Sample records for brunhes lava flows

  1. Evidence for a new geomagnetic reversal from lava flows in Idaho: discussion of short polarity reversals in the Brunhes and late Matuyama Polarity Chrons (United States)

    Champion, D.E.; Lanphere, M.A.; Kuntz, M.A.


    K-Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for basalt samples from a new core hole (site E) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) indicate that the age of the reversed polarity event recorded in Snake River Plain lavas is older than 465 ?? 50 ka (1000 years before present) reported previously by Champion et al. (1981). A review of data documenting short reversal records from volcanic and sedimentary rocks shows that there is evidence for eight polarity subchrons in the Brunhes and two besides the Jaramillo in the late Matuyama. These 10 short subchrons begin to indicate the many short events that Cox (1968) hypothesized must exist if polarity interval lengths have a Poisson distribution. The mean sustained polarity interval length since late Matuyama Chron time is 90 000 years. The similarity of this number with the 105-year period of the Earth's orbital eccentricity suggests anew that linkage between geomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and possible underlying Earth orbital parameters should be evaluated. -from Authors

  2. Paleointensity variation across the Matuyama-Brunhes polarity transition: Observations from lavas at Punaruu Valley, Tahiti (United States)

    Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Oda, Hirokuni; Ishizuka, Osamu; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Tsunakawa, Hideo


    We have conducted a paleointensity study of the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) polarity transition recorded in 34 successive lava flows of Punaruu Valley on Tahiti. A reversed polarity is obtained from the lower part of the record, major directional changes are derived from the middle part of the record, and a normal polarity is recorded in the upper part of the record. These paleomagnetic directions and five 40Ar/39Ar ages yielding a weighted mean of 771 ± 8 (1σ) ka indicate that 30 lava flows recorded the geomagnetic field across the M-B transition. The 215 specimens from 32 flows were subjected to the double-heating technique of the Shaw method combined with low-temperature demagnetization (LTD-DHT Shaw method), yielding 73 successful results from 18 flows. For the reversed polarity period just prior to the major directional changes, paleointensity shows an oscillation-like variation between 3 and 38 μT corresponding to virtual dipole moments (VDMs) between 0.9 × 1022 and 9.6 × 1022 Am2. For the major directional changes, a weak paleointensity of 5 μT is obtained, which gives a VDM of 1.0 × 1022 Am2. For the normal polarity period, paleointensities are 14-21 μT, giving VDMs of 3.5-5.2 × 1022 Am2. For the reversed polarity period just prior to the major directional changes, a linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.96 is recognized on the diagram of VDM versus virtual geomagnetic pole latitude. This linear relationship may be a precursory feature of the geodynamo at the onset of the M-B transition.

  3. Physical modelling of lava flows

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    M. Dragoni


    Full Text Available Lava flows are not only a fascinating scientific problem, involving many branches of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics, but are natural events having a strong social impact. A reliable evaluation of volcanic hazard connected with lava flows depends on the availability of physical models allowing us to predict the evolution of these phenomena. In this regard, the rheological properties of lavas are of major importance in controlling the dynamics of lava flows. Lava is a multi-phase and chemically heterogeneous system. This entails a characteristic, non-Newtonian behaviour of lava flows, which is emphasized by the fact that the rheological parameters are strongly temperature dependent and are therefore affected by the progressive cooling of lava after effusion. Physical models of lava flows show us the complex relationships between the many quantities governing this process and in the near future they may allow us to predict the dynamics of lava flows and to take effective measures for the reduction of volcanic risk.

  4. Paleodirectional and Paleointensity Variations During the Brunhes-Matuyama Polarity Reversal From the Lava Sequence in Punaruu Valley, Tahiti Island (United States)

    Mochizuki, N.; Tsunakawa, H.; Kurata, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Oda, H.


    The polarity reversal is considered to show a large drop in the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) moment. Since GAD is the greatest component of the main field, its large change possibly gives key information about the geodynamo. To clarify behaviors of the geomagnetic field during the reversal, we have studied the Brunhes-Matuyama (B-M) polarity reversal recorded in 21 lavas of the lava succession in the northern side of Punaruu valley, Tahiti Island. Although Chauvin et al. (1990) reported the B-M reversal and older events from the lava sequence in the southern side of the same valley, only a few paleointensities have been obtained for the B-M reversal record. We firstly carried out rock magnetic experiments. Curie temperatures were observed to be 500-600 and/or 100-200 ° C, suggesting that a single phase of titanium-poor or titanium-rich titanomagnetite, or a mixture of them was contained in the samples. Hysteresis parameters of the samples were mostly plotted in PSD or SD regions of the Day plot. The samples were subjected to thermal demagnetization, or alternating field (AF) demagnetization following the low temperature demagnetization (LTD). Secondary components were generally erased at low temperatures (≤ 300-400 ° C) or low AFs (≤ 10 mT). Several lavas showed significant amount of secondary components, so that a high coercivity or a high blocking-temperature component was carefully extracted as a primary one. For paleointensity determination, the double heating technique of the Shaw method combined with LTD (LTD-DHT Shaw method) was applied to 107 samples from those lavas. This is because AF demagnetization was more effective for removal of secondary components than thermal one and also because the reliability of the method was supported by recent studies of historical lavas. Mean paleodirections (N≥3) were obtained for 18 lavas and mean paleointensities (N=2-6) for 13 lavas. The results show two stages of paleodirection: the directionally stable period

  5. Lava flows and volcanic landforms (United States)

    Tarquini, Simone


    Lava flows constitute a large portion of the edifice of basaltic volcanoes. The substantial difference existing between the emplacement dynamics of different basaltic lava flows suggests a relation between the dominant flow dynamic and the overall shape of the ensuing volcano. Starting from the seminal works of Walker (1971, 1973) it is proposed that the rate of heat dissipation per unit volume of lava can be the founding principium at the roots of the emplacement dynamics of lava flows. Within the general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, a conceptual model is presented, in which the dynamic of lava flows can evolve in a linear or in a nonlinear regime on the basis of the constraint active on the system: a low constraint promotes a linear dynamic (i.e. fluctuations are damped), a high constraint a nonlinear one (i.e. fluctuations are enhanced). Two cases are considered as end-members for a linear and a nonlinear dynamic in lava flows: the typical "Hawaiian" sheet flow and the classic "Etnean" channelized flow (respectively). In lava flows, the active constraint is directly proportional to the slope of the topography and to the thermal conductivity and thermal capacity of the surrounding environment, and is inversely proportional to the lava viscosity and to the supply rate. The constraint indicates the distance from the equilibrium conditions of the system, and determines the rate of heat dissipation per unit volume. In subaerial flows, the heat dissipated during the emplacement is well approximated by the heat lost through radiation, which can be retrieved through remote-sensing techniques and can be used to correlate dynamic and dissipation. The model presented recombines previously unrelated concepts regarding the dynamics and the thermal regimes observed in different lava flows, providing a global consistent picture. References Walker GPL (1971) Compound and simple lava flows and flood basalts. Bull Volcanol 35:579-590 Walker GPL (1973

  6. Paleointensity study of the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal recorded in lavas on Tahiti Island by the LTD-DHT Shaw method (United States)

    Mochizuki, N.; Oda, H.; Tsunakawa, H.; Ishizuka, O.; Yamazaki, T.; Uto, K.


    We have been investigating the Brunhes-Matuyama (B-M) polarity reversal recorded in lavas of the northern side of the Punaruu Valley, Tahiti Island. The lavas were sampled successively as possible as we can and in total 34 sites were located. From the bottom to the top of the sampled lavas, the directional data show a reversed (R) polarity, intermediate-normal-reversed (I-N-R) change and subsequently normal (N) period. These directional changes suggest that these lavas are considered to record the paleomagnetic field variation from the Matuyama chron to the whole stage of the B-M reversal. Paleointensity determinations were made by the LTD-DHT Shaw method (Tsunakawa and Shaw, 1994; Yamamoto et al., 2003; Mochizuki et al., 2004). For the directionally unstable period (I-N-R), the paleomagnetic field intensity was weak (4.7 μT). For the Matuyama reversed period prior to the directional reversal, the paleointensity results suggest that the field intensity varied in oscillation-like manner between 2 and 43 μT. It is noted that the virtual dipole moments (VDMs) in the oscillation-like change show a clear correlation with the VGP latitudes change, suggesting one of the important processes in the geodynamo for the polarity reversal.

  7. Paleointensities and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition recorded in the lava sequence in the Punaruu valley, Tahiti (United States)

    Mochizuki, N.; Oda, H.; Ishizuka, O.; Yamazaki, T.; Uto, K.; Tsunakawa, H.


    We have made a paleointensity study of the Matuyama-Bruhnes (M-B) transition recorded in the lava sequence in the Punaruu valley on Tahiti by using the LTD-DHT Shaw method. Samples were collected from 34 lavas of a section in the northern side of the Punaruu valley. Seventeen lavas of the stratigraphically low part of the section recorded reversed polarity, while the 11 lavas of the middle part showed a transitional behavior comprising multiple directional changes between full polarities. Four lavas in the highest part of the section recorded normal polarity. Three 40Ar/39Ar ages from the transitional zone and full polarity zones underlying and overlying it are indistinguishable and yield a weighted mean age of 769±20 ka (2 sigma). This age estimate is concordant with the reported age of the M-B transition. An 40Ar/39Ar age of 845±18 ka is obtained from the lowest part of the reversed zone. These results indicate the 34 lavas recorded the geomagnetic field ranging from the end of the Matuyama reversed chron to the early Brunhes normal chron. For the reserved period prior to the transitional behavior, the paleointensities show an oscillation-like variation between 6.1 and 41.3 µT corresponding to virtual dipole moments (VDMs) between 1.6 ×1022 and 9.6 ×1022 Am2. For the end of the reversed period and the transitional period, paleointensities were quite weak: 3.3 and 4.8 µT corresponding to VDMs of 0.9 ×1022 and 1.0 ×1022 Am2. For the normal period, paleointensities are 13.5-20.9 µT giving VDMs of 3.5-5.2 ×1022 Am2. A clear linear-like trend is observed in the diagram of VDM versus virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) latitude. This trend could be resulted from a certain process of the geodynamo at the onset of the M-B transition.

  8. Lava Flows On Ascraeus Mons Volcano (United States)


    Ascraeus Mons Volcano: Like Earth, Mars has many volcanoes and volcanic features. This high-resolution view shows some of the lava flows near the summit of Ascraeus Mons, one of the three giant shield volcanoes known as the 'Tharsis Montes'. Volcanoes form when magma (molten rock) erupts out onto the surface of a planet. Based on Viking-era observations, Ascraeus Mons is considered to be one of the tallest volcanoes on Mars... its summit is more than 11 km (6.8 miles) above the surrounding plain. The summit is more than 23 km (14 miles) higher in elevation than the place where Mars Pathfinder landed in July 1997.Description of MOC Image: This picture shows an area that is about 20 km (12 miles) higher in elevation than the Mars Pathfinder landing site. The picture shows three main features: (1) a crater at the center-right, (2) a sinuous, discontinuous channel across the upper half, and (3) a rough and pitted, elevated surface across the lower half of the image.(1) Crater at center right. Distinguishing meteor craters from volcanic craters can sometimes be a challenge on Mars. This particular crater was most likely formed by meteor impact because it has a raised rim and a faint radial ejecta pattern around the outside of it. This crater is 600 m (2000 feet) across, about 3/4 the size of the famous 'Meteor Crater' near Winslow, Arizona.(2) Sinuous channel. The type of discontinuous channel running across the upper half of the image is sometimes referred to as a 'sinuous rille'. These are common on the volcanic plains of the Moon and among volcanoes and volcanic plains on Earth. Such a channel was once a lava tube. It is running down the middle of an old lava flow. The 'tube' looks like a 'channel' because its roof has collapsed. The discontinuous nature of this channel is the result of the collapse, or 'cave-in' of what was once the roof of the lava tube. It is common for certain types of relatively fluid lavas to form lava tubes. As it is being emplaced, the outer

  9. Studies of fluid instabilities in flows of lava and debris

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    At least two instabilities have been identified and utilized in lava flow studies: surface folding and gravity instability. Both lead to the development of regularly spaced structures on the surfaces of lava flows. The geometry of surface folds have been used to estimate the rheology of lava flows on other planets. One investigation's analysis assumed that lava flows have a temperature-dependent Newtonian rheology, and that the lava's viscosity decreased exponentially inward from the upper surface. The author reviews studies by other investigators on the analysis of surface folding, the analysis of Taylor instability in lava flows, and the effect of surface folding on debris flows

  10. Structural and temporal requirements for geomagnetic field reversal deduced from lava flows. (United States)

    Singer, Brad S; Hoffman, Kenneth A; Coe, Robert S; Brown, Laurie L; Jicha, Brian R; Pringle, Malcolm S; Chauvin, Annick


    Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field reflect changes in the geodynamo--flow within the outer core--that generates the field. Constraining core processes or mantle properties that induce or modulate reversals requires knowing the timing and morphology of field changes that precede and accompany these reversals. But the short duration of transitional field states and fragmentary nature of even the best palaeomagnetic records make it difficult to provide a timeline for the reversal process. 40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the most recent 'Matuyama-Brunhes' reversal, gives an age of 795 +/- 7 kyr, indistinguishable from that of lavas in Chile and La Palma that record a transition in the Earth's magnetic field, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the 'transitional' lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 kyr), agree with the astronomical age for the reversal. Here we propose that the older lavas record the onset of a geodynamo process, which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began approximately 18 kyr before the actual polarity switch. These data support the claim that complete reversals require a significant period for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect. PMID:15800621

  11. Lava flows composition of the Daedalia Planum (United States)

    Carli, Cristian; Giacomini, Lorenza; Sgavetti, Maria; Massironi, Matteo


    Daedalia Planum is a large lava plain, consisting of more than 1500 km lava flows emplaced over an almost flat terrain in the south-east area of Arsia Mons. The morphology of this region has been studied by Giacomini et al. (Planet.SpaceSci., 2009) and revealed the presence of various features indicative of inflation mechanisms. Thirteen morphologic units have been delineated and the stratigraphic relationships among these units have been established by the authors. Several compositional data indicate that most of the Mars surface appears to consist of tholeiitic basalts where rocks previously identified as andesite may be basaltic rocks coated with alteration rinds (McSween et al., Science, 2009). Some primitive alkaline olivine-rich basaltic rocks have been also recognized by rover exploration (McSween et al., J.Geophys.Res., 2006). The visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra contain electronic absorptions characteristic of mafic minerals including pyroxenes and olivine. These minerals, together with plagioclase, are the major components of lava's rocks. We have analyzed data acquired by the OMEGA orbiter spectrometer of the Mars Express mission. Several OMEGA's images have been studied collecting sets of spectra from each of the thirteen geological units. The spectra indicate a relatively uniform composition of the lavas, characterized by two wide absorption bands (I and II) at about 1000 and 2000 nm, respectively. These spectral features are diagnostic of the presence of pyroxenes, and the continuum removed spectra permit us to recognize the presence of two different pyroxenes . The precise minima positions of band I, between 950 and 1000 nm, and of band II, between 1800 and 2000 nm, suggest the presence in this region of low calcium and subcalcium clinopyroxene, like pigeonite and augite, with variable relative abundances. The presence of these types of pyroxenes suggests a tholeiitic composition of the Daedalia Planum long lava flows, in agreement with

  12. Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation (United States)

    Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi


    Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, and COMSOL. Using the new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (Geol Soc SP, 2015) as a guide, we model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal and sloping surfaces, topographic obstacles, and digital elevation models of natural topography. We compare model results to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We can apply these models to reconstruct past lava flows in Hawai'i and Saudi Arabia using parameters assembled from morphology, textural analysis, and eruption observations as natural test cases. Our study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection.

  13. Numerical simulation of lava flows: Applications to the terrestrial planets (United States)

    Zimbelman, James R.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Kousoum, Juliana; Lampkin, Derrick J.


    Lava flows are the visible expression of the extrusion of volcanic materials on a variety of planetary surfaces. A computer program described by Ishihara et al. appears to be well suited for application to different environments, and we have undertaken tests to evaluate their approach. Our results are somewhat mixed; the program does reproduce reasonable lava flow behavior in many situations, but we have encountered some conditions common to planetary environments for which the current program is inadequate. Here we present our initial efforts to identify the 'parameter space' for reasonable numerical simulations of lava flows.

  14. Validating Cellular Automata Lava Flow Emplacement Algorithms with Standard Benchmarks (United States)

    Richardson, J. A.; Connor, L.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Connor, C.; Gallant, E.


    A major existing need in assessing lava flow simulators is a common set of validation benchmark tests. We propose three levels of benchmarks which test model output against increasingly complex standards. First, imulated lava flows should be morphologically identical, given changes in parameter space that should be inconsequential, such as slope direction. Second, lava flows simulated in simple parameter spaces can be tested against analytical solutions or empirical relationships seen in Bingham fluids. For instance, a lava flow simulated on a flat surface should produce a circular outline. Third, lava flows simulated over real world topography can be compared to recent real world lava flows, such as those at Tolbachik, Russia, and Fogo, Cape Verde. Success or failure of emplacement algorithms in these validation benchmarks can be determined using a Bayesian approach, which directly tests the ability of an emplacement algorithm to correctly forecast lava inundation. Here we focus on two posterior metrics, P(A|B) and P(¬A|¬B), which describe the positive and negative predictive value of flow algorithms. This is an improvement on less direct statistics such as model sensitivity and the Jaccard fitness coefficient. We have performed these validation benchmarks on a new, modular lava flow emplacement simulator that we have developed. This simulator, which we call MOLASSES, follows a Cellular Automata (CA) method. The code is developed in several interchangeable modules, which enables quick modification of the distribution algorithm from cell locations to their neighbors. By assessing several different distribution schemes with the benchmark tests, we have improved the performance of MOLASSES to correctly match early stages of the 2012-3 Tolbachik Flow, Kamchakta Russia, to 80%. We also can evaluate model performance given uncertain input parameters using a Monte Carlo setup. This illuminates sensitivity to model uncertainty.

  15. Stochastic modeling of a lava-flow aquifer system (United States)

    Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin; Phelps, Geoffrey A.


    This report describes preliminary three-dimensional geostatistical modeling of a lava-flow aquifer system using a multiple-point geostatistical model. The purpose of this study is to provide a proof-of-concept for this modeling approach. An example of the method is demonstrated using a subset of borehole geologic data and aquifer test data from a portion of the Calico Hills Formation, a lava-flow aquifer system that partially underlies Pahute Mesa, Nevada. Groundwater movement in this aquifer system is assumed to be controlled by the spatial distribution of two geologic units—rhyolite lava flows and zeolitized tuffs. The configuration of subsurface lava flows and tuffs is largely unknown because of limited data. The spatial configuration of the lava flows and tuffs is modeled by using a multiple-point geostatistical simulation algorithm that generates a large number of alternative realizations, each honoring the available geologic data and drawn from a geologic conceptual model of the lava-flow aquifer system as represented by a training image. In order to demonstrate how results from the geostatistical model could be analyzed in terms of available hydrologic data, a numerical simulation of part of an aquifer test was applied to the realizations of the geostatistical model.

  16. Conveying Lava Flow Hazards Through Interactive Computer Models (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Edwards, H. K.; Harnish, E. P.


    As part of an Information Sciences senior class project, a software package of an interactive version of the FLOWGO model was developed for the Island of Hawaii. The software is intended for use in an ongoing public outreach and hazards awareness program that educates the public about lava flow hazards on the island. The design parameters for the model allow an unsophisticated user to initiate a lava flow anywhere on the island and allow it to flow down-slope to the shoreline while displaying a timer to show the rate of advance of the flow. The user is also able to modify a range of input parameters including eruption rate, the temperature of the lava at the vent, and crystal fraction present in the lava at the source. The flow trajectories are computed using a 30 m digital elevation model for the island and the rate of advance of the flow is estimated using the average slope angle and the computed viscosity of the lava as it cools in either a channel (high heat loss) or lava tube (low heat loss). Even though the FLOWGO model is not intended to, and cannot, accurately predict the rate of advance of a tube- fed or channel-fed flow, the relative rates of flow advance for steep or flat-lying terrain convey critically important hazard information to the public: communities located on the steeply sloping western flanks of Mauna Loa may have no more than a few hours to evacuate in the face of a threatened flow from Mauna Loa's southwest rift whereas communities on the more gently sloping eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea may have weeks to months to prepare for evacuation. Further, the model also can show the effects of loss of critical infrastructure with consequent impacts on access into and out of communities, loss of electrical supply, and communications as a result of lava flow implacement. The interactive model has been well received in an outreach setting and typically generates greater involvement by the participants than has been the case with static maps

  17. Rheology of lava flows on Mercury: an experimental study (United States)

    Sehlke, A.; Whittington, A. G.


    The morphology of lava flows is controlled by the physical properties of the lava and its effusion rates, as well as environmental influences such as surface medium, slope and ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The important rheological properties of lavas include viscosity (η) and yield strength (σy), strongly dependent on temperature (T), composition (X), crystal fraction (φc) and vesicularity (φb). The crystal fraction typically increases as temperature decreases, and also influences the residual liquid composition. The rheological behavior of multi-phase lava flows is expressed as different flow morphologies, for example basalt flows transition from smooth pahoehoe to blocky `a`a at higher viscosities and/or strain rates. We have previously quantified the rheological conditions of this transition for Hawaiian basalts, but lavas on Mercury are very different in composition and expected crystallization history. Here we determine experimentally the temperature and rheological conditions of the pahoehoe-`a`a transition for two likely Mercury lava compositions using concentric cylinder viscometry. We detect first crystals at 1302 ºC for an enstatite basalt and 1317 ºC for a basaltic komatiite composition representative of the northern volcanic plains (NVP). In both cases, we observe a transition from Newtonian to pseudo-plastic response at crystal fractions > 10 vol%. Between 30 to 40 vol%, a yield strength (τ0) around 26±6 and 110±6 Pa develops, classifying the two-phase suspensions as Herschel-Bulkley fluids. The measured increase in apparent viscosity (ηapp) ranges from 10 Pa s to 104 Pa s. This change in rheological properties occurs only in a temperature range up to 100 ºC below the liquidus. By analogy with the rheological conditions of the pahoehoe-`a`a transition for Hawaiian basalts, we can relate the data for Mercury to lava flow surface morphology as shown in Figure 1, where the onset of the transition threshold zone (TTZ) for the

  18. Geology of the Tyrrhenus Mons Lava Flow Field, Mars (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.


    The ancient, eroded Martian volcano Tyrrhenus Mons exhibits a central caldera complex, layered flank deposits dissected by radial valleys, and a 1000+ km-long flow field extending to the southwest toward Hellas Planitia. Past studies suggested an early phase of volcanism dominated by large explosive eruptions followed by subsequent effusive activity at the summit and to the southwest. As part of a new geologic mapping study of northeast Hellas, we are examining the volcanic landforms and geologic evolution of the Tyrrhenus Mons flow field, including the timing and nature of fluvial activity and effects on volcanic units. New digital geologic mapping incorporates THEMIS IR (100 m/pixel) and CTX (5 m/pixel) images as well as constraints from MOLA topography.Mapping results to-date include delineation of the boundaries of the flow field, identification and mapping of volcanic and erosional channels within the flow field, and mapping and analysis of lava flow lobes. THEMIS IR and CTX images allow improved discrimination of the numerous flow lobes that are observed in the flow field, including refinement of the margins of previously known flows and identification of additional and smaller lobes. A prominent sinuous rille extending from Tyrrhenus Mons’ summit caldera is a major feature that supplied lava to the flow field. Smaller volcanic channels are common throughout the flow field; some occur in segments along crests of local topographic highs and may delineate lava tubes. In addition to volcanic channels, the flow field surface is characterized by several types of erosional channels, including wide troughs with scour marks, elongate sinuous channels, and discontinuous chains of elongate pits and troughs. High-resolution images reveal the widespread and significant effects of fluvial activity in the region, and further mapping studies will examine spatial and temporal interactions between volcanism and fluvial processes.

  19. MOLA Constraints on Lava Flow Rheologies (United States)

    Glaze, L. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Baloga, S. M.; McColley, S.; Sakimoto, S.; Mitchell, D.


    MOLA data allow us to distinguish the nature of a viscosity change in the presence of degassing. For a 35 km flow in Elysium we conclude that the viscosity increased exponentially at least 50 times, compared to only 10 times if no degassing occurs. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Modelling lava flows by Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN: preliminary results

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    C. Del Negro


    Full Text Available The forecasting of lava flow paths is a complex problem in which temperature, rheology and flux-rate all vary with space and time. The problem is more difficult to solve when lava runs down a real topography, considering that the relations between characteristic parameters of flow are typically nonlinear. An alternative approach to this problem that does not use standard differential equation methods is Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs. The CNN paradigm is a natural and flexible framework for describing locally interconnected, simple, dynamic systems that have a lattice-like structure. They consist of arrays of essentially simple, nonlinearly coupled dynamic circuits containing linear and non-linear elements able to process large amounts of information in real time. Two different approaches have been implemented in simulating some lava flows. Firstly, a typical technique of the CNNs to analyze spatio-temporal phenomena (as Autowaves in 2-D and in 3-D has been utilized. Secondly, the CNNs have been used as solvers of partial differential equations of the Navier-Stokes treatment of Newtonian flow.

  1. Numerical simulation of lava flow using a GPU SPH model

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    Eugenio Rustico


    Full Text Available A smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method for lava-flow modeling was implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA developed by NVIDIA. This resulted in speed-ups of up to two orders of magnitude. The three-dimensional model can simulate lava flow on a real topography with free-surface, non-Newtonian fluids, and with phase change. The entire SPH code has three main components, neighbor list construction, force computation, and integration of the equation of motion, and it is computed on the GPU, fully exploiting the computational power. The simulation speed achieved is one to two orders of magnitude faster than the equivalent central processing unit (CPU code. This GPU implementation of SPH allows high resolution SPH modeling in hours and days, rather than in weeks and months, on inexpensive and readily available hardware.

  2. Natural-Scale Lava Flow Experiments on Video: Variations with Temperature, Slope, and Effusion Rate (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Wysocki, R.; Edwards, B. R.; Lev, E.


    Investigations of active basaltic lava flows and analog materials show that flow dynamics and final flow morphology are strongly determined by the rapidly evolving rheology of the lava crust which constrains the downslope advance of the lava flow. The non-dimensional factor Ψ (ratio of the time scale of crust formation to advective heat loss) provides a useful means of comparing different flows. The key parameters that control Ψ include the melt viscosity, temperature, effusion rate, and slope. Experimental lava flows, up to several meters long created in the Syracuse University Lava Project permit these variables to be investigated independently and in combination in volume-limited flows (inflated lobes, break-outs, and bubbles (limu o'Pele), that provide additional information on lava crust development. New, continuous flow (cooling-limited) experiments show downslope variations under constant flow conditions.

  3. Volcanic eruptions on Io: Heat flow, resurfacing, and lava composition (United States)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Matson, Dennis L.; Veeder, Glenn J.


    We model an infrared outburst on Io as being due to a large, erupting lava flow which increased its area at a rate of 1.5 x 10(exp 5)/sq m and cooled from 1225 to 555 K over the 2.583-hr period of observation. The inferred effusion rate of 3 x 10(exp 5) cu m/sec for this eruption is very high, but is not unprece- dented on the Earth and is similar to the high eruption rates suggested for early lunar volcanism. Eruptions occur approxi- mately 6% of the time on Io. These eruptions provide ample resurfacing to explain Io's lack of impact craters. We suggest that the large total radiometric heat flow, 10(exp 14) W, and the size and temperature distribution of the thermal anomalies (McEwen et al. 1992; Veeder et al. 1994) can be accounted for by a series of silicate lava flows in various stages of cooling. We propose that the whole suite of Io's currently observed thermal anomalies was produced by multiple, high-eruptive-rate silicate flows within the past century.

  4. Characterization of the natural thermoluminescence emission of lava flows


    Correcher, Virgilio; Garralón, A.; Pozuelo, M.; García Guinea, Javier


    We herein report on the natural thermoluminescence (TL) emission of eight lava flows from different volcanic regions that could potentialIy be useful for dating purposes. AH the samples were characterized by means of: (i) x-ray diffraction to determine the components that act as main contributors of the TL response and (ii) gamma-ray spectrometry to identify the natural radionuclides that induce the TL glow curve. In this sense, plagioclases (Na-Ca feldspars) are the most cornmon mineral dete...

  5. DOWNFLOW code and LIDAR technology for lava flow analysis and hazard assessment at Mount Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fornaciai


    Full Text Available The use of a lava-flow simulation (DOWNFLOW probabilistic code and airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR technology are combined to analyze the emplacement of compound lava flow fields at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy. The goal was to assess the hazard posed by lava flows. The LIDAR-derived time series acquired during the 2006 Mount Etna eruption records the changing topography of an active lava-flow field. These short-time-interval, high-resolution topographic surveys provide a detailed quantitative picture of the topographic changes. The results highlight how the flow field evolves as a number of narrow (5-15 m wide disjointed flow units that are fed simultaneously by uneven lava pulses that advance within formed channels. These flow units have widely ranging advance velocities (3-90 m/h. Overflows, bifurcations and braiding are also clearly displayed. In such a complex scenario, the suitability of deterministic codes for lava-flow simulation can be hampered by the fundamental difficulty of measuring the flow parameters (e.g. the lava discharge rate, or the lava viscosity of a single flow unit. However, the DOWNFLOW probabilistic code approaches this point statistically and needs no direct knowledge of flow parameters. DOWNFLOW intrinsically accounts for complexities and perturbations of lava flows by randomly varying the pre-eruption topography. This DOWNFLOW code is systematically applied here over Mount Etna, to derive a lava-flow hazard map based on: (i the topography of the volcano; (ii the probability density function for vent opening; and (iii a law for the expected lava-flow length for all of the computational vents considered. Changes in the hazard due to the recent morphological evolution of Mount Etna have also been addressed.

  6. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Morgavi, Daniele; Namur, Olivier; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego; Mancinelli, Paolo; Pauselli, Cristina


    After more than four years of orbiting Mercury, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft came to an end in late April 2015. MESSENGER has provided many new and surprising results. This session will again highlight the latest results on Mercury based on MESSENGER observations or updated modelling. The session will further address instrument calibration and science performance both retrospective on MESSENGER and on the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Papers covering additional themes related to Mercury are also welcomed. Please be aware that this session will be held as a PICO session. This will allow an intensive exchange of expertise and experience between the individual instruments and mission. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows S. Rossi1, D. Morgavi1, O. Namur2, D. Perugini1, F.Vetere1, P. Mancinelli1 and C. Pauselli1 1 Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, piazza Università 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy 2 Uni Hannover Institut für Mineralogie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstraβe 3, 30167 Hannover, Germany In this contribution we report new measurements of viscosity of synthetic komatitic melts, used the behaviour of silicate melts erupted at the surface of Mercury. Composition of Mercurian surface magmas was calculated using the most recent maps produced from MESSENGER XRS data (Weider et al., 2015). We focused on the northern hemisphere (Northern Volcanic Province, NVP, the largest lava flow on Mercury and possibly in the Solar System) for which the spatial resolution of MESSENGER measurements is high and individual maps of Mg/Si, Ca/Si, Al/Si and S/Si were combined. The experimental starting material contains high Na2O content (≈7 wt.%) that strongly influences viscosity. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out at 1 atm using a concentric cylinder apparatus equipped with an Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the Department of Physics and Geology (PVRG_lab) at the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy

  7. Eruption rate, area, and length relationships for some Hawaiian lava flows (United States)

    Pieri, David C.; Baloga, Stephen M.


    The relationships between the morphological parameters of lava flows and the process parameters of lava composition, eruption rate, and eruption temperature were investigated using literature data on Hawaiian lava flows. Two simple models for lava flow heat loss by Stefan-Boltzmann radiation were employed to derive eruption rate versus planimetric area relationship. For the Hawaiian basaltic flows, the eruption rate is highly correlated with the planimetric area. Moreover, this observed correlation is superior to those from other obvious combinations of eruption rate and flow dimensions. The correlations obtained on the basis of the two theoretical models, suggest that the surface of the Hawaiian flows radiates at an effective temperature much less than the inner parts of the flowing lava, which is in agreement with field observations. The data also indicate that the eruption rate versus planimetric area correlations can be markedly degraded when data from different vents, volcanoes, and epochs are combined.

  8. Emplacement conditions of the 1256 AD Al-Madinah lava flow field in Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Insights from surface morphology and lava flow simulations (United States)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly; Moufti, Mohammed R.; Cappello, Annalisa; Murcia, Hugo; Ganci, Gaetana; Del Negro, Ciro; Procter, Jonathan; Zahran, Hani Mahmoud Ali


    Lava flow hazard modelling requires detailed geological mapping, and a good understanding of emplacement settings and the processes involved in the formation of lava flows. Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a large volcanic field, comprising about 1000 predominantly small-volume volcanoes most of which have emitted lava flows of various lengths. A few eruptions took place in this area during the Holocene, and they were located in the northern extreme of the Harrat Rahat, a close proximity to critical infrastructure and population living in Al-Madinah City. In the present study, we combined field work, high resolution digital topography and morphometric analysis to infer the emplacement history of the last historical event in the region represented by the 1256 AD Al-Madinah lava flow field. These data were also used to simulate 1256 AD-type lava flows in the Harrat Rahat by the MAGFLOW lava flow emplacement model, which is able to relate the flow evolution to eruption conditions. The 1256 AD lava flow field extent was mapped at a scale of 1:1000 from a high resolution (0.5 m) Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) Digital Terrain Model (DTM), aerial photos with field support. The bulk volume of the lava flow field was estimated at 0.4 km3, while the source volume represented by seven scoria cone was estimated at 0.023 km3. The lava flow covered an area of 60 km2 and reached a maximum length of 23.4 km. The lava flow field comprises about 20.9% of pāhoehoe, 73.8% of 'a'ā, and 5.3% of late-stage outbreaks. Our field observation, also suggests that the lava flows of the Harrat Rahat region are mainly core-dominated and that they formed large lava flow fields by amalgamation of many single channels. These channels mitigated downslope by topography-lava flow and channel-channel interactions, highlighting this typical process that needs to be considered in the volcanic hazard assessment in the region. A series of numerical lava flow simulations was carried out

  9. Possible lava tube system in a hummocky lava flow at Daund, western Deccan Volcanic Province, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raymond A Duraiswami; Ninad R Bondre; Gauri Dole


    A hummocky flow characterised by the presence of toes, lobes, tumuli and possible lava tube system is exposed near Daund, western Deccan Volcanic Province, India. The lava tube system is exposed as several exhumed outcrops and is composed of complex branching and discontinuous segments. The roof of the lava tube has collapsed but original lava tube walls and fragments of the tube roof are seen at numerous places along the tube. At some places the tube walls exhibit a single layer of lava lining, whereas, at other places it shows an additional layer characterised by smooth surface and polygonal cracks. The presence of a branching and meandering lava tube system in the Daund flow, which represents the terminal parts of Thakurwadi Formation, shows that the hummocky flow developed at a low local volumetric flow rate. This tube system developed in the thinner parts of the flow sequence; and tumuli developed in areas where the tube clogged temporarily in the sluggish flow.

  10. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Spectral Characteristics of Lava Surfaces: Field Spectrometry of Basaltic Lava Flows on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li


    Full Text Available We report on spectral reflectance measurements of basaltic lava flows on Tenerife Island, Spain. Lava flow surfaces of different ages, surface roughness and elevations were systematically measured using a field spectroradiometer operating in the range of 350–2500 nm. Surface roughness, oxidation and lichen coverage were documented at each measured site. Spectral properties vary with age and morphology of lava. Pre-historical lavas with no biological coverage show a prominent increase in spectral reflectance in the 400–760 nm range and a decrease in the 2140–2210 nm range. Pāhoehoe surfaces have higher reflectance values than ʻaʻā ones and attain a maximum reflectance at wavelengths < 760 nm. Lichen-covered lavas are characterized by multiple lichen-related absorption and reflection features. We demonstrate that oxidation and lichen growth are two major factors controlling spectra of Tenerife lava surfaces and, therefore, propose an oxidation index and a lichen index to quantify surface alterations of lava flows: (1 the oxidation index is based on the increase of the slope of the spectral profile from blue to red as the field-observed oxidation level strengthens; and (2 the lichen index is based on the spectral reflectance in the 1660–1725 nm range, which proves to be highly correlated with lichen coverage documented in the field. The two spectral indices are applied to Landsat ETM+ and Hyperion imagery of the study area for mapping oxidation and lichen coverage on lava surfaces, respectively. Hyperion is shown to be capable of discriminating different volcanic surfaces, i.e., tephra vs. lava and oxidized lava vs. lichen-covered lava. Our study highlights the value of field spectroscopic measurements to aid interpretation of lava flow characterization using satellite images and of the effects of environmental factors on lava surface evolution over time, and, therefore, has the potential to contribute to the mapping as well as dating

  11. Disruption of tephra fall deposits caused by lava flows during basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Blake, S.


    Observations in the USA, Iceland and Tenerife, Canary Islands reveal how processes occurring during basaltic eruptions can result in complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents. Observations illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter sheet-form fall deposits. Complexity arises through synchronous and alternating effusive and explosive activity that results in intercalated lavas and tephra deposits. Tephra deposits can become disrupted into mounds and ridges by lateral and vertical displacement caused by movement (including inflation) of underlying pāhoehoe lavas and clastogenic lavas. Mounds of tephra can be rafted away over distances of 100 s to 1,000 s m from proximal pyroclastic constructs on top of lava flows. Draping of irregular topography by fall deposits and subsequent partial burial of topographic depressions by later lavas can result in apparent complexity of tephra layers. These processes, deduced from field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in the studied proximal regions where fallout was synchronous or alternated with inflation of subjacent lava sheets. These mechanisms may lead to diachronous contact relationships between fall deposits and lava flows. Such complexities may remain cryptic due to textural and geochemical quasi-homogeneity within sequences of interbedded basaltic fall deposits and lavas. The net effect of these processes may be to reduce the usefulness of data collected from proximal fall deposits for reconstructing basaltic eruption dynamics.

  12. Discriminating lava flows of different age within Nyamuragira's volcanic field using spectral mixture analysis (United States)

    Li, Long; Canters, Frank; Solana, Carmen; Ma, Weiwei; Chen, Longqian; Kervyn, Matthieu


    In this study, linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) is used to characterize the spectral heterogeneity of lava flows from Nyamuragira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, where vegetation and lava are the two main land covers. In order to estimate fractions of vegetation and lava through satellite remote sensing, we made use of 30 m resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery. 2 m Pleiades data was used for validation. From the results, we conclude that (1) LSMA is capable of characterizing volcanic fields and discriminating between different types of lava surfaces; (2) three lava endmembers can be identified as lava of old, intermediate and young age, corresponding to different stages in lichen growth and chemical weathering; (3) a strong relationship is observed between vegetation fraction and lava age, where vegetation at Nyamuragira starts to significantly colonize lava flows ∼15 years after eruption and occupies over 50% of the lava surfaces ∼40 years after eruption. Our study demonstrates the capability of spectral unmixing to characterize lava surfaces and vegetation colonization over time, which is particularly useful for poorly known volcanoes or those not accessible for physical or political reasons.

  13. Incorporation of seawater into mid-ocean ridge lava flows during emplacement (United States)

    Soule, S. Adam; Fornari, Daniel J.; Perfit, Michael R.; Ridley, W. Ian; Reed, Mark H.; Cann, Johnson R.


    Evidence for the interaction between seawater and lava during emplacement on the deep seafloor can be observed in solidified flows at a variety of scales including rapid quenching of their outer crusts and the formation of lava pillars through the body of the flow. Recently, an additional interaction, incorporation of heated seawater (vapor) into the body of a flow, has been proposed. Large voids and vesicles beneath the surface crusts of mid-ocean ridge crest lobate and sheet lava flows and lava drips found within those cavities have been cited as evidence for this interaction. The voids resulting from this interaction contribute to the high porosity of the shallow ocean crust and play an important role in crustal permeability and hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, and thus it is important to understand their origin. We analyze lava samples from the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise and intermediate-spreading Galapagos Spreading Center to characterize this process, identify the source of the vapor, and investigate the implications this would have on submarine lava flow dynamics. We find that lava samples that have interacted with a vapor have a zone of increased vesicularity on the underside of the lava crust and a coating of precipitate minerals ( i.e., crystal fringe) that are distinct in form and composition from those crystallized from the melt. We use thermochemical modeling to simulate the reaction between the lava and a vapor and find that only with seawater can we reproduce the phase assemblage we observe within the crystal fringes present in the samples. Model results suggest that large-scale contamination of the lava by mass exchange with the vapor is unlikely, but we observe local enrichment of the lava in Cl resulting from the incorporation of a brine phase separated from the seawater. We suggest that high eruption rates are necessary for seawater incorporation to occur, but the mechanism by which seawater enters the flow has yet to be

  14. New insights into eruptive activity and lava flow hazard at Nyamulagira volcano, D.R.C., from a new GIS-based lava flow map (United States)

    Smets, B.; Kervyn, M.; Kervyn, F.; D'Oreye, N.; Wauthier, C.


    Nyamulagira, located in the western branch of the East African Rift (EAR), is Africa’s most active volcano with one eruption every 2 - 4 years. A map of Nyamulagira lava flows was produced during the 1960’s by Thonnard et al. (1965). This map, which results from the mosaicking of several aerial photographs, contains locally some geographic inaccuracies. The photo-interpretation also led in places to the discrimination of lava units not corresponding to any flow boundaries in the field. Finally, 19 eruptions occurred since this first edition, which causes it to be outdated and of limited use to document the recent eruptive history. Recently, Smets et al. (2010) have produced a new map of lava flows using a combination of optical and radar satellite imagery. This map is GIS-based and can be quickly updated during/after each eruption. Using the new lava flow map of Nyamulagira and a compilation of bibliographic/field information of the last 31 eruptions, the evolution of eruptive activity since the early 1900’s was reconstructed and the volume of erupted lava estimated for each eruption from 1938 to 2010. The spatio-temporal evolution of eruptive activity suggests a strong control from the rift tectonics but also from inherited basement structures on the location, the fissure orientation and the relative lava volume for the successive eruptions. The time lapse after each eruption is strongly correlated with the erupted volume of lava. The 1938-40 eruption is a key event in the volcano recent history, as the corresponding caldera collapse led to an increase of flank eruptions. Nyamulagira flank eruptions systematically destroy large areas of the protected forest of the Virunga National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage in danger since 1994. The lava flows from distal eruptions or from exceptionally high effusion rate or volume events also threaten local population, mainly south of the main edifice near Lake Kivu.

  15. Determination of thermal/dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander; Tsepelev, Igor; Kovtunov, Dmitry


    Rapid development of ground based thermal cameras, drones and satellite data allows getting repeated thermal images of the surface of the lava flow. Available instrumentation allows getting a large amount of data during a single lava flow eruption. These data require development of appropriate quantitative techniques to link subsurface dynamics with observations. We present a new approach to assimilation of thermal measurements at lava's surface to the bottom of the lava flow to determine lava's thermal and dynamic characteristics. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. Using an adjoint method we develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem based on the determination of the missing boundary condition and lava flow characteristics. Numerical results show that in the case of smooth input data lava temperature and velocity can be determined with a high accuracy. A noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. The proposed approach to assimilate measured data brings an opportunity to estimate thermal budget of the lava flow.

  16. Temperature measurements in carbonatite lava lakes and flows from oldoinyo lengai, Tanzania. (United States)

    Krafft, M; Keller, J


    The petrogenesis of carbonatites has important implications for mantle processes and for the magmatic evolution of mantle melts rich in carbon dioxide. Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, is the only active carbonatite volcano on Earth. Its highly alkalic, sodium-rich lava, although different in composition from the more common calcium-rich carbonatites, provides the opportunity for observations of the physical characteristics of carbonatite melts. Temperature measurements on active carbonatitic lava flows and from carbonatitic lava lakes were carried out during a period of effusive activity in June 1988. Temperatures ranged from 491 degrees to 519 degrees C. The highest temperature, measured from a carbonatitic lava lake, was 544 degrees C. These temperatures are several hundred degrees lower than measurements from any silicate lava. At the observed temperatures, the carbonatite melt had lower viscosities than the most fluid basaltic lavas. The unusually low magmatic temperatures were confirmed with 1-atmosphere melting experiments on natural samples. PMID:17787875

  17. Lava flow identification and ageing by means of LiDAR intensity: the Mt. Etna case


    Mazzarini, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Pareschi, M. T.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Favalli, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Isola, I.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Tarquini, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Boschi, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia


    An application of LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) intensity for the identification and mapping of different lava flows from the Mt. Etna (Italy) active volcano is described. In September 2004 an airborne LiDAR survey was flown over summit sectors of Mt. Etna. The information derived from LiDAR intensity values was used to compare the lava flows with respect to their age of emplacement. Analysed lava flows vary in age between those dating prior to AD 1610 and those active du...

  18. Emplacement of lava flow fields: Application of terrestrial studies to Alba Patera, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological data are at present the major source of information for extraterrestrial lavas. Effusion conditions must therefore be inferred from the final shapes of flow fields, generally using terrestrial lavas as analogues and so presupposing similar emplacement regimes on Earth and other planets. Studies of terrestrial lavas suggest that the overall development of flow fields is systematic and that a general, normalized relation can be established linking the final dimensions of a flow field (specifically, average thickness and the ratio of maximum width to maximum length) to underlying slope and eruption duration, independent of explicit knowledge of discharge rate, gravitational acceleration, lava density, and rheology. This relation is applied to lavas on the Martian volcano Alba Patera, on which two distinct planimetric types of lava flow fields are identified, and eruption durations, average discharge rates, and average velocities are obtained. Imposing the constraint of a terrestrial emplacement regime, the model yields internally consistent results for subliquidus lavas and suggests that, at least for basaltic-basaltic andesitic compositions, the essential conditions of eruption may have been similar to those currently observed on Earth

  19. Rheology of lava flows on Mercury: An analog experimental study (United States)

    Sehlke, A.; Whittington, A. G.


    We experimentally determined the rheological evolution of three basaltic analog compositions appropriate to Mercury's surface, during cooling, and crystallization. Investigated compositions are an enstatite basalt, and two magnesian basalts representing the compositional end-members of the northern volcanic plains with 0.19 wt % (NVP) and 6.26 wt % Na2O (NVP-Na). The viscosity-strain rate dependence of lava was quantified using concentric cylinder viscometry. We measured the viscosities of the crystal-free liquids from 1600°C down to the first detection of crystals. Liquidus temperatures of the three compositions studied are around 1360°C, and all three compositions are more viscous than Hawaiian basalt at the same temperature. The onset of pseudoplastic behavior was observed at crystal fractions ~0.05 to 0.10, which is consistent with previous studies on mafic lavas. We show that all lavas develop detectable yield strengths at crystal fractions around 0.20, beyond which the two-phase suspensions are better described as Herschel-Bulkley fluids. By analogy with the viscosity-strain rate conditions at which the pahoehoe to `a`a transition occurs in Kilauea basalt, this transition is predicted to occur at ~1260 ± 10°C for the enstatite basalt, at ~1285 ± 20°C for the NVP, and at ~1240 ± 40°C for the NVP-Na lavas. Our results indicate that Mercury lavas are broadly similar to terrestrial ones, which suggests that the extensive smooth lava plains of Mercury could be due to large effusion rates (flood basalts) and not to unusually fluid lavas.

  20. Extending Interfield Analysis of Tumuli on Terrestrial Inflated Lava Flows to Mars (United States)

    Sangha, S. S.; Diniega, S.; Smrekar, S. E.


    In our study, we identify and measure tumuli - small-scale, positive topographic features (~10m in width) - on both terrestrial and Martian inflated lava flows. Inflated lava flows are aptly named for their domed, rigid upper crust that insulates and is lifted by a fluid interior. Locally high magmatic pressures arising from the transport of lava through a network of subsurface lava pathways within these flows can cause a section of the upper crust to tilt upwards and outwards on opposite sides of an axial fracture and produce a tumulus. Thus, tumuli can be used as records of a flow's interior structure. We aim to quantitatively investigate hypothesized relationships between tumuli morphometrics (such as tumuli sizes, shapes, and orientations) and larger-scale lava flow emplacement structure (flow directions, placement of flow boundaries, and scale of the flow). Measurements of >2000 tumuli on six diverse terrestrial fields and also >2000 tumuli on seven Martian fields within the Elysium Planitia region suggest that: (1) Tumuli form predominantly over very low slopes (direction, (3) Tumuli mean cross-sectional area does not change while tumuli density in the field increases further from the source vents, due to increasing bifurcations in lava pathways within the distal portions of the flow, and (4) Tumuli elongation (length/width ratio) decreases away from the source vent. Furthermore, basic tumuli dimensions (length, width, elongation, etc.) are strikingly similar between the planets--suggesting commonality in tumuli formation. Additionally, we have not yet found tumuli on Martian lava flows outside of very young flows within Elysium Planitia (<30 Ma). One possible explanation is that tumuli-forming lava flows only have occurred within a specific period of Martian volcanism. Alternatively, inflation features may be very susceptible to degradation and have eroded beyond recognition on older flows. Our study may thus provide information about regional or global

  1. Retrospective validation of a lava-flow hazard map for Mount Etna volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro


    Full Text Available This report presents a retrospective methodology to validate a long-term hazard map related to lava-flow invasion at Mount Etna, the most active volcano in Europe. A lava-flow hazard map provides the probability that a specific point will be affected by potential destructive volcanic processes over the time period considered. We constructed this lava-flow hazard map for Mount Etna volcano through the identification of the emission regions with the highest probabilities of eruptive vents and through characterization of the event types for the numerical simulations and the computation of the eruptive probabilities. Numerical simulations of lava-flow paths were carried out using the MAGFLOW cellular automata model. To validate the methodology developed, a hazard map was built by considering only the eruptions that occurred at Mount Etna before 1981. On the basis of the probability of coverage by lava flows, the map was divided into ten classes, and two fitting scores were calculated to measure the overlap between the hazard classes and the actual shapes of the lava flows that occurred after 1981.

  2. Influence of basal slip on the propagation and cooling of lava flows (United States)

    Melnik, Oleg; Vedeneeva, Elena; Utkin, Ivan


    A thin layer approximation is used for studying of viscous gravity currents on the horizontal topography from a point source. The main difference from a self-similar solution obtained in Huppert (1982) is the account for partial slip of lava on the ground surface. We assume that the slip velocity is proportional to the tangential stress in some positive power. This condition is widely used in polymer science and for the flows on superhydrophobic surfaces. This condition is also applicable for lava flows because of a large roughness of volcanic terrains and the presence of unconsolidated material (ash, lapilli). The system of Stokes equations was reduced to a non-linear parabolic differential equation. Its solution was found both numerically and by a reduction to an ODE that describes similarity solution. In the latter case there is a dependence between lava mass growth rate and the power exponent in the friction law. It was shown that the presence of basal slip allows much faster propagation of lava flows in comparison with no-slip condition at the ground surface. Analytical solutions were proved by a good comparison with fully 2D axisymmetric finite volume simulations. Based on the velocity field obtained from a thin layer theory the heat budget of a lava flow was studied for the case of constant lava viscosity. Heat equation was solved in the lava domain with no flux condition at the bottom, radiative and convective fluxes at the free surface and the influx of a fresh magma from a point source. It was shown that due to a strong difference in the velocity profile the distribution of the temperature inside the lava flow is different in the cases of no-slip and partial slip conditions.

  3. Post-emplacement cooling and contraction of lava flows: InSAR observations and thermal model for lava fields at Hekla volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Wittmann, Werner; Dumont, Stephanie; Lavallee, Yan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn


    Gradual post-emplacement subsidence of lava flows has been observed at various volcanoes, e.g. Okmok volcano in Alaska, Kilauea volcano on Hawaii and Etna volcano on Sicily. In Iceland, this effect has been observed at Krafla volcano and Hekla volcano. The latter was chosen as a case study for investigating subsidence mechanisms, specifically thermal contraction. Effects like gravitational loading, clast repacking or creeping of a hot and liquid core can contribute to subsidence of emplaced lava flows, but thermal contraction is considered being a crucial effect. The extent to which it contributes to lava flow subsidence is investigated by mapping the relative movement of emplaced lava flows and flow substrate, and modeling the observed signal. The slow vegetation in Iceland is advantageous for Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and offers great coherence over long periods after lava emplacement, expanding beyond the outlines of lava flows. Due to this reason, InSAR observations over volcanoes in Iceland have taken place for more than 20 years. By combining InSAR tracks from ERS, Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites we gain six time series with a total of 99 interferograms. Making use of the high spatial resolution, a temporal trend of vertical lava movements was investigated over a course of over 23 years over the 1991 lava flow of Hekla volcano, Iceland. From these time series, temporal trends of accumulated subsidence and subsidence velocities were determined in line of sight of the satellites. However, the deformation signal of lava fields after emplacement is vertically dominated. Subsidence on this lava field is still ongoing and subsidence rates vary from 14.8 mm/year in 1995 to about 1.0 mm/year in 2014. Fitting a simple exponential function suggests a exponential decay constant of 5.95 years. Additionally, a one-dimensional, semi-analytical model was fitted to these data. While subsidence due to phase change is calculated analytically

  4. Investigating lava-substrate interactions through flow experiments with syrup, wax, and molten basalt (United States)

    Rumpf, M. E.; Lev, E.


    Among the many factors influencing the complex process of lava flow emplacement, the interaction with the substrate onto which flow is emplaced plays a central role. Lava flows are rarely emplaced onto smooth or regular surfaces. For example, at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, lava flows regularly flow over solid rock, vegetation, basaltic or silica sand, and man-made materials, including asphalt and concrete. In situ studies of lava-substrate interactions are inherently difficult, and often dangerous, to carry-out, requiring the design of controllable laboratory experiments. We investigate the effects of substrate grain size, cohesion, and roughness on flow mobility and morphology through a series of flow experiments using analog materials and molten basalt. We have developed a series of experiments that allow for adjustable substrate parameters and analyze their effects on lava flow emplacement. The first set of experiments are performed at the Fluids Mechanics Laboratory at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and focus on two analog materials: polyethylene glycol (PEG), a commercially available wax, and corn syrup. The fluids were each extruded onto a series of scaled substrate beds to replicate the emplacement of lava in a natural environment. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that irregular topography, particularly topography with a height amplitude similar to that of the flow itself, can affect flow morphology, width, and velocity by acting as local barriers or culverts to the fluid. This is expected from observations of fluid flow in natural environments. A follow-up set of experiments will be conducted in Fall 2015 at the Syracuse University (SU) Lava Project Lab. In this set, we will pour molten basalt directly onto a series of substrates representing natural environments found on the Earth and other rocky bodies in the Solar System. These experiments will allow for analysis of the effects of basaltic composition and high temperatures on lava-substrate heat

  5. Eruption Constraints for a Young Channelized Lava Flow, Marte Vallis, Mars (United States)

    Therkelsen, J. P.; Santiago, S. S.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.


    This study constrains flow rates for a specific channelized lava flow in Marte Vallis, Mars. We measured slope-gradient, channel width, and channel depth. Our results are similar to other recent studies which suggests similarities to long, terrestrial basaltic flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Syavulisembo


    Full Text Available Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1–4 years – mostly in the form of lava flows – at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO, we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007, a freely available software ( based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM – SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM – to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  7. Evolution of an active lava flow field using a multitemporal LIDAR acquisition


    Favalli, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Fornaciai, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Mazzarini, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Harris, A.; Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Clermont‐Ferrand, France; Neri, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Behncke, B.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Pareschi, M. T.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Tarquini, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Boschi, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia


    Application of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology in volcanology has 7 developed rapidly over the past few years, being extremely useful for the generation 8 of high‐spatial‐resolution digital elevation models and for mapping eruption products. 9 However, LIDAR can also be used to yield detailed information about the dynamics of 10 lava movement, emplacement processes occuring across an active lava flow field, and the 11 volumes involved. Here we present the results...

  8. Effect of Levee and Channel Structures on Long Lava Flow Emplacement: Martian Examples from THEMIS and MOLA Data (United States)

    Peitersen, M. N.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Bare, C.


    Long lava flows (discrete flow units with lengths exceeding 50 km) are easily identified features found on many planetary surfaces. An ongoing investigation is being conducted into the origin of these flows. Here, we limit our attention to long lava flows which show evidence of channel-like structures.

  9. A hybrid model for leveed lava flows: Implications for eruption styles on Mars (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Garry, W. Brent; Fagents, Sarah A.; Parcheta, Carolyn


    Many channelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement: construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown here that the amount of lava that can be deposited by the flow front alone is limited. Estimates of the levee volume for many Mars plains flows exceed this limit and must have formed by processes that continued after the passage of the front. Experimental studies of analogous laboratory flows also indicate a combination of both modes of emplacement. A model that combines both modes of levee formation is presented, including a method for estimating volumetric flow rate, eruption duration, and viscosity. Six lava flows on the plains of the Tharsis volcanic province are used as illustrative examples. Crustal thicknesses for the six flows examined range from 9 to 23 m. Estimated emplacement times required to cool crusts of these thicknesses range from 1 year to 10 years. Corresponding viscosities are on the order of 105-106 Pa s. Effusion rates range from 25 to 840 m3 s-1 and are all within the range of terrestrial observations. Therefore, the large leveed plains flows on Mars are not dramatically different in eruption rate or lava viscosity from large terrestrial analogs.

  10. Mono Lake or Laschamp geomagnetic event recorded from lava flows in Amsterdam Island (southeastern Indian Ocean)

    CERN Document Server

    Carvallo, C; Ruffet, G; Henry, B I; Poidras, T; Carvallo, Claire; Camps, Pierre; Ruffet, Gilles; Henry, Bernard; Proxy, Thierry Poidras


    We report a survey carried out on basalt flows from Amsterdam Island in order to check the presence of intermediate directions interpreted to belong to a geomagnetic field excursion within the Brunhes epoch, completing this paleomagnetic record with paleointensity determinations and radiometric dating. The directional results corroborate the findings by Watkins and Nougier (1973) : normal polarity is found for two units and an intermediate direction, with associated VGPs close to the equator, for the other two units. A notable result is that these volcanic rocks are well suited for absolute paleointensity determinations. Fifty percent of the samples yields reliable intensity values with high quality factors. An original element of this study is that we made use of the PTRM-tail test of Shcherbakova et al. (2000) to help in the interpretation of the paleointensity measurements. Doing thus, only the high temperature intervals, beyond 400 degres C, were retained to obtain the most reliable estimate of the streng...

  11. Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: Implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history (United States)

    Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

    Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process.

  12. A new tree-ring date for the ``floating island'' lava flow, Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Yamaguchi, David K.; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Lawrence, Donald B.


    Anomalously narrow and missing rings in trees 12 m from Mount St. Helens' “floating island” lava flow, and synchronous growth increases in trees farther from the flow margin, are evidence that this andesitic flow was extruded between late summer 1799 and spring 1800 a.d., within a few months after the eruption of Mount St. Helens' dacitic layer T tephra. For ease of reference, we assign here an 1800 a.d. date to this flow. The new date shows that the start of Mount St. Helens' Goat Rocks eruptive period (1800 1857 a.d.) resembled the recent (1980 1986) activity in both petrochemical trends and timing. In both cases, an initial explosive eruption of dacite was quickly succeeded by the eruption of more mafic lavas; dacite lavas then reappeared during an extended concluding phase of activity. This behavior is consistent with a recently proposed fluid-dynamic model of magma withdrawal from a compositionally zoned magma chamber.

  13. The Origin of Ina: Evidence for Inflated Lava Flows on the Moon (United States)

    Garry, W. B.; Robinson, M. S.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hawke, B. R.; Crumpler, L. S.; Braden, S. E.; Sato, H.


    Ina is an enigmatic volcanic feature on the Moon known for its irregularly shaped mounds, the origin of which has been debated since the Apollo Missions. Three main units are observed on the floor of the depression (2.9 km across, < or =64 m deep) located at the summit of a low-shield volcano: irregularly shaped mounds up to 20 m tall, a lower unit 1 to 5 m in relief that surrounds the mounds, and blocky material. Analyses of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images and topography show that features in Ina are morphologically similar to terrestrial inflated lava flows. Comparison of these unusual lunar mounds and possible terrestrial analogs leads us to hypothesize that features in Ina were formed through lava flow inflation processes. While the source of the lava remains unclear, this new model suggests that as the mounds inflated, breakouts along their margins served as sources for surface flows that created the lower morphologic unit. Over time, mass wasting of both morphologic units has exposed fresh surfaces observed in the blocky unit. Ina is different than the terrestrial analogs presented in this study in that the lunar features formed within a depression, no vent sources are observed, and no cracks are observed on the mounds. However, lava flow inflation processes explain many of the morphologic relationships observed in Ina and are proposed to be analogous with inflated lava flows on Earth.

  14. Emplacement history and inflation evidence of a long basaltic lava flow located in Southern Payenia Volcanic Province, Argentina (United States)

    Bernardi, Mauro I.; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Jalowitzki, Tiago L. R.; Orihashi, Yuji; Ponce, Alexis D.


    The El Corcovo lava flow, from the Huanul shield volcano in the southern Mendoza province (central-western Argentina) traveled a distance of 70 km and covered a minimum area of ~ 415 km2. The flow emplacement was controlled both by extrinsic (e.g., topography) and intrinsic (e.g., lava supply rate, lava physicochemical characteristics) factors. The distal portion of the lava flow reached the Colorado River Valley, in La Pampa Province, where it spread and then was confined by earlier river channels. Cross-sections through the flow surveyed at several localities show two vesicular layers surrounding a dense central section, where vesicles are absent or clustered in sheet-shaped and cylindrical-shaped structures. Lavas of the El Corcovo flow are alkaline basalts with low values of viscosity. The morphological and structural characteristics of the flow and the presence of landforms associated with lava accumulation are the evidence of inflation. This process involved the formation of a tabular sheet flow up to 4 m of thick with a large areal extent in the proximal sectors, while at terminal sectors frontal lobes reached inflation values up to 10 m. The numerous swelling structures present at these portions of the flow suggest the movement of lava in lava tubes. We propose that this aspect and the low viscosity of the lava allowed the flow travel to a great distance on a gentle slope relief.

  15. Quantitative reconstruction of thermal and dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements (United States)

    Korotkii, Alexander; Kovtunov, Dmitry; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Tsepelev, Igor; Melnik, Oleg


    We study a model of lava flow to determine its thermal and dynamic characteristics from thermal measurements of the lava at its surface. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. We develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem in the case of steady-state flow. Assuming that the temperature and the heat flow are prescribed at the upper surface of the model domain, we determine the flow characteristics in the entire model domain using a variational (adjoint) method. We have performed computations of model examples and showed that in the case of smooth input data the lava temperature and the flow velocity can be reconstructed with a high accuracy. As expected, a noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. Also we analyse the influence of optimization methods on the solution convergence rate. The proposed method for reconstruction of physical parameters of lava flows can also be applied to other problems in geophysical fluid flows.

