brushing technique was recorded with a video camera. A questionnaire was used to collect data about oral hygiene habits at home. The ratio between the sum of plaque scores after and before brushing was statistically significantly higher in the 6-year-old group compared with the 10-year olds, (P brushing and the ratio between the sum of plaque scores after and before brushing (r = -0.31, P 0.05). Six-year olds spent statistically significantly less time for brushing than older children (P brushing was poor and averaged 19% for 6-year olds and 30% for older children. The results of brushing for children aged 8-12 years could benefit from increasing tooth-brushing time. Children could be given an increasing responsibility from 7 to 8 year of age but parental help is motivated up to 10 years of age. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiring tanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles of immigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligence gathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, ...

  13. three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Johnston (2005:12) in identifying various methods and a taxonomy for intelligence analysis. Of these there are ..... It follows that accurate intelligence prediction and forecasting in trends and patterns will determine ... for power projection and not based on territorial border threats for her land borders with Canada and Mexico ...

  14. Methodology for assaying iodide conductance in proteoliposomes: specific induction by thyroid membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golstein, P E; Sener, A; Beauwens, R

    1995-12-01

    A sensitive assay is developed to assess the existence of an iodide channel in a fraction of solubilized membrane proteins. This step is critical when considering various procedures for purification of this channel. Sodium cholate is used as a detergent as it does not denature the iodide channel. A simple and rapid method involving gel-filtration chromatography is used simultaneously to remove the detergent and to adjust the buffer composition, before protein insertion into liposomes. The presence of an iodide channel is investigated by measuring the iodide conductance of these proteoliposomes at 4 degrees C. An outward iodide gradient is set up across the proteoliposomal membrane by anion-exchange chromatography, allowing uptake of radiolabelled iodide. This uptake is conductive as it is abolished by valinomycin in the presence of potassium. It is specifically mediated by a thyroid plasma-membrane protein inserted into liposomes, as its denaturation before insertion totally abolished uptake. It was observed only within a well-defined fraction of thyroid membrane proteins collected by size-exclusion chromatography (molecular mass between 100 and 200 kDa). Furthermore, it was not observed with other membrane proteins such as ileal brush-border-membrane proteins or bacteriorhodopsin. Like many anion channels, this conductance was also inhibited by N-phenylanthranilic acid. Optimization of the assay is described, validating the measurement of conductive iodide uptake at 30 s by proteoliposomes reconstituted in a ratio of 10 micrograms of protein to 90 micrograms of lipid, with an outward iodide gradient (KI 15 mM inside and 1 microM outside). This assay provides a test of the biological activity of the iodide channel at each step of the purification; it can be applied to any anionic channel.

  15. Comprehensive physical rehabilitation after injury brush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko M.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of physical rehabilitation for patients after recovery efficiency injured hand. The study enrolled 36 patients after a hand injury, which was carried out surgery. Among patients were dominated women 66% and men 34% aged 25 to 50 years. To evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs used protractor Richter, centimeter tape, hand dynamometer, MHQ questionnaire and system of integral evaluation function brush. Survey of patients conducted at the clinical stage of rehabilitation for two weeks and before surgery. The efficiency effects of passive therapeutic exercises, massage and lymph drainage design for a hand operated device ARTROMOT-F. It is noted that physical rehabilitation for two weeks has greatly improved hand functions. Established to improve results core group of control by 21.8%, poor performance of the control group higher by 10.1% of the principal of, indicating the efficacy of the program.

  16. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re......-enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  17. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  18. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  19. Microsensors for border patrol applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor

    2005-05-01

    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  20. Brush Lettering II; Commercial and Advertising Art--Intermediate: 9185.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the student gain mastery in the proper brush techniques required for proficiency in brush lettering. The skills of Brush Lettering 1 are a prerequisite. Consisting of 135 clock hours, the course prepares the student to understand brush lettering for poster production and advertising layout.…

  1. Antimicrobial penetration in a dual-species oral biofilm after noncontact brushing : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Peterson, B. W.; Ren, Y.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.

    Oral biofilm is inevitably left behind, even after powered brushing. As a special feature, powered brushing removes biofilm in a noncontact mode. When the brushing distance becomes too large, biofilm is left behind. We hypothesize that biofilm left behind after brushing has different viscoelastic

  2. On the collapse transition of a polymer brush: the case of lateral mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, F.A.M.; Egorov, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a polymer brush composed of end-grafted polymer chains. Classical theory advocates that a worsening of the solvent quality results in a smooth decrease of the brush height from a swollen to a dense brush. We report that a homogeneous brush under poor solvent conditions can have a

  3. Evidence for carrier-mediated Cl-SO/sub 4/ exchange in rabbit ileal basolateral membrane vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schron, C.M.; Knickelbein, R.G.; Aronson, P.S.; Dobbins, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    In rabbit ileal basolateral membrane (BLM) vesicles, an outwardly directed Cl gradient ((Cl) in/out = 60/6 mM) stimulated the initial velocity of /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ uptake compared with uptake in the absence of Cl. Under Cl gradient conditions, /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ was transiently accumulated at a concentration twice that found at equilibrium (overshoot). Chloride gradient-stimulated SO/sub 4/ uptake was markedly reduced by inhibitors of anion exchange and was saturable. SO/sub 4/ uptake by BLM vesicles was not stimulated by imposition of an inside-positive electrical potential, suggesting that the stimulation by a Cl gradient was not due to an induced electrical potential. Oxalate, nitrate, iodide, and bromide inhibited the initial velocity of Cl gradient-stimulated SO/sub 4/ uptake, whereas phosphate, ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and p-aminohippurate had not effect. When /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ uptake by BLM vesicles was compared with that of brush-border membrane vesicles, Cl gradient-stimulated SO/sub 4/ uptake was found predominantly in the BLM preparation. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for a carrier on the ileal basolateral membrane that mediates Cl-SO/sub 4/ exchange.

  4. Electroosmotic Flow in Mixed Polymer Brush-Grafted Nanochannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed polymer brush-grafted nanochannels—where two distinct species of polymers are alternately grafted on the inner surface of nanochannels—are an interesting class of nanostructured hybrid materials. By using a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation method, we are able to simulate the electrokinetic transport dynamics of the fluid in such nanochannels as well as the conformational behaviors of the mixed polymer brush. We find that (1 the brush adopts vertically-layered and longitudinally-separated structures due to the coupling of electroosmotic flow (EOF and applied electric field; (2 the solvent quality affects the brush conformations and the transport properties of the EOF; (3 the EOF flux non-monotonically depends on the grafting density, although the EOF velocity in the central region of the channel monotonically depends on the grafting density.

  5. Superhydrophilic Polyelectrolyte Brush Layers with Imparted Anti-Icing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Järn, Mikael; Shimizu, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    (-), SO4(2-), and C12SO3(-) ions. By consecutive measurements of the strength of ice adhesion toward ion-incorporated polymer brushes on glass it was found that Li(+) ions reduce ice adhesion by 40% at -18 °C and 70% at -10 °C. Ag(+) ions reduce ice adhesion by 80% at -10 °C relative to unmodified glass......This work demonstrates the feasibility of superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brush coatings for anti-icing applications. Five different types of ionic and nonionic polymer brush coatings of 25-100 nm thickness were formed on glass substrates using silane chemistry for surface premodification followed...... by polymerization via the SI-ATRP route. The cationic [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride] and the anionic [poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate), poly(sodium methacrylate)] polyelectrolyte brushes were further exchanged with H(+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ag(+), Ca(2+), La(3+), C16N(+), F(-), Cl(-), BF4...

  6. 75 FR 18237 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... paint brushes from China would be likely to lead to ] continuation or recurrence of material injury... information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205- 1810. Persons with mobility...

  7. Anthrax in Vintage Animal-hair Shaving Brushes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-08

    Dr. Kate Hendricks, a CDC anthrax expert, discusses anthrax in vintage shaving brushes.  Created: 8/8/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2017.

  8. Astronauts Culbertson and Bursch brush their teeth on Discovery's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Frank L. Culbertson (right), mission commander, and Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, brush their teeth on Discovery's middeck. Two sleep restraints form part of the backdrop for the photograph.

  9. The study of functional parameter of the electric coal brushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Staşac

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available These paper present a study about the analyzeof the functional parameters of the electrical coal brush.The analyze was made with an experimental device, andthe results was prelucrate in MathCAD software.

  10. Influence of Geometry on Rotordynamic Coefficients of Brush Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Dowell, Earl H.; Chen, Zhaobo; Jiao, Yinghou; Zhang, Zhouqiang

    2017-05-01

    It has been observed that the geometry of a brush seal has a significant effect on the sealing performance. However, the relationship between rotordynamic coefficients and geometry factors of the brush seal itself are rarely considered. In this article, the rotordynamic coefficients of a typical single-stage brush seal for different geometries and operating conditions were numerically analyzed using CFD RANS solutions coupled with a non-Darcian porous medium model. The reaction force which plays an essential role in rotordynamic coefficients was obtained by integrating the dynamic pressure distribution. The influence of the bristle pack thickness, fence height, clearance size and other working condition parameters on aerodynamic force, stiffness coefficients, and damping coefficients of brush seal were presented and compared. In addition, the effects of various geometric configurations on pressure and flow features were also discussed.

  11. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Keith J. Bourne; John C. Hermanson; Samuel V. Glass; Adriana Costa; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force–displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a...

  12. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  13. Polyelectrolyte complexes of bottle brush copolymers : Solution and adsorption properties

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Shovsky

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work was to systematically investigate the physico-chemical properties of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formed by bottle brush and linear polyelectrolytes in solution and at solid / liquid interfaces. Electrostatic self-assembly of oppositely charged macromolecules in aqueous solution is a versatile strategy to construction of functional nanostructures with easily controlled properties. Bottle brush architecture, introduced into the PEC, generates a number of distinc...

  14. Cues to Action as Motivators for Children's Brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly K; Steinfort, Erin L; Keyler, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease. Home self-care procedures are the most important strategies to prevent tooth decay. Brushing is the most important single intervention for the prevention of tooth decay, yet compliance is not practiced and there is limited understanding of children's behavioral decisions. Guided by the Health Belief Model, this study consisted of eight focus groups with children in the second through fifth grades at three different socioeconomic-level school districts to determine the cues to action that are motivating or can motivate their brushing behavior. Results indicated children are primarily motivated to brush for aesthetic reasons, mainly due to viewed media pictures of "perfect" teeth. Other less commonly expressed motivations for brushing stemmed from interpersonal connections, such as relatives with dentures. Social media, on the other hand, played a key role in some children's understanding of more advanced oral health connections such as links between cardiovascular and oral disease, and smoking and oral cancer. These links were viewed as threatening to children to motivate better brushing. Additionally, the study found that home computers can be used as an external motivator to deliver tailored messages to encourage better brushing.

  15. The Unusual Conformational Behavior of Polyzwitterionic Brushes in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Guangcui; Yu, Jing; Tirrell, Matthew

    Polyzwitterions constitute a peculiar class of polyelectrolytes, which are electrically neutral polymers containing both a positive and a negative charge on each repeating unit. Surfaces coated with polyzwitterionic brushes are resistant to the nonspecific accumulation of proteins and microorganisms, making them excellent candidates for a wide range of antifouling applications, from biocompatible medical devices to marine coatings. The surrounding environment can dramatically influence the conformational behavior of polyzwitterionic brushes. High-density polyzwitterionic brushes poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) were synthesized using surface initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization, and neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements were performed to investigate the ionic strength dependence of the conformational behaviors of PMPC brushes in monovalent salt solutions. Despite the numerous observations of normal pure polyelectrolyte brushes, NR results showed that both the densely concentrated layer near the substrate surface and the relatively swollen layer into the solution have been observed in different q range in a single neutron reflectivity profile. These results will definitely help us to better understand the relationship between the solution behaviors of zwitterionic polymer brushes and their antifouling properties.

  16. What is the best predictor for oral cleanliness after brushing? Results from an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Winterfeld, Tobias; Erhardt, Jörg; Schlueter, Nadine; Ganss, Carolina; Margraf-Stiksrud, Jutta; Deinzer, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Brushing performance is an important factor for brushing success. Thus, observing brushing performance might help to explain deficits in oral hygiene. However, it is unknown how brushing behavior observed at one time relates to brushing capabilities observed at another time. The authors assessed the predictive validity of video-observed habitual brushing behavior for the capability to achieve oral cleanliness several weeks later. Study participants (N = 101) were video-recorded while cleaning their teeth. Two independent, calibrated examiners assessed brushing duration, evenness of distribution of brushing time across areas of the mouth as one indicator of brushing systematics, and duration of specific brushing movements. Weeks later (mean: 6.4 weeks; range: 1 to 24 weeks), 70 participants were asked to remove plaque to the best of their ability, and degree of oral cleanliness was assessed immediately afterward. A forward regression analysis was performed to assess the predictive values of brushing parameters. Regression analysis revealed that evenness of distribution of brushing time and duration of circling movements explained 20.8% of variance of oral cleanliness (P brushing time and duration of circling movements are aspects of observed habitual brushing behavior that predict brushing capabilities in terms of oral cleanliness.

  17. Greening transportation at the border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    On February 2324, 2011, Federal agencies from the United : States, Canada, and Mexico sponsored a workshop in San : Diego, California, to discuss opportunities for improvement : regarding the greening of transportation at the borders.1 : The works...

  18. Manipulating protein adsorption using a patchy protein-resistant brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Saugata; Bendersky, Marina; Ross, Jennifer L; Santore, Maria M

    2010-07-20

    Toward the development of surfaces for the precise manipulation of proteins, this study explores the fabrication and protein-interactive behavior of a new type of surface containing extremely small (on the order of 10 nm or less) flat adhesive "patches" or islands embedded in and partially concealed by a protein-repellant PEG (poly(ethylene glycol)) brush. The adsorption of fibrinogen, the model protein chosen to probe the biomaterial interactions of these surfaces, is very sensitive to the surface density of the adhesive patches, occurring only above a threshold. This suggests that two or more adhesive patches are needed to capture each protein. When the average spacing of the adhesive patches exceeds the fibrinogen length, no adsorption occurs because individual patches are too weakly binding for protein capture, as a result of being at least partially obstructed by the brush. The small size of the adhesive patches relative to the 47 nm fibrinogen length thus defines a limiting regime of surface design, distinct from surfaces where larger features can adhere single isolated proteins or multiple proteins together. The restricted protein-surface contact may comprise a means of preserving protein structure and function in the adsorbed state. This article demonstrates several additional interesting features of PEG brushes relevant to biomaterial design. First a moderate amount of adhesive material can be buried at the base of a brush without a measurable impact on the corona density. Second, a different amount of material at the base of a brush can be rendered ineffective to capturing adhesive proteins, despite a modest compromise of the brush corona. From this will follow insight into the design of patterned biomaterial surfaces, the bioactivity of the edges of patterned features, and an understanding of how flaws in brushes compromise protein resistance or allow access to small adhesive sites.

  19. Comparison of the kinetic friction of planar neutral and polyelectrolyte polymer brushes using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yangpeng; Sokoloff, Jeffrey B; Stevens, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    We have simulated the relative shear motion of both neutral and polyelectrolyte end-grafted polymer brushes using molecular dynamics. The flexible neutral polymer brush is treated as a bead-spring model, and the polyelectrolyte brush is treated the same way except that each bead is charged and there are counterions present to neutralize the charge. We investigated the friction coefficient, monomer density, and brush penetration for both polyelectrolyte and neutral brushes with both equal grafting density and equal normal force under good solvent conditions. We found that polyelectrolyte brushes had a smaller friction coefficient and monomer penetration than neutral polymer brushes with the identical grafting density and chain length, and the polyelectrolyte brushes supported a much higher normal load than the neutral brushes for the same degree of compression. Charged and neutral brushes with their grafting densities chosen so that they support the same load exhibited approximately the same degree of interpenetration, but the polyelectrolyte brush exhibited a significantly lower friction coefficient. We present evidence that the reason for this is that the extra normal force contribution provided by the counterion osmotic pressure that exists for polyelectrolyte brushes permits them to support the same load as an identical neutral polymer brush of higher grafting density. Because of the resulting lower monomer density for the charged brushes, fewer monomer collisions take place per unit time, resulting in a lower friction coefficient. © 2012 American Physical Society

  20. The influence of tooth brushing time over saliva buffering capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Saliva gives a considerable influence against the growth of dental caries as a natural defense against caries. the things very important about saliva are its flow rate and buffering capacity. the decrease in saliva flow rate might cause food retention that furthermore would turn into dental plaques, meanwhile it’s buffering capacity will play a considerable role in maintaining the saliva’s pH and remineralization process of the teeth. One of the mechanisms which are considered to be effective in preventing dental caries is teeth brushing which could change the pH of 5,6 to a normal level. And the right time of teeth brushing will provide an optimal result.The study aims to reveal the influence of teeth brushing time against saliva buffering capacity. The study is an analytic study using a quasi-experimental design. The samples of the study are 20 (twenty students of dentistry in Health Ministry of Bandung which was purposively selected the sample is divided into 3 groups. The first group is treated by brushing their teeth right after eating bread, the second and third group is treated 15 and 30 minutes after eating bread. The hypothesis uses Kruskal Wallis hypothesis continued by Mann Whitney test, strikethrough. The study reveals that the group brushed their teeth right after eating bread shows low category of saliva buffering is that 55% meanwhile those who brushed their teeth 15 and 30 minutes after eating bread exhibits the result as much as 65% and 25 % Thus the last group is included to those who have a medium risk of suffering from dental carries. The statistics of Kruskal Wallis test within the confidence level of 95% shows that there is an influence of teeth brushing time over the saliva buffering capacity with p<0,001. Mann Whitney test shows that the time of teeth brushing within 15 minutes after eating is better than the group who brush their teeth 30 minutes after eating.

  1. Endobiliary brush biopsy: Intra- and interobserver variation in cytological evaluation of brushings from bile duct strictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, S; Olsen, M; Jendresen, MB

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obtaining cytological specimens by wire-guided endobiliary brushing at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a convenient way to reach a diagnosis. Sensitivity for malignant disease is generally around 50% and specificity around 100%. The present study...... was designed to assess the reproducibility of the cytological examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples were obtained from 55 consecutive patients with biliary duct strictures that eventually turned out to be caused by malignant disease in 41 patients (73%). The cytology specimens were evaluated twice...... in different random order with an interval of at least 4 months by two pathologists blinded to the final diagnoses. Suitability for diagnosis (suitable, suboptimal or unsuitable) and cytologic diagnosis (benign, atypical, suspicious for malignancy and malignant cells) were registered. Kappa analysis...

  2. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  3. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellenstein, J.A. [Ohio Aerospace Inst. Cleveland, Ohio (United States); DellaCorte, C. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  4. Surface Modification of Nonwoven fabrics by Atmospheric Brush Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Uygun, Emre; Bozduman, Ferhat; Yurdabak Karaca, Gozde; Asan, Orkun Nuri; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-10-01

    Polypropylene nonwoven fabrics (PPNF) are used in disposable absorbent articles, such as diapers, feminine care products, wipes. PPNF need to be wettable by water or aqueous-based liquid. Plasma surface treatment/modification has turned out to be a well-accepted method since it offers superior surface property enhancement than other chemical methods. The cold plasma brush can most efficiently use the discharge power as well as the plasma gas for material and surface treatment. The very low power consumption of such an atmospheric argon plasma brush provides many unique advantages in practical application. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effectiveness of non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush in surface wettability and modification of two different nonwoven surfaces.

  5. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertiwi, U. I.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness changes of tooth enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. Thirty specimens were brushed using distilled water (the first group), Strong® Formula toothpaste (the second group), and Charcoal® Formula toothpaste for four minutes and 40 seconds (equivalent to one month) and for 14 minutes (equivalent to three months) using a soft fleece toothbrush with a mass of 150 gr. The roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester, and the results were tested with repeated ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA. The value of the surface roughness of tooth enamel was significantly different (p<0.05) after brushing for an equivalent of one month and an equivalent of three months. Using toothpaste containing charcoal can increase the surface roughness of tooth enamel.

  6. Polyacrylic acid polymer brushes as substrates for the incorporation of anthraquinone derivatives. Unprecedented application of decorated polymer brushes on organocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Muelle, Ana Belén; Contreras-Cáceres, Rafael; Oña-Burgos, Pascual; Rodríguez-Dieguez, Antonio; López-Romero, Juan Manuel; Fernández, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of amino-terminated anthraquinone derivatives and their incorporation onto polymer brushes for the fabrication of silicon-based nanometric functional coatings are described for the first time. The general process involves the covalent grafting of anthraquinone 1 onto two different polymer-brushes by amidation reactions. They are composed by amino- and carboxy-terminated poly(acrylic acid) chains (PAA-NH2- and PAA-COOH, respectively) tethered by one end to an underlying silicon oxide (SiO2) substrate in a polymer brush configuration. A third substrate is fabricated by UV induced hydrosilylation reaction using undecenoic acid as adsorbate on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces. One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), FT-IR, MS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize anthraquinone 1. Ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrated the presence of the polymer brushes on the silicon wafers, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study its surface morphology. The covalent linkage between anthraquinone and polymer brushes was proven by XPS and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The resulting surfaces were assayed in the heterogenous organocatalytic transformation of (1H)-indole into 3-benzyl indole with moderate yields but with high recyclability.

  7. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and R&D intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level of innovativeness increase the likelihood...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  8. NaCl reflection coefficients in proximal tubule apical and basolateral membrane vesicles. Measurement by induced osmosis and solvent drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D; Verkman, A S

    1989-01-01

    Two independent methods, induced osmosis and solvent drag, were used to determine the reflection coefficients for NaCl (sigma NaCl) in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit proximal tubule. In the induced osmosis method, vesicles loaded with sucrose were subjected to varying inward NaCl gradients in a stopped-flow apparatus. sigma NaCl was determined from the osmolality of the NaCl solution required to cause no initial osmotic water flux as measured by light scattering (null point). By this method sigma NaCl was greater than 0.92 for both apical and basolateral membranes with best estimates of 1.0. sigma NaCl was determined by the solvent drag method using the Cl-sensitive fluorescent indicator, 6-methoxy-N-[3-sulfopropyl]quinolinium (SPQ), to detect the drag of Cl into vesicles by inward osmotic water movement caused by an outward osmotic gradient. sigma NaCl was determined by comparing experimental data with theoretical curves generated using the coupled flux equations of Kedem and Katchalsky. By this method we found that sigma NaCl was greater than 0.96 for apical and greater than 0.98 for basolateral membrane vesicles, with best estimates of 1.0 for both membranes. These results demonstrate that sigma NaCl for proximal tubule apical and basolateral membranes are near unity. Taken together with previous results, these data suggest that proximal tubule water channels are long narrow pores that exclude NaCl. PMID:2765660

  9. Powered toothbrush plus triclosan only as effective as manual brush and fluoride toothpaste for periodontal maintenance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Debora C

    2008-01-01

    This randomised, controlled and single-masked clinical trial was carried out in specialist clinics in Sweden and the US. The test group were instructed to use an rotation-oscillation action (ROA) powered toothbrush (Oral-B; Gillette, Boston, Massachusetts, USA) and a triclosan/ copolymer/ fluoride-containing dentifrice (Total; Colgate, Piscataway, New Jersey, US). The control group were instructed to brush using the modified Bass technique and a conventionally designed, multitufted, soft, manual toothbrush using a standard fluoride-containing dentifrice (Protection Caries; Colgate). Both groups were to brush twice a day and clean interdentally daily with dental floss, toothpicks and/ or interdental brushes. Measurements were taken at baseline, and 1, 2 and 3 years for the following parameters: number of teeth, plaque, bleeding on probing (BoP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and level of the gingival margin (GM). GM was assessed as the distance between the soft tissue margin and the cemento-enamel junction or the border of a restoration. Relative attachment level (RAL) was calculated as PPD minus GM. Subgingival plaque samples were taken and analysed for their content of 40 bacterial species at each examination interval. Both groups showed significant reduction in BoP, PPD and in mean total counts of the 40 bacterial species between baseline and 3 years, whereas plaque score and RAL remained almost unchanged. No significant differences between the two prevention programmes were found for any of the clinical outcome variables or in mean counts of the various bacterial species. The study failed to demonstrate superior clinical and microbiological effects of powered toothbrush and triclosan dentifrice compared with manual toothbrush and standard fluoride-dentifrice in periodontitis-susceptible subjects undergoing regular maintenance therapy.

  10. Why Iranian adolescents do not brush their teeth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, A H; Hidarnia, A; Hajizadeh, E; Kumar, S; Fridlund, B

    2012-05-01

    To explore and describe attitudes towards tooth-brushing among Iranian adolescents. A series of focus-group sessions were held with 37 Iranian adolescents in schools. The groups comprised five to eight adolescents. All focus-group discussions were tape-recorded and then transcribed verbatim. All transcripts, codes and categories were read several times to extract a theme. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Four major categories emerged from the analysis: brushing teeth is a necessary evil, parental influence on not brushing teeth, brushing teeth is insignificant, and brushing teeth is a health hazard. The theme identified in the latent content described that tooth-brushing is not part of the adolescents' activities of daily living. Health educators should stress on the engagement of parents, awareness of the adolescents on brushing techniques and causes of toothache, and address any misconceptions regarding tooth-brushing. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Stimuli-Responsive Polyelectrolyte Brushes As a Matrix for the Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles: The Effect of Brush Thickness on Particle Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Christau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brush thickness on the loading of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs within stimuli-responsive poly-(N,N-(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA polyelectrolyte brushes is reported. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was used to grow polymer brushes via a “grafting from” approach. The brush thickness was tuned by varying the polymerization time. Using a new type of sealed reactor, thick brushes were synthesized. A systematic study was performed by varying a single parameter (brush thickness, while keeping all other parameters constant. AuNPs of 13 nm in diameter were attached by incubation. X-ray reflectivity, electron scanning microscopy and ellipsometry were used to study the particle loading, particle distribution and interpenetration of the particles within the brush matrix. A model for the structure of the brush/particle hybrids was derived. The particle number densities of attached AuNPs depend on the brush thickness, as do the optical properties of the hybrids. An increasing particle number density was found for increasing brush thickness, due to an increased surface roughness.

  12. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  13. Brushing force of manual and sonic toothbrushes affects dental hard tissue abrasion

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Annette; Burkhard, John Patrik Matthias; Eggmann, Florin; Attin, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the brushing forces applied during in vivo toothbrushing with manual and sonic toothbrushes and to analyse the effect of these brushing forces on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel and dentin in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brushing forces of a manual and two sonic toothbrushes (low and high frequency mode) were measured in 27 adults before and after instruction of the respective brushing technique and statistically analysed by repeated measures ...

  14. Contaminated tooth brushes-potential threat to oral and general health

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Naik; B R Ahmed Mujib; Neethu Telagi; B S Anil; B R Spoorthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tooth brushing is most common method of maintaining oral hygiene. In removing plaque and other soft debris from the teeth, tooth brushes become contaminated with bacteria, blood, saliva and oral debris. These contaminated tooth brushes can be a source of infection. Aims and objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of microorganisms in the tooth brushes and to investigate the effect of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite a...

  15. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  16. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  17. Brush Lettering I; Commercial and Advertising Art--Basic: 9183.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the students gain mastery in the proper brush techniques required for efficiency in brush lettering. The student is first given an orientation to the materials and equipment used, and the preparation of tempera paints for brush lettering. After this introduction, the student is guided through…

  18. Enhanced stability of low fouling zwitterionic polymer brushes in seawater with diblock architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, R.; Gosa, M.; Janczewski, D.; Kutnyanszky, E.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    The successful implementation of zwitterionic polymeric brushes as antifouling materials for marine applications is conditioned by the stability of the polymer chain and the brush-anchoring segment in seawater. Here we demonstrate that robust, antifouling, hydrophilic polysulfobetaine-based brushes

  19. Challenges and Opportunities in Border Health

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Rodríguez-Saldaña, MD

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 11.5 million people reside in the 42 counties and 39 Mexican municipalities located along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 86% of those people reside in 14 pairs of sister cities, metropolitan areas divided by the international border (1). Border residents share similar resources and environmental problems: issues of great concern include air quality, water quantity and quality, and animal control. The communities along the border are economically and socially interdependent, with mo...

  20. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and. Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to ...

  1. Preoperative brush and impression cytology in ocular surface squamous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Canan; Yağmur, Meltem; Ersöz, T Reha; Yalaz, Müslime

    2003-01-01

    Preoperative cytologic diagnoses of ocular surface squamous neoplasms were evaluated and compared with histologic diagnoses. Impression cytology (Millipore filter paper) and brush cytology were applied to 32 patients who had conjunctival neoplasms. Papanicolaou-stained cytologic preparations and hematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic sections were examined by light microscopy. The brush technique was used on 27 patients; impression cytology was applied in 5 cases. Cytologic and histologic diagnoses were concordant in 26 cases. Squamous cell carcinoma or carcinoma in situ was diagnosed in 18 and dysplasia in 4 cases. Squamous metaplasia and normal-appearing conjunctival epithelial cells were diagnosed cytologically in four cases; of those histologic diagnoses, one was pterygium and three, conjunctival nevus. Four cases revealed discrepancies between the cytologic and histologic preparations. There was one false positive result, and one case was subconjunctival invasion of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid. Impression and brush cytology are fast, cost-effective, reliable and noninvasive diagnostic tools for ocular surface squamous neoplasms. However, the brush technique has several advantages over impression cytology.

  2. Polymer brush-functionalized chitosan hydrogels as antifouling implant coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buzzacchera, I.; Vorobii, M.; Kostina, N. Yu.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, M.; Ogieglo, W.; Möller, M.; Wilson, C. J.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2017), s. 1983-1992 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitosan * hemocompatible * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  3. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist ... Keywords: toothbrushing; tongue cleaning; snacking behaviour; dental auxiliary students; Nigeria. Received: 9 April 2010; .... patients are not able to achieve sufficient plaque removal.

  4. Bacterial adhesion and growth on a polymer brush-coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejadnik, M.R.; Mei, van der H.C.; Norde, W.; Busscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biomaterials-related infections pose serious problems in implant surgery, despite the development of non-adhesive coatings. Non-adhesive coatings, like polymer brush-coatings, have so far only been investigated with respect to preventing initial bacterial adhesion, but never with respect to effects

  5. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motions. Repeat this process for each and every tooth. Brushing and Flossing is Important Use fluoride Use Fluoride Fluoride is nature’s cavity fighter and occurs naturally in water and some foods. To help protect teeth from cavities, fluoride is added to dental products ...

  6. Organic monolayers and fluoropolymer brushes : functionalization, stability and tribology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhairamadgi, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the adhesion and friction properties of densely grafted and covalently bound fluoropolymer brushes on silicon surfaces with varying thickness and fluorine content. A novel surface-functionalizing method is described using the thiol-yne click (TYC) reaction. The TYC reaction is

  7. Wetting phase diagrams of polyacid brush with a triple point.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercurieva, A.A.; Iakovlev, P.A.; Zhulina, E.B.; Birshtein, T.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The (pre)wetting behavior of an annealed polyelectrolyte (PE) brush by an electrolyte solution that is strongly segregated from an apolar phase is analyzed. In this complex interface, there are interactions on various length scales. There are short-range interactions with the (uncharged) surface,

  8. Clickable antifouling polymer brushes for polymer pen lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bog, U.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, S. L.; Havenridge, S.; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, M.; Holmes, A. E.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Fuchs, H.; Hirtz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 13 (2017), s. 12109-12117 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling * biofunctional interfaces * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  9. Self-organization of multivalent counterions in polyelectrolyte brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianzhong

    2013-03-01

    The structure and interfacial properties of a polyelectrolyte brush (PEB) depend on a broad range of parameters such as the polymer charge and grafting density, counterion valence, salt concentration, and solvent conditions. These properties are of fundamental importance in technological applications of PEBs including colloid stabilization, surface modification and lubrication, and in functioning of biological systems such as genome packaging in single-strand DNA/RNA viruses. Despite intensive studies by experiments, molecular simulations, and myriad analytical methods including scaling analyses, self-consistent-field theory, and most recently density functional theory, the behavior of PEBs in the presence of multivalent counterions remains poorly understood. In this talk, I will present a density functional method for polyelectrolyte brushes and discuss self-organization of multivalent counterions within highly charged polyelectrolyte brushes. The counterion-mediated attraction between polyions leads to a first-order phase transition similar to that for a neutral brush in a poor solvent. The self-organization of multivalent counterions results in a wavelike electrostatic potential and charge density that oscillate between positive and negative values.

  10. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on ...

  11. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  12. Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border. The northern border of Ecuador has been prone to conflict over the past several years. Security policy as applied in the area is based on the presumption that the northern border is homogeneous. In fact, however, the three provinces that make up the area - Esmeraldas, ...

  13. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  14. Briefing : the Eritrean-Ethiopian border dispute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    On 6 May 1998, a violent conflict erupted in the Ethiopian-Eritrean border area. This article contends that this border crisis is neither unexpected nor the result of a real border dispute. Rather, it is due to three factors: the particular history and relationship of the two insurgent movements

  15. Hydrologic Effects of Brush Management in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. R.; Slattery, R.

    2011-12-01

    Encroachment of woody vegetation into traditional savanna grassland ecosystems in central Texas has largely been attributed to land use practices of settlers, most notably overgrazing and fire suppression. Implementing brush management practices (removing the woody vegetation and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area), could potentially change the hydrology in a watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several local, State, and Federal cooperators, studied the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. Two adjacent watersheds of 104 and 159 hectares were used in a paired study. Rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration (Bowen ratio method), and water quality data were collected in both watersheds. Using a hydrologic mass balance approach, rainfall was allocated to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but estimated as the residual of the hydrologic mass balance. After hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for 3 years, approximately 80 percent of the woody vegetation (ashe juniper) was selectively removed from the 159 hectare watershed (treatment watershed). Brush management was not implemented in the other (reference) watershed. Hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for six years after brush management implementation. The resulting data were examined for differences in the hydrologic budget between the reference and treatment watersheds as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods to assess effects of the treatment. Preliminary results indicate there are differences in the hydrologic budget as well as water quality between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods.

  16. Clickable Antifouling Polymer Brushes for Polymer Pen Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bog, Uwe; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, Summer L; Havenridge, Shana; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, Michael; Holmes, Andrea E; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Fuchs, Harald; Hirtz, Michael

    2017-04-05

    Protein-repellent reactive surfaces that promote localized specific binding are highly desirable for applications in the biomedical field. Nonspecific adhesion will compromise the function of bioactive surfaces, leading to ambiguous results of binding assays and negating the binding specificity of patterned cell-adhesive motives. Localized specific binding is often achieved by attaching a linker to the surface, and the other side of the linker is used to bind specifically to a desired functional agent, as e.g. proteins, antibodies, and fluorophores, depending on the function required by the application. We present a protein-repellent polymer brush enabling highly specific covalent surface immobilization of biorecognition elements by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition click chemistry for selective protein adhesion. The protein-repellent polymer brush is functionalized by highly localized molecular binding sites in the low micrometer range using polymer pen lithography (PPL). Because of the massive parallelization of writing pens, the tunable PPL printed patterns can span over square centimeter areas. The selective binding of the protein streptavidin to these surface sites is demonstrated while the remaining polymer brush surface is resisting nonspecific adsorption without any prior blocking by bovine serum albumin (BSA). In contrast to the widely used BSA blocking, the reactive polymer brushes are able to significantly reduce nonspecific protein adsorption, which is the cause of biofouling. This was achieved for solutions of single proteins as well as complex biological fluids. The remarkable fouling resistance of the polymer brushes has the potential to improve the multiplexing capabilities of protein probes and therefore impact biomedical research and applications.

  17. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  18. The effect of brushing time and dentifrice on dental plaque removal in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeth, Jonathan E; Gallagher, Andrew; Sowinski, Joseph; Bowman, James; Barrett, Kathy; Lowe, Shirley; Patel, Kartik; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Routine toothbrushing is the principal method by which individuals remove plaque and control plaque-related diseases, such as periodontitis and caries. Oral health care professionals generally recommend at least 2 minutes brushing with an appropriate technique, and yet the average brushing time in the general population is closer to 45 seconds. Our understanding of the relationship between brushing time and plaque removal, in an untutored general population using a conventional manual toothbrush and dentifrice, is limited. The role of dentifrice in plaque removal is also unclear. This study was undertaken to measure plaque removal during untutored brushing over timed periods between 30 and 180 seconds with 1.5 g dentifrice, using an Aquafresh Flex brush and Aquafresh Advanced dentifrice. Plaque removal after brushing without dentifrice was also determined (at the 60 second time point only). Forty-seven subjects participated in the study, in which plaque level was assessed using the Quigley-Hein (Turesky-modification) Index. Plaque removal increased with brushing time across the range studied, tending towards a maximum at longer brushing times. At the extremes, brushing for 180 seconds removed 55% more plaque than brushing for 30 seconds. Brushing for 120 seconds removed 26% more plaque than brushing for 45 seconds. The use of dentifrice did not increase plaque removal during 60 seconds of brushing. Oral health care professionals should reinforce efforts to persuade patients to brush for longer periods of time, as increasing brushing time to the consensus minimum of 2 minutes from a more typical 45 seconds increases plaque removal to an extent likely to provide clinically significant oral health benefits.

  19. Buried, Covalently Attached RGD Peptide Motifs in Poly(methacryllic) Brush Layers; The Effect of Brush Structure on Cell Adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, Melba; Benetti, Edmondo Maria; Zapotoczny, S.J.; Planell, Josep A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2008-01-01

    Iniferter-mediated surface-initiated photopolymerization was used to graft poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brush layers obtained from surface-attached iniferters in self-assembled monolayers to a gold surface. The tethered chains were subsequently functionalized with the cell-adhesive

  20. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...... elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration....

  1. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  2. Proteomic profiling of the effect of metabolic acidosis on the apical membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Scott J.; Freund, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological response to the onset of metabolic acidosis requires pronounced changes in renal gene expression. Adaptations within the proximal convoluted tubule support the increased extraction of plasma glutamine and the increased synthesis and transport of glucose and of NH4+ and HCO3− ions. Many of these adaptations involve proteins associated with the apical membrane. To quantify the temporal changes in these proteins, proteomic profiling was performed using brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from proximal convoluted tubules (BBMVPCT) that were purified from normal and acidotic rats. This preparation is essentially free of contaminating apical membranes from other renal cortical cells. The analysis identified 298 proteins, 26% of which contained one or more transmembrane domains. Spectral counts were used to assess changes in protein abundance. The onset of acidosis produced a twofold, but transient, increase in the Na+-dependent glucose transporter and a more gradual, but sustained, increase (3-fold) in the Na+-dependent lactate transporter. These changes were associated with the loss of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes that are contained in the BBMVPCT isolated from normal rats. In addition, the levels of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase increased twofold, while transporters that participate in the uptake of neutral amino acids, including glutamine, were decreased. These changes could facilitate the deamidation of glutamine within the tubular lumen. Finally, pronounced increases were also observed in the levels of DAB2 (3-fold) and myosin 9 (7-fold), proteins that may participate in endocytosis of apical membrane proteins. Western blot analysis and accurate mass and time analyses were used to validate the spectral counting. PMID:22357915

  3. Improved surface property of PVDF membrane with amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer as membrane additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hua; Li, Mi-Zi; Miao, Jing; Wang, Jia-Bin; Shao, Xi-Sheng; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2012-06-01

    An attempt to improve hydrophilicity and anti-fouling properties of PVDF membranes, a novel amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PVDF-g-PSBMA) was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as amphiphilic copolymer additive in the preparation of PVDF membranes. The PVDF-g-PSBMA/PVDF blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. Fourier transform infrared attenuated reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that PSBMA brushes from amphiphilic additives were preferentially segregated to membrane-coagulant interface during membrane formation. The morphology of membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water contact angle measurements showed that the surface hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes was improved significantly with the increasing of amphiphilic copolymer PVDF-g-PSBMA in cast solution. Protein static adsorption experiment and dynamic fouling resistance experiment revealed that the surface enrichment of PSBMA brush endowed PVDF blend membrane great improvement of surface anti-fouling ability.

  4. Border malaria in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Liu, H

    1997-09-01

    Yunnan Province, due its international borders with Myanmar, Vietnam and Lao PDR has a large number of imported cases of malaria, including a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum, as a result of the mobility of the population. This movement is due to workers coming from other provinces where there is no malaria to work in the productive tropical lowlands. Chinese nationals who have gone to work in neighboring countries, border trade and refugees from Myanmar. Much of Yunnan is peopled by ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous and forested areas which are difficult to reach. However, surveillance has been strengthened by training 3,900 primary health care workers and combining the search for visiting foreigners, returning Chinese and people from other provinces with public security, customs formalities and employers. Any visitor detected by these services is obliged to have a blood slide taken. This has resulted in an earlier and more complete detection of malaria cases, reducing incidence from 19.19 to 12.12/10,000 in the border area over the last 10 years. This is despite a considerable increase in population movement and the threat of drug resistant malaria.

  5. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2013-11-01

    The packing density of anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined here using four different graphite fiber brush anode configurations. The impact of anodes on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected in parallel, and the wire current collector gage. MFCs with different numbers of brushes (one, three or six) set perpendicular to the cathode all produced similar power densities (1200±40mW/m2) and coulombic efficiencies (60%±5%). Reducing the number of brushes by either disconnecting or removing them reduced power, demonstrating the importance of anode projected area covering the cathode, and therefore the need to match electrode projected areas to maintain high performance. Multi-brush reactors had the same COD removal as single-brush systems (90%). The use of smaller Ti wire gages did not affect power generation, which will enable the use of less metal, reducing material costs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. On-demand degrafting of polymer brushes prepared by controlled radical polymerization on flat silica substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rohan; Srogl, Jiri; Kiserow, Douglas; Genzer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Polymer brush degrafting refers to the removal of grafted polymer chains from the substrate without harming the polymer chemical structure. We grow poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes on flat silicon substrates using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and remove them from the surface by exposing the samples to tetrabutyl ammonium fluoride. We then analyze the polymer molecular weight of degrafted PMMA chains by size exclusion chromatography. The kinetics of PMMA brush degrafting exhibits double exponential behavior suggesting a transition from `brush' to `mushroom' regime. The dry brush thickness increases initially with increasing polymerization time. At longer reaction times, the thickness starts to plateau due to loss in the living nature of ATRP. We examine the relationship between the brush dry thickness and molecular weight and show that grafting density of the PMMA brush does not remain constant over the course of polymerization but reduces with time.

  7. A SURVEY OF INDOOR AIR CONTAMINATES USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in indoor areas in approximately 50 residences along the border between Arizona and Mexico to measure airborne contaminants. The results of the primary analyses and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation for org...

  8. Tooth brushing frequency and risk of new carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard D

    2016-12-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Embase, CINHAL and the Cochrane databases.Study selectionTwo reviewers selected studies, and case-control, prospective cohort, retrospective cohort and experimental trials evaluating the effect of toothbrushing frequency on the incidence or increment of new carious lesions were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers undertook data abstraction independently using pre-piloted forms. Study quality was assessed using a quality assessment tool for quantitative studies developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). Meta-analysis of caries outcomes was carried out using RefMan and meta-regressions undertaken to assess the influence of sample size, follow-up period, caries diagnosis level and study methodological quality.ResultsThirty-three studies were included of which 13 were considered to be methodologically strong, 14 moderate and six weak. Twenty-five studies contributed to the quantitative analysis. Compared with frequent brushers, self-reported infrequent brushers demonstrated a higher incidence of carious lesions, OR=1.50 (95%CI: 1.34 -1.69). The odds of having carious lesions differed little when subgroup analysis was conducted to compare the incidence between ≥2 times/d vs Brushing brushing, standardised mean difference [SMD] =0.34; (95%CI; 0.18 - 0.49). Overall, infrequent brushing was associated with an increment of carious lesions, SMD= 0.28; (95%CI; 0.13 - 0.44). Meta-analysis conducted with the type of dentition as subgroups found the effect of infrequent brushing on incidence and increment of carious lesions was higher in deciduous, OR=1.75; (95%CI; 1.49 - 2.06) than permanent dentition OR=1.39; (95% CI: 1.29 -1.49). Meta-regression indicated that none of the included variables influenced the effect estimate.ConclusionsIndividuals who state that they brush their teeth infrequently are at greater risk for the incidence or increment of new carious lesions than those brushing more frequently. The

  9. Early response of ponderosa pine to spacing and brush: observations on a 12-year-old plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1979-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) was planted at five different spacings, from 6 by 6 to 18 by 18 feet, on a productive site in northern California. Spacing and brush effects on tree growth were evaluated both on plots where brush was allowed to develop and on plots kept free of brush. Competition between trees in brush-free plots began during...

  10. A randomized clinical trial evaluating gingivitis and plaque reduction of an oscillating-rotating power brush with a new brush head with angled bristles versus a marketed sonic brush with self-adjusting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Grender, Julie M; Conde, Erinn; Ccahuana-Vasquez, Renzo Alberto; Ram Goyal, C

    2014-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of an oscillating-rotating power toothbrush with a novel brush head incorporating angled CrissCross bristles (Oral-B Pro 7000 SmartSeries and Oral-B CrossAction brush head) versus a marketed sonic toothbrush (Colgate ProClinical A1500 with the Triple Clean brush head) in the reduction of gingivitis and plaque over a 6-week period. This was a single center, randomized, open label, examiner-blind, 2-treatment, parallel group study. Study participants who met the entrance criteria were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of the two toothbrush groups. Study participants brushed with their assigned toothbrush and a marketed fluoride dentifrice for 2 minutes twice daily at home for 6 weeks. Gingivitis and plaque were evaluated at baseline and Week 6. Gingivitis was assessed using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and plaque was assessed using the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Data was analyzed using the ANCOVA with baseline as the covariate. In total, 130 study participants were randomized to treatment resulting in 64 study participants per group completing the study. Both brushes produced statistically significant (P gingivitis and plaque measures relative to baseline. The oscillating-rotating,brush with the novel brush head demonstrated statistically significantly (P gingivitis measures, as well as whole mouth and interproximal plaque measures, compared to the sonic toothbrush. The benefit for the oscillating- rotating brush over the sonic brush was 21.3% for gingivitis, 35.7% for gingival bleeding, 34.7% for number of bleeding sites, 17.4% for whole mouth plaque, and 21.2% for interproximal plaque. There were no adverse events reported or observed for either brush.

  11. Secretion of a precursor form of lysosomal alpha-glucosidase from the brush border of human kidney proximal tubule cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, J.; Oude Elferink, R.P.; Fransen, J.A.; Ginsel, L.A.; Tager, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have shown previously (R.P.J. Oude Elferink, E.M. Brouwer-Kelder, I. Surya, A. Strijland, M. Kroos, A.J.J. Reuser, J.M. Tager, Eur. J. Biochem. 139, 489-495 (1984)) that human urine contains considerable amounts of a precursor form of lysosomal alpha-glucosidase (about 50% of the total

  12. Dietary cholesterol induces trafficking of intestinal Niemann-Pick Type C1 Like 1 from the brush border to endosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne; Tønnesen, Carina K; Hansen, Gert H

    2011-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) belongs to the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) family of cholesterol transporters and is mainly expressed in the liver and the small intestine. NPC1L1 is believed to be the main transporter responsible for the absorption of dietary cholesterol. Like...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF A BRUSH BORDER FERRIREDUCTASE IN LOBSTER HEPATOPANCREATIC EPITHELIAL CELLS AND ITS POSSIBLE ROLE IN IRON TRANSPORT. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Brush reduces growth of thinned ponderosa pine in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1984-01-01

    The effects of tree spacing and brush competition were evaluated on a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa) site of low productivity in California's North Coast Range. Eleven-year-old saplings were thinned to square spacings of 2.1, 2.4, 3.0, and 4.3 m (7, 8, 10, and 14 ft), and all, half, and none of...

  15. Assessment of Pain Response in Capsaicin-Induced Dynamic Mechanical Allodynia Using a Novel and Fully Automated Brushing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian G du Jardin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dynamic mechanical allodynia is traditionally induced by manual brushing of the skin. Brushing force and speed have been shown to influence the intensity of brush-evoked pain. There are still limited data available with respect to the optimal stroke number, length, force, angle and speed. Therefore, an automated brushing device (ABD was developed, for which brushing angle and speed could be controlled to enable quantitative assessment of dynamic mechanical allodynia.

  16. A Comparison of C-Shaped and Brush Armature Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Barbara; Alouahabi, Farid; Simicic, Dejan; Schneider, Markus; Hoffman, Ryan

    2017-07-01

    The most important part of a railgun launch package is the armature where the electromagnetic force is generated leading to the acceleration of the launch package. In case of metal armatures, the most commonly used armature types are the C-shape and the multi-fiber brush technology. However, rarely both armature types were systematically compared under similar experimental conditions. That is why we constructed launch packages based on the C-shaped and brush armature technology with comparable armature and payload mass. With these launch packages a series of experiments were performed in an energy range between 0.8 MJ and 1.13 MJ corresponding to a speed range between 950 m/s and 1400 m/s. The results of the experiments were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. On the one hand our results show that the total losses are higher for the C-shaped armature technology than for the brush aramture technology. On the other hand our results show that launch packages based on the C-shaped technology convert better electrical energy into kinetic energy.