  16. Real-time satellite monitoring of Nornahraun lava flow NE Iceland (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Davis, Ashley; Schneider, David; Wright, Robert; Kestay, Laszlo; Hamilton, Christopher; Harris, Andrew; Coppola, Diego; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús; Durig, Tobias; Pedersen, Gro; Drouin, Vincent; Höskuldsson, Friðrik; Símonarson, Hreggviður; Örn Arnarson, Gunnar; Örn Einarsson, Magnús; Riishuus, Morten


    An effusive eruption started in Holuhraun, NE Iceland, on 31 August 2014, producing the Nornahraun lava flow field which had, by the beginning of 2015, covered over 83 km2. Throughout this event, various satellite images have been analyzed to monitor the development, active areas and map the lava extent in close collaboration with the field group, which involved regular exchange of direct observations and satellite based data for ground truthing and suggesting possible sites for lava sampling. From the beginning, satellite images in low geometric but high temporal resolution (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS) were used to monitor main regions of activity and position new vents to within 1km accuracy. As they became available, multispectral images in higher resolution (LANDSAT 8, LANDSAT 7, ASTER, EO-1 ALI) were used to map the lava channels, study lava structures and classify regions of varying activity. Hyper spectral sensors (EO-1 HYPERION), though with limited area coverage, have given a good indication of vent and lava temperature and effusion rates. All available radar imagery (SENTINEL-1, RADARSAT, COSMO SKYMED, TERRASAR X) have been used for studying lava extent, landscape and roughness. The Icelandic Coast Guard has, on a number of occasions, provided high resolution radar and thermal images from reconnaissance flights. These data sources compliment each other well and have improved analysis of events. Whilst classical TIR channels were utilized to map the temperature history of the lava, SWIR and NIR channels caught regions of highest temperature, allowing an estimate of the most active lava channels and even indicating potential changes in channel structure. Combining thermal images and radar images took this prediction a step further, improving interpretation of both image types and studying the difference between open and closed lava channels. Efforts are underway of comparing different methods of estimating magma discharge and improving the process for use in real

  17. Constraining Eruptive Conditions From Lava Flow Morphometry: A Case Study With Field Evidence (United States)

    Bowles, Z. R.; Clarke, A.; Greeley, R.


    Volcanism is widely recognized as one of the primary factors affecting the surfaces of solid planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Basaltic lava is thought to be the most common composition based on observed features typical of basaltic eruptions found on Earth. Lava flows are one of the most easily recognizable landforms on planetary surfaces and their features may provide information about eruption dynamics, lava rheology, and potential hazards. More recently, researchers have taken a multi-faceted approach to combine remote sensing, field observations and quantitative modeling to constrain volcanic activity on Earth and other planets. Here we test a number of published models, including empirically derived relationships from Mt. Etna and Kilauea, models derived from laboratory experiments, and theoretical models previously applied to remote sensing of planetary surfaces, against well-documented eruptions from the literature and field observations. We find that the Graetz (Hulme and Felder, 1977, Phil.Trans., 285, 227 - 234) method for estimating effusion rates compares favorably with published eruption data, while, on the other hand, inverting lava flow length prediction models to estimate effusion rates leads to several orders of magnitude in error. The Graetz method also better constrains eruption duration. Simple radial spreading laws predict Hawaiian lava flow lengths quite well, as do using the thickness of the lava flow front and chilled crust. There was no observed difference between results from models thought to be exclusive to aa or pahoehoe flow fields. Interpreting historic conditions should therefore follow simple relationships to observable morphologies no matter the composition or surface texture. We have applied the most robust models to understand the eruptive conditions and lava rheology of the Batamote Mountains near Ajo, AZ, an eroded shield volcano in southern Arizona. We find effusion rates on the order of 100 - 200 cubic

  18. Cooling of a channeled lava flow with non-Newtonian rheology: crust formation and surface radiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Santini


    Full Text Available We present here the results from dynamical and thermal models that describe a channeled lava flow as it cools by radiation. In particular, the effects of power-law rheology and of the presence of bends in the flow are considered, as well as the formation of surface crust and lava tubes. On the basis of the thermal models, we analyze the assumptions implicit in the currently used formulae for evaluation of lava flow rates from satellite thermal imagery. Assuming a steady flow down an inclined rectangular channel, we solve numerically the equation of motion by the finite-volume method and a classical iterative solution. Our results show that the use of power-law rheology results in relevant differences in the average velocity and volume flow rate with respect to Newtonian rheology. Crust formation is strongly influenced by power-law rheology; in particular, the growth rate and the velocity profile inside the channel are strongly modified. In addition, channel curvature affects the flow dynamics and surface morphology. The size and shape of surface solid plates are controlled by competition between the shear stress and the crust yield strength: the degree of crust cover of the channel is studied as a function of the curvature. Simple formulae are currently used to relate the lava flow rate to the energy radiated by the lava flow as inferred from satellite thermal imagery. Such formulae are based on a specific model, and consequently, their validity is subject to the model assumptions. An analysis of these assumptions reveals that the current use of such formulae is not consistent with the model.

  19. Physical properties of lava flows on the southwest flank of Tyrrhena Patera, Mars (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Porter, Tracy K.; Greeley, Ronald


    Tyrrhena Patera (TP) (22 degrees S, 253.5 degrees W), a large, low-relief volcano located in the ancient southern highlands of Mars, is one of four highland paterae thought to be structurally associated with the Hellas basin. The highland paterae are Hesperian in age and among the oldest central vent volcanoes on Mars. The morphology and distribution of units in the eroded shield of TP are consistent with the emplacement of pyroclastic flows. A large flank unit extending from TP to the SW contains well-defined lava flow lobes and leveed channels. This flank unit is the first definitive evidence of effusive volcanic activity associated with the highland paterae and may include the best preserved lava flows observed in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars. Flank flow unit averages, channelized flow, flow thickness, and yield strength estimates are discussed. Analysis suggests the temporal evolution of Martian magmas.

  20. Perception of Lava Flow Hazards and Risk at Mauna Loa and Hualalai Volcanoes, Kona, Hawaii (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnston, D. M.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.


    The island of Hawaii is composed of five sub-aerially exposed volcanoes, three of which have been active since 1801 (Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai). Hawaii has the fastest population growth in the state and the local economy in the Kona districts (i.e., western portion of the island) is driven by tourism. Kona is directly vulnerable to future lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoes, as well as indirectly from the effects of lava flows elsewhere that may sever the few roads that connect Kona to other vital areas on the island. A number of factors such as steep slopes, high volume eruptions, and high effusion rates, combine to mean that lava flows from Hualalai and Mauna Loa can be fast-moving and hence unusually hazardous. The proximity of lifelines and structures to potential eruptive sources exacerbates societies' risk to future lava flows. Approximately \\$2.3 billion has been invested on the flanks of Mauna Loa since its last eruption in 1984 (Trusdell 1995). An equivalent figure has not yet been determined for Hualalai, but an international airport, several large resort complexes, and Kailua-Kona, the second largest town on the island, are down-slope and within 15km of potential eruptive Hualalai vents. Public and perhaps official understanding of specific lava flow hazards and the perceptions of risk from renewed volcanism at each volcano are proportional to the time lapsed since the most recent eruption that impacted Kona, rather than a quantitative assessment of risk that takes into account recent growth patterns. Lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualalai last directly impacted upon Kona during the notorious 1950 and circa 1801 eruptions, respectively. Various non-profit organizations; local, state and federal government entities; and academic institutions have disseminated natural hazard information in Kona but despite the intuitive appeal that increased hazard understanding and risk perception results in increased hazard adjustment adoption, this

  1. Tracking lava flow emplacement on the east rift zone of Kilauea, Hawai’i with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherence (United States)

    Dietterich, Hannah R.; Poland, Michael P.; Schmidt, David; Cashman, Katharine V.; Sherrod, David R.; Espinosa, Arkin Tapia


    Lava flow mapping is both an essential component of volcano monitoring and a valuable tool for investigating lava flow behavior. Although maps are traditionally created through field surveys, remote sensing allows an extraordinary view of active lava flows while avoiding the difficulties of mapping on location. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, in particular, can detect changes in a flow field by comparing two images collected at different times with SAR coherence. New lava flows radically alter the scattering properties of the surface, making the radar signal decorrelated in SAR coherence images. We describe a new technique, SAR Coherence Mapping (SCM), to map lava flows automatically from coherence images independent of look angle or satellite path. We use this approach to map lava flow emplacement during the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha eruption at Kīlauea, Hawai‘i. The resulting flow maps correspond well with field mapping and better resolve the internal structure of surface flows, as well as the locations of active flow paths. However, the SCM technique is only moderately successful at mapping flows that enter vegetation, which is also often decorrelated between successive SAR images. Along with measurements of planform morphology, we are able to show that the length of time a flow stays decorrelated after initial emplacement is linearly related to the flow thickness. Finally, we use interferograms obtained after flow surfaces become correlated to show that persistent decorrelation is caused by post-emplacement flow subsidence.

  2. Communicating Science to Officials and People at Risk During a Slow-Motion Lava Flow Crisis (United States)

    Neal, C. A.; Babb, J.; Brantley, S.; Kauahikaua, J. P.


    From June 2014 through March 2015, Kīlauea Volcano's Púu ´Ō´ō vent on the East Rift Zone produced a tube-fed pāhoehoe lava flow -the "June 27th flow" - that extended 20 km downslope. Within 2 months of onset, flow trajectory towards populated areas in the Puna District caused much concern. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) issued a news release of increased hazard on August 22 and began participating in public meetings organized by Hawai`i County Mayor and Civil Defense two days later. On September 4, HVO upgraded the volcano alert level to WARNING based on an increased potential for lava to reach homes and infrastructure. Ultimately, direct impacts were modest: lava destroyed one unoccupied home and one utility pole, crossed a rural roadway, and partially inundated a waste transfer station, a cemetery, and agricultural land. Anticipation that lava could reach Pāhoa Village and cross the only major access highway, however, caused significant disruption. HVO scientists employed numerous methods to communicate science and hazard information to officials and the at-risk public: daily (or more frequent) written updates of the lava activity, flow front locations and advance rates; frequent updates of web-hosted maps and images; use of the 'lines of steepest descent' method to indicate likely lava flow paths; consistent participation in well-attended community meetings; bi-weekly briefings to County, State, and Federal officials; correspondence with the public via email and recorded phone messages; participation in press conferences and congressional briefings; and weekly newspaper articles (Volcano Watch). Communication lessons both learned and reinforced include: (1) direct, frequent interaction between scientists and officials and at-risk public builds critical trust and understanding; (2) images, maps, and presentations must be tailored to audience needs; (3) many people are unfamiliar with maps (oblique aerial photographs were more effective); (4

  3. Inflation Features of the Distal Pahoehoe Portion of the 1859 Mauna Loa Flow, Hawaii; Implications for Evaluating Planetary Lava Flows (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L S.


    The 1859 eruption of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, resulted in the longest subaerial lava flow on the Big Island. Detailed descriptions were made of the eruption both from ships and following hikes by groups of observers; the first three weeks of the eruption produced an `a`a flow that reached the ocean, and the following 10 months produced a pahoehoe flow that also eventually reached the ocean. The distal portion of the 1859 pahoehoe flow component includes many distinctive features indicative of flow inflation. Field work was conducted on the distal 1859 pahoehoe flow during 2/09 and 3/10, which allowed us to document several inflation features, in or-der evaluate how well inflated landforms might be detected in remote sensing data of lava flows on other planets.

  4. SHARAD Constrains on Lava Flow Properties at Southeastern Utopia Planitia (United States)

    Nunes, D. C.


    The volcanic flows originated at the southwestern flanks of Elysium Mons extend over 1,000 km into Utopia Planitia and overlie the knobby and polygonally cracked Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF). These flows display rough and smooth lobate morphologies (RL and SL) morphologies and occur in conjunction with sinuous channels (SC). Russell and Head [2003] described these morphologies and hypothesized that RL correspond to debris flows that arose as lahars from the interaction between magma and ground water or ice. The mapping of Tanaka et al. [2003] identified these features similarly, attributing them to volcanoclastic flows formed from magma-volatile interactions. Crater counts by Werner et al. [2011] support surface ages between 1 and 2 Gyr for these flows. Analysis of the radargrams acquired throughout this area o show unambiguous subsurface reflectors that, individually, are relatively short and laterally intermittent. As a group, however, these reflectors are distributed sparsely over the flow field and correlate very well with the SL units. Delays to reflectors beneath the surface are generally in the order of < ~1 μs. In one locale with a high concentration of subsurface reflectors, centered at 117.61°E and 31.31°N, a sequence of smooth lobate flows overlie a smooth volcanic unit. The lobate flow in immediate contact with the smooth unit possesses subsurface reflections that correlate well with the flow edges, and where this flow is overlain by another lobate flow these reflections vanish. We interpret these reflections as a reflector that corresponds to the interface between the lobate flow and smooth unit. The average delay to this reflector is 0.68 - 0.71 μs along its length. The thickness of this lobate flow, estimated from MOLA elevation data, ranges between 35 and 40 m. The thickness estimate from MOLA and the delay to reflector from SHARAD together constrain the relative permittivity of the flow to between 6.5 and 9.5. These values are consistent

  5. Estimating rheological properties of lava flows using high-resolution time lapse imaging (United States)

    James, M. R.; Applegarth, L. J.; Pinkerton, H.; Fryer, T.


    During effusive eruptions, property and infrastructure can be threatened by lava flow inundation. In order to maximise the effectiveness of the response to such an event, it is necessary to be able to reliably forecast the area that will be affected. One of the major controls on the advance of a lava flow is its rheology, which is spatially and temporally variable, and depends on many underlying factors. Estimating the rheological properties of a lava flow, and the change in these over space and time is therefore of the utmost importance. Here we report estimates of rheological properties made from geometric and velocity measurements on integrated topographic and image data using the method of Ellis et al. (2004) (Ellis B, Wilson L & Pinkerton H (2004) Estimating the rheology of basaltic lava flows. Lunar & Planetary Science XXXV Abst. 1550). These are then compared to the viscosity predicted from composition and temperature by the GRD model (Giordano D, Russell JK, & Dingwell DB (2008) Viscosity of Magmatic Liquids: A Model. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 271, 123-134). During the 13 May 2008 - 6 July 2009 eruption of Mt Etna, Sicily, lava flows were emplaced into the Valle del Bove, reaching a maximum length of >6 km. Towards the end of the eruption, multiple channelized aa flows were active simultaneously, reaching tens to hundreds of metres in length. Flow lifetimes were of the order hours to days. In the last month of the eruption, we installed a Canon EOS 450D camera at Pizzi Deneri, on the north side of the Valle del Bove, to collect visible images at 15-minute intervals. On one day, topographic data (using a Riegl LPM-321 terrestrial laser scanner) and thermal images (using a FLIR Thermacam S40) were also collected from this location. The fronts of some of the larger flows were tracked through the time lapse image sequence. Using knowledge of the camera imaging geometry, the pixel tracks were reprojected onto the topographic surface to determine flow

  6. Explosive lava-water interactions II: self-organization processes among volcanic rootless eruption sites in the 1783-1784 Laki lava flow, Iceland (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur


    We have applied quantitative geospatial analyses to rootless eruption sites in the Hnúta and Hrossatungur groups of the 1783-1784 Laki lava flow to establish how patterns of spatial distribution can be used to obtain information about rootless cone emplacement processes and paleo-environments. This study utilizes sample-size-dependent nearest neighbor (NN) statistics and Voronoi tessellations to quantify the spatial distribution of rootless eruption sites and validate the use of statistical NN analysis as a remote sensing tool. Our results show that rootless eruption sites cluster in environments with abundant lava and water resources, but competition for limited groundwater in these clusters can cause rootless eruption sites to develop repelled distributions. This pattern of self-organization can be interpreted within the context of resource availability and depletion. Topography tends to concentrate lava (fuel) and water (coolant) within topographic lows, thereby promoting explosive lava-water interactions in these regions. Given an excess supply of lava within broad sheet lobes, rootless eruption sites withdraw groundwater from their surroundings until there is insufficient water to maintain analogs to explosive molten fuel-coolant interactions. Rootless eruption sites may be modeled as a network of water extraction wells that draw down the water table in their vicinity. Rootless eruptions at locations with insufficient groundwater may either fail to initiate or terminate before explosive activity has ceased at nearby locations with a greater supply of water, thus imparting a repelled distribution to observed rootless eruption sites.

  7. The eruption in Holuhraun, NE Iceland 2014-2015: Real-time monitoring and influence of landscape on lava flow (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thor; Bartolini, Stefania; Becerril, Laura; Marti Molist, Joan; Þorvaldsson, Skúli; Björnsson, Daði; Höskuldsson, Friðrik


    The largest eruption in Iceland since the Laki 1783-84 event began in Holuhraun, NE Iceland, on 31 August 2014, producing a lava flow field which, by the end of the eruption on February 27th 2015, covered 84,5 km2 with volume of 1,44 km3. Throughout the event, various satellite images (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS, SUOMI NPP VIIRS, ASTER, LANDSAT7&8, EO-1 ALI & HYPERION, RADARSAT-2, SENTINEL-1, COSMO SKYMED, TERRASAR X) were analysed to monitor the development of activity, identify active flow fronts and channels, and map the lava extent in close collaboration with the on-site field group. Aerial photographs and radar images from the Icelandic Coast Guard Dash 8 aircraft supported this effort. By the end of 2015, Loftmyndir ehf had produced a detailed 3D model of the lava using aerial photographs from 2013 and 2015. The importance of carrying out real-time monitoring of a volcanic eruption is: i) to locate sites of elevated temperature that may be registering new areas of activity within the lava or opening of vents or fissures. ii) To establish and verify timing of events at the vents and within the lava. iii) To identify potential volcanic hazard that can be caused by lava movements, eruption-induced flash flooding, tephra fallout or gas pollution. iv) to provide up-to-date regional information to field groups concerning safety as well as to locate sites for sampling lava, tephra and polluted water. v) to produce quantitative information on magma discharge and lava flow advance, map the lava extent, document the flow morphology and plume/tephra dispersal. During the eruption, these efforts supported mapping of the extent of the lava every 3-4 days on average underpinning the time series of magma discharge calculations. Digitial elevation models from before and after the event, combined with the real-time data series, supports detailed analysis of how landscape affects lava flow in a flat terrain (<0,4°), and provides important input to further developing lava flow models

  8. Geochemistry of Spencer-High Point Volcanic Field Lava Flows, Idaho (United States)

    Iwahashi, G. S.; Hughes, S. S.


    Lava flows in Spencer-High Point (SHP) volcanic field, an ~1700 sq km mafic volcanic rift zone located near Yellowstone in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), have been compared physically and chemically to other ESRP olivine tholeiites. Overall, SHP lavas are geochemically similar to other ESRP olivine tholeiites but their geomorphology is entirely different. The structural alignment of vents and fissures in an east-west direction in the Spencer-High Point region contrasts with most of the ESRP volcanic features aligned northwest-southeast. Numerous cinder cones at SHP, features that characterize Craters of the Moon volcanic field, are unusual on most of the eastern Snake River Plain. This study agrees with preliminary geochemical data by Leeman (1982) and Kuntz et al. (1992) suggesting that SHP lavas are typical ESRP basalts. However, a broad range of geochemical compositions exists in the SHP field that is similar to the entire range of ESRP olivine tholeiites. A few of the samples are actually closer in composition to lavas present at Craters of the Moon but only a limited number of samples from vents with physically higher relief, in the central and eastern portions of the field show these evolved chemical compositions. Typically Ta ranges 0.5-4.5ppm, La 20-90ppm, Ba 200-1100ppm and Cr 7-550ppm. Some lava flows in the central and eastern sections of SHP volcanic field also contain crustal xenoliths, implying a prolonged crustal history. These results although preliminary, suggest that the SHP system represents a possible petrologic transition between the dominant ESRP tholeiites and the evolved compositions found at Craters of the Moon.

  9. A new tree-ring date for the "floating island" lava flow, Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Yamaguchi, D.K.; Hoblitt, R.P.; Lawrence, D.B.


    Anomalously narrow and missing rings in trees 12 m from Mount St. Helens' "floating island" lava flow, and synchronous growth increases in trees farther from the flow margin, are evidence that this andesitic flow was extruded between late summer 1799 and spring 1800 a.d., within a few months after the eruption of Mount St. Helens' dacitic layer T tephra. For ease of reference, we assign here an 1800 a.d. date to this flow. The new date shows that the start of Mount St. Helens' Goat Rocks eruptive period (1800-1857 a.d.) resembled the recent (1980-1986) activity in both petrochemical trends and timing. In both cases, an initial explosive eruption of dacite was quickly succeeded by the eruption of more mafic lavas; dacite lavas then reappeared during an extended concluding phase of activity. This behavior is consistent with a recently proposed fluid-dynamic model of magma withdrawal from a compositionally zoned magma chamber. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Channel, Lava Tube, and Edifice Flow Models: Developments and Recent Applications for Mars (United States)

    Sakimoto, S. E.; Gregg, T. K.; Riedel, S. J.


    Recent advances in modeling of lava channels, lava tubes, and small edifice construction allow us to put more physically realistic constraints on effusion rates and rheologies. For this study, we combine these models with the new precise altimetry for Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. The model suite includes solutions for Newtonian and Bingham rectangular channel flow, Newtonian and Bingham sheet flow, Newtonian and Bingham tube flow, and a percolation model for shield emplacement. We find that the new data and model accuracy allows us to apply these models for different flow regimes and regions to reveal probable differences in eruption rates or rheologies across Mars. Our estimations of effusions rates (for example) improve from a range of five to six orders of magnitude to a few, which allow possible discrimination of flow rate differences between regions of several orders of magnitude. Some, but not all, of the largest flow rates are found on the steepest slopes, but much of the variation is directly attributable to either effusion rate variations or rheology differences. We suggest that some of the differences are revealing characteristic eruption styles for specific martian regions, such as lower flow rates (after correction for different slopes) in Tyrrhena's flow field than are seen on the major shield volcanoes. However, some differences simply seem to reveal natural scatter within any given eruption style and model application. We will discuss results of models for several martian regions, and implications for regional and temporal changes in flow and effusion rate properties.

  11. Recent advances in the GPUSPH model for the thermal and rheological evolution of lava flows (United States)

    Zago, Vito; Bilotta, Giuseppe; Cappello, Annalisa; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Fortuna, Luigi; Ganci, Gaetana; Herault, Alexis; Del Negro, Ciro


    GPUSPH is a fully three-dimensional model for the simulation of the thermal and rheological evolution of lava flows that relies on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) numerical method. Thanks to the Lagrangian, meshless nature of SPH, the model incorporates a more complete physical description of the emplacement process and rheology of lava that considers the free surface, the irregular boundaries represented by the topography, the solidification fronts and the non-Newtonian rheology. Because of the very high degree of parallelism, GPUSPH is implemented very efficiently on high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) employing the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), a parallel programming language developed by NVIDIA for GPU computing. GPUSPH follows the very general Herschel-Bulkley rheological model, which encompasses Newtonian, power-law and Bingham flow behaviour and can thus be used to explore in detail the impact of rheology on the behaviour of lava flows and on their emplacement. We present here the first validation tests of the GPUSPH model against well known analytical problems, considering the different rheological models, heat exchanges by thermal conduction and radiation, and providing the relative error estimates.

  12. Petrogenesis of Rinjani Post-1257-Caldera-Forming-Eruption Lava Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Rachmat


    Full Text Available After the catastrophic 1257 caldera-forming eruption, a new chapter of Old Rinjani volcanic activity beganwith the appearance of Rombongan and Barujari Volcanoes within the caldera. However, no published petrogeneticstudy focuses mainly on these products. The Rombongan eruption in 1944 and Barujari eruptions in pre-1944, 1966,1994, 2004, and 2009 produced basaltic andesite pyroclastic materials and lava flows. A total of thirty-one sampleswere analyzed, including six samples for each period of eruption except from 2004 (only one sample. The sampleswere used for petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, and trace and rare earth element analyses. The Rombonganand Barujari lavas are composed of calc-alkaline and high K calc-alkaline porphyritic basaltic andesite. The magmashows narrow variation of SiO2 content that implies small changes during its generation. The magma that formedRombongan and Barujari lavas is island-arc alkaline basalt. Generally, data show that the rocks are enriched in LargeIon Lithophile Elements (LILE: K, Rb, Ba, Sr, and Ba and depleted in High Field Strength Elements (HFSE: Y, Ti,and Nb which are typically a suite from a subduction zone. The pattern shows a medium enrichment in Light REEand relatively depleted in Heavy REE. The processes are dominantly controlled by fractional crystallization andmagma mixing. All of the Barujari and Rombongan lavas would have been produced by the same source of magmawith little variation in composition caused by host rock filter process. New flux of magma would likely have occurredfrom pre-1944 until 2009 period that indicates slightly decrease and increase of SiO2 content. The Rombongan andBarujari lava generations show an arc magma differentiation trend.

  13. Dendritic lava flows, landslides and terraces around the central Azores islands (United States)

    Tempera, F.; Mitchell, N. C.; Schmitt, T.; Isidro, E.; Cardigos, F.; Figueiredo, J.; Nunes, J.


    Surveying around volcanic ocean islands with sonars has recovered important information on giant landslides, faults and primary volcanic features, but efforts so far have largely been unable to image shallow water coastal areas because of vessel safety. Here we report surveying with a Reson 8160 multibeam sonar aboard a shallow draft research vessel, R/V Arquipelago, which enabled us to survey to less than 10 m water depth around the coasts of Faial, Pico and Sao Jorge islands of the Azores. The data cover coasts that have been growing volcanically, some during historical times. Where the coast has a finite abrasion shelf, the new data show that lava reaching the shore can breach the surf zone and develop a variety of submarine lava structures on the shelf. Many are dendritic in plan-view and some with transverse ribbing similar to pahoehoe flows on land but much larger scale. A variety of divergent flow paths are clearly indicated in the data. Some flows cross the shelf and descend the upper slope beyond the shelf break, providing evidence that a component of growth of the submarine island can include subaerially-originating lava as inferred from sulphur contents in submarine lava dredged from around Hawai'i. Where the abrasion shelf is very narrow or absent, the upper slope of the island contains abundant shallow landslides in the new unstable and steep volcanic material. The data show a variety of other interesting features, such as terraces, volcanic cones, collapse structures, tumuli, faults associated with the Azores plate boundary and sedimentary bedforms produced by interaction of oceanic currents with the island topography and from turbidity currents descending island slopes.

  14. Nature and extent of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.


    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Pahute Mesa, which has been identified in the FFACO as consisting of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units. Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a regional model that will be used to predict a contaminant boundary for these Corrective Action Units. Hydrogeologic maps have been prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted at Pahute Mesa. Much of the groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa occurs within lava-flow aquifers. An understanding of the distribution and hydraulic character of these important hydrogeologic units is necessary to accurately model groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa. This report summarizes the results of a study by Bechtel Nevada geologists to better define the hydrogeology of lava-flow aquifers at Pahute Mesa. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) aid in the development of the hydrostratigraphic framework for Pahute Mesa, and (2) provide information on the distribution and hydraulic character of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa for more accurate computer modeling of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  15. Extensive young dacite lava flows between boninite and BABB in a backarc setting: NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.


    Several hundred square kilometers of young dacite lava flows mapped by their high acoustic backscatter erupted in several batches in proximity to boninite and back-arc basin basalt (BABB) in the NE Lau Basin, the world's fastest opening back-arc region and a site proposed as a modern analogue in some ophiolite models. Where sampled, these lavas are aphyric, glassy dacites and are not associated with andesite extrusives (commonly observed elsewhere). Several flow fields occur on the flank of the large silicic Niuatahi seamount. Two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones (~220 km2) erupted as far as 60 km north of Niuatahi. Their occurrence is likely controlled by crustal fractures from the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Determining thickness of these flows is problematic, but relief of 30-100 m on flow fronts and in collapsed areas yields volume estimates as high as ~7-18 km3 for the northern group. The mean silica content of the largest and best sampled dacite flow field (LL-B) is 65.6 ±0.2%, a remarkably consistent composition for such an extensive flow (~140 km2). Camera tows show lower viscosity flow forms, including many anastomatosing pillow tubes and ropey surfaces, as well as endogenous domes, ridges and lobes (some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures). An enigmatic 2 x 1.5 km, 30-m deep collapse depression could mark an eruption center for the LL-B flow field. Low viscosity flow morphologies on portions of LL-B and a nearby smaller flow field implies high effusion rates during some phases of the eruption(s), which in turn implies some combination of higher than normal liquidus temperature and high water content. Submarine dacite flows have been described in ancient sequences from the Archaean through the Miocene but this is the first modern occurrence of large volume submarine dacite flows. The volume of these young dacite flows implies the presence of large differentiated melt

  16. Lava Flow Lengths and Historic Eruptive Parameters: Implications for the Volcanic History of the Batamote Mountains, Ajo, Arizona (United States)

    Bowles, Z. R.; Clarke, A.; Greeley, R.


    Lava flow lengths and morphology depend on (1) initial viscocity, (2) rate of effusion, (3) total volume of lava extruded, (4) duration of extrusion, (5) slope of underlying surface, (6) topography, (7) rate of cooling, (8) formation of crust, and (9) other special circumstances such as ponding and flowing into water. Lava flow lengths and assumptions on lava type contain all the information needed to make educated constraints on the eruptive history of a particular volcano. By no means is this a definitive claim of eruptive histories based on present day observations, but an approximation of what might have occurred may be obtained. Lava flow lengths were measured in the Batamote Mountains in Ajo, Arizona and it was determined that this 18 million year old shield volcano erupted with effusion rates of 5 to 10 cubic meters per second, volumes of 0.00001 cubic kilometers, eruption durations on the order of days, lava yield strengths of 5000 Pa, and flow thicknesses of approximately 3 to 6 meters. These calculations add to the body of knowledge covering Arizona historical volcanism and related Basin and Range extension, but conflict with observations of basaltic volcanic fields in this region.

  17. Petrogenesis of eocene lava flows from the chagai arc, Balochistan, Pakistan and its tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eocene Lava flows occur in the northwestern part of an EW trending subduction related-magmatic belt known as Chagai arc in the Western part of Pakistan. The volcanism in this arc was initiated during the Late Cretaceous, which intermittently continued up to the Quaternary period. In the regional geotectonic context this arc belongs to the Tethyan convergence zone and was believed to have formed due to the northward subduction of Arabian oceanic plate below the southern margin of Afghan micro plate and hence considered as an Andean type arc. Although Bocene volcaniclastic rock occurs throughout the Chagai arc but the lava flows only crop out in a NW-SE elongated (1 km x 6 kIn) area in the northwestern part of the Chagai arc. These lava flows are represented by two discrete cycles of eruptions found towards the top of the lower pyroclastic sequence of Saindak Formation of Ecocene age. The older flow is about 100 m thick and extends for 2 km whereas the younger flow is 700 metre thick and extends for more than 6 km. The lava flows are mainly represented by amigdaloidal basaltic-andesites (55.50- 54.53 wt. % SiO/sub 2/) and andesites (57.40-62.79 wt. % SiO/sub 2/) with minor basalt (51.88 wt. % SiO/sub 2/) and dacite (67.81 wt. % SiO/sub 2/). The main textures exhibited by these flows are hypocrystalline, porphyritic, cummulophyric, vitrophyric and sub pilotaxitic. Large phenocrysts ( < 1 mm - 4mm) of plagioclase (An-38-58) and pyroxene are embedded in a micro to criptocrystalline groundmass having the same minerals with devitrified volcanic glass. The phenocrysts groundmass ratio is 35:65. Apatite, hematite, ilmenite and magnetite are common accessory mineral. Petrochemical studies reveal that these volcanics belong to medium to low K-calc- alkaline series. They have low Mg = (39-50), and higher FeO (total)/MgO (1.81-2.78) ratios, which suggest that parent magma of these rock suites was not directly derived from a partially melted mantle source but fractionated in

  18. Vertical AMS variation within basalt flow profiles from the Xitle volcano (Mexico) as indicator of heterogeneous strain in lava flows (United States)

    Caballero-Miranda, C. I.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; González-Rangel, J. A.; Gogitchaishvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Kontny, A.


    The within-flow vertical variation of anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of three basaltic flow profiles from the Xitle volcano were investigated in relation to the lava flow-induced shear strain. Rock magnetic properties and opaque microscopy studies have shown that the magnetic mineralogy is dominated by Ti-poor magnetite with subtle vertical variations in grain size distribution: PSD grains dominate in a thin bottommost zone, and from base to top from PSD-MD to PSD-SD grains are found. The vertical variation of AMS principal direction patterns permitted identification of two to three main lava zones, some subdivided into subzones. The lower zone is very similar in all profiles with the magnetic foliation dipping toward the flow source, whereas the upper zone has magnetic foliation dipping toward the flow direction or alternates between dipping against and toward the flow direction. The K1 (maximum AMS axis) directions tend to be mostly parallel to the flow direction in both zones. The middle zone shows AMS axes diverging among profiles. We present heterogeneous strain ellipse distribution models for different flow velocities assuming similar viscosity to explain the AMS directions and related parameters of each zone. Irregular vertical foliations and transverse to flow lineation of a few samples at the bottommost and topmost part of profiles suggest SD inverse fabric, levels of intense friction, or degassing effects in AMS orientations.

  19. Melt fractionation during pāhoehoe flow lobe emplacement, Heiðin há lava, SW Iceland (United States)

    Nikkola, Paavo; Thordarson, Thorvaldur


    Melt segregations are vesicular formations of evolved melts generated by in situ closed system fractionation of a host lava. Although they are common in p¯a hoehoe flows, pillow basalts, lava lakes and shallow intrusions, their development is not fully understood. In addition, as the melt segregations are often confined to the scale of a single outcrop, they can be seen as an easily approachable analogue to the crystal-melt fractionation processes generating evolved magmas in the Earth's crust. An eight meter high p¯a hoehoe flow lobe in Heiðin há lava, SW Iceland, was sampled in order to understand the development of the elaborate segregation structures within. The sampled outcrop is a cross-section of a typical Icelandic p¯a hoehoe lava, belonging to a large post-glacial lava shield on Reykjanes Peninsula. The lava core is striped by melt segregations in the form of vertical vesicle cylinders 1-7 cm in diameter, which feed horizontal vesicle sheets higher up in the upper lava core and lower crust. Whole-rock major and trace element results for the 20 samples from the Heiðin há lava reveal a homogenous olivine tholeiitic host lava intersected by segregations of varying composition. The vesicle cylinders in the flow core are only mildly differentiated, but the segregated melt evolves upwards to horizontal vesicle sheets, from which some have experienced an additional enrichment possibly by a gas filter-pressing of the residual liquid in the horizontal sheet. The most evolved segregations are extremely Fe-rich with 19.5 % FeOtot in comparison to the average of 12.4 % FeOtot in the host lava. Consequently, MgO drops from the host lava's 9.5 % to 4.4 % in the segregation sheets. In addition, segregations are enriched by a factor of ˜2-2.5 in TiO2, K2O, P2O5 and incompatible elements Zr, Nb, Y and V. As a consequence of the closed system behavior, geochemical trends are evident between the host lava, vesicle cylinders, and vesicle sheets of different types.

  20. Basaltic Lava Flow vs. Welded Basaltic Ignimbrite: Determining the Depositional Nature of a Volcanic Flow in the Akaroa Volcanic Complex (United States)

    Sexton, E. A.; Hampton, S.


    Welded basaltic ignimbrites are one of the rarest forms of ignimbrites found on Earth and can often have characteristics that are indistinguishable from those of basaltic lava flows. This study evaluates a basaltic volcanic flow in a coastal cliff sequence in Raupo Bay, Akaroa Volcanic Complex, Banks Peninsula, New Zealand. The Raupo Bay coastal cliff sequence is comprised of 4 units, termed L1, L2, L3, and A, capped by loess. L1 and L2 are basaltic lavas, L3 proximal scoria deposits, which thin inland, and Unit A, a flow with unusual characteristics, which is the focus of this study. Field mapping, sampling, geochemical analysis and petrology were utilized to characterize units. Further detailed structural analysis of Unit A was completed, to determine the nature of the basal contact, variations in welding throughout the unit and the relationship of the layer to the underlying topography. From these analyses it was found: Unit A is thickest in a paleo-valley and thins and mantles higher topography, welding in the unit increases downwards forming topographic controlled columnar jointing, the top of the unit is brecciated and grades into the lower welded/jointed portion, the basal contact is sharp overlying a regional airfall deposit, the unit has a notably distinct geochemical composition from the underlying stratigraphic units, Unit A contains flattened and sheared scoria clasts, has aligned bubbles, and lava lithics. Further thin section analysis of Unit A identified flattened clast boundaries and microlite rimming around phenocrysts. In comparing these features to previous studies on basaltic lavas and ignimbrites it is hypothesized that Unit A is a welded basaltic ignimbrite that was channelized by paleo-topography on the outer flanks of the Akaroa Volcanic Complex. This study furthers the characterization of basaltic ignimbrites and is the first to recognize basaltic ignimbrites within the Akaroa Volcanic Complex.

  1. A Comprehensive Paleomagnetic Study on Radiometrically Dated Late Cretaceous Lava Flows from Jalisco Block (Western Mexico) (United States)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Cervantes, M. A.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Morales, J.


    Western and central Mexico is segmented by several regional structural systems that bound crustal blocs. Paleomagnetic data from the western and eastern Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt as well as from adjacent terrains are still scarce which limits analyses of the both local and regional-scale tectonic evolution. A combined radiometric and paleomagnetic survey performed on late Cretaceous lava flows demonstrate that vertical-axis rotations characterize the paleotectonic evolution of western-central Mexico. The characteristic paleomagnetic directions determined in this study may be considered of primary (thermoremanent) origin. Multicomponent demagnetization plots were observed in some cases. In general, the polarity obtained for the flows studied is consistent with their stratigraphic position and with the radiometric age determination. The mean inclination is in reasonably good agreement with the expected inclination for the Late Creataceous, as derived from reference poles given by Besse and Courtillot (2002) for the North American craton. The declination, however, is quite different from that expected, which suggests a possible counterclockwise tectonic rotation of at least 12º. Aceptable palointensity determinations were obtained for only eleven individual samples from two basaltic lava flows. The mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) obtained in this study is 4.2 ± 1.2 _ 1022 A m2, which is almost half than the present geomagnetic field strength.

  2. The Highway Flow in the Craters of the Moon Lava Field; A New Interpretation of Eruption History (United States)

    Caress, M. E.; Owen, D. E.


    The Highway flow is a trachyandesitic lava flow that lies west of Sunset Cone in the Craters of the Moon lava field, and is part of a complex series of eruptive events that took place in the vicinity of North Crater during the most recent eruptive episode of the field (2,500-2,000 years ago). The trachyandesitic Devil's Orchard and Serrate flows originated from the same vicinity during this period, and carried large masses of rafted cinder cone blocks and disaggregated cinder cone material up to 12 km to the east. The rafted blocks have long been thought to be the remnants of a disintegrating North Crater cinder cone. However, recent work has established that the flows carry a cumulative volume of rafted blocks too large to have come from the existing breach in North Crater. Previous studies had postulated the Highway flow vent to be on the north side of North Crater, and suggested the lava had flowed north, and later drained back to the south when the Highway fault downdropped the vent area. This study examined lava flow characteristics and flow direction indicators based on flow fold patterns interpreted from aerial photographs and field mapping to provide new insight into the complicated history of the Highway flow. We found two vents on the northern side of the flow, and evidence that the lava flowed to the south and ponded against a formerly present cinder cone, which we have named "South Highway Cone". The following sequence of events for eruption of the Highway flow is hypothesized: 1) eruption from two linear vent systems in the northern part of the present day flow 2) flow from the second vent southward, down the valley between Sunset and Grassy Cones 3) ponding of the lava flow at the base of the South Highway Cone and 4) downdrop to the south along the Highway fault due to collapse into a lava chamber beneath South Highway Cone. The rafted blocks in the Devil's Orchard and Serrate flows represent pieces of North Crater and the now hypothesized South

  3. Lava Flow Emplacement Processes and Eruptive Characteristics of the Ontong Java Plateau: Inferences from High-Precision Glass Analysis (United States)

    Trowbridge, S. R.; Michael, P. J.


    High-precision major and volatile element analyses were performed on natural basaltic glass from ODP Leg 192 Sites 1185 and 1187 of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) as a way to correlate lava flows within and between ODP drill sites. The ultimate goal is to estimate the dimensions, emplacement style, and eruption characteristics of the high-MgO Kroenke-type lavas: the youngest known flows at the two sites. The 122-Ma Ontong Java Plateau is the largest known magmatic event in Earth's history, yet little is known of the emplacement style (e.g. flow dimensions and durations) of OJP lavas due to its submarine nature and burial beneath hundreds of meters of sediment. Basalt samples were recovered from 110- and 130-m thick core sections from Sites 1185B and 1187A, respectively. Total Kroenke-type lava thickness is 125 m at 1185B and >136 m at 1187. Site 1187A is located 146 km north of Site 1185B and lies ≈50 m shallower than Site 1187. Remarkably, all of the glass compositions from both sites fall on a common liquid line of descent, suggesting that all lavas were the product of a single eruption from a common magma chamber. The range of MgO compositions reflects a 20ºC range in temperature, representing ~1.9% crystallization of olivine + spinel. Using measured phenocryst abundance, we examine whether this crystallization occurred within the magma chamber or during long transport of lavas on the seafloor. More primitive lavas are present in the upper 30 m of Site 1185B (average of ~9.54 wt. % MgO), overlying more fractionated lavas (average of ~9.06 wt. % MgO). Lavas from Site 1187A bridge the gap between the high- and low-MgO groups of 1185B. In contrast to MORB, OJP glasses have no vesicles, suggesting they remained liquid for much longer during flow. Paleoeruption depths calculated from H2O and CO2 contents of glasses show no systematic variation with depth in Core 1185B, and range from ~2130-2650 mbsl, while Site 1187 shows deeper eruption depths of ~2410-3040 mbsl

  4. The strain path and emplacement mechanism of lava flows: an example from Salina (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) (United States)

    Ventura, Guido


    A lava flow from Salina (southern Tyrrhenian Sea) consists of subcircular to ellipsoidal basaltic enclaves dispersed in a dacitic host. A 2D strain and kinematic analysis of the enclaves has been performed in order to determine (a) the relative contribution of the coaxial ( α) and non-coaxial ( γ) components to the bulk flow deformation, (b) the flow vorticity Wk, (c) the strain path and (d) the mechanism of flow emplacement. The axial ratio Rf and the angle φf between the long axis of the enclaves and the transport direction have been measured in 196 sites located at different distances from the vent. In the near vent zone α> γ whereas further from the vent γ> α. α values were always larger than 1, ranging from 1.6 in the near vent zone to 1 at the front. γ values were between 0.2 (at the back) and 2.6 (at the front). Wk was between 0.13 and 1 and increased from the back to the front. The enclaves result from the injection of basalt into dacite. Most of the deformation was acquired during the lava flow emplacement and not during the rise in the conduit (plug flow). The strain path depicted by the enclaves is consistent with that resulting from experimental analogue models and reveals that the lava suffers lateral extension near the vent. Further from the vent, the lava deforms according to an ideal non-coaxial model. The lava emplacement is mainly controlled by the gravity. Evidence of deformation induced by the magma pressure is lacking. Near the vent, the lava behaves as a hyperbolic flow whereas at the front it behaves as a simple shear flow. The mechanism of flow emplacement is consistent with a mixed 'viscous gliding-spreading' transport model at the back and with a 'viscous gliding' model at the front.

  5. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent


    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15% 35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ±biotite, ±hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5±0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  6. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of the Brunhes-Matuyama Geomagnetic Field Reversal. (United States)

    Baksi, A K; Hsu, V; McWilliams, M O; Farrar, E


    Magnetostratigraphic studies are widely used in conjunction with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) to date events in the range 0 to 5 million years ago. A critical tie point on the GPTS is the potassium-argon age of the most recent (Brunhes-Matuyama) geomagnetic field reversal. Astronomical values for the forcing frequencies observed in the oxygen isotope record in Ocean Drilling Project site 677 suggest that the age of this last reversal is 780 ka (thousand years ago), whereas the potassium-argon-based estimate is 730 ka. Results from 4039; Ar incremental heating studies on a series of lavas from Maui that straddle the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal give an age of 783 + 11 ka, in agreement with the astronomically derived value. The astronomically based technique appears to be a viable tool for dating young sedimentary sequences. PMID:17743111

  7. Distribution, 14C chronology, and paleomagnetism of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows at Haleakala volcano, Island of Maui, Hawai'i: a revision of lava flow hazard zones (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; McGeehin, John P.; Champion, Duane E.; Trusdell, Frank A.


    New mapping and 60 new radiocarbon ages define the age and distribution of latest Pleistocene and Holocene (past 13,000 years) lava flows at Haleakalā volcano, Island of Maui. Paleomagnetic directions were determined for 118 sites, of which 89 are in lava flows younger than 13,000 years. The paleomagnetic data, in conjunction with a reference paleosecular variation (PSV) curve for the Hawaiian Islands, are combined with our knowledge of age limitations based on stratigraphic control to refine age estimates for some of the undated lava flows. The resulting volumetric rate calculations indicate that within analytical error, the extrusion rate has remained nearly constant during the past 13,000 years, in the range 0.05–0.15 km3/kyr, only about half the long-term rate required to produce the postshield strata emplaced in the past ∼1 Myr. Haleakalā's eruptive frequency is similar to that of Hualālai volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, but its lava flows cover substantially less area per unit time. The reduced rates of lava coverage indicate a lower volcanic hazard than in similar zones at Hualālai.

  8. High-resolution AUV mapping and lava flow ages at Axial Seamount (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.; Martin, J.


    Mapping along mid-ocean ridges, as on land, requires identification of flow boundaries and sequence, and ages of some flows to understand eruption history. Multibeam sonars on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) now generate 1-m resolution maps that resolve lava pillars, internal flow structures and boundaries, and lava flow emplacement sequences using crosscutting relations and abundance of fissures. MBARI has now mapped the summit caldera floor and rims and the upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. With the advent of the high-resolution bathymetry and the ability to observe flow contacts to determine superposition using ROVs and submersibles, the missing component has been determining absolute ages of the flows. We used the MBARI ROV Doc Ricketts to collect short push cores (summit of Axial Seamount and for 6 from the lowermost south rift. Ages of nearby samples commonly yield statistically identical ages, and 2 cores near the center of the caldera had multiple layers dated. These ages systematically increase with depth, indicating that redistribution of sediment by bottom currents does not significantly affect the stratigraphy. We will expand these collections in summer 2011. The coring is accompanied by collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition inferred from the mapping data. Six ages from the lowermost part of the south rift of Axial Seamount include samples on a cone with deep summit crater that is ~16,580 aBP and on 5 flows between 950 and 1510 aBP. Two additional flows from the southeast rim of the caldera are 905 and 2005 aBP. An age of 6910 aBP from 15 cm depth in a 2-m volcaniclastic unit on top of a pre-caldera flow on the eastern rim of the caldera suggests formation of the caldera several tens of thousands aBP. Seven ages on at least 5 flows on the floor of Axial caldera range from 620 to 1145 aBP, whereas 10 extensive mapped flows are all inferred

  9. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar study of Okmok volcano, Alaska, 1992-2003: Magma supply dynamics and postemplacement lava flow deformation (United States)

    Lu, Zhiming; Masterlark, Timothy; Dzurisin, D.


    Okmok volcano, located in the central Aleutian arc, Alaska, is a dominantly basaltic complex topped with a 10-km-wide caldera that formed circa 2.05 ka. Okmok erupted several times during the 20th century, most recently in 1997; eruptions in 1945, 1958, and 1997 produced lava flows within the caldera. We used 80 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images (interferograms) to study transient deformation of the volcano before, during, and after the 1997 eruption. Point source models suggest that a magma reservoir at a depth of 3.2 km below sea level, located beneath the center of the caldera and about 5 km northeast of the 1997 vent, is responsible for observed volcano-wide deformation. The preeruption uplift rate decreased from about 10 cm yr-1 during 1992-1993 to 2 ??? 3 cm yr-1 during 1993-1995 and then to about -1 ??? -2 cm yr-1 during 1995-1996. The posteruption inflation rate generally decreased with time during 1997-2001, but increased significantly during 2001-2003. By the summer of 2003, 30 ??? 60% of the magma volume lost from the reservoir in the 1997 eruption had been replenished. Interferograms for periods before the 1997 eruption indicate consistent subsidence of the surface of the 1958 lava flows, most likely due to thermal contraction. Interferograms for periods after the eruption suggest at least four distinct deformation processes: (1) volcano-wide inflation due to replenishment of the shallow magma reservoir, (2) subsidence of the 1997 lava flows, most likely due to thermal contraction, (3) deformation of the 1958 lava flows due to loading by the 1997 flows, and (4) continuing subsidence of 1958 lava flows buried beneath 1997 flows. Our results provide insights into the postemplacement behavior of lava flows and have cautionary implications for the interpretation of inflation patterns at active volcanoes.

  10. Modeling Recent Subsidence of Mars' Olympus Mons Using Lava Flows as Paleo-Slope Indicators (United States)

    Simpson, M.; Reeves, A.; Chadwick, J.; McGovern, P. J.


    Olympus Mons is an enormous volcanic edifice on Mars with a basal diameter over 600 km and a height of 23 km. In spite of this size, no indications of subsidence, such as an obvious topographic moat, have previously been detected around the volcano. In this study, we mapped the orientations of long, thin lava flows on the plains to the south and southeast of Olympus Mons using 100m-resolution imagery from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey, and topography using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data from Mars Global Surveyor. The results show that the flows are no longer oriented in a downhill direction, consistently deviating from modern slope vectors in a counterclockwise direction by 21.4 × 10.8 degrees (n = 65). The configuration of this misalignment between modern and paleo-topography is consistent with subsidence centered on the volcano in the time since the flows were emplaced. Our preliminary geophysical modeling used a range of load volumes, load radii, and lithospheric thicknesses to identify the scenario required to best restore modern topography to match the paleo-topography present when the lava flows were emplaced (i.e. 'uplift' Olympus Mons until the lava flows on the surrounding plains are restored to a downhill direction). The results show that lithospheric subsidence of about 1.2 km due to the magmatic addition of 3.8x10^5 km^3 best fits the observed topographic changes. Load center heights of 1 to 8 km were considered, with best fits generally in the 3-5 km range. Best-fit elastic lithosphere thickness (Te) values were generally 100 km or greater, consistent with estimates for Te from loading models [1,2] and gravity-topography relationships [3,4,5]. Our new crater size-density measurements of the plains in the study area show that the observed subsidence occurred within the past 229 × 26 my. Previous crater counts for Olympus Mons calderas and lower flank flows [6] reveal volcanic activity clustered around 100

  11. Explosive lava-water interactions I: architecture and emplacement chronology of volcanic rootless cone groups in the 1783-1784 Laki lava flow, Iceland (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Fagents, Sarah A.


    To determine the relationships between rootless cone emplacement mechanisms, morphology, and spatial distribution, we mapped the Hnúta and Hrossatungur groups of the 1783-1784 Laki lava flow in Iceland. We based our facies maps on Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) measurements, photogeological interpretations, and supporting field observations. The study area covers 2.77 km2 and includes 2216 explosion sites. To establish the timing of rootless cone formation we incorporated tephrochronological constraints from eighty-eight stratigraphic sections and determined that the Hnúta and Hrossatungur groups are composite structures formed by the emplacement of six geographically and chronologically discrete domains. Rootless eruptions initiated in domain 1 on the first day of the Laki eruption (June 8, 1783) and lasted 1-2 days. The second episode of rootless activity began in domain 2 on June 11 and lasted 1-3 days. The four domains of the Hrossatungur group dominantly formed after June 14 and exhibit a complex emplacement sequence that reflects interactions between the Laki lava, contemporaneously emplaced rootless cones, and an existing topographic ridge. In the study area, we identify three distinct rootless cone archetypes (i.e., recurring morphological forms) that are related to tube-, channel-, and broad sheet lobe-fed eruptions. We assert that emplacement of lava above compressible substrates (e.g ., unconsolidated sediments) may trigger rootless eruptions by causing subsidence-induced flexure and failure of the basal crust, thereby allowing molten lava (fuel) to come into direct contact with groundwater (coolant) and initiating analogs to explosive molten fuel-coolant interactions (MFCIs).

  12. Lava Flow Ages and Geologic Mapping on Mid-ocean Ridges (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.


    Geologic mapping of mid-ocean ridges has been hindered by a lack of high-resolution bathymetry and age data. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) with multibeam sonars now produce maps with 1-m resolution. MBARI has collected data since 2006 along the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges, including the 1998 eruptions in summit caldera and upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount, the 1993 and 1982-1991 eruptions on the CoAxial segment, the 1986 pillow mounds and “young sheet flow” on the north Cleft segment, the 1996 eruption on the North Gorda segment, and part of the Endeavour Ridge. The 1-m data allows identification of flow internal structure, boundaries, and emplacement sequences using superposition and abundance of fissures. Geologic maps of young volcanoes on land are constructed using the same principles, constrained by observations of flow contacts and 14C age dates on charcoal from beneath flow margins. In the deep sea, we collect sediment on top of the flows that contains planktic and benthic foraminifera that can be dated using AMS 14C dating. We sampled sediment on flows from the Axial, CoAxial, and North Cleft areas using 30-cm long pushcores deployed from remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The coring is done with collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition. Cores are inserted until they hit the underlying lava and can be recovered between pillow lobes when the sediment is >~10 cm thick. We recover the basal 1 cm of sediment, sieve to recover foraminifera, and hand-pick for 14C dating. The North Gorda neovolcanic zone at ~3150 m lacks carbonate sediment and therefore ages. Ages of planktic foraminifera are marine calibrated in years before present (aBP). Benthic foraminifera are calibrated against planktic foraminifera from 5 samples. 14C ages obtained from basal sediment from over 40 sites represent minimum ages as there is probably a small amount of unrecovered basal sediment. Ages

  13. Palaeomagnetic study of the Xitle-Pedregal de San Angel lava flow, southern Basin of Mexico (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    A detailed study of the ˜ 2000 years old Xitle-Pedregal de San Angel volcanic field in the southern Basin of Mexico was undertaken to assess the reliability of the palaeomagnetic record as derived from fresh well-preserved and exposed lava flows. The Xitle vent is on the slope of the Ajusco volcano, which results in a topographic difference of over 800 m in less than 12 km of horizontal distance. Most sites present a mean direction, with a small within-site dispersion, around the dipolar direction for the locality, but some sites, particularly in the basin sector of flat relief away from the vent, show shallow inclinations. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) shows normal 'flow' fabrics with horizontal foliation planes and small anisotropy degree. AMS lineations correlate with observed flow directions. The magnetic properties vary systematically across flow units, but directions do not show a consistent pattern. Secular variation effects do not apparently contribute to the shallow inclinations or directional scatter. Some lava structures like pressure crests and blocky fronts give shallow inclinations and scattered directions, respectively. The resulting overall mean direction is well defined and close to the dipolar direction ( B = 26, Dec = 359.8°, Inc = 32.8°, k = 167, α95 = 2.2°), but this excludes two apparent directional groups. The mean direction for one group, with B = 19, Dec = 359.0°, Inc = 35.1°, k = 247, α95 = 2.1°, may be the representative estimate for the field. Shallow inclinations are considered anomalous and associated to a characteristic specific to given sectors of lava flows. Palaeointensity determinations have been obtained for six samples from five sites by using the Thellier and Shaw methods. Results agree well with previous studies, however, the standard deviation calculated for the mean value remains high after incorporation of the new data. Mean palaeointensity based on five new determinations and eight early data is N

  14. Thermal infrared observations of lava flows during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Gillespie, R.; Kahle, A. B.; Kahle, J.; Baloga, S. M.


    Thermal infrared videotape images of the flowing lava streams and the vent areas at 10.6 microns were made, as well as some broadband images in the 8 to 12 micron range (for gas plume detection). These data were calibrated with on-site hand-held radiometer measurements, in-flow thermocouple measurements, and with later laboratory kiln measurements. Infrared video data are useful in quantitatively assessing the pattern and mode of flow thermal losses, particularly with regard to radiative losses from established/incipient floating crust. The general cooling of the flows downstream was readily apparent. Upper reaches of the active flow exhibited nearly crust-free main channels, radiating at about 700 to 800 degrees C. Below about the 7500 foot level (about 8 km from the vent) the flows formed nearly continuous crust and tended to spread, become less well-defined and founder due to a reduction in slope. Nevertheless, in thermal IR observations, the surface trace of the active subsurface channel was visible, radiating at about 500 to 700 degrees C. At the active flow front, most solid crust radiated at temperatures less than 500 to 600 degrees C, however bright high temperature interiors (approximately 900 to 1000 degrees C) were clearly visible though evolving fissures.

  15. Radiocarbon studies of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows of the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Data, lessons, interpretations (United States)

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Spiker, Elliott C.; Rubin, Meyer; Champion, Duane E.; Lefebvre, Richard H.


    Latest Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic lava fields of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, have been dated by the radiocarbon method. Backhoe excavations beneath lava flows typically yielded carbon-bearing, charred eolian sediment. This material provided most of the samples for this study; the sediment typically contains less than 0.2% carbon. Charcoal fragments were obtained from tree molds but only from a few backhoe excavations. Contamination of the charred sediments and charcoal by younger carbon components is extensive; the effects of contamination were mitigated but appropriate pretreatment of samples using acid and alkali leaches. Twenty of the more than 60 lava flows of the Craters of the Moon lava field have been dated; their ages range from about 15,000 to about 2000 yr B.P. The ages permit assignment of the flows to eight distinct eruptive periods with an average recurrence interval of about 2000 yr. The seven other latest Pleistocene-Holocene lava fields were all emplaced in short eruptive bursts. Their 14C ages (yr B.P.) are: Kings Bowl (2222± 100), Wapi (2270 ± 50), Hells Half Acre (5200 ± 150), Shoshone (10,130 ± 350), North Robbers and South Robbers (11.980 ± 300), and Cerro Grande (13,380 ± 350).

  16. How Degassing Determined the Crystallization Style of the Lava Flows Produced During the Laki Eruption (South Iceland) (United States)

    Guilbaud, M.; Blake, S.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.


    Basaltic eruptions mainly produce lava flows. Degassing of basalt as it rises in the conduit can control the late-stage crystallization of the magma. Microlites formed by degassing-induced undercooling may then influence the flow regime of the lava, control the formation of surface morphologies, and thus determine the final extent of the flows. We present evidence that this mechanism operated during the AD1783-84 Laki eruption. During the eruption, 15 km3 of dominantly rubbly pahoehoe lava was emitted from along a fissure system. We studied crystal compositions, morphologies, glass-crystal gradients, glass chemistry and water content, and quantified crystal numbers and sizes. The observations were then compared to models of equilibrium crystallization and finally combined in a temperature-time model of the magma crystallization path. In this paper, we concentrate on showing snapshots of the four stages that controlled the thermal regime, degassing, and crystallization style of the magma. Phenocrysts formed at water under-saturated, low-undercooling conditions in the magma chamber (stage 1). Compositional zoning in plagioclase evidences the control of degassing on the nucleation and growth of plagioclase-clinopyroxene microphenocrysts in the conduit (stage 2). When the magma reached the surface, nucleation rates were significantly raised that there was a burst of crystallization of olivines and plagioclases skeletal microlites, and relative suppression of clinopyroxene crystallization (stage 3). The lava then partially re-equilibrated to equilibrium conditions during further crystallization in the flow (stage 4). The whole crystallization path of the magma during the eruption may have been nearly isothermal, mainly driven by the undercooling induced by degassing during magma ascent. The high density of microlites in lava from the early phases of outflow from the fissure created conditions favouring periodic disruption of the thickening lava crust, and hence

  17. Parallel Genetic Algorithms for calibrating Cellular Automata models: Application to lava flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular Automata are highly nonlinear dynamical systems which are suitable far simulating natural phenomena whose behaviour may be specified in terms of local interactions. The Cellular Automata model SCIARA, developed far the simulation of lava flows, demonstrated to be able to reproduce the behaviour of Etnean events. However, in order to apply the model far the prediction of future scenarios, a thorough calibrating phase is required. This work presents the application of Genetic Algorithms, general-purpose search algorithms inspired to natural selection and genetics, far the parameters optimisation of the model SCIARA. Difficulties due to the elevated computational time suggested the adoption a Master-Slave Parallel Genetic Algorithm far the calibration of the model with respect to the 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Results demonstrated the usefulness of the approach, both in terms of computing time and quality of performed simulations

  18. Geomagnetic excursions in the Brunhes and Matuyama Chrons: Do they come in bunches? (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.


    Geomagnetic excursions, defined here as brief directional aberrations of the main dipole field outside the range of expected secular variation, remain controversial. Poorly-correlated records of apparent excursions from lavas and sediments can often be assigned to sampling artifacts, sedimentological phenomena, volcanic terrane effects, or local secular variation, rather than behavior of the main dipole field. Although records of magnetic excursions date from the 1960s, the number of Brunhes excursions in recent reviews of the subject have reached the 12-17 range, of which only about ~7 are adequately and/or consistently recorded. For the Matuyama Chron, the current inventory of excursions stands at about 10. The better quality excursion records, with reasonable age control, imply millennial-scale or even sub-millennial-scale durations. When "adequately" recorded, excursions are manifest as paired polarity reversals flanking virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) that reach high latitudes in the opposite hemisphere. At the young end of the excursion record, the Mono Lake (~33 ka) and Laschamp (~41 ka) excursions are well documented, although records of the former are not widely distributed. Several excursions younger than the Mono Lake excursion (at 17 ka and 25 ka) have recently been recorded in lavas and sediments, respectively. Is the 17-41 ka interval characterized by multiple excursions? Similarly, multiple excursions have been recorded in the 188-238 ka interval that encompasses records of the Iceland Basin excursion (~188 ka) and the Pringle Falls (PF) excursion. The PF excursion has been assigned ages in the 211-238 ka range. Does this mean that this interval is also characterized by several discrete excursions? The 500-600 ka interval incorporates not only the Big Lost excursion at ~565 ka, but also anomalous magnetization directions from lava flows, particularly in the West Eifel volcanics that yield mid-latitude northern-hemisphere VGPs with a range of Ar

  19. Field-based description of rhyolite lava flows of the Calico Hills Formation, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.