  17. How pre-school children learn to brush their teeth in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadri, F A; Gopinath, V K; Hector, M P; Davenport, E S

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess tooth brushing habits of pre-school children and to determine the role and amount of supervision given to them by their parents. One hundred pre-school children below 6 years were selected from Maternal and Child Health Center, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates, UAE). A standard piloted questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic details and information on oral hygiene practise. Tooth brushing was stared at a mean age of 16 months. Thirty-seven per cent of the pre-schoolers used a toothbrush for cleaning their teeth and the brushing habits were mainly (70%) introduced by mothers. The majority (80%) of children's tooth brushing at the age of 3 years and above was supervised by mothers. Younger children were frequently supervised in tooth brushing than older children (P brushing at a mean age of 16 months. Mothers played a pivotal role in introducing and teaching the child how to brush. There was no positive correlation between the brushing behaviour of the mothers and their children. In most cases, the children's brushing was supervised by their mother when they were above 25 months of age. In children less than 12 months of age tooth brushing was not started at all.

  18. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  19. Boundary lubrication by brushed salivary conditioning films and their degree of glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeregowda, Deepak H; van der Mei, Henny C; de Vries, Joop; Rutland, Mark W; Valle-Delgado, Juan J; Sharma, Prashant K; Busscher, Henk J

    2012-10-01

    Toothbrushing, though aimed at biofilm removal, also affects the lubricative function of adsorbed salivary conditioning films (SCFs). Different modes of brushing (manual, powered, rotary-oscillatory or sonically driven) influence the SCF in different ways. Our objectives were to compare boundary lubrication of SCFs after different modes of brushing and to explain their lubrication on the basis of their roughness, dehydrated layer thickness, and degree of glycosylation. A pilot study was performed to relate in vitro lubrication with mouthfeel in human volunteers. Coefficient of friction (COF) on 16-h-old SCFs after manual, rotary-oscillatory, and sonically driven brushing was measured using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM was also used to assess the roughness of SCFs prior to and after brushing. Dehydrated layer thicknesses and glycosylation of the SCFs were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mouthfeel after manual and both modes of powered brushing were evaluated employing a split-mouth design. Compared with unbrushed and manually or sonically driven brushed SCFs, powered rotary-oscillatory brushing leads to deglycosylation of the SCF, loss of thickness, and a rougher film. Concurrently, the COF of a powered rotary-oscillatory brushed SCF increased. Volunteers reported a slightly preferred mouthfeel after sonic brushing as compared to powered rotating-oscillating brushing. Deglycosylation and roughness increase the COF on SCFs. Powered rotary-oscillatory brushing can deglycosylate a SCF, leading to a rougher film surface as compared with manual and sonic brushing, decreasing the lubricative function of the SCF. This is consistent with clinical mouthfeel evaluation after different modes of brushing.

  20. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  1. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  2. Discriminatory bio-adhesion over nano-patterned polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Saugata

    Surfaces functionalized with bio-molecular targeting agents are conventionally used for highly-specific protein and cell adhesion. This thesis explores an alternative approach: Small non-biological adhesive elements are placed on a surface randomly, with the rest of the surface rendered repulsive towards biomolecules and cells. While the adhesive elements themselves, for instance in solution, typically exhibit no selectivity for various compounds within an analyte suspension, selective adhesion of targeted objects or molecules results from their placement on the repulsive surface. The mechanism of selectivity relies on recognition of length scales of the surface distribution of adhesive elements relative to species in the analyte solution, along with the competition between attractions and repulsions between various species in the suspension and different parts of the collecting surface. The resulting binding selectivity can be exquisitely sharp; however, complex mixtures generally require the use of multiple surfaces to isolate the various species: Different components will be adhered, sharply, with changes in collector composition. The key feature of these surface designs is their lack of reliance on biomolecular fragments for specificity, focusing entirely on physicochemical principles at the lengthscales from 1 - 100 nm. This, along with a lack of formal patterning, provides the advantages of simplicity and cost effectiveness. This PhD thesis demonstrates these principles using a system in which cationic poly-L-lysine (PLL) patches (10 nm) are deposited randomly on a silica substrate and the remaining surface is passivated with a bio-compatible PEG brush. TIRF microscopy revealed that the patches were randomly arranged, not clustered. By precisely controlling the number of patches per unit area, the interfaces provide sharp selectivity for adhesion of proteins and bacterial cells. For instance, it was found that a critical density of patches (on the order of

  3. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  4. The Art and Science of Polymer Brushes: Recent Developments in Patterning and Characterization Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Guido

    2017-06-28

    Polymer brushes are dense arrays of macromolecular chains tethered by one end at a surface. They are at the cutting edge of polymer nanotechnology since the dawn of controlled surface-initiated polymerization techniques unlocked new prospects for the synthesis of polymer brushes with tailorable properties. More recently, thanks to the growing interest in the use of brushes for the generation of functional surfaces, the need for advanced patterning and characterization approaches rapidly increased. Meeting these needs requires the contribution of experts from different disciplines: polymer chemistry, surface science, electrochemistry and particle physics. The focus of this review is to highlight recent developments in the field of polymer brushes, specifically the application of photocatalytic lithography as a versatile patterning strategy, the study of grafted-from polymer brushes by electrochemical methods and, most importantly, the introduction of positron annihilation spectroscopy as a powerful technique for the investigation of the structure of polymer brushes and of their composites with nanoparticles.

  5. Brushing abrasion of dentin: effect of diluent and dilution rate of toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Messias, Danielle C F; Hara, Anderson Takeo; Hughes, Nathan; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2010-10-01

    To determine whether toothpaste diluent type and dilution rate influence abrasion of dentin. Slabs of human root dentin (4 x 3 x 2 mm) were embedded in epoxy resin, ground and polished. Adhesive tape was placed on the specimen's surface leaving an exposed central area of 1 x 4 mm. Specimens (n = 15) were then brushed for 1,000 strokes in a reciprocal action brushing simulator using toothpaste that had been diluted in a carboxymethylcellulose-based artificial saliva (CMC) or deionized water (DW) from 1:1 to 1:4 (toothpaste:diluents, in weight). Control groups were brushed with undiluted toothpaste, CMC-based saliva or DW only. Brushing simulation was run at 300 g load at 37 degrees C. After brushing, adhesive tape was removed and wear analyzed by optical profilometry. One-way ANOVA (P diluent. Brushing with CMC- or DW-only caused the least abrasion.

  6. Interoperability at the Border: Coordinated Border Management Best Practices & Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank

    2010-01-01

    Interoperability among government agencies at national borders, also known as coordinated border management (CBM), is a fundamental component of a nation's modernized customs and border control strategy. It comprises the streamlining of parallel processes and technologies enabling different government agencies to effectively work together on border issues. By 4 implementing CBM strategies at both the domestic and international levels, countries can reduce internal costs and inefficiencies, im...

  7. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  8. Improved antifouling properties of polymer membranes using a ‘layer-by-layer’ mediated method

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric reverse osmosis membranes were modified with antifouling polymer brushes through a \\'layer by layer\\' (LBL) mediated method. Based on pure physical electrostatic interaction, the attachment of LBL films did not alter separation performance of the membranes. In addition, the incorporation of an LBL film also helped to amplify the number of potential reaction sites on the membrane surfaces for attachment of antifouling polymer brushes, which were then attached to the surface. Attachment of the brushes included two different approaches, grafting to and grafting from. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements showed successful growth of the LBL films and subsequently the polymer brushes. Using this method to modify reverse osmosis membranes, preliminary performance testing showed the antifouling properties of the as-modified membranes were much better than the virgin membrane with no significant loss in water flux and salt rejection. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  10. Simulation and modelling of slip flow over surfaces grafted with polymer brushes and glycocalyx fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Mingge; Li, Xuejin; Liang, Haojun; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of functionalized surfaces using polymer brushes is a relatively simple process and parallels the presence of glycocalyx filaments coating the luminal surface of our vasculature. In this paper, we perform atomistic-like simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to study both polymer brushes and glycocalyx filaments subject to shear flow, and we apply mean-field theory to extract useful scaling arguments on their response. For polymer brushes, a weak shear flow has n...

  11. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C. Azodo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on consumption of snacks. Results: A total of 242 students responded. Dental technology students made up 52.5% of the respondents and dental therapist in training made up 47.5%. Majority (63.2% of the respondents considered the strength of tooth brush when purchasing a tooth brush and 78.9% use tooth brushes with medium strength. Seven-tenth (71.9% of the respondents brush their teeth twice daily and 52.1% brush for 3–5 minutes. About one-third (30.2% brush their teeth in front of a mirror. Chewing stick was used by 51.7% of respondents in addition to the use of tooth brush. Tongue cleaning was done by 94.2% with only 9.5% using a tongue cleaner. Only 20.2% reported regular snacks consumption. Nine-tenth (90.4% of respondents were previously involved in educating others, apart from their colleagues, on tooth brushing. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the dental therapy and technology students had satisfactory tooth-brushing behaviour. The zeal to educate others about proper tooth brushing revealed in this study suggests that the students may be helpful in oral health promotion.

  12. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina C; Oliveira, Maria J; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M

    2011-09-03

    Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months) from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75). There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p brushed their teeth alone (33.8%) and those who did not rinse their mouths during brushing (42.0%) were higher than those reported by the mothers (12.1%, 18.9% and 6.5%, respectively; p brushing and mothers' reports. Moreover, the different methods of estimation resulted in differences in the frequencies of tooth brushing habits, indicative of reporting bias. Data regarding children's tooth-brushing habits as reported by mothers should be considered with caution in epidemiological surveys on fluoridated dentifrice use and the risk of dental fluorosis.

  13. An Experimental-Theoretical Analysis of Protein Adsorption on Peptidomimetic Polymer Brushes

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, K. H. Aaron; Ren, Chunlai; Park, Sung Hyun; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2011-01-01

    Surface-grafted water soluble polymer brushes are being intensely investigated for preventing protein adsorption to improve biomedical device function, prevent marine fouling, and enable applications in biosensing and tissue engineering. In this contribution, we present an experimental-theoretical analysis of a peptidomimetic polymer brush system with regard to the critical brush density required for preventing protein adsorption at varying chain lengths. A mussel adhesive-inspired DOPA-Lys p...

  14. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O; Umoh, Agnes; Ojehanon, Patrick I; Akhionbare, Osagie; Okechukwu, Robinson; Igbinosa, Lawrence

    2010-08-12

    To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on consumption of snacks. A total of 242 students responded. Dental technology students made up 52.5% of the respondents and dental therapist in training made up 47.5%. Majority (63.2%) of the respondents considered the strength of tooth brush when purchasing a tooth brush and 78.9% use tooth brushes with medium strength. Seven-tenth (71.9%) of the respondents brush their teeth twice daily and 52.1% brush for 3-5 minutes. About one-third (30.2%) brush their teeth in front of a mirror. Chewing stick was used by 51.7% of respondents in addition to the use of tooth brush. Tongue cleaning was done by 94.2% with only 9.5% using a tongue cleaner. Only 20.2% reported regular snacks consumption. Nine-tenth (90.4%) of respondents were previously involved in educating others, apart from their colleagues, on tooth brushing. This survey revealed that most of the dental therapy and technology students had satisfactory tooth-brushing behaviour. The zeal to educate others about proper tooth brushing revealed in this study suggests that the students may be helpful in oral health promotion.

  15. Analysis of carbon fiber brush loading in anodes on startup and performance of microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Adam J.

    2011-11-01

    Flat carbon anodes placed near a cathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) are adversely affected by oxygen crossover, but graphite fiber brush anodes placed near the cathode produce high power densities. The impact of the brush size and electrode spacing was examined by varying the distance of the brush end from the cathode and solution conductivity in multiple MFCs. The startup time was increased from 8 ± 1 days with full brushes (all buffer concentrations) to 13 days (50 mM), 14 days (25 mM) and 21 days (8 mM) when 75% of the brush anode was removed. When MFCs were all first acclimated with a full brush, up to 65% of the brush material could be removed without appreciably altering maximum power. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the main source of internal resistance (IR) was diffusion resistance, which together with solution resistance reached 100 Ω. The IR using EIS compared well with that obtained using the polarization data slope method, indicating no major components of IR were missed. These results show that using full brush anodes avoids adverse effects of oxygen crossover during startup, although brushes are much larger than needed to sustain high power. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Behavioral determinants of brushing young children's teeth: implications for anticipatory guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Colleen E; Riedy, Christine A

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify parents' motivation, support, and barriers to twice daily tooth-brushing of infants and preschool-age children and to discover new approaches to encourage this important health behavior. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 44 rural parents about tooth-brushing habits and experiences. Forty of 44 parents reported that they had begun to brush their child's teeth; 24 (55%) reported brushing twice a day or more. Parents who brushed twice a day, vs less often, were more likely to describe specific skills to overcome barriers; they expressed high self-efficacy and held high self-standards for brushing. Parents who brushed their children's teeth less than twice daily were more likely to: hold false beliefs about the benefits of twice daily tooth-brushing; report little normative pressure or social support for the behavior; have lower self-standards; describe more external constraints; and offer fewer ideas to overcome barriers. The findings support an integrative framework in which barriers and support for parents' twice daily brushing of their young children's teeth are multiple and vary among individuals. Knowledge of behavioral determinants specific to individual parents could strengthen anticipatory guidance and recommendations about at-home oral hygiene of young children.

  17. Behavioral Determinants of Brushing Young Children's Teeth: Implications for Anticipatory Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Colleen E.; Riedy, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to identify parents' motivation, support, and barriers to twice daily tooth-brushing of infants and preschool-age children and to discover new approaches to encourage this important health behavior. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 44 rural parents about tooth-brushing habits and experiences. Results Forty of 44 parents reported that they had begun to brush their child's teeth; 24 (55%) reported brushing twice a day or more. Parents who brushed twice a day, vs less often, were more likely to describe specific skills to overcome barriers; they expressed high self-efficacy and held high self-standards for brushing. Parents who brushed their children's teeth less than twice daily were more likely to: hold false beliefs about the benefits of twice daily tooth-brushing; report little normative pressure or social support for the behavior; have lower self-standards; describe more external constraints; and offer fewer ideas to overcome barriers. Conclusions The findings support an integrative framework in which barriers and support for parents' twice daily brushing of their young children's teeth are multiple and vary among individuals. Knowledge of behavioral determinants specific to individual parents could strengthen anticipatory guidance and recommendations about at-home oral hygiene of young children. PMID:20298653

  18. An experimental-theoretical analysis of protein adsorption on peptidomimetic polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K H Aaron; Ren, Chunlai; Park, Sung Hyun; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2012-01-31

    Surface-grafted water-soluble polymer brushes are being intensely investigated for preventing protein adsorption to improve biomedical device function, prevent marine fouling, and enable applications in biosensing and tissue engineering. In this contribution, we present an experimental-theoretical analysis of a peptidomimetic polymer brush system with regard to the critical brush density required for preventing protein adsorption at varying chain lengths. A mussel adhesive-inspired DOPA-Lys (DOPA = 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine; Lys = lysine) pentapeptide surface grafting motif enabled aqueous deposition of our peptidomimetic polypeptoid brushes over a wide range of chain densities. Critical densities of 0.88 nm(-2) for a relatively short polypeptoid 10-mer to 0.42 nm(-2) for a 50-mer were identified from measurements of protein adsorption. The experiments were also compared with the protein adsorption isotherms predicted by a molecular theory. Excellent agreements in terms of both the polymer brush structure and the critical chain density were obtained. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging is shown to be useful in verifying the critical brush density for preventing protein adsorption. The present coanalysis of experimental and theoretical results demonstrates the significance of characterizing the critical brush density in evaluating the performance of an antifouling polymer brush system. The high fidelity of the agreement between the experiments and molecular theory also indicate that the theoretical approach presented can aid in the practical design of antifouling polymer brush systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Oral hygiene management of autistic population -an investigation of their tooth brushing-

    OpenAIRE

    田邊, 義浩; 石倉, 優香; 野田, 忠; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Ishikura, Yuuka; Noda, Tadashi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the factors influencing on tooth brushing of autistic population. The subjects were 17 utistic patients who commuted to a welfare institution in Niigata city, aged from 16 to 27 years old. The parents of the subjects were asked to answer a questionnaire about the way of tooth brushing in their family life. The subjects were tested for their understanding about the mean of tooth brushing by some series of picture cards of oral health, tooth brushing and de...

  20. Contaminated tooth brushes-potential threat to oral and general health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rashmi; Ahmed Mujib, B R; Telagi, Neethu; Anil, B S; Spoorthi, B R

    2015-01-01

    Tooth brushing is most common method of maintaining oral hygiene. In removing plaque and other soft debris from the teeth, tooth brushes become contaminated with bacteria, blood, saliva and oral debris. These contaminated tooth brushes can be a source of infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of microorganisms in the tooth brushes and to investigate the effect of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and water to decontaminate them. Twenty-one children were asked to brush their teeth for 5 days with a tooth brush. The tooth brushes were put in Robertson's Cooked Meat broth and were observed for growth of Streptococcal microorganisms. These tooth brushes were then placed in disinfectants such as 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (Group I), 1% sodium hypochlorite (Group II) and water (Group III) for 24 hrs and then cultured again. Reduction of growth of microorganisms was seen in Group I, Group II and remnants of growth seen in Group III. We conclude that the use of disinfectant for a tooth brush is a must for every individual at least at regular intervals.

  1. Contaminated tooth brushes-potential threat to oral and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Naik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth brushing is most common method of maintaining oral hygiene. In removing plaque and other soft debris from the teeth, tooth brushes become contaminated with bacteria, blood, saliva and oral debris. These contaminated tooth brushes can be a source of infection. Aims and objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of microorganisms in the tooth brushes and to investigate the effect of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and water to decontaminate them. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one children were asked to brush their teeth for 5 days with a tooth brush. The tooth brushes were put in Robertson′s Cooked Meat broth and were observed for growth of Streptococcal microorganisms. These tooth brushes were then placed in disinfectants such as 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (Group I, 1% sodium hypochlorite (Group II and water (Group III for 24 hrs and then cultured again. Reduction of growth of microorganisms was seen in Group I, Group II and remnants of growth seen in Group III. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of disinfectant for a tooth brush is a must for every individual at least at regular intervals.

  2. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  3. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  4. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  5. Efficacy of oral brush biopsy in potentially malignant disorder management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, M L; Smith, D R; Thomson, P J

    2017-11-01

    Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD) harbour unpredictable risk for squamous cell carcinoma development. Current management requires tissue biopsy for histopathology characterisation, dysplasia grading and targeted intervention to "high-risk" lesions, although evidence-based guidelines are limited and diagnoses subjective. This study investigated the use of adjunctive oral brush biopsy techniques during the management of PMD in a UK hospital population. Retrospective review of a 310 PMD patient cohort presenting to Maxillofacial Surgery in Newcastle upon Tyne with new, single-site lesions between December 2009 and May 2014. Patients underwent Orcellex® brush biopsy and liquid-based cytology examination in addition to conventional biopsy techniques, with management proceeding along established care pathways. Patient demographics, cytology data, most significant histopathology diagnoses and clinical outcome were all documented at the study census date (31.12.15). A total of 170 male & 140 female patients (age range 18-91 years), exhibiting primarily leukoplakia (86.5%) at floor of mouth and ventrolateral tongue sites (44.9%), were identified. Management comprised: observation (49.7%), laser surgery (44.9%), antifungal treatment (3.5%) and Head & Neck clinic referral following cancer diagnosis (1.9%). Clinical outcomes were as follows: disease free (51.3%), persistent PMD (42.3%) and malignant transformation (6.4%). Histology and cytology diagnoses strongly correlated (r = .305). Treatment modality, lesion site, histology and cytology diagnoses were the best predictors of clinical outcome. Orcellex® brush cytology provides reliable diagnoses consistent with conventional histopathology and offers less invasive, adjunctive assessment appropriate for long-term monitoring of patients in specialist clinics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Modified Tactile Brush Algorithm for Complex Touch Gestures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, Eric [Texas A& M University

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.

  7. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  8. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  9. Plaque-removing efficacy of new and used manual toothbrushes--a professional brushing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, N A M; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Versteeg, P A; van Palenstein Helderman, W H; van der Velden, U; van der Weijden, G A

    2013-11-01

    The present study assessed whether 3-month-old used manual toothbrushes are less effective in reducing plaque scores compared with new toothbrushes with or without the use of dentifrice. The present study was performed employing a single-use, examiner-blinded, professional brushing model. Four brushing modalities were randomly allocated to one of four quadrants, that is, 3-month-old used toothbrushes and new toothbrushes both with and without the use of dentifrice. Prebrushing and post-brushing plaque scores (Quigley Hein plaque index) and gingival abrasion (GA) scores were obtained. A dental hygienist performed the professional brushing procedure. The 3-month-old used toothbrushes were assessed for wear. No significant differences were observed among the treatments with regard to the prebrushing scores. The post-brushing plaque scores ranged from 1.59 for the new brush with dentifrice to 1.76 for the old brush with dentifrice. There was a significant difference (P = 0.036) among the four treatments regarding the old brush with dentifrice, which removed less plaque than the other treatment modalities. Regarding GA scores, no significant differences were observed. With regard to toothbrush wear after 3 months of use, the scores varied widely among the individually evaluated brushes. The present study did not show a clinically relevant difference in plaque score reductions following a 2-minute brushing exercise among 3-month-old used and new manual toothbrushes. However, the wear rate of the brushes seemed to be the determining factor in loss of efficacy, rather than the age of the toothbrush. Furthermore, dentifrice did not show an additional effect on instant plaque removal. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Brushing force of manual and sonic toothbrushes affects dental hard tissue abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Burkhard, John Patrik Matthias; Eggmann, Florin; Attin, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the brushing forces applied during in vivo toothbrushing with manual and sonic toothbrushes and to analyse the effect of these brushing forces on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel and dentin in vitro. Brushing forces of a manual and two sonic toothbrushes (low and high frequency mode) were measured in 27 adults before and after instruction of the respective brushing technique and statistically analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the in vitro experiment, sound and eroded enamel and dentin specimens (each subgroup n = 12) were brushed in an automatic brushing machine with the respective brushing forces using a fluoridated toothpaste slurry. Abrasion was determined by profilometry and statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA. Average brushing force of the manual toothbrush (1.6 ± 0.3 N) was significantly higher than for the sonic toothbrushes (0.9 ± 0.2 N), which were not significantly different from each other. Brushing force prior and after instruction of the brushing technique was not significantly different. The manual toothbrush caused highest abrasion of sound and eroded dentin, but lowest on sound enamel. No significant differences were detected on eroded enamel. Brushing forces of manual and sonic toothbrushes are different and affect their abrasive capacity. Patients with severe tooth wear and exposed and/or eroded dentin surfaces should use sonic toothbrushes to reduce abrasion, while patients without tooth wear or with erosive lesions confining only to enamel do not benefit from sonic toothbrushes with regard to abrasion.

  11. Efficacy of straight versus angled interdental brushes on interproximal tooth cleaning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R A; Hong, H M; Lucaciu, A; Zimmer, S

    2014-05-01

    To investigate interproximal biofilm reduction with an angled interdental brush as compared to a straight interdental brush (standard control) in a clinical, single-centre, single-blind, controlled, parallel-group trial. Recruitment and examinations of the subjects were performed at the Witten/Herdecke University School of Dental Medicine. 128 volunteers, aged 20-65 years, were recruited and stratified according to sex and age. Two groups with 64 subjects each used either straight (standard control) or angled (test group) handgripped interdental toothbrushes of the same bristle stiffness. After a 12-day home-care habituation period, participants received a professional tooth cleaning followed by a 48-h plaque regrowth period. At the intervention appointment, plaque was recorded with a fluorescent revelator and soft tissue damage was noted (T0 ). Interdental brushing was performed by the participant for 2 min, and clinical parameters were recorded again (T1 ). The primary efficacy end point was the difference in modified Proximal Plaque Index (mPPI) after brushing compared to baseline. Secondary efficacy end points were mPPI differences in subgroups (anterior vs. posterior teeth; vestibular vs. oral tooth surfaces). Safety end point was the Danser gingival abrasion index (DI). mPPI showed lower scores after brushing within all (sub)groups (P brushing efficacy (ΔT0  - T1 ) in subjects using straight interdental brushes was significantly higher as compared to angled interdental brushes (P brushes were significantly more effective in posterior teeth, when used from vestibular and from oral tooth surfaces (P teeth and concerning soft tissue damage. Straight interdental brushes may better remove plaque interproximally when compared to angled interdental brushes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tooth brushing motion patterns with manual and powered toothbrushes-a randomised video observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganss, C; Duran, R; Winterfeld, T; Schlueter, N

    2018-03-01

    Systematic reviews have shown that powered toothbrushes (PTs) are more effective than manual toothbrushes (MTs), but with only minor effect sizes. Whether PTs are used adequately, however, has not been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was therefore to analyse motion habits with PT in comparison to MT toothbrushes by video observation. One hundred subjects were enrolled in this observational trial and brushed their teeth in randomised order with a MT and PT while being video-filmed, resulting in 95 analysable sets of recordings. Parameters of interest were brushing duration (s; median (min;max)), type of brushing strokes, area of brushing, changes between areas (n; median (min;max)) and brushing sequence. Brushing duration was 145 s (60;354) and 135 s (48;271) for PT and MT, respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Subjects brushed vestibular surfaces completely, but reached oral surfaces to a much lesser extent, regardless of the toothbrush type. With both toothbrushes, subjects moved frequently between areas (MT 35 (14;79); PT 33 (14;85); n.s.) and brushed predominantly with circling and horizontal strokes; with the PT, 50.5% of the subjects spent only brushing duration with passive brushing (positioning the brush head on the teeth with ≤2 movements/s). Intra-individual motion patterns were similar with both MT and PT, and most subjects persisted in their habitual motion patterns regardless of the toothbrush type. The use of PT and MT may need intensive training and supervision from oral hygiene educators in order to help subjects taking full advantage from these devices.

  13. Scaling features of the tribology of polymer brushes of increasing grafting density around the mushroom-to-brush transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, E; Klapp, J; Gama Goicochea, A

    2017-01-01

    Nonequilibrium coarse-grained, dissipative particle dynamics simulations of complex fluids, made up of polymer brushes tethered to planar surfaces immersed in a solvent yield nonmonotonic behavior of the friction coefficient as a function of the polymer grating density on the substrates, Γ, while the viscosity shows a monotonically increasing dependence on Γ. This effect is shown to be independent of the degree of polymerization, N, and the size of the system. It arises from the composition and the structure of the first particle layer adjacent to each surface that results from the confinement of the fluid. Whenever such layers are made up of as close a proportion of polymer beads to solvent particles as there are in the fluid, the friction coefficient shows a minimum, while for disparate proportions the friction coefficient grows. At the mushroom-to-brush transition (MBT) the viscosity scales with an exponent that depends on the characteristic exponent of the MBT (6/5) and the solvent quality exponent (ν=0.5, for θsolvent), but it is independent of the polymerization degree (N). On the other hand, the friction coefficient at the MBT scales as μ∼N^{6/5}, while the grafting density at the MBT scales as Γ∼N^{-6/5} when friction is minimal, in agreement with previous scaling theories. We argue these aspects are the result of cooperative phenomena that have important implications for the understanding of biological brushes and the design of microfluidics devices, among other applications of current academic and industrial interest.

  14. Microimaging of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin-binding proteins in gypsy moth larval gut using confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Krofcheck; Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2010-01-01

    After ingestion by susceptible insect larvae, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells and disrupt the integrity of the plasma membrane by forming...

  15. Altered binding of the Cry1Ac toxin to larval membranes but not to the toxin-binding protein in Plodia interpunctella selected for resistance to different Bacillus thuringiensis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, S I; Johnson, D E; Aronson, A I

    1996-11-01

    Immunoblotting and cytochemical procedures were used to determine whether toxin binding was altered in strains of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, selected for resistance to various strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Each of these B. thuringiensis subspecies produces a mixture of protoxins, primarily Cry1 types, and the greatest insect resistance is to the Cry1A protoxins. In several cases, however, there was also resistance to toxins not present in the B. thuringiensis strains used for selection. The Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins bound equally well over a range of toxin concentrations and times of incubation to a single protein of ca. 80-kDa in immunoblots of larval membrane extracts from all of the colonies. This binding protein is essential for toxicity since a mutant Cry1Ac toxin known to be defective in binding and thus less toxic bound poorly to the 80-kDa protein. This binding protein differed in size from the major aminopeptidase N antigens implicated in toxin binding in other insects. Binding of fluorescently labeled Cry1Ac or Cry1Ab toxin to larval sections was found at the tips of the brush border membrane prepared from the susceptible but not from any of the resistant P. interpunctella. Accessibility of a major Cry1A-binding protein appears to be altered in resistant larvae and could account for their broad resistance to several B. thuringiensis toxins.

  16. Graphene transistors with multifunctional polymer brushes for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Lucas H; Lyuleeva, Alina; Blaschke, Benno M; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Seifert, Max; Garrido, Jose A; Deubel, Frank

    2014-06-25

    Exhibiting a combination of exceptional structural and electronic properties, graphene has a great potential for the development of highly sensitive sensors. To date, many challenging chemical, biochemical, and biologic sensing tasks have been realized based on graphene. However, many of these sensors are rather unspecific. To overcome this problem, for instance, the sensor surface can be modified with analyte-specific transducers such as enzymes. One problem associated with the covalent attachment of such biomolecular systems is the introduction of crystal defects that have a deleterious impact on the electronic properties of the sensor. In this work, we present a versatile platform for biosensing applications based on polymer-modified CVD-grown graphene transistors. The functionalization method of graphene presented here allows one to integrate several functional groups within surface-bound polymer brushes without the introduction of additional defects. To demonstrate the potential of this polymer brush functionalization scaffold, we modified solution-gated graphene field-effect transistors with the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and a transducing group, allowing the detection of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Taking advantage of the transducing capability of graphene transistors and the versatility of polymer chemistry and enzyme biochemistry, this study presents a novel route for the fabrication of highly sensitive, multipurpose transistor sensors that can find application for a multitude of biologically relevant analytes.

  17. A novel music based tooth brushing system for blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, V; Hegde, A M; Varghese, E; Shetty, V

    2013-01-01

    To assess the Oral Health Status (OHS) of visually impaired children in South India, to devise and implement a specially designed Oral Health Education (OHE) program for them and to assess its efficacy in improving their OHS. OHS of 98 institutionalized visually impaired children aged 6 to 14 years were evaluated at the start of the study (Pre-OHE level) using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), the Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index (MQHPI) and Streptococcus mutans colony count. Oral Health Education was imparted with the help of specially designed models and tooth-brushing taught with specially formulated music aided instructions in a song format. These parameters were re-evaluated after a period of reinforced (two weeks and one month) and non-reinforced (two months) tooth-brushing. Mean values of MGI and MQHPI showed a statistically very highly significant drop from the Pre-OHE level to the end of both the periods of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. There was a significant decrease in the S. mutans counts from the Pre-OHE levels to the period of non-reinforcement (p children was effective in improving their OHS significantly

  18. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  19. Waiting line, the border and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tejeda González

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophic discussion is the departure point related to Nietzsche and Heiddeger, about the coming of the nihilism to introduce us in the subjects of the border in the modern and postmodern world. That existencial condition approaches us the experience in the border, and to the fact to transfer and to live in the edges. In other dimensions, we found the present time of that philosophic debate, since the border subject acquires centrality. In the social, politic, and cultural land we paradoxically see as globalization leads to an weakeing of the borders and an increase of its importances. The border demarcation continues being important, but now it has to do with the proliferation of agents, regional and global forces, and tendencies make of the border a blurred and opened institution. The increase of the interdependence are causing that migration and border transfering to be changing the face of communities of many countries of the present world. The national states are painted of color by those migratory movements that give the diversity, the pluralidad and the multiculturalismo in the before homogeneous societies.

  20. Membrane tension and membrane fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michael M.; Chernomordik, Leonid V.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse cell biological processes that involve shaping and remodeling of cell membranes are regulated by membrane lateral tension. Here we focus on the role of tension in driving membrane fusion. We discuss the physics of membrane tension, forces that can generate the tension in plasma membrane of a cell, and the hypothesis that tension powers expansion of membrane fusion pores in late stages of cell-to-cell and exocytotic fusion. We propose that fusion pore expansion can require unusually la...

  1. Probing pH-responsive interactions between polymer brushes and hydrogels by neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudre, Guillaume; Hourdet, Dominique; Creton, Costantino; Cousin, Fabrice; Tran, Yvette

    2014-08-19

    We investigated the effect of specific interactions on the structure of interfaces between a brush and a hydrogel on the polymer chain length scale. We used a model system for which the interactions between the brush and the gel are switchable. We synthesized weak polyelectrolyte brushes of poly(acrylic acid) and hydrogels of polyacrylamide and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) which interact solely when the poly(acrylic acid) is mainly in its acidic form. The monomer density profiles of the poly(acrylic acid) brush immersed in pure deuterium oxide (D2O) or in contact with a D2O-swollen gel were determined by neutron reflectivity. At pH 2 when the brush is in its neutral form, it interacts with the gel by hydrogen bonds while at pH 9 when the brush is a polyelectrolyte it is not interacting with the gel. Our results show that the presence of interactions with the gel at pH 2 increases the swelling ratio of the brush relative to that in pure D2O, meaning that the brushes exhibit conformations which are more extended from the surface than in the absence of interactions.

  2. A Low Cost Brush Deflection System for Bank Stabilization and Revegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Elizabeth Meyer

    1989-01-01

    A series of brush deflectors were installed along an eroding, undercut streambank on Lindo Channel in Chico, California. Pieces of brush were wired to sets of metal fenceposts driven into the bank perpendicular to stream flow and at strategic points upstream. Dormant cuttings of riparian plants were added for revegetation and long-term bank protection. To date (two...

  3. Preparation and friction force microscopy measurements of immiscible, opposing polymer brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; Kutnyanszky, E.; Müser, M.H.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2014-01-01

    Solvated polymer brushes are well known to lubricate high-pressure contacts, because they can sustain a positive normal load while maintaining low friction at the interface. Nevertheless, these systems can be sensitive to wear due to interdigitation of the opposing brushes. In a recent publication,

  4. Superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brush layers with imparted anti-icing properties: effect of counter ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Järn, Mikael; Shimizu, Kyoko; Swerin, Agne; Pedersen, Steen Uttrup; Daasbjerg, Kim; Makkonen, Lasse; Claesson, Per; Iruthayaraj, Joseph

    2014-05-14

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brush coatings for anti-icing applications. Five different types of ionic and nonionic polymer brush coatings of 25-100 nm thickness were formed on glass substrates using silane chemistry for surface premodification followed by polymerization via the SI-ATRP route. The cationic [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride] and the anionic [poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate), poly(sodium methacrylate)] polyelectrolyte brushes were further exchanged with H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Ag+, Ca2+, La3+, C16N+, F-, Cl-, BF4-, SO4(2-), and C12SO3- ions. By consecutive measurements of the strength of ice adhesion toward ion-incorporated polymer brushes on glass it was found that Li+ ions reduce ice adhesion by 40% at -18 °C and 70% at -10 °C. Ag+ ions reduce ice adhesion by 80% at -10 °C relative to unmodified glass. In general, superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brushes exhibit better anti-icing property at -10 °C compared to partially hydrophobic brushes such as poly(methyl methacrylate) and surfactant exchanged polyelectrolyte brushes. The data are interpreted using the concept of a quasi liquid layer (QLL) that is enhanced in the presence of highly hydrated ions at the interface. It is suggested that the ability of ions to coordinate water is directly related to the efficiency of a given anti-icing coating based on the polyelectrolyte brush concept.

  5. Preparation and Friction Force Microscopy Measurements of Immiscible, Opposing Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; Kutnyanszky, E.; Müser, M.H.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2014-01-01

    Solvated polymer brushes are well known to lubricate high-pressure contacts, because they can sustain a positive normal load while maintaining low friction at the interface. Nevertheless, these systems can be sensitive to wear due to interdigitation of the opposing brushes. In a recent publication,

  6. A PET activation study of brush-evoked allodynia in patients with nerve injury pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Kupers, Ron; Svensson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    allodynia. Nine patients with peripheral nerve injury were scanned during rest, brush-evoked allodynia, and brushing of normal contralateral skin. PET data were analyzed for the whole group and for single subjects. Allodynic stimulation activated the contralateral orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11) in every...

  7. Friendship Network and Dental Brushing Behavior among Middle School Students: An Agent Based Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Maryam; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Afshin; Shariatpanahi, Seyed Peyman

    2017-01-01

    By using a standard questionnaire, the level of dental brushing frequency was assessed among 201 adolescent female middle school students in Tehran. The initial assessment was repeated after 5 months, in order to observe the dynamics in dental health behavior level. Logistic Regression model was used to evaluate the correlation among individuals' dental health behavior in their social network. A significant correlation on dental brushing habits was detected among groups of friends. This correlation was further spread over the network within the 5 months period. Moreover, it was identified that the average brushing level was improved within the 5 months period. Given that there was a significant correlation between social network's nodes' in-degree value, and brushing level, it was suggested that the observed improvement was partially due to more popularity of individuals with better tooth brushing habit. Agent Based Modeling (ABM) was used to demonstrate the dynamics of dental brushing frequency within a sample of friendship network. Two models with static and dynamic assumptions for the network structure were proposed. The model with dynamic network structure successfully described the dynamics of dental health behavior. Based on this model, on average, every 43 weeks a student changes her brushing habit due to learning from her friends. Finally, three training scenarios were tested by these models in order to evaluate their effectiveness. When training more popular students, considerable improvement in total students' brushing frequency was demonstrated by simulation results.

  8. Comparison of Saudi child versus parent-report of child tooth-brushing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, F; Abobakr, I; Al-Khodair, N; Al-Wakeel, M

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study compared Saudi children's tooth-brushing practices as reported by children and parents and then matched the agreement of reports. A sample of 100 Saudi parents and their children of ages 8-12 years participated in this cross-sectional investigation. A self-administered structured questionnaire regarding the current tooth-brushing practice and habits at home was filled by the child. The same questionnaire was filled independently by parents. Mothers were more likely to teach children about tooth-brushing and fathers were minimally helping children during tooth-brushing. Mothers were the first to teach the children and approximately 33% of the children started brushing their teeth by age 5. Children and parents reported that children clean their teeth using a tooth-brush (73.74% and 76.77%), miswak (5.05% and 5.05%), or both (21.21% and 18.18%), respectively. There was some agreement between reported tooth-brushing practice of children and their parents. It is important to question both the child and parent regarding oral hygiene practice and compare their answers to get more broad knowledge about their practices. Approximately, one-third of the children started brushing their teeth by age 5, which differs from recommended oral hygiene practices.

  9. Self-healing fluoropolymer brushes as highly polymer-repellent coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-01-01

    The fouling of surfaces by organic polymers can be strongly reduced by applying a 75 nm covalently bound fluorinated polymer brush onto the surface. This strong reduction can be repaired, even more than 10 times, after the polymer brush has been damaged (e.g. by a strong base) using the

  10. Tunable Friction by Employment of Co-Non-Solvency of PNIPAM Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yunlong; Cirelli, Marco; Kieviet, B.D.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Vancso, Gyula J.; de Beer, Sissi

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple method to control the tribological properties of contacts between polymer brushes and a solid counter surface. We show, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments, that the friction force, upon relative sliding of a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) brush and a gold

  11. Friendship Network and Dental Brushing Behavior among Middle School Students: An Agent Based Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadeghipour

    Full Text Available By using a standard questionnaire, the level of dental brushing frequency was assessed among 201 adolescent female middle school students in Tehran. The initial assessment was repeated after 5 months, in order to observe the dynamics in dental health behavior level. Logistic Regression model was used to evaluate the correlation among individuals' dental health behavior in their social network. A significant correlation on dental brushing habits was detected among groups of friends. This correlation was further spread over the network within the 5 months period. Moreover, it was identified that the average brushing level was improved within the 5 months period. Given that there was a significant correlation between social network's nodes' in-degree value, and brushing level, it was suggested that the observed improvement was partially due to more popularity of individuals with better tooth brushing habit. Agent Based Modeling (ABM was used to demonstrate the dynamics of dental brushing frequency within a sample of friendship network. Two models with static and dynamic assumptions for the network structure were proposed. The model with dynamic network structure successfully described the dynamics of dental health behavior. Based on this model, on average, every 43 weeks a student changes her brushing habit due to learning from her friends. Finally, three training scenarios were tested by these models in order to evaluate their effectiveness. When training more popular students, considerable improvement in total students' brushing frequency was demonstrated by simulation results.

  12. In Vitro Assessment of the Abrasion Resistance of Two Types of Artificial Teeth Submitted to Brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policastro, Vivian Barnabé; Giro, Gabriela; Leite, Andressa Rosa Perin; Mendoza-Marin, Danny Omar; Paleari, André Gustavo; Compagnoni, Marco Antonio; Pero, Ana Carolina

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effect of brushing with different solutions on the abrasion resistance of two types of acrylic resin teeth. Maxillary premolars from two types of acrylic teeth (Biotone and Biotone IPN) were divided into six groups (n = 12), according to the solution used during brushing: distilled water (control), coconut soap, or dentifrice. A mechanical brushing machine was used to simulate approximately 1 year of brushing (11,000 strokes). The weight loss (WL) of teeth was obtained from the difference between the initial (IW) and final weight (FW) of each specimen, and the mean of percentage of weight loss (PWL) was calculated for each group. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Bonferroni's post-test comparison (α = 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found for the factor solution (p Brushing using dentifrice caused the highest values of weight loss (-0.50%), in comparison with the groups brushed with coconut soap (0.00%) or distilled water (0.00%). For both types of artificial teeth, brushing with dentifrice produced higher abrasion than brushing with coconut soap or water. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Production rates for United States Forest Service brush disposal planning in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Stu Hoyt; Nathaniel Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Timber harvesting operations generate brush and other vegetative debris, which often has no marketable value. In many western U.S. forests, these materials represent a fire hazard and a potential threat to forest health and must be removed or burned for disposal. Currently, there is no established, consistent method to estimate brush disposal production rates in the U....

  14. Sulfobetaine-based polymer brushes in marine environment: Is there an effect of the polymerizable group on the antifouling performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, R.; Janczewski, D.; Vasantha, V.A.; Jana, S.; Lee, S.S.C.; Parra-Velandia, F.J.; Guo, S.; Parthiban, A.; Teo, S.L-M.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2014-01-01

    Three different zwitterionic polymer brush coatings for marine biofouling control were prepared bysurface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of sulfobetaine-based monomers includingmethacrylamide (SBMAm), vinylbenzene (SBVB) and vinylimidazolium (SBVI). None of these brush

  15. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  16. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  17. The effect of brushing with toothpaste containing nano calcium carbonate upon nanofill composite resin surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, A. M.; Herda, E.; Triaminingsih, S.

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of brushing with toothpaste containing nanocalcium carbonate on the roughness of nanofill composite resin surface. Brushing was conducted with 3 types of materials for 3 consecutive brushing periods of 10 minutes each. Surface roughness was measured using a surface-roughness tester and the results were analyzed using the repeated ANOVA and the one-way ANOVA test. The surface morphology was observed using SEM after 3 months’ worth of brushing with the 3 materials. It was found that the nanofill composite resin surface-roughness value increased significantly (pcalcium carbonate for 3 months, but the value was not as high as that obtained when brushing with other types of toothpaste.

  18. Tooth brushing among 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, L. S.; Holstein, B. E.; Nordahl, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Regular tooth brushing in adolescence predicts stable tooth brushing habits later in life. Differences in tooth brushing habits by ethnic background and socioeconomic position have been suggested. We investigated migration status and social class in relation to infrequent tooth brushing...... both separately and combined. Methods: The study population was 11-15 year-olds chosen from a clustered random sample of schools. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses estimated the separate and combined effects of migration status and social class on less than twice daily tooth......: immigrant boys OR 1.39 (1.05-1.89), girls OR 1.92 (1.47-2.50); descendant boys OR 2.53 (1.97-3.27), girls OR 2.56 (2.02-3.35). Analyses of the combined effect of social class and migration status showed that the social gradient in tooth brushing habits observed among ethnic Danes cannot be found among...

  19. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  20. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  1. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordeus Isabela A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. Methods A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Results Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75. There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p Conclusions In general, there was low agreement between observed tooth brushing and mothers' reports. Moreover, the different methods of estimation resulted in differences in the frequencies of tooth brushing habits, indicative of reporting bias. Data regarding children's tooth-brushing habits as reported by mothers should be considered with caution in epidemiological surveys on fluoridated dentifrice use and the risk of dental fluorosis.

  2. Effectiveness of Chewable Tooth Brush in Children-A Prospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Lavanya; Gurunathan, Deepa

    2017-03-01

    Dental plaque is one of the aetiological factors in causation of dental caries. Effective removal of plaque can reduce the incidence of caries. Various agents for removing plaque has been introduced, of which, chewable brush is a recent advance. There is limited evidence assessing the effectiveness of using chewable brush in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chewable brush in relation to efficiency in plaque removal and reduction in S.mutans counts in saliva. Ten children of six-nine years with their first molars erupted were included in the study and the children were supervised for their normal brushing for 7 days. The baseline Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), Plaque Index (PI) and Decay, Missing Filled Tooth Index (DMFT-I) were noted and the saliva sample was collected from the children. The sample was sent for microbiological examination of S.mutans count and the pH of the saliva was also determined. The children were advised to brush their teeth twice daily for seven days using chewable brush. On the seventh day, the indices were noted again and the saliva sample was collected and sent for microbiological examination. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test to compare the pre and post-brushing index scores, S. mutans count and salivary pH. There was a significant reduction in the debris index (pbrushing with chewable brush. However, the calculus index remained unchanged (p=0.168). Chewable brush can be used as an effective alternative to manual brushing in children.

  3. Experience of racism and tooth brushing among pregnant Aboriginal Australians: exploring psychosocial mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, J; Jamieson, L M; Priest, N; Parker, E J; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Lawrence, H P; Broughton, J; Paradies, Y

    2014-09-01

    Despite burgeoning evidence regarding the pathways by which experiences of racism influence health outcomes, little attention has been paid to the relationship between racism and oral health-related behaviours in particular. We hypothesised that self-reported racism was associated with tooth brushing, and that this association was mediated by perceived stress and sense of control and moderated by social support. Data from 365 pregnant Aboriginal Australian women were used to evaluate tooth brushing behaviour, sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors, general health, risk behaviours and racism exposure. Bivariate associations were explored and hierarchical logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tooth brushing. Perceived stress and sense of control were examined as mediators of the association between self-reported racism and tooth brushing using binary mediation with bootstrapping. High levels of self-reported racism persisted as a risk indicator for tooth brushing (OR 0.51, 95%CI 0.27,0.98) after controlling for significant covariates. Perceived stress mediated the relationship between self-reported racism and tooth brushing: the direct effect of racism on tooth brushing was attenuated, and the indirect effect on tooth brushing was significant (beta coefficient -0.09; bias-corrected 95%CI -0.166,-0.028; 48.1% of effect mediated). Sense of control was insignificant as a mediator of the relationship between racism and tooth brushing. High levels of self-reported racism were associated with non-optimal tooth brushing behaviours, and perceived stress mediated this association among this sample of pregnant Aboriginal women.. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  4. Morphology of the Vitreoretinal Border Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane......Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane...

  5. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  6. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  7. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts......This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates...... in political philosophy concerning coercion, entry/exit, protection elsewhere and self-determination, and against the backdrop of empirical cases, such as the EU Commission’s UNHCR-donations, the Dublin II Regulation and the export of migrant camps to North Africa. In the third article the governance of asylum...

  8. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  9. Conservative Libertarianism and the Ethics of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Camacho Beltran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many conservatives endorse a defence of closed borders grounded in basic liberal rights such as the basic right of association. Some conservatives also endorse libertarian principles of legitimacy. It is not clear though that this sort of defence of closed borders is somehow coherent with these libertarian ideals. I argue that conservative libertarians of this kind must reject this defence of closed borders because either it collapses into a form of statism incoherent with libertarian principles of legitimacy, or into an ideal precept without appeal regarding reality in the here and now that could only be applied to changing the very nature of the societies we know. As a result, at least conservative libertarians need to find a different source of justification for closed borders.

  10. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  11. Attitudes of inhabitants of border areas of Slovenia towards the Slovene-Croatian state border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Špes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Article represents basic geographical characteristics of four sample border areas (Slovenska Istra, Bela Krajina, Spodnje Posavje and Spodnje Podravje, which were included in the research about the effects of a new state border on the living of inhabitants. We analysed their comprehension of changes in economic and social conditions, traffic currencies, interethnic relations, etc. Questioned persons (1200 questionnaires were estimating also development possibilities of domestic region in the light of its border position as well as obstacles for cooperation with the neighbouring Croatia and first of all with its border regions. Also current projects of transborder cooperation are represented.