    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas at Pahute Mesa and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport through fractured volcanic rocks. The 12.9 Ma (mega-annums, million years) Calico Hills Formation, which consists of a mixture of rhyolite lava flows and intercalated nonwelded and bedded tuff and pyroclastic flow deposits, occurs in two areas of the Nevada National Security Site. One area is north of the Rainier Mesa caldera, buried beneath Pahute Mesa, and serves as a heterogeneous volcanic-rock aquifer but is only available to study through drilling and is not described in this report. A second accumulation of the formation is south of the Rainier Mesa caldera and is exposed in outcrop along the western boundary of the Nevada National Security Site at the Calico Hills near Yucca Mountain. These outcrops expose in three dimensions an interlayered sequence of tuff and lava flows similar to those intercepted in the subsurface beneath Pahute Mesa. Field description and geologic mapping of these exposures described lithostratigraphic variations within lava flows and assisted in, or at least corroborated, conceptualization of the rhyolite lava-bearing parts of the formation.

  20. Applications of MGS MOC and MOLA Data to Lava Flows: Investigations of Rheology, Topographic Influences and Tectonic Effects (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.


    Proxemy Research had a grant from NASA to perform scientific research using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data to study lava flows on Mars. Here we summarize the scientific progress and accomplishments of this grant. Scientific publications and abstracts of presentations are indicated in the final section.

  1. Detection of high-silica lava flows and lava morphology at the Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California, Mexico using automated classification of the morphological-compositional relationship in AUV multibeam bathymetry and sonar backscatter (United States)

    Maschmeyer, C.; White, S. M.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.


    An automated compositional classification by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed to study volcanic processes that create high-silica lava at oceanic ridges. The objective of this research is to determine the existence of a relationship between lava morphology and composition. Researchers from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) recorded morphologic observations and collected samples for geochemical analysis during ROV dives at the Alarcon Rise in 2012 and 2015. The Alarcon Rise is a unique spreading ridge environment where composition ranges from basaltic to rhyolitic, making it an ideal location to examine the compositional-morphologic relationship of lava flows. Preliminary interpretation of field data indicates that high-silica lavas are typically associated with 3-5 m, blocky pillows at the heavily faulted north end of the Alarcon. Visual analysis of multibeam bathymetry and side-scan sonar backscatter from MBARI AUV D. Allen B. and gridded at 1 m suggests that lava flow morphology (pillow, lobate, sheet) can be distinguished by seafloor roughness. Bathymetric products used by ANFIS to quantify the morphologic-compositional relationship were slope, aspect, and bathymetric position index (BPI, a measure of local height relative to the adjacent terrain). Sonar backscatter intensity is influenced by surface roughness and previously used to distinguish lava morphology. Gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were applied to backscatter to create edge-detection filters that recognized faults and fissures. Input data are slope, aspect, bathymetric value, BPI at 100 m scale, BPI at 500 m scale, backscatter intensity, and the first principle component of backscatter GLCM. After lava morphology was classified on the Alarcon Rise map, another classification was completed to detect locations of high-silica lava. Application of an expert classifier like ANFIS to distinguish lava composition may become an important tool in oceanic

  2. 40Ar-39Ar age of a lava flow from the Bhimashankar Formation, Giravali Ghat, Deccan Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanchan Pande; S K Pattanayak; K V Subbarao; P Navaneethakrishnan; T R Venkatesan


    We report here a 40Ar-39Ar age of 66.0 ± 0.9Ma (2 ) for a reversely magnetised tholeiitic lava flow from the Bhimashankar Formation (Fm.), Giravali Ghat, western Deccan province, India. This age is consistent with the view that the 1.8–2km thick bottom part of the exposed basalt flow sequence in the Western Ghats was extruded very close to 67.4 Ma.

  3. The 2014-2015 Pāhoa lava flow crisis at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i: Disaster avoided and lessons learned (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Orr, Tim; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Babb, Janet; Patrick, Matthew R.; Neal, Christina; Anderson, Kyle R.; Antolik, Loren; Burgess, Matthew K.; Elias, Tamar; Fuke, Steven; Fukunaga, Pauline; Johanson, Ingrid; Kagimoto, Marian; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.; Lee, Lopaka; Miklius, Asta; Million, William; Moniz, Cyril J.; Okubo, Paul G.; Sutton, Andrew; Takahashi, T. Jane; Thelen, Weston A.; Tollett, Willam; Trusdell, Frank A.


    Lava flow crises are nothing new on the Island of Hawai‘i, where their destructive force has been demonstrated repeatedly over the past several hundred years. The 2014–2015 Pāhoa lava flow crisis, however, was unique in terms of its societal impact and volcanological characteristics. Despite low effusion rates, a long-lived lava flow whose extent reached 20 km (the longest at Kīlauea Volcano in the past several hundred years) was poised for months to impact thousands of people, although direct impacts were ultimately minor (thus far). Careful observation of the flow reaffirmed and expanded knowledge of the processes associated with pāhoehoe emplacement, including the direct correlation between summit pressurization and flow advance, the influence of existing geologic structures on flow pathways, and the possible relationship between effusion rate and flow length. Communicating uncertainty associated with lava flow hazards was a challenge throughout the crisis, but online distribution of information and direct contact with residents proved to be effective strategies for keeping the public informed and educated about flow progress and how lava flows work (including forecasting limitations). Volcanological and sociological lessons will be important for inevitable future lava flow crises in Hawai‘i and, potentially, elsewhere in the world.

  4. Contaminant transfer and hydrodispersive parameters in basaltic lava flows: artificial tracer test and implications for long-term management (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Celle-Jeanton, H.; Huneau, F.; Baillieux, A.; Mauri, G.; Lavastre, V.; Undereiner, G.; Girolami, L.; Moquet, J. S.


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerability after point source contamination and characterize water circulations in volcanic flows located in the Argnat basin volcanic system (Chaîne des Puys, French Massif Central) using a tracer test performed by injecting a iodide solution. The analysis of breakthrough curves allowed the hydrodispersive characteristics of the massive lava flows to be determined. Large Peclet numbers indicated a dominant advective transport. The multimodal feature of breakthrough curves combined with high values of mean velocity and low longitudinal dispersion coefficients indicated thatwater flows in an environment analogous to a fissure system, and only slightly interacts with a low porosity matrix (ne < 1%). Combining this information with lava flow stratigraphy provided by several drillings allowed a conceptual scheme of potential contaminant behaviour to be designed. Although lava flows are vulnerable to point source pollution due to the rapid transfer of water within fractures, the saturated scoriaceous layers located between massive rocks should suffice to strongly buffer the transit of pollution through dilution and longer transit times. This was consistent with the low recovery rate of the presented tracer test.

  5. Evidence of a Partitioned Dynamo Reversal Process from Paleomagnetic Recordings in Tahitian Lavas (United States)

    Hoffman, K. A.; Mochizuki, N.


    Lavas erupted at the Society hotspot during the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) reversal record transitional field behavior containing two tight, subhorizontal paleodirectional groups that when averaged are antipodal at the 95% confidence level, and thus correlate to antipodal clustered virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs). These observations--data obtained from two published records of the M-B transition from distinct sections of a succession of flows on Tahiti--are associated with a time when the strength of the axial dipole was significantly reduced. One cluster was recorded by lavas that were not erupted in succession, involving a directional rebound, suggesting that significant time had passed during this volcanic activity. Time spent during the formation of the antipodal cluster is unknown, yet it resides in the same location as VGP clusters from four other transitional events obtained from Society hotspot lavas. Calculated VGPs at the Society hotspot for both "polarities" of the 400-year averaged historic field--less the axial dipole term--are found in the cluster locations. These findings offer strong support for a two-tiered dynamo process in which nearly the entire axial dipole component undergoes both demise and regeneration quasi-independently from that of the remainder of the field--the proposed Shallow Core Generated (SCOR) field--the pattern of which being tied to long-held physical conditions of the lower-most mantle. Apart from polarity reversal, such fixed magnetic features along the core-mantle boundary would also significantly influence the long-term pattern of global paleosecular variation and likely impose strict site-dependent limits on the utility of the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis.Clustered Matuyama-Brunhes transitional VGPs reported from the Punaruu Valley (in red), along with the VGP associated with each sign ("polarity") of the 400-year mean historic NAD-field (in yellow) calculated from model gulm1 for the site of the Society hotspot.

  6. Effusion rate, length, and area relationships for some lava flows on Hawaii and Mount Etna with planetary implications (United States)

    Pieri, D.; Baloga, S.


    A model for the radiative cooling of thermally well mixed lava flows is presented and the relationship between effusion rate and length and area is analyzed. If radiative cooling is the prime mode of heat loss for a lava flow, one should expect to see a stronger correlation between the effusion rate and the plan area of the flow, than between effusion rate and just flow length. Different flows on a single volcano with differing initial temperatures, volatile content, and gross compositions should yield different areas for a given effusion rate. Likewise, a range of slopes for the relationship between effusion rate and flow area should result from comparisons between different volcanoes. As a test of these ideas, available data on the effusion rates, lengths, and areas of Hawaiian and Etnean flow is studied. It was found that: (1) the effusion rate/area correlation was statistically more significant than the correlation between effusion rate and length for four out of the five eruption episodes which met the necessary criteria of more than three individual flows with area, length, and effusion rate independently measured; (2) that there exists a minimum length and area for a given effusion rate, reflecting competition between overall characteristic proportionality between effusion rate and flow length, width, and area.

  7. Morphology and structure of the 1999 lava flows at Mount Cameroon Volcano (West Africa) and their bearings on the emplacement dynamics of volume-limited flows


    Suh, C Emmanuel; Stansfield, SA; Sparks, RSJ; Njome, MS; Wantim, Mabel Nechia; Ernst, Gerald


    The morphology and structure of the 1999 lava flows at Mount Cameroon volcano are documented and discussed in relation to local and source dynamics. Structures are analysed qualitatively and more detailed arguments are developed on the processes of levee formation and systematic links between flow dynamics and levee-channel interface geometry. The flows have clear channels bordered by four main types of levees: initial, accretionary, rubble and overflow levees. Thermally immature pahoehoe lav...

  8. Reconstructing lava flow emplacement processes at the hot spot-affected Galápagos Spreading Center, 95°W and 92°W (United States)

    McClinton, Tim; White, Scott M.; Colman, Alice; Sinton, John M.


    Volcanic eruptions at mid-ocean ridges (MORs) control the permeability, internal structure, and architecture of oceanic crust, thus establishing the foundation for the evolution of the ocean basins. To better understand the emplacement of submarine lava flows at MORs, we have integrated submersible-based geologic mapping with remote sensing techniques to characterize the lava flow morphology within previously mapped lava flow fields produced during single eruptive episodes at the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC). Detailed attributes describing the surface geometry and texture of the lava flows have been extracted from high-resolution sonar data and combined with georeferenced visual observations from submersible dives and camera tows; based on signatures contained in these data, a fuzzy logic-based classification algorithm categorized lava flow morphology as pillows, lobates, or sheets. The resulting digital thematic maps offer an unprecedented view of GSC lava morphology, collectively covering 77 km2 of ridge axis terrain at a resolution of 2 m × 2 m. Error assessments with independent visual reference data indicate approximately 90% agreement, comparable to subaerial classification studies. The digital lava morphology maps enable quantitative, spatially comprehensive measurements of the abundance and distribution of lava morphologies over large areas of seafloor and within individual eruptive units. A comparison of lava flow fields mapped at lower- and higher-magma-supply settings (95° and 92°W, respectively) indicates that effusion rates increase along with magma supply and independent of spreading rate at the GSC, although a complete range of eruptive behavior exists at each setting.

  9. Insights on the 2010 Lava Flows of Piton de la Fournaise Using Cosmo-SkyMed and TanDEM-X Data: Lava Displacement Rates, Thicknesses, and Volume Estimates (United States)

    Bato, M. G.; Froger, J. L.; Harris, A. J. L.; Villeneuve, N.


    Characterization of lava flow after its emplacement provides volume and constraints for lava flow emplacement simulations that help assess pending volcanic hazards. Additionally, it gives us better insights in understanding the dynamics of the underlying magmatic plumbing system and the possible mechanism of the eruption. In this work, we developed a technique using monostatic Cosmo-SkyMed and bistatic TanDEM-X data to calculate the volume, measure the thickness, and the horizontal and vertical displacements immediately after the emplacement of the October 2010 lava flow at Piton de la Fournaise. Results show that the thickest part of the October 2010 lava flow is about 13 to 16 m and the DRE volume is estimated to fall within the range of 1.71 to 3.00 x 106 m3 (±1σ), depending on which InSAR database was used. We also observe that the October 2010 lava flow is subsiding at a maximum rate of 14 cm yr-1. Apart from the vertical displacement, joint sliding and centripetal displacement were also identified with a maximum rate of 4.0 cm yr-1. We cross-validated our InSAR results with the mixed-pixel technique of Harris [1997] in terms of the estimated volumes. Our analysis shows that the volume derived using a few TanDEM-X interferograms fitted well within the range of volume given by the mixed-pixel technique as compared to the huge monostatic Cosmo-SkyMed database. In addition to the October 2010 lava flow, we also characterized the thin lava flow deposit of the December 2010 eruption, however using only bistatic TanDEM-X data. In this case of thin lava deposits, we expect that TanDEM-X are best to use in deriving the thickness and estimating the volume as these type of data are more sensitive to topographic change. Reference: Harris AJL, Blake S, Rothery DA, Stevens NF., 1997. A chronology of the 1991 to 1993 Mount Etna eruption using advanced very high resolution radiometer data: implications for real-time thermal volcano monitoring. Geophys. Res. Lett. 102:7985-8003.

  10. Evidence from lava flows for complex polarity transitions: The new composite Steens Mountain reversal record (United States)

    Jarboe, N.A.; Coe, R.S.; Glen, J.M.


    Geomagnetic polarity transitions may be significantly more complex than are currently depicted in many sedimentary and lava-flow records. By splicing together paleomagnetic results from earlier studies at Steens Mountain with those from three newly studied sections of Oregon Plateau flood basalts at Catlow Peak and Poker Jim Ridge 70-90 km to the southeast and west, respectively, we provide support for this interpretation with the most detailed account of a magnetic field reversal yet observed in volcanic rocks. Forty-five new distinguishable transitional (T) directions together with 30 earlier ones reveal a much more complex and detailed record of the 16.7 Ma reversed (R)-to-normal (N) polarity transition that marks the end of Chron C5Cr. Compared to the earlier R-T-N-T-N reversal record, the new record can be described as R-T-N-T-N-T-R-T-N. The composite record confirms earlier features, adds new west and up directions and an entire large N-T-R-T segment to the path, and fills in directions on the path between earlier directional jumps. Persistent virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) clusters and separate VGPs have a preference for previously described longitudinal bands from transition study compilations, which suggests the presence of features at the core-mantle boundary that influence the flow of core fluid and distribution of magnetic flux. Overall the record is consistent with the generalization that VGP paths vary greatly from reversal to reversal and depend on the location of the observer. Rates of secular variation confirm that the flows comprising these sections were erupted rapidly, with maximum rates estimated to be 85-120 m ka-1 at Catlow and 130-195 m ka-1 at Poker Jim South. Paleomagnetic poles from other studies are combined with 32 non-transitional poles found here to give a clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 11.4???? 5.6?? with respect to the younger Columbia River Basalt Group flows to the north and 14.5???? 4.6?? with respect to cratonic

  11. Preliminary assessment for the use of VORIS as a tool for rapid lava flow simulation at Goma Volcano Observatory, Democratic Republic of the Congo (United States)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.


    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga volcanic province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than 2 years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano. Though most of the lava flows did not reach urban areas, only impacting the forests of the endangered Virunga National Park, some of them related to distal flank eruptions affected villages and roads. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software ( based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling the lava flow propagation. We tested different parameters and digital elevation models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to evaluate the sensitivity of the models to changes in input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1. Simulations were tested against the known lava flows and topography from the 2010 Nyamulagira eruption. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested when input parameters are appropriately chosen. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  12. Hawaii Volcanism: Lava Forms (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the last several million years the Hawaiian Islands have been built of successive lava flows. They are the most recent additions in a long line of volcanoes...

  13. Inverse steptoes in Las Bombas volcano, as an evidence of explosive volcanism in a solidified lava flow field. Southern Mendoza-Argentina (United States)

    Risso, Corina; Prezzi, Claudia; Orgeira, María Julia; Nullo, Francisco; Margonari, Liliana; Németh, Karoly


    Here we describe the unusual genesis of steptoes in Las Bombas volcano- Llancanelo Volcanic Field (LVF) (Pliocene - Quaternary), Mendoza, Argentina. Typically, a steptoe forms when a lava flow envelops a hill, creating a well-defined stratigraphic relationship between the older hill and the younger lava flow. In the Llancanelo Volcanic Field, we find steptoes formed with an apparent normal stratigraphic relationship but an inverse age-relationship. Eroded remnants of scoria cones occur in "circular depressions" in the lava field. To express the inverse age-relationship between flow fields and depression-filled cones here we define this landforms as inverse steptoes. Magnetometric analysis supports this inverse age relationship, indicating reverse dipolar magnetic anomalies in the lava field and normal dipolar magnetization in the scoria cones (e.g. La Bombas). Negative Bouguer anomalies calculated for Las Bombas further support the interpretation that the scoria cones formed by secondary fracturing on already solidified basaltic lava flows. Advanced erosion and mass movements in the inner edge of the depressions created a perfectly excavated circular depression enhancing the "crater-like" architecture of the preserved landforms. Given the unusual genesis of the steptoes in LVF, we prefer the term inverse steptoe for these landforms. The term steptoe is a geomorphological name that has genetic implications, indicating an older hill and a younger lava flow. Here the relationship is reversed.

  14. Differences in Landsat TM derived lava flow thermal structures during summit and flank eruption at Mount Etna (United States)

    Lombardo, V.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Pieri, D.; Merucci, L.


    The simultaneous solution of the Planck equation (the so-called "dual-band" technique) for two shortwave infrared Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) bands allows an estimate of the fractional area of the hottest part of an active flow and the temperature of the cooler crust. Here, the dual-band method has been applied to a time series of Mount Etna eruptions. The frequency distribution of the fractional area of the hottest component reveals specific differences between summit and flank lava flows. The shape of the density function shows a trend consistent with a Gaussian distribution and suggests a relationship between the moments of the distribution and the emplacement environment. Because flow composition of Etnean lavas generally remains constant during the duration of their emplacement, it appears that the shape of any particular frequency distribution is probably related to fluid mechanical aspects of flow emplacement that affect flow velocity and flow heat loss and thus the rate of formation of the surface crust. These factors include the influence of topographical features such as changes in slope gradient, changes in volume effusion rate, and progressive downflow increases in bulk or effective viscosity. A form of the general theoretical solution for the 'dual-band' system, which illustrates the relationship between radiance in TM bands 5 and 7, corresponding to hot fractional area and crust temperature, is presented. Generally speaking, it appears that for a given flow at any point in time, larger fractional areas of exposed hot material are correlated with higher temperatures and that, while the overall shape of that distribution is common for the flows studied, its amplitude and slope reflect individual flow rheological regimes.

  15. Uses of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in the study of emplacement processes of lava flows and dykes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is a powerful technique that can be used to explore in detail the mineral fabric of many types of rocks. In particular, it is well suited to determine mineral fabric of massive, otherwise featureless rocks, like for example the internal parts of many lava flows and dykes. Like most other mineral fabric indicators, the AMS is mainly acquired at a stage when flow-related deformation promotes a mineral array within the melted rock. Unlike is the case with other petrofabric methods, however, the effort required to obtain three-dimensional information of such mineral array using AMS is much reduced, although due to differences in the shape of various minerals involved in the process of fabric acquisition it is possible to find some differences between magnetic and optically determined mineral fabrics. When attention is given to the systematic variations of the AMS within a lava flow or dyke, however, the AMS method allows us to infer aspects of lava (magma) emplacement that are not easy to study through other traditional petrofabric techniques. Such detailed information can be used to obtain a detailed record of the internal deformation of one flow unit with relative ease and little effort. Despite of these advantages, the abundant information obtained from one single unit through AMS methods might not be interpreted in a simple form. The main complications arise from two contrasting premises. On the one hand it can be assumed that mineral fabric remains constant along one single unit, and therefore departures from an expected value are considered indicative of post-emplacement alteration. Alternatively, it can be considered that changes in the mineral fabric are to be expected due to changing conditions of emplacement. For this reason, a more thoroughly investigation that takes into consideration independent lines of information is always advisable. Nevertheless, AMS remains as the

  16. A glassy lava flow from Toconce volcano and its relation with the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body in Central Andes (United States)

    Godoy, B.; Rodriguez, I.; Aguilera, F.


    Toconce is a composite stratovolcano located at the San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC). This volcanic chain distributes within the Altiplano-Puna region (Central Andes) which is characterized by extensive rhyodacitic-to-rhyolitic ignimbritic fields, and voluminous domes of dacitic-to-rhyolitic composition (de Silva, 1989). The felsic melts that gave origin to ignimbrites and domes at this area were generated by mixing of mantle-derived magmas and anatectic melts assimilated during their ascent through the thick crust. Thus, partially molten layers exist in the upper crust below the APVC (de Silva et al., 2006). Evidence of large volumes of such melts has been also proposed by geophysical methods (i.e. the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body; Chmielowsky et al., 1999) In this work, petrography and whole rock, mineralogical and melt inclusions geochemistry of a glassy lava flow of Toconce volcano are presented. Petrographically, this lava flow shows a porphyric texture, with euhdral to subhedral plagioclase, ortho- and clino-pyroxene phenocrysts immersed in a glassy groundmass. Geochemically, the lava flow has 64.7% wt. SiO2. The glassy groundmass (~70% wt. SiO2) is more felsic than all the lavas in the volcanic chain (47-68% wt., Godoy et al., 2011). Analyzed orthopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions show an even higher SiO2 content (72-75% wt.), and a decreasing on Al2O3, Na2O, and CaO content with differentiation. Crystallization pressures of this lava flow, obtained using Putirka's two-pyroxene and clinopyroxene-liquid models (Putirka, 2008), range between 6 and 9 kbar. According to crystallization pressures, and major element composition, a felsic source located at shallow crustal pressures - where plagioclase is a stable mineralogical phase - originated the inclusions. This could be related to the presence of the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) located below SPLVC. On the other hand, glassy groundmass, and disequilibrium textures in minerals of this lava flow could

  17. Geologic mapping on the deep seafloor: Reconstructing lava flow emplacement and eruptive history at the Galápagos Spreading Center (United States)

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S.; Colman, A.; Sinton, J. M.; Bowles, J. A.


    The deep seafloor imposes significant difficulties on data collection that require the integration of multiple data sets and the implementation of unconventional geologic mapping techniques. We combine visual mapping of geological contacts by submersible with lava flow morphology maps and relative and absolute age constraints to create a spatiotemporal framework for examining submarine lava flow emplacement at the intermediate-spreading, hotspot-affected Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC). We mapped 18 lava flow fields, interpreted to be separate eruptive episodes, within two study areas at the GSC using visual observations of superposition, surface preservation and sediment cover from submersible and towed camera surveys, augmented by high-resolution sonar surveys and sample petrology [Colman et al., Effects of variable magma supply on mid-ocean ridge eruptions: Constraints from mapped lava flow fields along the Galápagos Spreading Center; 2012 G3]. We also mapped the lava flow morphology within the majority of these eruptive units using an automated, machine-learning classification method [McClinton et al., Neuro-fuzzy classification of submarine lava flow morphology; 2012 PE&RS]. The method combines detailed geometric, acoustic, and textural attributes derived from high-resolution sonar data with visual observations and a machine-learning algorithm to classify submarine lava flow morphology as pillows, lobates, or sheets. The resulting lava morphology maps are a valuable tool for interpreting patterns in the emplacement of submarine lava flows at a mid-ocean ridge (MOR). Within our study area at 92°W, where the GSC has a relatively high magma supply, high effusion rate sheet and lobate lavas are more abundant in the oldest mapped eruptive units, while the most recent eruptions mostly consist of low effusion rate pillow lavas. The older eruptions (roughly 400yrs BP by paleomagnetic intensity) extend up to 1km off axis via prominent channels and tubes, while the

  18. Subsidence of Puna, Hawaii inferred from sulfur content of drilled lava flows (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Thomas, D.M.


    Sulfur was analyzed in more than 200 lava samples from five drill holes located on the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii. The sulfur content is a gage of whether lava was erupted subaerially (low sulfur) or erupted subaqueously (high sulfur). Despite considerable variation, sulfur is generally low (less than 0.025%) in the upper part of the holes, begins to increase at a depth of 250-320 m below sea level, and generally reaches a high level (greater than 0.1%) indicative of steady submarine eruption at 330-450 m below sea level. Assuming that the island is subsiding at 2.4 mm/yr, an analysis of these data indicates that part of the variation in sulfur concentration results from past eustatic oscillation of sea level, and that the volcano (at the drill hole site) finally emerged for the last time about 98 ka. The long-term average rate of lava accumulation is roughly 4.4 mm/yr, and upward growth of the volcano at the drill hole area is about 2 mm/yr in excess of subsidence. ?? 1988.

  19. Mapping the vegetation colonization on recent lava flows using spectral unmixing of moderate spatial resolution satellite images: Nyamuragira volcano, D. R. Congo (United States)

    Li, Long; Kervyn, Matthieu; Canters, Frank


    In volcanic areas, vegetation colonizes recently erupted lava flows and expands over time. The fraction of vegetation is therefore likely to provide information on lava flows' age. Individual lava flows are usually not well resolved on satellite imagery due to the coarse spatial resolution: one pixel on the imagery is a mixture of mainly lava and vegetation. In order to solve the mixed pixel problem, many different methods have been proposed among which linear spectral unmixing is the most widely-used. It assumes that the reflectance of the mixed pixel is the sum of the reflectance of each pure end members multiplied by their proportion in the pixel. It has been frequently used in urban area studies, but no efforts have yet been made to apply it to volcanic areas. Here, we demonstrate the application of linear spectral unmixing for the lava flows of Nyamuragira volcano, in the Virunga Volcanic province. Nyamuragira is an active volcano, emitting over 30 lava flows in the last 100 years. The limited access to the volcano due to social unrest in D. R. Congo justifies the value of remote sensing techniques. This shield volcano is exposed to tropical climate and thus vegetation colonizes lava flows rapidly. An EO-1 ALI image (Advanced land imager mounted on Earth Observing -1 Satellite) acquired over Nyamuragira on January 3, 2012 at spatial resolution of 30 m was processed with minimum noise fraction transform and end member extraction, and spectrally unmixed by linear mixture modelling technique into two types of lava, and one or two types of vegetation. The three end member model is better in terms of the RMSE and the expected spatial distribution of end members. A 2 m resolution Pleiades image acquired on January 21, 2013 and partly overlapping with the ALI image was taken as the reference image for validation. It was first classified using a supervised pixel-based classification technique and then compared to the proportion image derived from the ALI image

  20. Petrography, age, and paleomagnetism of basaltic lava flows in coreholes at Test Area North (TAN), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrography, age, and paleomagnetism were determined on basalt from 21 lava flows comprising about 1,700 feet of core from two coreholes (TAN CH No. 1 and TAN CH No. 2) in the Test Area North (TAN) area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Paleomagnetic studies were made on two additional cores from shallow coreholes in the TAN area. K-Ar ages and paleomagnetism also were determined on nearby surface outcrops of Circular Butte. Paleomagnetic measurements were made on 416 samples from four coreholes and on a single site in surface lava flows of Circular Butte. K-Ar ages were measured on 9 basalt samples from TAN CH No. 1 and TAN CH No. 2 and one sample from Circular Butte. K-Ar ages ranged from 1.044 Ma to 2.56 Ma. All of the samples have reversed magnetic polarity and were erupted during the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Epoch. The purpose of investigations was to develop a three-dimensional stratigraphic framework for geologic and hydrologic studies including potential volcanic hazards to facilities at the INEL and movement of radionuclides in the Snake River Plain aquifer

  1. What is controlling spectral reflectance of lava flows? First results of a field spectrometric survey of volcanic surfaces on Tenerife Island (United States)

    Li, Long; Kervyn, Matthieu; Solana, Carmen; Canters, Frank


    Space-based remote sensing techniques have demonstrated their great value in volcanic studies thanks to their synoptic spatial coverage and the repeated acquisitions. On satellite images, volcanic surfaces display a wide range of colors, and therefore contrasted reflectance spectra. Understanding the factors controlling the spectral reflectance of volcanic materials at different wavelength is essential to mapping volcanic areas. Detailed investigation into spectra of volcanic materials are, however, restricted due to the trade-off between spatial and spectral resolution of space-based sensors, such as Hyperion imagery that allows resolving 220 spectral bands ranging from 400 to 2500 nm with a spatial resolution of 30 meters. In order to better understand reflectance of volcanic materials, especially lava, a field campaign was launched in Tenerife Island, Spain in November 2013 with an ASD FieldSpec 3 to document the reflectance spectra of historical mafic lava flow surfaces. 20 specific lava and lapilli surfaces, with contrasted age, surface roughness, weathering condition and vegetation coverage were characterized, using a systematic recording method documenting the spectra's variability within a 15×15 m2 area. Results show that all the volcanic materials have great differences in spectral reflectance. Among them, lava's reflectance is low but still slightly higher than that of lapilli. Comparison of rough and smooth lava surfaces on the same lava flow suggests that roughness tends to increase the reflectance of lava surfaces. Also, vegetation and lichen alter lava's reflectance in some spectral regions, especially through a rise in the near infrared part of the spectrum. It is therefore suggested that reflectance spectra of lava evolve over time due to weathering processes, such as chemical alteration and growth of lichen and moss. In addition, it is possible to compare field measurements with spectra derived from Hyperion imagery, resulting in a strong match

  2. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption: estimation of erupted lava flow volume on the basis of helicopter thermal surveys (United States)

    Hernández, P. A.; Calvari, S.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Padron, E.; Pérez, N.; Melian, G.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.


    been collected each time in order to compare the temperature distribution with the features observed on the sea surface. Calculation of lava flow volume and effusion rate from thermal images collected by helicopter surveys has been largely used during the last decade for monitoring effusive eruptions at Etna, Stromboli, Kilauea, and other volcanoes. In this study, lava flow volume is calculated on the basis of temperature difference between the seawater contained within the dark patch, and the temperature of the seawater surface away from the eruption. These values have to be considered as minimum values, because they do not take into account the volume of lava isolated from the seawater by a thick crust that did not contribute to seawater warming. To calculate the lava volume we have used the model proposed by Harris et al. (1998) for the portion of the lava flow field spreading below sea level. Preliminary results indicate that during the period of study, about 5Mm3 of magma have been needed to heat the observed surface heated sea water at the submarine eruption site.

  3. Variations of magnetic properties in thin lava flow profiles: Implications for the recording of the Laschamp Excursion (United States)

    Vérard, Christian; Leonhardt, Roman; Winklhofer, Michael; Fabian, Karl


    Two blocks have been cut in two lava flows from the Skalamaelifell Hill (Iceland) known to have recorded the Laschamp magnetic excursion (40.4 ± 2.0 ka). Detailed sampling and analyses have revealed multiple magnetic components. The high temperature/coercivity component corresponds to the primary magnetisation, with corresponding pole position close to the equator in the Pacific Ocean (φ = 251.90°/λ = -06.49°; dp = 0.74°/dm = 2.12°) and palaeo-intensity determinations below 5 μT. The different VGPs, however, vary in relation with the position of samples in the profiles. It could not be firmly established whether this distribution is associated with a change in the Earth magnetic field during lava cooling. In any case, variations are related with zones in the profiles marked, in particular, by the presence of vesicles. Moreover, the other components are interpreted to be linked with alteration inside the rocks, caused by interactions between vesicles content and the surrounding matrix. Secondary component, however, is interpreted as recording an excursional magnetic field, and should be of greater consideration in studies of Earth magnetic field excursions or reversals.

  4. An experimental study of the surface thermal signature of hot subaerial isoviscous gravity currents: Implications for thermal monitoring of lava flows and domes (United States)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.


    Management of eruptions requires a knowledge of lava effusion rates, for which a safe thermal proxy is often used. However, this thermal proxy does not take into account the flow dynamics and is basically time-independent. In order to establish a more robust framework that can link eruption rates and surface thermal signals of lavas measured remotely, we investigate the spreading of a hot, isoviscous, axisymmetric subaerial gravity current injected at constant rate from a point source onto a horizontal substrate. We performed laboratory experiments and found that the surface thermal structure became steady after an initial transient. We develop a theoretical model for a spreading fluid cooled by radiation and convection at its surface that also predicts a steady thermal regime. We show that, despite the model's simplicity relative to lava flows, it yields the correct order of magnitude for the effusion rate required to produce the radiant flux measured on natural lava flows. For typical thermal lava properties and an effusion rate between 0.1 and 10 m3 s-1, the model predicts a steady radiated heat flux ranging from 108 to 1010 W. The assessed effusion rate varies quasi-linearly with the steady heat flux, with much weaker dependence on the flow viscosity. This relationship is valid only after a transient time which scales as the diffusive time, ranging from a few days for small basaltic flows to several years for lava domes. The thermal proxy appears thus less reliable to follow sharp variations of the effusion rate during an eruption.

  5. Pahoehoe-a‧a transitions in the lava flow fields of the western Deccan Traps, India-implications for emplacement dynamics, flood basalt architecture and volcanic stratigraphy (United States)

    Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Gadpallu, Purva; Shaikh, Tahira N.; Cardin, Neha


    Unlike pahoehoe, documentation of true a‧a lavas from a modern volcanological perspective is a relatively recent phenomenon in the Deccan Trap (e.g. Brown et al., 2011, Bull. Volcanol. 73(6): 737-752) as most lava flows previously considered to be a‧a (e.g. GSI, 1998) have been shown to be transitional (e.g. Rajarao et al., 1978, Geol. Soc. India Mem. 43: 401-414; Duraiswami et al., 2008 J. Volcanol. Geothermal. Res. 177: 822-836). In this paper we demonstrate the co-existence of autobrecciation products such as slabby pahoehoe, rubbly pahoehoe and a‧a in scattered outcrops within the dominantly pahoehoe flow fields. Although volumetrically low in number, the pattern of occurrence of the brecciating lobes alongside intact ones suggests that these might have formed in individual lobes along marginal branches and terminal parts of compound flow fields. Complete transitions from typical pahoehoe to 'a‧a lava flow morphologies are seen on length scales of 100-1000 m within road and sea-cliff sections near Uruli and Rajpuri. We consider the complex interplay between local increase in the lava supply rates due to storage or temporary stoppage, local increase in paleo-slope, rapid cooling and localized increase in the strain rates especially in the middle and terminal parts of the compound flow field responsible for the transitional morphologies. Such transitions are seen in the Thakurwadi-, Bushe- and Poladpur Formation in the western Deccan Traps. These are similar to pahoehoe-a‧a transitions seen in Cenozoic long lava flows (Undara ˜160 km, Toomba ˜120 km, Kinrara ˜55 km) from north Queensland, Australia and Recent (1859) eruption of Mauna Loa, Hawaii (a‧a lava flow ˜51 km) suggesting that flow fields with transitional tendencies cannot travel great lengths despite strong channelisation. If these observations are true, then it arguably limits long distance flow of Deccan Traps lavas to Rajahmundry suggesting polycentric eruptions at ˜65 Ma in

  6. The effect of particle size on the rheology of liquid-solid mixtures with application to lava flows: Results from analogue experiments (United States)

    Gaudio, P.; Ventura, G.; Taddeucci, J.


    We investigate the effect of crystal size on the rheology of basaltic magmas by means of a rheometer and suspensions of silicon oil with natural magmatic crystals of variable size (from 63 to 0.5 mm) and volume fraction ϕ (from 0.03 to 0.6). At constant ϕ, finer suspensions display higher viscosities than coarser ones. Shear thinning (flow index n 0.1-0.2 and is more pronounced (stronger departure from the Newtonian behavior) in finer suspensions. Maximum packing and average crystal size displays a nonlinear, positive correlation, while yield stress develops at ϕ > 0.2-0.3 irrespective of the crystal size. We incorporate our results into physical models for flow of lava and show that, with respect to lava flows containing coarser crystals, those with smaller crystals are expected to: 1) flow at lower velocity, 2) have a lower velocity gradient, and 3) be more prone to develop a region of plug flow. Our experimental results explain the observation that phenocryst-bearing and microlite-bearing lavas at Etna volcano (Italy) show smooth pahoehoe and rough aa' surfaces, respectively.

  7. Very long pahoehoe inflated basaltic lava flows in the Payenia volcanic province (Mendoza and la Pampa, Argentina Flujos de lava basáltica pahoehoe muy extendidos en la provincia volcánica Payenia (Mendoza y La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pasquarè


    Full Text Available Extremely long basaltic lava flows are here presented and described. The flows originated from the great, polygenetic, fissural Payen Volcanic Complex, in the Andean back-arc volcanic province of Payenia in Argentina. The lava flows outpoured during the Late Quaternary from the summit rift of a shield volcano representing the first volcanic centre of this complex. One of these flows presents an individual tongue-like shape with a length of 181 km and therefore is the longest known individual Quaternary lava flow on Earth. Leaving the flanks of the volcano this flow reached the Salado river valley at La Pampa and, in its distal portion, maintained its narrow and straight shape without any topographic control over a flat alluvial plain. It has a hawaiite composition with low phenocryst content of prevailing olivine and minor plagioclase. Rare Earth element patterns are typical of Na-alkaline basalts, but incompatible trace element patterns and Sr -Nd isotope ratios, suggest a geodynamic setting transitional to the orogenic one. The flow advanced following the thermally efficient "inflation" mechanism, as demonstrated by a peculiar association of well developed morphological, structural and textural features. The temperature of 1130-1160°C and the viscosity of 3-73 Pa*s, calculated by petrochemical data, may be considered, together with a very low cooling rate and a sustained and long lasting effusion rate, the main causes of the extremely long transport system of this flow. Both the extreme length of the flow and the partial lack of topographic control may provide new constraints on the physics of large inflated flows, which constitute the largest volcanic provinces on Earth and probably also on the terrestrial planets.En este trabajo se presentan y describen flujos de lava extremadamente largos. Estos flujos se originaron en el complejo volcánico fisural Payen, dentro de la provincia volcánica Payenia en el retroarco andino. Los flujos de lava

  8. Paleomagnetism and radiochemical age estimates for Late Brunhes polarity episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several reversed polarity magnetozones occur within deep-sea sediment core CH57-8 from the Greater Antilles Outer Ridge, within sediment of latest Pleistocene/Late Brunhes age. The uppermost reversed interval spanning 31 data points coincides with the X faunal zone of the Last Interglacial Period. Radiochemical dating of cores CH57-8 and KN25-4 has shown that all the reversed polarity magnetozones are significantly younger than the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at 0.7 m.y.B.P. A variation of the excess 230Th method was used, in which 210Po and 238U were the actual radionuclides measured. In a third core from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the 210Po results were similar to those which others obtained earlier by direct 230Th measurements. (Auth.)

  9. Satellite-Based Thermophysical Analysis of Volcaniclastic Deposits: A Terrestrial Analog for Mantled Lava Flows on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Price


    example. Accurate identification of non-mantled lava surfaces within an apparently well-mantled flow field on either planet provides locations to extract important mineralogical constraints on the individual flows using TIR data.

  10. Structural and Temporal Requirements for Geomagnetic Field Reversal Deduced From 40Ar/39Ar Dated Lava Flows (United States)

    Singer, B. S.; Hoffman, K. A.; Coe, R. S.; Brown, L. L.; Jicha, B. R.; Pringle, M. S.; Chauvin, A.


    40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the Matuyama-Bruhnes (M-B) reversa1, gives an age of 795+/- 7 ka, indistinguishable from that of transitional lavas in Chile and La Palma, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the transitional lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 ka), agree with the astronomical age for the M-B reversal. Virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) associated with the Tahitian and Chilean lavas cluster near Australia, as do VGPs recorded on Tahiti during the Big Lost and Punaruu events, two apparently unsuccessful reversals. These findings, suggestive of a recurring, mantle-held flux pattern at the outer core surface during reversal attempts, are also theoretically equivalent to the situation that would arise today if the axial dipole were to continue to weaken and vanish. Hence, we propose that the 795 ka lavas record the onset of a dynamo process--one which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began 18 kyrs prior to the actual polarity switch. These data may provide the first observational support to the claim that complete reversals require a significant interval of time for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect.

  11. Deriving Lava Eruption Temperatures on Io Using Lava Tube Skylights (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; McEwen, A. S.


    The eruption temperature of Io's silicate lavas constrains Io's interior state and composition [1] but reliably measuring this temperature remotely is a challenge that has not yet been met. Previously, we established that eruption processes that expose large areas at the highest temperatures, such as roiling lava lakes or lava fountains, are suitable targets for this task [2]. In this study we investigate the thermal emission from lava tube skylights for basaltic and ultramafic composition lavas. Tube-fed lava flows are known on Io so skylights could be common. Unlike the surfaces of lava flows, lava lakes, and lava fountains which all cool very rapidly, skylights have steady thermal emission on a scale of days to months. The thermal emission from such a target, measured at multiple visible and NIR wavelengths, can provide a highly accurate diagnostic of eruption temperature. However, the small size of skylights means that close flybys of Io are necessary, requiring a dedicated Io mission [3]. We have modelled the thermal emission spectrum for different skylight sizes, lava flow stream velocities, end-member lava compositions, and skylight radiation shape factors, determining the flow surface cooling rates. We calculate the resulting thermal emission spectrum as a function of viewing angle. From the resulting 0.7:0.9 μm ratios, we see a clear distinction between basaltic and ultramafic compositions for skylights smaller than 20 m across, even if sub-pixel. If the skylight is not resolved, observations distributed over weeks that show a stationary and steady hot spot allow the presence of a skylight to be confidently inferred. This inference allows subsequent refining of observation design to improve viewing geometry of the target. Our analysis will be further refined as accurate high-temperature short-wavelength emissivity values become available [4]. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to

  12. Geochemistry of the Palitana flood basalt sequence and the Eastern Saurashtra dykes, Deccan Traps: clues to petrogenesis, dyke-flow relationships, and regional lava stratigraphy (United States)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Kshirsagar, Pooja V.; Cucciniello, Ciro


    Recent studies of large mafic dyke swarms in the Deccan Traps flood basalt province, India, indicate that some of the correlative lava flows reached several hundred kilometers in length. Here we present field, petrographic, mineral chemical, and whole-rock geochemical (including Sr-Nd isotopic) data on the Palitana lava sequence and nearby dykes in the Saurashtra region of the northwestern Deccan Traps. These rocks are moderately evolved, many with low-Ti-Nb characteristics. We infer that most dykes are notably (and systematically) less contaminated by ancient continental crust than the Palitana flows, but four dykes are equally or significantly more contaminated, with some of the most extreme Sr-Nd isotopic compositions seen in the entire Deccan Traps (initial ɛNd is as low as -18.0). A Bhimashankar-type and a Poladpur-type dyke are present several hundred kilometers from the type section of these magma types in the Western Ghats escarpment. We find no geochemical correlations between the Palitana sequence and three subsurface sequences in NE Saurashtra containing abundant picritic rocks, surface lavas previously studied from Saurashtra, or the Western Ghats sequence. Intriguingly, the Eastern Saurashtra dykes cannot have been feeders to any of these lava sequences. Feeder dykes of these sequences may be located in southwestern or central Saurashtra, or in the Dhule-Nandurbar-Dediapada areas across the Gulf of Cambay, 200-300 km east of Palitana. Our results indicate polycentric flood basalt eruptions not only on the scale of the Deccan Traps province, but also within the Saurashtra region itself.

  13. Chemical weathering of basaltic lava-flow since 300 kyr ago (La Réunion Island ,France) (United States)

    Claude, Christelle; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Dussouillez, Philippe; Traoré, Daouda; Pelt, Eric; Chabaux, François; Hamelin, Bruno; Colin, Fabrice


    Spheroidal weathering (also named corestone-shell systems hereafter called CSC) is a common form of chemical weathering affecting many types of rocks. Here we combine mineralogical observations, geochemistry of major and trace elements to Sr isotopes and U-series as an attempt to constrain the rate of spheroidal weathering of a basaltic flow dated at 292 ±13 ka from Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion Island). Three zones can be characterized : corestones, grey and red shells. Our results show that weathering is increasing from the core to the red shells and is characterized by a loss of alkali elements and Si while Fe, Al and Ti contents remain constant. Total chemical weathering rates, calculated over 292 ka, are two orders of magnitude lower than present-day estimations from streamwater solute fluxes. Our results show that Sr is exported on a time scale of 1 rather than 300 ka. The extrapolation of this behaviour to all mobile elements allows to recalculate a total chemical weathering rate of 270 t/km2/yr, in the range of the present day estimations. Zr and Th appear as the most immobile elements. Uranium, on the opposite, is shown to be depleted in the cores and the grey shells but enriched in the red shells, probably adsorbed on Fe oxydes and halloysite. A U-transport model is used to estimate the weathering age of samples from the core and the grey and red shells. The process of U remobilization occurs on a timescale of ca 290 ka, i.e. the deposition age of the lava flow. The calculated weathering ages increase from the core to the red shells. Weathering rates are 5.5 ± 0.7 m/Ma for the grey shells and 1.4 ± 0.2 m/Ma for the red shells, with an average value of 2.9 ± 0.3 m/Ma. Finally, this result, compared with denudation rates of 3.5 ± 1.7 m/Ma estimated in the same area strenghthens our conclusion regarding a stable, steady state, geomorphological evolution of the site.

  14. High-resolution TanDEM-X DEM: An accurate method to estimate lava flow volumes at Nyamulagira Volcano (D. R. Congo) (United States)

    Albino, F.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Kervyn, F.


    Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa, but their eruptive histories are poorly known. Assessing lava flow volumes in the region remains difficult, as field surveys are often impossible and available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) do not have adequate spatial or temporal resolutions. We therefore use TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement (TanDEM-X) interferometry to produce a series of 0.15 arc sec (˜5 m) DEMs from between 2011 and 2012 over these volcanoes. TanDEM-X DEMs have an absolute vertical accuracy of 1.6 m, resulting from the comparison of elevation with GPS measurements acquired around Nyiragongo. The difference between TanDEM-X-derived DEMs from before and after the 2011-2012 eruption of Nyamulagira provides an accurate thickness map of the lava flow emplaced during that activity. Values range from 3 m along the margins to 35 m in the middle, with a mean of 12.7 m. The erupted volume is 305.2 ± 36.0 × 106 m3. Height errors on thickness depend on the land covered by the flow and range from 0.4 m in old lavas to 5.5 m in dense vegetation. We also reevaluate the volume of historical eruptions at Nyamulagira since 2001 from the difference between TanDEM-X and SRTM 1 arc sec DEMs and compare them to previous work. Planimetric methods used in literature are consistent with our results for short-duration eruptions but largely underestimate the volume of the long-lived 2011-2012 eruption. Our new estimates of erupted volumes suggest that the mean eruption rate and the magma supply rate were relatively constant at Nyamulagira during 2001-2012, respectively, 23.1 m3 s-1 and 0.9 m3 s-1.

  15. Lava Lakes in Io's Paterae (United States)

    Radebaugh, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Milazzo, M.; Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Geissler, P.


    lava lakes. The presence of giant lava lakes within these large paterae (up to 200 km diameter) has implications for the transfer of internal heat to the surface, as the paterae require direct links to comparably large, well supplied magma chambers (Harris et al., 1999, JGR, 104, 7117-7136) in order to maintain their vigorous activity over the observed timescales of tens of years. In addition, if much of Io's heat flow is restricted to these large lava lakes, then Io's resurfacing may be extremely spatially confined.

  16. Correlation of Brunhes detrital-layer stratigraphy into the North Atlantic from Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea) (United States)

    Channell, J. E.; Hodell, D. A.; Romero, O. E.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Mazaud, A.; Roehl, U.


    IODP Site U1302-U1303, on the SE flank of Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea), has a record of detrital layers that extends through most of the Brunhes Chron. The age model is built by tandem matching of relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope data (δ18O) from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) to reference records, indicating a mean Brunhes sedimentation rate of 14 cm/kyr. Sedimentation back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 18 is characterized by detrital layers that are detected by higher than background gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) density, peaks in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicators for detrital carbonate (Ca/Sr) and detrital silicate (Si/Sr), an ice-rafted debris (IRD) proxy (>106 μm), magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic grain-size peaks. The age model enables correlation of Site U1302/03 to IODP Site U1308 (re-drill of DSDP Site 609) in the heart of the central Atlantic IRD belt where an age model and a similar set of detrital-layer proxies have already been derived. Ages of Heinrich layers H1, H2, H4, H5 and H6 are within ~2 kyr at the two sites (H0, H3 and H5a are not observed at Site U1308), and agree with previous work at Orphan Knoll within ~3 kyr. At Site U1308, Brunhes detrital layers are restricted to peak glacials and glacial terminations back to MIS16, however, these same proxies at Site U1302/03 indicate detrital layers distributed throughout the record in both glacial and most interglacial stages. At Site U1302/03, we distinguish Heinrich-type layers in glacial stages, which are associated with IRD (some of which have near-synchronous analogues at Site U1308), from detrital layers within interglacial stages manifested by multiple detrital layer proxies (including Ca/Sr) but usually not associated with IRD, that may be attributed to a distinct depositional process, namely drainage and debris-flow events funneled down the nearby NAMOC (North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel).

  17. Simulation of substrate erosion and sulphate assimilation by Martian low-viscosity lava flows: implications for the genesis of precious metal-rich sulphide mineralisation on Mars (United States)

    Baumgartner, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Gaillard, Fabrice; Fiorentini, Marco


    On Earth, high temperature mafic to ultramafic lava flows, such as komatiites and ferropicrites of the Archean and Proterozic eons, can be hosts to Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide mineralisation. Mechanical/thermo-mechanical erosion and assimilation of sulphur-rich crustal rocks is ascribed as the principal mechanism that leads to sulphide supersaturation, batch segregation and subsequent accumulation of metal-enriched magmatic sulphides (e.g., Bekker et al., Science, 2009). In order to investigate the likelihood of the occurrence of similar sulphide mineralisation in extraterrestrial magmatic systems, we numerically modelled erosion and assimilation during the turbulent emplacement of Martian lavas, some of which display chemical and rheological analogies with terrestrial komatiites and ferropicrites, on a variety of consolidated sedimentary sulphate-rich substrates. The modelling approach relies on the integration of i) mathematical lava erosion models for turbulent flows (Williams et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1998), ii) thermodynamic volatile degassing models (Gaillard et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2013), and iii) formulations on the stability of sulphides (Fortin et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2015). A series of scenarios are examined in which various Martian mafic to ultramafic mantle-derived melts emplace over, and assimilate consolidated sulphate-rich substrates, such as the sedimentary lithologies (i.e., conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones) recently discovered at the Gale Crater landing site. Our modellings show that lavas emplacing over consolidated sedimentary substrate rather than stiff basaltic crust, are governed by relatively high cooling and substrate erosion rates. The rapid assimilation of sulphate, which serves as a strongly oxidising agent, could result in dramatic sulphur loss due to increased volatile degassing rates at fO2 ≳QFM-1. This effect is further enhanced with increased temperature. Nevertheless, sulphide supersaturation in the way of sulphate

  18. Paleomagnetism and Rock Magnetic Properties from Quaternary Lavas and Tuffs of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (United States)

    Harlan, S. S.; Morgan, L. A.


    We report paleomagnetic and rock magnetic from rhyolite lava flows, ignimbrites, and basalt flows associated with the Yellowstone Caldera, within and surrounding Yellowstone National Park. These data were collected in order to understand sources of magnetic variations observed in high resolution aeromagnetic data reported by Finn and Morgan (2002), and to better understand the evolution of the Yellowstone magmatic system. Most paleomagnetic samples are from volcanic rocks of the third eruptive cycle (1.2 Ma to 0.070 Ma), including the ca. 0.640 Ma Lava Creek Tuff, postcaldera rhyolite flows, and contemporaneous marginal or post-caldera basalt flows. Magnetic intensities for samples ranged from 0.12 A/m to 5.9 A/m, with volume susceptibilities of 2.14x10-4 to 1.45x10-3 SI; Q ratios range from 0.67 to 23.8. As expected, most sites yield well-defined paleomagnetic directions of north declination and moderate positive inclination consistent with remanence acquisition during the Brunhes polarity chron. However, a few sites from older units such as the rhyolites of the Harlequin Lake (0.839 ± 0.007 Ma) and Lewis Canyon (0.853 ± 0.008 Ma) flows, and the basalts from the Junction Butte flow (at Tower Falls, 2.16 ± 0.04 Ma) and Hepburn Mesa (2.2 Ma) yield reverse polarity magnetizations (40Ar/39Ar dates from Obradovich, 1992, and Harlan, unpublished (Hepburn Mesa flow)). Rock magnetic behavior, including high coercivities during AF demagnetization, high laboratory unblocking temperatures, and susceptibility vs. temperature determinations indicate that remanence in the rhyolitic samples is carried by a combination of single or pseudo-single domain magnetite and/or hematite; in the basalt flows magnetite and high-Ti titanomagnetite carrys the remanence. Paleomagnetic results from 46 sites in 27 separate flows yields a grand mean direction with a declination of 356.9° and inclination of 61.9° (k = 35.2, α95 = 4.8°). VGPs calculated from the site-mean directions yield a

  19. High-resolution record of the Matuyama–Brunhes transition constrains the age of Javanese Homo erectus in the Sangiran dome, Indonesia (United States)

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kamishima, Yuko; Kondo, Megumi; Takeshita, Yoshihiro; Kitaba, Ikuko; Danhara, Tohru; Aziz, Fachroel; Kurniawan, Iwan; Kumai, Hisao


    A detailed paleomagnetic study conducted in the Sangiran area, Java, has provided a reliable age constraint on hominid fossil-bearing formations. A reverse-to-normal polarity transition marks a 7-m thick section across the Upper Tuff in the Bapang Formation. The transition has three short reversal episodes and is overlain by a thick normal polarity magnetozone that was fission-track dated to the Brunhes chron. This pattern closely resembles another high-resolution Matuyama–Brunhes (MB) transition record in an Osaka Bay marine core. In the Sangiran sediments, four successive transitional polarity fields lie just below the presumed main MB boundary. Their virtual geomagnetic poles cluster in the western South Pacific, partly overlapping the transitional virtual geomagnetic poles from Hawaiian and Canary Islands’ lavas, which have a mean 40Ar/39Ar age of 776 ± 2 ka. Thus, the polarity transition is unambiguously the MB boundary. A revised correlation of tuff layers in the Bapang Formation reveals that the hominid last occurrence and the tektite level in the Sangiran area are nearly coincident, just below the Upper Middle Tuff, which underlies the MB transition. The stratigraphic relationship of the tektite level to the MB transition in the Sangiran area is consistent with deep-sea core data that show that the meteorite impact preceded the MB reversal by about 12 ka. The MB boundary currently defines the uppermost horizon yielding Homo erectus fossils in the Sangiran area. PMID:22106291

  20. High-resolution record of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition constrains the age of Javanese Homo erectus in the Sangiran dome, Indonesia. (United States)

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kamishima, Yuko; Kondo, Megumi; Takeshita, Yoshihiro; Kitaba, Ikuko; Danhara, Tohru; Aziz, Fachroel; Kurniawan, Iwan; Kumai, Hisao


    A detailed paleomagnetic study conducted in the Sangiran area, Java, has provided a reliable age constraint on hominid fossil-bearing formations. A reverse-to-normal polarity transition marks a 7-m thick section across the Upper Tuff in the Bapang Formation. The transition has three short reversal episodes and is overlain by a thick normal polarity magnetozone that was fission-track dated to the Brunhes chron. This pattern closely resembles another high-resolution Matuyama-Brunhes (MB) transition record in an Osaka Bay marine core. In the Sangiran sediments, four successive transitional polarity fields lie just below the presumed main MB boundary. Their virtual geomagnetic poles cluster in the western South Pacific, partly overlapping the transitional virtual geomagnetic poles from Hawaiian and Canary Islands' lavas, which have a mean (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 776 ± 2 ka. Thus, the polarity transition is unambiguously the MB boundary. A revised correlation of tuff layers in the Bapang Formation reveals that the hominid last occurrence and the tektite level in the Sangiran area are nearly coincident, just below the Upper Middle Tuff, which underlies the MB transition. The stratigraphic relationship of the tektite level to the MB transition in the Sangiran area is consistent with deep-sea core data that show that the meteorite impact preceded the MB reversal by about 12 ka. The MB boundary currently defines the uppermost horizon yielding Homo erectus fossils in the Sangiran area. PMID:22106291

  1. The Brunhes-Matuyama transition in central Italy lacustrine deposits (United States)

    Scardia, G.; Sagnotti, L.; Giaccio, B.; Nomade, S.; Messina, P.


    A 60-m-deep continental core has been drilled into a Pleistocene lacustrine succession encompassing the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary from the Sulmona tectonic basin (central Italy). The lacustrine deposits consist of a low-energy distal facies bearing a large number of tephras sourced from the peri-Tyrrhenian, ultra-potassic volcanic complexes located ~100 km westward of the basin. Basing on preliminary chronologic constraints provided by Ar/Ar datings and tephrochronology, the sediment accumulation rates are estimated in the order of ~0.2-0.3 mm/yr, thus making the Sulmona succession one of the highest-resolution potential records of the Brunhes-Matuyama transition. The magnetic mineralogy is quite homogeneous, likely consisting of dominant magnetite with scattered occurrence of greigite. The concentration of para- and ferromagnetic minerals in sediments, as documented by susceptibility measurements, shows slight variations that we correlate to climatic oscillations. On the whole a complete glacial-interglacial-glacial cycle is recognizable in the cored succession and it is ascribed to the MIS20-MIS18 interval. Paleomagnetic investigations on discrete samples documented the B-M transition shortly after the onset of the MIS19 interglacial stage. A larger stratigraphic interval has been then sampled by means of u-channels and measured at 1-cm spacing, with the aim to recover a high-resolution record of the polarity transition. The data show drastic changes in paleomagnetic directions along a ~6-m-thick core section. According to the preliminary interpretation, the B-M transition should occur in the uppermost ~2 m of this stratigraphic interval and it is preceded by a normal polarity interval, whose meaning is presently under investigation.

  2. Absolute paleointensity determinations by using of conventional double-heating and multispecimen approaches on a Pliocene lava flow sequence from the Lesser Caucasus (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Caccavari, Ana; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Morales, Juan; Solano, Miguel Cervantes; Vashakidze, Goga; Huaiyu, He; Vegas, Néstor


    We report 28 successful Thellier type absolute geomagnetic paleointensity determinations from a Pleistocene lava sequence composed of 39 successive flows in the Djavakheti Highland (Lesser Caucasus, Georgia). Additionally, multispecimen technique provided the estimation of geomagnetic field strength for 12 independent cooling units. Paleointensity studies were performed using both Thellier type double heating and multispecimen techniques. Samples selection was mainly based on uni-vectorial remanent magnetization, thermal stability and domain size of the samples. Flow-mean Thellier paleointensity values range from 16.3 ± 5.2 to 71.0 ± 0.3 μT, while intensities obtained using multispecimen approach vary from17.2 ± 2.3 to 69.3 ± 7.9 μT. One of the flows is located near a possible discontinuity in the sequence and yields a rather low Thellier absolute intensity (16.3 ± 5.2) suggesting a transitional regime and the onset of the Matuyama-Olduvai polarity transition, which does not appear on the directional record. Multispecimen paleointensities from the same flow, however, yield higher, close to present day values which makes untenable the hypothesis of occurrence of transitional field. Thus the whole sequence was emplaced in a short time between the Olduvai chron and 1.73 ± 0.03 Ma, as suggested by available radiometric and paleomagnetic data (Caccavari et al., 2014).

  3. Contributi del Paleomagnetismo alla Stratigrafia del Pleistocene Medio-Superiore (Brunhes Chron)


    Sagnotti, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia


    The contribute of paleomagnetism to the stratigraphy of the middle-late Pleistocene (Brunhes Chron). This manuscript presents an updated summary on the contribute brought by paleomagnetism to the definition of a high-resolution magnetic stratigraphy for the middle-late Pleistocene. The middle-late Pleistocene spans a time intervals during which the Earth magnetic field held predominantly a stable normal polarity and includes the whole normal polarity Brunhes Chron. In absence of full...

  4. The eruptive history of the Trous Blancs pit craters, La Réunion Island: The origin of a 24 km long lava flow (United States)

    Walther, Georg; Frese, Ingmar; Di Muro, Andrea; Kueppers, Ulrich; Michon, Laurent; Métrich, Nicole


    The assessment of volcanic hazards is strongly based on the past eruptive behaviour of volcanoes and its morphological parameters. Since past eruption characteristics and their frequency provide the best probabilities of such eruptions for the future, understanding the complete eruptive history of a volcano is one of the most powerful tools in assessing the potential hazards or eruptions. At Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) volcano (La Réunion, Indian Ocean), the most frequent style of activity is the effusion of lava flows, which pose the greatest hazard by invasion of inhabited areas and destruction of human property. Here we examined the eruptive history of a previously uninvestigated area, believed to be the origin of a 24 km long lava flow. The eruptions recurrence time of PdF is about one eruption every 9 months in the central caldera. Besides this central activity, eruptive vents have been built along three main rift zones cutting the edifice during the last 50 kyrs. In this study we focused on the largest rift zone of about 15 km width and 20 km length, which extends in a north westerly direction between PdF and the nearby Piton des Neiges volcanic complex. This rift zone is typified by deep seismicity (up to 30 km), emitting mostly primitive magmas, indicative of high fluid pressures (up to 5 kbar) and large volume eruptions. Our area of investigation focused on four consecutively aligned pit craters called the Trous Blancs. These have been identified [1] as the source area of one of the youngest (ca. 6 kyrs) and largest lava field, which extends for 24 km from a height of 1800m asl, passing Le Tampon and Saint Pierre city, until it reaches the coast. To gain insight into the development of this eruption and possible future similar activity, we collected new field data (including stratigraphic logs, a geological map of the area, C-14 dating and geochemical analyses of the eruptive products). Fieldwork revealed that the eruption initiated with intense

  5. 基性熔岩火山地层单元类型、特征及其储层意义%Types, characteristics and reservoir significance of basic lava flow units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣健; 唐华风; 王璞珺; 高有峰; 赵然磊


    Based on profile measurements, the observation of the core samples, the interpretation of detection logging and seismic profiles, three typical fields and wells in Songliao Basin were chosen, and the types, the characteristics and the stacking patterns of the volcanic units were studied. The results show that the basic lava volcanic units can be formed by the diagenesis of solidification with cooling, and can be divided into four types according to their external morphology:the braid lava flow units, the fan-like lava flow units, the tabular lava flow units, and the tube lava flow units. The first three of these lava flow units are formed by the lava effusion on the ground, and the tube lava flow units are formed by the lava flowing along the buried tube underground. The internal structure of the lava flow units can be characterized by the vesicular zones. The braid lava flow units are divided into three parts:the rich vesicular zone on the tope, the spare vesicular zone in the middle, and the base vesicular zone at the base. The fan-like lava flow units have an autoclastic breccia zone on the rich vesicular zone, and a thin dense zone under the spare vesicular zone. The tabular lava flow units have a thick dense zone under the spare vesicular zone. The tube lava flow consists of a loop columnar zone in the outer ring and an autoclastic breccia core. The volcanostratigraphy is built by the stacking of volcanic units, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the lithology, and facies and reservoir are directly controlled by the shape and stacking patterns of lava flow units, and make up three distribution modes of reservoirs: the layered, the quasi layered and the mixed-lenticular. Thus this study may provide theoretic foundation for the final target attempt to define the fine characterization of the volcanostratigraphy using outcrop, well and seismic data.%为了探索基性熔岩的火山地层单元类型、特征与叠置关系,精选中国东北3个具

  6. Trace elemental and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic compositional variation in 37 lava flows of the Mandla lobe and their chemical relation to the western Deccan stratigraphic succession, India (United States)

    Shrivastava, J. P.; Mahoney, J. J.; Kashyap, M. R.


    The Mandla lobe is a 900 m thick lava pile that forms a 29,400 km2 northeastern extension of the Deccan Traps. Earlier, combined field, petrographic, and major element studies have shown that this lobe comprises 37 lava flows. Using a combination of trace elements (Ba, Ti, Zr, Rb, Sr) and Nb/Zr values, we group the flows into six chemical types (A-F) that are separated stratigraphically. Combined trace element and Nd-Pb-Sr isotopic data, document the presence of lavas resembling those of the Poladpur Formation and less abundantly, the Ambenali Formation of the southwestern Deccan are in conformity with the earlier reconnaissance work. In addition, our data reveal several flows similar to those of the Mahabaleshwar Formation, the type sections of which are located ~ 900 km to the southwest. Based on the isotopic data the superposition of Mahabaleshwar-like flows over flows with Ambenali- and Poladpur-like characteristics is in the same stratigraphic order seen in the southwestern Deccan type section. However, from the stratigraphy indicated by the Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) results and the serious discrepancy between the DFA and isotopic data, it seems that few Mandla lobe flows are different and not in the same stratigraphic order as in the southwestern part of the province. To some extent the differences may be explained by faulting along four large post-Deccan normal faults near Nagapahar, Kundam, Deori, and Dindori areas across which offsets of ~150 m have been measured. This post-emplacement faulting accounts for the presence of several chemically Mahabaleshwar-like lavas at the base of the ~900 m thick Mandla lobe pile, at a lower elevation than a thick sequence dominated by chemically Poladpur-like flows. However, presence of common signature lavas (similar to that in the northeastern Deccan) cannot be ruled out in this area. They are similar to Poladpur-type lavas both chemically and isotopically. They appear in different formations and erupted at

  7. Asthenosphere–lithosphere interactions in Western Saudi Arabia: Inferences from 3He/4He in xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah (United States)

    Konrad, Kevin;; Graham, David W; Thornber, Carl; Duncan, Robert A; Kent, Adam J.R.; Al-Amri, Abdulla


    Extensive volcanic fields on the western Arabian Plate have erupted intermittently over the last 30 Ma following emplacement of the Afar flood basalts in Ethiopia. In an effort to better understand the origin of this volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, we analyzed3He/4He, and He, CO2 and trace element concentrations in minerals separated from xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah, supplemented with reconnaissance He isotope data from several other volcanic fields (Harrat Al Birk, Harrat Al Kishb and Harrat Ithnayn). Harrat Hutaymah is young (< 850 ka) and the northeasternmost of the volcanic fields. There is a remarkable homogeneity of 3He/4He trapped within most xenoliths, with a weighted mean of 7.54 ± 0.03 RA (2σ, n = 20). This homogeneity occurs over at least eight different xenolith types (including spinel lherzolite, amphibole clinopyroxenite, olivine websterite, clinopyroxenite and garnet websterite), and encompasses ten different volcanic centers within an area of ~ 2500 km2. The homogeneity is caused by volatile equilibration between the xenoliths and fluids derived from their host magma, as fluid inclusions are annealed during the infiltration of vapor-saturated magmas along crystalline grain boundaries. The notable exceptions are the anhydrous spinel lherzolites, which have a lower weighted mean 3He/4He of 6.8 ± 0.3 RA (2σ, n = 2), contain lower concentrations of trapped He, and have a distinctly depleted light rare earth element signature. 3He/4He values of ~ 6.8 RA are also commonly found in spinel lherzolites from harrats Ithnayn, Al Birk, and from Zabargad Island in the Red Sea. Olivine from non-xenolith-bearing lava flows at Hutaymah spans the He isotope range of the xenoliths. The lower 3He/4He in the anhydrous spinel lherzolites appears to be tied to remnant Proterozoic lithosphere prior to metasomatic fluid overprinting.

  8. Asthenosphere-lithosphere interactions in Western Saudi Arabia: Inferences from 3He/4He in xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah (United States)

    Konrad, Kevin; Graham, David W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Duncan, Robert A.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M.


    Extensive volcanic fields on the western Arabian Plate have erupted intermittently over the last 30 Ma following emplacement of the Afar flood basalts in Ethiopia. In an effort to better understand the origin of this volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, we analyzed 3He/4He, and He, CO2 and trace element concentrations in minerals separated from xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah, supplemented with reconnaissance He isotope data from several other volcanic fields (Harrat Al Birk, Harrat Al Kishb and Harrat Ithnayn). Harrat Hutaymah is young (caused by volatile equilibration between the xenoliths and fluids derived from their host magma, as fluid inclusions are annealed during the infiltration of vapor-saturated magmas along crystalline grain boundaries. The notable exceptions are the anhydrous spinel lherzolites, which have a lower weighted mean 3He/4He of 6.8 ± 0.3 RA (2σ, n = 2), contain lower concentrations of trapped He, and have a distinctly depleted light rare earth element signature. 3He/4He values of ~ 6.8 RA are also commonly found in spinel lherzolites from harrats Ithnayn, Al Birk, and from Zabargad Island in the Red Sea. Olivine from non-xenolith-bearing lava flows at Hutaymah spans the He isotope range of the xenoliths. The lower 3He/4He in the anhydrous spinel lherzolites appears to be tied to remnant Proterozoic lithosphere prior to metasomatic fluid overprinting. Elevated 3He/4He in the western harrats has been observed only at Rahat (up to 11.8 RA; Murcia et al., 2013), a volcanic field situated above thinned lithosphere beneath the Makkah-Medinah-Nafud volcanic lineament. Previous work established that spinel lherzolites at Hutaymah are sourced near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), while other xenolith types there are derived from shallower depths within the lithosphere itself (Thornber, 1992). Helium isotopes are consistent with melts originating near the LAB beneath many of the Arabian harrats, and any magma derived from

  9. Eruptive and tectonic history of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, based on AUV mapping data and lava flow ages (United States)

    Clague, David A.; Dreyer, Brian M; Paduan, Jennifer B; Martin, Julie F; Caress, David W; Gillespie, James B.; Kelley, Deborah S; Thomas, Hans; Portner, Ryan A; Delaney, John R; Guilderson, Thomas P.; McGann, Mary L.


    High-resolution bathymetric surveys from autonomous underwater vehicles ABE and D. Allan B. were merged to create a coregistered map of 71.7 km2 of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera in cores from three dives of remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts provide minimum eruption ages for 40 lava flows that are combined with the bathymetric data to outline the eruptive and tectonic history. The ages range from Modern to 10,700 marine-calibrated years before present (yr BP). During a robust magmatic phase from >10,700 yr BP to ~4300 yr BP, flows erupted from an axial high and many flowed >5 km down the flanks; some partly buried adjacent valleys. Axial magma chambers (AMCs) may have been wider than today to supply dike intrusions over a 2 km wide axial zone. Summit Seamount formed by ~4770 yr BP and was subsequently dismembered during a period of extension with little volcanism starting ~4300 yr BP. This tectonic phase with only rare volcanic eruptions lasted until ~2300 yr BP and may have resulted in near-solidification of the AMCs. The axial graben formed by crustal extension during this period of low magmatic activity. Infrequent eruptions occurred on the flanks between 2620–1760 yr BP and within the axial graben since ~1750 yr BP. This most recent phase of limited volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity that began ~2300 yr BP defines a hydrothermal phase of ridge development that coincides with the present-day 1 km wide AMCs and overlying hydrothermal vent fields.

  10. Eruptive and tectonic history of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, based on AUV mapping data and lava flow ages (United States)

    Clague, David. A.; Dreyer, Brian M.; Paduan, Jennifer B.; Martin, Julie F.; Caress, David W.; Gill, James B.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Thomas, Hans; Portner, Ryan A.; Delaney, John R.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; McGann, Mary L.


    bathymetric surveys from autonomous underwater vehicles ABE and D. Allan B. were merged to create a coregistered map of 71.7 km2 of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera in cores from three dives of remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts provide minimum eruption ages for 40 lava flows that are combined with the bathymetric data to outline the eruptive and tectonic history. The ages range from Modern to 10,700 marine-calibrated years before present (yr BP). During a robust magmatic phase from >10,700 yr BP to ˜4300 yr BP, flows erupted from an axial high and many flowed >5 km down the flanks; some partly buried adjacent valleys. Axial magma chambers (AMCs) may have been wider than today to supply dike intrusions over a 2 km wide axial zone. Summit Seamount formed by ˜4770 yr BP and was subsequently dismembered during a period of extension with little volcanism starting ˜4300 yr BP. This tectonic phase with only rare volcanic eruptions lasted until ˜2300 yr BP and may have resulted in near-solidification of the AMCs. The axial graben formed by crustal extension during this period of low magmatic activity. Infrequent eruptions occurred on the flanks between 2620-1760 yr BP and within the axial graben since ˜1750 yr BP. This most recent phase of limited volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity that began ˜2300 yr BP defines a hydrothermal phase of ridge development that coincides with the present-day 1 km wide AMCs and overlying hydrothermal vent fields.

  11. Mapping Planetary Volcanic Deposits: Identifying Vents and Distingushing between Effects of Eruption Conditions and Local Lava Storage and Release on Flow Field Morphology (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Skinner, J. A.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J. E.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Whitson, P.; Janoiko, B.


    Terrestrial geologic mapping techniques are regularly used for "photogeologic" mapping of other planets, but these approaches are complicated by the diverse type, areal coverage, and spatial resolution of available data sets. When available, spatially-limited in-situ human and/or robotic surface observations can sometimes introduce a level of detail that is difficult to integrate with regional or global interpretations. To assess best practices for utilizing observations acquired from orbit and on the surface, our team conducted a comparative study of geologic mapping and interpretation techniques. We compared maps generated for the same area in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona using 1) data collected for reconnaissance before and during the 2010 Desert Research And Technology Studies campaign, and 2) during a traditional, terrestrial field geology study. The operations, related results, and direct mapping comparisons are discussed in companion LPSC abstracts [1-3]. Here we present new geologic interpretations for a volcanic cone and related lava flows as derived from all approaches involved in this study. Mapping results indicate a need for caution when interpreting past eruption conditions on other planetary surfaces from orbital data alone.

  12. Submarine lava flow emplacement and faulting in the axial valley of two morphologically distinct spreading segments of the Mariana back-arc basin from Wadatsumi side-scan sonar images


    Asada, Miho; Deschamps, Anne; FUJIWARA, Toshiya; Nakamura, Yasuyuki


    International audience High-resolution, deep-tow side-scan sonar data were collected over two distinct spreading segments in the central part of the Mariana back-arc basin. These data allow mapping of small fissures and faults and the distinguishing of hummocky from smooth lava flows. Using these data, we observe spatial variations in seafloor deformation and volcanic activity within each segment, and also significant differences in the degree of tectonic deformation between the two segmen...

  13. A brief comparison of lava flows from the Deccan Volcanic Province and the Columbia-Oregon Plateau Flood Basalts: Implications for models of flood basalt emplacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ninad Bondre; Raymond A Duraiswami; Gauri Dole


    The nature and style of emplacement of Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) lava flows has been a atter of great interest as well as considerable controversy in the recent past. However, even a cursory review of published literature reveals that the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and Hawaiian volcanoes provide most of the data relevant to this topic. It is interesting to note, however, that the CRBG lava flows and their palaeotopographic control is atypical of other CFB provinces in the world. In this paper, we first present a short overview of important studies pertaining to the emplacement of flood basalt flows. We then briefly review the morphology of lava flows from the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) and the Columbia-Oregon Plateau flood basalts. The review underscores the existence of significant variations in lava flow morphology between different provinces, and even within the same province. It is quite likely that there were more than one way of emplacing the voluminous and extensive CFB lava flows. We argue that the establishment of general models of emplacement must be based on a comprehensive documentation of lava flow morphology from all CFB provinces.

  14. A precursor to the Matuyama/Brunhes transition-field instability as recorded in pelagic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartla, Paul; Tauxe, Lisa


    The period some 20-25 kyr just prior to the most recent generally recognized geomagnetic field polarity transition, the Matuyama-to-Brunhes reversal, appears to be marked by significant geomagnetic variability, manifested as pronounced oscillations in intensity. We compare several previously publish

  15. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes (United States)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi


    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  16. The foaming of lavas (United States)

    Okeefe, J. A.; Walton, W.


    Foaming is of great practical and theoretical significance for volcanic processes on the earth, the moon, and perhaps the meteorite parent bodies. The theory of foams agrees with steelmaking experience to indicate that their presence depends on the existence of solutes in the lavas which reduce the surface tension, and are not saturated. These solutes concentrate at the surface, and are called surfactants. The surfactant responsible for the formation of volcanic ash was not identified; it appears to be related to the oxygen partial pressure above the lava. This fact may explain why lunar and meteoritic melts are not observed to foam. Experimental studies are needed to clarify the process.

  17. LAVA Applications to Open Rotors (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Housman, Jeff; Barad, Mike; Brehm, Christoph


    Outline: LAVA (Launch Ascent Vehicle Aerodynamics); Introduction; Acoustics Related Applications; LAVA Applications to Open Rotor; Structured Overset Grids; Cartesian Grid with Immersed Boundary; High Speed Case; High Speed Case with Plate Low Speed Case.

  18. Sharing geographic databases via the world wide web: applications to the whole Italian territory and a focus on lava flow hazard at Mount Etna (United States)

    Tarquini, S.; Favalli, M.; Nannipieri, L.


    DAR survey of the Vesuvius volcano (1 m resolution). Additionally, the GE-based system can be effectively used to present the simulation results from numerical models within a geographic context, to support the assessment and communication of the impact associated to geophysical mass flow on a volcanic area. Finally, we are currently developing a system to interactively navigate a large database of lava flow simulations at Mount Etna (including more than 80,000 simulated vents). The simulations database has been derived using the DEM-driven DOWNFLOW probabilistic code. By elaborating this database a 10m-resolution hazard map has been derived and can be loaded via Web using GE. Upon a click on any location on a map of the volcano, this system is expected to convert on the fly the requested simulation from the database to an image format that can be loaded and visualized by GE.

  19. 10Be evidence for the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal in the EPICA Dome C ice core. (United States)

    Raisbeck, G M; Yiou, F; Cattani, O; Jouzel, J


    An ice core drilled at Dome C, Antarctica, is the oldest ice core so far retrieved. On the basis of ice flow modelling and a comparison between the deuterium signal in the ice with climate records from marine sediment cores, the ice at a depth of 3,190 m in the Dome C core is believed to have been deposited around 800,000 years ago, offering a rare opportunity to study climatic and environmental conditions over this time period. However, an independent determination of this age is important because the deuterium profile below a depth of 3,190 m depth does not show the expected correlation with the marine record. Here we present evidence for enhanced 10Be deposition in the ice at 3,160-3,170 m, which we interpret as a result of the low dipole field strength during the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal, which occurred about 780,000 years ago. If correct, this provides a crucial tie point between ice cores, marine cores and a radiometric timescale. PMID:17080088

  20. Using Lava Tube Skylights To Derive Lava Eruption Temperatures on Io (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; McEwen, Alfred S.


    The eruption temperature of Io’s silicate lavas constrains Io’s interior state and composition [1]. We have examined the theoretical thermal emission from lava tube skylights above basaltic and ultramafic lava channels. Assuming that tube-fed lava flows are common on Io, skylights could also be common. Skylights present steady thermal emission on a scale of days to months. We find that the thermal emission from such a target, measured at multiple visible and NIR wavelengths, can provide a highly accurate diagnostic of eruption temperature. However, the small size of skylights means that close flybys of Io are necessary, requiring a dedicated Io mission [2]. Observations would ideally be at night or in eclipse. We have modelled the thermal emission spectrum for different skylight sizes, lava flow stream velocities, end-member lava compositions, and skylight radiation shape factors, determining the resulting flow surface cooling rates. We calculate the resulting thermal emission spectrum as a function of viewing geometry. From the resulting 0.7:0.9 μm ratios, we see a clear distinction between basaltic and ultramafic compositions for skylights smaller than 20 m across, even if sub-pixel. Our analysis will be further refined as accurate high-temperature short-wavelength emissivity values become available [3]. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. We thank the NASA OPR Program for support. References: [1] Keszthelyi et al. (2007) Icarus 192, 491-502 [2] McEwen et al. (2015) The Io Volcano Observer (IVO) LPSC-46 abstract 1627 [3] Ramsey and Harris (2015) IAVCEI-2015, Prague, Cz. Rep., abstract IUGG-3519.

  1. The microwave palaeointensity technique and its application to lava

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, M J


    application is required at each power step thus removing the need for accurate reproducibility of absorbed microwave power and also reducing experimental time. This method as well as a previous method developed for use with ceramic samples are described and discussed. The microwave palaeointensity technique has been used successfully in three palaeomagnetic studies (that include rock magnetic and directional analyses). These are a study of historic lava from Mt. Etna, Sicily, a detailed through the flow study of the 1960 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii and a study of Tertiary Australian lava. Palaeointensity results are compared to observatory records and / or results of previous studies using conventional techniques. The research undertaken, described in this thesis, demonstrates that the microwave palaeointensity technique is a viable technique for use with lava. This enables greater confidence that any palaeointensity results obtained are not affected by sample alteration during experimentation. The suitability ...

  2. Diversion of lava during the 1983 eruption of Mount Etna (United States)

    Lockwood, J.P.; Romano, R.


    Mankind's first known attempt to divert a lava flow was in 1669, when a flow from Mount Etna volcano threatened the Sicilian city of Catania. This attempt was largely unsuccessful, in part due to opposition by citizens of another town, Paterno. Attempts to divert lava flows from Mauna Loa Volcano on the island of Hawaii by aerial bombing were made in 1935 and 1942, with no signifcant effects. Earthen bariers were hurriedly constructed in attempts to divert flows from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii in 1955 and 1960, again with little success.

  3. Circulation patterns in active lava lakes (United States)

    Redmond, T. C.; Lev, E.


    Active lava lakes provide a unique window into magmatic conduit processes. We investigated circulation patterns of 4 active lava lakes: Kilauea's Halemaumau crater, Mount Erebus, Erta Ale and Nyiragongo, and in an artificial "lava lake" constructed at the Syracuse University Lava Lab. We employed visual and thermal video recordings collected at these volcanoes and use computer vision techniques to extract time-dependent, two-dimensional surface velocity maps. The large amount of data available from Halemaumau enabled us to identify several characteristic circulation patterns. One such pattern is a rapid acceleration followed by rapid deceleration, often to a level lower than the pre-acceleration level, and then a slow recovery. Another pattern is periodic asymmetric peaks of gradual acceleration and rapid deceleration, or vice versa, previously explained by gas pistoning. Using spectral analysis, we find that the dominant period of circulation cycles at approximately 30 minutes, 3 times longer than the dominant period identified previously for Mount Erebus. Measuring a complete surface velocity field allowed us to map and follow locations of divergence and convergence, therefore upwelling and downwelling, thus connecting the surface flow with that at depth. At Nyiragongo, the location of main upwelling shifts gradually, yet is usually at the interior of the lake, for Erebus it is usually along the perimeter yet often there is catastrophic downwelling at the interior; For Halemaumau upwelling/downwelling position is almost always on the perimeter. In addition to velocity fields, we developed an automated tool for counting crustal plates at the surface of the lava lakes, and found a correlation, and a lag time, between changes if circulation vigor and the average size of crustal plates. Circulation in the artificial basaltic lava "lake" was limited by its size and degree of foaming, yet we measured surface velocities and identify patterns. Maximum surface velocity

  4. Studies of vesicle distribution patterns in Hawaiian lavas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basaltic lava flows are generally vesicular, and the broader facts relating to vesicle distribution have long been established; few studies have yet been made with a view to determining how and when vesicles form in the cooling history of the lava, explaining vesicle shape and size distribution, and gaining enough understanding to employ vesicles as a geological tool. Various avenues of approach exist by which one may seek to gain a better understanding of these ubiquitous structures and make a start towards developing a general theory, and three such avenues have recently been explored. One avenue involves the study of pipe vesicles; these are a well known feature of lava flows and are narrow pipes which occur near the base of many pahoehoe flow units. Another avenue of approach is that presented by the distinctive spongy pahoehoe facies of lava that is common in distal locations on Hawaiian volcanoes. A third avenue of approach is that of the study of gas blisters in lava. Gas blisters are voids, which can be as much as tens of meters wide, where the lava split along a vesicle-rich layer and the roof up-arched by gas pressure. These three avenues are briefly discussed

  5. Paleomagnetism of Basaltic Lava Flows in Coreholes ICPP 213, ICPP-214, ICPP-215, and USGS 128 Near the Vadose Zone Research Park, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    Champion, Duane E.; Herman, Theodore C.


    A paleomagnetic study was conducted on basalt from 41 lava flows represented in about 2,300 ft of core from coreholes ICPP-213, ICPP-214, ICPP-215, and USGS 128. These wells are in the area of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Vadose Zone Research Park within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Paleomagnetic measurements were made on 508 samples from the four coreholes, which are compared to each other, and to surface outcrop paleomagnetic data. In general, subhorizontal lines of correlation exist between sediment layers and between basalt layers in the area of the new percolation ponds. Some of the basalt flows and flow sequences are strongly correlative at different depth intervals and represent important stratigraphic unifying elements. Some units pinch out, or thicken or thin even over short separation distances of about 1,500 ft. A more distant correlation of more than 1 mile to corehole USGS 128 is possible for several of the basalt flows, but at greater depth. This is probably due to the broad subsidence of the eastern Snake River Plain centered along its topographic axis located to the south of INEEL. This study shows this most clearly in the oldest portions of the cored sections that have differentially subsided the greatest amount.

  6. Reconstruction of lava fields based on 3D and conventional images. Arenal volcano, Costa Rica. (United States)

    Horvath, S.; Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.


    Conventional air photographs, multi-spectral images and a map scale 1:10 000 were used to upgrade Arenal volcano's lava field. Arenal volcano located in NW Costa Rica has been active for 39 years. Fifty two days after the initial explosive events that opened three craters on the west flank, lava flows were erupted from crater A (1050 m) in September, 1968 and continued flowing until November, 1973. These lavas were the most voluminous of the eruption and the effusion rate of lava was relatively high in this period. In April, 1974 lava flows were erupted from crater C (1460 m) and continue to present time. Younger lava flows extended over uncovered ground to the south and southwest in the 1980s and early 1990s and onto the northern slopes in the 1990s and 2000s. Lava flows are becoming shorter and narrower with time. Therefore, the centre of mass of the whole lava flow-field has migrated closer to the vent. Above crater C a cone has been growing steadily, reaching a height of 1670 m, 36 m higher than the prehistoric Arenal cone by 2004. After 39 years of continuous emission of lava flows, the profile of Arenal volcano consists of a duplet of cones whose summits are separated by less than 500 meters. Most of the build up around the new cone comes from varied lava flows. For near 30 years volcano monitoring staff (from OVSICORI-UNA) has recorded field observations of regular and extraordinary events, in paper. Several drafts maps have been used for teaching, academic presentations and for graphic explanations to specific audiences and to the general public. An upgraded version was needed. The purpose of this work is to present the most recent lava flows giving a visual presentation of them by computer methods. Combined SIG techniques (Arc View 3.3) and ERDAS produced a base map in which layers containing the recorded lava flows from the recent 16 years, were depicted. Each lava flow has its own characteristics: direction, year of origin, width, length, surface texture

  7. Mid-Brunhes climatic event: long-term changes in global atmosphere and ocean circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.H.F.; Kuijpers, A.; Troelstra, S.R.


    A long-term climatic change 4.0 x 10/sup 5/ to 3.0 x 10/sup 5/ years ago is recorded in deep sea sediments of the Angola and Canary basins in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. In the Angola Basin (Southern Hemisphere) the climatic signal shows a transition to more humid (interglacial) conditions in equatorial Africa, and in the Canary Basin (Northern Hemisphere) to more glacial oceanic conditions. This trend is confirmed by comparison with all well-documented marine and continental records from various latitudes available; in the Northern Hemisphere, in the Atlantic north of 20/sup 0/N, climate merged into more glacial conditions and in equatorial regions and in the Southern Hemisphere to more interglacial conditions. The data point to a more northern position of early Brunhes oceanic fronts and to an intensified atmosphere and ocean surface circulation in the Southern Hemisphere during that time, probably accompanied by a more zonal circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. The mid-Brunhes climatic change may have been forced by the orbital eccentricity cycle of 4.13 x 10/sup 5/ years. 42 references, 4 figures.

  8. Bringing the Volcano to the Students: The Syracuse University LAVA Project (United States)

    Karson, J.; Wysocki, B.; Kissane, M. T.


    A collaborative effort between the Department of Earth Sciences and Sculpture Department at Syracuse University has resulted in the facility to make natural-scale lava flows in a laboratory environment for K-university students and the general public. Using a large, gas-fired, furnace with a tilting crucible, basaltic gravel is heated at temperatures of 1100° to 1300°C resulting in up to 800 lbs of homogeneous, basaltic lava. Lava is poured over a variety of surfaces including rock slab, wet or dry sand, ice and dry ice. A ceramic funnel permits pouring into and under water. Differing set-ups provide analogs for a wide range of terrestrial, marine, and extraterrestrial lava flows. Composition is held constant, but varying key parameters such as temperature, pouring (effusion) rate, and slope result in different flow morphologies including ropey to toey pahoehoe, inflated flows, channelized flows with levees, and hyaloclastites. Typical flows are 2-4 m long and hair and tears. Experiments are underway to quantify the variables associated with different morphologies, but the spectacular lava flows are also being integrated into class experiences. Students and instructors from K-12 classes as well as university classes are spectators and active participants in the lava flow events, commonly proposing experiments before or during flows. Lava flows are incorporated into labs for Earth Science classes and also used for artistic creations in the Sculpture program. Although students have access to still images and video of natural lava flows from active volcanoes, there is no substitute for "being there" and experiencing the spectacle of viscous, incandescent orange, lava flowing over the surface in a blast of heat. Grabbing student attention in this environment opens the door to discussions ranging from the nature of Earth materials (solid vs. liquid, rock vs glass, viscous vs brittle, etc.) to major planetary processes.

  9. Eruptive Process, Geochemical Variation, and Weathering Controls on the Hyperspectral Reflectance Properties of the Blue Dragon Lava Flow, Craters of the Moon National Monument (United States)

    Poplawski, J.; Chadwick, D. J.


    About 60 eruptive events have occurred at the Craters of the Moon volcanic field (Idaho, US), ranging in age from 15 to 2 ka. The Blue Dragon flow is one of the youngest, a large (280 sq. km) hawaiite flow which erupted from a dike-fed central rift zone, the Great Rift. Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery (224-bands, 0.4 to 2.5 micron spectral range, and 15.3 m spatial resolution) shows at least five distinct regions within the Blue Dragon flow that exhibit different spectral reflectance properties. Field observations show these regions to be associated with different eruptive phases of the flow, and in some cases, different flow morphologies (e.g. aa, and ropey, sheet, and hummocky pahoehoe). Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) imagery of the study area also shows average roughness variability among the different spectral regions. We performed petrographic and laboratory spectral analyses on samples from each spectral region to investigate variation in primary surface properties and the effects of weathering and lichen growth on surface reflectance. We also analyzed bulk major elements for several samples from each spectral region to investigate a possible connection between the observed spectral variability and chemical variability in the Blue Dragon eruption over time. Analyses using hydrologic flow accumulation and solar irradiance models provide further information about the effects of post-eruptive processes on spectral reflectance of the flow.

  10. Long term low latitude and high elevation cosmogenic 3He production rate inferred from a 107 ka-old lava flow in northern Chile; 22°S-3400 m a.s.l. (United States)

    Delunel, Romain; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Martin, Léo C. P.; Nomade, Sébastien; Schlunegger, Fritz


    Available geological calibration sites used to estimate the rate at which cosmogenic 3He is produced at the Earth's surface are mostly clustered in medium to high latitudes. Moreover, most of them have exposure histories shorter than tens of thousands of years. This lack of sites prevents a qualitative assessment of available production models used to convert cosmogenic 3He concentrations into exposure ages and/or denudation rates. It thus limits our ability to take into account the atmospheric, geomagnetic and solar modulation conditions that might have affected the production of cosmogenic nuclides in the past for longer exposure histories and in low latitude regions. We present the cosmogenic 3He production rate inferred from a new geological calibration site located in northern Chile. Five samples were collected on the surface of the largest and best-preserved lava flow of the San Pedro volcano (21.934°S-68.510°W-3390 m a.s.l.), which displays pristine crease-structure features. 40Ar/39Ar dating yields a reliable plateau age of 107 ± 12 ka for the eruption of this lava flow. Eight pyroxene aliquots separated from the surface samples yield a weighted average cosmogenic 3He concentration of 99.3 ± 1.2 Mat g-1 from which a local cosmogenic 3He production rate of 928 ± 101 at g-1 yr-1 is calculated. The local production rate is then scaled to a sea level high latitude (SLHL) reference position using different combinations of geographic spatialization schemes, atmosphere models and geomagnetic field reconstructions, yielding SLHL production rates between 103 ± 11 and 130 ± 14 at g-1 yr-1 consistent with the most recent estimates available from the literature. Finally, we use the same scaling frameworks to re-evaluate the mean global-scale cosmogenic 3He production rate in olivine and pyroxene minerals at 120 ± 16 at g-1 yr-1 from the compilation of previously published calibration datasets.

  11. Satellite Measurements of Lava Extrusion Rate at Volcán Reventador, Ecuador (United States)

    Arnold, D. W. D.; Biggs, J.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Naranjo, M. F.


    The extrusion rate of lava at active volcanoes provides a principle control on the style of eruptive behavior and the extent of lava flows, while also providing information about magma supply to the volcano. Measurements of extrusion rate at active volcanoes are therefore important for assessing hazard, and improving understanding of volcanic systems. Volcán Reventador is an asymmetric stratovolcano in the Cordillera Real of Ecuador. The largest historically observed eruption at Reventador in 2002 has been followed by several periods of eruptive activity. Eruptions are characterised by effusion of andesitic to basaltic-andesitic lava flows, and Vulcanian explosions. The ongoing eruption at Reventador therefor provides an excellent target for investigating the link between effusion rate, explosivity, and lava flow behaviour. Satellite InSAR provides regular observations of the volcano, even during night or periods of cloud cover. We use a dataset of Radarsat-2 and TanDEM-X imagery, with intervals of 11 to 192 days, over the period 2011 to 2014 to measure the extent, thickness and volume of new lava flows at Reventador. We use radar amplitude and inteferometric coherence to map 25 individual lava flows, as well as pyroclastic deposits and changes in lava dome morphology. We observe 43 Mm3 of deposits over a three year period, giving an average effusion rate of 0.5 m3s-1. We do not observe any ground deformation due to magmatic sources at Reventador, therefore variations in lava effusion rate can be interpreted as changes in the magma supply to the volcano. We investigate the link between variations in effusion rate and the length, area, thickness, and aspect ratio of lava flows, and the explosive-effusive transition. We also characterise the relationship between lava flow age, thickness, and subsidence rate.

  12. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color) (United States)


    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  13. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (3-D) (United States)


    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  14. The effect of particle size on the rheology of liquid-solid mixtures with application to lava flows: Results from analogue experiments


    Del Gaudio, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Ventura, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Taddeucci, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia


    We investigate the effect of crystal size on the rheology of basaltic magmas by means of a rheometer and suspensions of silicon oil with natural magmatic crystals of variable size (from 63 to 0.5 mm) and volume fraction fi (from 0.03 to 0.6). At constant fi, finer suspensions display higher viscosities than coarser ones. Shear thinning (flow index n 0.1–0.2 and is more pronounced (stronger departure from the Newtonian behavior) in finer suspensions. Maximum pac...

  15. Recent flood lavas in the Elysium region of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A volcanic origin is presently suggested for the Cerberus Formation region of smooth plains in the southeastern Elysium region of Mars, on the basis of its surface morphology, lobate edges, vents, and an embayment relation of the unit with adjacent, older units. The low viscosity lavas that filled a topographic depression in southeastern Elysium subsequently flowed into western Amazonic Planitia via channels formed by an earlier fluvial episode. A young, upper Amazonian dating is indicated by crater frequencies and stratigraphic relations, implying that large-scale eruptions of low-viscosity lava were still possible late in Martian history. 34 refs

  16. Paleomagnetic field variability and chronostratigraphy of Brunhes-Chron deep-sea sediments from the Bering Sea: IODP Expedition 323 (United States)

    Lund, Steve; Stoner, Joseph; Okada, Makoto; Mortazavi, Emily


    IODP Expedition 323 recovered six complete and replicate records of Brunhes-Chron paleomagnetic field variability (0-780,000 years BP) in 2820 m core depth below sea floor (CSF) of deep-sea sediments. On shipboard, we made more than 220,000 paleomagnetic measurements on the recovered sediments. Since then, we have u-channel sampled more than 300 m of Brunhes Chron sediments to corroborate our shipboard measurements and improve our paleomagnetic and rock magnetic understanding of these sediments. Several intervals of distinctive paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) have been identified that appear to be correlatable among sites 1343, 1344, and 1345. One magnetic field excursion is recorded in sediments of sites 1339, 1343, 1344, and 1345. We identify this to be excursion 7α/Iceland Basin Event (192,000 years BP), which is also seen in the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean (Channell et al., 1997). We have verified in u-channels the placement of the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary (780,000 years BP) at sites 1341 and 1343. Finally, we have developed a medium-quality relative paleointensity record for these sediments that is correlatable among the sites, even though it is still biased by large-amplitude environmental variability. On the basis of these observations we have built a magnetic chronostratigraphy of Expedition 323 sediments suitable for regional correlation and dating over the last 1 million years, and compared this with oxygen-isotope chronostratigraphy from sites U1339 and U1345.

  17. The origin of tubular lava stalactites and other related forms


    Kevin Allred; Carlene Allred


    Tubular lava stalactites are often found in lava tubes. Field observations, sample analysis, and comparative studies indicate that these are segregations extruded during cooling from partially crystallized lava al about 1,070 - 1,000 °C. Retrograde boiling (gas pressure) within the lava provides a mechanism to expel the interstitial liquid. In addition to tubular lava stalactites, a variety of other lava features can also result, such as lava helictites, lava coralloids, barnacle-like stretch...

  18. A network of lava tubes as the origin of Labyrinthus Noctis and Valles Marineris on Mars (United States)

    Leone, Giovanni


    The role of lava tube networks and lava channels is reassessed as the primordial stage of the volcano-erosional processes that formed the Labyrinthus Noctis-Valles Marineris system instead of a tectonic origin. The combined use of CTX, CRISM, HiRISE imagery, and MOLA profiles has provided valuable insight in the evolution of pit chains into fossae first and then chasmata later due to mass wasting processes caused by the erosional effect of the lava flows that draped Valles Marineris and other outflow channels. Although a quantitative evaluation of eruption rates is difficult even with digital terrain models (DTMs) because of the mixing between new flows and paleoflows, a comparison with Elysium and other Tharsis outflow channels suggests that the availability of lava supply is correlated to their widths. The images of ubiquitous lava flows rather than sporadic light-toned deposits strengthen the role of lava over that of water in the erosional processes that formed Labyrinthus Noctis and carved Valles Marineris like many other outflow channel on Mars. The erosional evolution of the outflow channels shows an increasing trend of age and a decreasing trend of depth from the sources on Tharsis to the mouths at Chryse Planitia. This finding, coupled with the observation of lava flows mantling Chryse Planitia, may have profound implications for the water inventories thought to have filled the lowlands with an ocean.

  19. Pedogenesis affecting the Matuyama-Brunhes polarity transition recorded in Chinese loess?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A detailed record of the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition has been obtained from the loess unit 8 (L8) at Duanjiapo (34.2°N, 109.2°E),Shannxi Province of China. An investigation of the rock magnetic properties using hyste-resis loops, thermomagnetic analyses identifies pseudo- single domain magnetite as the main carrier of the remanence, with a small contribution from maghemite and hematite. The paleo-direction records obtained reveal: (ⅰ) The M-B transition was recorded in the middle and lower part of L8, and comprises of five fast reversals. (ⅱ) The duration of the M-B polarity transition related to the directional change is about 4800 a. (ⅲ) The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path during the transition is confined over Africa, peaked 90° away from the sampling site, in contrast with the results obtained from the Weinan loess section. The different VGPs are probably attributed to the pedogenesis.

  20. Topographic and Stochastic Influences on Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.


    A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards, and interpreting the significance of lava morphology on Earth and other planetary surfaces. Active pahoehoe lobes on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, were examined on 21-26 February 2006 using oblique time-series stereo-photogrammetry and differential global positioning system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the local discharge rate for peripheral lava lobes was generally constant at 0.0061 +/- 0.0019 m3/s, but the areal coverage rate of the lobes exhibited a periodic increase every 4.13 +/- 0.64 minutes. This periodicity is attributed to the time required for the pressure within the liquid lava core to exceed the cooling induced strength of its margins. The pahoehoe flow advanced through a series of down slope and cross-slope breakouts, which began as approximately 0.2 m-thick units (i.e., toes) that coalesced and inflated to become approximately meter-thick lobes. The lobes were thickest above the lowest points of the initial topography and above shallow to reverse facing slopes, defined relative to the local flow direction. The flow path was typically controlled by high-standing topography, with the zone directly adjacent to the final lobe margin having an average relief that was a few centimeters higher than the lava inundated region. This suggests that toe-scale topography can, at least temporarily, exert strong controls on pahoehoe flow paths by impeding the lateral spreading of the lobe. Observed cycles of enhanced areal spreading and inflated lobe morphology are also explored using a model that considers the statistical likelihood of sequential breakouts from active flow margins and the effects of topographic barriers.

  1. Insights into the dynamics of the Nyiragongo lava lake level (United States)

    Smets, Benoît; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Geirsson, Halldor; Kervyn, Matthieu; Kervyn, François


    Nyiragongo volcano, in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is among the most active volcanoes in Africa and on Earth. Since the first European observations in the late 19th Century, its eruptive activity mostly concentrated into its main crater, with the presence of a persistent lava lake from at least 1928 to 1977 and since 2002. The size, shape and elevation of this lava lake have evolved through time, modifying the topography of the main crater. In January 1977 and 2002, the uppermost magmatic system of Nyiragongo, including the lava lake, was drained during flank eruptions. These flank events caused major disasters, mostly due to the exceptionally fast-moving lava flows and the presence of a dense population living at foot of this volcano. Despite a large scientific interest and societal concern, the study of the eruptive activity of Nyiragongo remains limited by climate and vegetation conditions that, most of the time, limit use of satellite remote sensing techniques, and recurrent armed conflicts in the Kivu region, which sometimes prevent field access to the main crater. Here we focus on the dynamics of the Nyiragongo lava lake level and its relationship with the volcanic plumbing system by describing the historical and recent lava lake activity and presenting new quantitative observations using close-range photogrammetry, a Stereographic Time-Lapse Camera (STLC) system and high-resolution satellite SAR and InSAR remote sensing. Results highlight that, contrary to the interpretation found in some recent publications, the lava lake drainages appear to be the consequence and not the cause of the 1977 and 2002 flank eruptions. Two types of short-term lava lake level variations are observed. The first one corresponds to cyclic metre-scale variations attributed to gas piston activity. The STLC data recorded in September 2011 show hour-scale gas piston cycles reaching up to 3.8 m, which are interpreted to be related to gas accumulation and release in the

  2. Characterizing Lacustrine Sediment that Records the Matuyama/Brunhes Polarity Transition at Bishop, California (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Bergeron, Jennifer; Mailloux, Brian; Kenna, Timothy


    We are doing a study of the physical and chemical properties of exposed lacustrine sediment deposited in Pleistocene Owens Lake near Bishop, CA (37.3˚ N, 241.5˚ E) that was used in an investigation of the Matuyama/Brunhes (M/B) polarity transition (Liddicoat, 1993). The study complements one of similar lacustrine sediment that records the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, CA (38.0˚ N, 240.8˚ E) where field strength (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and percentage of inorganic carbon seem to be contributing factors on the ability of magnetic grains to accurately record field direction when the field is changing rapidly. For instance, there is an inverse relationship between the percentage of total inorganic carbon (TIC) and the mobility of magnetic grains that preserve the remanence - the greater the percentage of TIC, the less likely grains become realigned when the field directions change (Spokowski et al., 2011). At Bishop, as in the Mono Basin, the sediment is unweathered fine- to medium-grain sand, silt, and volcanic ash from a nearby granitic (Sierra Nevada) and volcanic provenance (Lajoie, 1968), and the dominant magnetic mineral is magnetite (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1993). The Bishop Ash, dated by K/Ar at about 0.68 m.y. (Dalrymple et al., 1965), is in conformable contact with the lake sediments, which are exposed in the former bank of the Owens River. At Bishop we are using samples that record reverse (Matuyama), transitional, and normal (Brunhes) polarity that were demagnetized in an alternating field. The percentage of grains with a diameter less than 63 micrometers is about 40 percent in the reversely magnetized sediment and about 65 percent in the sediment that records transitional or normal polarity. These percentages differ somewhat from those in the Mono Basin where the percentage is about 80. The percentage of total organic carbon (TOC) does not exceed about 3 percent in the Owens Lake sediment and it is slightly less in the Mono Basin

  3. The microwave palaeointensity technique and its application to lava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, M.J


    the flow study of the 1960 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii and a study of Tertiary Australian lava. Palaeointensity results are compared to observatory records and / or results of previous studies using conventional techniques. The research undertaken, described in this thesis, demonstrates that the microwave palaeointensity technique is a viable technique for use with lava. This enables greater confidence that any palaeointensity results obtained are not affected by sample alteration during experimentation. The suitability and reliability of lava as a recorder of magnetic field intensity can therefore be investigated more readily with the ultimate aim of producing a record of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time. (author)

  4. The microwave palaeointensity technique and its application to lava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    flow study of the 1960 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii and a study of Tertiary Australian lava. Palaeointensity results are compared to observatory records and / or results of previous studies using conventional techniques. The research undertaken, described in this thesis, demonstrates that the microwave palaeointensity technique is a viable technique for use with lava. This enables greater confidence that any palaeointensity results obtained are not affected by sample alteration during experimentation. The suitability and reliability of lava as a recorder of magnetic field intensity can therefore be investigated more readily with the ultimate aim of producing a record of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time. (author)

  5. Loess 10Be evidence for an asynchronous Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic polarity reversal (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Beck, W.; Kong, X.; An, Z.; Qiang, X.; Wu, Z.; Xian, F.; Ao, H.


    In Chinese loess the Brunhes-Matuyama (B-M) geomagnetic reversal appears to occur about 25 ka prior to the established axial dipole reversal age found in many marine sediments, i.e., in Chinese loess this magnetic reversal boundary is found in glacial loess unit L8 which is thought to be correlated with Marine Isotope Stage 20 (MIS 20), in marine sediment records, however, this boundary is commonly found in interglacial period of MIS 19[1-2], leading to the debate on uncertainties of paleoclimatic correlation between the Chinese loess-paleosol sequences and marine sediments[3-5]. Based on this issue, here we propose to use the cosmogenic 10Be to address this conundrum. 10Be is a long-lived radionuclide produced in the atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation reactions and carried to the ground attached to aerosols. Its atmospheric production rate is inversely proportional to the geomagnetic field intensity [6]. This allows us to reconstruct past geomagnetic field intensity variations using 10Be concentrations recorded in different sedimentary archives. We carried out both the 10Be studies and paleogeomagnetic measurements in Luochuan and Xifeng sections in Chinese Loess Plateau. Both loess profiles show that 10Be production rate was at a maximum-an indication of the dipole field reversal-at ca. 780 ± 3 ka BP., in paleosol unit S7 corresponding to MIS 19, proving that the timing of B-M reversal recorded in Chinese loess is synchronous with that seen in marine records [1]. These results reaffirmed the conventional paleoclimatic correlation of loess-paleosol sequences with marine isotope stages and the standard loess timescale as correct. However, it is ~25 ka younger than the age (depth) of the paleogeomagnetic measurements, which show that the B-M boundary is in L8 in these two Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, demonstrating that loess magnetic overprinting has occurred. 1.Tauxe, L., et al., 1996, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, 140, 133-1462.Zhou, L.P., and Shackleton, 1999

  6. Climatostratigraphic position of the Brunhes-Matuyama transition and its precursor (Invited) (United States)

    Scardia, G.; Sagnotti, L.; Giaccio, B.; Nomade, S.; Zanchetta, G.; Messina, P.


    The multidisciplinary study of the 60-m-deep continental SC1 core from the Sulmona lacustrine succession (central Italy) allowed to retrieve high-resolution paleomagnetic and climatic data for the Early-Middle Pleistocene time interval. The SC1 core encompasses the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary and the Ar/Ar dating of the several tephra layers therein contained provides a firm chronology for the whole sedimentary succession. The sediment accumulation rates are in the order of 0.2 mm/yr. The MIS20-MIS19 interval, where the B-M polarity reversal occurs, has been studied in detail by means of climatic proxies on discrete samples (oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, magnetic susceptibility) and paleomagnetic analyses on u-channels. Data have been also gathered and reproduced from the outcrops of the Sulmona lacustrine succession (the Horseshoe section), thus strengthening the results obtained from the core. Paleomagnetic analyses points to the occurrence of two main intensity minima, of which the younger pertains to the generally recognized B-M polarity reversal and the older is interpreted as its precursor. The precursor occurs few thousands years before the B-M polarity transition during the Termination IX, between MIS20 and MIS19. The intensity minimum of the B-M transition falls in the early part of MIS19, with a stable configuration of the magnetic inclinations already reached soon after the end of the Termination IX. Comparison with the available records, where paleomagnetic and climatic data are coupled, reveals that the climatostratigraphic position of the precursor is quite well established, falling in the Termination IX. Conversely the position of the B-M transition wiggles inside the MIS19. The discrepancy in the positioning of the two magnetic events may find explanation in the quality of magnetic signal recording in the different sedimentary environments. Taking into account that the precursor is commonly well positioned because it occurs on a well detectable

  7. Lava tubes and aquifer vulnerability in the upper Actopan River basin, Veracruz, México (United States)

    Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Delgado Granados, H.


    Rapid infiltration leads to very dry conditions on the surface of some volcanic terrains, with large allogenic streams sometimes sinking underground upon reaching a lava flow. Aquifers in lava flows tend to be heterogeneous and discontinuous, generally unconfined and fissured, and have high transmissivity. Springs associated with basalts may be very large but are typically restricted to lava-flow margins. Concern has been expressed regarding the potential for lava-tube caves to facilitate groundwater contamination similar to that afflicting some karst aquifers (Kempe et al., 2003; Kiernan et al., 2002; Halliday 2003). The upper Actopan River basin is a series of narrow valleys excavated in Tertiary volcanic brechias. Several extensive Holocene basaltic tube-fed lava flows have partially filled these valleys. The youngest and longest flow originates at El Volcancillo, a 780 ybP monogenetic volcano. It is over 50 km long, and was fed through a major master tube, the remains of which form several lava-tube caves (Gassos and Espinasa-Pereña, 2008). Another tube-fed flow initiates at a vent at the bottom of Barranca Huichila and can be followed for 7 km to where it is covered by the Volcancillo flow. The Huichila River is captured by this system of lava tubes and can be followed through several underground sections. In dry weather the stream disappears at a sump in one of these caves, although during hurricanes it overflows the tube, floods the Tengonapa plain, and finally sinks through a series of skylights into the master tube of the Volcancillo flow. Near villages, the cave entrances are used as trash dumps, which are mobilized during floods. These include household garbage, organic materials associated with agriculture and even medical supplies. This is a relatively recent phenomenon, caused by population growth and the building of houses above the lava flows. The water resurges at El Descabezadero, gushing from fractures in the lava above the underlying brechias

  8. K-Ar dating of lavas from Zao volcano, North-eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K-Ar age was determined for the lava samples collected in North Zao, Central Zao and South Zao Volcanoes, and compared with the volcano stratigraphy and rock magnetism. Except a few cases, the K-Ar age was compatible with the stratigraphic and magnetic data. From the K-Ar age and geological data, the growth history of the Zao Volcano group was deduced as follows. In Central Zao Volcano, the first stage of volcanism started about 1 Ma ago. In the second stage of activity, there were many lava flows distinguished both in the K-Ar age ranging from 0.32 to 0.12 Ma and in the geological succession. The voluminous effusion of andesitic lavas in this stage formed most part of the volcanoes. This is in contrast to Ryuzan Volcano which was action from 0.94 to 1.13 Ma ago, accompanied by the effusion of tholeititic basalt and andesite lavas, and has been dormant since then. The age of 0.01 Ma of Furikosawa lava indicates that the third stage of volcanism involved a lava flow. The K-Ar age which was corrected for the mass fractionation was in agreement with the volcano stratigraphic data. The peak comparison method enables to measure the age and to check the mass fractionation by analyzing Ar with only one sample, and the error of determining radiogenic Ar in a young rock with large atomospheric Ar contamination is small. (Kako, I.)

  9. Compositional evolution of lava plains in the Syria-Thaumasia Block, Mars (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Xiao, Long


    Tharsis is the most prominent volcanic province on Mars, yet the compositions of lava flows and how composition relates to the development of Tharsis are poorly known. Most of Tharsis is covered with air-fall dust, which inhibits spectroscopic determination of lava mineralogy. The Syria-Thaumasia Block (STB) is a complex tectono-volcanic province closely related to the Tharsis bulge. The lava plains of STB have different emplacement ages, which provide an opportunity to examine whether magma composition changed with the evolution of Tharsis. In this study, we assessed the lava plains using Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. Using derived physical properties, we targeted dust-free regions from four different-aged geological units' surfaces and determined the mineralogical composition by modeling the average TES surface spectrum from each of the four surfaces. All units have similar mineralogy but the younger two units have elevated abundance of high-SiO2 phases. The spatial distribution of wrinkle ridges indicates lava plains of unit HNr (older ridged plains material) and Hr (younger ridged plains material) were emplaced before the rise of Tharsis, whereas Hsl (flows of lower member) and Hsu (upper member) were emplaced after Tharsis uplift was initiated. We show that the magma composition differed in the lava plains of STB after the uplift of Tharsis. This study further characterizes early martian magma composition and evolution.

  10. Influence of pre-existing topography on downflow lava discharge rates estimated from thermal infrared airborne data (United States)

    Lombardo, V.


    Remote sensing thermal data of active lava flows allow the evaluation of effusion rates. This is made possible by a simple formula relating the lava effusion rate to the heat flux radiated per unit time from the surface of the flow. Due to the assumptions of the model, this formula implies that heat flux, surface temperature and lava temperature vary as a function of the flow thickness. These relationships, never verified or validated before, have been used by several authors as a proof of the weakness of the model. Here, multispectral infrared and visible imaging spectrometer (MIVIS) high spatial resolution (5-10 m) thermal data acquired during Etna's 2001 eruption were used to investigate downflow heat flux variations in the lava flow emitted from a vent located at 2100 m a.s.l. A high correlation between the downflow heat flux and the lava flow thickness (measured from a pre-existing digital elevation model) was found. Topography beneath the flow appears to play an important role both in lava emplacement mechanisms and flow dynamics. MIVIS-derived downflow effusion rates are consistent with the law of conservation of mass assessing the reliability of remote sensing techniques.

  11. Lava Tube Exploration Robot and Payload Development (United States)

    Kelly, H. S.; Parness, A. J.; Boston, P. J.


    Merging science and engineering from the ground up to co-develop a comprehensive instrument/robot package for exploration of and scientific data collection within lava tubes that target analog sites on the Moon and Mars.

  12. Mysterious Lava Mineral on Mars (United States)


    This graph or spectrum captured by the Moessbauer spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the presence of three different iron-bearing minerals in the soil at the rover's landing site. One of these minerals has been identified as olivine, a shiny green rock commonly found in lava on Earth. The other two have yet to be pinned down. Scientists were puzzled by the discovery of olivine because it implies the soil consists at least partially of ground up rocks that have not been weathered or chemically altered. The black line in this graph represents the original data; the three colored regions denote individual minerals and add up to equal the black line.The Moessbauer spectrometer uses two pieces of radioactive cobalt-57, each about the size of pencil erasers, to determine with a high degree of accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals in martian rocks and soil. It is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.'

  13. Experimental constraints on the rheology and mechanical properties of lava erupted in the Holuhraun area during the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga, Iceland (United States)

    Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Wall, Richard; von Aulock, Felix; Kennedy, Ben; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn


    A fissure eruption began at Holuhraun on 16 August 2014, following magma drainage from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland). Extrusion initiated as fire fountaining along a segment of the fracture and rapidly localised to a series of small, aligned cones containing a lava lake that over spilled at both ends, feeding a large lava field. The lava composition and flow behaviour put some constraints on its rheology and mechanical properties. The lava erupted is a nearly aphyric basalt containing approximately 2-3% plagioclase with traces of olivine and pyroxene in a quenched groundmass composed of glass and 20-25% microlites. The transition from fire fountaining to lava flow leads to lava with variable vesicularities; pyroclasts expelled during fire fountaining reach up to 80% vesicles whilst the lava contain up to 45% vesicles. Textures in the lava vary from a'a to slabby pahoehoe, and flow thicknesses from several meters to few centimetres. Tension gashes, crease structures and shear zones in the upper lava carapace reveal the importance of both compressive and tensional stresses. In addition, occasional frictional marks at the base of the lava flow as well as bulldozing of sediments along the flow hint at the importance of frictional properties of the rocks during lava flow. Flow properties, textures and failure modes are strongly dependent on the material properties as well as the local conditions of stress and temperature. Here we expand our field observation with preliminary high-temperature experimental data on the rheological and mechanical properties of the erupted lava. Dilatometric measurements are used to constrain the thermal expansion coefficient of the lava important to constrain the dynamics of cooling of the flow. Micropenetration is further employed to determine the viscosity of the melt at super-liquidus temperature, which is compared to the temperature-dependence of viscosity as constrained by geochemistry. Lastly, uniaxial compression and

  14. Littoral hydrovolcanic explosions: a case study of lava seawater interaction at Kilauea Volcano (United States)

    Mattox, Tari N.; Mangan, Margaret T.


    A variety of hydrovolcanic explosions may occur as basaltic lava flows into the ocean. Observations and measurements were made during a two-year span of unusually explosive littoral activity as tube-fed pahoehoe from Kilauea Volcano inundated the southeast coastline of the island of Hawai`i. Our observations suggest that explosive interactions require high entrance fluxes (≥4 m 3/s) and are most often initiated by collapse of a developing lava delta. Two types of interactions were observed. "Open mixing" of lava and seawater occurred when delta collapse exposed the mouth of a severed lava tube or incandescent fault scarp to wave action. The ensuing explosions produced unconsolidated deposits of glassy lava fragments or lithic debris. Interactions under "confined mixing" conditions occurred when a lava tube situated at or below sea level fractured. Explosions ruptured the roof of the tube and produced circular mounds of welded spatter. We estimate a water/rock mass ratio of 0.15 for the most common type of littoral explosion and a kinetic energy release of 0.07-1.3 kJ/kg for the range of events witnessed.

  15. Geochemical aspects of some Japanese lavas. (United States)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Martin, W.; Schnetzler, C. C.


    K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth concentrations in some Japanese lavas have been determined by mass-spectrometric stable-isotope dilution. The samples fall into three rare-earth groups corresponding to tholeiitic, high alumina and alkali basalts. Japanese tholeiites have trace element characteristics similar to those of oceanic ridge tholeiites except for distinctly higher relative concentrations of Ba. Japanese lavas may result from various degrees of partial fusion of amphibole eclogite.

  16. Lava heating and loading of ice sheets on early Mars: Predictions for meltwater generation, groundwater recharge, and resulting landforms (United States)

    Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.


    Recent modeling studies of the early Mars climate predict a predominantly cold climate, characterized by the formation of regional ice sheets across the highland areas of Mars. Formation of the predicted "icy highlands" ice sheets is coincident with a peak in the volcanic flux of Mars involving the emplacement of the Late Noachian - Early Hesperian ridged plains unit. We explore the relationship between the predicted early Mars "icy highlands" ice sheets, and the extensive early flood volcanism to gain insight into the surface conditions prevalent during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian transition period. Using Hesperia Planum as a type area, we develop an ice sheet lava heating and loading model. We quantitatively assess the thermal and melting processes involved in the lava heating and loading process following the chronological sequence of lava emplacement. We test a broad range of parameters to thoroughly constrain the lava heating and loading process and outline predictions for the formation of resulting geological features. We apply the theoretical model to a study area within the Hesperia Planum region and assess the observed geology against predictions derived from the ice sheet lava heating and loading model. Due to the highly cratered nature of the Noachian highlands terrain onto which the volcanic plains were emplaced, we predict highly asymmetrical lava loading conditions. Crater interiors are predicted to accumulate greater thicknesses of lava over more rapid timescales, while in the intercrater plains, lava accumulation occurs over longer timescales and does not reach great thicknesses. We find that top-down melting due to conductive heat transfer from supraglacial lava flows is generally limited when the emplaced lava flows are less than ∼10 m thick, but is very significant at lava flow thicknesses of ∼100 m or greater. We find that bottom-up cryosphere and ice sheet melting is most likely to occur within crater interiors where lavas

  17. Limited role for thermal erosion by turbulent lava in proximal Athabasca Valles, Mars (United States)

    Cataldo, Vincenzo; Williams, David A.; Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.


    The Athabasca Valles flood lava is among the most recent (factor of ~2.2. If flow viscosity increases with increasing bubble content in the lava, the presence of 30-50 vol % bubbles leads to erosion depths lower than those relative to bubble-free lava by a factor of ~2.4. The presence of 25 vol % ice in the substrate increases erosion depths by a factor of 1.3. Nevertheless, modeled erosion depths, consistent with the emplacement volume and flow duration constraints, are far less than the depth of the channel (~35-100 m). We conclude that thermal erosion does not appear to have had a major role in excavating Athabasca Valles.

  18. Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii. (United States)

    Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.


    Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

  19. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse (United States)

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.


    Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a

  20. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (Approximate True Color) (United States)


    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  1. Characterizing the physical properties of solidified PEG, an analog for basaltic lava crust (United States)

    Soule, S. A.; Cashman, K.; Rust, A.


    The crust of a basaltic lava flow provides significant resistance to flow and is an important indicator of lava flow dynamics. Analog studies using polyethylene glycol (PEG), such as those by Fink and Griffiths (1990) and Griffiths and Fink (1992), are a useful means to determine the conditions under which different crustal morphologies are produced. To accurately apply the results of these studies to natural systems, we must understand how to scale between basaltic lava and its analog, PEG. The long-term goal of our study is to characterize the physical properties of both materials for the purpose of developing scaling relationships. We have designed a set of experiments to determine the strength and viscosity of solidified PEG. We measure the ductile deformation and failure of PEG under tension and in simple shear. Experiments are conducted with either constant stress or constant strain rate and at a range of temperatures (5 to 25 \\deg C). Tension experiments are conducted on hourglass-shaped PEG casts with failure occurring at the midpoint of the hourglass. Tension is produced by hanging weight (constant stress) or by pulling with a DC servo motor (constant strain rate). Simple shear experiments are conducted by turning a gear frozen into a sheet of PEG. A thinned ring of crust centered around the gear controls the failure location. From constant stress experiments, we measure pre-failure ductile deformation of the PEG to determine its viscosity. Constant strain rate experiments allow us to determine the dependence of PEG strength on strain rate. To determine the physical properties of basaltic crust we are building a furnace capable of melting large quantities of basalt and conducting experiments at high temperature. The experiments conducted on PEG will aid in the design of similar experiments on lava. The results of this study will have applications beyond scaling between analog models and natural systems. The presence or absence of a continuous flow crust

  2. Absolute paleointensity from Hawaiian lavas younger than 35 ka (United States)

    Valet, J.-P.; Tric, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Meynadier, L.; Lockwood, J.P.


    Paleointensity studies have been conducted in air and in argon atmosphere on nine lava flows with radiocarbon ages distributed between 3.3 and 28.2 ka from the Mauna Loa volcano in the big island of Hawaii. Determinations of paleointensity obtained at eight sites depict the same overall pattern as the previous results for the same period in Hawaii, although the overall average field intensity appears to be lower. Since the present results were determined at higher temperatures than in the previous studies, this discrepancy raises questions regarding the selection of low versus high-temperature segments that are usually made for absolute paleointensity. The virtual dipole moments are similar to those displayed by the worldwide data set obtained from dated lava flows. When averaged within finite time intervals, the worldwide values match nicely the variations of the Sint-200 synthetic record of relative paleointensity and confirm the overall decrease of the dipole field intensity during most of this period. The convergence between the existing records at Hawaii and the rest of the world does not favour the presence of persistent strong non-dipole components beneath Hawaii for this period.

  3. Lava channel formation during the 2001 eruption on Mount Etna: evidence for mechanical erosion

    CERN Document Server

    Ferlito, C; Ferlito, Carmelo; Siewert, Jens


    We report the direct observation of a peculiar lava channel that was formed near the base of a parasitic cone during the 2001 eruption on Mount Etna. Erosive processes by flowing lava are commonly attributed to thermal erosion. However, field evidence strongly suggests that models of thermal erosion cannot explain the formation of this channel. Here, we put forward the idea that the essential erosion mechanism was abrasive wear. By applying a simple model from tribology we demonstrate that the available data agree favorably with our hypothesis. Consequently, we propose that erosional processes resembling the wear phenomena in glacial erosion are possible in a volcanic environment.

  4. Concentric cylinder viscometry at subliquidus conditions on Mauna Ulu lavas, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Sehlke, A.; Robert, B.; Harris, A. J.; gurioli, L.; Whittington, A. G.