  12. Photoconductive Properties of Brush Plated Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Subiramaniyam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS films were deposited for the first time by the brush electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of single phase chalcopyrite CIGS. Lattice parameters, dislocation density, and strain were calculated. Band gap of the films increased from 1.12 eV to 1.63 eV as the gallium concentration increased. Room temperature transport parameters of the films, namely, resistivity increased from 0.10 ohm cm to 12 ohm cm, mobility decreased from 125 cm2V−1s−1 to 20.9 cm2V−1s−1, and carrier concentration decreased from 4.99 × 1017 cm−3 to 2.49 × 1016 cm−3 as the gallium concentration increased. Photosensitivity of the films increased linearly with intensity of illumination and with increase of applied voltage.

  13. The effectivity of toothpick tooth brushing method on plaque control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are associated with bacteria species which present in biofilms that colonize on dental surfaces. Several tooth brushing methods had been known and proved to be effective in maintaining oral hygiene. Among them, tooth pick technique was a relatively new method and its superiority in removing interproximal plaque was better than other methods. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectivity of toothpick tooth brushing method to conventional method on periodontal health. Methods: This research was designed as an analytical observational study. Thirty samples selected from five hundred and twelve males Indonesian Air-force members in Malang, aged 18–40 yrs, with periodontal pockets (≤ 5 mm in upper or lower teeth, without crowding, gingival index minimal > 1 (moderate gingivitis, OHI-S score minimal ≥ 1.3 (moderate, without systemic diseases, do not undergone medical therapy/drug prescriptions, without using mouth rinse during study, and without prosthesis. There were thirty samples in this research and devided to two groups, fifteen samples easch. The groups were toothpick tooth brusing method and conventional method (control group. In this study oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP and pocket depth were examined. Results: There were significant differences (p = .001 in OHI-S, GI, BOP, and PD before and after conducting each toothbrushing method, as well as differences between means (quarrel means, that were p = .003; p = .001; p = .001 and p = .001 consecutively. Conclusion: Toothpick brushing method was more effective in plaque control compared to conventional method.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal berhubungan dengan bakteri yang berkoloni dalam biofilm yang terdapat di permukaan gigi. Saat ini telah dikenal berbagai macam metode menyikat gigi tetapi masih belum ada penelitian tentang efek metode tersebut terhadap OHI-S. Penelitian in ingin

  14. Filtration stability of living brush mattresses at navigable waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokopp, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    According to the guidelines of the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute in Germany, waterway construction buildings, which include soil bioengineering structures, must be stable against soil displacements. Therefore, willow brush mattresses were tested for their filtration stability in a specially developed process which is based on the testing of geotextiles and armourstones used for navigable waterway constructions. In March 2016 willow brush mattresses made of white (Salix alba L.) or basket willows (Salix viminalis L.) were planted in 16 sample boxes, each with a cross-section area of 30x30 cm. For the tests on filtration stability, the upper 20 cm of the box were separated and placed upside down into a device in which the sample box could be flowed through from below. When a water column of 50 cm above the sample was reached, the water outlet was opened so the water flowed through the sample in the opposite direction, thus simulating drawdown. By the measurements of the pressure sensors above and below the sample, the coefficient of permeability k of the rooted soil during drawdown could be calculated. After this hydropeaking cycle, the soil material that was rinsed out through the willow branches was collected, weighed after drying until weight constancy, and compared with the dry mass of the retained soil material to calculate the share of the total mass. These filtration stability tests were carried out directly after planting the sample boxes, as well as one, three and six months afterwards, each test series with four reruns per willow species. Over time, the increasing root penetration resulted in a significant reduction in the permeability and in more retained soil material.

  15. The optimal sequence for bronchial brushing and forceps biopsy in lung cancer diagnosis: a random control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gang; Miao, Yuan; Hu, Xue-Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qiu-Yue; Wu, Guang-Ping; Wang, En-Hua; Kang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Optimizing basic techniques in diagnostic bronchoscopy is important for improving medical services in developing countries. In this study, the optimal sequence of bronchial brushing relative to bronchial biopsy for lung cancer diagnosis was evaluated. A total of 420 patients with visible endobronchial tumors were prospectively and randomly enrolled in two groups: a pre-biopsy brushing group, receiving two brushings before biopsy; two brushings which performed afterwards; were set as self-control and compared with the pre-biopsy brushings as the intra-group comparison; and a post-biopsy brushing group, only receiving two brushings after biopsy, which were compared with the pre-biopsy brushings as the inter-group comparison. Diagnostic yield of brushing was compared before and after biopsy, and as well as for different tumor pathologies and bronchoscopic morphologies. The occurrence of treated bleeding which defined as bleeding needed further intervention with argon plasma coagulation and/or anti-coagulation drugs in two groups was also compared. Only patients with a definitive cytological or histological diagnosis of lung cancer based on bronchoscopy or other confirmatory techniques were included. Patients were excluded if they had submucosal lesions, extrinsic compressions, pulmonary metastasis of extrapulmonary malignancies or uncommon non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). A total of 362 patients who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Diagnostic yield for pre-biopsy brushing (49.2%, 88/179) was significantly higher than for post-biopsy brushing within the same pre-biopsy brushing group (31.8%, 57/179) (P=0.007) as the intra-group comparison, and significantly higher than for post-biopsy brushing in the post group (30.6%, 56/183) (Pcancer. In cases of endobronchial exophytic tumors, pre-biopsy brushing appears to be superior to post-biopsy brushing.

  16. Brushing-induced surface roughness of nickel-, palladium-, and gold-based dental casting alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataha, John C; Lockwood, Petra E; Messer, Regina L W; Lewis, Jill B; Mettenburg, Donald J

    2008-06-01

    Alloys with high nickel content have been increasingly used for dental prostheses. These alloys have excellent hardness, elastic modulus, and strength, yet have high corrosion rates when exposed to chemical or physical forces that are common intraorally. The purpose of the current study was to measure the susceptibility of several types of nickel-based alloys to brushing abrasion relative to gold- and palladium-based alloys. Au-Pt, Au-Pd, Pd-Ag, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Cr-Be dental alloys were brushed with a toothbrush (Oral-B Soft) and toothpaste (Ultrabrite) in a linear brushing machine, then the surface roughness was measured by profilometry (R(a), R(v), R(p)). Specimens (n=4) were brushed for 48 hours in a saline solution (pH 7). The effect of brushing was determined using 2-sided t tests (alpha=.05), and roughness among alloys postbrushing was compared using 1-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analyses (alpha=.05). All polished alloy surfaces (before brushing) had roughnesses of 1 microm (R(a)). Ni-Cr alloys without Be had a postbrushing surface roughness of 0.25 microm (R(a)). Postbrushing roughness of all other alloys ranged from 0.1-0.25 microm (R(a)). R(v) and R(p) values behaved similarly to R(a) values for all alloys. Although they have many excellent mechanical properties, Ni-Cr-Be alloys may be prone to degradation from brushing.

  17. Spectroscopic study of a DNA brush synthesized in situ by surface initiated enzymatic polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Nuruzzaman; Tjong, Vinalia; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Zharnikov, Michael

    2013-08-29

    We used a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and angle-resolved near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to study the chemical integrity, purity, and possible internal alignment of single-strand (ss) adenine deoxynucleotide (poly(A)) DNA brushes. The brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated enzymatic polymerization (SIEP) on a 25-mer of adenine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold (A25-SH), wherein the terminal 3'-OH of the A25-SH serve as the initiation sites for SIEP of poly(A). XPS and NEXAFS spectra of poly(A) brushes were found to be almost identical to those of A25-SH initiator, with no unambiguous traces of contamination. Apart from the well-defined chemical integrity and contamination-free character, the brushes were found to have a high degree of orientational order, with an upright orientation of individual strands, despite their large thickness up to ~55 nm, that corresponds to a chain length of at least several hundred nucleotides for individual ssDNA molecules. The orientational order exhibited by these poly(A) DNA brushes, mediated presumably by base stacking, was found to be independent of the brush thickness as long as the packing density was high enough. The well-defined character and orientational ordering of the ssDNA brushes make them a potentially promising system for different applications.

  18. Sequential nucleophilic substitutions permit orthogonal click functionalization of multicomponent PEG brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jin; Lippmann, Ethan S; McNulty, Jason; Ma, Yulu; Ashton, Randolph S

    2013-09-09

    Multicomponent poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brushes (i.e., ≥ 2 adjacent PEG brushes) can be used to engineer culture substrates with microscale, nonfouling regions decorated with covalently immobilized ligands that mediate biospecific interactions. However, synthesizing such brushes with orthogonal immobilization chemistries to permit differential biofunctionalization is nontrivial and often requires synthesis of PEG-co-polymers. To simplify synthesis and enhance the versatility of such substrates, we developed a protocol for generating orthogonal click-functionalized multicomponent PEG brushes using sequential nucleophilic substitutions by sodium azide, ethanolamine, and propargylamine. The novel application of propargylamine-mediated substitution functionalizes PEG brushes with acetylene groups, and for the first time, ethanolamine-mediated substitution is shown to be sufficient for passivating the "living" polymer chain ends between brush synthesis steps. Thus, our multicomponent PEG brushes present dual orthogonal chemistries (i.e., azido and acetylene groups) for ligand immobilization via versatile copper-free click reactions, which are useful for in situ surface modifications during cell culture.

  19. Children's toothbrushing frequency: the influence of parents' rationale for brushing, habits and family routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubey, Rob J; Moore, Simon C; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between parental and family factors and children's toothbrushing frequency at different times of day. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of predominantly low-socio-economic status parents of children aged 3-6 years (n = 296) in South Wales, UK. Data were collected on the child's weekly toothbrushing frequency (morning and evening), the parents' rationale for brushing their child's teeth in the morning and evening, the strength of a parent's habit for brushing a child's teeth in the morning and evening, and the extent to which the family's daily routines were stable from day to day. Socio-demographic details were also collected. Reported weekly brushing frequency was significantly (p brushing in the evening. The extent to which brushing a child's teeth was 'habitual' was significantly (p brushing their children's teeth can vary at both an individual level and at different times of day. Understanding these variations is important in designing interventions to improve brushing frequency for at-risk children. The results also demonstrate habituation as being an important factor in understanding toothbrushing frequency. Further research is required to understand the mechanisms involved in habit formation and maintenance with children's oral hygiene behaviour.

  20. Experience of maintaining tooth brushing for children born with a cleft lip and/or palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Ling; Davies, Karen; Callery, Peter

    2017-08-24

    Children with a Cleft Lip and/or Palate (CL/P) have been reported to have poorer oral health than those without the condition. The consequences for these children can be particularly problematic due to implications for future treatments. Tooth brushing is an important behaviour contributing to children's oral health, but is under researched in the CL/P population. The aim of the study is to explore the experience of maintaining tooth brushing among children in the United Kingdom (UK) with a CL/P and their parents. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with twenty-two parents and sixteen children with a CL/P (5-11 years), recruited at a cleft centre in the UK. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis. Three key themes were drawn from the qualitative data: first, parents of children with a CL/P generally had strong motivation to look after their children's teeth but children's motivation was inconsistent. Second, parents were primary enablers of children's tooth brushing behaviour, often employing approaches adapted to their child's characteristics to encourage tooth brushing. Third, a range of obstacles were encountered by parents and children in maintaining regular tooth brushing behaviours. They reported obstacles such as issues related to CL/P, 'forgetting' and childhood illness. The paper suggests that parents of children with a CL/P need support to enact their intention to maintain regular tooth brushing and prioritise tooth brushing within the context of demanding and dynamic family life.

  1. Facilitators and barriers to twice daily tooth brushing among children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanaro, Maria; Huebner, Colleen E; Davis, Beth Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The oral hygiene routines of preschool-age children with special health care needs (CSHCN) were examined to identify caregiver behaviors and beliefs associated with twice daily tooth brushing. Ninety caregivers of CSHCN, ages 23 to 62 months, were interviewed to determine supports or barriers to tooth brushing. Ninety-eight percent of caregivers had begun brushing their child's teeth and half reported brushing twice daily. Caregivers' brushing skills and the availability of child-friendly supplies were associated with twice daily versus less frequent brushing (p = .02). This study adds insight into the challenges of establishing daily oral health care for children who must rely on others for their care. The facilitators and barriers to tooth brushing by caregivers of CSHCN are similar to those noted previously among parents of typically developing children. Efforts to improve all caregivers' oral hygiene skills are needed. For caregivers of CSHCN, oral health teaching opportunities may exist among professionals who provide ongoing medical care, special services and therapies. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Relationship of tooth brushing to metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Kenji; Furuta, Michiko; Takeshita, Toru; Suma, Shino; Shinagawa, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2018-02-08

    To examine the effect of tooth brushing on the development of metabolic syndrome, including assessment of periodontal status, in middle-aged adults. This 5-year follow-up retrospective study was performed in 3722 participants (2897 males and 825 females) aged 35-64 years who underwent both medical check-ups and dental examinations. Metabolic components included obesity, elevated triglycerides, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and reduced high-density lipoprotein. Tooth brushing frequency was assessed using a questionnaire. Periodontal disease was defined as having at least one site with a pocket depth of ≥4 mm. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between tooth brushing frequency at the baseline examination and the development of metabolic syndrome (≥3 components). During follow-up, 11.1% of participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for potential confounders including periodontal disease, participants with more frequent daily tooth brushing tended to have significantly lower odds of developing metabolic syndrome (P for trend = 0.01). The risk of development of metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in participants brushing teeth ≥3 times/day than in those brushing teeth ≤1 time/day (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.45-0.92). Frequent daily tooth brushing was associated with lower risk of development of metabolic syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced stability of low fouling zwitterionic polymer brushes in seawater with diblock architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Robert; Gosa, Maria; Jańczewski, Dominik; Kutnyanszky, Edit; Vancso, G Julius

    2013-08-27

    The successful implementation of zwitterionic polymeric brushes as antifouling materials for marine applications is conditioned by the stability of the polymer chain and the brush-anchoring segment in seawater. Here we demonstrate that robust, antifouling, hydrophilic polysulfobetaine-based brushes with diblock architecture can be fabricated by atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using initiator-modified surfaces. Sequential living-type polymerization of hydrophobic styrene or methyl methacrylate and commercially available hydrophilic sulfobetaine methacrylamide (SBMAm) monomer is employed. Stability enhancement is accomplished by protecting the siloxane anchoring bond of brushes on the substrate, grafted from silicon oxide surfaces. The degradation of unprotected PSBMAm brushes is clearly evident after a 3 month immersion challenge in sterilized artificial seawater. Ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements are used to follow changes in coating thickness and surface morphology. Comparative stability results indicate that surface-tethered poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene hydrophobic blocks substantially improve the stability of zwitterionic brushes in an artificial marine environment. In addition, differences between the hydration of zwitterionic brushes in fresh and salt water are discussed to provide a better understanding of hydration and degradation processes with the benefit of improved design of polyzwitterionic coatings.

  4. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and brushed his/her teeth under supervision of one instructor. The grip type during tooth brushing was recorded on a videotape and duration of tooth brushing also was noted. The data were analyzed in relation to the age and gender using the chi-square test. ANOVA was used to find if there is any significant difference between the mean brushing times in the different groups. Results: The results of statistical analysis showed that in all cases P> 0.05 for grip preferences and P < 0.001 between age groups 3-5 years and 9-11 years with respect to the mean brushing time. Conclusion: The required manual dexterity for tooth brushing was present in younger age groups.

  5. Features of Running Brush Motors in Dry Nitrogen Environment When Using in Electrohydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Petrov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work concerns the constructive characteristics optimization of brushless D.C. (direct current motors used in electromechanical spacecraft drives.The spacecraft electromechanical drives and units use rather widely the brushless D.C. motors in which a motor commutator is replaced with more reliable semiconductor commutator controlled by the rotor position sensors. However, these motors are of low power.Electrohydraulic actuators (EHA use simple permanent-magnet motors (PMM of rather high power and commutator motors with graphite brush variable contacts.High reliability of brush motors, and, therefore a reliability of EHA in general, substantially depends on the quality of motor commutator operation. There are different reasons for a possible impact on the normal motor commutator operation. One of them is brush wear. Sparking brushes and burning commutator bars are possible in case brushes are poorly grinded to fit, brushes cannot freely move true in the brush holder box, and in case an incorrect force to clamp brushes to the commutator is chosen.It is established that drive wear resistance and operability depends on the gas environment composition being under sealed motor housing. In dry nitrogen environment brush wear suddenly raises because of the changing tribological performances of the commutator thus leading to essentially falling isolation resistance and no motor start.It is recommended to fill a space under sealed motor housing with air. Positive experience of operating spacecraft device containers with mobile electromechanical couples allowed us to find that in this case a dew point of filled air must be minus 20˚C.The paper offers an electromechanical alternative of design to the electrohydraulic actuators, with a ball-screw gear of the actuation mechanism, possessing a number of advantages.

  6. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating-rotating power brush users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, N A M; Adam, R; Grender, J M; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, S C; Van der Weijden, G A

    2014-11-01

    To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating-rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Factors Affecting Oral Hygiene and Tooth Brushing in Preschool Children, Shiraz/Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Shaghaghian; M, Zeraatkar

    2017-06-01

    Inadequate tooth brushing and inappropriate oral hygiene can lead to dental caries, the most common chronic diseases of childhood with several side effects. To evaluate factors affecting on preschool children's oral hygiene and tooth brushing in Shiraz, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, we selected 453 children registered in Shiraz kindergartens in 2013 by randomized cluster sampling. The children's tooth brushing and oral hygiene were assessed using a reliable and valid questionnaire and Simplified Debris Index (DI-S), respectively. A dental student examined all the children in each kindergarten to determine their DI-S. The relationship between the children's demographic variables and their oral hygiene and tooth brushing status were evaluated. Tooth brushing for 272 children (71.2%) had been started after the age of 2 years. The teeth in 96 children (24.2%) had been brushed lower than once daily. The mean of the children's DI-S was 1.19 ± (0.77). The DI-S of only 126 children (31.8%) was found to be good and very good. After controlling the effect of confounding factors, we found that the children's tooth brushing frequency was significantly associated with the number of children in the family and mothers' employment status. The age at which tooth brushing had been started was significantly associated with the fathers' education. Furthermore, the DI-S was associated with children's age, number of the children in the family, and their mothers' education. Oral hygiene and tooth brushing of the preschool children were not in a desirable status. Interventional procedures, especially educational programs, are recommended for children and their parents. These programs seem to be more necessary for older children, low socioeconomic families, and families with more than one child.

  8. Factors Affecting Oral Hygiene and Tooth Brushing in Preschool Children, Shiraz/Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Shaghaghian; M, Zeraatkar

    2017-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Inadequate tooth brushing and inappropriate oral hygiene can lead to dental caries, the most common chronic diseases of childhood with several side effects. Objectives: To evaluate factors affecting on preschool children’s oral hygiene and tooth brushing in Shiraz, Iran Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we selected 453 children registered in Shiraz kindergartens in 2013 by randomized cluster sampling. The children’s tooth brushing and oral hygiene were assessed using a reliable and valid questionnaire and Simplified Debris Index (DI-S), respectively. A dental student examined all the children in each kindergarten to determine their DI-S. The relationship between the children’s demographic variables and their oral hygiene and tooth brushing status were evaluated. Results: Tooth brushing for 272 children (71.2%) had been started after the age of 2 years. The teeth in 96 children (24.2%) had been brushed lower than once daily. The mean of the children’s DI-S was 1.19 ± (0.77). The DI-S of only 126 children (31.8%) was found to be good and very good. After controlling the effect of confounding factors, we found that the children’s tooth brushing frequency was significantly associated with the number of children in the family and mothers’ employment status. The age at which tooth brushing had been started was significantly associated with the fathers’ education. Furthermore, the DI-S was associated with children’s age, number of the children in the family, and their mothers’ education. Conclusions: Oral hygiene and tooth brushing of the preschool children were not in a desirable status. Interventional procedures, especially educational programs, are recommended for children and their parents. These programs seem to be more necessary for older children, low socioeconomic families, and families with more than one child. PMID:28959771

  9. Development of the Upgraded DC Brush Gear Motor for Spacebus Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Robert H.; Viout, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The obsolescence of materials and processes used in the manufacture of traditional DC brush gear motors has necessitated the development of an upgraded DC brush gear motor (UBGM). The current traditional DC brush gear motor (BGM) design was evaluated using Six-Sigma process to identify potential design and production process improvements. The development effort resulted in a qualified UBGM design which improved manufacturability and reduced production costs. Using Six-Sigma processes and incorporating lessons learned during the development process also improved motor performance for UBGM making it a more viable option for future use as a deployment mechanism in space flight applications.

  10. Experimental and theoretical rotordynamic stiffness coefficients for a three-stage brush seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugachev, A. O.; Deckner, M.

    2012-08-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented for a multistage brush seal. Experimental stiffness is obtained from integrating circumferential pressure distribution measured in seal cavities. A CFD analysis is used to predict seal performance. Bristle packs are modeled by the porous medium approach. Leakage is predicted well by the CFD method. Theoretical stiffness coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the measurements. Experimental results are also compared with a three-teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal. The multistage brush seal gives about 60% leakage reduction over the labyrinth seal. Rotordynamic stiffness coefficients are also improved: the brush seal has positive direct stiffness and smaller cross-coupled stiffness.

  11. Daylong Effect of Tooth Brushing or Combination Tooth Brushing and Tongue Cleaning Using Antiplaque®Toothpaste on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriasti Indah Wardhany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplaque® toothpaste active copound and the effect of tooth brushing or combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning on Volatile Sulphur Compounds (VSC levels. Methods: Clinical experimental double blinded microbiological and clinical examination. Subjects mainly from dental faculty student with or without a chief complain of halitosis. One hundred and twenty subjects were divided into four groups that consist of thirty samples each group. Two group are treatment subjects were divided into four groups that consist thirty samples each group. Two groups are treatment groups using Antiplaque® toothpaste and two groups are control groups using placebo toothpaste. The daylong effects of VSC levels are measured by Halimeter and organoleptic. The intraoral status were measured including periodontal status and tongue index. Result: There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment and control group, but the reduction only significant in group using Antiplaque® toothpaste (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05. There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste, but the combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning reduced VSC levels significantly lower than tooth brushing treatment (Mann Whitney U test, P,0.05. Conclusion: Tooth brushing and tongue cleaning using Antiplaque® toothpaste significantly reduced VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.95

  12. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. : Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range : of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, ...

  14. Border regions as the tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vukica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, as a global phenomenon, has found its place in every corner of the world. During a certain period of time, the tourism market has become saturated by mass tourism causing the creation of new attractive destinations for tourists. Thus, some of the border areas in the world attract and keep passers-by while transforming into the new tourist destinations. In this paper, it is possible to see relations and interconnections between tourism and international boundaries. Tourism in border regions has an opportunity to activate these areas that are often neglected by the state. Some European countries have taken advantage of this opportunity and they improved their tourism industry by developing their border regions. This kind of tourism development can be applied in Serbia and, in that way, activate the border areas of our country. However, in order to develop tourism in these areas, it is necessary to have an adequate international cooperation between two or more states. This can be achieved by various instruments of cross-border cooperation in tourism through the engagement of neighbouring countries in joint plans and cooperation.

  15. Border patrol: insights into the unique role of perlecan/heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 at cell and tissue borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach-Carson, Mary C; Warren, Curtis R; Harrington, Daniel A; Carson, Daniel D

    2014-02-01

    The extracellular matrix proteoglycan (ECM) perlecan, also known as heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 or HSPG2, is one of the largest (>200 nm) and oldest (>550 M years) extracellular matrix molecules. In vertebrates, perlecan's five-domain structure contains numerous independently folding modules with sequence similarities to other ECM proteins, all connected like cars into one long, diverse complex train following a unique N-terminal domain I decorated with three long glycosaminoglycan chains, and an additional glycosaminoglycan attachment site in the C-terminal domain V. In lower invertebrates, perlecan is not typically a proteoglycan, possessing the majority of the core protein modules, but lacking domain I where the attachment sites for glycosaminoglycan chains are located. This suggests that uniting the heparan sulfate binding growth factor functions of domain I and the core protein functions of the rest of the molecule in domains II-V occurred later in evolution for a new functional purpose. In this review, we surveyed several decades of pertinent literature to ask a fundamental question: Why did nature design this protein uniquely as an extraordinarily long multifunctional proteoglycan with a single promoter regulating expression, rather than separating these functions into individual proteins that could be independently regulated? We arrived at the conclusion that the concentration of perlecan at functional borders separating tissues and tissue layers is an ancient key function of the core protein. The addition of the heparan sulfate chains in domain I likely occurred as an additional means of binding the core protein to other ECM proteins in territorial matrices and basement membranes, and as a means to reserve growth factors in an on-site depot to assist with rapid repair of those borders when compromised, such as would occur during wounding. We propose a function for perlecan that extends its role from that of an extracellular scaffold, as we previously

  16. The U.S.-Mexico Border and Children’s Social Imaginary: An Analysis of Wacha el Border and Beyond the Border

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    Norma Iglesias-Prieto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Norma Iglesias-Prieto’s article is based on the films Wacha el border, created by twelve children from Tijuana, and Beyond the Border, created by ten children from San Diego. It aims at understanding the extent to which the U.S.-Mexico border is significant in children’s social representations of themselves and others. Focusing on the Tijuana/San Diego transboundary urbanized region, Iglesias-Prieto questions traditional representations and perceptions of the border.

  17. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  18. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program

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    Joana Cunha-Cruz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTwice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it “myself.” Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children <36 months of age because of the high incidence of disease in this population.MethodsA dental care organization designed and implemented Everybody Brush! in three counties of Central Oregon. Participants were families of Medicaid-insured children <21 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: test (supplies, voice/printed messages, telephone support, active (supplies, and a waitlist control. Program materials were in English and Spanish. Caregivers of children <36 months were interviewed at the beginning and end of the program.ResultsA total of 83,148 toothbrushing kits were mailed to 21,743 families. In addition, 93,766 printed messages and 110,367 recorded messages were sent to half of the families. Caregivers were highly satisfied. On a global rating scale from 0 to 10 (worst to best program possible, they rated the program 9.5 on average (median: 10, SD 0.9. On a scale from 0 to 10 (not at all to very useful, mean ratings for usefulness of the toothbrushing supplies was 9.5 (SD = 1.5, for the printed postcard messages was 7.2 (SD 3.6, and for the voice telephone messages was 6.5 (SD 3.9.DiscussionA dental care organization carried out a complex community intervention designed to address excess tooth decay among low-income children. Caregivers were highly

  19. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  20. Enzyme-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface for combating biomaterial-associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rujian; Xin, Zhirong; Xu, Shiai; Shi, Hengchong; Yang, Huawei; Song, Lingjie; Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua; Khan, Ather Farooq; Li, Yonggang

    2017-11-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections critically compromise the functionality and performance of the medical devices, and pose a serious threat to human healthcare. Recently, natural DNase enzyme has been recognized as a potent material to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. However, the vulnerability of DNase dramatically limits its long-term performance in antibacterial applications. In this work, DNase-mimicking polymer brushes were constructed to mimic the DNA-cleavage activity as well as the macromolecular scaffold of the natural DNase. The bacteria repellent efficacy of DNase-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface was comparable to that of the DNase-functionalized surface. More importantly, due to their inherent stability, DNase-mimicking polymer brushes presented the much better performance in inhibiting bacterial biofilm development for prolonged periods of time, as compared to the natural DNase. The as-developed DNase-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface presents a promising approach to combat biomaterial-associated infections.

  1. Novel Strategy for Photopatterning Emissive Polymer Brushes for Organic Light Emitting Diode Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A light-mediated methodology to grow patterned, emissive polymer brushes with micron feature resolution is reported and applied to organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Light is used for both initiator functionalization of indium tin oxide and subsequent atom transfer radical polymerization of methacrylate-based fluorescent and phosphorescent iridium monomers. The iridium centers play key roles in photocatalyzing and mediating polymer growth while also emitting light in the final OLED structure. The scope of the presented procedure enables the synthesis of a library of polymers with emissive colors spanning the visible spectrum where the dopant incorporation, position of brush growth, and brush thickness are readily controlled. The chain-ends of the polymer brushes remain intact, affording subsequent chain extension and formation of well-defined diblock architectures. This high level of structure and function control allows for the facile preparation of random ternary copolymers and red–green–blue arrays to yield white emission. PMID:28691078

  2. Interaction between two parallel plates covered with a polyelectrolyte brush layer in an electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    An approximate analytic expression is derived for the interaction energy between two parallel plates covered with a polyelectrolyte brush layer in an electrolyte solution. The interaction energy has three components: electrostatic interaction energy between two brush layers before and after their contact, steric interaction energy between two brush layers after their contact, and the van der Waals interaction energy between the cores of the plates. It is shown that these three components are of the same order of magnitude and contribute equally to the total interaction energy between two polyelectrolyte-coated plates in an electrolyte solution. On the basis of Derjaguin's approximation, an approximate expression for the interaction energy between two spherical particles covered with polyelectrolyte brush layers is also derived.

  3. Peptides Displayed as High Density Brush Polymers Resist Proteolysis and Retain Bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy for rendering peptides resistant to proteolysis by formulating them as high-density brush polymers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by polymerizing well-established cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and showing that the resulting polymers are not only resistant to proteolysis but also maintain their ability to enter cells. The scope of this design concept is explored by studying the proteolytic resistance of brush polymers composed of peptides that are substrates for either thrombin or a metalloprotease. Finally, we demonstrate that the proteolytic susceptibility of peptide brush polymers can be tuned by adjusting the density of the polymer brush and offer in silico models to rationalize this finding. We contend that this strategy offers a plausible method of preparing peptides for in vivo use, where rapid digestion by proteases has traditionally restricted their utility. PMID:25314576

  4. Novel Strategy for Photopatterning Emissive Polymer Brushes for Organic Light Emitting Diode Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zachariah A; Narupai, Benjaporn; Pester, Christian W; Bou Zerdan, Raghida; Sokolov, Anatoliy; Laitar, David S; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Sprague, Scott; McGrath, Alaina J; Kramer, John W; Trefonas, Peter; Hawker, Craig J

    2017-06-28

    A light-mediated methodology to grow patterned, emissive polymer brushes with micron feature resolution is reported and applied to organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Light is used for both initiator functionalization of indium tin oxide and subsequent atom transfer radical polymerization of methacrylate-based fluorescent and phosphorescent iridium monomers. The iridium centers play key roles in photocatalyzing and mediating polymer growth while also emitting light in the final OLED structure. The scope of the presented procedure enables the synthesis of a library of polymers with emissive colors spanning the visible spectrum where the dopant incorporation, position of brush growth, and brush thickness are readily controlled. The chain-ends of the polymer brushes remain intact, affording subsequent chain extension and formation of well-defined diblock architectures. This high level of structure and function control allows for the facile preparation of random ternary copolymers and red-green-blue arrays to yield white emission.

  5. Rapid self-assembly of brush block copolymers to photonic crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamin R. Sveinbjörnsson; Raymond A. Weitekamp; Garret M. Miyake; Yan Xia; Harry A. Atwater; Robert H. Grubbs

    2012-01-01

    .... In this report, we demonstrate the rapid self-assembly of brush block copolymers to nanostructures with photonic bandgaps spanning the entire visible spectrum, from ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR...

  6. Dermal Exposure during Filling, Loading and Brushing with Products Containing 2-(2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Tielemans, E.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Limited quantitative information is available on dermal exposure to chemicals during various industrial activities. Therefore, within the scope of the EU-funded RISKOFDERM project, potential dermal exposure was measured during three different tasks: filling, loading and brushing. DEGBE

  7. Trends in Social Inequality in Tooth Brushing among Adolescents: 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether social inequality in tooth brushing frequency among adolescents changed from 1991 to 2014. The data material was seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark with data about frequency of tooth brushing and occupation of parents. The total number of participants was 31,464, of whom 21.7% brushed their teeth less than the recommended 2 times a day. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class increased from 7.7% in 1991 to 14.6% in 2014. The relative social inequality assessed by odds ratios for infrequent tooth brushing also increased from 1991 to 2014. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Trends in Social Inequality in Tooth Brushing among Adolescents: 1991-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg

    2015-01-01

    and occupation of parents. The total number of participants was 31,464, of whom 21.7% brushed their teeth less than the recommended 2 times a day. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class increased from 7.7% in 1991 to 14.6% in 2014. The relative social......This study examines whether social inequality in tooth brushing frequency among adolescents changed from 1991 to 2014. The data material was seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark with data about frequency of tooth brushing...... inequality assessed by odds ratios for infrequent tooth brushing also increased from 1991 to 2014....

  9. Effects of Bristle Hardness & Duration of Manual Tooth brushing on Plaque Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sunny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Poor oral health can have adverse effect on general health hence a good oral health is very essential, which in turn is achieved by good oral hygiene. Even though, the concept of good oral hygiene evolved 5000 years back, it is only in the beginning of 19th century it gained more importance. (1 Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most commonly occurring diseases affecting mankind. Dental plaque is a very important factor in the causation of both the diseases. (2 Aims & Objectives: To evaluate efficacy of four different types of toothbrushes, with difference in duration of brushing along with different bristle hardness in removal of microbial plaque. Material & Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, four groups with 40 subjects used manual toothbrushes with either hard, medium, soft and ultra-soft bristles. On baseline examination, clinical parameter plaque index (Sillness & Loe, 1964 was recorded. Selected subjects were refrained from all kinds of oral hygiene measures for 24 hrs before clinical appointment. On the day of clinical appointment scores of pre and post brushing were recorded in each patient when brushing time was set for 1 minute and same procedure was repeated after a wash off period of 3 days and similar recordings were made with brushing time of 11/2minute. Primary outcome was measured with differences in the plaque index (Sillness & Loe, 1964 compared to baseline. Results: Significant reduction in mean value of plaque score was observed on comparing pre-brushing and post-brushing data in all the subjects irrespective of bristle hardness in both 1 minute and 11/2 minute groups. On increasing time duration from 1 minute to 11/2 minute intergroup comparison revealed that significant correlation exist in mean plaque score reduction in subjects using medium bristle brush, soft bristle brush, ultra-soft bristle brush. However, no significant reduction in

  10. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste

    OpenAIRE

    Quirynen, Marc; De Soete, Marc; Pauwels, M.; Goossens, K.; Teughels, Wim; Van Eldere, Johan; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND, AIMS: Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Ea...

  11. Prevalence of Anemia in Brush Painters of a South Indian City, Mysore

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi; Meera S; Nishil Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Painters are chronically exposed to lead based paints, which causes anemia by impairing heme biosynthesis and increasing the red cell destruction. The present study was conducted to assess the lead exposure and haematological effects of lead in brush painters as they are chronically exposed to lead based paints. Objective: To estimate prevalence of anemia among brush painters and lead exposure among them. Methodology: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 occu...

  12. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marieke P T; Busscher, Henk J; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C; van Hoogmoed, Chris G

    2012-10-01

    Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h after brushing and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were measured. The contributions of plaque and saliva towards substantivity were determined by combining control plaques with experimental plaque or saliva samples and subsequently assessing their viabilities. Bacterial compositions in the various plaque and saliva samples were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The viabilities of plaques after brushing with Colgate-Total® and Crest-Pro-Health® were smaller than of control plaques and up to 12 h after brushing with Crest-Pro-Health® plaques still contained effective, residual antibacterial activity against control plaques. No effective, residual antibacterial activity could be measured in saliva samples after brushing. There was no significant difference in bacterial composition of plaque or saliva after brushing with the different toothpastes. Plaque-left-behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the substantive action of an antibacterial toothpaste containing stannous fluoride (Crest-Pro-Health®). The absorptive capacity of plaque-left-behind after brushing is of utmost clinical importance, since plaque is predominantly left behind in places where its removal and effective killing matter most. Therewith this study demonstrates a clear and new beneficial effect of the use of antibacterial toothpastes.

  13. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. Materials and methods First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h af...

  14. Applications of functional polymer brushes for nanoparticle uptake and prevention of protein adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifuzzaman, Shafi M.

    The central theme of this Ph.D. dissertation is to develop novel multifunctional polymer coatings for understanding partition of proteins and nanoparticles on polymers grafted to flat surfaces (so-called brushes). Systematic investigation of the adsorption phenomena is accomplished by utilizing surface-anchored assemblies comprising grafted polymers with variation in physical properties (i.e., length or/and grafting density) and chemical functionality. The chemical composition of the brush is tailored by either "chemical coloring" of a parent homopolymer brush with selective chemical moieties or by sequential growth of two chemically dissimilar polymer blocks. We present preparation of two types of tailor-made, surface-grafted copolymers: (1) those composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks (so-called amphiphilic polymer brushes), and (2) those comprising of anionic and cationic polymer segments (so-called polyampholyte brushes). We describe the organization of functionality in the grafted polymer brushes and the partitioning of proteins and nanoparticles using a battery of complementary analytical probes. Specifically, we address how varying the molecular weight, grafting density, and chemical composition of the brush affects adsorbtion and desorbtion of model proteins and gold nanoparticles. Our observations indicate densely-populated responsive amphiphilic polymers are very efficient in suppressing protein adsorption. In addition, we have established that the length of poly(ethylene glycol) spacers attached to a parent homopolymer brush is a key factor governing uptake of gold nanoparticles. Both grafting density and molecular weight of the coating are important in controlling the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein adsorption on surfaces. Our findings and methodologies can lead to the development of next generation environmentally friendly antifouling surfaces and will find application in medical devices, antifouling coatings and anti reflection finishes.

  15. Smart Camera System-on-Chip Architecture for Real-Time Brush Based Interactive Painting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Claesen, Luc; Vandoren, Peter; VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; Motten, Andy; Di Fiore, Fabian; Van Reeth, Frank; Liao, Jing; Yu, Jinhui

    2012-01-01

    Interactive virtual paint systems are very useful in editing all kinds of graphics artwork. Because of the digital tracking of strokes, interactive editing operations such as save, redo, resize etc. are possible. The structure of artwork generated can be used for animation in artwork cartoons. A novel System-onChip Smart Camera architecture is presented that can be used for tracking infrared fiber based brushes as well as real brushes in real-time. A dedicated SoC hardware implementation ...

  16. Friendship Network and Dental Brushing Behavior among Middle School Students: An Agent Based Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghipour, Maryam; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Afshin; Shariatpanahi, Seyed Peyman

    2017-01-01

    By using a standard questionnaire, the level of dental brushing frequency was assessed among 201 adolescent female middle school students in Tehran. The initial assessment was repeated after 5 months, in order to observe the dynamics in dental health behavior level. Logistic Regression model was used to evaluate the correlation among individuals? dental health behavior in their social network. A significant correlation on dental brushing habits was detected among groups of friends. This corre...

  17. Plaque index differences before and after teeth brushing with and without propolis dentifrice

    OpenAIRE

    Allin Perama Iswari; Eriska Riyanti; Dede Hadidjah

    2010-01-01

    Dentifrices used to aid plaque removal from dental surfaces and gums while teeth brushing. Propolis is one of bee products that can be added into dentifrices and its property is to inhibit plaque-forming bacteria growth. The main objective of this study was to rule out any plaque index differences before and after teeth brushing with and without propolis contained dentifrices. It was a quasi-experimental research with the single blind-parallel method. Subjects were 30 students...

  18. Brushing skills and plaque reduction using single- and triple-headed toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Marom, Yael; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of toothbrush design on brushing skills and plaque removal among young healthy adults. A population of 200 healthy young adults was approached. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two research groups: one used a manual single-headed toothbrush, while the other used a manual triple-headed toothbrush. At the start of the study, participants were asked to brush their teeth using the provided toothbrush with no prior guidance or instructions. Plaque Index (PI) was measured. Immediately afterward, participants were personally instructed on how to brush their teeth using the provided toothbrush. Toothbrushing performance skill was evaluated and scored using the toothbrushing performance skill index (TB-PS-I/Ashkenazi index) following the first brushing, as well as on a recall visit 1 week later. Following the first, uninstructed brushing, PI values ranged from 0.41 to 1.33, with higher plaque scores for the single-headed toothbrush group. One week after receiving brushing instructions, PI decreased in the both toothbrush groups and ranged between 0.12 and 0.81, with higher PI scores for the single-headed toothbrush group. Following the first, uninstructed brushing, total TB-PS-I scores, as well as component scores ("reaching" and "staying") showed no difference between the two toothbrush groups. One week after receiving brushing instructions, the TB-PS-I in the triple-headed toothbrush group was significantly higher than that in the single-headed toothbrush group. The triple-headed toothbrush was found to promote easier toothbrushing and plaque removal both before and after receiving toothbrushing instructions.

  19. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo, Clement C.; Ehizele, Adebola O.; Umoh, Agnes; Ojehanon, Patrick I.; Akhionbare, Osagie; Okechukwu, Robinson; Igbinosa, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on consumption of snacks. Results: A total of 242 students responded. De...

  20. Tooth brushing frequency in Mexican schoolchildren and associated socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Tooth brushing (with fluoridated toothpaste) is the most cost-effective intervention in dentistry and it is widely recommended to preserve good oral health. We aimed to determine the frequency of tooth brushing and the variables associated with this practice in schoolchildren living in southeast Mexico. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1644 schoolchildren, 6 to 13 years old. Questionnaires with socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables were administered to mothers/guardians of children. The dependent variable was the frequency of tooth brushing, which was categorized as 0 = tooth brushing less than once a day and 1 = tooth brushing at least once a day. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the final results. Results Mean age was 9.06±2.02 years and 49.1% were girls. The prevalence of tooth brushing at least once a day was 49.8%. In the multivariate model, characteristics related to tooth brushing frequency (p<0.05) were: older age (OR=1.11), being female (OR=1.64), having a larger family (OR=0.87), having had a visit to a dentist during the year preceding the study (OR=1.37), and having had fluoride applications by a professional (OR=1.39). Conclusions The results suggested that different variables (demographic, socioeconomic and dental) are associated with the frequency of tooth brushing. Family size (proxy variable for socioeconomic status) may indicate certain oral health inequalities in this population. PMID:24907713

  1. Uptake of pH-Sensitive Gold Nanoparticles in Strong Polyelectrolyte Brushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikran Kesal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of electrostatic attraction on the uptake of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs into positively charged strong poly-[2-(Methacryloyloxy ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (PMETAC polyelectrolyte brushes was investigated. In this work, PMETAC brushes were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (Si-ATRP. PMETAC/AuNP composite materials were prepared by incubation of the polymer brush coated samples into 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped AuNP (5 nm in diameter suspension. The electrostatic interactions were tuned by changing the surface charge of the AuNPs through variations in pH value, while the charge of the PMETAC brush was not affected. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM, ellipsometry, UV/Vis spectroscopy, gravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were employed to study the loading and penetration into the polymer brush. The results show that the number density of attached AuNPs depends on the pH value and increases with increasing pH value. There is also strong evidence that the particle assembly is dependent on the pH value of the AuNP suspension. Incubation of PMETAC brushes in AuNP suspension at pH 4 led to the formation of a surface layer on top of the brush (2D assembly due to sterical hindrance of the clustered AuNPs, while incubation in AuNP suspension at pH 8 led to deeper particle penetration into the brush (3D assembly. The straightforward control of particle uptake and assembly by tuning the charge density of the nanoparticle surface is a valuable tool for the development of materials for colorimetric sensor applications.

  2. Well-defined polyethylene molecular brushes by polyhomologation and ring opening metathesis polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hefeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel strategy using polyhomologation and ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) has been developed for the synthesis of well-defined polyethylene (PE) molecular brushes. Polyhomologation was used to afford an OH-terminated PE, which after transformation to the norbornyl PE macromonomer was subjected to ROMP. Kinetics of ROMP of the PE macromonomer was studied by in situ1H NMR monitoring. The brush structure was proved from HT-GPC, 1H NMR and DSC results.

  3. The changing forms and nature of borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary borders are not always where you would expect them to be. On a flight to America, for instance, the crew will inform you that passengers are not allowed to congregate in groups around the toilets or anywhere in the aircraft. This US State Department regulation applies whether you are on Swiss soil waiting for takeoff, contemplating the Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of 33’000 feet above international waters, or landing at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City. Borders are no lo...

  4. A CART extension using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    -space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature...

  5. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    -space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature...

  6. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  7. The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya (EUBAM), with the objective of supporting Libyan authorities in improving and developing the security of the country’s borders, was launched in May 2013 but suspended during the summer of 2014, because the security situation in Libya deteriorated. Therefore......’s assessment of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission, EUBAM Libya, and its contribution to the country’s overall security situation12. It takes departure in the complete deliverables of the Work Package 3, with The Libyan Review as the main source of reference. The aim of this chapter...

  8. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health."

  9. Pick up, move and release of nanoparticles utilizing co-non-solvency of PNIPAM brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunlong; Lopez de la Cruz, Ricardo A; Kieviet, Bernard D; Gojzewski, Hubert; Pons, Adeline; Julius Vancso, G; de Beer, Sissi

    2017-01-26

    A critical complication in handling nanoparticles is the formation of large aggregates when particles are dried e.g. when they need to be transferred from one liquid to another. The particles in these aggregates need to disperse into the destined liquid medium, which has been proven difficult due to the relatively large interfacial interaction forces between nanoparticles. We present a simple method to capture, move and release nanoparticles without the formation of large aggregates. To do so, we employ the co-non-solvency effect of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes in water-ethanol mixtures. In pure water or ethanol, the densely end-anchored macromolecules in the PNIPAM brush stretch and absorb the solvent. We show that under these conditions, the adherence between the PNIPAM brush and a silicon oxide, gold, polystyrene or poly(methyl methacrylate) colloid attached to an atomic force microscopy cantilever is low. In contrast, when the PNIPAM brushes are in a collapsed state in a 30-70 vol% ethanol-water mixture, the adhesion between the brush and the different counter surfaces is high. For potential application, we demonstrate that this difference in adhesion can be utilized to pick up, move and release 900 silicon oxide nanoparticles of diameter 80 nm using only 10 × 10 μm(2) PNIPAM brush.

  10. Calves Use an Automated Brush and a Hanging Rope When Pair-Housed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosia Zobel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calf housing often only meets the basic needs of calves, but there is a growing interest in providing enrichments. This study described the behaviour of calves when they were given the opportunity to interact with two commonly available enrichment items. Female and male calves (approximately 11 days old were pair-housed in 8 identical pens fitted with an automated brush and a hanging rope. Frequency and duration of behaviours were recorded on 3 separate days (from 12:00 until 08:00 the following day. Calves spent equal time using the brush and rope (27.1 min/day, but there was less variation in the use of the brush as opposed to the rope (coefficient of variation, CV: 23 vs. 78%, respectively. Calves had more frequent (94 bouts, CV: 24% and shorter (17.8 s/bout, CV: 24% brush use bouts compared to fewer (38 bouts, CV: 43% and longer (38.3 s/bout, CV: 53% rope use bouts. There was a diurnal pattern of use for both items. Frequency of play was similar to rope use, but total time playing was 8% of rope and brush use. Variability among calves suggested that individual preference existed; however, the social dynamics of the pair-housed environment were not measured and therefore could have influenced brush and rope use. Multiple enrichment items should be considered when designing improvements to calf housing.

  11. Minimum free-energy paths for the self-organization of polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleria, Ignacio; Mocskos, Esteban; Tagliazucchi, Mario

    2017-03-22

    A methodology to calculate minimum free-energy paths based on the combination of a molecular theory and the improved string method is introduced and applied to study the self-organization of polymer brushes under poor solvent conditions. Polymer brushes in a poor solvent cannot undergo macroscopic phase separation due to the physical constraint imposed by the grafting points; therefore, they microphase separate forming aggregates. Under some conditions, the theory predicts that the homogeneous brush and the aggregates can exist as two different minima of the free energy. The theoretical methodology introduced in this work allows us to predict the minimum free-energy path connecting these two minima as well as the morphology of the system along the path. It is shown that the transition between the homogeneous brush and the aggregates may involve a free-energy barrier or be barrierless depending on the relative stability of the two morphologies and the chain length and grafting density of the polymer. In the case where a free-energy barrier exists, one of the morphologies is a metastable structure and, therefore, the properties of the brush as the quality of the solvent is cycled are expected to display hysteresis. The theory is also applied to study the adhesion/deadhesion transition between two opposing surfaces modified by identical polymer brushes and it is shown that this process may also require surpassing a free-energy barrier.

  12. Bottle-brush polymers: adsorption at surfaces and interactions with surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, P M; Makuska, R; Varga, I; Meszaros, R; Titmuss, S; Linse, P; Pedersen, J Skov; Stubenrauch, Cosima

    2010-03-25

    Solution and adsorption properties of both charged and uncharged bottle-brush polymers have been investigated. The solution conformation and interactions in solution have been investigated by small-angle scattering techniques. The association of the bottle-brush polymers with anionic surfactants has also been studied. Surfactant binding isotherm measurements, NMR, surface tension measurements, as well as SAXS, SANS and light scattering techniques were utilized for understanding the association behaviour in bulk solutions. The adsorption of the bottle-brush polymers onto oppositely charged surfaces has been explored using a battery of techniques, including reflectometry, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and neutron reflectivity. The combination of these techniques allowed determination of adsorbed mass, layer thickness, water content, and structural changes occurring during layer formation. The adsorption onto mica was found to be very different to that on silica, and an explanation for this was sought by employing a lattice mean-field theory. The model was able to reproduce a number of salient experimental features characterizing the adsorption of the bottle-brush polymers over a wide range of compositions, spanning from uncharged bottle-brushes to linear polyelectrolytes. This allowed us to shed light on the importance of electrostatic surface properties and non-electrostatic surface-polymer affinity for the adsorption. The interactions between bottle-brush polymers and anionic surfactants in adsorbed layers have also been elucidated using ellipsometry, neutron reflectivity and surface force measurements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, U M; Singhal, P

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and brushed his/her teeth under supervision of one instructor. The grip type during tooth brushing was recorded on a videotape and duration of tooth brushing also was noted. The data were analyzed in relation to the age and gender using the chi-square test. ANOVA was used to find if there is any significant difference between the mean brushing times in the different groups. The results of statistical analysis showed that in all cases P> 0.05 for grip preferences and P. The required manual dexterity for tooth brushing was present in younger age groups.