    The morphology of lava flows is controlled by the physical properties of the lava and its effusion rates, as well as environmental influences such as surface medium, slope and ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The important physical properties of lavas include viscosity (η), yield strength (σy), thermal diffusivity (κ) and heat capacity (CP), all of which strongly depend on temperature (T), composition (Χ), crystal fraction (φc) and vesicularity (φb). The crystal fraction (φc) typically increase as temperature decreases, and therefore is temperature dependent itself and influences the residual liquid composition (Χ). The rheological behavior of multi-phase lavas in lava flows is expressed as different flow types, forced from a smooth pahoehoe to a blocky ';a'a within a transition zone. Recent field studies of overflow units at the Muliwai a Pele lava flow erupted from Mauna Ulu in 1974 on Kilauea volcano (Hawaii) reveal a transition zone in a distance approximately 4.5 km from the vent as a result of a cooling gradient of 6 °C/km, crystallization rates of 0.05/km and a density increase from 1010 × 150 kg/m3 near to 1410 × 120 kg/m3 6 km distant from the vent due to degassing. Concentric cylinder viscometry under atmospheric conditions has been conducted in order to investigate the rheological response of crystal-liquid lava suspensions at different equilibrium temperatures for Mauna Ulu lavas. We detect first solid phases around 1230 °C being clinopyroxene, olivine and spinel, followed by plagioclase appearing as microlites as observed in natural rock samples. Measured apparent viscosities (ηapp) with applied strain rates between 50 s-1 and 0.3 s-1 at 1201 °C, 1192 °C and 1181 °C show a strong stress-strain rate dependency, classifying our 2-phase suspensions as Herschel-Bulkey fluids with an extrapolated apparent yield strength (τ0) around 200 to 150 Pa in presence of different crystal fractions, resulting in a 2.5 fold increase of

  5. Episodic soil succession on basaltic lava fields in a cool, dry environment (United States)

    Vaughan, K.L.; McDaniel, P.A.; Phillips, W.M.


    Holocene- to late Pleistocene-aged lava flows at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve provide an ideal setting to examine the early stages of soil formation under cool, dry conditions. Transects were used to characterize the amount and nature of soil cover on across basaltic lava flows ranging in age from 2.1 to 18.4 ka. Results indicate that on flows <13 ka, very shallow organic soils (Folists in Soil Taxonomy) are the dominant soil type, providing an areal coverage of up to ∼25%. On flows ≥13.9 ka, deeper mineral soils including Entisols, Aridisols, and Mollisols become dominant and the areal extent increases to ≥95% on flows older than 18.4 ka. These data suggest there are two distinct pedogenic pathways associated with lava flows of the region. The first pathway is illustrated by the younger flows, where Folists dominate. In the absence of a major source of loess, relatively little mineral material accumulates and soils provide only minor coverage of the lava flows. Our results indicate that this pathway of soil development has not changed appreciably over the past ∼10 ka. The second pedogenic pathway is illustrated by the flows older than 13.9 ka. These flows have been subject to deposition of large quantities of loess during and after the last regional glaciation, resulting in almost complete coverage. Subsequent pedogenesis has given rise to Aridisols and Mollisols with calcic and cambic horizons and mollic epipedons. This research highlights the importance of regional climate change on the evolution of Craters of the Moon soilscapes.

  6. Subsidence in the Parícutin lava field: Causes and implications for interpretation of deformation fields at volcanoes (United States)

    Chaussard, Estelle


    Assessment of volcanic hazards includes interpretation of ground deformation signal, which, at polygenetic volcanoes often results from the superposition of deformation due to pressure changes in the magmatic system and due to surficial processes such as cooling of emplaced lava. The deformation signal associated with emplaced lava is sometimes considered negligible if fields are decades old, but if the lava thickness is great, deformation may still be occurring, possibly leading to misinterpretation of the observed deformation. Here I evaluate the 2007-2011 ground motion of the 1943-1952 lava field of the Parícutin monogenetic cinder cone, Mexico. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series reveal patchy subsidence restricted to the lava field and following linear rates up to 5.5 cm/year. There is a clear correlation between subsidence rates and topography suggesting a causal relationship with deposits or lava thickness. I estimate these thicknesses in the subsiding areas using pre- and post-eruption topographic maps and show that they reach up to 200 m. A numerical model for lava flow cooling was developed considering radiation and convection from the surface, conductive transfer inside the flow and to the ground, and vesiculation and latent heat generation at the top and bottom of the flow. The model shows that compaction induced by cooling of the thick deposits emplaced ~ 60 years ago explains the observed subsidence when conductive transfer to the ground is considered. These results demonstrate that thick deposits can keep deforming significantly even decades after their emplacement, emphasizing the importance of considering cooling processes when interpreting deformation fields at polygenetic volcanoes producing massive lava fields.

  7. Late Brunhes polarity excursions (Mono Lake, Laschamp, Iceland Basin and Pringle Falls) recorded at ODP Site 919 (Irminger Basin) (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.


    Component natural remanent magnetizations derived from u-channel and 1-cm 3 discrete samples from ODP Site 919 (Irminger Basin) indicate the existence of four intervals of negative inclinations in the upper Brunhes Chronozone. According to the age model based on planktic oxygen isotope data, these "excursional" intervals occur in sediments deposited during the following time intervals: 32-34 ka, 39-41 ka, 180-188 ka and 205-225 ka. These time intervals correspond to polarity excursions detected elsewhere, known as Mono Lake, Laschamp, Iceland Basin and Pringle Falls. The isotope-based age model is supported by the normalized remanence (paleointensity) record that can be correlated to other calibrated paleointensity records for the 0-500 ka interval, such as that from ODP Site 983. For the intervals associated with the Mono Lake and Laschamp excursions, virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) reach equatorial latitudes and mid-southerly latitudes, respectively. For intervals associated with the Iceland Basin and Pringle Falls excursions, repeated excursions of VGPs to high southerly latitudes indicate rapid directional swings rather than a single short-lived polarity reversal. The directional instability associated with polarity excursions is not often recorded, probably due to smoothing of the sedimentary record by the process of detrital remanence (DRM) acquisition.

  8. Rodingitization and carbonization processes in Triassic ultramafic cumulates and lavas, Othris Mt, Central Greece (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Magganas, Andreas; Economou, Georgios


    A Triassic magmatic sequence from the south Othris region is comprised of early stage basaltic pillow lavas, as well as late stage ultramafic rocks, lava flows, high-Mg doleritic dykes and pyroclastic tuffs. The ultramafic rocks include slightly serpentinized wehrlites and lavas consisting of cumulate olivine, variably textured clinopyroxene (cumulate, quench, hollow, skeletal or blade shaped), magnesiohornblende, tremolite, phlogopite, spinel, chlorite, garnet, serpentine, calcite and devitrified glass[1]. Part of their secondary mineralogy developed due to percolation of metasomatic fluids during rodingitization and carbonization processes. In ultramafic rocks from Agia Marina and Mili, rodingitization was rather penetratively and expressed with crystallization of hydrogarnets, accompanied by secondary diopside and chlorite. Hydrogarnets are characterized by their low Ti-contents (recycling thermal carbonated seawater, leached from the rifted Triassic platform carbonates. References. [1] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Ntaflos 2012: Lithos 144-145, 177-193; [2] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis, Ntaflos 2013: Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

  9. Origin of phenocrysts and compositional diversity in pre-Mazama rhyodacite lavas, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Nakada, S.; Bacon, C.R.; Gartner, A.E.


    Phenocrysts in porphyritic volcanic rocks may originate in a variety of ways in addition to nucleation and growth in the matrix in which they are found. Porphyritic rhyodacite lavas that underlie the eastern half of Mount Mazama, the High Cascade andesite/dacite volcano that contains Crater Lake caldera, contain evidence that bears on the general problem of phenocryst origin. Phenocrysts in these lavas apparently formed by crystallization near the margins of a magma chamber and were admixed into convecting magma before eruption. About 20 km3 of pre-Mazama rhyodacite magma erupted during a relatively short period between ~400 and 500 ka; exposed pre-Mazama dacites are older and less voluminous. The rhyodacites formed as many as 40 lava domes and flows that can be assigned to three eruptive groups on the basis of composition and phenocryst content. -from Authors

  10. A detailed palaeomagnetic study of the oldest lava sequences in Northwest Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo Kristjansson; Bjoern S. Hardarson; Haraldur Audunsson [University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland). Science Institute


    We have determined the directions of primary remanence in over 400 lava flows in the northwestern peninsula of Iceland (near 66.1{sup o}N, 23.3{sup o}W). These lavas were sampled in 16 profiles spread across 75 km, at the stratigraphic level of the oldest (approximately 15 Myr in age) of several distinctive lignite-bearing sediments in the peninsula. We find that the pattern of polarity reversals in the lava pile is broadly similar in these profiles but it is generally not possible to trace short polarity zones and excursions over more than a few kilometres laterally. Our results, which also include measurements on the lignite sediments at three sites, are consistent with previous suggestions that these sediment beds represent a time gap of the order of 0.2 Myr between the lavas above and below. The mean virtual geomagnetic pole of this collection is 'far-sided' by approximately 7{sup o}, and the scatter of individual poles is greater than that in palaeomagnetic surveys on younger lava series in Iceland.

  11. Verification and Validation Studies for the LAVA CFD Solver (United States)

    Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Barad, Michael F; Sozer, Emre; Brehm, Christoph; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin C.


    The verification and validation of the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver is presented. A modern strategy for verification and validation is described incorporating verification tests, validation benchmarks, continuous integration and version control methods for automated testing in a collaborative development environment. The purpose of the approach is to integrate the verification and validation process into the development of the solver and improve productivity. This paper uses the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) for the verification of 2D Euler equations, 3D Navier-Stokes equations as well as turbulence models. A method for systematic refinement of unstructured grids is also presented. Verification using inviscid vortex propagation and flow over a flat plate is highlighted. Simulation results using laminar and turbulent flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil and ONERA M6 wing are validated against experimental and numerical data.

  12. Palaeomagnetism of the Upper Miocene- Lower Pliocene lavas from the East Carpathians: contribution to the paleosecular variation of geomagnetic field (United States)

    Vişan, Mădălina; Panaiotu, Cristian G.; Necula, Cristian; Dumitru, Anca


    Investigations of the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field on geological timescales depend on globally distributed data sets from lava flows. We report new paleomagnetic results from lava flows of the East Carpathian Mountains (23.6°E, 46.4°N) erupted between 4 and 6 Ma. The average virtual geomagnetic pole position (76 sites) includes the North Geographic Pole and the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles is in general agreement with the data of the Time Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative. Based on this study and previous results from the East Carpathians obtained from 0.04–4 Ma old lava flows, we show that high value of dispersion are characteristic only for 1.5–2.8 Ma old lava flows. High values of dispersion during the Matuyama chron are also reported around 50°N, in the global paleosecular variation data set. More data are needed at a global level to determine if these high dispersions reflect the behaviour of the geomagnetic field or an artefact of inadequate number of sites. This study of the East Carpathians volcanic rocks brings new data from southeastern Europe and which can contribute to the databases for time averaged field and paleosecular variation from lavas in the last 6 Ma.

  13. Palaeomagnetism of the Upper Miocene- Lower Pliocene lavas from the East Carpathians: contribution to the paleosecular variation of geomagnetic field. (United States)

    Vişan, Mădălina; Panaiotu, Cristian G; Necula, Cristian; Dumitru, Anca


    Investigations of the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field on geological timescales depend on globally distributed data sets from lava flows. We report new paleomagnetic results from lava flows of the East Carpathian Mountains (23.6°E, 46.4°N) erupted between 4 and 6 Ma. The average virtual geomagnetic pole position (76 sites) includes the North Geographic Pole and the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles is in general agreement with the data of the Time Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative. Based on this study and previous results from the East Carpathians obtained from 0.04-4 Ma old lava flows, we show that high value of dispersion are characteristic only for 1.5-2.8 Ma old lava flows. High values of dispersion during the Matuyama chron are also reported around 50°N, in the global paleosecular variation data set. More data are needed at a global level to determine if these high dispersions reflect the behaviour of the geomagnetic field or an artefact of inadequate number of sites. This study of the East Carpathians volcanic rocks brings new data from southeastern Europe and which can contribute to the databases for time averaged field and paleosecular variation from lavas in the last 6 Ma. PMID:26997549

  14. Ar-40/Ar-39 age constraints for the Jaramillo Normal Subchron and the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic boundary (United States)

    Izett, Glen A.; Obradovich, John D.


    Our mid-Pleistocene Ar-40/Ar-39 age recalibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale is nearly in accord with the oxygen isotope, climate record calibration of the astronomical timescale proposed by Johnson (1982) and Shackleton et al. (1990). Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of a normally magnetized rhyolite dome in the Valles caldera, northern Mexico, yielded a weighted-mean age of 1.004 +/- 0.019 Ma. A K-Ar age of 0.909 +/- 0.019 Ma for this rock by Doell and Dalrymple (1966) was the linchpin for the recognition and calibration of the Jaramillo Normal Subchron (JNS). Other Ar-40/Ar-39 ages from the Valles caldera and Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of Ivory Coast tektites indicate that the JNS began at about 1.11 Ma and ended before 0.92 Ma, probably near 0.97 Ma. The Matuyama-Brunhes boundary occurred between 0.79 Ma and 0.76 Ma on the basis of Ar-40/Ar-39 sanidine ages from (1) three reversely magnetized rhyolite domes of the Valles caldera (0.793 +/- 0.018 Ma, 0.794 +/- 0.007 Ma, and 0.812 +/- 0.023 Ma) and pumice (0.789 +/- 0.006 Ma) from the reversely magnetized Oldest Toba Tuff of Sumatra and (2) pumice (0.764 +/- 0.005 Ma and 0.757 +/- 0.009 Ma) from the lower and upper units of the normally magnetized Bishop Tuff. The age of the boundary may be close to 0.77 Ma as deduced from rates of sedimentation in ancient Lake Bonneville, Utah.

  15. Constraining the age of the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal using intercalibrated 40Ar/39Ar and astronomical ages of the Bishop Tuff and Australasian Tektite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Palike, Heiko;

    Recent high-resolution δ18O records from North Atlantic (I)ODP cores, with reliable paleomagnetic signals, have placed the mean age of the Matuyama-Brunhes (MB) geomagnetic polarity reversal ca. 8 ka younger than previous estimates when correlated to ice-volume age models (Channell et al., 2010......-isotopic age is needed on a datable unit from the reversed-polarity side of the MB boundary. The Australasian tektite is a suitable unit from the Matuyama chron for dating the MB boundary because the positions of microtektite layers relative to the MB boundary have been documented in (I)ODP and other drill...

  16. Interglacial intensity in the North Atlantic over the last 800,000 years : investigating the complexity of the mid-Brunhes Event (MBE).


    Candy, I.; McClymont, E.L.


    The mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) represents a step-like increase, between Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 13/11, in the intensity of interglacial warmth. A transect of palaeoclimatic records in the North Atlantic from 40°N to the Nordic Seas indicates strong differences in the expression of the MBE within this region. Between 40 and 56°N sea surface and air temperature records suggest that all interglacials of the past 800 000 years were characterized by similar levels of warmth, so there is no eviden...

  17. LAVA (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology): A conceptual framework for automated risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Tisinger, R.M.; Brown, D.C.; FitzGerald, P.D.


    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed an original methodology for performing risk analyses on subject systems characterized by a general set of asset categories, a general spectrum of threats, a definable system-specific set of safeguards protecting the assets from the threats, and a general set of outcomes resulting from threats exploiting weaknesses in the safeguards system. The Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology (LAVA) models complex systems having large amounts of ''soft'' information about both the system itself and occurrences related to the system. Its structure lends itself well to automation on a portable computer, making it possible to analyze numerous similar but geographically separated installations consistently and in as much depth as the subject system warrants. LAVA is based on hierarchical systems theory, event trees, fuzzy sets, natural-language processing, decision theory, and utility theory. LAVA's framework is a hierarchical set of fuzzy event trees that relate the results of several embedded (or sub-) analyses: a vulnerability assessment providing information about the presence and efficacy of system safeguards, a threat analysis providing information about static (background) and dynamic (changing) threat components coupled with an analysis of asset ''attractiveness'' to the dynamic threat, and a consequence analysis providing information about the outcome spectrum's severity measures and impact values. By using LAVA, we have modeled our widely used computer security application as well as LAVA/CS systems for physical protection, transborder data flow, contract awards, and property management. It is presently being applied for modeling risk management in embedded systems, survivability systems, and weapons systems security. LAVA is especially effective in modeling subject systems that include a large human component.

  18. Field and experimental constraints on the rheology of arc basaltic lavas: the January 2014 Eruption of Pacaya (Guatemala) (United States)

    Soldati, A.; Sehlke, A.; Chigna, G.; Whittington, A.


    We estimated the rheology of an active basaltic lava flow in the field, and compared it with experimental measurements carried out in the laboratory. In the field we mapped, sampled, and recorded videos of the 2014 flow on the southern flank of Pacaya, Guatemala. Velocimetry data extracted from videos allowed us to determine that lava traveled at ˜2.8 m/s on the steep ˜45° slope 50 m from the vent, while 550 m further downflow it was moving at only ˜0.3 m/s on a ˜4° slope. Estimates of effective viscosity based on Jeffreys' equation increased from ˜7600 Pa s near the vent to ˜28,000 Pa s downflow. In the laboratory, we measured the viscosity of a representative lava composition using a concentric cylinder viscometer, at five different temperatures between 1234 and 1199 °C, with crystallinity increasing from 0.1 to 40 vol%. The rheological data were best fit by power law equations, with the flow index decreasing as crystal fraction increased, and no detectable yield strength. Although field-based estimates are based on lava characterized by a lower temperature, higher crystal and bubble fraction, and with a more complex petrographic texture, field estimates and laboratory measurements are mutually consistent and both indicate shear-thinning behavior. The complementary field and laboratory data sets allowed us to isolate the effects of different factors in determining the rheological evolution of the 2014 Pacaya flows. We assess the contributions of cooling, crystallization, and changing ground slope to the 3.7-fold increase in effective viscosity observed in the field over 550 m, and conclude that decreasing slope is the single most important factor over that distance. It follows that the complex relations between slope, flow velocity, and non-Newtonian lava rheology need to be incorporated into models of lava flow emplacement.

  19. Guano mining in Kenyan lava tunnel caves


    Jim W. Simons


    Commercial mining of bat guano for agricultural fertilizer only became possible in Kenya through discovery of major deposits in the lava tunnel caves of Mt. Suswa and the North Chyulu Hills in the early 1960’s. This paper provides historical information leading up to the guano mining, describes the cave deposits, outlines the mining under-takings, and provides information on the guano producing bats and insect faunas. The results of guano analyses, details of the tonnages extracted and sold t...

  20. Kilauea Iki lava lake experiment plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.C.; Hills, R.G.


    Twelve experimental studies are proposed to complete field laboratory work at Kilauea Iki lava lake. Of these twelve experiments, eleven do not require the presence of melt. Some studies are designed to use proven techniques in order to expand our existing knowledge, while others are designed to test new concepts. Experiments are grouped into three main categories: geophysics, energy extraction, and drilling technology. Each experiment is described in terms of its location, purpose, background, configuration, operation, and feasibility.

  1. Terrestrial analogs to lunar sinuous rilles - Kauhako Crater and channel, Kalaupapa, Molokai, and other Hawaiian lava conduit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two source vents, one explosive and one effusive erupted to form a cinder cone and low lava shield that together compose the Kalaupapa peninsula of Molokai, Hawaii, A 50-100-m-wide channel/tube system extends 2.3 km northward from kauhako crater in the center of the shield. Based on modeling, a volume of up to about 0.2 cu km of lava erupted at a rate of 260 cu m/sec to flow through the Kauhako conduit system in one of the last eruptive episodes on the peninsula. Channel downcutting by thermal erosion occurred at a rate of about 10 micron/sec to help form the 30-m-deep conduit. Two smaller, secondary tube systems formed east of the main lava channel/tube. Several other lava conduit systems on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii were also compared to the Kauhako and lunar sinuous rille systems. These other lava conduits include Whittington, Kupaianaha, and Mauna Ulu lava tubes. Morphologically, the Hawaiian tube systems studied are very similar to lunar sinuous rilles in that they have deep head craters, sinuous channels, and gentle slopes. Thermal erosion is postulated to be an important factor in the formation of these terrestrial channel systems and by analogy is inferred to be an important process involved in the formation of lunar sinuous rilles. 28 refs

  2. A frozen record of density-driven crustal overturn in lava lakes: The example of Kilauea Iki 1959 (United States)

    Stovall, W.K.; Houghton, B.F.; Harris, A.J.L.; Swanson, D.A.


    Lava lakes are found at basaltic volcanoes on Earth and other planetary bodies. Density-driven crustal foundering leading to surface renewal occurs repeatedly throughout the life of a lava lake. This process has been observed and described in a qualitative sense, but due to dangerous conditions, no data has been acquired to evaluate the densities of the units involved. Kilauea Iki pit crater in Hawai'i houses a lava lake erupted during a 2 month period in 1959. Part of the surface of the Kilauea Iki lake now preserves the frozen record of a final, incomplete, crustal-overturn cycle. We mapped this region and sampled portions of the foundering crust, as well as overriding and underlying lava, to constrain the density of the units involved in the overturn process. Overturn is driven by the advance of a flow front of fresh, low-density lava over an older, higher density surface crust. The advance of the front causes the older crust to break up, founder, and dive downwards into the lake to expose new, hot, low-density lava. We find density differences of 200 to 740 kg/m3 between the foundering crust and over-riding and under-lying lava respectively. In this case, crustal overturn is driven by large density differences between the foundering and resurfacing units. These differences lead, inevitably, to frequent crustal renewal: simple density differences between the surface crust and underlying lake lava make the upper layers of the lake highly unstable. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  3. Geochemistry and petrogenetic history of lavas from Sumaco Volcano, Northern Volcanic Zone, Ecuador (United States)

    Escobar, R. D.; Garrison, J. M.; Sims, K. W.; Matthews, T. P.; Yogodzinski, G. M.


    Sumaco Volcano is located in the rear arc of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Ecuador, 105 km from the capital city of Quito. It is one of several volcanoes in the rear arc of the NVZ and is located south of El Reventador volcano. On the basis of summit morphology, Sumaco is believed to have erupted most recently in 1933, however there are few constraints on the timing of past eruptions and it is currently inactive. Lava flows on the steep, jungle-covered flanks are largely inaccessible and therefore few studies have been published for this volcano, and most representative samples are from the volcano summit. The goals of this research are 1) to use major and trace element data to obtain a better understanding of the petrogenetic history of Sumaco Volcano and 2) to use U-series isotopes to constrain the eruption ages and, if possible get information about magma storage times. We collected and sent 23 rock samples to Washington State University for analysis of major and trace elements using XRF and ICP, including six lavas from the summit and 17 from the southern flanks, including bread-crust bombs. A subgroup of samples was chosen for U-series disequilibrium measurements on whole rocks and minerals. Based on hand-sample observations and electron microprobe analyses, the primary mineral phases found in the Sumaco lavas include titanaugite, hauyne, olivine and plagioclase, with accessory apatite and hercynite. The plagioclase and apatite have seive textures consistent with magma mixing or recharge, and the titanaugite crystals are euhedral with oscillatory zoning that records repeated recharge events. On the basis of major and trace element data, the lavas are alkaline and range in composition from picro-basalt to tephri-phonolite; the picro basalt has MgO of 10 wt % and the summit samples are the most evolved with MgO of 2 wt %. The summit lavas (also presumed to be the youngest lavas) have the highest concentration of alkali elements with K2O content (> 4 wt

  4. Plume composition changes during the birth of a new lava lake - Nyamulagira volcano, DR Congo (United States)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Giuffrida, Giovanni Bruno; Calabrese, Sergio; Scaglione, Sarah; Yalire, Mathieu; Liotta, Marcello; Brusca, Lorenzo; Arellano, Santiago; Rüdiger, Julian; Galle, Bo; Castro, Jonathan; Tedesco, Dario


    Nyamulagira, in the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP), Democratic Republic of Congo, is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. The volcano is located about 25 km north-northwest of Lake Kivu in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) with a distance of only 15 km to Nyiragongo, which is well known for its decades-old active lava lake. Nyamulagira is a shield volcano with a 3058 m high and ~2000 m wide summit caldera. The volcano is characterized by frequent eruptions, which occur both from the summit crater and from the flanks (31 flank eruptions over the last 110 years). Due to the low viscosity lava, although significantly higher than the one of Nyiragongo, wide lava fields cover over 1100 km2 and lava flows often reach > 20 km length. More than 100 flank cones can be counted around the summit crater. A part from its frequent eruptions Nyamulagira had a long period of lava lake activity in the past, at least from 1912 to 1938. During the past decades, gas emissions from Nyamulagira have been only reported during eruptions. This changed in 2012, however, when Nyamulagira began emitting a persistent gas plume above its crater. By the end of 2014, and beginning in 2015, a lava lake was born, a feature that - as of the time of this writing - is still growing. To date, very little is known about gas emissions of Nyamulagira volcano with the only exception for SO2. Very few studies have been conducted regarding the volatile chemistry of Nyamulagira. We try to fill this gap by reporting gas composition measurements of Nyamulagira's volcanic plume during the birth of the lava lake, and in the first year of the lake's activity. Two field surveys have been carried out, the first one on November 1st, 2014 and the second one October 13th - 15th, 2015. Applying the broad toolbox of volcanic gas composition measurement techniques offered us the opportunity to characterize Nyamulagira's plume in excruciating detail. Nyamulagira is known to be a significant

  5. How fast was the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal? A new subcentennial record from the Sulmona Basin, central Italy (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Scardia, Giancarlo; Sprain, Courtney J.


    A recent study of the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) geomagnetic field reversal recorded in exposed lacustrine sediments from the Sulmona Basin (Italy) provided a continuous, high-resolution record indicating that the reversal of the field direction at the terminus of the M-B boundary (MBB) occurred in less than a century, about 786 ka ago. In the sediment, thin (4-6 cm) remagnetized horizons were recognized above two distinct tephra layers-SUL2-19 and SUL2-20-that occur ˜25 and ˜35 cm below the MBB, respectively. Also, a faint, millimetre-thick tephra (SUL2-18) occurs 2-3 cm above the MBB. With the aim of improving the temporal resolution of the previous Sulmona MBB record and understanding the possible influence of cryptotephra on the M-B record in the Sulmona Basin, we performed more detailed sampling and analyses of overlapping standard and smaller samples from a 50 cm-long block that spans the MBB. The new data indicate that (i) the MBB is even sharper than previously reported and occurs ˜2.5 cm below tephra SUL2-18, in agreement with the previous study; (ii) the MBB coincides with the rise of an intensity peak of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity, which extends across SUL2-18; (iii) except for a 2-cm-thick interval just above tephra SUL2-18, the rock magnetic parameters (k, ARM, Mr, Ms, Bc, Bcr) indicate exactly the same magnetic mineralogy throughout the sampled sequence. We conclude that either SUL2-18 resulted in the remagnetization of an interval of about 6 cm (i.e. during the NRM intensity peak spanning ˜260 ± 110 yr, according to the estimated local sedimentation rate), and thus the detailed MBB record is lost because it is overprinted, or the MBB is well recorded, occurred abruptly about 2.5 cm below SUL2-18 and lasted less than 13 ± 6 yr. Both hypotheses challenge our understanding of the geomagnetic field behaviour during a polarity transition and/or of the NRM acquisition process in the Sulmona lacustrine sediment.

  6. Age and petrology of alkalic postshield and rejuvenated-stage lava from Kauai, Hawaii (United States)

    Clague, D.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.


    At the top of the Waimea Canyon Basalt on the island of Kauai, rare flows of alkalic postshield-stage hawaiite and mugearite overlie tholeiitic flows of the shield stage. These postshield-stage flows are 3.92 Ma and provide a younger limit for the age of the tholeiitic shield stage. The younger Koloa Volcanics consist of widespread alkalic rejuvenated-stage flows and vents of alkalic basalt, basanite, nephelinite, and nepheline melilitite that erupted between 3.65 and 0.52 Ma. All the flows older than 1.7 Ma occur in the west-northwestern half of the island and all the flows younger than 1.5 Ma occur in the east-southeastern half. The lithologies have no spatial or chronological pattern. The flows of the Koloa Volcanics are near-primary magmas generated by variable small degrees of partial melting of a compositionally heterogeneous garnet-bearing source that has about two-thirds the concentration of P2O5, rare-earth elements, and Sr of the source of the Honolulu Volcanics on the island of Oahu. The same lithology in the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics is generated by similar degrees of partial melting of distinct source compositions. The lavas of the Koloa Volcanics can be generated by as little as 3 percent to as much as 17 percent partial melting for nepheline melilitite through alkalic basalt, respectively. Phases that remain in the residue of the Honolulu Volcanics, such as rutile and phlogopite, are exhausted during formation of the Koloa Volcanics at all but the smallest degrees of partial melting. The mantle source for Kauai lava becomes systematically more depleted in 87Sr/86Sr as the volcano evolves from the tholeiitic shield stage to the alkalic postshield stage to the alkalic rejuvenated stage: at the same time, the lavas become systematically more enriched in incompatible trace elements. On a shorter timescale, the lavas of the Koloa Volcanics display the same compositional trends, but at a lower rate of change. The source characteristics of the Koloa

  7. Paleomagnetism and dating of a thick lava pile in the Permian Bakaly formation of eastern Kazakhstan: Regularities and singularities of the paleomagnetic record in thick lava series (United States)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob; Menzo, Zachary; Dominguez, Ada R.; Meert, Joseph G.; Levashova, Natalia M.


    Paleomagnetic results on thick lava series are among the most important sources of information on the characteristics of ancient geomagnetic fields. Most paleo-secular variation data from lavas (PSVL) are of late Cenozoic age. There are far fewer results from lavas older than 5 Ma. The Central Asia Orogenic Belt that occupies several million square kilometers in Asia is probably the world's largest area of Paleozoic volcanism and is thus an attractive target for PSVL studies. We studied a ca. 1700 m thick lava pile in eastern Kazakhstan of Early Permian age. Magmatic zircons, successfully separated from an acid flow in this predominantly basaltic sequence, yielded an Early Permian age of 286.3 ± 3.5 Ma. Oriented samples were collected from 125 flows, resulting in 88 acceptable quality flow-means (n ⩾ 4 samples, radius of confidence circle α95 ⩽ 15°) of the high-temperature magnetization component. The uniformly reversed component is pre-tilting and arguably of a primary origin. The overall mean direction has a declination = 242.0° and an inclination = -56.2° (k = 71.5, α95 = 1.8°; N = 88 sites; pole at 44.1°N, 160.6°E, A95 = 2.2°). Our pole agrees well with the Early Permian reference data for Baltica, in accord with the radiometric age of the lava pile and geological views on evolution of the western part of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt. The new Early Permian result indicates a comparatively low level of secular variation especially when compared to PSVL data from intervals with frequent reversals. Still, the overall scatter of dispersion estimates that are used as proxies for SV magnitudes, elongation values and elongation orientations for PSVL data is high and cannot be fitted into any particular field model with fixed parameters. Both observed values and numerical simulations indicate that the main cause for the scatter of form parameters (elongation values and elongation orientations) is the too small size of collections. Dispersion estimates

  8. Constraining the onset of flood volcanism in Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province (United States)

    Angkasa, Syahreza; Jerram, Dougal. A.; Svensen, Henrik; Millet, John M.; Taylor, Ross; Planke, Sverre


    In order to constrain eruption styles at the onset of flood volcanism, field observations were undertaken on basal sections of the Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province. This study investigates three specific sections; Camus Ban, Neist Point and Soay Sound which sample a large area about 1500 km2 and can be used to help explain the variability in palaeo-environments at the onset of flood volcanism. Petrological analysis is coupled with petrophysical lab data and photogrammetry data to create detailed facies models for the different styles of initiating flood basalt volcanism. Photogrammetry is used to create Ortho-rectified 3D models which, along with photomontage images, allow detailed geological observations to be mapped spatially. Petrographic analyses are combined with petrophysical lab data to identify key textural variation, mineral compositions and physical properties of the volcanic rocks emplaced during the initial eruptions. Volcanism initiated with effusive eruptions in either subaerial or subaqueous environments resulting in tuff/hyaloclastite materials or lava flow facies lying directly on the older Mesozoic strata. Volcanic facies indicative of lava-water interactions vary significantly in thickness between different sections suggesting a strong accommodation space control on the style of volcanism. Camus Ban shows hyaloclastite deposits with a thickness of 25m, whereas the Soay Sound area has tuffaceous sediments of under 0.1m in thickness. Subaerial lavas overly these variable deposits in all studied areas. The flood basalt eruptions took place in mixed wet and dry environments with some significant locally developed water bodies (e.g. Camus Ban). More explosive eruptions were promoted in some cases by interaction of lavas with these water bodies and possibly by local interaction with water - saturated sediments. We record key examples of how palaeotopography imparts a primary control on the style of volcanism during the

  9. Pressure Analysis for LAVA-OVEN (United States)

    Cendana, Donna Q.


    The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) and the Oxygen Volatiles Extraction Node (OVEN) are subsystems included in the Regolith Environment Science, and Oxygen Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) payload bound for the Moon in 2019. This Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) has the objective of landing on a shadowed region of the Moons South Pole to collect data and determine whether the resources could be effectively used for space exploration systems. The quantification of the resources will help understand if it can adequately minimize materials carried from Earth by: providing life support, propellants, construction materials or energy supply to the payload or crew. This paper outlines the procedures done for the pressure analysis of the LAVA-OVEN (LOVEN) Integration Testing. The pressure analysis quantifies how much gases and water are present in the sample tested during the Engineering Testing Unit (ETU) phase of instrument development. Ultimately the purpose of these tests is to improve the estimate of the amount of water in each Lunar sample and reduce the time necessary for this estimate. The governing principle that was used for the analysis is the Ideal Gas Law, PV=nRT where P stands for pressure, V for volume, n for number of moles, R being the gas constant and T for temperature. We also estimate the errors involved in these measured and derived quantities since a key objective of the mission is to estimate the quantity of volatiles present in the lunar samples introduced into OVEN.

  10. Inverse modeling of Central American lavas: old lithospheric and young asthenospheric heterogeneities (United States)

    Feigenson, M.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.


    In recent years, there have been a number of models proposed to account for the OIB-like geochemical characteristics of lavas from central Costa Rica. The source for most basalts of the Central American volcanic front (ranging from Guatemala to northern Costa Rica) is dominantly DM (depleted MORB-source mantle) fluxed by subduction-derived fluids. In contrast, central Costa Rican basalts display striking isotopic similarities to the Galapagos hotspot. How the Galapagos signature is introduced into the Central American source is at the heart of the conflicting theories. Several models incorporate asthenospheric flow of this enriched mantle, either around the Central American arc via South America, or through a slab window, which may have opened about 5 my ago beneath central Costa Rica. Alternatively, passage of the Caribbean plate over the Galapagos hotspot may have left veins of unerupted melt within the sub-Caribbean lithosphere. These veins may be preferentially tapped during later superimposed arc volcanism. Although these models yield identical isotopic systematics, it may be possible to distinguish between them by a geochemical technique that can indicate the presence of garnet in the source region. This method, developed by Hofmann and coworkers in the 1980s, is termed inverse modeling, and uses the variation of REEs in lavas to assess the relative importance of garnet vs. clinopyroxene during partial melting. We have applied this method to new REE data from back arc lavas throughout Central America, and preliminary results indicate that garnet is not present in their sources. In contrast, direct slab melts (adakites) from Central America, as well as volcanic front lavas and alkaline basalt (with minimal slab signature) from central Costa Rica and Panama, require a source with garnet. Therefore, enriched mantle in the back arc is likely stored in the shallow lithosphere rather than introduced through asthenospheric flow. Enriched material in the volcanic

  11. Characteristics and genesis of porphyroclastic lava rock in Xiangshan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the transitional characteristics of porphyroclastic lava rock in Xiangshan of Jiangxi province, there are a variety of views on its genesis, petrographic attribution. This is because the marginal facies of the porphyroclastic lava is with ignimbrite and tuff characteristics, its transition phase has the characteristics of lava, and its intermediate phase has the feature of sub-volcanic rocks, further more, different texture of the rocks bears transition relationship. By the study of mineral composition, REE pattern, trace elements, isotopes, we put forward that the porphyroclastic lava is formed by the remelting of basement metamorphic rocks. The rocks was believed to be formed in the environment similar to volcanics and subvolcanics, and quite different to plutonic rocks due to the features of low-structure of potassium feldspar phenocrysts and solution mechanism, because the porphyroclastic lava phenocrysts occurs as fragments and maybe related to cryptoexplosion. Therefore the rocks was believed to belong to the volcano extrusive facies. (authors)

  12. Shallow outgassing changes disrupt steady lava lake activity, Kilauea Volcano (United States)

    Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.; Swanson, D. A.; Lev, E.


    Persistent lava lakes are a testament to sustained magma supply and outgassing in basaltic systems, and the surface activity of lava lakes has been used to infer processes in the underlying magmatic system. At Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, the lava lake in Halema`uma`u Crater has been closely studied for several years with webcam imagery, geophysical, petrological and gas emission techniques. The lava lake in Halema`uma`u is now the second largest on Earth, and provides an unprecedented opportunity for detailed observations of lava lake outgassing processes. We observe that steady activity is characterized by continuous southward motion of the lake's surface and slow changes in lava level, seismic tremor and gas emissions. This normal, steady activity can be abruptly interrupted by the appearance of spattering - sometimes triggered by rockfalls - on the lake surface, which abruptly shifts the lake surface motion, lava level and gas emissions to a more variable, unstable regime. The lake commonly alternates between this a) normal, steady activity and b) unstable behavior several times per day. The spattering represents outgassing of shallowly accumulated gas in the lake. Therefore, although steady lava lake behavior at Halema`uma`u may be deeply driven by upwelling of magma, we argue that the sporadic interruptions to this behavior are the result of shallow processes occurring near the lake surface. These observations provide a cautionary note that some lava lake behavior is not representative of deep-seated processes. This behavior also highlights the complex and dynamic nature of lava lake activity.

  13. Numerical simulation of wear of basalt lava spinning rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lisiecki


    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone woolproduction process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study was based on direct process observations, chemical analysis andtemperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits. It was showedthat the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade.Findings: Predominant wear phenomena of the fully austenitic Grade 310 deposit of spinning roll no 1 is moltenbasalt lava corrosion-oxidation accompanied by low and high cycle thermal fatigue, high temperature basalt lavaerosion at low velocity of basalt lava stream impinging the working surface at high angle. Predominant wearphenomena of the austenitic-ferritic Grade S32304 deposit of spinning roll no 2 is high temperature basalt lava erosionat very high velocity of lava stream impinging the working surface at high angle what is the cause of much faster wearof then spinning roll no 1. High temperature erosion wear is accompanied by molten basalt lava corrosion-oxidationand low and high cycle thermal fatigue processes. Predominant wear phenomena of the austenitic-ferritic GradeS32304 deposits spinning roll no 3 and roll no 4 is high temperature basalt lava abrasion as sprayed by rolls no 1 andno 2 fibers of solidifying basalt lava impinge the working surface of spinning rolls no 3 and no 4.Research limitations/implications: The mechanisms of high temperature erosion demands further investigationsand detailed studies.Practical implications: The wear resistance of basalt lava spinning rolls can be increased.Originality/value: The mechanisms of surface layer wear of basalt lava spinning rolls were determined.

  14. Toward continuous quantification of lava extrusion rate: Results from the multidisciplinary analysis of the 2 January 2010 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion (United States)

    Hibert, C.; Mangeney, A.; Polacci, M.; Muro, A. Di; Vergniolle, S.; Ferrazzini, V.; Peltier, A.; Taisne, B.; Burton, M.; Dewez, T.; Grandjean, G.; Dupont, A.; Staudacher, T.; Brenguier, F.; Kowalski, P.; Boissier, P.; Catherine, P.; Lauret, F.


    The dynamics of the 2-12 January 2010 effusive eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano were examined through seismic and infrasound records, time-lapse photography, SO2 flux measurements, deformation data, and direct observations. Digital elevation models were constructed for four periods of the eruption, thus providing an assessment of the temporal evolution of the morphology, the volume and the extrusion rate of the lava flow. These data were compared to the continuous recording of the seismic and infrasonic waves, and a linear relationship was found between the seismic energy of the tremor and the lava extrusion rate. This relationship is supported by data from three other summit eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and gives total volume and average lava extrusion rate in good agreement with previous studies. We can therefore provide an estimate of the lava extrusion rate for the January 2010 eruption with a very high temporal resolution. We found an average lava extrusion rate of 2.4 m3s-1 with a peak of 106.6 m3s-1 during the initial lava fountaining phase. We use the inferred average lava extrusion rate during the lava fountaining phase (30.23 m3s-1) to estimate the value of the initial overpressure in the magma reservoir, which we found to range from 3.7×106 Pa to 5.9×106 Pa. Finally, based on the estimated initial overpressure, the volume of magma expelled during the lava fountaining phase and geodetic data, we inferred the volume of the magma reservoir using a simple Mogi model, between 0.25 km3 and 0.54 km3, which is in good agreement with previous studies.

  15. The Longevity of Lava Dome Eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, Robert L; Calder, Eliza S


    Understanding the duration of past, on-going and future volcanic eruptions is an important scientific goal and a key societal need. We present a new methodology for forecasting the duration of on-going and future lava dome eruptions based on a database (DomeHaz) recently compiled by the authors. The database includes duration and composition for 177 such eruptions, with "eruption" defined as the period encompassing individual episodes of dome growth along with associated quiescent periods during which extrusion pauses but unrest continues. In a key finding we show that probability distributions for dome eruption durations are both heavy-tailed and composition-dependent. We construct Objective Bayes statistical models featuring heavy-tailed Generalized Pareto distributions with composition-specific parameters to make forecasts about the durations of new and on-going eruptions that depend on both eruption duration-to-date and composition. Our Bayesian predictive distributions reflect both uncertainty about mode...

  16. The longevity of lava dome eruptions (United States)

    Wolpert, Robert L.; Ogburn, Sarah E.; Calder, Eliza S.


    Understanding the duration of past, ongoing, and future volcanic eruptions is an important scientific goal and a key societal need. We present a new methodology for forecasting the duration of ongoing and future lava dome eruptions based on a database (DomeHaz) recently compiled by the authors. The database includes duration and composition for 177 such eruptions, with "eruption" defined as the period encompassing individual episodes of dome growth along with associated quiescent periods during which extrusion pauses but unrest continues. In a key finding, we show that probability distributions for dome eruption durations are both heavy tailed and composition dependent. We construct objective Bayesian statistical models featuring heavy-tailed Generalized Pareto distributions with composition-specific parameters to make forecasts about the durations of new and ongoing eruptions that depend on both eruption duration to date and composition. Our Bayesian predictive distributions reflect both uncertainty about model parameter values (epistemic uncertainty) and the natural variability of the geologic processes (aleatoric uncertainty). The results are illustrated by presenting likely trajectories for 14 dome-building eruptions ongoing in 2015. Full representation of the uncertainty is presented for two key eruptions, Soufriére Hills Volcano in Montserrat (10-139 years, median 35 years) and Sinabung, Indonesia (1-17 years, median 4 years). Uncertainties are high but, importantly, quantifiable. This work provides for the first time a quantitative and transferable method and rationale on which to base long-term planning decisions for lava dome-forming volcanoes, with wide potential use and transferability to forecasts of other types of eruptions and other adverse events across the geohazard spectrum.

  17. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of Hannuoba basalt, northern China: Constraints on the vent position of the lava sequences (United States)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Shi, Caidong; Liu, Qingsong


    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was determined for Hannuoba basaltic samples from 17 flows (21.4 +/- 0.7Ma) distributed in three sections (Jianshaba, Yuershan and Manjing) around Zhangbei, northern China. The results show normal `flow' fabrics with horizontal foliation planes. The typical ratios of the principal AMS axes are 1.01 for the magnetic lineation (L) and 1.02 for the foliation (F), respectively. Magnetic hysteresis loop, isothermal remanence, thermomagnetic properties, and optical observations indicate that pseudo-single domain (PSD) low-titanium magnetite particles dominate the low-field susceptibility of samples. Thus the AMS of the magma at this area is believed to be originated from the lineation of the low-Titanium magnetite particles driven by the lava flow. Since the Kmax trends coincide well with the observed flow directions, the intersection of the mean Kmax trends from these three sites perfectly defines the previously known vent position of the lava sequences.

  18. Lunar Lava Tubes as Potential Human Settlements and Refuge Sites (United States)

    Lemke, K. A.; Mardon, A. A.


    Lava tubes have been detected on the surface of Earth's moon via satellite images. Upon further exploration of these caves through robotic technology and other means, a refuge place for astronauts may be installed.

  19. Catastrophic lava dome failure at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, 12-13 July 2003 (United States)

    Herd, Richard A.; Edmonds, Marie; Bass, Venus A.


    The lava dome collapse of 12–13 July 2003 was the largest of the Soufrière Hills Volcano eruption thus far (1995–2005) and the largest recorded in historical times from any volcano; 210 million m3 of dome material collapsed over 18 h and formed large pyroclastic flows, which reached the sea. The evolution of the collapse can be interpreted with reference to the complex structure of the lava dome, which comprised discrete spines and shear lobes and an apron of talus. Progressive slumping of talus for 10 h at the beginning of the collapse generated low-volume pyroclastic flows. It undermined the massive part of the lava dome and eventually prompted catastrophic failure. From 02:00 to 04:40 13 July 2003 large pyroclastic flows were generated; these reached their largest magnitude at 03:35, when the volume flux of material lost from the lava dome probably approached 16 million m3 over two minutes. The high flux of pyroclastic flows into the sea caused a tsunami and a hydrovolcanic explosion with an associated pyroclastic surge, which flowed inland. A vulcanian explosion occurred during or immediately after the largest pyroclastic flows at 03:35 13 July and four further explosions occurred at progressively longer intervals during 13–15 July 2003. The dome collapse lasted approximately 18 h, but 170 of the total 210 million m3 was removed in only 2.6 h during the most intense stage of the collapse.

  20. Mapping lava morphology of the Galapagos Spreading Center at 92°W: fuzzy logic provides a classification of high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter (United States)

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S. M.; Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.; Bowles, J. A.


    Differences in axial lava morphology along the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) can indicate variations in magma supply and emplacement dynamics due to the influence of the adjacent Galapagos hot spot. Unfortunately, the ability to discriminate fine-scale lava morphology has historically been limited to observations of the small coverage areas of towed camera surveys and submersible operations. This research presents a neuro-fuzzy approach to automated seafloor classification using spatially coincident, high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data. The classification method implements a Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system trained by a multi-layered adaptive neural network and is capable of rapidly classifying seafloor morphology based on attributes of surface geometry and texture. The system has been applied to the 92°W segment of the western GSC in order to quantify coverage areas and distributions of pillow, lobate, and sheet lava morphology. An accuracy assessment has been performed on the classification results. The resulting classified maps provide a high-resolution view of GSC axial morphology and indicate the study area terrain is approximately 40% pillow flows, 40% lobate and sheet flows, and 10% fissured or faulted area, with about 10% of the study area unclassifiable. Fine-scale features such as eruptive fissures, tumuli, and individual pillowed lava flow fronts are also visible. Although this system has been applied to lava morphology, its design and implementation are applicable to other undersea mapping applications.

  1. Lava caves of the Republic of Mauritius, Indian Ocean


    Gregory J. Middleton


    In their Underground Atlas, MIDDLETON & WALTHAM (1986) dismissed Mauritius as: “very old volcanic islands with no speleological interest”. Recent investigations indicate this judgement is inaccurate; there are over 50 significant caves, including lava tube caves up to 687 m long (one 665 m long was surveyed as early as 1769) and 35 m wide. Plaine des Roches contains the most extensive system of lava tube caves with underground drainage rising at the seashore. Notable fauna includes an insecti...

  2. Origins and implications of zigzag rift patterns on lava lakes (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Manga, Michael


    The distinctive rift patterns observed on newly formed lava lakes are very likely a product of interaction between heat transfer (cooling of lava) and deformation of the solid crust in response to applied stresses. One common pattern consists of symmetric "zigzag" rifts separating spreading plates. Zigzags can be characterized by two measurable parameters: an amplitude A, and an angle θ between segments that make up the zigzags. Similar patterns are observed in analog wax experiments in which molten wax acts as cooling and solidifying lava. We perform a series of these wax experiments to find the relationship between θ, A, and the cooling rate. We develop a model to explain the observed relationships: θ is determined by a balance of spreading and solidification speeds; the amplitude A is limited by the thickness of the solid wax crust. Theoretical predictions agree well with experimental data; this enables us to scale the model to basaltic lava lakes. If zigzag rifts are observed on the surface of lava lakes, and if physical properties of the lava crust can be measured or inferred by other means, measurements of θ and A make it possible to calculate crust-spreading velocity and crust thickness.

  3. Morphology and Emplacement of the Muliwai a Pele Lava Channel, Mauna Ulu (Kilauea, Hawai'i) (United States)

    Harris, A.; Rowland, S.


    The 5.6 km-long Muliwai a Pele lava channel formed during one of the last stages of Kilauea's 1969 - 1974 Mauna Ulu eruption, specifically during a fountaining event of May 29 - June 2, 1974. We have mapped the entire channel to define spatial and temporal variations in channel construction, and their influence on the final channel form. The levee sequence comprises a basal 'a'a unit covered by pahoehoe overflow units. Morphologically the channel can be split into five down-channel sections: (1) 0 - 1.1 km: Tubed - The channel initiates as a notch in Mauna Ulu's south wall. Along this section, a braided tube system has developed; its line marked by surface collapse depressions and skylights. (2) 1.1 - 3.1 km Proximal - Along this section the channel is 3 to 11 m wide (mean = 9 m), and 2 to 6 m deep (mean = 3 m). The mean depth compares with a mean flow thickness of 4 m. The channel floor comprises undrained lava within which a tube developed and locally collapsed. Channel overflows are dominated by thin (1 - 20 cm), smooth surfaced, vesicular (53 - 58 %), pahoehoe sheets. These are of limited extent, extending no more than a few 10's of meters from the channel, but were able to bury the basal 'a'a entirely. (3) 3.1 - 4.1 km Medial I - Along this section blockages become common, with 8 occurring within this 1 km distance. Blockages are composed of levee chunks plucked from the up-flow channel walls. They are porous so lava flowed through them as well as around them. Behind each blockage, relatively viscous and dense (40-48 % vesicles) lava became ponded. In places this overflowed to feed flows with spiny-pahoehoe-to-'a'a surfaces. (4) 4.1 - 5.1 km Medial II - Along this section surge-fed overflows evolve into denser (40 - 50 % vesicularity), more viscous-appearing surface forms. Overflows are no longer smooth, and instead have spiny textures that transition into localized 'a'a swirls. The drained channel depth (mean = 10 m) is deeper than the sequence thickness

  4. Mineralogía magnética y registros de susceptibilidad en sedimentos cuaternarios de polaridad normal (Brunhes y reversa (Matuyama de la cantera de Juárez, provincia de Buenos Aires Magnetic mineralogy and susceptibility records in Quaternary sediments of normal (Brunhes and reverse (Matuyama polarity in the Juarez quarry, Buenos Aires Province

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    J.C. Bidegain


    Full Text Available Los sedimentos expuestos en la cantera de Juárez, situada en el partido de La Plata, provincia de Buenos Aires, (34°57'0''S y 57º53'00'' O son del Pleistoceno y Holoceno. Las unidades sedimentarias corresponden a la Formación Ensenada, a la Formación Buenos Aires y al post-Pampeano. La primera, es de polaridad reversa (Matuyama en la base y normal (Brunhes en la parte superior, la Formación Buenos Aires y los sedimentos del post-Pampeano son de polaridad normal (Brunhes. Los valores de susceptibilidad más elevados se obtienen en el loess de la Formación Ensenada (189 x 10-8 m³/kg, los más bajos en los sedimentos de la Formación Buenos Aires (11 x 10-8 m³/kg y en paleosuelos hidromórficos de la Formación Ensenada (30 y 50 x 10-8 m³/kg, en ambos casos, asociados a condiciones climáticas de mayor humedad relativa. El incremento de los valores magnéticos en la fracción limo mediano a grueso, refleja el predominio de fuertes vientos como agente de transporte de los minerales ferromagnéticos en períodos de mayor aridez de los períodos glaciales. La susceptibilidad dependiente de la frecuencia (factor F varía entre 0 % y 6,45 %. Los registros del factor F más elevados se obtienen en horizontes con mayor grado de meteorización de períodos interglaciales, no obstante, están en una posición intermedia con respecto a los de Siberia y China. Esta particularidad nos permite sugerir la existencia de un tercer modelo de comportamiento de la susceptibilidad en relación a los climas del Cuaternario: el modelo de los fuertes vientos modificado por los procesos pedológicos en latitudes medias.Sediments exposed in the Juárez quarry of Buenos Aires Province (34°57'10''S and 57º53'00'' W, belong to the Pleistocene and Holocene. The sedimentary units are those of the Ensenada and Buenos Aires formations and the so-called Post-Pampean. The Ensenada Formation has reversed polarity (Matuyama at the bottom of the exposed sequence and normal

  5. The evolution of young silicic lavas at Medicine Lake Volcano, California: Implications for the origin of compositional gaps in calc-alkaline series lavas (United States)

    Grove, T.L.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.


    At Medicine Lake Volcano, California, the compositional gap between andesite (57-62 wt.% SiO2) and rhyolite (73-74 wt.% SiO2) has been generated by fractional crystallization. Assimilation of silicic crust has also occurred along with fractionation. Two varieties of inclusions found in Holocene rhyolite flows, hornblende gabbros and aphyric andesites, provide information on the crystallization path followed by lavas parental to the rhyolite. The hornblende gabbros are magmatic cumulate residues and their mineral assemblages are preserved evidence of the phases that crystallized from an andesitic precursor lava to generate the rhyolite lavas. The andesitic inclusions represent samples of a parental andesite and record the early part of the differentiation history. Olivine, plagioclase and augite crystallization begins the differentiation history, followed by the disappearance of olivine and augite through reaction with the liquid to form orthopyroxene and amphibole. Further crystallization of the assemblage plagioclase, amphibole, orthopyroxene, magnetite, and apatite from a high-SiO2 andesite leads to rhyolite. This final crystallization process occurs on a cotectic that is nearly horizontal in temperature-composition space. Since a large amount of crystallization occurs over a limited temperature interval, a compositional gap develops between rhyolite and high SiO2 andesite. Liquidus surfaces with shallow slopes in temperature-composition space are characteristic of several late-stage crystallization assemblages in the andesite to rhyolite compositional range. Experimentally produced plagioclase+ amphibole+orthopyroxene+magnetite and plagioclase+ augite+low-Ca pyroxene+magnetite cotectics have liquidus slopes that are nearly flat. At other calc-alkaline volcanic centers crystallization processes involving large compositional changes over small temperature intervals may also be important in the development of bimodal volcanism (i.e. the existence of a composition

  6. Anatomy of a lava dome collapse: the 20 March 2000 event at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Watts, R. B.; Thompson, G.; Norton, G. E.


    A second extrusive phase of the currently ongoing 1995-2003 eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, commenced in mid-November 1999 following ˜19 months during which no fresh lava had reached the surface. By mid-March 2000, a new andesite lava dome constructed within a collapse scar girdled by remnants of the 1995-1998 dome complex had attained an estimated volume of ˜29±3 million m 3 (Mm 3). On 20 March 2000, during a period of heavy rainfall on the island, a significant collapse event ensued that removed ˜95% of the new lava dome (˜28±3 Mm 3) during ˜5 hours of activity that generated ˜40 pyroclastic flows and at least one magmatic explosion. The associated ash cloud reached an altitude of ˜9 km and deposited ash on the island of Guadeloupe to the southeast, and a number of lahars and debris flows occurred in valleys on the flanks of SHV. A large quantity of observational data, including contemporaneous field observations and continuous data from the broadband seismic network on Montserrat, allow a detailed reconstruction of this dome collapse event. In contrast to most of the large dome collapses at SHV, the 20 March 2000 event is distinguished by a lack of short-term precursory elevated seismicity at shallow depths beneath the lava dome. Broadband seismic amplitude data recorded during the event are used to infer the cumulative volume of collapsed dome as the collapse progressed. These data indicate that the high-velocity pyroclastic flows observed at the climax of the event removed by far the largest portion (˜68%) of the lava dome at peak discharge rates (estimated from the seismic record) of ˜2×10 4 m 3 s -1. Following the 20 March 2000 collapse, lava dome growth recommenced immediately and continued without significant interruption until another, larger dome collapse occurred on 29 July 2001. The 29 July 2001 event also coincided with heavy rainfall on Montserrat [Matthews et al. (2002) Geophys. Res. Lett. 29; DOI:10.1029/2002GL

  7. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.


    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  8. A geologic evaluation of proposed lava diversion barriers for the NOAA Mauna Loa Observatory, Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Moore, H.J.


    Lava flow diversion barriers should protect the Mauna Loa Observatory from flows of reasonable magnitude if properly constructed. The a'a flow upon which the observatory is constructed represents a flow of reasonable magnitude. Proper construction of the barriers includes obtaining riprap from a zone exterior to the proposed V-shaped barrier so as to produce an exterior relief near 9.2 m for most of the barrier, construction of a channel about 8 m deep and 40 m wide along the east part of the barrier, and proper positioning of an isolated initiating barrier. Calculations suggest that the barriers should be able to handle peak volume flow rates near 800 m/s and possibly larger ones. Peak volume flow rates for the a'a flow upon which the observatory is constructed are estimated.

  9. The eruptive history of the Tequila volcanic field, western Mexico: ages, volumes, and relative proportions of lava types (United States)

    Lewis-Kenedi, Catherine B.; Lange, Rebecca A.; Hall, Chris M.; Delgado-Granados, Hugo


    The eruptive history of the Tequila volcanic field (1600 km2) in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is based on 40Ar/39Ar chronology and volume estimates for eruptive units younger than 1 Ma. Ages are reported for 49 volcanic units, including Volcán Tequila (an andesitic stratovolcano) and peripheral domes, flows, and scoria cones. Volumes of volcanic units ≤1 Ma were obtained with the aid of field mapping, ortho aerial photographs, digital elevation models (DEMs), and ArcGIS software. Between 1120 and 200 kyrs ago, a bimodal distribution of rhyolite (~35 km3) and high-Ti basalt (~39 km3) dominated the volcanic field. Between 685 and 225 kyrs ago, less than 3 km3 of andesite and dacite erupted from more than 15 isolated vents; these lavas are crystal-poor and show little evidence of storage in an upper crustal chamber. Approximately 200 kyr ago, ~31 km3 of andesite erupted to form the stratocone of Volcán Tequila. The phenocryst assemblage of these lavas suggests storage within a chamber at ~2 3 km depth. After a hiatus of ~110 kyrs, ~15 km3 of andesite erupted along the W and SE flanks of Volcán Tequila at ~90 ka, most likely from a second, discrete magma chamber located at ~5 6 km depth. The youngest volcanic feature (~60 ka) is the small andesitic volcano Cerro Tomasillo (~2 km3). Over the last 1 Myr, a total of 128±22 km3 of lava erupted in the Tequila volcanic field, leading to an average eruption rate of ~0.13 km3/kyr. This volume erupted over ~1600 km2, leading to an average lava accumulation rate of ~8 cm/kyr. The relative proportions of lava types are ~22 43% basalt, ~0.4 1% basaltic andesite, ~29 54% andesite, ~2 3% dacite, and ~18 40% rhyolite. On the basis of eruptive sequence, proportions of lava types, phenocryst assemblages, textures, and chemical composition, the lavas do not reflect the differentiation of a single (or only a few) parental liquids in a long-lived magma chamber. The rhyolites are geochemically diverse and were likely

  10. Birth of a lava lake: Nyamulagira volcano 2011-2015 (United States)

    Coppola, D.; Campion, R.; Laiolo, M.; Cuoco, E.; Balagizi, C.; Ripepe, M.; Cigolini, C.; Tedesco, D.


    Since 1938, Nyamulagira volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) has operated as a classic pressurized basaltic closed system, characterized by frequent dike-fed flank eruptions. However, on June 24, 2014, an active lava lake was observed in its summit, after a period of 76 years. The small lava lake is now exposed at the bottom of a pit-crater and is rising and growing. Based on satellite-derived infrared (IR) data, SO2 fluxes and periodic field surveys, we provide evidence that the development of the lava lake was gradual and occurred more than 2 years before it was first observed in the field. Notably, this process followed the voluminous 2011-2012 distal flank eruption and was coeval with weakening of the central rock column below the summit. Hence, the opening and development of the pit-crater favoured the continuous rise of fresh magma through the central conduit and promoted the gradual "re-birth" of the Nyamulagira lava lake. Budgeted volumes of magma erupted, and magma degassed at depth indicate that the formation of the lava lake is due to the draining and refilling of a shallow plumbing system (1-2 km depth), probably in response to the rift-parallel 2011-2012 distal eruption. We thus suggest that the transition from lateral to central activity did not result from a substantial change in the magma supply rate but, more likely, from the perturbation of the plumbing system (and related stress field) associated with the distal eruption. The processes observed at Nyamulagira are not unique and suggest that rift-fissure eruptions, in addition to triggering caldera collapses or lava lake drainages, may also induce a progressive resumption of central vent activity. Current activity at Nyamulagira represents a tangible and major hazard for the population living at the base of its southern flank.

  11. Helium isotope characteristics of Andean geothermal fluids and lavas (United States)

    Hilton, D. R.; Hammerschmidt, K.; Teufel, S.; Friedrichsen, H.


    The first comprehensive helium isotope survey of the Andes is reported here. We have sampled geothermal fluids and phyric lava flows from the Southern (svz) and Central (cvz) Volcanic Zones, the volcanically active Puna region and the Precordillera, Salta Basin, Longitudinal Valley and the aseismic region between the two volcanic zones. Although the active areas are characterized by significant differences in crustal age and thickness, the svz, cvz and Puna are characterized by a wide and overlapping range in He-3/He-4 ratios (for fluids and phenocrysts) from predominantly radiogenic values to close to the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) ratio. The measured ranges in He-3/He-4 ratios (R) (reported normalised to the air He-3/He-4 -- R(sub A)) are: svz (0.18 less than R/R(sub A) less than 6.9); cvz (0.82 less than R/R(sub A) less than 6.0); and Puna (1.8 less than R/R(sub A) less than 5.4). Modification of magmatic He-3/He-4 ratios by water/rock interactions (fluids) or post-eruptive grow-in of radiogenic He-4 or preferential diffusive loss of He-3 (phenocrysts) is considered unlikely; this means that the wide range reflects the helium isotope characteristics of magma bodies in the Andean crust. The mechanism controlling the He-3/He-4 ratios appears to be a mixing between mantle (MORB-like) helium and a radiogenic helium component derived from radioactive decay within the magma (magma aging) and/or interaction with He-4-rich country rock: a process expected to be influenced by pre-eruptive degassing of the mantle component. Assimilation of lower crust is also capable of modifying He-3/He-4 ratios, albeit to a much lesser extent. However, it is possible that the highest measured values in each zone were established by the addition of lower crustal radiogenic helium to MORB helium. In this case, the higher 'base level' ratios of the svz would reflect the younger crustal structure of this region. In contrast to helium, there is no overlap in the Sr or Pb isotope

  12. Model for the Establishment of Modern Atolls during the Mid Brunhes MIS 12 to MIS 11 Sea Level Transgression in the Maldive Archipelago (Equatorial Indian Ocean) (United States)

    Droxler, A. W.; Belopolsky, A. V.


    level transgressions in the past 5 My and by its occurrence directly after a 2.5 My-long sea level regression The unique character of the MIS 12 to MIS 11 sea level transgression is clearly shown in the Karner et al. stack of six tropical high resolution 18-O records (five of them are from ODP Sites 659, 664, 677, 846, and 849) from the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. In conclusion, the atolls in the Maldives and probably most of the modern atolls are very young, less than 0.5 My old, edifices. Early Pliocene flat topped bank remained mostly exposed and were karstified during a late Pliocene to early Pleistocene 2.5 My.-long sea level regression. This karst morphology served as substratum and, therefore, template for the atoll development first during the unusually high amplitude MIS 12 to MIS 11 sea level transgression. Subsequently the successive exposures and floodings related to the series of late Brunhes, 120 m high amplitude, sea level transgressions and regressions, enhanced the initial mid Brunhes ring-shaped morphology, so typical of the modern atolls observed in the Maldive Archipelago.

  13. Contenidos de uranio de lavas recientes en el sector sur de los Andes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra, N.


    Full Text Available We have studied the distribution of U in modern lava -flows of the southern part from the Central Andes (16°-28° S. For a given SiO2, content of the rocks, U abundance increases from west to east in a transects to the Andean Belt, while the depth of the subduction zone increases and the thickness of the continental curst decreases. Besides, U content tends to inerease steadly with the latitude, while the thick of the continental crust and the depth of the seismic zone decreases southward. Thus, on the basis of the available data, we are in a position to suggest that the U behavior in the studied lavas depends on the alkalanity and magmatic history of each volcanic center.

    Se presenta un estudio de distribución de U en lavas modernas del sector sur de los Andes centrales (16°-28° S. Para rocas de contenidos similares en SiO2 la abundancia de U crece de oeste a este en un perfil transversal al cordón andino, mientras que aumenta la profundidad de subducción, y disminuye la potencia de la corteza continental. Además, mientras la potencia de la corteza continental y la profundidad de la zona sísmica de Benioff disminuyen hacia el sur, U tiende a aumentar con la latitud. Así, y basado en los datos disponibles, estamos en posición de sugerir que el comportamiento de U en las rocas estudiadas, depende de la alcalinidad y de la historia magmática de cada centro volcánico.

  14. Raman Study of Secondary Minerals in a Recent Lava Tube (United States)

    Guimbretière, G.; Canizarès, A.; Finizola, A.; Delcher, E.; Raimboux, N.; Veron, E.; Simon, P.; Devouard, B.; Bertil, A.


    We present here the technical adaptations made for a field use of a laboratory in situ Raman spectrometer, and the characterization of secondary mineral phases growing in a recent, still hot on some spots, lava tube (2007 Piton de la Fournaise).

  15. Thermophysical properties of the Lipari lavas (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Russo


    Full Text Available Results of thermophysical investigations into the lavas of the island of Lipari (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea are presented. Samples selected for laboratory measurements belong to four main magmatic cycles, which produced basaltic-andesitic, andesitic and rhyolitic lavas. The wet-bulk density and the thermal conductivity measured on 69 specimens range from 1900 to 2760 kg m-3 and from 1.02 to 2.88 W m-1 K-1, respectively. Porosity is never negligible and its influence on density is maximum in rhyolites of the third cycle. The thermal conductivity is also influenced by the amount of glass. Rhyolitic obsidians show values lower than other rhyolites, although the latter rocks have a larger average porosity. The radioactive heat production determined on 36 specimens varies with the rock type, depending on the amount of U, Th and K. In basic lavas of the first cycle its value is 0.95°± 0.30 mW m-3, while in rhyolites of the fourth cycle it attains 6.68°±0.61 mW m-3. A comparison between results of g-ray spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence points out that the assumption of equilibrium in the decay series of the isotopic elements seems fulfilled. The information obtained is useful not only for the interpretation of geophysical surveys but also for the understanding of the geochemical characteristics of lavas.

  16. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Flow er en positiv, koncentreret tilstand, hvor al opmærksomhed er samlet om en bestemt aktivitet, som er så krævende og engagerende, at man må anvende mange mentale ressourcer for at klare den. Tidsfornemmelsen forsvinder, og man glemmer sig selv. 'Flow' er den første af en række udsendelser om...

  17. Alteration minerals on the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Santa María volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Ball, J. L.; Calder, E. S.; Giese, R.


    Santiaguito is a relatively young complex of four lava domes located at the foot of the Santa María volcano in Guatemala. The domes have been erupting intermittently since 1922, and have shown various degrees of hydrothermal activity throughout their development. Hydrothermal systems in older volcanic edifices (Casita in Nicaragua, La Soufriere of Guadeloupe) are known to weaken rock and promote collapses, but their effects and development in young lava domes is less well constrained. Santiaguito has experienced several relatively small dome collapses (≦ 3 million m3) in the past, but it is unclear what role hydrothermal processes have played in these collapses. Currently, low-temperature active fumaroles are present on the domes, indicating the presence of a hydrothermal system. Samples of unconsolidated ash and sediment and rock chips were collected from the interior of fumaroles on the El Brujo lava dome to determine if hydrothermal alteration minerals were present. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify the presence of clay minerals in the powdered samples. Additional semi-quantitative identification was obtained using backscattered electron images (BSE) collected with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both analyses were performed at the University at Buffalo. Preliminary XRD analyses were unable to conclusively detect alteration minerals in powdered samples; however, BSE images of the same samples appeared to show alteration minerals (montmorillonite, saponite) adhering to individual ash grains. Further SEM analyses are being conducted on thin sections of the rock chips to determine if alteration minerals are present in dome rock as well as in the unconsolidated material. Development of alteration minerals on the relatively young (~50-90 year old) Santiaguito lava domes may indicate an increased risk for alteration-driven instabilities and collapses. Altered volcanic rocks are less competent, have lower shear strength and are more susceptible to

  18. Paleomagnetism of Midway Atoll lavas and northward movement of the Pacific plate (United States)

    Gromme, S.; Vine, F.J.


    Two deep drill holes through the reef limestones of Midway Atoll penetrated 120 m and 19 m of basaltic lavas that were dated by the KAr method at 18 my. Inclinations of natural remanent magnetization have been measured in 173 specimens cut from 57 core samples from 13 of the lava flows. The mean paleomagnetic inclination is 27.6?? ?? 6.8??, corresponding to a paleolatitude of 14.7?? ?? 4.2??. The present latitude of Midway is 28??, suggesting a northward component of motion of the Pacific plate of approximately 13?? or 1400 km in the last 18 my. The paleolatitude of Midway is thus not significantly different from the present latitude (19??) of the active volcanic island of Hawaii. The paleomagnetic data from the Midway basalts thus support the hypothesis of Wilson and Morgan that volcanic heat sources are fixed with respect to the Earth's mantle below the asthenosphere and their apparent migration with time is due to plate motion. ?? 1972.

  19. The behaviour of the extended HFSE group (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, W, Mo) during the petrogenesis of mafic K-rich lavas: The Eastern Mediterranean case (United States)

    Kirchenbaur, M.; Münker, C.


    In arc lavas, elements of the extended high field strength element group (HFSE; Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, W, and Mo) are valuable tracers to unravel magma source processes. These elements can also help to identify residual mineral assemblages in subducting slabs and in the mantle. Most high-precision studies on HFSE behaviour to date only focused on intra-oceanic arc suites and data for mafic lavas of the K-rich series (medium-K, high-K and shoshonitic) are scarce. Arguably, K-rich series are the most incompatible element-rich end-members of subduction zone magmatism, and they often record sediment recycling into the mantle. Understanding HFSE fractionation in K-rich lavas can therefore provide important insight into the global HFSE budget. Here we present a comprehensive extended HFSE dataset obtained by isotope dilution on well-characterised K-rich lavas from the Eastern Mediterranean, also including subducting sediment samples drilled during DSDP Leg 13 and ODP Leg 160 South and West of Crete. The volcanic samples include mafic calc-alkaline lavas from the active Aegean Island arc (Santorini) and post-collisional Tertiary lavas from SE Bulgaria. The Santorini lavas record a hydrous sediment melt-mediated source overprint of a depleted mantle source by components from the subducting African plate. The Bulgarian lavas tap lithospheric mantle sources that were overprinted by fluid- and melt-like subduction components during Eocene subduction of the African Plate. The sediments in this study comprise silts/sands, marl oozes, limestones and clay-rich debris flows and approximate the bulk sediment subducted beneath the Hellenic arc. The marked enrichment of all HFSE in the lavas is controlled by the composition of the subducted sediments as shown by low 176Lu/177Hf (0.008630-0.02433) and Zr/Nb (11.3-29.4), combined with variable εHf (-3 to +11) and elevated W contents (up to 2.45 ppm) in the lavas. Nevertheless, the lavas display unfractionated ratios of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf of 12

  20. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik


    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  1. Lava flooding of ancient planetary crusts: geometry, thickness, and volumes of flooded lunar impact basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of lava volumes on planetary surfaces provide important data on the lava flooding history and thermal evolution of a planet. Lack of information concerning the configuration of the topography prior to volcanic flooding requires the use of a variety of techniques to estimate lava thicknesses and volumes. A technique is described and developed which provides volume estimates by artificially flooding unflooded lunar topography characteristic of certain geological environments, and tracking the area covered, lava thicknesses, and lava volumes. Comparisons of map patterns of incompletely buried topography in these artificially flooded areas are then made to lava-flooded topography on the Moon in order to estimate the actual lava volumes. This technique is applied to two areas related to lunar impact basins; the relatively unflooded Orientale basin, and the Archimedes-Apennine Bench region of the Imbrium basin. (Auth.)

  2. Modeling the lava heat flux during severe effusive volcanic eruption: An important impact on surface air quality (United States)

    Durand, Jonathan; Tulet, Pierre; Leriche, Maud; Bielli, Soline; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Muro, Andrea Di; Fillipi, Jean-Baptiste


    The Reunion Island experienced its biggest eruption of Piton de la Fournaise Volcano during April 2007. Known as the eruption of the century, this event degassed more than 230 kt of SO2. Theses emissions led to important health issues, accompanied by environmental and infrastructure degradations. This modeling study uses the mesoscale chemical model MesoNH-C to simulate the transport of gaseous SO2 between 2 and 7 April, with a focus on the influence of heat fluxes from lava. This study required the implementation of a reduced chemical scheme, a basic surface model, and an estimation of lava heat fluxes in the atmospheric model. The model was able to reproduce general trends of this eruption, in particular the crossing of trade wind inversion, the SO2 surface concentration (with highest peak of SO2 of 600 μg m-3 observed on 4 April for western Reunion locations), and the wet deposition associated to rainfall. A sensitivity study shows that without heat fluxes over the vent and the lava flow, simulated SO2 surface concentration are up to 45 times higher than observed.

  3. Satellite observations of Lava Lake activity at Nyiragongo volcano, ex-Zaire, during the Rwandan refugee crisis. (United States)

    Oppenheimer, C


    In June 1994 the summit crater of Nyiragongo volcano, located in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, began to fill with new lava, ending nearly 12 years of quiescence. An earlier eruption of the volcano in 1977 had culminated in the catastrophic draining of a lava lake through fissures in the crater wall, feeding highly mobile lava flows which reached the outskirts of Goma and killed more than 70 people. By July 1994, as many as 20,000 Hutu refugees were arriving in Goma every hour, only 18 km south from the summit of Nyiragongo. The exodus brought more than one million people to the camps near the town raising fears of a repeat of the 1977 eruption. This paper examines the role that satellite remote sensing could have played in surveillance of the volcano during this time, and demonstrates the potential for monitoring this and other volcanoes in the future. Images recorded by the spaceborne Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)--freely available over the Internet--provide semi-quantitative information on the activity of the volcano. The aim of this paper is to promote the wider use of readily available technologies. PMID:9753815

  4. Magnetic stratigraphy constraints on the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary recorded in a loess section at the southern margin of Chinese Loess Plateau (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Qiu, Shifan; Han, Yulin; Cai, Jianxin; Rao, Zhiguo


    Although the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (MBB) in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) is very important in reliably correlating Quaternary loess with other sediments in the world, particularly with marine and polar ice cores, its exact stratigraphic position remains controversial. Previous investigations usually placed the MBB between paleosol unit S8 and loess unit L8 in various locations. To better understand the spatial differences in the MBB position, a high-resolution paleomagnetic study was conducted in a loess section of the Lantian Basin at the southern margin of the CLP. The results show that the MBB is situated in the middle of the relatively weak paleosol unit S7, consistent with a recent report on the MBB based on a 10Be study from the Xifeng and Luochuan loess sections of the central CLP. However, the regional anomalously low magnetic susceptibility in paleosols S7 and S8 indicates that it is more reliable to determine the paleoclimate boundaries between loess and paleosol horizons of this segment with median grain size. Then, the MBB in the Yushan section can be correlated with the bottom of paleosol S7, corresponding to the older part of interglacial marine isotope stage 19. This result temporally reconciles the striking discrepancy of the position of the MBB recorded in between loess and other typical sedimentary sequences, and further confirms that the stratigraphic position of the MBB could spatially vary to a certain extent due to regional sedimentary or paleoclimatic conditions in the marginal areas of the CLP. In the Yushan section, the high-frequency variations of paleomagnetic directions during a long period of ˜31 ka before the MBB, however, could not be attributed to a genuine response to the true geomagnetic behaviour. Moreover, the climate offset defined by the magnetic susceptibility and median grain size of the section can be preliminarily attributed to the regional geology and paleoenvironment background. A multiproxy-based stratigraphic

  5. Use of VNIR Camera System to Estimate Lava Temperature (United States)

    Vaughan, R.; Keszthelyi, L. P.


    We present initial results from using a visible and near infrared (VNIR) camera as an optical pyrometer at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The basic concept of pyrometry simply converts the color of incandescent material into a temperature and has been used on Kilauea since the earliest days of regular volcano monitoring. However, these temperatures have always been lower than expected, raising the concern that the emissivity of lava at these wavelengths was not close to a blackbody. We carefully calibrated a system that uses 3 digital cameras with wavelengths similar to the green, red, and near-infrared channels of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissions and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) VNIR instruments by imaging a high-temperature blackbody. Following techniques used to estimate lava temperatures on Jupiter's moon, Io, we obtained relationships between band ratios and blackbody temperatures. The green/red ratio provides good temperature estimates for any reasonable temperature above 1000 °C, while the red/NIR is useful from about 700-1200 °C. We also observed the glow from the lava lake in Halema`uma`u as reflected and scattered from the steam plume above it. We found that the temperatures inferred from the glow are much too high (~1400 °C) from the red/NIR ratios and much too low (night for determining if a volcano is actively erupting mafic lava. We propose that further refinement of this methodology using ETM+, ASTER, and other instruments could provide a useful complement to other near-real-time thermal alert systems.

  6. Numerical simulation of wear of basalt lava spinning rolls


    A. Lisiecki; A. Klimpel; D. Janicki


    Purpose: of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone woolproduction process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study was based on direct process observations, chemical analysis andtemperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits. It was showedthat the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade.Findings: Predominant wear...

  7. Modeling risk assessment for nuclear processing plants with LAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (LAVA) methodology, the authors developed a model for assessing risks associated with nuclear processing plants. LAVA is a three-part systematic approach to risk assessment. The first part is the mathematical methodology; the second is the general personal computer-based software engine; and the third is the application itself. The methodology provides a framework for creating applications for the software engine to operate upon; all application-specific information is data. Using LAVA, the authors build knowledge-based expert systems to assess risks in applications systems comprising a subject system and a safeguards system. The subject system model is sets of threats, assets, and undesirable outcomes. The safeguards system model is sets of safeguards functions for protecting the assets from the threats by preventing or ameliorating the undesirable outcomes, sets of safeguards subfunctions whose performance determine whether the function is adequate and complete, and sets of issues, appearing as interactive questionnaires, whose measures (in both monetary and linguistic terms) define both the weaknesses in the safeguards system and the potential costs of an undesirable outcome occurring

  8. Study of the thermoluminescent properties of lava from different origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work has been studied the thermoluminescent signal (Tl) of lava from different geographical area (Costa Rica, the Canary Islands, Hawaii, Iceland and Italy) and originating in distinct eruptions, for its possible use such as in the dating field (geological and archaeological) as in retrospective dosimetry. Due that the light emission is intimately related with the punctual defects existent in the structure of material associated to the presence of different mineral phases, it was realized a study by X-ray diffraction for determining the main components of the lava observing the presence, in distinct proportions of cristobalite, plagioclases (chalcosodic feldspars) and philosilicates (augite, montmorillonite, forsterite and actinolite). All the detected mineral components present Tl emission in the blue region. Each one of the lava were artificially irradiated for proving the dependence of the luminescent signal with the dose in the range 1 to 25 Gy, observing a linear response with the dose in all the cases and not appreciating saturation in the Tl emission. Such the appropriate signal of natural samples (TLN) as the irradiated samples in the laboratory (TLI) show a complex structure associated with a continuous distribution of traps at temperature higher than 100 C which could be explained as consequence of the dynamic formation-annihilation of centers [AlO4/alkali]+ and [AlO4]0. In TLI was observed that a nearer to 85 C appeared a maximum whose structure correspond a discrete distribution of traps, coexisting therefore the two types of traps structure. (Author)

  9. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Talerua Member Lavas on Hareøen Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.; Schmidt, Anne G.; Riisager, P.; Riisager, J.; Pedersen, A.K.; Voo, R. Van der


    . Based on detailed demagnetisation experiments, well-defined paleomagnetic site-mean directions were isolated from all 19 lavas. The composite profile contains two magnetic polarity zones suggesting a maximum duration of Talerua Member volcanism of ~1.4 Myr. After grouping flows indicating the same...... remanent magnetic field direction, 13 individual readings of the paleomagnetic fields were obtained. The paleomagnetic pole with coordinates 76.3°N, 201.5°E (A95=7.4°, K=32.7, N=13) is in good accordance with paleomagnetic poles from other continents rotated back to Greenland using plate kinematic rotation...

  10. Error analysis of subpixel lava temperature measurements using infrared remotely sensed data (United States)

    Lombardo, V.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.


    When remote sensing users are asked to define their requirements for a new sensor, the big question that always arises is: will the technical specifications meet the scientific requirements? Herein, we discuss quantitative relationships between instrumental spectral and radiometric characteristics and data exploitable for lava flow subpixel temperature analysis. This study was funded within the framework of ESA activities for the IR GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) element mission requirements in 2005. Subpixel temperature retrieval from satellite infrared data is a well-established method that is well documented in the remote sensing literature. However there is little attention paid to the error analysis on estimated parameters due to atmospheric correction and radiometric accuracy of the sensor. In this study, we suggest the best spectral bands combination to estimate subpixel temperature parameters. We also demonstrate that poor atmospheric corrections may vanish the effectiveness of the most radiometrically accurate instrument.

  11. Unusual gravitational failures on lava domes of Tatun Volcanic Group, Northern Taiwan. (United States)

    Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Chen, Chang-Hwa; Zellmer, Georg


    the deposit bears features of both debris avalanches and lithic-rich block-and-ash flows. The avalanche was rather mobile (L~6 km; H~1 km; H/L~0.16), despite its small volume (0.02 km³). Its speed reached 40 m/s at a distance of 5 km from the source (based on 80 m high runup of the avalanche). The characteristics of the avalanche deposit indicate that crystallized, degassed, but still hot material of a newly extruded lava dome was involved in the collapse. Unusual low mobile debris avalanche was formed as a result of collapse of western slope of Mt. Cising. A former lava coulee, which was involved in the collapse, underwent only weak disintegration: debris avalanche deposit is represented by big boulders with few fine grained matrix. Leading snout of the landslide traveled only 2 km, while rear slide blocks stopped near the landslide source forming multiple narrow toreva blocks descending downslope. Volume of the collapse 0.05 km³; maximum dropped height 0.5 km, H/L 0.25. Around the distal snout of the avalanche a "bulldozer facies" is well developed. Dating of vegetation entrained into the deposit gave 14C calibrated age 6000-6080 BP. Mobility of the studied debris avalanches was twice smaller than the average mobility of volcanic debris avalanches. Relatively small volume of the collapses, the particular type of material involved (massive lava domes) and the fact that the collapses occurred long after the volcanoes stopped erupting may have played a role in the low mobility of the debris avalanches of the Tatun Group.

  12. Paleomagnetism and fission-track ages of Keno and Kogashira pyroclastic flow deposits, Kagoshima City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keno and Kogashira pyroclastic flow deposits in the Kagoshima City, South Kyushu, have been correlated with the Blake event in the Brunhes normal epoch by Sasajima et al. (1980). Paleomagnetism and fission-track ages of zircons on these deposits have been reexamined. The ages of zircons determined by the external detector method on them are as follows: Keno, 0.9 - 1.0 +- 0.1 m.y.; Kogashira, 1.0 +- 0.3 m.y. The new ages obtained on these deposits with the reversed magnetizations indicate that these deposits should be correlated with the younger part of the Matuyama reversed epoch. (author)

  13. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus (United States)

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg


    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  14. A meta-analysis of aneurysm formation in laser assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA) (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Peng, Fei; Xu, Dahai; Cheng, Qinghua


    Laser assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA) is looked as a particularly promising non-suture method in future. However, aneurysm formation is one of the main reasons delay the clinical application of LAVA. Some scientists investigated the incidence of aneurysms in animal model. To systematically analyze the literature on reported incidence of aneurysm formation in LAVA therapy, we performed a meta-analysis comparing LAVA with conventional suture anastomosis (CSA) in animal model. Data were systematically retrieved and selected from PUBMED. In total, 23 studies were retrieved. 18 studies were excluded, and 5 studies involving 647 animals were included. Analysis suggested no statistically significant difference between LAVA and CSA (OR 1.24, 95%CI 0.66-2.32, P=0.51). Result of meta analysis shows that the technology of LAVA is very close to clinical application.

  15. Estructura y organización de las coladas submarinas: características de las lavas almohadilladas de edad cretácica que afloran en la Cordillera Vasco- Cantábrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, A.


    Full Text Available In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, an important submarine volcanic activity of alkaline character was developed during the upper Cretaceous. This vulcanism was related to a rift and/or transform fault in the continental crust associated to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. Pillow lava flows are noteworthy among the other volcanic materials by their volume and excellent preservation state. The lava flows are formed by the pile up of small flow-and cooling units, i.e. tubes or lava tubes, characterized by: i coarse cylindrical morphology with abundant constrictions, ii diameter less than 1 meter in a transversal section, iii smooth or striated surface, iv concentric and/or radial internal structure, and iv the branches and direction changes during the outflow. Lava flows/tubes shape and surface characteristics depend on the viscosity, effusion rate and the thickness of quenched crust during growth. The Tubes are moted directly on feeder dykes or are connected in tabular flows. The expanding and advancement of the tubes was the result of stretching or breaking of the quenched surface crust and spreading of the molten lava from the interior. Stretching features and cracks appear mainly at the flow front, but lobes of lava developed from the top and the flanks of the tubes are not uncommon. Only scarce pillowed lavas are truly isolated magma sacks separated from their sources. Related to the tabular flows and the biggest pillow lavas, some breccias were occasionally formed by the gravitational collapse of the roof of the draining tunnels.Durante el Cretácico superior se desarrolló en la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica una importante actividad volcánica submarina de naturaleza alcalina. Este vulcanismo estuvo relacionado con el funcionamiento de un rift y/o una falla transformante en corteza continental asociado a la apertura del Atlántico Norte. Entre los productos volcánicos destacan, por su notable volumen y excelente grado de preservación, las

  16. Toward continuous quantification of lava extrusion rate: Results from the multidisciplinary analysis of the 2 January 2010 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Reunion


    Hibert, C ; Mangeney, A ; Polacci, M; Di Muro, A ; Vergniolle, S; Ferrazzini, V; Peltier, A; Taisne, B ; Burton, M ; Dewez, T ; Grandjean, G; Dupont, A ; Staudacher, T; Brenguier, F; Kowalski, P; Boissier, P; Catherine, P; Lauret, F


    The dynamics of the 2-12 January 2010 effusive eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano were examined through seismic and infrasound records, time-lapse photography, SO2 flux measurements, deformation data, and direct observations. Digital elevation models were constructed for four periods of the eruption, thus providing an assessment of the temporal evolution of the morphology, the volume and the extrusion rate of the lava flow. These data were compared to the continuous recording of the se...

  17. New Insights to the Mid Miocene Calc-alkaline Lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics, NE Oregon Surrounded by the Coeval Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.


    The Strawberry Volcanics (SV) of NE Oregon were distributed over 3,400 km2 during the mid-Miocene and comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The predominant composition of this volcanic suite is calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, although tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province surround the SV. Here we will discuss new ages and geochemical data, and present a new geologic map and stratigraphy of the SV. The SV are emplaced on top of pre-Tertiary accreted terranes of the Blue Mountain Province, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and older Tertiary volcanic rocks thought to be mostly Oligocene of age. Massive rhyolites (~300 m thick) are exposed mainly along the western flank and underlie the intermediate composition lavas. In the southern portion of this study area, alkali basaltic lavas, thought to be late Miocene to early Pliocene in age, erupted and overlie the SV. In addition, several regional ignimbrites reach into the area. The 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff and the 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff also overlie the SV. The 15.9-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff is mid-Miocene, and clear stratigraphic relationships are found in areas where the tuff is intercalated between thick SV lava flows. All of the basalts of the SV are TH and are dominated by phenocryst-poor (≤2%) lithologies. These basalts have an ophitic texture dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine (often weathered to iddingsite). Basalts and basaltic andesites have olivine Fo #'s ranging from 44 at the rims (where weathered to iddingsite) and as high as 88 at cores. Pyroxene Mg #'s range from 65 to 85. Andesites of the SV are sub-alkaline, and like the basalts, are exceedingly phenocryst-poor (≤3%) with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and lesser pyroxene and olivine, which occasionally occur as crystal clots of ~1-3 mm instead of single crystals. In addition, minimal

  18. La inversión Matuyama-Brunhes en la secuencia de terrazas del río Jarama entre Velilla de San Antonio y Altos de la Mejorada, al SE de Madrid (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-González, A.


    Full Text Available To the east of Madrid city in the Jarama river valley and between Mejorada del Campo and Velilla de San Antonio, we have studied the paleomagnetic properties of the river terrace sequence in the M-203 highway, located between El Rasillo and Altos de La Mejorada. Over a new geomorphological mapping the alluvial plain at +4-5 m and terraces at +20 m, +30-35 m, +60-65 m, +85-90 m, +105-110 m and +125-130 m have been defined. Five terraces have been sampled with the exception of the terrace at +20 m, allowing to place those terraces at altitudes greater or equal to +60-65 m in the Matuyama Chron, while terraces at +20 m and +35 m belong to Brunhes Chron. ESR datings on terraces in the Arlanzón river valley in Burgos (Moreno et al., 2012, suggest that Matuyama-Brunhes inversion in the Jarama valley could be established between the end of the sedimentation of the +60-65 m terrace and the engagement of subsequent +50-55 m terrace, located upstream from Mejorada del Campo, in Marchamalo (Pérez-González, 1994.Al Este de la ciudad de Madrid, en el valle del río Jarama y entre Mejorada del Campo y Velilla de San Antonio se han estudiado las propiedades paleomagnéticas de una secuencia de terrazas comprendidas entre El Rasillo y Altos de la Mejorada, a lo largo de la autopista M-203 de reciente construcción. La cartografía geomorfológica realizada permitió separar además de la llanura aluvial a +4-5 m, terrazas a +20 m, +30-35 m, +60-65 m, +85-90 m, +105-110 m y +125-130 m. De ellas se muestrearon 5 niveles, a excepción de la de +20 m, en taludes frescos de la autovía que permiten situar a las terrazas con altitudes relativas igual o mayores a +60-65 m en el Chron Matuyama, mientras que las terrazas a +20 m y +30-35 m pertenecerían al Chron Brunhes (< 0.780 Ma. Dataciones por ESR en terrazas del valle del río Arlanzón en Burgos (Moreno et al., 2012, sugieren que en el valle del Jarama la inversión Matuyama-Brunhes podría establecerse entre

  19. Asymmetrical mate preference in recently adapted White Sands and black lava populations of Sceloporus undulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla M. HARDWICK1, Jeanne M. ROBERTSON, Erica Bree ROSENBLUM


    Full Text Available Speciation can proceed rapidly when natural and sexual selection act in concert. For example speciation can be accelerated when traits that confer a selective advantage in a particular habitat also influence mate preference. Studying parallel but evolutionarily independent instances of ecological divergence can illuminate the interaction between natural and sexual selection during speciation. Locally adapted populations of the eastern fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus have recently evolved in three different habitats in the Chihuahuan desert: blanched color morphs occur on the gypsum dunes of White Sands, melanic color morphs occur on the Carrizozo lava flow, and brown color morphs occur in the surrounding desert scrubland. In addition to differences in cryptic dorsal coloration, populations also differ in the size and color of ventral patches used for social signaling. This system therefore provides an opportunity to investigate the interplay of natural and sexual selection during rapid ecological speciation. We used mate preference experiments to determine whether locally adapted populations may exhibit the early stages of behavioral reproductive isolation. We observed an asymmetrical mate preference in this system; White Sands males preferentially courted local females, while males from dark soils and black lava populations did not exhibit a preference for local mates. We also found that female behavior and ventral patch phenotype were associated with male courtship. Our results suggest that the observed preference for local mates evolved at White Sands, and we discuss the possible link between local adaptation and traits involved in mate preference in this system [Current Zoology 59 (1: 20–30, 2013].

  20. Crystal size distributions of plagioclase in lavas from the July-August 2001 Mount Etna eruption (United States)

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Perinelli, Cristina; Armienti, Pietro; Favalli, Massimiliano


    During the 2001 eruption of Mount Etna, two independent vent systems simultaneously erupted two different lavas. The Upper Vents system (UV), opened between 3100 and 2650 m a.s.l., emitted products that are markedly porphyritic and rich in plagioclase, while the Lower Vents system (LV), opened at 2100 and 2550 m a.s.l., emitted products that are sparsely porphyritic with scarce plagioclase. In this study, the crystal size distributions (CSDs) of plagioclase were measured for a series of 14 samples collected from all the main flows of the 2001 eruption. The coefficient of R 2 determination was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of linear models to the CSDs, and the results are represented as a grid of R 2 values by using a numerical code developed ad hoc. R 2 diagrams suggest that the 2001 products can be separated into two main groups with slightly different characteristics: plagioclase CSDs from the UVs can be modeled by three straight lines with different slopes while the plagioclase CSDs from the LVs are largely concave. We have interpreted the CSDs of the UVs as representing three different populations of plagioclases: (i) the large phenocrysts (type I), which started to crystallize at lower cooling rate in a deep reservoir from 13 to 8 months before eruption onset; (ii) the phenocrysts (type II), which crystallized largely during continuous degassing in a shallow reservoir; and (iii) the microlites, which crystallized during magma ascent immediately prior to the eruption. The plagioclase CSD curves for the LVs lava are interpreted to reflect strong and rapid changes in undercooling induced by strong and sudden degassing.

  1. Paleointensity and Rock Magnetic Study of Lavas From the Galapagos Islands: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.


    Initial results of paleomagnetic studies of basaltic lava flows from three islands, Isabela, Santa Cruz and Bartra, Galapagos archipielago, focusing on the rock magnetic analyses and preliminary paleointensity determinations, are presented. Remanent magnetizations are well defined and stable to thermal and AF demagnetization. Magnetic susceptibility, remanent magnetization, thermomagnetic curves and coercivity and unblocking temperature spectra are used to analyze magnetic mineralogy and sample selection for paleointensities. Relatively complex mineralogy shown in k-T curves appear correlated to quality in the Thellier- Thellier experiments. Galapagos Islands have formed from intense volcanic activity in the past few million years above the Galapagos hot spot in the Nazca plate, south of Galapagos spreading center. The archipielago consists of 15 islands and numerous islets and seamounts built on a large platform. Active volcanism occurs towards the west and islands get older to the east due to east-southeast Nazca plate motion. Sampling in Isabela concentrated in east and south flanks of Sierra Negra volcano, a structurally complex large caldera that represents the largest Galapagos volcano. Sampling sites are distributed along the shore west of Port Villamil and the east caldera flank with historic activity. Records show eleven eruptions from 1813 to 2005, which translates into intervals roughly from 4-37 yr with eruptions in 1963, 1979, and 2005. Lavas reaching Isabela coast are Late Pleistocene-Holocene. Sampling in Santa Cruz was done along NS transect from Las Bachas beach to Darwin Station and Punta Raton, including the Gemelos craters. Sampling in Bartra is in the southwest part of Salinas beach.

  2. The Giant Lavas of Kalkarindji: rubbly pāhoehoe lava in an ancient continental flood basalt province


    Marshall, Peter E.; Widdowson, Mike; Murphy, David T.


    The Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province of northern Australia erupted in the mid Cambrian (c. 511-505 Ma). It now consists of scattered basaltic lava fields, the most extensive being the Antrim Plateau Volcanics (APV) - a semi-continuous outcrop (c. 50,000 km2) reaching a maximum thickness of 1.1 km. Cropping out predominately in the SW of the APV, close to the top of the basalt succession, lies the Blackfella Rockhole Member (BRM). Originally described as ‘basaltic agglomerate’ the...

  3. A Rare Window Into Magmatic Conduit Processes: Time Series Observations From Active Lava Lakes (United States)

    Lev, E.; Ruprecht, P.; Patrick, M.; Oppenheimer, C.; Peters, N.; Spampinato, L.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Unglert, K.; Barreyre, T.


    Time-lapse thermal images of the lake surface are used to investigate the circulation and cooling patterns of three lava lakes: Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater, Mount Erebus, and Nyiragongo. We report results for the time-dependent, two-dimensional velocity and temperature fields of the lake surface. These data sets constrain the locations of flow divergence (upwelling) and convergence (downwelling), the distribution of distinct "plates" and "rifts", the dominant time scales for changes in flow pattern at each lake, and the physical properties of the magma. Upwelling and downwelling locations are strikingly different between the three lakes. Upwelling at Nyiragongo and Erebus occurs dominantly in the interior of the lake, where it is occasionally interrupted by catastrophic downwellings. At Halema'uma'u upwelling and downwelling occur consistently along the perimeter. It remains to be seen whether these differences are dictated merely by the system's geometry or are indicative of intrinsic factors such as melt viscosity, temperature and volatile and crystal content, or of conduit processes such as gas pistoning or slug flow. The availability of high resolution data at Halema'uma'u allows as us to document the evolution of crustal plates and rifts and to investigate the physical properties of the lava and the crust. The physical properties of the lake's surface control lake cooling rates, and thus need to be included in lake circulation and thermal evolution models. We produce time-temperature cooling curves from surface temperature profiles normal to surface rifts and by tracking the cooling of intra-plate bubble bursts. By comparing observations to analytical cooling models, we estimate a porosity of > 80% during the high stand of the lake, slightly higher than estimates of 70% for the upper 120 meters based on gravity data, and close to the porosity of clasts ejected from the lake during recent minor explosions. Furthermore,we find that the number of surface plates

  4. Lavas Las Pataguas: volcanismo alcalino en el antearco andino del Mioceno Inferior, Chile central Lavas Las Pataguas: alkaline volcanism in the Early Miocene Andean forearc of central Chile

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    Renate M Wall


    Full Text Available La presencia de rocas volcánicas del Mioceno Inferior en la cordillera de la Costa de Chile central constituye una singularidad ya que los afloramientos más occidentales del arco volcánico oligo-mioceno se encuentran 80 km al este. Lavas Las Pataguas (LLP; 33,8°S, se expone en 1,15 km², sin vestigios de un edificio volcánico ni conductos alimentadores. La presencia de túmulos del tipo `flow lobe tumuli', alineados y elongados en dirección este-oeste, indica un flujo local desde el oeste sobre una superficie de muy baja pendiente. Estos antecedentes sugieren un ciclo eruptivo de tipo fisural. La edad de LLP de ca. 18 Ma resulta intermedia entre las formaciones Abanico (34-20 Ma y Farellones (20-10 Ma y coetánea a facies litorales de la Formación Navidad, expuestas 20 km al oeste. LLP presenta contenidos de sílice de 52,8-54,5%, en el rango de las traquiandesitas basálticas, y su alto contenido de álcalis (6,21-6,26% de K2O+Na2O las sitúa en la serie alcalina de diferenciación. Destaca la clara diferencia con los productos toleíticos de la Formación Abanico, y los típicamente calcoalcalinos de la Formación Farellones. Estas lavas están significativamente enriquecidas en tierras raras livianas, con una razón La/Sm de 3,4 y un patrón plano de tierras raras pesadas. Tanto el contenido de sílice como de MgO, indican un estado de diferenciación avanzado dominado por cristalización fraccionada de olivino, clinopiroxeno y magnetita. El contenido de Ba y Nb señalaría una contribución significativa del manto litosférico. El Th, y la anomalía de Ta-Nb indicarían, también, un sello cortical. Su particular petrogénesis, así como su posición occidental y aislada en el antearco, podría explicarse como respuesta a la desaceleración de la convergencia con que culmina el ciclo extensional vigente hasta el Mioceno Inferior alto y que acompañó al volcanismo representado por la Formación Abanico. De este modo, las lavas

  5. Palaeointensities from Pliocene lava sequences in Iceland: emphasis on the problem of Arai plot with two linear segments (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidefumi; Yamamoto, Yuhji


    Palaeointensity experiments were carried out to a sample collection from two sections of basalt lava flow sequences of Pliocene age in north central Iceland (Chron C2An) to further refine the knowledge of the behaviour of the palaeomagnetic field. Selection of samples was mainly based on their stability of remanence to thermal demagnetization as well as good reversibility in variations of magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization with temperature, which would indicate the presence of magnetite as a product of deuteric oxidation of titanomagnetite. Among 167 lava flows from two sections, 44 flows were selected for the Königsberger-Thellier-Thellier experiment in vacuum. In spite of careful pre-selection of samples, an Arai plot with two linear segments, or a concave-up appearance, was often encountered during the experiments. This non-ideal behaviour was probably caused by an irreversible change in the domain state of the magnetic grains of the pseudo-single-domain (PSD) range. This is assumed because an ideal linear plot was obtained in the second run of the palaeointensity experiment in which a laboratory thermoremanence acquired after the final step of the first run was used as a natural remanence. This experiment was conducted on six selected samples, and no clear difference between the magnetic grains of the experimented and pristine sister samples was found by scanning electron microscope and hysteresis measurements, that is, no occurrence of notable chemical/mineralogical alteration, suggesting that no change in the grain size distribution had occurred. Hence, the two-segment Arai plot was not caused by the reversible multidomain/PSD effect in which the curvature of the Arai plot is dependent on the grain size. Considering that the irreversible change in domain state must have affected data points at not only high temperatures but also low temperatures, fv ≥ 0.5 was adopted as one of the acceptance criteria where fv is a vectorially defined

  6. Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA (United States)

    Fenton, C.R.; Webb, R.H.; Cerling, T.E.


    The failure of a lava dam 165,000 yr ago produced the largest known flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Hyaloclastite Dam was up to 366 m high, and geochemical evidence linked this structure to outburst-flood deposits that occurred for 32 km downstream. Using the Hyaloclastite outburst-flood deposits as paleostage indicators, we used dam-failure and unsteady flow modeling to estimate a peak discharge and flow hydrograph. Failure of the Hyaloclastite Dam released a maximum 11 ?? 109 m3 of water in 31 h. Peak discharges, estimated from uncertainty in channel geometry, dam height, and hydraulic characteristics, ranged from 2.3 to 5.3 ?? 105 m3 s-1 for the Hyaloclastite outburst flood. This discharge is an order of magnitude greater than the largest known discharge on the Colorado River (1.4 ?? 104 m3 s-1) and the largest peak discharge resulting from failure of a constructed dam in the USA (6.5 ?? 104 m3 s-1). Moreover, the Hyaloclastite outburst flood is the oldest documented Quaternary flood and one of the largest to have occurred in the continental USA. The peak discharge for this flood ranks in the top 30 floods (>105 m3 s-1) known worldwide and in the top ten largest floods in North America. ?? 2005 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  7. Melting processes and mantle sources of lavas on Mercury (United States)

    Namur, Olivier; Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard; Grove, Timothy L.; Holtz, Francois; McCammon, Catherine


    The MESSENGER spacecraft provided geochemical data for surface rocks on Mercury. In this study, we use the major element composition of these lavas to constrain melting conditions and residual mantle sources on Mercury. We combine modelling and high-temperature (1320-1580 °C), low- to high-pressure (0.1 to 3 GPa) experiments on average compositions for the Northern Volcanic Plains (NVP) and the high-Mg region of the Intercrater Plains and Heavily Cratered Terrains (High-Mg IcP-HCT). Near-liquidus phase relations show that the S-free NVP and High-Mg IcP-HCT compositions are multiply saturated with forsterite and enstatite at 1450 °C - 1.3 GPa and 1570 °C - 1.7 GPa, respectively. For S-saturated melts (1.5-3 wt.% S), the multiple saturation point (MSP) is shifted to 1380 °C - 0.75 GPa for NVP and 1480 °C - 0.8 GPa for High-Mg IcP-HCT. To expand our experimental results to the range of surface compositions, we used and calibrated the pMELTS thermodynamic calculator and estimated phase equilibria of ∼5800 compositions from the Mercurian surface and determined the P-T conditions of liquid-forsterite-enstatite MSP (1300-1600 °C; 0.25-1.25 GPa). Surface basalts were produced by 10 to 50% partial melting of variably enriched lherzolitic mantle sources. The relatively low pressure of the olivine-enstatite-liquid MSP seems most consistent with decompression batch melting and melts being segregated from their residues near the base of Mercury's ancient lithosphere. The average melting degree is lower for the young NVP (0.27 ± 0.04) than for the older IcP-HCT (0.46 ± 0.02), indicating that melt productivity decreased with time. The mantle potential temperature required to form Mercurian lavas and the initial depth of melting also decreased from the older High-Mg IcP-HCT terrane (1650 °C and 360 km) to the younger lavas covering the NVP regions (1410 °C and 160 km). This evolution supports strong secular cooling of Mercury's mantle between 4.2 and 3.7 Ga and

  8. Cave dwelling Onychophora from a Lava Tube in the Galapagos

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    Luis Espinasa


    Full Text Available A new population of velvet worms (Onychophora inhabiting a lava tube cave in the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos, is reported here. The population size is large, suggesting that they may be troglophilic. Its members are darkly pigmented, with no obvious troglomorphic features. Their 16S rRNA sequence showed no differences when compared to an unidentified species of surface velvet worm from the same island, thus supporting cave and surface populations belong to the same species. Based on the 16S rRNA data, the Galapagos velvet worms derived from an Ecuadorian/Colombian clade, as would be expected of ease of dispersal from the nearest mainland to the Galapagos Islands.

  9. LAVA: A conceptual framework for automated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory the authors are developing the framework for generating knowledge-based systems that perform automated risk analyses on an organizations's assets. An organization's assets can be subdivided into tangible and intangible assets. Tangible assets include facilities, material, personnel, and time, while intangible assets include such factors as reputation, employee morale, and technical knowledge. The potential loss exposure of an asset is dependent upon the threats (both static and dynamic), the vulnerabilities in the mechanisms protecting the assets from the threats, and the consequences of the threats successfully exploiting the protective systems vulnerabilities. The methodology is based upon decision analysis, fuzzy set theory, natural language processing, and event tree structures. The Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (LAVA) methodology has been applied to computer security. The program generates both summary reports for use by both management personnel and detailed reports for use by operations staff

  10. On anomalously magnetic basalt lavas from Stardalur, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to explain an exceptionally strong magnetic anomaly near Stardalur, SW-Iceland, a 200 m deep hole was drilled into its centre and the core subjected to various mineralogical and geophysical measurements. In Moessbauer spectra of bulk samples from depths between 45 and 170 m the magnetic phase is predominant and consists of very pure magnetite. The area ratio for the components with hyperfine fields of 46 and 49 T is approximately 2. Comparison with spectra of selected basalt lavas showing similar magnetic properties indicates a distinctive difference. The strong remanent magnetism of the Stardalur samples can be explained by a combination of unusually high concentration in the rocks of pure magnetite, its small grain size and a strong magnetic field appending its formation. It is suggested that both the composition of the magnetic phase and the strong magnetic field were brought about by hydrothermal alteration. (orig.)

  11. Time-averaged discharge rate of subaerial lava at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, measured from TanDEM-X interferometry: Implications for magma supply and storage during 2011-2013 (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.


    Differencing digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from TerraSAR add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements (TanDEM-X) synthetic aperture radar imagery provides a measurement of elevation change over time. On the East Rift Zone (EZR) of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, the effusion of lava causes changes in topography. When these elevation changes are summed over the area of an active lava flow, it is possible to quantify the volume of lava emplaced at the surface during the time spanned by the TanDEM-X data—a parameter that can be difficult to measure across the entirety of an ~100 km2 lava flow field using ground-based techniques or optical remote sensing data. Based on the differences between multiple TanDEM-X-derived DEMs collected days to weeks apart, the mean dense-rock equivalent time-averaged discharge rate of lava at Kīlauea between mid-2011 and mid-2013 was approximately 2 m3/s, which is about half the long-term average rate over the course of Kīlauea's 1983–present ERZ eruption. This result implies that there was an increase in the proportion of lava stored versus erupted, a decrease in the rate of magma supply to the volcano, or some combination of both during this time period. In addition to constraining the time-averaged discharge rate of lava and the rates of magma supply and storage, topographic change maps derived from space-based TanDEM-X data provide insights into the four-dimensional evolution of Kīlauea's ERZ lava flow field. TanDEM-X data are a valuable complement to other space-, air-, and ground-based observations of eruptive activity at Kīlauea and offer great promise at locations around the world for aiding with monitoring not just volcanic eruptions but any hazardous activity that results in surface change, including landslides, floods, earthquakes, and other natural and anthropogenic processes.

  12. Growth rates of lava domes with respect to viscosity of magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yokoyama


    Full Text Available In the discussion of lava dome formation, viscosity of magma plays an important role. Measurements of viscosity of magmas in field and laboratory are briefly summarized. The types of lava dome emplacements are classified into two, squeeze- and spine-type, by kinetic processes. The squeeze-type is the formation of a dome as a result of squeezes of magma through conduits and the latter is solidified magma forced to ascend by underlying fluid magma. An important parameter in the formation of such lava domes is their growth rates. Lava domes of squeeze-type are governed by the Hagen-Poiseuille Law which involves their viscosoties and other eruption parameters. At present, the real viscosity of magmas at the site of lava dome is still inaccessible. In order to avoid uncertainty in viscosity of magmas, a conception of «macroscopic viscosity» is proposed, which involves effects of chemical components, mainly SiO2 and volatile material, crystals and temperature, and their changes with time. Lava dome formations during the 20th century are briefly examined and their growth rates are estimated. The relationship between the growth rates and the SiO2 content of the magma is statistically studied, and the macroscopic viscosity is empirically expressed as a function of SiO2 content. The linearity between the two parameters is reasonably interpreted. This means that formation processes of lava domes are dominantly controlled by macroscopic viscosity of magma.

  13. Carbonatitic lavas in Catanda (Kwanza Sul, Angola): Mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the parental melt (United States)

    Campeny, Marc; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Melgarejo, Joan C.; Mangas, José; Manuel, José; Alfonso, Pura; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; Bambi, Aurora C. J. M.; Gonçalves, Antonio O.


    A set of small volcanic edifices with tuff ring and maar morphologies occur in the Catanda area, which is the only locality with extrusive carbonatites reported in Angola. Four outcrops of carbonatite lavas have been identified in this region and considering the mineralogical, textural and compositional features, we classify them as: silicocarbonatites (1), calciocarbonatites (2) and secondary calciocarbonatites produced by the alteration of primary natrocarbonatites (3). Even with their differences, we interpret these lava types as having been a single carbonatite suite related to the same parental magma. We have also estimated the composition of the parental magma from a study of melt inclusions hosted in magnetite microphenocrysts from all of these lavas. Melt inclusions revealed the presence of 13 different alkali-rich phases (e.g., nyerereite, shortite, halite and sylvite) that argues for an alkaline composition of the Catanda parental melts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional and isotopic features of some Catanda lavas are also similar to those described in altered natrocarbonatite localities worldwide such as Tinderet or Kerimasi, leading to our conclusion that the formation of some Catanda calciocarbonatite lavas was related to the occurrence of natrocarbonatite volcanism in this area. On the other hand, silicocarbonatite lavas, which are enriched in periclase, present very different mineralogical, compositional and isotopic features in comparison to the rest of Catanda lavas. We conclude that its formation was probably related to the decarbonation of primary dolomite bearing carbonatites.

  14. Mineralogía magnética y registros de susceptibilidad en sedimentos cuaternarios de polaridad normal (Brunhes y reversa (Matuyama de la cantera de Juárez, provincia de Buenos Aires

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    J.C. Bidegain


    Full Text Available Los sedimentos expuestos en la cantera de Juárez, situada en el partido de La Plata, provincia de Buenos Aires, (34°57'0''S y 57º53'00'' O son del Pleistoceno y Holoceno. Las unidades sedimentarias corresponden a la Formación Ensenada, a la Formación Buenos Aires y al post-Pampeano. La primera, es de polaridad reversa (Matuyama en la base y normal (Brunhes en la parte superior, la Formación Buenos Aires y los sedimentos del post-Pampeano son de polaridad normal (Brunhes. Los valores de susceptibilidad más elevados se obtienen en el loess de la Formación Ensenada (189 x 10-8 m³/kg, los más bajos en los sedimentos de la Formación Buenos Aires (11 x 10-8 m³/kg y en paleosuelos hidromórficos de la Formación Ensenada (30 y 50 x 10-8 m³/kg, en ambos casos, asociados a condiciones climáticas de mayor humedad relativa. El incremento de los valores magnéticos en la fracción limo mediano a grueso, refleja el predominio de fuertes vientos como agente de transporte de los minerales ferromagnéticos en períodos de mayor aridez de los períodos glaciales. La susceptibilidad dependiente de la frecuencia (factor F varía entre 0 % y 6,45 %. Los registros del factor F más elevados se obtienen en horizontes con mayor grado de meteorización de períodos interglaciales, no obstante, están en una posición intermedia con respecto a los de Siberia y China. Esta particularidad nos permite sugerir la existencia de un tercer modelo de comportamiento de la susceptibilidad en relación a los climas del Cuaternario: el modelo de los fuertes vientos modificado por los procesos pedológicos en latitudes medias.

  15. The 2013-2014 Effusive Eruption of Sinabung Volcano, Sumatra, Indonesia: Satellite Thermal Observations and Ground-Based Photogrammetry of a Growing Lava Lobe (United States)

    Carr, B. B.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A. B.


    Sinabung is a 2460 m high andesitic volcano located in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Sinabung had no confirmed historical activity until a small (VEI 2) explosive eruption in August-September 2010. In September 2013, explosions began again and were accompanied by lava dome growth and subsequent dome-collapse generated pyroclastic flows (Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network 35:07; 39:01). The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (Indonesia) estimated dome growth at 3.5 m3/s in late December 2013. From January to March 2014 lava extrusion continued and formed a lobe down Sinabung's south flank. As of this writing, effusion and growth of the lava lobe continues, but at a much slower rate. Pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of the steep sides of the lobe remain a hazard. We use thermal infrared (TIR) images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomter (MODIS) to observe volcanic activity at Sinabung during the 2013-2014 eruption and estimate effusion rates following the methods of Harris & Ripepe (2007, Geophys. Res. Let. 34). We also use new analysis of those thermal images to characterize style of activity, distinguishing pyroclastic flow activity from pure lava lobe growth. Preliminary results from satellite images show an average effusion rate of 1.1 m3/s during January-March 2014, with peak effusion rates from individual TIR images of 4-7 m3/s in mid-January. These numbers are in good agreement with the ground-based estimates, and they provide improved temporal resolution of the activity as it evolved. Since March, effusion rates have decreased to below 0.01 m3/s on average. Using the MODIS images, we estimate the maximum possible total erupted volume to be 7 million m3, and have constrained the accuracy of this estimate using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry from ground-based visual images of the lava lobe. Following explosions in 2010 and 2013 and high effusion rates from January to March 2014, the ongoing slow

  16. Lunar and Hawaiian lava tubes: Analogs and uses based on terrestrial field data (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray


    Presented here is an analysis of the data collected for a large number of Hawaiian lava tubes on the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii. The results are extrapolated to lunar conditions. It is argued that lava tubes that formed on the Earth and the Moon are relatively stable over time, as illustrated by the ridigity of the Hawaiian prehistoric lava tubes as well as the historic tubes located in the bombing range near Mauna Loa. These natural structures should be considered for use in planning for the expansion and advanced stages of the future manned lunar base.

  17. Evidence for Amazonian highly viscous lavas in the southern highlands on Mars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Hauber, E.; Platz, T.; Balme, M.


    Roč. 415, 1 April (2015), s. 200-212. ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Mars surface * volcanology * lava dome Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2014

  18. Near-IR Reflectance Spectra in a Lava Tube Cave from a Robotic Platform (United States)

    Chanover, N. J.; Uckert, K.; Voelz, D. G.; Xiao, X.; Hull, R.; Boston, P. J.; Parness, A.; Abcouwer, N.; Willig, A.; Fuller, C.


    We present preliminary field measurements of biovermiculations and other mineral deposits made at a lava tube cave in El Malpais National Monument, NM, using a rock climbing robot equipped with a near-infrared point spectrometer.

  19. Effect of the radiation in the thermoluminescent properties of lava

    CERN Document Server

    Correcher, V; García, J


    Blue thermoluminescence (Tl) emission from different lavas of many places (Costa Rica, Canary Islands, Hawaii Islands, Iceland and Italy) corresponding to different eruptions has been studied to know its potential use in the field of dating and retrospective dosimetry. Due to the light emission is linked to the point defects of the crystalline lattice structure, X-ray diffraction analyses were performed to determine the components of this poly mineral material that mostly are cristobalite, plagioclase and phyllosilicates. Exposures to different doses (in a range of 1-25 Gy) were given to each sample to determine the evolution of the Tl signal with the irradiation under laboratory conditions. In all cases, a linear response could be observed and no saturation has been detected in this range of doses. Both natural (NTL) and induced (ITL) Tl signal exhibit a complex glow curve structure associated to a continuous trap distribution over 100 C that could be attributed to the formation-annihilation [Al0 sub 4 /alka...

  20. Effect of the radiation in the thermoluminescent properties of lava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue thermoluminescence (Tl) emission from different lavas of many places (Costa Rica, Canary Islands, Hawaii Islands, Iceland and Italy) corresponding to different eruptions has been studied to know its potential use in the field of dating and retrospective dosimetry. Due to the light emission is linked to the point defects of the crystalline lattice structure, X-ray diffraction analyses were performed to determine the components of this poly mineral material that mostly are cristobalite, plagioclase and phyllosilicates. Exposures to different doses (in a range of 1-25 Gy) were given to each sample to determine the evolution of the Tl signal with the irradiation under laboratory conditions. In all cases, a linear response could be observed and no saturation has been detected in this range of doses. Both natural (NTL) and induced (ITL) Tl signal exhibit a complex glow curve structure associated to a continuous trap distribution over 100 C that could be attributed to the formation-annihilation [Al04/alkali]+ and [Al04]0 centres. In ITL signal a discrete electron trap distribution (at lower temperature ∼ 85 C) could be detected, thus the coexistence of both trap structure could be appreciated in this material. (Author)

  1. Silica-poor, mafic alkaline lavas from ocean islands and continents: Petrogenetic constraints from major elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shantanu Keshav; Gudmundur H Gudfinnsson


    Strongly silica-poor (ne-normative), mafic alkaline lavas generally represented by olivine nephelinites, nephelinites, melilitites, and olivine melilitites have erupted at various locations during Earth’s history. On the basis of bulk-rock Mg#, high concentrations of Na2O, TiO2, and K2O, and trace element geochemistry, it has been suggested that these lavas represent low-degree melts that have undergone little crystal fractionation en route to the surface. Many of these lavas also carry highpressure mantle material in the form of harzburgite, spinel lherzolite, and variants of websterite xenoliths, and rare garnet-bearing xenoliths. However, phenocryst phases instead indicate that these magmas cooled to variable extents during their passage. We note subtle, yet important, differences in terms of CaO, Al2O3, CaO/Al2O3, and CaO/MgO. High-pressure experimental melting studies in CMAS-CO3 (3–8GPa) and natural lherzolitic systems (3GPa) demonstrate that at an isobar increasing leads to a moderate decrease in CaO + MgO, whereas CaO/MgO and CaO/Al2O3 sharply decrease. Relatively high CaO/Al2O3 indicates melting in the presence of garnet (≥ 85km). Studies also demonstrate that CO2-bearing lherzolitic systems, when compared with anhydrous ones, also have higher CaO content in the coexisting melt at a given and . Comparison of the bulk-rock major-element chemistry of silica-poor, mafic alkaline lavas with experimentally determined high-pressure melts indicates that melting of anhydrous mantle lherzolite or garnet pyroxenite is not able to explain many of the major element systematics of the lavas. However, high-pressure partial melts of carbonated lherzolite have the right major element trends. Among ocean islands, lavas from Samoa and Hawaii are perhaps the products of very low degree of partial melting. Lavas from Gran Canaria and Polynesia represent products of more advanced partial melting. On continents, lavas from South Africa and certain localities in

  2. "Pit Craters", lava tubes, and open vertical volcanic conduits in Hawaii: a problem in terminology


    William R. Halliday


    Almost from the 1849 publication of the term pit crater, volcanologists have disagreed about the parameters differentiating these features from other vertical volcanic structures. Kaluaiki is a jameo giving entry to Thurston Lava Tube in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Long-standing misidentification of it as a pit crater is an example of misunderstandings arising from the lack of a clear definition of pit crater. In general, pit craters are unrelated to lava tube caves genetically, but two s...

  3. Anchialine fauna of the Corona lava tunnel (Lanzarote,Canary Islands): diversity, endemism and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Alexandro; Palmero, A M; Brito, M C; Núñez, J; Worsaae, Katrine


    A checklist of 77 taxa recorded from the anchialine sections of the Corona lava tube is provided, including information on habitats, faunal distribution within the cave, and main references. Of the nine major groups recorded, Crustacea shows the highest diversity with 31 species and the highest d...... Mollusca, 2 Nematoda, 2 Cnidaria, and 1 species each of Priapula, Ctenophora, Echinodermata and Echiura, are known from the lava tube, of which only 1 mollusc is endemic to this cave system....

  4. Low geomagnetic field intensity in the Matuyama Chron: palaeomagnetic study of a lava sequence from Afar depression, East Africa (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Kidane, Tesfaye; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro


    Palaeointensity variation is investigated for an inferred time period spanning from 2.34 to 1.96 Ma. Twenty-nine consecutive lava flows are sampled along cliffs 350 m high generated by normal faulting on the Dobi section of Afar depression, Ethiopia. Magnetostratigraphy and K-Ar measurements indicate a lava sequence of R-N-R-N geomagnetic field polarities in ascending order; the lower normal polarity is identified as the Réunion Subchron. Reliability of palaeomagnetic data is ascertained through careful thermal demagnetization and by the reversal test. The Tsunakawa-Shaw method yielded 70 successful palaeointensity results from 24 lava flows and gave 11 acceptable mean palaeointensities. Reliability in palaeointensity data is ascertained by the similar values obtained by the IZZI-Thellier method and thus 11 reliable mean values are obtained from our combined results. After the older reverse polarity with the field intensity of 19.6 ± 7.8 μT, an extremely low palaeointensity period with an average of 6.4 μT is shown to occur prior to the Réunion Subchron. During the Réunion Subchron, the dipole field strength is shown to have returned to an average of 19.5 μT, followed by second extreme low of 3.6 μT and rejuvenation with 17.1 ± 5.3 μT in the younger reverse polarity. This `W-shape' palaeointensity variation is characterized by occurrences of two extremely weak fields lower than 8 μT prior to and during the Réunion Subchron and a relatively weak time-averaged field of approximately 15 μT. This feature is also found in sedimentary cores from the Ontong Java Plateau and the north Atlantic, indicative of a possibly global geomagnetic field phenomenon rather than a local effect on Ethiopia. Furthermore, we estimate a weak virtual axial dipole moment of 3.66 (±1.85) × 1022 Am2 during early stage of the Matuyama Chron (inferred time period of 2.34-1.96 Ma).

  5. Laminar flow of two miscible fluids in a simple network


    Karst, Casey M.; Storey, Brian D.; Geddes, John B.


    When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, non-linear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of non-linear pheno...

  6. Volcano-tectonic control of Merapi's lava dome splitting observed from high resolution TerraSAR-X data

    KAUST Repository

    Luehr, Birger-G.


    Volcanism at active andesite-dacite volcanoes is often associated with the formation and collapse of circular shaped protrusions of extruded, highly viscous lava, the so-called domes, which are emplaced in the near summit region. Growing domes may experience stable and instable structural phases, with a gradual transition in between. Dome collapse and the break-off of instable blocks of viscous lava may lead to pyroclastic flows, one of the most lethal hazards at stratovolcanoes. At Merapi volcano, Indonesia, nearly 50 % of all eruptions are accompanied by these phenomena. After the climactic eruption in 2010 which left an amphitheater in the summit region, a new dome started growing. Three years later, the dome reached a height of approximately 100 m and diameters of 220 and 190 m with a plateau-like surface area of 40,000m2 approximately. On 18/11/2013, an explosion occurred without identified precursors, leaving a major fracture cutting the complete dome structure. Based on high resolution TerraSAR-X satellite radar imagery, we could identify this linear fracture, traceable over ~200m in the long axis, and up to 40m width. After geocoding of the radar amplitude imagery, the fractures azimuthal trend could be compared to other structural lineaments, indicative of a significant NNW-SSE structural direction that has formed on Merapi volcano in the past. This alignment is also visible in a seismic velocity tomographic imagery for the upper crust, down to 15 km depth. The Merapi dome fractured in a NW-SE direction, and is consistent with the alignment of regional tectonic structures and of anticipated directions of pyroclastic flows. The fracture may be part of a larger volcano-tectonic system and may affect the dynamics and the stability of the Merapi dome.