  14. Grafting density effects, optoelectrical properties and nano-patterning of poly(para-phenylene) brushes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Alonzo, Jose [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Yu, Xiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Hong, Kunlun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Messman, Jamie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Ivanov, Ilia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Lavrik, Nickolay V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Banerjee, Moloy [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States); Rathore, Rajendra [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States); Sun, Zhenzhong [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Li, Dawen [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mays, Jimmy W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sumpter, Bobby G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science and Computer Science and Mathematics Division; Kilbey II, S. Michael [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2013-09-24

    Well-defined conjugated polymers in confined geometries are challenging to synthesize and characterize, yet they are potentially useful in a broad range of organic optoelectronic devices such as transistors, light emitting diodes, solar cells, sensors, and nanocircuits. We report a systematic study of optoelectrical properties, grafting density effects, and nanopatterning of a model, end-tethered conjugated polymer system. Specifically, poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) brushes of various grafting density are created in situ by aromatizing well-defined, end-tethered poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) “precursor brushes”. Furthermore, this novel precursor brush approach provides a convenient way to make and systematically control the grafting density of high molecular weight conjugated polymer brushes that would otherwise be insoluble. Finally, this allows us to examine how grafting density impacts the effective conjugation length of the conjugated PPP brushes and to adapt the fabrication method to develop spatially patterned conjugated brush systems, which is important for practical applications of conjugated polymer brushes.

  15. Evaluation of renal masses including retrograde renal brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, W B; Bibbo, M; Thomsen, S; Lu, C T

    1976-02-01

    1. The evaluation of renal masses has become an increasingly important topic because of the increasing incidence of kidney cancer, the improved cure rate of renal carcinoma with the proper preoperative diagnosis, and the proliferation in renal mass diagnostic methodology. 2. A variety of benign entities can produce an abnormal renal mass with attendant difficulties in being distinguished from malignant neoplasms. Among these benign lesions are: simple renal cysts, polycystic kidneys, congenital variations in renal size and shape, segmental renal hypertrophy, renal infarcts, intrarenal hematomas, renal hamartomas, renal leiomyomas, renal adenomas, renal angiomas, renal fibrolipomatosis, hydronephrosis of a duplicated collecting system, renal abscesses, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. 3. Nephrotomography, nephrosonography (ultrasound), adrenalin renal arteriography, selective magnification renal arteriography, renal venography and cavography, lymphangiography, renal scintillation scanning, abnormal levels of enzymes in blood and urine, immunologic studies (circulating antibodies and tumor-associated antigens), percutaneous needle aspirations, and retrograde renal brushing have all increased the diagnostic accuracy of determining the etiology of renal masses. None of these diagnostic procedures is infallible. A judicious combination of procedures gives the most reliable diagnostic results. 4. A search continues for (a) chemical agent(s) or a chemical profile in the blood or urine which is (are) specific for renal carcinoma, but as yet this is an investigational area and not a practical clinical reality.

  16. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.

  17. Fundamental and Applied Studies of Polymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Joseph

    Four major areas have been studied in this research: 1) synthesizing novel monomers, e.g. chiral monomers, to produce new types of functionalized membranes for the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, 2) hydrophobic brush membranes for desalinating brackish water, sea water, and separating organics, 3) fundamental studies of water interactions at surfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG), and 4) discovering new surface chemistries that will control the growth and differentiation of stem cells. We have developed a novel synthesis method in order to increase the breadth of our high throughput screening library. This library was generated using maleimide chemistry to react a common methacrylate linker with a variety of different functions groups (R groups) in order to form new monomers that were grafted from the surface of PES ultrafiltration membranes. From this work, we discovered that the chirality of a membrane can affect performance when separating chiral feed streams. This effect was observed when filtering bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin in a high salt phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 150 mM salt). The Phe grafted membranes showed a large difference in performance when filtering BSA with selectivity of 1.13 and 1.00 for (S) and (R) Phe, respectively. However, when filtering ovalbumin, the (S) and (R) modified surfaces showed selectivity of 2.06 and 2.31, respectively. The higher selectivity enantiomer switched for the two different proteins. Permeability when filtering BSA was 3.06 LMH kPa-1 and 4.31 LMH kPa -1 for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively, and 2.65 LMH kPa -1 and 2.10 LMH kPa-1 when filtering ovalbumin for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively. Additionally, these effects were no longer present when using a low salt phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM salt). Since, to our knowledge, membrane chirality is not considered in current industrial systems, this discovery could have a large impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. We

  18. Border Security: A Conceptual Model of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and poverty issues),89 distance to POEs, and risk of deportation , cross-border attendance has reduced significantly, in turn slowing the passing down...plants eradicated in Colombia , or the number of illegal immigrants apprehended, or the number of assault weapons interdicted enroute to Mexico, for

  19. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  20. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax ev...

  1. THE LESSONS OF THE BORDER WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    spare parts, etc. This was true of the Border War as well. In general, the troops fighting the counter-insurgency war in the north of Namibia were well supplied. Most of the ... body. This meant that the loading of supplies were undertaken haphazardly, without the needs of the frontline troops being taken into account, with the.

  2. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  3. Sharing Knowledge and Experience Across Borders | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yemeni farmers have to drill their wells as deep as six metres to get enough water to irrigate crops. In this parched country — bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east ... Qahtan has noticed that engineering students are now working at a faster pace. "Designs are readily available on the Internet," he adds.

  4. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  5. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  6. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ). It deals with situations such as rhino poaching, smuggling of narcotics into South Africa, and transporting stolen goods and vehicles out and across the border. In Section 2 we discuss the JC2 concept as well as the role of the Interoperability...

  7. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...... the variability in the implementation of the EU Data Protection Directive (DPD) across participating centres....

  8. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  9. e Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siphamandla Zondi and Emmanuel Réjouis the ruling of the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) as agreed at. Algiers, and Eritrea laments the disregard of agreements, especially by the inter- national community that witnessed them. The Boundary Commission, charged with adjudicating a ruling on the border ...

  10. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A fly carrying a deadly parasite is endemic in the jungles of the Iguazu Falls, located where the borders of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay meet. For centuries, this insect did not bother anyone in this remote area. But as its territory has been encroached on by settlements, the disease has spread. With IDRC's support ...

  11. Simulation and modelling of slip flow over surfaces grafted with polymer brushes and glycocalyx fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingge; Li, Xuejin; Liang, Haojun; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em

    2012-11-01

    Fabrication of functionalized surfaces using polymer brushes is a relatively simple process and parallels the presence of glycocalyx filaments coating the luminal surface of our vasculature. In this paper, we perform atomistic-like simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to study both polymer brushes and glycocalyx filaments subject to shear flow, and we apply mean-field theory to extract useful scaling arguments on their response. For polymer brushes, a weak shear flow has no effect on the brush density profile or its height, while the slip length is independent of the shear rate and is of the order of the brush mesh size as a result of screening by hydrodynamic interactions. However, for strong shear flow, the polymer brush is penetrated deeper and is deformed, with a corresponding decrease of the brush height and an increase of the slip length. The transition from the weak to the strong shear regime can be described by a simple 'blob' argument, leading to the scaling γ̇0 ∝ σ3/2, where γ̇0 is the critical transition shear rate and σ is the grafting density. Furthermore, in the strong shear regime, we observe a cyclic dynamic motion of individual polymers, causing a reversal in the direction of surface flow. To study the glycocalyx layer, we first assume a homogeneous flow that ignores the discrete effects of blood cells, and we simulate microchannel flows at different flow rates. Surprisingly, we find that, at low Reynolds number, the slip length decreases with the mean flow velocity, unlike the behaviour of polymer brushes, for which the slip length remains constant under similar conditions. (The slip length and brush height are measured with respect to polymer mesh size and polymer contour length, respectively.) We also performed additional DPD simulations of blood flow in a tube with walls having a glycocalyx layer and with the deformable red blood cells modelled accurately at the spectrin level. In this case, a plasma cell-free layer

  12. Multicomponent membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  13. Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunez-Neto, Blas

    2005-01-01

    .... Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border...

  14. A comparison of two chlorhexidine gel brushing regimens and a conventional toothpaste brushing regimen for the development of tooth staining over a 6-week period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, N C A; Addy, M; Adams, G; Smith, S R; Bosma, M L; North, M; Moran, J

    2006-11-01

    A single-centre, randomized single-blind parallel study was undertaken to compare staining seen with three brushing regimens and to determine subject perception of side effects such as staining and effects on taste. This 6-week parallel study used 157 volunteers who were randomized into one of three treatment groups: (i) brushing in the morning and evening with a normal dose of a 1% chlorhexidine gel, (ii) brushing with a low dose of chlorhexidine gel in the evening and a whitening dentifrice in the morning, and (iii) brushing with a standard fluoride paste in the morning and evening. Following home usage of their allocated products, the study volunteers returned after 3 and 6 weeks to record the amount of stain present. After the 6-week period, subject perception of taste and stain acceptability was determined using a questionnaire. After 6 weeks of use of the low-dose chlorhexidine gel and whitening dentifrice, significantly more stain was seen compared with the use of a standard dentifrice (Pwhitening dentifrice (P=0.0007). Approximately 30% of individuals on the low-dose chlorhexidine gel regimen found the amount of stain unacceptable and 10% noted an effect on their taste perception. The use of low dose of chlorhexidine gel at night and a whitening paste in the morning produced a significant amount of stain that 30% of subjects considered unacceptable.

  15. Adsorption of Anionic Surfactants in a Nonionic Polymer Brush: Experiments, Comparison with Mean-Field Theory, and Implications for Brush-Particle Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Keizer, de A.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brushes was studied using a fixed-angle optical flow-cell reflectometer. We show that, just as in solution, there is a critical association concentration

  16. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  17. API and PNR data in use for border control authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Chang; McGauran, Rachel; Nelen, Hans

    Airplanes transport a large number of travelers simultaneously, and airports are often described as inland borders where strangers converge and disperse. They are also a conduit for terrorism and transnational crimes. Border control authorities have endeavored to obtain information regarding

  18. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...... and tourism firms. Based on the empirical evidence it seems that the positive impact that cross-border shopping can have on attracting large numbers of tourists into the region can outweigh the negative impact of tourists preferring border shops to local products and services: cross-border shopping has become...

  19. Drilling Deeper into tooth brushing skills: Is proactive interference an under-recognized factor in oral hygiene behavior change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Kumar, Madan; Mohandoss, Anusa Arunachalam; Vernon, Lance T

    2015-09-01

    Proper tooth brushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Integrated Health Coaching (IHC), may help optimize tooth brushing technique in those with suboptimal skills. Some motor activities, including tooth brushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill. Proactive interference may impede the acquisition of new tooth brushing skills; thus, in this report, we: (1) Review how the habit of tooth brushing is formed; (2) Postulate how proactive interference could impede the establishment of proper tooth brushing retraining; (3) Discuss the merits of this hypothesis; and (4) Provide guidance for future work in this topic within the context of an approach to behavior change that integrates IMB, MI and IHC methodology.

  20. Border bases and order ideals: a polyhedral characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Border bases arise as a canonical generalization of Gr\\"obner bases. We provide a polyhedral characterization of all order ideals (and hence border bases) that are supported by a zero-dimensional ideal: order ideals that support a border basis correspond one-to-one to integral points of the order ideal polytope. In particular, we establish a crucial connection between the ideal and its combinatorial structure. Based on this characterization we adapt the classical border basis algorithm to all...

  1. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  2. Contamination Impact of Station Brush Fire on Cleanroom Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Phil; Blakkolb, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Brush and forest fires, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic in origin, in proximity to space flight hardware processing facilities raise concerns about the threat of contamination resulting from airborne particulate and molecular components of smoke. Perceptions of the severity of the threat are possibly heightened by the high sensitivity of the human sense of smell to some components present in the smoke of burning vegetation.On August 26th, 2009, a brushfire broke out north of Pasadena, California, two miles from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Station Fire destroyed over 160,000 acres, coming within a few hundred yards of JPL. Smoke concentrations on Lab were very heavy over several days. All Lab operations were halted, and measures were taken to protect personnel, critical hardware, and facilities. Evaluation of real-time cleanroom monitoring data, visualinspection of facilities, filter systems, and analysis of surface cleanliness samples revealed facility environments andhardware were minimally effected.Outside air quality easily exceeded Class Ten Million. Prefilters captured most large ash and soot; multi-stage filtration greatly minimized the impact on the HEPA/ULPA filters. Air quality in HEPA filtered spacecraft assembly cleanrooms remained within Class 10,000 specification throughout. Surface cleanliness was inimally affected, as large particles were effectively removed from the airstream, and sub-micron particles have extremely long settling rates. Approximate particulate fallout within facilities was 0.00011% area coverage/day compared to 0.00038% area coverage/day during normal operations. Deposition of condensable airborne components, as measured in real time, peaked at approximately1.0 ng/cm2/day compared to 0.05 ng/cm2/day nominal.

  3. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  4. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, C E; Milgrom, P

    2015-02-01

    This study developed and tested an intervention to help parents establish a routine of brushing their young children's teeth twice a day. Community-based participatory research methods were used to engage parents in the design of the intervention to maximize its relevance and acceptability to others. Input was obtained by interviews and focus groups. The resulting intervention was four 90-min small-group sessions that provided educational information, direct instruction, practice and peer-to-peer problem-solving. A pre- to post-non-randomized design was used to evaluate the intervention's effect to increase or maintain parents' twice daily brushing. Intervention participants were 67 primary caregivers of children under six years of age. Of the 67 initial participants, 50 completed a post-intervention questionnaire administered 4 to 8 weeks following the intervention. The proportion of parents who reported brushing their young children's teeth twice a day increased significantly from 59 per cent prior to the intervention to 89 per cent post-intervention (McNemar's X(2)  = 10.71, P = 0.002). There were concomitant and statistically significant increases over the study period in parents' confidence for brushing twice a day, attitudes about the importance of brushing and their self-efficacy for tooth brushing. Parents' knowledge of children's oral health, assessed by a 15-item scale developed for this study ('Things to Know About Baby Teeth'), also increased significantly. Twice daily tooth brushing is a low-cost, effective strategy to reduce the risk of childhood caries. As demonstrated here, community-based efforts can help parents achieve this important health behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, CE; Milgrom, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study developed and tested an intervention to help parents establish a routine of brushing their young children’s teeth twice a day. Methods Community-based participatory research methods were used to engage parents in the design of the intervention to maximize its relevance and acceptability to others. Input was obtained by interviews and focus groups. The resulting intervention was four 90-min small-group sessions that provided educational information, direct instruction, practice and peer-to-peer problem-solving. A pre- to post-non-randomized design was used to evaluate the intervention’s effect to increase or maintain parents’ twice daily brushing. Results Intervention participants were 67 primary caregivers of children under six years of age. Of the 67 initial participants, 50 completed a post-intervention questionnaire administered 4 to 8 weeks following the intervention. The proportion of parents who reported brushing their young children’s teeth twice a day increased significantly from 59 per cent prior to the intervention to 89 per cent post-intervention (McNemar’s X2 = 10.71, P = 0.002). There were concomitant and statistically significant increases over the study period in parents’ confidence for brushing twice a day, attitudes about the importance of brushing and their self-efficacy for tooth brushing. Parents’ knowledge of children’s oral health, assessed by a 15-item scale developed for this study (‘Things to Know About Baby Teeth’), also increased significantly. Conclusions Twice daily tooth brushing is a low-cost, effective strategy to reduce the risk of childhood caries. As demonstrated here, community-based efforts can help parents achieve this important health behaviour. PMID:25070036

  6. Tooth-brushing and dentifrice use among children ages 6 to 60 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzman, Michael R; Levy, Steven M; Warren, John J; Broffitt, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Tooth-brushing and fluoride dentifrice use are the primary oral health activities for young children. Fluoridated dentifrice has had an important impact on the reduction in children's caries lesion rates, but no studies have focused on patterns of use at multiple time points early in life. The purpose of this paper is to describe tooth-brushing and fluoride dentifrice use in a cohort of children from ages 6 to 60 months. The data are from the Iowa Fluoride Study, a longitudinal investigation of fluoride intake from birth. Questionnaires assessed tooth-brushing patterns and fluoride dentifrice use at age 6 months, and at 3-, 4-, or 6-month intervals thereafter. At 6 months of age, 28% of the children's teeth were brushed or cleaned, and 3% of these used fluoridated dentifrice, increasing to 95% at 20 months (83% of them with fluoridated dentifrice). Use of dentifrice flavored for children increased from 40% of those brushing at 9 months to 71% at 60 months. From 9 to 32 months, about 55% of the children were using approximately the recommended amount of dentifrice. However, the percentage using more than recommended increased from 12% at 9 months to 64% at 60 months. Mothers placed the dentifrice on the toothbrush 85% of the time at 9 months, 81% at 20 months, 49% at 36 months, and 31% at 60 months. By age 2, almost all children were brushing with fluoridated dentifrice, but less than half brushed twice a day, even at age 5. Mothers played the most important role in the children's home care habits.

  7. The use of non-bronchoscopic brushings to study the paediatric airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicic Anthony

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of cytology brushes for the purpose of obtaining respiratory cells from adults for clinical and research purposes is well established. However, the safety and utility of non-bronchoscopic brushings to study the paediatric airway has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the practicality of using non-bronchoscopic brushing to sample epithelial cells from children for investigation of epithelial function in health and disease using a wide range of molecular and cellular techniques. Methods Non-bronchoscopic brushing was investigated in a non-selected cohort of healthy, and mildly asthmatic children presenting for surgery unrelated to respiratory conditions, at the major children's hospital in Perth. Safety and side-effects of the procedure were assessed. Cell number, phenotype and viability were measured for all samples. The potential of these cells for use in long-term cell culture, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, quantitative PCR and gene arraying was examined. Results Non-bronchoscopic brushing was well tolerated in all children. The only significant side effect following the procedure was cough: nursing staff reported cough in 20% of patients; parents reported cough in 40% of patients. Cells sampled were of sufficient quantity and quality to allow cell culture in 93% of samples. Similarly, protein and RNA extracted from the cells was suitable for investigation of both gene and protein expression using micro-array and real-time PCR. Conclusion Non-bronchoscopic brushing in children is safe and easy to perform, and is not associated with any complications. Using this technique, adequate numbers of epithelial cells can be retrieved to allow cell culture, western blotting, real time PCR, and microarray analysis. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the utility of non-bronchoscopic airway brushing to obtain and study epithelial cells and to encourage others so that we can accelerate

  8. A 12-week clinical comparison of an oscillating-rotating power brush versus a marketed sonic brush with self-adjusting technology in reducing plaque and gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Grender, Julie M; Conde, Erinn; Goyal, C Ram

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the comparative gingivitis and plaque reduction efficacy of a leading oscillating-rotating power toothbrush and a recently introduced sonic toothbrush in adults with gingivitis. This was a 12-week, randomized and controlled, parallel group, examiner-blind, single-center clinical study of 130 adults with pre-existing gingivitis and plaque. At baseline, the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and total number of bleeding sites were assessed, along with plaque levels (whole mouth, gingival margin, and interproximal) via the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Qualified subjects were randomly assigned to one of two power toothbrush test groups: the Oral-B Triumph with SmartGuide (marketed in the United States as the Oral-B Professional Care SmartSeries 5000 [D34]) oscillating-rotating brush, or the Colgate ProClinical A1500 (also marketed as elmex ProClinical) sonic brush. Subjects brushed at home for two minutes twice daily with their assigned power toothbrush and a marketed sodium fluoride dentifrice, and were reevaluated for gingivitis at Week 4 and Week 12 via the MGI, GBI, and total number of bleeding sites, and for plaque reduction via the RMNPI. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the 130 enrolled subjects completed the trial and 62 and 65 subjects in the oscillating-rotating and sonic brush groups, respectively, had evaluable data for analysis. Statistically significant mean reductions in all three gingivitis parameters and plaque relative to baseline were seen at both Weeks 4 and 12 with unsupervised use of both test toothbrushes (p gingival margin plaque (36% at Week 4; p = 0.004), and interproximal plaque (39% and 26% at Weeks 4 and 12, respectively; p gingivitis via multiple outcome measures compared to a new sonic toothbrush after both four weeks and 12 weeks of tooth brushing.

  9. [Priority health problems in the Mexico-United States border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, H

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows a general scope of migration and border health in the US-Mexico border. Project CONSENSO's methodology and the results founded by the local and state health personnel are presented. This activity enabled health personnel from both countries to identify the most relevant health problems at the Northern and Southern US and Mexico border.

  10. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available border environment. This environment includes land border lines and ports of entry; the harbours, coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone in the sea; and the airports and air borders that can essentially be anywhere in the country where international...

  11. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study of the Burmese-Thai Border. Burmese women workers in Thai border factories are generally excluded from the benefits and protection that define citizenship entitlements. Their employment contracts are not protected by the regulations drawn up for ...

  12. Proceedings of Border Institute VI: transboundary ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Rick Van Schoik

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystems are bisected by international borders along the United States-Mexican border; infrastructure and the heightened security activities bisect the north-south cores, corridors, and buffers essential to preservation of ecosystems. The Southwest Consortium for Environmental Research and Policy (SCERP) and its partners convened an annual policy conference, Border...

  13. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security...

  14. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office of...

  15. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  16. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  17. Cross-border Movement of People between Russia and Poland and Their Influence on the Economy of Border Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia A Zaitseva; Valentin S Korneevets; Elena G Kropinova; Tatyana Yu Kuznetsova; Ludmila V Semenova

    2016-01-01

      The ever-increasing role of cross-border movement for the development of the economies of the regions of neighboring countries located in the immediate vicinity of the border defines the topicality of this research...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of metal oxide nanorod brushes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    . The length of the nanorods is. <2 μm and is not up to the thickness of the membrane suggesting the discontinuity in the structure. TEM image shown in figure 4b confirms the rod-like morphology of. MoO3. The electron diffraction pattern shown ...

  19. Toothbrush abrasivity in a long-term simulation on human dentin depends on brushing mode and bristle arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of dentin to brushing abrasion using four different toothbrushes (rotating-oscillating, sonic and two types of manual toothbrushes) with the same brushing forces. Methods Dentin samples (n = 72) were selected from 72 impacted third molars. Half of the surface of dentin samples was covered with an adhesive tape, creating a protected and a freely exposed area in the same specimen. Brushing was performed with either a: sonic (Sonicare PowerUp, Philips GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), b: oscillating-rotating (Oral B Vitality Precisions Clean, Procter & Gamble, Schwalbach am Taunus, Germany) or two different manual toothbrushes c: flat trim brush head toothbrush (Dr. Best: Original, Glaxo-Smith-Kline, Bühl, Germany) and d: rippled-shaped brush head toothbrush (Blend-a-Dent, Complete V-Interdental, Blend-a-med, Schwalbach, Germany) in a custom made automatic brushing machine. The brushing force was set to 2 N and a whitening toothpaste (RDA = 150) was used. The simulation period was performed over a calculated period to mimic a brushing behavior of two times a day brushing for eight years and six months. Dentin loss was quantitatively determined by profilometry and statistically analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney-U Test (p toothpaste, manual toothbrushes are significantly less abrasive compared to power toothbrushes for an 8.5—year simulation. PMID:28222156

  20. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between parents' perceived social norms for toothbrushing and the frequency with which they report brushing their child's teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubey, R J; Moore, S C; Chestnutt, I G

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether parents' judgements on how often other parents brush their children's teeth are associated with the frequency with which they brush their own children's teeth, and their satisfaction with their child's brushing routine. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey completed by 297 parents of children aged 3-6. Parents were asked how often they brushed their own child's teeth per week, how often they thought other parents did so, and how satisfied they were with their child's toothbrushing routine. Demographic data were also collected. The mean frequency that parents brushed their children's teeth was 12.5 times per week. Multiple regression analysis tested the relationship between parents' perceptions of other parents brushing frequency (mean 10.5 times per week) and how often they brushed their own child's teeth, controlling for socio-demographic factors, and yielded a positive association (p brushing routine and the extent to which they thought it was better than that of the average child (p brush their children's teeth are associated with their own behaviour and satisfaction. Re-framing oral health messages to include some form of social normative information ("most parents do this") may prove more persuasive than simple prescriptive advice ("you should do this").