  7. Diagnostic value of the lfuoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yong Shen; Chun-Hua Chai; Wen-Bo Xiao; Qi-Dong Wang


    BACKGROUND: Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the common malignant tumors. Liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition (LAVA), which allows simultaneous dynamic enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma and vascu-lature imaging, is of great help in the diagnosis of PLC. This study aimed to evaluate application of the lfuoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique in the imaging of PLC and liver vasculature. METHODS: The clinical data and imaging ifndings of 38 adults with PLC (22 men and 16 women;average age 52 years), pathologically conifrmed by surgical resection or biopsy, were collected and analyzed. All magnetic resonance images were obtained with a 1.5-T system (General Electrics Medical Systems) with an eight-element body array coil and application of the lfuoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique. Overall image quality was assessed on a 5-point scale by two experienced radiologists. All the nodules and blood vessel were recorded and compared. The diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of LAVA were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients gave high quality images of 72 nodules in the liver for diagnosis. The accuracy of LAVA was 97.2% (70/72), and the coincidence rate between the extent of tumor judged by dynamic enhancement and pathological examination was 87.5%(63/72). Displayed by the maximum intensity projection reconstruction, nearly all cases gave satisfactory images of branchesⅢandⅣof the hepatic artery. Furthermore, small early-stage enhancing hepatic lesions and the parallel portal vein were also well displayed. CONCLUSIONS: Sequence of LAVA provides good multi-phase dynamic enhancement scanning of hepatic lesions. Combined with conventional scanning technology, LAVA effectively and safely displays focal hepatic lesions and the relationship between tumor and normal tissues, especially blood vessels.

  8. Dating transitionally magnetized lavas of the late Matuyama Chron: Toward a new 40Ar/39Ar timescale of reversals and events (United States)

    Singer, Bradley S.; Hoffman, Kenneth A.; Chauvin, Annick; Coe, Robert S.; Pringle, Malcolm S.


    The K-Ar based geomagnetic polarity timescale was constructed using data from lavas and tuffs that bracketed, but rarely dated, the transitions between polarity intervals. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar dating indicated that the ages of some polarity transitions had been underestimated by about 6%. Although the accepted ages of the polarity chron boundaries have increased, their precise temporal definition remained uncertain. We have taken a different approach and used incremental-heating techniques to obtain 18 new 40Ar/39Ar ages from basaltic lavas within flow sequences at Punaruu Valley, Tahiti, and Haleakala volcano, Hawaii. These lavas record transitional paleomagnetic directions corresponding to four mid-Pleistocene polarity reversals or events. Three lavas from Punaruu Valley previously thought to record the Cobb Mountain Normal Polarity Subchron (CMNS) gave a mean age of 1.105+/-0.005Ma, indicating that they were erupted about 76 kyr after the CMNS; this period of transitional field behavior is designated the Punaruu event. In addition, seven new 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Punaruu Valley indicate that the Jaramillo Normal Polarity Subchron (JNS) lasted about 67 kyr, starting at 1.053+/-0.006Ma and ending 0.986+/-0.005Ma. This agrees with astronomical estimates but conflicts with JNS ages proposed by Spell and McDougall [1992] and Izett and Obradovich [1994] on the basis of 40Ar/39Ar dating of rhyolite domes in the Valles Caldera. Indistinguishable 40Ar/39Ar ages of seven lavas, including one from Punaruu Valley and six from Haleakala that record broadly similar intermediate paleodirections, suggest that the Kamikatsura event occurred at 0.886+/-0.003Ma. Moreover, these data indicate that the Kamikatsura event occurred 20-40 kyr after another geomagnetic event, most probably taking place at 0.92 Ma. We designate this earlier field behavior the Santa Rosa event, adopting its name from that of a transitionally magnetized rhyolite dome which happened to figure prominently

  9. Geochemistry of rare high-nb basalt lavas : are they derived from a mantle wedge metasomatised by slab melts?


    Hastie, Alan R.; Mitchell, Simon F.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Minifie, Matthew J.; Millar, Ian L.


    Compositionally, high-Nb basalts are similar to HIMU (high U/Pb) ocean island basalts, continental alkaline basalts and alkaline lavas formed above slab windows. Tertiary alkaline basaltic lavas from eastern Jamaica, West Indies, known as the Halberstadt Volcanic Formation have compositions similar to high-Nb basalts (Nb > 20 ppm). The Halberstadt high-Nb basalts are divided into two compositional sub-groups where Group 1 lavas have more enriched incompatible element concentrations relative t...

  10. The paleointensity record of Icelandic subglacial volcanic glasses and recent lavas (United States)

    Cromwell, G.; Tauxe, L.; Halldorsson, S. A.


    The Earth's ancient magnetic field can be approximated by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) where the average field intensity is twice as strong at the poles than at the equator. The present day geomagnetic field, and some global paleointensity datasets, support the GAD hypothesis with a virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of about 80 ZAm2 , which corresponds to surface field intensities of ~30 μT and 60 μT at the equator and poles, respectively. An astounding departure from the GAD hypothesis is found in Antarctica where the average field strength for 0-5 Ma (31.5 ± 2.4 μT, 78° S (1)) is equivalent to predictions at the Earth's equator. Proposed explanations for this decidedly non-GAD behavior at high southern latitudes include incomplete temporal sampling, effects from the tangent cylinder, and hemispheric asymmetry (especially at high latitudes). A comparison of Arctic and Antarctic paleointensity data over similar timescales might offer insights into the GAD field, however northern high latitude data comparable to the Antarctic collection are sparse due to the lack of young (0-5 Ma) and accessible lava flows. One exception is Iceland, a volcanic island on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with continuous volcanism for the last ~15 Ma. Many of the paleointensity studies from Iceland target very young lavas (Holocene age) or transitional geomagnetic field states, both of which offer limited analysis of the long-term geomagnetic field. Additionally, some studies employ experimental methods that do not provide tests for alteration or other irreversible magnetic behaviors that can occur during multiple high temperature heating steps. We present a detailed collection of Icelandic paleointensity records from 85 volcanic units ranging in age from 1783 C.E. to ~4 Ma. We sample volcanic glass from flow tops and subglacially erupted volcanic units in order to collect single-domain magnetic material, which has been shown to accurately record magnetic field strength (2). Preliminary

  11. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns (United States)

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun


    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  12. Petrology of the prehistoric lavas and dyke of the Barren Island, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Alam; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; B Capaccioni; P Manetti; P B Santo


    Although Barren Island (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean) witnessed several volcanic eruptions during historic times, the eruptions that led to the formation of this volcanic island occurred mainly during prehistoric times. It is still active and currently in the fumarolic stage. Its volcanic evolution appears to be characterized by a constructive phase with the piling up of lava flows and scoria deposits and Strombolian activities, followed by a sudden collapse of the main cone. Deposits of a possible caldera-forming eruption were not recognized earlier. After a period of peri-calderic hydromagmatic activity, whose deposits presently mantle inner and outer caldera walls, a new phase of intracalderic Vulcanian activities took place. A prominent dyke in the SE inner side of the caldera wall was recognized. Petrographically the lava flows and dyke are similar but they differ in their chemical composition (viz., SiO2, MgO, Ni, Cr) significantly. Similarity in major, minor and trace element composition (viz., K/La, K/Nb, K/Rb, K/Ti ratios) of these rocks together with Chondrite normalized trace element (Rb, Ba, Sr, P, Zr, Ti and Nb) and REE (La, Ce, Nd and Y) patterns of the Barren Island prehistoric lava flows and dyke and low-K lavas of Sunda Arc indicates that Barren Island must have evolved from a source similar to that of Sunda Arc lavas during the Quaternary Period.

  13. Using structure-from-motion for monitoring active lava flows and domes (United States)

    James, Mike R.; Robson, Stuart; Varley, Nick


    3-D reconstruction software based on structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithms can substantially reduce the requirements and learning curve for generating topographic data from photographs, and thus offers strong potential for data collection in many dynamic environments. Unfortunately, SfM-based software tends not to provide the rigorous metrics that are used to assess the quality of results in conventional photogrammetry software. Here, we use examples of repeat oblique airborne acquisitions from a volcanic dome (Volcán de Colima, Mexico) and terrestrial time-lapse stereo-photography (Mt. Etna, Sicily) to examine the sensitivity of results to imaging characteristics and SfM processing procedures. At Volcán de Colima, photographs were acquired with a relatively favourable convergent geometry, from an opened window in a light aircraft. However, hazards prevent the deployment of ground control, so the derived topographic shape relies entirely on the image tie points generated automatically by the software. In contrast, at Mt. Etna, control targets could be used but, with only two (mildly convergent) cameras, the image geometry is naturally weaker that at Colima. We use both of these cases to explore some of the challenges involved with understanding the error inherent in projects processed using SfM-based approaches. Results are compared with those achieved using a rigorous close-range photogrammetry package.

  14. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna (United States)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Murè, Filippo


    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ˜1-2km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (˜2km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  15. Identification of possible recent water/lava source vents in the Cerberus plains: Stratigraphic andcrater count age constraints (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca J.


    In order to investigate sources of lava and water to the Cerberus plains of Mars, geomorphological mapping on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images was carried out to reveal the history of activity of fissures and pits which lie upstream of channels and deposits associated with a wrinkle ridge near Cerberus Fossae. The fissures and pits are superbly exposed and imaged, and flows and channels emanate directly from them, interpreted as clear evidence that these are vents. The mapping establishes stratigraphic relationships between the plains and the channels and deposits originating from the vents, establishing the vent history. For example, to the south of the wrinkle ridge, both incised channels and leveed flows extend onto the southern plain and are clearly the final phase of plains-forming activity. Conversely, to the north, vent-sourced channels only incise the plain close to the ridge—beyond that, they are overlain by large-scale regional flows that appear to have originated from the direction of Athabasca Valles. In the southeast, there is evidence of contemporaneity between vent-sourced activity and large-scale plains-forming flow that was not sourced from the vents, indicating that activity here was part of a broader process of Cerberus plains formation from multiple sources. Crater counts show all the activity to be Late Amazonian, with the latest activity tentatively dating to circa 11 Ma. Thus, this study implies that very recent outflows from these vents contributed to the formation of the Cerberus plains and constrains the timing and local flow direction of plains-forming deposits from other sources.

  16. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns


    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung


    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also ...

  17. Petrogenesis of high-CaO lavas from Mauna Kea, Hawaii: Constraints from trace element abundances (United States)

    Huang, Shichun; Humayun, Munir


    The role of a mafic component in the petrogenesis of Oceanic Island Basalts (OIBs) is highly debated. As the best studied OIB, Hawaiian lavas provide critical insights into OIB genesis. At a given MgO content, the CaO content in the melt has been used to distinguish between partial melts of peridotite and garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. However, calculations using the BATCH program show that CaO contents in volatile-free melts saturated with all four phases, garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and olivine, are controlled by both degrees of partial melting and source compositions, and low melt CaO content is not diagnostic of partial melts from garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. This is an important consideration in understanding the origin of high-CaO lavas recovered from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP). Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the HSDP high- and low-SiO2 group lavas, and high-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here, we report trace element abundances obtained on a suite of high-CaO glasses and compared the trace element abundances of high-CaO lavas to those in high- and low-SiO2 lavas. When normalized to the average composition of low-SiO2 lavas, high-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern, enriched in both the most incompatible (Nb, Th) and the least incompatible (Sc, V) elements. This compositional distinction is best explained if high-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of a low degree partial melt of the low-SiO2 mantle source with a high degree (>80%) partial melt derived from a mafic cumulate component. This mafic cumulate must be clinopyroxene-rich, and it could be delaminated mafic cumulate formed under arcs during continent formation, lower continental crust, recycled lower oceanic crust, or high pressure cumulates from a magma chamber.

  18. Synthetic analyses of the LAVA experimental results on in-vessel corium retention through gap cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Cho, Young Ro; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jong Tae; Ha, Kwang Sun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong


    LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) has been performed to gather proof of gap formation between the debris and lower head vessel and to evaluate the effect of the gap formation on in-vessel cooling. Through the total of 12 tests, the analyses on the melt relocation process, gap formation and the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the vessel were performed. The thermal behaviors of the lower head vessel were affected by the formation of the fragmented particles and melt pool during the melt relocation process depending on mass and composition of melt and subcooling and depth of water. During the melt relocation process 10.0 to 20.0 % of the melt mass was fragmented and also 15.5 to 47.5 % of the thermal energy of the melt was transferred to water. The experimental results address the non-adherence of the debris to the lower head vessel and the consequent gap formation between the debris and the lower head vessel in case there was an internal pressure load across the vessel abreast with the thermal load induced by the thermite melt. The thermal behaviors of the lower head vessel during the cooldown period were mainly affected by the heat removal characteristics through this gap, which were determined by the possibilities of the water ingression into the gap depending on the melt composition of the corium simulant. The enhanced cooling capacity through the gap was distinguished in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt tests. It could be inferred from the analyses on the heat removal capacity through the gap that the lower head vessel could effectively cooldown via heat removal in the gap governed by counter current flow limits(CCFL) even if 2mm thick gap should form in the 30 kg Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt tests, which was also confirmed through the variations of the conduction heat flux in the vessel and rapid cool down of the vessel outer surface in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt tests. In the case of large melt mass of 70 kg Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt, however, the infinite

  19. Etna_NETVIS: A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data useful to extract geometrical parameters and track the evolution of the lava field (United States)

    Marsella, Maria; Junior Valentino D'Aranno, Peppe; De Bonis, Roberto; Nardinocchi, Carla; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Wahbeh, Wissam; Biale, Emilio; Coltelli, Mauro; Pecora, Emilio; Prestifilippo, Michele; Proietti, Cristina


    In volcanic areas, where it could be difficult to gain access to the most critical zones for carrying out direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely experimented, although in many cases they proved to have remarkable potentialities, as the possibility to follow the evolution of volcanic (fracturing, vent positions, lava fields, lava front positions) and deformation processes (inflation/deflation and instability phenomena induced by volcanic activity). These results can be obtained, in the framework of standard surveillance activities, by acquiring multi-temporal datasets including Digital Orthophotos (DO) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to be used for implementing a quantitative and comparative analysis. The frequency of the surveys can be intensified during emergency phases to implement a quasi real-time monitoring for supporting civil protection actions. The high level of accuracy and the short time required for image processing make digital photogrammetry a suitable tool for controlling the evolution of volcanic processes which are usually characterized by large and rapid mass displacements. In order to optimize and extend the existing permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and VIsible Sensors located on Mt. Etna (Etna_NETVIS) and to improve the observation of the most active areas, an approach for monitoring surface sin-eruptive processes was implemented. A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data, useful to extract geometrical parameters as well as to track the evolution of the lava field, was developed and tested both in simulated and real scenarios. The tool allows to extract a coherent multi-temporal dataset of orthophotos useful to evaluate active flow area and to estimate effusion rates. Furthermore, Etna_NETVIS data were used to downscale the information derived from satellite data and/or to integrate the satellite datasets in case of incomplete coverage or missing acquisitions. This work was developed in the

  20. Lillikate suvi on Nava Lava päralt / Airi Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Airi, 1975-


    Lõuna-Eestis Lilli külas asuva Nava talu Nava Lava suvistest üritustest. Olulisim ettevõtmine oli talu peremehe Jaak Kõdari talu ajaloost kirjutatud näitemängu "Jukra" lavale toomine. Tänavu oli talu aidas avatud ka Lembit Sootsi maalinäitus

  1. Piiriäärne lava valmistub taas esietenduseks / Margus Haav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haav, Margus, 1969-


    Lõuna-Eestis Lilli külas algaval Nava lava festivalil tuuakse publiku ette Nava talu peremehe Jaak Kõdari näidend "Jukra", lavastaja Silvia Soro. Üht kandvat rolli mängib näitleja Lembit Eelmäe

  2. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of hydrothermal calcite associated with the 'Lavas Ocoiticas' between Copiapo and Illapel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In northern Chile, between latitudes 27o and 33oS, the Lower Cretaceous is characterized by an arc / back-arc basin system (Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989). In its first stage (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) the arc was part of an island arc system of weakly continental character, which evolved into a continental arc (Vergara et al., 1995). The volcanic arc was associated with a marginal back-arc which terminated its development in the Aptian to Albian times (Vergara and Nystrom, 1996; Cisternas et al., 1999a). A sequence of porphyritic lavas, know as the 'Lavas Ocoiticas' extruded at the end of the Neocomian. In the area of Copiapo the 'Lavas Ocoiticas' host numerous metallic deposits and occurrences and has been designated as the Metallotect 'Ocoita Pabellon' (Cisternas et al., 1999b). This metallotect is characterized by the occurrence of 'migrabitumen' (both in veinlets and in vesicles) and copper sulfides. The genesis of the deposits in the Metallotect 'Ocoita Pabellon' has been studied by Cisternas et al. (1999b).and Hermosilla (2001). They conclude that hydrothermal fluid events mobilized and emplaced both the hydrocarbons and the metallic contents in the lavas. In this communications we presents new C and S isotope data obtained from hydrothermal calcite in both the norhtern area (Copiapo), where it is associated with bitumen; and in the southern area (Illapel) where hydrothermal alteration or metamorphism seems to have obliterated the bitumen (au)

  3. Sill and lava geochemistry of the mid-Norway and NE Greenland conjugate margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik; Tegner, Christian; Planke, Sverre; Thirlwall, Matthew; Jarvis, Kym E.


    , and 0.70303-0.70306 and 0.51297-0.51299 in the Lower Sill. Alteration is minor. The Utgard melts originated by partial melting of an asthenospheric, depleted mantle source (DMM or Iceland Rift Zone, IRZ, type) with chemical characteristics similar to the source that gave rise to NE Greenland lavas...

  4. Compositional gradients in large reservoirs of silicic magma as evidenced by ignimbrites versus Taylor Creek Rhyolite lava domes (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Ruiz, Joaquin


    The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows that were emplaced during a period of a few thousand years or less in late Oligocene time. Including genetically associated pyroclastic deposits, which are about as voluminous as the lava domes and flows, the Taylor Creek Rhyolite represents roughly 100 km3 of magma erupted from vents distributed throughout an area of several hundred square kilometers. Major-element composition is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-silica rhyolite and is nearly constant throughout the lava field. The magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was vertically zoned in trace elements, 87Sr/86Sr, and phenocryst abundance and size. Mean trace-element concentrations, ranges in concentrations, and element-pair correlations are similar to many subalkaline silicic ignimbrites. However, the polarity of the zonation was opposite that in reservoirs for ignimbrites, for most constituents. For example, compared to the Bishop Tuff, only 87Sr/86Sr and Sc increased upward in both reservoirs. Quite likely, a dominant but nonerupted volume of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was zoned like that for the Bishop Tuff, whereas an erupted, few-hundred-meter-thick cap on the magma body was variably contaminated by roof rocks whose contribution to this part of the magma system moderated relatively extreme trace-element concentrations of uncontaminated Taylor Creek Rhyolite but did not change the sense of correlation for most element pairs. The contaminant probably was a Precambrian rock of broadly granitic composition and with very high 87Sr/86Sr. Although examples apparently are not yet reported in the literature, evidence for a similar thin contaminated cap on reservoirs for large-volume silicic ignimbrites may exist in the bottom few meters of ignimbrites or perhaps only in the pumice fallout that normally immediately precedes ignimbrite emplacement. 87Sr/86Sr in sanidine phenocrysts of the

  5. Os isotopes in hornblende-bearing intra-plate alkaline lavas (Central European Volcanic Province; CEVP) (United States)

    Mayer, B.; Jung, S.; Brauns, M.; Pfänder, J.


    Previous Os isotope studies on CEVP lavas have shown that samples with the lowest Os isotopic composition (init. 187Os/188Os: 0.132-0.135) have the highest Os concentrations (70-93 ppt). These isotope ratios are higher than those usually proposed for the lithospheric upper mantle with inferred subchondritic 187Os/188Os ratios but are similar to 187Os/188Os ratios found in lithospheric peridotite xenoliths from the CEVP. Lower Os concentrations of other lavas from the CEVP (6-43 ppt) are correlated with radiogenic init. 187Os/188Os ratios up to 0.469 and are best explained by AFC processes involving lower crustal rocks. Fairly primitive samples of high-TiO2 alkaline hornblende-bearing lavas from the Rhön area (CEVP) with MgO up to 10.4 wt% have a large range in their Os isotopic composition (init. 187Os/188Os: 0.268-0.552; 15-30 ppt Os) exceeding the range observed in other intraplate basalts including OIB. Fractionated samples have distinctly more radiogenic Os (init. 187Os/188Os: up to 0.890; 3-10 ppt Os) isotopic compositions. For most samples, uniform Nd, Sr, and Pb isotope data are not consistent with AFC processes, hence, the radiogenic Os isotopic composition is also unlikely to result from assimilation processes alone. Some samples with radiogenic Os isotopic compositions and low Os concentrations have radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, unradiogenic 143Nd/144Nd, and unradiogenic Pb isotope ratios suggesting contamination with crustal material in this case. Energy-constrained AFC calculations involving previously used hypothetical crustal endmembers show that for the majority of the hornblende-bearing lavas crustal contamination is unlikely. An alternative view would be that the mantle source of the hornblende-bearing lavas contains significant portions of non-peridoditic (i.e. pyroxenitic) material. Pyroxenites can have elevated Re/Os ratios and may evolve towards radiogenic Os isotopic compositions over time. New high-precision 40Ar-39Ar ages on hornblende from these

  6. The Lava sequence of the East African Rift escarpment in the Oldoinyo Lengai - Lake Natron sector, Tanzania (United States)

    Neukirchen, Florian; Finkenbein, Thomas; Keller, Jörg


    A 500 m sequence of horizontal lava flows forms the Gregory rift escarpment of the western rift shoulder between Lake Natron and Oldoinyo Lengai. A detailed volcanic stratigraphy of this >1.2 Ma evolution of the EAR in Northern Tanzania is presented. The sequence is formed by several distinct rock suites, with increasing alkalinity from base to top. Alkali olivine basalts of the Waterfall Sequence at the base are followed by a basanite series, and by a range of evolved nephelinites forming the upper part of the escarpment. Numerous dykes and Strombolian scoria deposits indicate local fissure eruptions as opposed to or in addition to more distant sources. Primitive compositions within each of the series indicate variable candidates for primary magmas. The composition of the basanite suite ranges from primitive mantle melts (high Mg#, Cr, Ni) to more evolved rocks, in particular hawaiites, generated by fractionation of olivine, pyroxene and magnetite. Inter-bedded within the basanite suite, one single olivine melilitite flow with high Mg# and abundant olivine and pyroxene megacrysts is the only primitive candidate for the nephelinite suite. However, in view of the large compositional gap and marked differences in incompatible element ratios, a relation between this flow and the nephelinites remains hypothetical. The variation within the evolved nephelinite series can be partly explained by fractionation of pyroxene, apatite, perovskite (and some nepheline), while magma mixing is indicated by zonation patterns of pyroxene. The most evolved nephelinite, however, differs significantly from all other nephelinites in major and trace elements. Thus the entire sequence is petrologically not a coherent evolution, rather the result of different mantle melts fractionating under variable conditions. Carved into the rift scarp of the study area west of Engare Sero is a young explosion crater, the Sekenge Crater. Sekenge Tuffs are olivine melilitites, similar to other craters and

  7. Three-dimensional critical slip surface locating and slope stability assessment for lava lobe of Unzen volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Even Unzen volcano has been declared to be in a state of relative dormancy,the latest formed lava lobe No.11 now represents a potential slope failure mass based on the latest research.This paper concentrates on the stability of the lava lobe No.11 and its possible critical sliding mass.It proposes geographic information systems (GIS) based three-dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis models.It uses a 3D locating approach to identify the 3D critical slip surface and to analyze the 3D stability of the lava...

  8. Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology of Late-Mesozoic lavas from Xishan, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Honglin; LIU; Xiaoming; LIU; Yongsheng; GAO; Shan; LING; Wenli


    Zircon U-Pb dating by both SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS and geochemical study of the Tiaojishan Formation and the Donglintai Formation from Xishan, Beijing, reveal that ages of upper lavas of Tiaojishan Formation and Middle of Donglintai Formation are 137.1±4.5 Ma(2σ) and 130-134 Ma, respectively. The fomer is slightly older than the latter and the age difference between these two formations is less than 5 Ma. These lines of evidence prove that the two volcanoes erupted within a short time. The age of the Tiaojishan Formation from Xishan, Beijing is distinctively different from that of the Chende Basin. This indicated that the ages of Tiaojishan lavas varied in different regions. The Tiaojishan Formation consists of typical adakite (SiO2=56%, Na2O = 3.99-6.17, Na2O/K2O = 2.2-3.1, Sr = 680-1074×10-6, Y = 13.2-16.3×10-6, Yb = 1.13-1.52×10-6, Sr/Y = 43-66), high-Mg adakite and high-Mg andesite (Mg# = 54-55). Features of continental crust of adakite from the Tiaojishan Formation and its syngeneric middle silicic vocanic rocks, such as typical Nd-Ta negative abnormality and Pb possive abnormality, indicate that these lavas are originated from partial melts of continental crust. These results suggest that the adakite from the Tiaojishan Formation of Xishan, Beijing derived from thickened eclogitic lower crust and lithosphere beneath the North China craton at mesozoic that was foundered into the aesthenosphere, and subsequenctly partially melted and interacted with mantle olivine during melts upward migration. The age of lavas from the Tiaojishan Formation restrained the foundation which should last at least until 137 Ma. Lavas of the Donglintai Formation are rhyolith and andesite with normal Mg# and thus they did not interact with the mantle. These lavas represent remobilized melts of lower crust material caused by mantle aesthenosphere upwelling migration induced by foundation.

  9. Intercomparison of gas emissions from the lava lakes of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira, DR Congo (United States)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Calabrese, Sergio; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Scaglione, Sarah; Pandolfo, Francesco; Minani, Abel; Shamavu Mulumeoderhwa, Patient; Liotta, Marcello; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Yalire, Mathiew; Arellano, Santiago; Galle, Bo; Tedesco, Dario


    From 25th of October to 5th of November 2014 field surveys were carried out at Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira volcanoes, DR Congo. These two volcanoes belong to the eight volcanoes in the Virunga volcanic chain. They have an altitude of about 3470 m.a.s.l. and 3060 m.a.s.l., respectively. The craters of the two volcanoes lie within a distance of less than 15 km and both have a diameter of about 1000 m and 2000 m, respectively showing a similar inner geometry containing several terraces inside. The lava lake of Nyamulagira is still under formation while Nyiragongo's lava lake is known since more than 100 years with short interruptions after the eruptions in 1977 and 2002. However, also Nyamulagira had a long period of lava lake activity, at least from 1912 to 1938. Both volcanoes are characterized by low SiO2 content of their lava, but Nyiragongo being exceptionally low in SiO2 and with significantly higher alkali content than Nyamulagira. There is a clear distinction between both lavas; a basaltic to tephritic one in the case of Nyamulagira and an often foidite one in the case of Nyiragongo. Also their volcanic activity has differed significantly during the last decades from each other. While Nyiragongo is famous for its permanent lava lake, Nyamulagira is characterized by frequent eruptions, which sum up to more than 40 since 1865. During our field survey we investigated and compared the gas composition and fluxes of both volcanoes in autumn 2014. The ground - based remote sensing technique - Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) using scattered sunlight, the in-situ Multi-GAS-instrument, as well as active alkaline and particle traps have been simultaneously applied at each crater of the two volcanoes during the field trip. Downwind installed DOAS instruments (appendant to NOVAC (Network of Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change)) were used to determine SO2 emission fluxes. Among others, bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO/SO2

  10. Flows in Kasei (United States)


    28 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows flow materials-on the east/right side of the image-that have come in among a suite of sharp ridges and grooves on the floor of the vast Kasei Valles system. The ridges and grooves are much older and are believed to be the result of a giant, catastrophic flood. The flows might have been mud or lava that ran part way down the ancient valley at a later date. Location near: 16.7oN, 76.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  11. Weaker axially dipolar time-averaged paleomagnetic field based on multidomain-corrected paleointensities from Galapagos lavas. (United States)

    Wang, Huapei; Kent, Dennis V; Rochette, Pierre


    The geomagnetic field is predominantly dipolar today, and high-fidelity paleomagnetic mean directions from all over the globe strongly support the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis for the past few million years. However, the bulk of paleointensity data fails to coincide with the axial dipole prediction of a factor-of-2 equator-to-pole increase in mean field strength, leaving the core dynamo process an enigma. Here, we obtain a multidomain-corrected Pliocene-Pleistocene average paleointensity of 21.6 ± 11.0 µT recorded by 27 lava flows from the Galapagos Archipelago near the Equator. Our new result in conjunction with a published comprehensive study of single-domain-behaved paleointensities from Antarctica (33.4 ± 13.9 µT) that also correspond to GAD directions suggests that the overall average paleomagnetic field over the past few million years has indeed been dominantly dipolar in intensity yet only ∼ 60% of the present-day field strength, with a long-term average virtual axial dipole magnetic moment of the Earth of only 4.9 ± 2.4 × 10(22) A ⋅ m(2). PMID:26598664

  12. Re-examination of crystal ages in recent Mount St. Helens lavas: implications for magma reservoir processes (United States)

    Cooper, Kari M.; Reid, Mary R.


    U-series data for recent Mount St. Helens lavas suggest that crystallization preceded eruption by more than 0.5 ka but are complicated by possible evidence of crystal recycling and/or addition of radium to the liquid after crystallization. We report new ion and electron microprobe trace- and major-element data for plagioclase and pyroxene in these recent Mount St. Helens lavas and use these data to reassess 226Ra-230Th crystal ages by taking into account differences in the partitioning behavior of radium and barium and the effects of impurities in mineral separates. Revised 226Ra-230Th model crystallization ages are ∼2-4 ka for plagioclase (with the exception of the 1982 dacite) and ∼0.15-5.7 ka for pyroxene. In contrast to previous interpretations, no late-stage addition of Ra to the liquid after precipitation of the minerals is required. The variability of Ba concentrations measured in plagioclase is too large to be consistent with progressive crystallization from the same liquid or with diffusive re-equilibration of xenocrysts with a new host liquid. Ba heterogeneity limits the residence time of the crystals in a magma at high temperatures and also suggests that in most cases Ra-Th ages have not been significantly modified by Ra diffusion into or out of the crystals. High (226Ra)/Ba in plagioclase in the 1982 dacite relative to the host liquid likely reflects crystallization processes that precluded bulk crystal-liquid chemical equilibrium. One possibility is that of growth entrapment of surface enrichments during rapid crystallization, which could lead to less discrimination between Ra and Ba than predicted by calculated bulk partition coefficients. 226Ra-230Th crystal ages for the Castle Creek andesite and basalt that are younger than 230Th-238U ages of the same crystals could be explained by mixing of crystals into melts with different 230Th/232Th ratios, by combinations of older and younger crystal growth within the same magma, or, for the basalt, by

  13. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit for grey water treatment at household level in an urban slum. (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L


    Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. PMID:24388927

  14. Faults, Post-1720 Explosion Craters, and the Remains of a Lava Lake at Castro Bank Seamount (E Azores) (United States)

    Wunderman, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Nishimura, C.; Pacheco, J. M.; Vogt, P. R.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Santos, R.


    During 25-28 July 2003 the US Navy submarine NR-1 dove on the seamount D. Joao de Castro Bank, compiling reconnaissance sonar and visual data. Castro Bank sits along strike and between the eastern Azorian islands of Terceira and S. Miguel, occupying a seismically active region ˜60 km from each of these islands and apparently controlled by the same underlying tectonics as other islands found along the Azores' northern margin. Castro Bank's last recorded eruptions built a ˜1 km diameter ephemeral island in the 1720s. The bathimetry of the uppermost 40 m or so of the Bank is rather well known via single beam sonar, scuba diving and AUV surveys (IH, DOP/UA and ISR/IST, unpublished work). Our dives compiled data in concentric rings along contours, collecting side- and forward-looking sonar along an overall track length of ˜20 km, with the deepest ring approaching ˜200 m depth. To document key features we came near the sea floor and took videos in water with typical visibility of ˜10-15 m. This is the first progress report on our work, which found the edifice morphologically complex and irregular. We noted that the seamount was often covered by aerially extensive yellow-brown hyaloclastic tuffs that were presumably products of the 1720s eruption, but also cut by faults and fissures (with offsets of ten's of meters) exposing abundant areas of older edifice. The faults typically lacked sediment cover, and in one case a very fresh, sediment-free fault trended along the base of a steep cliff. This suggested the faults were much younger than the 1720 eruption, an observation in accord with intense seismicity recorded in this area. The faults provided exposures of older rocks, which included abundant breccia and lesser clearly identified pillows or thick lava flows. The NW quadrant contains two small, shallow, elliptical craters. These lie side-by-side and crosscut inferred 1720s-age tuffs. One crater held a lava lake, the body of which apparently withdrew or subsided

  15. A search for intact lava tubes on the Moon: Possible lunar base habitats (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray


    We have surveyed lunar sinuous rilles and other volcanic features in an effort to locate intact lava tubes that could be used to house an advanced lunar base. Criteria were established for identifying intact tube segments. Sixty-seven tube candidates within 20 rilles were identified on the lunar nearside. The rilles, located in four mare regions, varied in size and sinuosity. We identified four rilles that exhibited particularly strong evidence for the existence of intact lava tube segments. These are located in the following areas: (1) south of Gruithuisen K, (2) in the Marius Hills region, (3) in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis, and (4) in the eastern Mare Serenitatis. We rated each of the 67 probable tube segments for lunar base suitability based on its dimensions, stability, location, and access to lunar resources. Nine tube segments associated with three separate rilles are considered prime candidates for use as part of an advanced lunar base.

  16. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas (United States)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.


    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  17. Automated tracking of lava lake level using thermal images at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Swanson, Don; Orr, Tim


    Tracking the level of the lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u Crater, at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i, is an essential part of monitoring the ongoing eruption and forecasting potentially hazardous changes in activity. We describe a simple automated image processing routine that analyzes continuously-acquired thermal images of the lava lake and measures lava level. The method uses three image segmentation approaches, based on edge detection, short-term change analysis, and composite temperature thresholding, to identify and track the lake margin in the images. These relative measurements from the images are periodically calibrated with laser rangefinder measurements to produce real-time estimates of lake elevation. Continuous, automated tracking of the lava level has been an important tool used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory since 2012 in real-time operational monitoring of the volcano and its hazard potential.

  18. Hadley Rille, lava tubes and mare volcanism at the Apollo 15 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley Rille appears to be a collapsed lava tube/channel, whose formation history may be more intimately related to the mare units sampled at 15 than was previously thought. More work is needed relating samples and observations from Apollo 15 to the rille and its geologic evolution. As the only sinuous rille visited during the Apollo missions, Hadley Rille represents a data source that is directly applicable to the deciphering of processes involved in lunar mare volcanism

  19. Geomagnetic reversal in brunhes normal polarity epoch. (United States)

    Smith, J D; Foster, J H


    The magnetic stratigraphly of seven cores of deep-sea sediment established the existence of a short interval of reversed polarity in the upper part of the Brunches epoch of normal polarity. The reversed zone in the cores correlates well with paleontological boundaries and is named the Blake event. Its boundaries are estimated to be 108,000 and 114,000 years ago +/- 10 percent. PMID:17750890

  20. Balancing bulk gas accumulation and gas output before and during lava fountaining episodes at Mt. Etna (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Zuccarello, Luciano; Messina, Alfio; Scollo, Simona; Rymer, Hazel


    We focus on a sequence of 9 lava fountains from Etna that occurred in 2011, separated by intervals of 5 to 10 days. Continuous measurements allowed to discover the occurrence of gravity decreases before the onset of most fountaining episodes. We propose that the gravity changes are due to the pre-fountaining accumulation of a foam layer at shallow levels in the plumbing system of the volcano. Relying on the relationship between amount of gas trapped in the foam and amount of gas emitted during each episode, we develop a conceptual model of the mechanism controlling the passage from Strombolian to lava fountaining activity. Gas leakage from the foam layer during the late stages of its accumulation increases the gas volume fraction at upper levels, thus inducing a decrease of the magma-static pressure in the trapping zone and a further growth of the foam. This feedback mechanism eventually leads to the collapse of the foam layer and to the onset of lava fountaining. The possibility to detect the development of a foam layer at depth and to set quantitative constraints on the amount of trapped gas is important because of the implications for forecasting explosive eruptions and predicting their intensity.

  1. Doppler radar retrievals from lava fountaining paroxysms generating tephra plumes at Mt. Etna (United States)

    Valentin, Freret-Lorgeril; Franck, Donnadieu; Mauro, Coltelli; Simona, Scollo; Patrick, Fréville; Claude, Hervier; Michele, Prestifilippo


    Etna volcano is one of the most active European volcanoes. Between January 2011 and December 2013, a new crater called the New South East Crater (NSEC) was built during 46 eruptive episodes characterized by lava fountaining generating tephra plumes that reached up to 10 km (a.s.l). A 23 cm-wavelength Doppler radar (VOLDORAD 2B), located about 3 km from NSEC at the Montagnola station and integrated into the INGV-OE instrumental network, has been continuously monitoring the explosive activity of Mt. Etna's summit craters since 2009. We have studied these paroxysms by analyzing the radar echoes and Doppler signals coming from adjacent volumes of the fixed beam probing the lava fountains close to the eruptive crater, in combination with thermal and visible imagery. The range gating (150 m-deep probed volumes along-beam) allows us to discriminate the active summit craters and to roughly estimate the lava fountain width. The backscattered power, which is related to the erupted tephra mass load in the beam, and Doppler velocities help to mark the transition from Strombolian activity to lava fountaining, providing onset and end times of the fountain. Both radar parameters directly provide a proxy for the mass eruption rate, which is found to follow the time variations of tephra plume height. Oscillations of the echo power during lava fountaining indicate a pulsatile behavior likely originating in the magmatic conduit or deeper reservoir. Ejection velocities retrieved from positive along-beam velocities measured near the emission source, are found to range from 140 to almost 350 m/s during the climax. Maximum along-beam Doppler velocity components from fallouts allow us to infer maximum particle sizes (pluri-decimetric) in agreement with field observations. The mode of power spectral distribution could further be used to constrain the mean diameter of proximal fallout. A reliable quantification of the source mass loading parameters requires more stringent constraints on the

  2. Geochemistry and genesis of behind-arc basaltic lavas from eastern Nicaragua (United States)

    Janoušek, V.; Erban, V.; Holub, F. V.; Magna, T.; Bellon, H.; Mlčoch, B.; Wiechert, U.; Rapprich, V.


    The petrology and chemistry of the Behind the Volcanic Front (BVF) lavas from eastern mainland Nicaragua and the adjacent Great Corn Island in the Caribbean Sea illustrate the complex nature of sources and processes operating in such a tectonic setting. The older, Early Miocene (˜ 17 Ma) group of low-Ti ( 1.5%) lavas, rich in other HFSE as well, are represented both by alkaline (Quaternary trachybasalts: Volcán Azul and Kukra Hill) and subalkaline (basalts-basaltic andesites: Late Miocene, ˜ 11 Ma Great Corn Island and Quaternary, Pearl Lagoon) volcanic rocks. The Late Miocene and Quaternary high-Ti BVF lavas probably represent small-volume decompression melts of a source similar to that of the OIB-like magmas, most likely upwelling asthenosphere having a strong Galápagos mantle imprint. The positive Sr-Nd isotopic correlation indicates an interaction between this OIB component and a depleted lithospheric mantle modified by a subduction-related influx of Sr and, to a lesser extent, other hydrous fluid-mobile elements. However, the rocks show no recognizable influence of the modern subduction. The feeble trace-element (e.g., slightly elevated Ba, K, and Sr at some localities) and a more pronounced Sr-Li isotopic subduction-related signal stems most likely from the Miocene convergence episode. Subduction of the Galápagos hot-spot tracks in Costa Rica produces magmas that can be readily recognized by their elevated Sr isotopic ratios due to seafloor alteration; the Nd isotopic signature remains unaffected. Such a component with relatively unradiogenic Nd and radiogenic Sr is required in the source of the modern volcanic front lavas but is not needed to explain the variation in the studied BVF dataset. Terrains with multiepisodic subduction history should be considered with caution, as the lavas generated by decompression melting of the asthenospheric source in the back-arc region may bear a geochemical imprint of the fossil and not the modern subduction component

  3. Morphology and development of pahoehoe flow-lobe tumuli and associated features from a monogenetic basaltic volcanic field, Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Khalaf, Ezz El Din Abdel Hakim; Hammed, Mohamed Saleh


    The dimensions, landforms, and structural characteristics of pahoehoe flow-lobe tumuli from Bahariya Depression are collectively reported here for the first time. The flow-lobe tumuli documented here characterize hummocky flow surfaces. These tumuli are characterized by low, dome-like mounds, lava-inflation clefts, and squeeze ups. Flow-lobe tumuli are of various shapes and sizes, which are affected by the mechanism of inflation because they formed in response to the increase of pressure within the flow when the flow's crust becomes thicker. The tumuli often appear isolated or in small groups in the middle sectors of the lava flows, whereas in the distal sectors they form large concentration, suggesting the presence of complex lava tubes inside of the flow. Tumuli exhibited by El Bahariya lava flows are between 3.0 and 50 m in length and up to 5.0 m in height with lenticular geometry in aerial view. The flow emplacement of flow-lobe tumuli is controlled by variations in local characteristics such as nature of the substrate, flow orientation, slope, interferrence with other lobes, and rate of lava supply. Their presence generally towards the terminal ends of flow fields suggests that they seldom form over the clogged portions of distributary tubes or pathways. Thus, localized inflations that formed over blockages in major lava tubes result in formation of flow-lobe tumuli. The three-tiered (crust-core-basal zone) internal structure of the flow-lobe tumuli, resembling the typical distribution of vesicles in P-type lobes, confirms emplacement by the mechanism of inflation. All the available data show that the morphology and emplacement mechanism of the studied flow-lobe tumuli may be analogous to similar features preserved within topographically confined areas of the Hawaiian and Deccan hummocky lava flows. Considering the age of the studied volcanic fields (˜22 Ma) it is most probable that the structures described here may be amongst the oldest recognized examples

  4. Reliability of rock magnetic properties and paleointensity along vertical basalt flow profiles: identification of best part for sampling? (United States)

    Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Caballero, C. M.; Bohnel, H.


    A review of the rock magnetic properties, AMS, opaque microscopy and paleointensity (PI) of two vertical single lava flows (RM and PC) and its comparison with the CU profile of Xitle volcano are presented. The emplacement dynamics of the RM and PC lava flows indicates that possibly was via inflation in its internal structure. We search for the possible explanation (emplacement physics, mineralogical, magnetic anomalies) to the variability of magnetic properties and PI along the lava flows, and at the same time look for the best part to get the paleomagnetic samples. Considerable intra- and inter-flow differences in both the characteristic directions and paleointensities are observed both in one of the new profiles (RM) and previous studies of sites distributed across the lava field. These variations do not correlate with any of the measured physical or magnetic properties of the flows. At any one site the mean directions are well defined and it is only when considered collectively that the inconsistencies are recognized. Intra-flow and inter-site PI variations are large: a total of 117 determinations yield between 36.6 and 139.7 μT. Within this range it is difficult to recognize a best estimate on the basis of rock magnetic criteria. These results raise questions about the reliability of lavas as paleomagnetic recorders and highlight the importance of sampling strategy in obtaining representative flow-mean parameters. Thellier-type PI data from Mexico are related to global records, which could indicate that non-dipole features might be responsible for the higher than expected results. However, the scarcity of available data obscures the significance of this observation and the balance of evidence rather suggest an artificial biasing of most measurements towards high values. This is in contrasts to the AMS results, which suggests that in the Xitle lava flows their (almost) lower part are the best to give reliable PI studies results.

  5. Marte Vallis Platy Flows (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  6. Arc lavas on both sides of a trench: Slab window effects at the Solomon Islands triple junction, SW Pacific (United States)

    Chadwick, John; Perfit, Michael; McInnes, Brent; Kamenov, George; Plank, Terry; Jonasson, Ian; Chadwick, Claire


    The Woodlark Spreading Center (WSC) is subducted at the San Cristobal trench, forming a triple junction at the New Georgia Group (NGG) arc in the Solomon Islands. WSC lavas are N-MORB at > 100 km from the trench, but with decreasing distance they have increasingly arc-like Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios, enrichments in Rb > K > Pb > Sr, and depletions in HFSE and Y. Within 50 km of the trench on the Simbo and Ghizo Ridges, many recovered samples are island arc tholeiites to medium-K calc-alkaline andesites and dacites, and many have the same or similar major and trace element and isotopic characteristics as true arc lavas in the NGG on the other side of the trench. Previous investigations have concluded that these WSC lavas are the result of relic back arc mantle enrichments resulting from subduction of the Pacific plate prior to the late Miocene at the North Solomon trench, > 200 km to the north. However, the high-silica WSC lavas are more arc-like than those recovered from other distal back arcs, and are more voluminous, forming large submarine ridges and stratovolcanoes. We suggest that true arc mantle migrates across the plate boundary from the adjacent NGG arc through slab windows created by the subduction of the WSC. This leads to variable mixing between NGG arc and WSC N-MORB end-members, forming the transitional lavas recovered from the WSC. Lavas with similar arc-like characteristics have previously been recovered on the Chile Rise near where it is subducted at the Chile Trench, raising the possibility that such mantle transfer is a common phenomenon where active spreading centers are subducted. The presence of slab windows may also be responsible for the unusual forearc volcanism in the NGG, and melting of slab window margins may account for the presence of high-silica adakite-like lavas on the WSC.

  7. Mapping and Assessing Surface Morphology of Holocene Lava Field in Krafla (NE Iceland) Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing (United States)

    Aufaristama, M.; Höskuldsson, A.; Jónsdóttir, I.; Ólafsdóttir, R.


    Iceland is well known for its volcanic activity due to its location on the spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge and one of the earth's hot spot. In the past 1000 years there were about 200 eruptions occurring in Iceland, meaning volcanic eruptions occurred every four to five years, on average. Iceland currently has 30 active volcano systems, distributed evenly throughout the so- called Neovolcanic Zone. One of these volcanic systems is the Krafla central volcano, which is located in the northern Iceland at latitude 65°42'53'' N and longitude 16°43'40'' W. Krafla has produced two volcanic events in historic times: 1724-1729 (Myvatn Fires) and 1975-1984 (Krafla Fires). The Krafla Fires began in December 1975 and lasted until September 1984. This event covered about 36-km2 surrounding area with lava, having a total volume of 0.25-0.3 km3. Previous studies of lava surface morphology at Krafla focused on an open channel area by remote sensing are essential as a complementary tool to the previous investigations and to extend the area of mapping. Using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification approach by selecting spectral reflectance end members, this study has successfully produced a detailed map of the surface morphology in Krafla lava field EO-1 Hyperion (Hyperspectral) satellite images. The overall accuracy of lava morphology map is 61.33% (EO-1 Hyperion). These results show that hyperspectral remote sensing is an acceptable alternative to field mapping and assessing the lava surface morphology in the Krafla lava field. In order to get validation of the satellite image's spectral reflectance, in-situ measurements of the lava field's spectral reflectance using ASD FieldSpec3 is essential.

  8. The scarcity of mappable flow lobes on the lunar maria - Unique morphology of the Imbrium flows (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.; Boyce, J. M.; Moore, H. J.


    Unique features of Imbrium lava flows are their thickness (10-30 + m) and lengths (up to 400 km for phase-III, and up to 600 km for phase-II) when compared along later Imbrium and Eratosthenian units. They are distinct by virtue of their inferred short-lived (on the order of days) and extremely rapid rates of effusion. It is shown that there are numerous other basalt eruptives within the young blue western maria. The emplacement of these flows was by complex multilayering and intertonguing of individual flow units with thicknesses less than 10 m. They are generally restricted to the near vicinity of multiple vent sources.

  9. Unravelling textural heterogeneity in obsidian: Shear-induced outgassing in the Rocche Rosse flow (United States)

    Shields, J. K.; Mader, H. M.; Caricchi, L.; Tuffen, H.; Mueller, S.; Pistone, M.; Baumgartner, L.


    Obsidian flow emplacement is a complex and understudied aspect of silicic volcanism. Of particular importance is the question of how highly viscous magma can lose sufficient gas in order to erupt effusively as a lava flow. Using an array of methods we study the extreme textural heterogeneity of the Rocche Rosse obsidian flow in Lipari, a 2 km long, 100 m thick, ~ 800 year old lava flow, with respect to outgassing and emplacement mechanisms. 2D and 3D vesicle analyses and density measurements are used to classify the lava into four textural types: 'glassy' obsidian ( 40% vesicles), high aspect ratio, 'shear banded' lava (20-40% vesicles) and low aspect ratio, 'frothy' obsidian with 30-60% vesicles. Textural heterogeneity is observed on all scales (m to μm) and occurs as the result of strongly localised strain. Magnetic fabric, described by oblate and prolate susceptibility ellipsoids, records high and variable degrees of shearing throughout the flow. Total water contents are derived using both thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy to quantify primary (magmatic) and secondary (meteoric) water. Glass water contents are between 0.08-0.25 wt.%. Water analysis also reveals an increase in water content from glassy obsidian bands towards 'frothy' bands of 0.06-0.08 wt.%, reflecting preferential vesiculation of higher water bands and an extreme sensitivity of obsidian degassing to water content. We present an outgassing model that reconciles textural, volatile and magnetic data to indicate that obsidian is generated from multiple shear-induced outgassing cycles, whereby vesicular magma outgasses and densifies through bubble collapse and fracture healing to form obsidian, which then re-vesiculates to produce 'dry' vesicular magma. Repetition of this cycle throughout magma ascent results in the low water contents of the Rocche Rosse lavas and the final stage in the degassing cycle determines final lava porosity. Heterogeneities in lava rheology (vesicularity, water

  10. Identification of possible recent water/lava source fissures in the Cerberus Plains: stratigraphic and crater count age constraints (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca J.


    The Cerberus plains are one of the youngest surfaces on Mars. They are thought to have been formed by lava and/or water flows, but there is considerable debate regarding the source of this material. Much of the material forming the western plains, including the Athabasca Valles outflow channels, appears to have flowed from the region of the Cerberus Fossae graben system [1,2,3] and limited areas forming the eastern plains may have been erupted by low shield volcanoes [4,5]. However, flow of material from west to east is obstructed by a ridge centred on 157°E, 7°N and, prior to this study, vents which might be the source of fluid of a low enough viscosity to form the majority of the flat eastern plains had not been identified. We studied new HiRISE (25cm/px, High Resolution Science Imaging Experiment) images of the ridge between the east and west plains and observed possible source vents for this material: the ridge is cut by a series of pits and fissures which lie at the heads of flows and channels extending towards the surrounding plains. In order to establish the stratigraphic relationships between the vents and plains, this study produced large scale geomorphological maps based on the HiRISE images. The mapping showed that both incised channels and leveed flows extend onto the plain to the south of the ridge and that these were the final phase of plains-forming activity in that region. Conversely, to the north, ridge-sourced deposits only form the plains surface close to the ridge - beyond that, they are overlain by large-scale regional flows that appear to have originated from the direction of Athabasca Valles. In the southeast, a large-scale flow which does not emanate from this ridge forms the plains surface, but there is evidence that the youngest outflow activity from the ridge was contemporaneous with emplacement of this unit. We also performed crater counts to age-date the surfaces and these indicate that plains-forming and ridge-sourced units are of a

  11. Lava and Life: New investigations into the Carson Volcanics, lower Kimberley Basin, north Western Australia (United States)

    Orth, Karin; Phillips, Chris; Hollis, Julie


    The Carson Volcanics are the only volcanic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Kimberley Basin and are part of a poorly studied Large Igneous Province (LIP) that was active at 1790 Ma. New work focussing on this LIP in 2012 and 2013 involved helicopter-supported traverses and sampling of the Carson Volcanics in remote areas near Kalumburu in far north Western Australia's Kimberley region. The succession is widespread and flat lying to gently dipping. It consists of three to six basalt units with intercalated sandstone and siltstone. The basalts are 20-40 m thick, but can be traced up to 60 km along strike. The basalt can be massive or amygdaloidal and commonly display polygonal to subhorizontal and rare vertical columnar jointing. Features of the basalt include ropy lava tops and basal pipe vesicles consistent with pahoehoe lavas. The intercalated cross-bedded quartzofeldspathic sandstone and siltstone vary in thickness up to 40 m and can be traced up to 40 km along strike. Peperite is common and indicates interaction between wet, unconsolidated sediment and hot lava. Stromatolitic chert at the top of the formation represents the oldest life found within the Kimberley region. Mud cracks evident in the sedimentary rocks, and stromatolites suggest an emergent broad tidal flat environment. The volcanics were extruded onto a wide marginal margin setting subject to frequent flooding events. Thickening of the volcanic succession south and the palaeocurrents in the underlying King Leopold Sandstone and the overlying Warton Sandstone suggest that this shelf sloped to the south. The type of basalt and the basalt morphology indicate a low slope gradient of about 1°.

  12. Lava ultimate resin nano ceramic for CAD/ CAM: customization case study. (United States)

    Koller, M; Arnetzl, G V; Holly, L; Arnetzl, G


    Lava Ultimate Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) blocks are innovative new CAD/CAM materials that make it possible to achieve superior esthetic results in easy steps. The blocks are made of nano ceramic particles embedded in a highly cured resin matrix. Therefore, composite materials can be used to characterize and adjust resin nano ceramic restorations after milling. The milled RNC restorations can be individualized intra-orally or extra-orally, either before or after insertion. Unlike conventional ceramic restorations, customization and glaze firing is neither necessary nor possible with RNC restorations. This opens up the opportunity for intraoral individualization and adaptation of the restorations. PMID:22891419

  13. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan


    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  14. The petrogenesis of high-calcium boninite lavas dredged from the northern Tonga ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falloon, T.J.; Crawford, A.J. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Tasmania, Sandy Bay (Australia))


    In 1984 the research vessel 'Natsushima' dredged a fresh suite of MgO- and SiO{sub 2}-rich lavas from the northern termination of the northern Tonga ridge. These lavas are high-Ca boninites and are characterized by the presence of magnesian olivine (up to Fo{sub 94}), orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, Cr-rich spinel and calcic plagioclase (>An{sub 90}) phenocrysts. Boninite lavas from one dredge site, station 21, range in MgO contents from 3-15 wt% and their major element chemistry appears to be consistent with production of this suite via crystal fractionation. However, large variations in incompatible trace element ratios plus petrographic and mineral chemical evidence demonstrate that magma mixing has been an important process. The isotopic (Sr, Nd) composition of the Tongan high-Ca boninites suggest that their mantle sources are part of a regional OIB mantle domain upwelling beneath the Fiji-Lau Tonga subduction zone system. The OIB mantle source to the Tongan boninites was of refractory lherzolite composition, depleted in 'basaltic' components by prior generation of Lau Basin back arc crust. The mantle sources of the Tongan high-Ca boninites have been enriched in incompatible elements by one or more metasomatic phases, suggested to be a hydrous fluid from the subducting lithospheric slab, a carbonatite melt and a small-degree silicate partial melt both derived from OIB mantle sources. There is no evidence for the involvement of sediment in the source of the Tonga boninites. The presence of the high-Ca boninite lavas at the northern end of the Tonga ridge can be explained by the presence of a northeast-directed spreading ridge in the northern part of the Lau Basin which is propagating into the north Tonga arc. Upwelling asthenospheric mantle beneath the spreading ridge may cause partial melting of refractory peridotite located in the mantle wedge above the subducting Pacific plate at shallow depths (<25 km). (orig.).

  15. Origins and Implications of Zigzag Rift atterns on the surface of lava lakes (United States)

    Karlstrom, L.; Manga, M.


    The distinctive rift patterns observed on newly formed lava lakes are very likely a product of interaction between heat transfer (cooling of lava) and the ability of the solid crust to deform in response to applied stresses. Ragnarsson et al. ( Phys Rev Lett. 1996) observed similar features in analog wax experiments. The experimental setup consisted of a layer of liquid wax heated from below and cooled from above to create a solid crust, which is then pulled apart to form a rift filled with liquid wax. Of particular interest for lava lakes is a regime in which "zigzag" shaped rifts form. We performed a similar series of analog wax experiments designed to characterize the symmetric zigzag rift patterns associated with the cooling and deformation of a newly formed crust layer. The experimental setup is similar to that in Manga and Sinton ( JGR 2004). We vary the wind speed, which controls the cooling rate, and pulling speed. The rifts are characterized by two quantities: the angle between rifts and a line perpendicular to the pulling direction Φ, and the amplitude of the zigzags A. We find experimentally the relationship between Φ, A and cooling rate. We also develop a model to explain the observed relationships: Φ is determined by a balance of pulling and solidification speeds, the latter being governed by wind speed (the primary control on cooling rate); the amplitude A is limited by the thickness of the solid wax crust. The theoretical model is based on a local energy balance in which the conductive heat flux through solidifying crust is balanced by convective and radiative heat loss to the overlying air. Model predictions agree well with experimental results. We can scale this model to basaltic lava lakes. Observed angles are consistent with model predictions. The critical thickness of the solid crust, limiting the amplitude of zigzags (and rift propagation) is a few centimeters, consistent with other estimates (Harris et al., JVGR 2005). The model enables us

  16. An astronomical age for the Bishop Tuff and concordance with radioisotopic dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Zeeden, Christian; Storey, Michael


    The Bishop Tuff forms a key stratigraphic horizon for synchronization of Quaternary sedimentary records in North America. The unit stratigraphically overlies the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal by several thousand years; high-precision dating of this tuff may be valuable for regional...... and global correlation of records. The Quaternary time scale is anchored by 40Ar/39Ar ages on lava flows and ash layers where available, with stage boundaries and geomagnetic reversals including astronomically tuned records. However, astronomical dating has not yet validated the high-precision 238U/206Pb...

  17. Preliminary paragenetic interpretation of the Quaternary topaz rhyolite lava domes of the Blackfoot volcanic field, southeastern Idaho (United States)

    Lochridge, W. K., Jr.; McCurry, M. O.; Goldsby, R.


    The Quaternary topaz rhyolite lava domes of the bimodal, basalt-dominated Blackfoot volcanic field (BVF), SE Idaho occur in three clusters. We refer to these as the China Hat lava dome field (southernmost; ~ 57 ka), and the 1.4 to 1.5 Ma Sheep Island and White Mountain (northernmost) lava dome fields. The rhyolites and surrounding, more voluminous basalt lavas closely resemble coeval Quaternary rocks erupted to the north along the Eastern Snake River Plain segment of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic track. However rhyolites in BVF are distinguished by having more evolved Sr- and Nd-isotopic ratios, as well as having phenocryst assemblages that includes hydrous phases (biotite and hornblende), thorite, and vapor-phase topaz. This study seeks to improve our understanding of the unique conditions of magma evolution that led to these differences. We focus on textural features of major and accessory phenocrysts as a basis for inferring paragenesis for rhyolites from the China Hat lava dome field. Preliminary work indicates that there are three sequentially formed populations of textures among magmatic phases: 1. population of anhedral quartz and plagioclase; 2. population of euhedral grains that includes quartz, sandine, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, Fe-Ti oxides, zircon and apatite; 3. boxy cellular (skeletal?) sanidine and quartz. We speculate that the first population are resorbed antecrysts, the second formed prior to eruption as autocrysts (at or near equilibrium?), and the third formed soon before or during eruption.

  18. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genter, D.L.


    Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and P. townsendii hibernate throughout much of the area, occasionally in mixed-species groups. Myotis leibii uses the dark and protected regions of the cave, usually wedged into tiny pockets and crevices near or at the highest portion of the ceiling. Individuals of P. townsendii may be found at any height or depth in the cave. Temperature appears to be primary limiting factor in habitat selection. Myotis leibii was found in significantly cooler air temperatures than P. townsendii. Neither species tolerated continuous temperatures below 1.5 C. Relative humidity does not seem to be a significant factor in the distribution or habitat selection of the two species in lava-tube caves. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. The emplacement of pahoehoe lavas on Kilauea and in the Deccan Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H C Sheth


    There is a growing interest in deciphering the emplacement and environmental impact of flood basalt provinces such as the Deccan, India. Observations of active volcanism lead to meaningful interpretations of now-extinct volcanic systems. Here, I illustrate and discuss the morphology and emplacement of the modern and active lava flows of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii, and based on them, interpret the compound pahoehoe lavas of the Deccan Traps. The latter are vastly larger (areally extensive and voluminous) than Kilauea flows, and yet, their internal architecture is the same as that of Kilauea flows, and even the sizes of individual flow units often identical. Many or most compound flows of the Deccan Traps were emplaced in a gentle, effusive, Kilauea-like fashion. Bulk eruption rates for the Deccan province are unknown, and were probably high, but the local eruption rates of the compound flows were no larger than Kilauea’s. Large (≥ 1000 km3) individual compound pahoehoe flows in the Deccan could have been emplaced at Kilauea-like local eruption rates (1 m3/sec per metre length of fissure) in a decade or less, given fissures of sufficient length (tens of kilometres), now exposed as dyke swarms in the province.

  20. Genesis of adakite-like lavas of Licancabur volcano (Chile—Bolivia, Central Andes) (United States)

    Figueroa, Oscar; Déruelle, Bernard; Demaiffe, Daniel


    The Licancabur volcano is located on the Bolivia—Chile Altiplano (Central Andes). The lavas are andesites and dacites. Numerous mineralogic features attest that magma mixing occurred. Andesites have concave (spoon-shaped) REE patterns whereas dacites have steep slopes. A spectacular crossover of patterns occurs with increasing SiO 2. Most geochemical discrimination criteria of adakites are satisfied by Licancabur dacites, except their high Sr-isotope compositions (> 0.7075). For the genesis of the Licancabur adakite-like lavas, a four-step model is proposed: (1) partial melting (5 to 10 wt %) of a subducted altered oceanic crust; (2) hybridation (< 10 wt %) of the magmas with melts derived from the overlying lithospheric mantle; (3) contamination (≈ 1 wt %) of these hybrid magmas by TTG-type granodiorites of the Archean lower continental crust (with present-day Sr-isotope ratios ≈ 0.820); (4) evolution and differentiation by crystal fractionation (< 6 wt %) and magma mixing at upper crustal levels.