  2. Measurement of Tooth Brushing Frequency, Time of Day and Duration of Adults and Children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahardjo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological study of tooth brushing is essential to evaluate dental health of a country. Objective: To obtain data on tooth brushing frequency, time of day and duration from adults and children in Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: Toothbrushes containing data loggers were distributed to 120 random families in Jakarta to record how many times a day, when and for how long subjects brushed their teeth. The families were each composed of a mother, father and two children aged between 6 and 15 years. Results: The mean brushing frequency of the population was 1.27 times per day. The majority of the tooth brushing (46% was performed in the morning. The mean tooth brushing duration of this population was 57.29 seconds. The mothers’ tooth brushing frequencies tended to be higher than that of the other family members, and the fathers tended to brush their teeth longer. Conclusion: Effective education aimed at increasing both the duration and frequency of tooth brushing from once to twice per day is urgently required in Indonesia.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v21i3.251

  3. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  4. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  5. Deaths at the borders database : evidence of deceased migrants’ bodies found along the southern external borders of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Last, T.K.; Mirto, Giorgia; Ulusoy, O.; Urquijo, Ignacio; Harte, J.M.; Bami, Nefeli; Pérez Pérez, Marta; Macias Delgado, Flor; Tapella, Amélie; Michalaki, Alexandra; Michalitsi, Eirini; Latsoudi, Efi; Tselepi, Naya; Chatziprokopiou, Marios; Spijkerboer, T.P.

    2017-01-01

    Irregular migrants and asylum seekers have died and continue to die attempting to cross the external borders of the EU without authorisation, seeking to enter the territories of its Member States. Yet, remarkably little is known about these ‘border deaths’. In 2015, the Human Costs of Border Control

  6. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  7. Off-shoring and out-sourcing the borders of EUrope: Libya and EU border work in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines some of the novel ways in which the European Union carries out its ‘border-work’- border-work that stretches far beyond the external borders of the current Union. It highlights, in particular, the role of EUrope's neighbours in new strategies of securitisation, drawing attention

  8. The relationship between tongue brushing and halitosis in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileri Keceli, T; Gulmez, D; Dolgun, A; Tekcicek, M

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the clinical and microbiological effects of tongue brushing on malodour in children. One hundred and fifty-one caries-free children were included. After clinical evaluation, halitosis was determined by organoleptic assessment and sulphide monitoring. Then, 69 children with high levels of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) were randomly assigned into two groups (group 1: scaling-polishing + tooth brushing + tongue brushing and group 2: scaling-polishing + tooth brushing), and tongue coating samples were collected for microbiological analysis. After 2 weeks, VSC measurements, organoleptic assessment, clinical evaluations and sample collection were repeated. In both groups, organoleptic scores, VSC levels, gingival index, plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing and Winkel tongue coating index (WTCI) scores decreased after 15 days. However, only the change in WTCI and PI scores showed a statistically significant intergroup difference. The most prevalent anaerobic bacteria were Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium spp., and no intergroup difference was observed in terms of colony counts of bacteria. Tongue brushing did not provide an additional benefit to the treatment for malodour. According to the microbiological culture results, a specific bacterium responsible for halitosis in children could not be identified and more sensitive methods might be used for this purpose. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Self-perceived oral health influences tooth brushing in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Bernardo Antonio; Machry, Rômulo Vaz; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto da Silva; Piovesan, Chaiana; Oliveira, Marta Dutra Machado; Bresolin, Carmela Rampazzo; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of socioeconomic and clinical factors, as well as parent's perception of child's oral health on the toothbrushing frequency of 0-5-year-old children. The study was carried out in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, during the National Children's Vaccination Day, and 478 children aged 0-5 years were included. Data were collected by clinical examinations and a structured questionnaire, conducted by 15 calibrated examiners and 30 supports. A questionnaire was filled out by the parents with information about several socioeconomic indicators, perception of child's oral health and frequency of tooth brushing. The main outcome was collected by the question: "How many times a day do you brush your child's teeth?". Multivariable Poisson regression model taking into account the cluster sample was performed to assess the association between the predictors and outcome. Children whose parents related worse perception of child's oral health showed less tooth brushing frequency (PR 1.23; 1.06 - 1.43). Young children brush their teeth less than the older ones (PR 0.90; 0.84 - 0.96); and lack of visit to a dentist was predictor for less tooth brushing frequency (PR 1.29; 1.05 - 1.59). Parent's perception of child oral health influence children's healthy behaviors, supporting the evidence that psychosocial factors are strong predictors of children's oral health.

  10. Plaque reduction in school children using a disposable brush pre-pasted with xylitol toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Barry L; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological data from many countries indicates a global increase in dental caries in children and adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if children in a school setting would accept an after lunch brushing program and if such program would be effective in reducing plaque. A small school of 300 students in Eastern Tennessee was selected to participate of which 200 elected to brush after lunch for 30 school days. Fifty-four students' anterior teeth were stained with a disclosing solution before, during and at the end of the study. The 54 students represented 4 students from each grade level, kindergarten through eighth grade An ADA approved 27 tuft brush pre-pasted with a paste made with 49% by weight of xylitol was given to each child after lunch. The paste did not require water or the need to spit. A short, 4 minute, musical educational video on correct brushing was designed with the assistance of the mathematics teacher to be shown while the students brushed. The students, principal, and the staff readily accepted the concept and were very cooperative and appreciative. The reduction in plaque levels was dramatic.

  11. An Examination of the Past Behaviour-Intention Relationship in the Case of Brushing Children's Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Makvandi, Zeinab; Faradmal, Javad; Bashirian, Saeid; Hazavehei, Mohammad M

    The present study sought to apply the expanded theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to the prediction of mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth and examine the mediating role of the variables of the TPB on the relationship between past behaviour and the intention. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 211 mothers with children ages 2 to 5 years. Participants completed measures of the TPB (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, perceived control and intention) and past behaviour in relation to brushing. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the predictors of mothers' intention. Mediation was assessed using Preacher and Hayes' INDIRECT.SPSS macro. The TPB explained 25% of the variance in brushing intention, with attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control making significant contributions. Past behaviour explained an additional 3% of the variance in intention. Analysis showed that TPB variables only partially mediate the effect of past behaviour on intention. Our findings revealed that mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth is under the control of both past behaviour and psychological factors. Accordingly, interventions to improve children's toothbrushing should focus on the motivational (e.g. attitude) as well as the habitual determinants (e.g. environmental cues). However, given the low explanatory power of our model, it may be necessary to incorporate other psychological and environmental variables into an explanation of the mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth.

  12. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  13. PNMBG: Point Neighborhood Merging with Border Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxia Wan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The special clustering algorithm is attractive for the task of grouping arbitrary shaped database into several proper classes. Up to now, a wide variety of clustering algorithms designed for this task have been proposed, the majority of these algorithms is density-based. But the effectivity and efficiency still is the great challenges for these algorithms as far as the clustering quality of such task is concerned. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary shaped clustering method with border grids (PNMBG, PNMBG is a crisp partition method. It groups objects to point neighborhoods firstly, and then iteratively merges these point neighborhoods into clusters via grids, only bordering grids are considered during the merging stage. Experiments show that PNMBG has a good efficiency especially on the database with high dimension. In general, PNMBG outperforms DBSCAN in the term of efficiency and has an almost same effectivity with the later.

  14. Cross-border emergency management. Grenzueberschreitender Notfallschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.; Lombard, J.; Rauber, D. (eds.)

    1999-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar give a survey of the cooperative activities, the national organisations, and the main aspects involved in cross-border emergency management by the neighbour states Germany, France, Switzerland and Austria. These major aspects are the leading themes of the various sessions of the seminar, devoted to: The legal bases and their implementation within national law; tasks and means in emergency management; bilateral agreements; decision-making processes in the early phase of an event, and in the late phase of an event; determination of the radiological situation; procedures of information and data exchange; information of the population; experience gained from cross-border emergency management exercises, and provision of bilateral assistance. (orig./CB)

  15. Borders, Tensegrity and Development in Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Giuseppina; Tateo, Luca

    2017-12-01

    In this article we propose a development of the Dialogical Self Theory by introducing the notions of borders, cogenetic logic and tensegrity that we have elaborated during the last 5 years, in order to introduce a stronger developmental and dynamic perspective within the theory. We start from the discussion of some recent advancements of the model proposed by Hermans et al. (Integrative Psychological and Behavioural Science, 51(4), 2017), who refer to the metaphor of democratic society of the Self to understand the challenges and possible directions of adaptation that the persons can face in those border-crossing processes characterizing contemporary western societies. We conceptualized the Self as a dynamic semiotic system in constant evolutive tension, rather than a system in equilibrium adapting to the environmental changing conditions. Then, we propose to replace the concept of stability and continuity of the Self with the more fruitful idea of tensional integrity.

  16. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks......-border regions....

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  18. Structural specificity of mucosal-cell transport and metabolism of peptide drugs: implication for oral peptide drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J. P.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The brush border membrane of intestinal mucosal cells contains a peptide carrier system with rather broad substrate specificity and various endo- and exopeptidase activities. Small peptide (di-/tripeptide)-type drugs with or without an N-terminal alpha-amino group, including beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, are transported by the peptide transporter. Polypeptide drugs are hydrolyzed by brush border membrane proteolytic enzymes to di-/tripeptides and amino acids. Therefore, while the intestinal brush border membrane has a carrier system facilitating the absorption of di-/tripeptide drugs, it is a major barrier limiting oral availability of polypeptide drugs. In this paper, the specificity of peptide transport and metabolism in the intestinal brush border membrane is reviewed.

  19. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    and deterrents to participate in that activity because the risk premium creates high rewards for successful entrepreneurs . This also attracts a...it comes to the rights of individual citizens. For example, U.S. officials have found it more difficult to collaborate with Canadian than Mexican ...Security.” 13 Phil Williams, “ Mexican Drug Violence: Contextual or Contagious?” Paper presented at workshop Borders and Borderlands in the

  20. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  1. Construction of Hierarchical Fouling Resistance Surfaces onto Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes for Combating Membrane Biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Hu, Xuefeng; Cai, Tao

    2017-05-09

    Owing to the highly hydrophobic nature, fluoropolymer membranes usually suffer from serious fouling problem, and therefore largely limited their practical applications. Also, the development of environmentally benign and nonreleasing antifouling coatings onto the inert fluoropolymer membranes remains a great challenge and is of prime importance for various scientific interests and industrial applications. In the present work, a facile and effective approach for the construction of hierarchical fouling resistance surfaces onto the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes was developed. Graft copolymers of PVDF with poly(hyperbranched polyglycerol methacrylamide) side chains (PVDF-g-PHPGMA copolymers) were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) graft copolymerization of pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (PFMA) with the ozone-preactivated PVDF, followed by activated ester-amine reaction of PPFMA chains with amino-terminated hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-NH2). The copolymers could be simply processed into microfiltration (MF) membranes with surface-tethered PHPGMA side chains on the membrane and pore surfaces by nonsolvent induced phase inversion. Furthermore, the PVDF-g-PHPGMA-g-PSBMA membrane was prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of zwitterionic monomer, N-(3-sulfopropyl)-N-(methacryloxyethyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium betaine (SBMA) from the PVDF-g-PHPGMA membrane and pore surfaces. Arise from a synergistic effect of the dendritic architecture of PHPGMA branches and "superhydrophilic" nature of PSBMA brushes, the PVDF-g-PHPGMA-g-PSBMA membranes exhibit superior resistance to protein and bacteria adhesion with insignificant cytotoxicity effects, making the membranes potentially useful for water treatment and biomedical applications. One may find the present study a general and effective method for the fabrication of antifouling fluoropolymer membranes in a controllable and green manner.

  2. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration ext......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers.......This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process...

  3. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  4. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  5. Toothbrush abrasivity in a long-term simulation on human dentin depends on brushing mode and bristle arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizhang, Mozhgan; Schmidt, Ilka; Chun, Yong-Hee Patricia; Arnold, Wolfgang H; Zimmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of dentin to brushing abrasion using four different toothbrushes (rotating-oscillating, sonic and two types of manual toothbrushes) with the same brushing forces. Dentin samples (n = 72) were selected from 72 impacted third molars. Half of the surface of dentin samples was covered with an adhesive tape, creating a protected and a freely exposed area in the same specimen. Brushing was performed with either a: sonic (Sonicare PowerUp, Philips GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), b: oscillating-rotating (Oral B Vitality Precisions Clean, Procter & Gamble, Schwalbach am Taunus, Germany) or two different manual toothbrushes c: flat trim brush head toothbrush (Dr. Best: Original, Glaxo-Smith-Kline, Bühl, Germany) and d: rippled-shaped brush head toothbrush (Blend-a-Dent, Complete V-Interdental, Blend-a-med, Schwalbach, Germany) in a custom made automatic brushing machine. The brushing force was set to 2 N and a whitening toothpaste (RDA = 150) was used. The simulation period was performed over a calculated period to mimic a brushing behavior of two times a day brushing for eight years and six months. Dentin loss was quantitatively determined by profilometry and statistically analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney-U Test (p toothbrush, 15.71 (±0.85) μm for the oscillating-rotating toothbrush, 6.13 (±1.24) μm for the manual toothbrush with flat trim brush head and 2.50 (±0.43) μm for the manual toothbrush with rippled-shaped brush head. Differences between all groups were statistically significant at ptoothpaste, manual toothbrushes are significantly less abrasive compared to power toothbrushes for an 8.5-year simulation.

  6. Comparison of a double-textured prototype manual toothbrush with 3 branded products. A professional brushing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, N; Leech, K; Addy, M; Newcombe, R G; Ley, F; Scratcher, C

    2000-10-01

    The consensus has been that there is no one superior design of manual toothbrush for plaque removal, despite, in some cases, encouraging findings from laboratory studies. The user appears the major variable and may mask differences in brush efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare 2 new double-filament texture brushes with 3 established brands for plaque removal, under standardised conditions of professional brushing. The study was a blind, randomised crossover design, balanced for residual effects. A panel of 15 subjects suspended tooth cleaning for 3 days. On day 4, plaque was scored from 6 sites per tooth before and after a 2-min professional toothbrushing. A washout period of at least 3 days was allowed between study periods. Overall plaque removal was 50% with no significant differences between brushes, a 3% absolute difference in average total mouth plaque separating brushes. However, at upper- and mid-buccal sites, a not significant 8% and a significant 9% difference, respectively, in plaque removal were recorded in favour of one of the prototype brushes, and at the mid-lingual site, there was a non-significant 10% difference in favour of one branded brush. Other sites were cleaned similarly by all brushes except for reduced plaque removal from buccal compared to lingual surfaces and interproximal compared to mid-surface sites. Highly significant subject differences in plaque removal were noted which may be relevant to inherent anatomical difficulties in tooth cleaning for some individuals. Period effects were not significant, supporting the consistency in brushing by the professional brusher. The method appeared capable of detecting small benefits of brush design. However, the benefits reported must be taken within the context of an overall lack of difference between brushes. The method could be used to set and record a minimum level of efficacy for toothbrushes.

  7. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  8. Nanostructure of Cationic Polymer Brush at the Air/Water Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Hideki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization and the nanostructure of their monolayers was investigated by π-A isotherm and X-ray reflectivity. Carpet layer (dense hydrophilic block layer formation under the hydrophobic layer was confirmed and a “brush” layer was found beneath the carpet layer. However, the thickness of brush layer was much thinner than that of the fully-stretched chain length. The critical salt concentration was found to be 0.01 M NaCl, which is much lower than that of the previous strongly anionic brush. These differences were probably caused by the low effective charge on the brush chains due to the hydrophobic nature of the quarternized ammonium cation.

  9. A theoretical study of colloidal forces near an amphiphilic polymer brush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianzhong

    2011-03-01

    Polymer-based ``non-stick'' coatings are promising as the next generation of effective, environmentally-friendly marine antifouling systems that minimize nonspecific adsorption of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). However, design and development of such systems are impeded by the poor knowledge of polymer-mediated interactions of biomacromolecules with the protected substrate. In this work, a polymer density functional theory (DFT) is used to predict the potential of mean force between spherical biomacromolecules and amphiphilic copolymer brushes within a coarse-grained model that captures essential nonspecific interactions such as the molecular excluded volume effects and the hydrophobic energies. The relevance of theoretical results for practical control of the EPS adsorption is discussed in terms of the efficiency of different brush configurations to prevent biofouling. It is shown that the most effective antifouling surface may be accomplished by using amphiphilic brushes with a long hydrophilic backbone and a hydrophobic end at moderate grafting density.

  10. Brushing Your Spacecrafts Teeth: A Review of Biological Reduction Processes for Planetary Protection Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, D.E. (Betsy); Rummel, J. D.; Conley, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Much like keeping your teeth clean, where you brush away biofilms that your dentist calls plaque, there are various methods to clean spaceflight hardware of biological contamination, known as biological reduction processes. Different approaches clean your hardwares teeth in different ways and with different levels of effectiveness. We know that brushing at home with a simple toothbrush is convenient and has a different level of impact vs. getting your teeth cleaned at the dentist. In the same way, there are some approaches to biological reduction that may require simple tools or more complex implementation approaches (think about sonicating or just soaking your dentures, vs. brushing them). There are also some that are more effective for different degrees of cleanliness and still some that have materials compatibility concerns. In this article, we review known and NASA-certified approaches for biological reduction, pointing out materials compatibility concerns and areas where additional research is needed.

  11. Graphite oxide platelets functionalized by poly(ionic liquid) brushes and their chemical reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jintao, E-mail: yangjt@zjut.edu.cn; Yan Xiaohui; Chen Feng; Fan Ping; Zhong Mingqiang [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology (China)

    2013-01-15

    In this paper, graphite oxide (GO) platelets functionalized by poly(ionic liquid) brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The chemical reduction of these functionalized platelets was also investigated. The functionalized platelets and their reduced products were characterized and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, {zeta} potential measurements, four-probe electrical measurements, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results demonstrated that the poly(ionic liquid) brushes could be grafted from the GO surface by SI-ATRP. The surface charges of the GO platelets surface transformed from negative to positive. Upon reduction by hydrazine, the functionalized platelets were partially reduced, as suggested by the observation that reduced GO exhibits electrical conductivity three magnitudes higher than that of original GO. Although partially reduced GO platelets were not as conductive as reduced GO without functionalization, they can be homogenously dispersed in water due to the presence of poly(ionic liquids) brushes.

  12. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  13. Auditory stimuli mimicking ambient sounds drive temporal "delta-brushes" in premature infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Chipaux

    Full Text Available In the premature infant, somatosensory and visual stimuli trigger an immature electroencephalographic (EEG pattern, "delta-brushes," in the corresponding sensory cortical areas. Whether auditory stimuli evoke delta-brushes in the premature auditory cortex has not been reported. Here, responses to auditory stimuli were studied in 46 premature infants without neurologic risk aged 31 to 38 postmenstrual weeks (PMW during routine EEG recording. Stimuli consisted of either low-volume technogenic "clicks" near the background noise level of the neonatal care unit, or a human voice at conversational sound level. Stimuli were administrated pseudo-randomly during quiet and active sleep. In another protocol, the cortical response to a composite stimulus ("click" and voice was manually triggered during EEG hypoactive periods of quiet sleep. Cortical responses were analyzed by event detection, power frequency analysis and stimulus locked averaging. Before 34 PMW, both voice and "click" stimuli evoked cortical responses with similar frequency-power topographic characteristics, namely a temporal negative slow-wave and rapid oscillations similar to spontaneous delta-brushes. Responses to composite stimuli also showed a maximal frequency-power increase in temporal areas before 35 PMW. From 34 PMW the topography of responses in quiet sleep was different for "click" and voice stimuli: responses to "clicks" became diffuse but responses to voice remained limited to temporal areas. After the age of 35 PMW auditory evoked delta-brushes progressively disappeared and were replaced by a low amplitude response in the same location. Our data show that auditory stimuli mimicking ambient sounds efficiently evoke delta-brushes in temporal areas in the premature infant before 35 PMW. Along with findings in other sensory modalities (visual and somatosensory, these findings suggest that sensory driven delta-brushes represent a ubiquitous feature of the human sensory cortex

  14. Efficacy of three denture brushes on biofilm removal from complete dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseana Aparecida Gomes Fermandes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three denture brushes (Bitufo-B; Medic Denture-MD; Colgate-C on biofilm removal from upper and lower dentures using a specific dentifrice (Corega Brite. The correlation between biofilm levels on the internal and external surfaces of the upper and lower dentures was also evaluated. A microbiological assay was performed to assess the growth of colony-formed units (cfu of Candida yeasts on denture surface. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in a 10-week trial divided in two stages: 1 (control - three daily water rinses within 1 week; 2 - three daily brushings within 3 weeks per tested brush. Internal (tissue and external (right buccal flange surfaces of the complete dentures were disclosed (neutral red 1% and photographed. Total denture areas and disclosed biofilm areas were measured using Image Tool 3.00 software for biofilm quantification. Dentures were boxed with #7 wax and culture medium (CHROMagarTM Candida was poured to reproduce the internal surface. Statistical analysis by Friedman's test showed significant difference (p0.01. Analysis by the Correlation test showed higher r values (B=0.78; MD=0.8341, C=0.7362 for the lower dentures comparing the surfaces (internal and external and higher r values (B=0.7861, MD=0.7955, C=0.8298 for the external surface comparing the dentures (upper and lower. The results of the microbiological showed no significant difference (p>0.01 between the brushes with respect to the frequency of the species of yeasts (chi-square test. In conclusion, all denture brushes evaluated in this study were effective in the removal of biofilm. There was better correlation of biofilm levels between the surfaces for the lower dentures, and between the dentures for the external surface. There was no significant difference among the brushes regarding the frequency of yeasts.

  15. Detection of Fungi in Hair-brushes in Beauty Salons at Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mitchelle Edward

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various beauty tools are used in beauty salons, among those is the hair-brush. The hair-brush can conceal various human skin pathogens although under harsh environmental conditions, most pathogens are killed; nevertheless, few microorganisms, such as the fungi can adapt and survive. Moreover, the moist conditions of the hair-brush predisposes the growth of fungi however the ability of these fungi to instigate disease in an individual is dependent on the portal of entry and the host immunological status. This study was conducted to determine the fungus that is present in the beauty salon’s hair-brushes. Methods: This study was conducted in beauty salons located in Jatinangor area during September–October 2013 using the descriptive laboratory method. Fifteen beauty salons were included in this study based on sample size calculation for dichotomous variable. The specimens from all the hair-brushes were collected after the owner’s informed consent, then cultured onto 30 sabouraud agar, two for each beauty salon (dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte agar. The fungi were detected macroscopically and microscopically. Results: Overall, 93% revealed to be culture positive, with 90% of them were found to be non-dermatophytes, most of which are saprophytic fungi. The remaining 3% were dermatophytes. Conclusions: Beauty salon’s hair-brushes contain a wide range of fungi distribution which may be a source of fungal colonization. However, most of the fungi found in the beauty salons are saprophytic fungi, therefore it is unnecessary to be anxious about a small amount of pathogenic fungi are found in humans.

  16. Cloning and Characterization of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-11

    defective cholesterol metabolism it binds but is not taken up (Brown and Goldstein, 1976). This indicates that the presence of a specific receptor on...cats and dogs. MHV-A59 binds only to brush border membranes of BALB/c mice, and not to brush border membranes from human, pig, cat, dog, rat and cow ...2.800 rpm. Fragments bigger than 500 bp were recovered from agarose gels by incubation with glass milk beads under the recommendations in the

  17. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  18. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  19. Experience of maintaining tooth brushing for children born with a cleft lip and/or palate

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yin-Ling; Davies, Karen; Callery, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundChildren with a Cleft Lip and/or Palate (CL/P) have been reported to have poorer oral health than those without the condition. The consequences for these children can be particularly problematic due to implications for future treatments. Tooth brushing is an important behaviour contributing to children's oral health, but is under researched in the CL/P population. The aim of the study was to explore the experience of maintaining tooth brushing among children in the United Kingdom (U...

  20. Normally Oriented Adhesion versus Friction Forces in Bacterial Adhesion to Polymer-Brush Functionalized Surfaces Under Fluid Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes, Jan J. T. M.; Veeregowda, Deepak H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is problematic in many diverse applications. Coatings of hydrophilic polymer chains in a brush configuration reduce bacterial adhesion by orders of magnitude, but not to zero. Here, the mechanism by which polymer-brush functionalized surfaces reduce bacterial adhesion from a