  1. Isotopic and trace element constraints on the genesis of the Faeroe lava pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basaltic lavas from the Faeroe Islands form three stratigraphic series which define two geochemical groups. Both the lower and middle series are LREE enriched ((La/Yb)sub(e.f.): 2-3) and are characterized by convex LREE profiles; in contrast, the upper series comprises both depleted ((La/Yb)sub(e.f.): 0.45-0.6) and enriched lavas. This twofold geochemical division is also evident from the incompatible trace elements such as Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta and the compatible trace elements Cr, Ni, Sr and Y. Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic measurements show that the basalts are contaminated by crustal materials, implying the presence of Precambrian sialic basement underneath the Faeroes block, a conclusion supported by geophysical data. The uncontaminated end-members, for the LREE-depleted basalts (87Sr/86Sr)0 approx.= 0.7026 and epsilonNd0 + 10 and for the LREE-enriched basalts (87Sr/86Sr)0 approx.= 0.7034 and epsilonNd0 + 9, require two different mantle source regions thus posing serious problems for petrogenetic models such as dynamic partial melting which have been proposed for the Faeroes. We interpret the LREE-depleted basalts as partial melts of the oceanic asthenosphere whilst the LREE-enriched basalts may result either from the partial melting of deep mantle blobs or of the subcontinental lithosphere during upwelling of the asthenosphere. (orig.)

  2. Assessing the origin of unusual organic formations in lava caves from Canary Islands (Spain) (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; de la Rosa, Jose M.; Garcia-Sanchez, Angela M.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Jurado, Valme; Fernández, Octavio; Knicker, Heike; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo


    Lava tubes, like other caves, contain a variety of speleothems formed in the initial stage of a lava tube formation or due to leaching and subsequent precipitation of secondary minerals. Primary and secondary mineral formations in lava caves are mainly composed of silicate minerals, although secondary minerals common in limestone caves have been also reported in this type of caves. In addition, unusual colored deposits have been found on the walls and ceilings of lava tubes, some of them of unknown origin and composition. A brown to black-colored mud-like deposits was observed in "Llano de los Caños" Cave, La Palma Island, Canary Islands, Spain. These black deposits coat the wall and ceiling of the lava tube where sub-horizontal fractures occur. FESEM-EDS, X-ray micro-computed tomography and mineralogical analyses were conducted for morphological, 3D microstructural and compositional characterization of these unusual speleothem samples. These techniques revealed that they are mainly composed of amorphous materials, suggesting an organic carbon composition. Hence, analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS), solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and stable isotope analysis were applied to assess the nature and origin of the black deposits. The combination of these analytical tools permits the identification of specific biomarkers (di- and triterpenoids) for tracing the potential sources of the organic compounds in the speleothems. For comparison purposes, samples from the topsoil and overlaying vegetation were also analyzed. Chromatograms resulting from the Py-GC/MS showed an abundance of polysaccharides, lipids and terpenoids typically derived from the vegetation of the area (Erica arborea). In addition, levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-containing heterocyclic compounds were detected. They probably derived from the leaching of charred vegetation resulting from a wildfire occurred in the area in 2012. The lack of the typical pattern of odd

  3. Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic constraints on the origin of silicic lavas in the northern Cascade Arc (United States)

    Martindale, M.; Mullen, E.; Weis, D.


    The Cascade Arc is the type-locality for a 'hot' subduction zone, where the downgoing slab is young and subduction is relatively slow; a unique setting for studying the controls on silicic (>56 wt% SiO2) magma genesis [1,2]. We present high precision Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic and trace element data for silicic lavas and country rocks from the major centres of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt (GVB) in British Columbia, which are hosted by the Mesozoic Coast Plutonic Complex and accreted Coast Belt terranes. In isotopic plots, the silicic GVB lavas define mixing curves between northern Cascadia Basin sediment [3] and Juan de Fuca MORB. The silicic GVB lavas have lower ɛNd, and higher ɛHf, 87Sr/86Sr, 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb for a given 206Pb/204Pb than co-existing alkalic mafic lavas [2,4] which define a separate isotopic cluster. The alkalic mafic lavas have OIB-like trace element compositions [2,4], but the silicic lavas are calc-alkaline with a typical 'arc' trace element signature. Geochemical systematics suggest that a mafic, isotopically 'depleted' contaminant may be affecting the composition of GVB silicic lavas. However, modelling indicates that slab melts do not constitute a major component of the lavas despite high slab temperatures. Geochemical models also rule out the accreted Coast Belt terranes as an assimilant. However, AFC modelling using 147 Ma Cloudburst quartz diorite [5] as the assimilant can explain both the trace element and isotopic compositional range displayed by GVB silicic magmas, consistent with the Coast Plutonic Complex as a major component of the deep crust in this region. Crustal assimilation would have partially overprinted any alkalic mantle-derived signature of parental magmas, while imparting a calc-alkaline arc signature to resulting silicic magmas. [1] Green & Harry (1999) EPSL, 171; [2] Mullen & Weis (2013) G3, 14; [3] Carpentier et al. (2014) Chem Geol, 382; [4] Mullen & Weis (2015) EPSL, 414; [5] Friedman & Armstrong (1995) GSA

  4. Thermoluminescence dating of the latest lava domes at Unzen Volcano, NW Kyushu, Japan. Eruption history of the past 25,000 years after Myokendake Volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) ages are obtained for 28 samples from domes and debris avalanche deposit of Younger Unzen Volcano. Weighted mean ages are 4.1 ±0.8 ka for Tenguyama lava, 3.8±0.6 ka for Shichimenzan lava, 3.1±0.6 ka for Fugendake-sancho lava, 3.4±0.6 ka for Kazaana lava, 15±2 ka for Myokendake lava, 25±4 ka for Kunimidake lava. Six TL ages for Tarukidaichi debris avalanche deposit range from 20±2 ka to 30±3 ka. We success to distinguish individual dome age by TL dating. Source rock of Tarukidaichi debris avalanche deposit is Kunimidake lava and age range of formation is estimated as 25 ka to 7.3 cal ka by TL dating and field observation. We gave new and useful age data of Younger Unzen Volcanic lavas by TL dating with age range about 25 ka to 3 ka. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S. Chuvashova


    Full Text Available It is revealed that high-Mg lavas (MgO=11.0–15.8 wt. % are spatially controlled by linear zones extending for more than 90 km and demonstrate chemically distinct differences from moderately-Mg compositions (MgO=3.0–11.0 wt. %, which occupy the isometric area of the Dariganga volcanic field. From the major and trace-element data on the rocks in the field under study, we have justified a petrogenetic mode of the uniform one-level mantle magmatism. Our model differs from the contrasting magmatism model of the processes that developed at two levels beneath the Hannuoba volcanic field. Based on tomography images showing the East Mongolian local low-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle, we suggest that magmatism of Type 1 occurred in the mantle sources at the asthenosphere–lithosphere boundary and the underlying asthenosphere as a reflection of a relatively weak mantle flow that may have ascended from a depth of ~250 km. Magmatism of Type 2 occurred in the isolated sources of the sublithospheric mantle and the asthenosphere–lithosphere boundary as an evidence on the initially strong mantle flow that may have ascended from a depth of ~410 km.

  6. Reply. [To comment on 'Formation of Venusian canali: Considerations of lava types and their thermal behaviors' by T. K. P. Gregg and R. Greeley (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Greeley, Ronald


    Treiman (this issue) argues that the melting temperature of carbonatite used by Gregg and Greeley (1993) is too low, and that values presented for other thermophysical properties for carbonatite lava are more appropriate for carbonatite rock. With the exception of the mechanical solidification temperature, values presented by Gregg and Greeley (1993) were taken directly, or calculated, from values presented within the works by Dawson et al. (1990) and Keller and Krafft (1990). Because a mechanical solidification temperature for carbonatite lavas was not presented in those works, we estimated one based on extrusion temperature, Venusian surface pressure, and the temperatures measured in cooling carbonatite lava lakes. We have reexamined values shown for properties of carbonatite lavas used by Gregg and Greeley (1993), and concur that Treiman's arguments (Treiman, this issue) are valid. Here, we present results of analyses described in Gregg and Greeley 1993, using values for the properties of carbonatite lavas obtained from Treiman and Schedl (1983) and Norton and Pinkerton (1990).

  7. Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE): Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) Capillary Fluid Dynamic Restriction Effects on Gas Chromatography (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne; Quinn, Jacqueline; Captain, Janine; Santiago-Bond, Josephine; Starr, Stanley


    The Resource Prospector (RP) mission with the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload aims to show the presence of water in lunar regolith, and establish a proving ground for NASAs mission to Mars. One of the analysis is performed by the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem, which consists of a fluid network that facilitates the transport of volatile samples to a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument. The understanding of fluid dynamics directed from the GC to the MS is important due to the influence of flow rates and pressures that affect the accuracy of and prevent the damage to the overall GC-MS instrument. The micro-scale capillary fluid network within the GC alone has various lengths and inner-diameters; therefore, determination of pressure differentials and flow rates are difficult to model computationally, with additional complexity from the vacuum conditions in space and lack of a lunar atmosphere. A series of tests were performed on an experimental set-up of the system where the inner diameters of the GC transfer line connecting to the MS were varied. The effect on chromatography readings were also studied by applying these lines onto a GC instrument. It was found that a smaller inner diameter transfer line resulted in a lower flow rate, as well as a lower pressure differential across the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) unit of the GC and a negligible pressure drop across the mock-up capillary column. The chromatography was affected with longer retention times and broader peak integrations. It was concluded that a 0.050 mm inner diameter line still proved most suitable for the systems flow rate preferences. In addition, it was evident that this small transfer line portrayed some expense to GC signal characteristics and the wait time for steady-state operation.

  8. Enriched component of the proto-Icelandic mantle plume revealed in alkaline Tertiary lavas from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Stefan; Brooks, Charles Kent; Stecher, Ole


    similar to those of the alkaline lavas. These features are not caused by fractional crystallization or crustal contamination and are thus regarded as inherited from the mantle source. The trace element profiles and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the flood basalts are shown to be consistent with a...

  9. Calculation of lava discharge rates during effusive eruptions: an empirical approach using MODIS Middle InfraRed data (United States)

    Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Cigolini, Corrado


    The rate at which the lava is erupted is a crucial parameter to be monitored during any volcanic eruption. However, its accurate and systematic measurement, throughout the whole duration of an event, remains a big challenge, also for volcanologists working on highly studied and well monitored volcanoes. The thermal approach (also known as thermal proxy) is actually one of most promising techniques adopted during effusive eruptions, since it allows to estimate Time Averaged lava Discharge Rates (TADR) from remote-sensed infrared data acquired several time per day. However, due to the complexity of the physic behind the effusive phenomenon and the difficulty to have field validations, the application of the thermal proxy is still debated and limited to few volcanoes only. Here we present the analysis of MODIS Middle InfraRed data, collected by during several distinct eruptions, in order to show how an alternative, empirical method (called radiant density approach; Coppola et al., 2013) permit to estimate TADRs over a wide range of emplacement styles and lava compositions. We suggest that the simplicity of this empirical approach allows its rapid application during eruptive crisis, and provides the basis for more complex models based on the cooling and spreading processes of the active lava bodies.

  10. A Home Made Lava Lamp That Demonstrates Thermochemical Convection in Action and is Unlikely to Cause Fatal Injuries to Students (United States)

    Moresi, L.; Farrington, R.; Moradi, H.; Kiel, P.


    It can be quite difficult to instill an intuitive sense of the scaling relationships for mantle convection to a class of geology students, but the use of various props can help. One favorite demonstration tool is the good old lava lamp which, coincidentally, first went on sale at the very time plate tectonic theory was gaining acceptance. Armed with one or more lava lamps, a lecturer can quickly impress upon students how scaling effects such as viscosity, heat input, gravitional acceleration influence the vigour of convection - a first step to understanding basic concepts such as Rayleigh number from a non-mathematical perspective. For more advanced students it is instructive to build a lava lamp for themselves because then it is necessary to understand the trade-off between chemical and thermal buoyancy, and how the equivalent scaling relationships to the purely thermal convection case play out. However, most of the recipes for lava lamps which you can find on the web involve the use of highly toxic substances, often flammable, and suggest the use of mains electricity to provide the light and heat. Needless to say, university safety officers and concerned parents are nervous about permitting such activities in student offices, dorms or at home. We share their concerns, of course, and here suggest a number of relatively safe alternatives which can be constructed from supermarket foodstuffs and cosmetic products together with heat sources such as a cappucino machine, a laptop running finite element simulations, as well as sealed chemical handwarmers.

  11. LAVA Subsystem Integration and Testing for the RESOLVE Payload of the Resource Prospector Mission: Mass Spectrometers and Gas Chromatography (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Stewart, Elaine M.


    The Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is part of Resource Prospector (RP) along with a rover and a lander that are expected to launch in 2020. RP will identify volatile elements that may be combined and collected to be used for fuel, air, and water in order to enable deeper space exploration. The Resource Prospector mission is a key part of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The demand for this method of utilizing resources at the site of exploration is increasing due to the cost of resupply missions and deep space exploration goals. The RESOLVE payload includes the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The main instrument used to identify the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith is the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). LAVA analyzes the volatiles emitted from the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem. The objective of OVEN is to obtain, weigh, heat and transfer evolved gases to LAVA through the connection between the two subsystems called the LOVEN line. This paper highlights the work completed during a ten week internship that involved the integration, testing, data analysis, and procedure documentation of two candidate mass spectrometers for the LAVA subsystem in order to aid in determining which model to use for flight. Additionally, the examination of data from the integrated Resource Prospector '15 (RP' 15) field test will be presented in order to characterize the amount of water detected from water doped regolith samples.

  12. 3-päevane üliõpilastöö - "Roheline lava" = 3-day student project - "Green stage"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tutvustatakse Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkooli Arhitektuuri õppetooli õpitoa "Intelligentsed konstruktsioonid" raames 4. kursuse arhitektuuri ja ehituse eriala üliõpilaste kavandatud 11 "Rohelise lava" lahendust Tallinna lauluväljaku maa-alale. Üliõpilasi juhendasid Irina Raud ja Stefan Polonyi (Saksamaa)

  13. Iron isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation in Kilauea Iki lava lake (United States)

    Teng, F.-Z.; Dauphas, N.; Helz, R.T.


    Magmatic differentiation helps produce the chemical and petrographic diversity of terrestrial rocks. The extent to which magmatic differentiation fractionates nonradiogenic isotopes is uncertain for some elements. We report analyses of iron isotopes in basalts from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The iron isotopic compositions (56Fe/54Fe) of late-stage melt veins are 0.2 per mil (???) greater than values for olivine cumulates. Olivine phenocrysts are up to 1.2??? lighter than those of whole rocks. These results demonstrate that iron isotopes fractionate during magmatic differentiation at both whole-rock and crystal scales. This characteristic of iron relative to the characteristics of magnesium and lithium, for which no fractionation has been found, may be related to its complex redox chemistry in magmatic systems and makes iron a potential tool for studying planetary differentiation.

  14. Lithologic combinations in Romanesque churches of Álava, northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Torres, L. M.


    Full Text Available Certain windows and doorways on twenty five Romanesque churches of Álava (XII–XIII centuries were built using six types of rock in nine different combinations. These compositions were intended to highlight the contrast in colour between different rocks, from which it can be deduced that the openings were not hewn to be painted. After almost seven centuries during which the use of stone was anecdotal, Romanesque artists burst in with colourful blends, demonstrating a broad knowledge of the characteristics of each rock and its availability. The uniqueness of these openings is represented on lithologic maps which, in addition to facilitating its analysis and dissemination, serve as a reference in its restoration.Algunas ventanas y portadas de veinticinco iglesias románicas de Álava (siglos XII-XIII fueron construidas con hasta seis tipos de rocas en nueve combinaciones diferentes. Estas composiciones pretendían resaltar el contraste cromático entre rocas distintas, de lo que se deduce que los vanos no fueron tallados para ser policromados. Después de casi siete siglos en los que el uso de la piedra fuera anecdótico, los artistas románicos irrumpen con mezclas coloristas, mostrando un amplio conocimiento de las características de cada roca y su disponibilidad. La singularidad de estos vanos está representada en mapas litológicos que, además de facilitar su análisis y divulgación, servirán de referencia en su restauración

  15. Using Horizontal Cosmic Muons to Investigate the Density Distribution of the Popocatepetl Volcano Lava Dome (United States)

    Grabski, V.; Lemus, V.; Nuñez-Cadena, R.; Aguilar, S.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Fucugauchi, J. U.


    Study of volcanic inner density distributions using cosmic muons is an innovative method, which is still in stage of development[1]. The method can be used to determine the average density along the muon track, as well as the density distribution of any volume by measuring the attenuation of cosmic muon flux in it[2]. In this study we present an analysis of using the muon radiography, integrating geophysical data to determine the density distribution of the Popocatepetl volcano. Popocatepelt is a large andesitic stratovolcano built in the Trans-Mexican volcanic arc, which has been active over the past years. The recent activity includes emplacement of a lava dome, with vulcanian explosions and frequent scoria and ash emissions. The study is directed to detect any variations in the dome and magmatic conduit system in some interval of time in the volume of Popocatepetl volcano lava dome. The study forms part of a long-term project of volcanic hazard monitoring that includes the Popocatepetl and Colima volcanoes[3]. The volcanoes are being studied by conventional geophysical techniques, including aerogeophysical surveys directed to determine the internal structure and characterize source characteristics and mechanism. The detector design mostly depends on the volume size to be investigated as well as the image-taking frequency to detect dynamic density variations. In this study we present a detector prototype design and suggestions on data taking, transferring and analyzing systems. We also present the approximate cost estimation of the suggested detector and discussion on a proposal about the creation of a national network for a volcanic alarm system. References [1] eg.H. Tanaka, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 507 (2003) 657. [2] V. Grabski et al, NIM A 585 (2008) 128-135. [3] G. Conte, J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi, et al., International Geology Review, Vol. 46, 2004, p. 210-225.

  16. Nephelinite lavas at early stage of rift initiation (Hanang volcano, North Tanzanian Divergence) (United States)

    Baudouin, Céline; Parat, Fleurice; Denis, Carole M. M.; Mangasini, Fredrik


    North Tanzanian Divergence is the first stage of continental break-up of East African Rift (volcanoes. Hanang volcano is the southernmost volcano in the North Tanzanian Divergence and the earliest stage of rift initiation. Hanang volcano erupted silica-undersaturated alkaline lavas with zoned clinopyroxene, nepheline, andradite-schorlomite, titanite, apatite, and pyrrhotite. Lavas are low MgO-nephelinite with low Mg# and high silica content (Mg# = 22.4-35.2, SiO2 = 44.2-46.7 wt%, respectively), high incompatible element concentrations (e.g. REE, Ba, Sr) and display Nb-Ta fractionation (Nb/Ta = 36-61). Major elements of whole rock are consistent with magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallization from a parental melt with melilititic composition. Although fractional crystallization occurred at 9-12 km and can be considered as an important process leading to nephelinite magma, the complex zonation of cpx (e.g. abrupt change of Mg#, Nb/Ta, and H2O) and trace element patterns of nephelinites recorded magmatic differentiation involving open system with carbonate-silicate immiscibility and primary melilititic melt replenishment. The low water content of clinopyroxene (3-25 ppm wt. H2O) indicates that at least 0.3 wt% H2O was present at depth during carbonate-rich nephelinite crystallization at 340-640 MPa and 1050-1100 °C. Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang represent an early stage of the evolution path towards carbonatitic magmatism as observed in Oldoinyo Lengai. Paragenesis and geochemistry of Hanang nephelinites require the presence of CO2-rich melilititic liquid in the southern part of North Tanzanian Divergence and carbonate-rich melt percolations after deep partial melting of CO2-rich oxidized mantle source.

  17. Eruption of Alkaline Basalts Prior to the Calc-alkaline Lavas of Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Aleutian Arc, Alaska (United States)

    Bridges, D. L.; Nicolaysen, K. P.


    Mt. Cleveland is a 1,730 m stratovolcano, located on Chuginadak Island, that has erupted at least 23 times historically, with the latest occurring in August 2005. Major, trace, and REE analyses of 63 samples from Mt. Cleveland, including 8 from proximal cinder cones and 4 from andesitic domes on the lower flanks, identify two distinct lava suites. Modern Cleveland (MC) basalts to dacites (50.5-66.7 wt.% SiO2) exhibit a calc-alkaline differentiation trend. Major element trends suggest crystal fractionation of plagioclase +/- ortho- and clinopyroxene in MC lavas and olivine in cinder cone deposits. Resorption textures on plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts and multiple populations of plagioclase predominate throughout the MC suite suggesting magma mixing is a major process at Cleveland. Frothy white xenoliths of plagioclase + quartz + biotite are encased in glass and erupted as small pumiceous fragments in 2001. The partial resorption of the xenocrysts indicates assimilation is also an active crustal process at Cleveland. MC trace element spider diagrams exhibit a typical arc pattern in which HFS elements including Nb are depleted, and Pb and LIL elements are enriched. Th/La, Sm/La, and Sr, Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopic ratios indicate both a North Pacific MORB and a sediment component in the source of modern Cleveland lavas, consistent with sediment flux estimates of 90 to 95 m3/m/yr and an updip sediment thickness of 1300 to 1400 meters. Average 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 87Sr/86Sr, and 143Nd/144Nd values for the calc-alkaline suite are 18.93, 15.58, 0.70345, and 0.51303 respectively. The second suite consists of 3 olivine-rich, mildly alkaline basalts (48.5-49.4 wt.% SiO2), of older stratigraphic position than MC lavas representing deposits from an older phase of activity (ancestral Cleveland, AC). La/Yb, Sr/Y, and Th/Nb ratios indicate lower degrees of partial melting, relative to MC lavas, and suggests presence of garnet in the source region. The AC lavas, however, are

  18. Petrology and geochronology of lavas from Ka'ula Volcano: Implications for rejuvenated volcanism of the Hawaiian mantle plume (United States)

    Garcia, Michael O.; Weis, Dominique; Jicha, Brian R.; Ito, Garrett; Hanano, Diane


    Marine surveying and submersible sampling of Ka'ula Volcano, located 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian chain, revealed widespread areas of young volcanism. New 40Ar/39Ar and geochemical analyses of the olivine-phyric submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks show that Ka'ula is shrouded with 1.9-0.5 Ma alkalic basalts. The ages and chemistry of these rocks overlap with rejuvenated lavas on nearby, northern Hawaiian Island shields (Ni'ihau, Kaua'i and South Kaua'i Swell). Collectively, these rejuvenated lavas cover a vast area (∼7000 km2), much more extensive than any other area of rejuvenated volcanism worldwide. Ka'ula rejuvenated lavas range widely in alkalinity and incompatible element abundances (e.g., up to 10× P2O5 at a given MgO value) and ratios indicating variable degrees of melting of a heterogeneous source. Heavy REE elements in Ka'ula lavas are pinned at a mantle normalized Yb value of 10 ± 1, reflecting the presence of garnet in the source. Trace element ratios indicate the source also contained phlogopite and an Fe-Ti oxide. The new Ka'ula ages show that rejuvenated volcanism was nearly coeval from ∼0.3 to 0.6 Ma along a 450 km segment of the Hawaiian Islands (from West Maui to north of Ka'ula). The ages and volumes for rejuvenated volcanism are inconsistent with all but one geodynamic melting model proposed to date. This model advocates a significant contribution of pyroxenite to rejuvenated magmas. Analyses of olivine phenocryst compositions suggest a major (33-69%) pyroxenite component in Ka'ula rejuvenated lavas, which correlates positively with radiogenic Pb isotope ratios for Ka'ula. This correlation is also observed in lavas from nearby South Kaua'i lavas, as was reported for Atlantic oceanic islands. The presence of pyroxenite in the source may have extended the duration and volume of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism.

  19. Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido. Contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, 'pseudo growth curves' of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the 'density length' of volcanic borides when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics. (author)

  20. Comparison of Inflation Processes at the 1859 Mauna Loa Flow, HI, and the McCartys Flow Field, NM (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Zimbelman, James R.; Crumpler, Larry S.


    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes during flow emplacement. However, the importance of sheet flow in the development of basalt ic terrains received recognition over the last 15 years. George Walke r?s research on the 1859 Mauna Loa Flow was published posthumously in 2009. In this paper he discusses the concept of endogenous growth, or inflation, for the distal portion of this otherwise channeldominated lava flow. We used this work as a guide when visiting the 1859 flow to help us better interpret the inflation history of the McCartys flow field in NM. Both well preserved flows display similar clues about the process of inflation. The McCartys lava flow field is among the you ngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic lava flows in the continental United States. It was emplaced over slopes of <1 degree, which is similar to the location within the 1859 flow where inflation occurred. Although older than the 1859 flow, the McCartys is located in an arid environ ment and is among the most pristine examples of sheet flow morphologies. At the meter scale the flow surface typically forms smooth, undula ting swales that create a polygonal terrain. The literature for simil ar features includes multiple explanatory hypotheses, original breakouts from adjacent lobes, or inflation related upwarping of crust or sa gging along fractures that enable gas release. It is not clear which of these processes is responsible for polygonal terrains, and it is po ssible that one explanation is not the sole cause of this morphology between all inflated flows. Often, these smooth surfaces within an inflated sheet display lineated surfaces and occasional squeeze-ups alon g swale contacts. We interpret the lineations to preserve original fl ow direction and have begun mapping these orientations to better interpret the emplacement history. At the scale of 10s to 100s of meters t he flow comprises multiple topographic plateaus and depressions. Some depressions display level floors with

  1. Survey of Lava Tubes in the Former Puna Forest Reserve and on Adjacent State of Hawaii Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEldowney, H.; Stone, F.D.


    This study was initiated after members of the Puna community brought to the attention of the Historic Preservation Office that major lava tube systems extended from the Pahoa area into at least portions of the former Puna Forest Reserve. They were concerned that planned geothermal exploration and development could damage these lava tubes which they said contained extensive evidence of past Hawaiian use including fortifications, shrines, platforms and burials. Geothermal development is currently being planned by Campbell Estate and True Geothermal Energy Company in the southern portion of the former Reserve which has been designated by the State of Hawaii as one of the three Geothermal Sub-Zones in Puna. To demonstrate these claims, two staff members of the Historic Sites Section were shown examples in a lava tube makai of the Campbell Estate boundary. After reviewing the archaeological and historical reports commissioned for geothermal exploration, it was agreed that if these lava tubes did extend inland and continued to contain archaeological sites or burials then the potential of significant sub-surface sites had not been adequately addressed in the Historic Sites Section review process. Most reports acknowledged the possibility of lava tubes in the area and that they could contain burials, but no tube systems were ever identified or explored during any of the field surveys. These surveys primarily assessed the presence or absence of cultural properties that occur on the surface or as deposits within the soil layer. With the assistance of the Division of Water Resource Management (DWRM), the Historic Sites Section agreed to conduct this survey because those community members who came forward requested that this information be handled by a neutral party. They asked that documentation occur in such a manner that it could be kept as confidential as possible while still providing enough information to protect any sites from damage. The survey had three major aims

  2. Laminar flow of two miscible fluids in a simple network

    CERN Document Server

    Karst, Casey M; Geddes, John B


    When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, non-linear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of non-linear phenomena in a network with many inter-connections containing fluids with complex rheology may seem unsurprising, this paper demonstrates that even simple networks containing Newtonian fluids in laminar flow can demonstrate multiple equilibria. The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids of different density and viscosity through a simple network. The fluids stratify due to gravity and remain as nearly distinct phases with some mixing occurring only by d...

  3. Flowing Direction Determined Using Ams Technique On Volcanic Sections From The Kerguelen Archipelago. (United States)

    Plenier, G.; Camps, P.; Henry, B.

    Lava flows are known to present a low degree of anisotropy on the contrary of their rel- atively high magnetic susceptibility. AMS measurements thus provide scattered results and a large number of sample is needed to well define the mean directions. Moreover, local disturbances of flowing can switch the maximum and intermediate principal di- rections and can lead to erroneous interpretations. Despite theses difficulties, this study aim to determine flowing direction of five sections (a hundred lava flows) from the Ker- guelen archipelago using the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique and complete regional geological observations of Nougier (1970). Primarily sampled for paleosecular variation and paleointensity study, 7 samples per units were mea- sured using Kappabridges KLY2 and KLY3 at St Maur des Fosses and Montpellier, respectively. To limit the effect of flowing disturbances, we grouped all the lava flow in each section. We also filtered the data using F statistics, in order to remove statisti- cally indistinct directions and the three sigma limit on the A and B parameter defined by Canon Tapia et al. (1995). The mean directions of each section are obtained using tensor averaging method (Hext 1963, Jelinek 1978). The different confidence regions about the susceptibility axis, determined by means of linear perturbation analysis (Je- linek 1978, Lienert 1991), bootstrap method (Constable and Tauxe 1990) and bivariate extension of Fisher statistics (Henry and Le Goff 1995), are compared. Density plots of each mean direction and all combined are also used for interpretations. The study is still on progress. Our preliminary results provided coherent flowing directions and favor the use of AMS technique on lava flows if carefully interpreted.

  4. The stable vanadium isotope composition of the mantle and mafic lavas (United States)

    Prytulak, J.; Nielsen, S. G.; Ionov, D. A.; Halliday, A. N.; Harvey, J.; Kelley, K. A.; Niu, Y. L.; Peate, D. W.; Shimizu, K.; Sims, K. W. W.


    Vanadium exists in multiple valence states under terrestrial conditions (2+, 3+, 4+, 5+) and its isotopic composition in magmas potentially reflects the oxidation state of their mantle source. We present the first stable vanadium isotope measurements of 64 samples of well-characterized mantle-derived mafic and ultramafic rocks from diverse localities. The δ51V ranges from -0.27‰ to -1.29‰, reported relative to an Alfa Aesar (AA) vanadium solution standard defined as 0‰. This dataset is used to assess the effects of alteration, examine co-variation with other geochemical characteristics and define a value for the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). Variably serpentinised peridotites show no resolvable alteration-induced δ51V fractionation. Likewise, altered mafic oceanic crustal rocks have identical δ51V to fresh hand-picked MORB glass. Intense seafloor weathering can result in slightly (˜0.2-0.3‰) heavier isotope compositions, possibly related to late-stage addition of vanadium. The robustness of δ51V to common alteration processes bodes well for its potential application to ancient mafic material. The average δ51V of mafic lavas, including MORB, Icelandic tholeiites and lavas from the Shatsky Rise large igneous province is -0.88±0.27‰ 2sd. Peridotites show a large range in primary δ51V (-0.62‰ to -1.17‰), which co-varies positively with vanadium concentrations and indices of fertility such as Al2O3. Although these data suggest preferential extraction of heavier isotopes during partial melting, the isotope composition of basalts (δ51V=-0.88±0.27‰ 2sd) and MORB glass in particular (δ51V=-0.95±0.13‰ 2sd) is lighter than fertile peridotites and thus difficult to reconcile with a melt extraction scenario. Determination of fractionation factors between melt and mineral phases such as pyroxenes and garnet are necessary to fully understand the correlation. We arrive at an estimate of δ51VBSE=-0.7±0.2‰ (2sd) for the bulk silicate Earth by averaging

  5. Thermal, radioactive and magnetic properties of the lavas of the Mt Melbourne Volcanic Field (Victoria Land, Antarctica

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    Egidio Armadillo


    Full Text Available We present the results of measurements of physical properties carried out on mafic lavas from the Mt Melbourne
    Volcanic Field, useful for interpretation of geophysical surveys designed to shed light on the structure of the
    crust. The thermal conductivity is comparable to that of glass and shows a clear negative dependence on porosity.
    The volume heat capacity and the thermal diffusivity are less variable. The concentration of the thermally
    important natural radioactive isotopes was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Lavas denoted a rather low
    heat-production rate, and the largest concentration of heat-producing elements (potassium, uranium, thorium
    was found in the trachyte samples. The magnetic susceptibility is more variable than the other physical properties
    and, among the several iron-titanium oxides, it appears primarily controlled by the ulvöspinel-magnetite solid
    solution series.

  6. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA


    Ashley Roger P; Foster Andrea L; Rytuba James J


    Abstract Background A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As) derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS) s...

  7. Distinctly different parental magmas for calc-alkaline plutons and tholeiitic lavas in the central and eastern Aleutian arc (United States)

    Cai, Yue; Rioux, Matthew; Kelemen, Peter B.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Bolge, Louise; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    Cenozoic calc-alkaline plutons that comprise the middle crust of the central and eastern Aleutians have distinct isotopic and elemental compositions compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas in the same region, including those from the same islands. Therefore the Holocene lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Compared to the lavas, the Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks show higher SiO2 at a given Fe/Mg ratio, and have higher εNd-εHf values and lower Pb-Sr isotope ratios. However, the plutonic rocks strongly resemble calc-alkaline Holocene volcanics with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the western Aleutians, whose composition has been attributed to significant contributions from partial melting of subducted basaltic oceanic crust. These data could reflect a temporal variation of central and eastern Aleutian magma source compositions, from predominantly calc-alkaline compositions with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the Paleogene, to tholeiitic compositions with more "enriched" isotopes more recently. Alternatively, the differences between central Aleutian plutonic and volcanic rocks may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons versus lavas. Calc-alkaline parental magmas, with higher SiO2 and high viscosity, are likely to form plutons after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. This conclusion has overarching importance because the plutonic rocks are chemically similar to bulk continental crust. Formation of similar plutonic rocks worldwide may play a key role in the genesis and evolution of continental crust.

  8. Formation of lower continental crust by relamination of buoyant arc lavas and plutons (United States)

    Kelemen, Peter B.; Behn, Mark D.


    The formation of the Earth's continents is enigmatic. Volcanic arc magmas generated above subduction zones have geochemical compositions that are similar to continental crust, implying that arc magmatic processes played a central role in generating continental crust. Yet the deep crust within volcanic arcs has a very different composition from crust at similar depths beneath the continents. It is therefore unclear how arc crust is transformed into continental crust. The densest parts of arc lower crust may delaminate and become recycled into the underlying mantle. Here we show, however, that even after delamination, arc lower crust still has significantly different trace element contents from continental lower crust. We suggest that it is not delamination that determines the composition of continental crust, but relamination. In our conceptual model, buoyant magmatic rocks generated at arcs are subducted. Then, upon heating at depth, they ascend and are relaminated at the base of the overlying crust. A review of the average compositions of buoyant magmatic rocks -- lavas and plutons -- sampled from the Aleutians, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kohistan and Talkeetna arcs reveals that they fall within the range of estimated major and trace elements in lower continental crust. Relamination may thus provide an efficient process for generating lower continental crust.

  9. Morphometric comparison of Icelandic lava shield volcanoes versus selected Venusian edifices (United States)

    Garvin, James B.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.


    Shield volcanoes are common landforms on the silicate planets of the inner Solar System, and a wide variety have recently been documented on Venus by means of Magellan observations. In this report, we emphasize our recently completed morphometric analysis of three representative Icelandic lava shields: the classic Skjaldbreidur edifice, the low-reflief Lambahraun feature, and the monogenetic Sandfellshaed shield, as the basis for comparison with representative venusian edifices (greater than 60 km in diameter). Our detailed morphometric measurements of a representative and well-studied set of Icelandic volcanoes permits us to make comparisons with our measurements of a reasonable subset of shield-like edifices on Venus on the basis of Magellan global radar altimetry. Our study has been restricted to venusian features larger than approximately 60 km in basal diameter, on the basis of the minimum intrinsic spatial resolution (8 km) of the Magellan radar altimetry data. Finally, in order to examine the implications of landform scaling from terrestrial simple and composite shields to larger venusian varieties, we have considered the morphometry of the subaerial component of Mauna Loa, a type-locality for a composite shield edifice on Earth.

  10. Bald eagle winter roost characteristics in Lava Beds National Monument, California (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.


    This study provided a survey of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) winter roost habitat (in 4 km2 of potential roost areas) in southern Lava Beds National Monument, California. A systematic-clustered sampling design (n=381 plots) was used to compare forest stand characteristics in two primary roost areas (Caldwell Butte and Eagle Nest Butte) and two potential roost areas (Hidden Valley and Island Butte). A 100 percent inventory of roost trees in Caldwell Butte (n=103 trees) and Eagle Nest Butte (n=44 trees) showed they were spatially clumped and restricted to 12.7 percent and 2.8 percent, respectively, of the study areas. Roost trees, primarily ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), averaged 81.1 ± 1.3 cm dbh (mean ± 1 S.E.) compared to non-roost trees (>35 cm dbh) that averaged 52.2 ± 1.0 cm dbh. Roost trees were generally taller and more open-structured than non-roost trees. All four study sites had adequate numbers of mid-sized trees (10 to 50 cm dbh) to replace the current stock of older, larger roost trees. However, seedling and small trees (bald eagle in the northwestern US.

  11. Paleomagnetism of the Caldwell lavas, Eastern Townships, Québec.

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    M. K. SEGUIN


    Full Text Available Forty two oriented samples (97 specimens were obtained from 17
    sites in metavolcanic rocks from the Caldwell Group of the Appalachians
    of Southern Québec (longitude: 71u00'-71"30' W, latitude: 46°00'-46"10'N.
    These metavolcanics of Lower Cambrian age are massive or pillowed lavas
    of andesitic and mainly basaltic composition metamorphosed to the
    sub-greenschist facies. Magnetite and occasionally hematite are the frequent
    magnetic memory carrier.
    In order to obtain some pertinent information relative to the stability
    of the remanent magnetization component, stepwise alternating field
    demagnetization was conducted on 35% of the specimens and the others
    were demagnetized at an optimum alternating field. After AF treatment,
    the paleopole position of the tilted formation from 16 localities is 148°E,
    43°N (dp=11.3°, dm = 22.4°. After omission of 3 localities for which
    a95>30°, the new paleopole position obtained is 173°E, 26°N. This formation
    of Early Cambrian age is characterized by a reversed polarity.

  12. Recycled oceanic crust observed in 'ghost plagioclase' within the source of Mauna Loa lavas (United States)

    Sobolev; Hofmann; Nikogosian


    The hypothesis that mantle plumes contain recycled oceanic crust is now widely accepted. Some specific source components of the Hawaiian plume have been inferred to represent recycled oceanic basalts, pelagic sediments or oceanic gabbros. Bulk lava compositions, however, retain the specific trace-element fingerprint of the original crustal component in only a highly attenuated form. Here we report the discovery of exotic, strontium-enriched melt inclusions in Mauna Loa olivines. Their complete trace-element patterns strongly resemble those of layered gabbros found in ophiolites, which are characterized by cumulus plagioclase with very high strontium abundances. The major-element compositions of these melts indicate that their composition cannot be the result of the assimilation of present-day oceanic crust through which the melts have travelled. Instead, the gabbro has been transformed into a (high-pressure) eclogite by subduction and recycling, and this eclogite has then been incorporated into the Hawaiian mantle plume. The trace-element signature of the original plagioclase is present only as a 'ghost' signature, which permits specific identification of the recycled rock type. The 'ghost plagioclase' trace-element signature demonstrates that the former gabbro can retain much of its original chemical identity through the convective cycle without completely mixing with other portions of the former oceanic crust. PMID:10801125

  13. Transient degassing events at the lava lake of Erebus volcano, Antarctica: Chemistry and mechanisms

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    Tehnuka Ilanko


    Full Text Available We report here on the chemical signature of degassing at Erebus lava lake associated with intermittent explosions and the return to passive conditions. Explosions caused by bubble bursts were frequent during the 2013 field season, providing the first opportunity to observe such activity since 2005–06. Several of the explosions were captured by multiple instruments including an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Explosive bubble bursts and other transient degassing events are associated with gas compositions that are distinct from the usual range of passive degassing compositions. We set out to compare the chemical signature of explosive degassing during the 2005–06 and 2013 episodes, and to characterise the chemistry of gases emitted during the period of lake refilling after explosions. We found little change in the explosive gas chemistry between 2005–06 and 2013, suggesting reactivation of a common mechanism of gas segregation. Bubbles can be distinguished by their size and composition, the ranges of which are likely modified during ascent by gas–melt interaction and adiabatic expansion. The proportions of water, SO2, and HCl in the emitted gas plume increase during the refill of the lake after explosions, as the lake is recharged by a combination of magma that has already partially degassed, and that vesiculates rapidly in response to the drop in magmastatic pressure at the lake.

  14. The diversity and abundance of bacteria inhabiting seafloor lavas positively correlate with rock alteration. (United States)

    Santelli, Cara M; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J


    Young, basaltic ocean crust exposed near mid-ocean ridge spreading centers present a spatially extensive environment that may be exploited by epi- and endolithic microbes in the deep sea. Geochemical energy released during basalt alteration reactions can theoretically support chemosynthesis, contributing to a trophic base for the ocean crust biome. To examine associations between endolithic microorganisms and basalt alteration processes, we compare the phylogenetic diversity, abundance and community structure of bacteria existing in several young, seafloor lavas from the East Pacific Rise at approximately 9 degrees N that are variably affected by oxidative seawater alteration. The results of 16S rRNA gene analyses and real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements show that the abundance of prokaryotic communities, dominated by the bacterial domain, positively correlates with the extent of rock alteration--the oldest, most altered basalt harbours the greatest microbial biomass. The bacterial community overlap, structure and species richness relative to alteration state is less explicit, but broadly corresponds to sample characteristics (type of alteration products and general alteration state). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the basalt biome may contribute to the geochemical cycling of Fe, S, Mn, C and N in the deep sea. PMID:18783382

  15. MOLA Topographic Constraints on Lava Tube Effusion Rates for Alba Patera, Mars (United States)

    Riedel, S. J.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.


    Using high resolution MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) topographic data to accurately model flow rates, we find that Alba Patera tube-fed flows within the mid to lower flanks could accommodate flow rates between 10 Pa s to 1.308 x 10(exp 6) Pa s. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. An assessment of hydrothermal alteration in the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala: implications for dome collapse hazards (United States)

    Ball, Jessica L.; Calder, Eliza S.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Bernstein, Marc L.


    A combination of field mapping, geochemistry, and remote sensing methods has been employed to determine the extent of hydrothermal alteration and assess the potential for failure at the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala. The 90-year-old complex of four lava domes has only experienced relatively small and infrequent dome collapses in the past, which were associated with lava extrusion. However, existing evidence of an active hydrothermal system coupled with intense seasonal precipitation also presents ideal conditions for instability related to weakened clay-rich edifice rocks. Mapping of the Santiaguito dome complex identified structural features related to dome growth dynamics, potential areas of weakness related to erosion, and locations of fumarole fields. X-ray diffraction and backscattered electron images taken with scanning electron microscopy of dacite and ash samples collected from around fumaroles revealed only minor clay films, and little evidence of alteration. Mineral mapping using ASTER and Hyperion satellite images, however, suggest low-temperature (hydrothermal alteration on the dome complex appears to be restricted to surficial deposits of hydrous silica, but the study has highlighted, importantly, that the 1902 eruption crater headwall of Santa María does show more advanced argillic alteration. We also cannot rule out the possibility of advanced alteration within the dome complex interior that is not accessible to the methods used here. It may therefore be prudent to employ geophysical methods to make further assessments in the future.

  17. Temporal geochemical trends in northern Luzon arc lavas (Philippines): implications on metasomatic processes in the island arc mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neogene and Quaternary lavas from Batan, Babuyan de Claro, Camiguin and Calayan islands (northern Luzon arc) display temporal increases in incompatible elements including Cs, Rb, Ba, K, La, Ce, Th, U, Ta, Hf and Zr from volcanoes older than 3 Ma to younger ones. These enrichments occur either within a single island (Batan) or within an island group (from Calayan to Camiguin and Babuyan). We show that these enrichments result from incompatible element input into the mantle wedge rather than from partial melting or fractionation effects. The fact that highly incompatible elements display temporal enrichment patterns in Batan lavas whatever their chemical properties indicates that hydrous fluids are not the only metasomatic agents operating in the mantle wedge and that slab-derived melts (adakitic magmas) may also be involved. The coupled temporal variation patterns of large ion lithophile elements and Sr-Nd isotopes suggest that the metasomatic budgets beneath the southern group of islands are mainly controlled by hydrous fluids inputs. In contrast, young Batan lavas likely derive from a mantle source mostly metasomatized by adakitic magmas. (authors)

  18. Geochemistry of pillow lavas and their clinopyroxene: ophiolitic mélanges of Nain and Ashin, northeastern Isfahan province

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    Nargess Shirdashtzadeh


    Full Text Available The Nain and Ashin ophiolites are located in northeastern Isfahan province, in western Central-East Iranian Microplate. Pillow lavas are one of the most significant Cretaceous rock units. The lower partial melting degree in mantle peridotites of Ashin ophiolite, and the derived melt by melting their clinopyroxene caused a more basic (basalt and enriched nature for the Ashin pillow lavas, whereas higher partial melting degree and consequently incongruent melting of orthopyroxene and increment of silica in the ascending melt, together with aqueous fluids led to formation of more acidic (andesite – basaltic andesite and depleted melts (in trace elements in Nain ophiolite. The REE content of Nain samples have IAT chemical affinity, but the samples from Ashin show MORB characteristics. Based on petrograhic observations, lower Eu/Eu* of clinopyroxene phenocrystals of Ashin, calculated Kd of clinopyroxene together with HREE enrichment in the melt in equilibrium with clinopyroxene (especially in Ashin when compared with Nain, the plagioclase crystallization was primer and higher in comparison with clinopyroxene, especially in Ashin compared with Nain. The melt in equilibrium with clinopyroxene in Ashin was similar to MORB composition, whereas it is similar to IAT in Nain. Thus, despite the proximity of these two ophiolitic series and some field and petrographic similarities, pillow lavas from them are different from each other in both primary melt composition and the processes of differentiation and the tectonic setting.

  19. Geophysical imaging of the inner structure of a lava dome and its environment through gravimetry and magnetism (United States)

    Portal, A.; Gailler, L.-S.; Labazuy, P.; Lénat, J.-F.


    Volcanic lava domes are compound edifices resulting from complex growth processes including intrusion and extrusion phases, explosions and collapses. Here, we present the study of a complex volcanic system, located in the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (French Massif Central, France) and centred on the Puy de Dôme volcano, an 11,000 years old volcano. Our approach is based on a morpho-structural analysis of a high resolution DTM (0.5 m) and geophysical imaging methods. Both gravity and magnetic high resolution surveys have been carried out on the lava dome and the nearby volcanic structures. We computed 3D inverse and 2D forwards models. Based on our current knowledges about volcanic dome structure, the geophysical models allow us to propose a synthetic geological model of the inner structure of the Puy de Dôme and surrounding areas. This model suggests a scenario for the formation of the lava dome and the inferred intrusions located on both sides. The Puy de Dôme could possibly be the southern tip of the northern intrusion.

  20. Effect of temperature on the permeability of lava dome rocks from the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Gaunt, H. Elizabeth; Sammonds, Peter R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Chadderton, Amy


    As magma ascends to shallow levels in the volcanic conduit, volatile exsolution can produce a dramatic increase in the crystal content of the magma. During extrusion, low porosity, highly crystalline magmas are subjected to thermal stresses which generate permeable microfracture networks. How these networks evolve and respond to changing temperature has significant implications for gas escape and hence volcano explosivity. Here, we report the first laboratory experimental study on the effect of temperature on the permeability of lava dome rocks under environmental conditions designed to simulate the shallow volcanic conduit and lava dome. Samples were collected for this study from the 2004-2008 lava dome eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington State, USA). We show that the evolution of microfracture networks, and their permeability, depends strongly on temperature changes. Our results show that permeability decreases by nearly four orders of magnitude as temperature increases from room temperature to 800 °C. Above 800 °C, the rock samples become effectively impermeable. Repeated cycles of heating leads to sample compaction and a reduction in fracture density and therefore a decrease in permeability. We argue that changes in eruption regimes from effusive to explosive activity can be explained by strongly decreasing permeability caused by repeated heating of magma, conduit walls and volcanic plugs or domes. Conversely, magma becomes more permeable as it cools, which will reduce explosivity.

  1. The nature and formation of cristobalite at the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat : implications for the petrology and stability of silicic lava domes.


    Horwell, C J; Williamson, B.J.; Llewellin, E.W.; Damby, D. E.; Le Blond, J.S.


    Cristobalite is commonly found in the dome lava of silicic volcanoes but is not a primary magmatic phase; its presence indicates that the composition and micro-structure of dome lavas evolve during, and after, emplacement. Nine temporally and mineralogically diverse dome samples from the Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV), Montserrat, are analysed to provide the first detailed assessment of the nature and mode of cristobalite formation in a volcanic dome. The dome rocks contain up to 11 wt.% crist...

  2. Degassing dynamics of basaltic lava lake at a top-ranking volatile emitter: Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu arc (United States)

    Allard, Patrick; Burton, Mike; Sawyer, Georgina; Bani, Philipson


    Persistent lava lakes are rare on Earth and provide volcanologists with a remarkable opportunity to directly investigate magma dynamics and degassing at the open air. Ambrym volcano, in Vanuatu, is one of the very few basaltic arc volcanoes displaying such an activity and voluminous gas emission, but whose study has long remained hampered by challenging accessibility. Here we report the first high temporal resolution (every 5 s) measurements of vigorous lava lake degassing inside its 300 m deep Benbow crater using OP-FTIR spectroscopy. Our results reveal a highly dynamic degassing pattern involving (i) recurrent (100-200 s) short-period oscillations of the volcanic gas composition and temperature, correlating with pulsated gas emission and sourced in the upper part of the lava lake, (ii) a continuous long period (∼8 min) modulation probably due to the influx of fresh magma at the bottom of the lake, and (iii) discrete CO2 spike events occurring in coincidence with the sequential bursting of meter-sized bubbles, which indicates the separate ascent of large gas bubbles or slugs in a feeder conduit with estimated diameter of 6 ± 1 m. This complex degassing pattern, measured with unprecedented detail and involving both coupled and decoupled magma-gas ascent over short time scales, markedly differs from that of quieter lava lakes at Erebus and Kilauea. It can be accounted for by a modest size of Benbow lava lake and its very high basalt supply rate (∼20 m3 s-1), favouring its rapid overturn and renewal. We verify a typical basaltic arc signature for Ambrym volcanic gas and, based on contemporaneous SO2 flux measurements, we evaluate huge emission rates of 160 Gg d-1 of H2O, ∼10 Gg d-1 of CO2 and ∼8 Gg d-1 of total acid gas (SO2, HCl and HF) during medium activity of the volcano in 2008. Such rates make Ambrym one of the three most powerful volcanic gas emitters at global scale, whose atmospheric impact at local and regional scale may be considerable.

  3. Re-Os isotopic systematics of primitive lavas from the Lassen region of the Cascade arc, California (United States)

    Borg, L.E.; Brandon, A.D.; Clynne, M.A.; Walker, R.J.


    Rhenium-osmium isotopic systematics of primitive calc-alkaline lavas from the Lassen region appear to be controlled by mantle wedge processes. Lavas with a large proportion of slab component have relatively low Re and Os abundances, and have radiogenic Os and mid ocean ridge basalt-like Sr and Pb isotopic compositions. Lavas with a small proportion of slab component have higher Re and Os elemental abundances and display mantle-like Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions. Assimilation with fractional crystallization can only generate the Re-Os systematics of the Lassen lavas from a common parent if the distribution coefficient for Re in sulfide is ~40-1100 times higher than most published estimates and if most incompatible element abundances decrease during differentiation. High Re/Os ratios in mid ocean ridge basalts makes subducted oceanic crust a potential source of radiogenic Os in volcanic arcs. The slab beneath the southernmost Cascades is estimated to have 187Os/188Os ratios as high as 1.4. Mixing between a slab component and mantle wedge peridotite can generate the Os isotopic systematics of the Lassen lavas provided the slab component has a Sr/Os ratio of ~7.5X105 and Os abundances that are 100-600 times higher than mid ocean ridge basalts. For this model to be correct, Os must be readily mobilized and concentrated in the slab component, perhaps as a result of high water and HCl fugacities in this subduction environment. Another possible mechanism to account for the correlation between the magnitude of the subduction geochemical signature and Os isotopic composition involves increasing the stability of an Os-bearing phase in mantle wedge peridotites as a result of fluxing with the slab component. Melting of such a source could yield low Os magmas that are more susceptible to crustal contamination, and hence have more radiogenic Os isotopic compositions, than magmas derived from sources with a smaller contribution from the slab. Thus, the addition of the

  4. Flow Rounding


    Kang, Donggu; Payor, James


    We consider flow rounding: finding an integral flow from a fractional flow. Costed flow rounding asks that we find an integral flow with no worse cost. Randomized flow rounding requires we randomly find an integral flow such that the expected flow along each edge matches the fractional flow. Both problems are reduced to cycle canceling, for which we develop an $O(m \\log(n^2/m))$ algorithm.

  5. Rare gases in lavas from the ultraslow spreading Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Nauret, F.; Moreira, M.; Snow, J. E.


    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the Arctic Ocean have been much less studied than those from the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific due to the difficulty of access related to ice cover. In 2001 and 2004 the Arctic ridges (Gakkel Ridge and Lena Trough) were intensively sampled. In this study we present the first helium, neon, and argon concentrations and isotopic ratios in a suite of samples from the ultraslow spreading Lena Trough (˜0.75 cm/yr effective full rate). Central Lena Trough (CLT) lavas display 4He/3He between 89,710 and 97,530 (R/Ra between 7.4 and 8.1), similar to the mean MORB ratio of 90,000 ± 10,000 (R/Ra = 8 ± 1). In a three neon isotope diagram, the samples fall on the MORB line, without showing any excess of nucleogenic 21Ne. The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from 349 to 6964. CLT samples have a typical MORB He and Ne isotopic composition. Rare gases do not indicate any mantle heterogeneities or contribution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, although this has been suggested previously on the basis of the Sr-Nd and Pb isotopic systems. Based on noble gas systematics, a DUPAL-like anomaly is not observed in the Arctic Ocean. We propose two possible models which reconcile the rare gases with these previous studies. The first is that the Lena Trough mantle has a marble cake structure with small-scale heterogeneities (<1 km), allowing rapid diffusion and homogenization of rare gases compared to elements such as Sr, Nd, and Pb. The second model proposes that the recycled component identified by other isotopic systems was fully degassed at a recent date. It would therefore have a negligible mass budget of rare gases compared to other isotopic systems. This would suggest that the mantle enrichment beneath Lena Trough was generated by rift-forming processes and not by recycling.

  6. Late Pleistocene granodiorite source for recycled zircon and phenocrysts in rhyodacite lava at Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    Rhyodacite tephra and three lavas erupted ???27 ka, interpreted to be early leaks from the climactic magma chamber of Mount Mazama, contain ubiquitous resorbed crystals (antecrysts) that were recycled from young granodiorite and related plutonic rocks of the same magmatic system. The shallow composite pluton is represented by blocks ejected in the 7.7-ka climactic eruption that formed Crater Lake caldera. Plagioclase crystals in both rhyodacite and granodiorites commonly have cores with crystallographically oriented Fe-oxide needles exsolved at subsolidus conditions. At least 80% of plagioclase crystals in the rhyodacite are antecrysts derived from plutonic rocks. Other crystals in the rhyodacite, notably zircon, also were recycled. SIMS 238U- 230Th dating indicates that zircons in 4 granodiorite blocks crystallized at various times between ???20 ka and ???300 ka with concentrations of analyses near 50-70, ???110, and ???200 ka that correspond to periods of dacitic volcanism dated by K- Ar. U-Th ages of zircon from a rhyodacite sample yield similar results. No analyzed zircons from the granodiorite or rhyodacite are pre-Quaternary. Zircon minimum ages in blocks from different locations around the caldera reflect ages of nearby volcanic vents and may map the distribution of intrusions within a composite pluton. Survival of zircon in zircon-undersaturated hydrous magma and of Fe-oxide needles in plagioclase suggests that little time elapsed from entrainment of antecrysts to the ???27-ka eruption of the rhyodacite. The ???27-ka rhyodacite is an example of young silicic magma that preserved unstable antecrysts from a known source early during growth of a large high-level magma chamber. In contrast, the voluminous 7.7-ka climactic rhyodacite pumice is virtually lacking in zircon, indicating dissolution of any granodioritic debris in the intervening period. Mineralogical evidence of assimilation may be destroyed in hot, vigorously growing silicic magma bodies such as

  7. Source components and magmatic processes in the genesis of Miocene to Quaternary lavas in western Turkey: constraints from HSE distribution and Hf-Pb-Os isotopes (United States)

    Aldanmaz, Ercan; Pickard, Megan; Meisel, Thomas; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Sayıt, Kaan; Şen, Pınar; Hanan, Barry B.; Furman, Tanya


    Hf-Pb-Os isotope compositions and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance variations are used to evaluate the mantle source characteristics and possible effects of differentiation processes in lavas from western Turkey, where the eruption of Late Miocene to Quaternary OIB-type intraplate mafic alkaline lavas followed pre-Middle Miocene convergent margin-type volcanism. Concentrations of Os, Ir, and Ru (IPGE) in the OIB-type intraplate lavas decrease with fractionation for primitive melts (MgO > 10 wt%), suggesting that these elements reside predominantly in olivine and associated HSE retaining trace phases and behave compatibly during olivine-dominated fractionation. Fractional crystallization trends indicate distinctly lower bulk partition coefficients for IPGE in more evolved lavas, possibly reflecting a change in the fractionating assemblages. Pd and Re in the primitive melts display negative correlations with MgO, demonstrating moderately incompatible behavior of these elements during fractionation, while the significantly scattered variation in Pt against MgO may indicate the effects of micronuggets of a Pt-rich alloy. Os-rich alkaline primary lavas (>50 ppt Os) exhibit a limited range of 187Os/188Os (0.1361-0.1404), with some xenolith-bearing lavas displaying depletions in 187Os/188Os (0.1131-0.1232), suggesting slight compositional modification of primitive melts through contamination with highly depleted, Os-rich mantle lithosphere. More radiogenic Os isotope ratios (187Os/188Os > 0.1954) in the evolved lavas reflect contamination of the magmas by high187Os/188Os crustal material during shallow differentiation. The OIB-type lavas show limited variations in Hf and Pb isotopes with 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282941-0.283051, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.683-19.091, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.579-15.646, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.550-38.993; 176Hf/177Hf ratios correlate negatively with 208Pb*/206Pb*, suggesting the effects of similar mantle processes on the evolution of time-integrated Th/U and Lu

  8. Distribution of "Compound" and "Simple" Flows in the Deccan Traps (India) (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Self, S.; Jay, A. E.; Sheth, H. C.; Clarke, A. B.


    The Deccan Traps are a dominantly mafic large igneous province (LIP) that, prior to erosion, covered ~1 million km2 of west-central India with lava flows. The type sections of the Western Ghats escarpment, where the Deccan lava pile reaches a maximum reconstructed stratigraphic thickness of ~3400 m, are subdivided into eleven formations defined on chemo-stratigraphic grounds. Earlier work recognized that emplacement of Deccan basalt flows primarily occurs following two main modes: as a stack of meter-sized pāhoehoe toes and lobes, termed "compound" flows; or as inflated sheet lobes tens to hundreds of meters in width and meters to tens of meters in height, previously termed "simple" flows. Initially, the distribution of small lobes and sheet lobes in the Deccan was thought to be controlled by distance from source, but later work suggested the distribution to be mainly controlled along stratigraphic, formational boundaries, with six of the lower formations being composed exclusively of compound flows, and the upper 4-5 formations being wholly built of sheet lobes. This simple stratigraphic subdivision of lava flow morphologies has also been documented in the volcanic architecture of other LIPs, e.g., the Etendeka, the Ethiopian Traps, and in the Faeroe Islands (North Atlantic LIP). Upon examination of eight sections carefully logged along the Western Ghats, this traditional view must be challenged. Where the lower Deccan formations crop out, we found that as much as 65% of the exposed thickness (below the Khandala Formation) is made up of sheet lobes, from 40% in the Bhimashankar Formation to 75% in the Thakurvadi Formation. Near the bottom of the sequence, 25% of the Neral Formation is composed of sheet lobes ≥15 m in thickness. This distribution in lava flow morphology does not seem to be noticeably affected by the inferred distance to the source (based on the location of similar-composition dikes for each formation). Several mechanisms have been proposed to

  9. Mnohonožky (Diplopoda), stonožky (Chilopoda), suchozemští stejnonožci (Oniscidea) a žížalovití (Lumbricidae) biosférické rezervace Pálava

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Pižl, Václav

    Mikulov : Správa CHKO Pálava, 2003, s. 47-57. ISBN 80-239-1975-X. [Pálava na prahu třetího tisíciletí. Mikulov (CZ), 07.11.2001-09.11.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : millipedes * centipedes * Pálava Biosphere Reserve Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Distribution of axial lava domes along a superfast overlapping spreading center, 27-32°S on the East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Howell, J. K.; Hey, R. N.


    Deep-towed DSL-120 bathymetric data are used to investigate the pattern of lava dome formation along a superfast spreading portion of the southern East Pacific Rise (EPR), including the overlapping limbs of a giant (120 × 120 km) propagator near 29°S. Along the 670 km of the axis surveyed, 1172 small domes were identified using a closed contour algorithm. Their abundance, defined by spatial density, is well correlated with the along-axis relief of the ridge crest. Where the western and eastern limbs plunge toward the overlap zone, densities are high (3-6 km-2); however, where the axial depth profile is shallow and flat, densities are comparably low (0.4 km-2). Volcanic domes within the low abundance areas are characterized by lower ratios of height to basal radius (0.15 versus 0.22), smaller maximum heights (18 versus 40 m), and a larger relative percentage of small versus large mounds. The zone of high dome abundance encompasses the overlapping limbs of the rift and extends more than 100 km to the north and south beyond the overlap zone. Domes form dominantly during low effusion rate, point-source eruptions, which suggests that discontinuous melt lenses underlie the ridge axis proximal to the overlapper. Conversely, fissure-fed sheet flows dominate along the more distal segments, implying the presence of a more continuous axial magma lens. Throughout the survey area, dome abundance increases systematically near second-order segment boundaries. Within the high abundance zone, some third-order offsets also correlate with increased dome production, but local peaks in abundance are not tied exclusively to higher-order ridge offsets. Where dome abundance is low, domes are clustered tightly near second-order offsets and there is no increase in dome abundance near third-order segment boundaries.

  11. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites

  12. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, A.W.; Salter, T.L.; Zetterlund, D.


    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites.

  13. Transitional directions from Early Miocene Lavas at Samothraki Island, N. Greece (United States)

    Kondopoulou, Despina; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Zananiri, Irene; Voidomatis, Philippos


    The North Hellenic orogen was formed at the expenses of the Variscan and Jurassic oceanic crust, preserved in scattered ophiolitic massifs. Strong post-orogenic extension with coeval emplacement of granodioritic plutons, deposition of clastic sediments and calc-alkaline volcanism appeared from the Middle-Late Eocene to the Middle Miocene. These widespread Tertiary volcanic products, outcropping also in north and central Aegean, have been extensively studied as far as their emplacement conditions are concerned. In parallel, they have been the object of several palaeomagnetic studies, all consistently indicating a general pattern of clockwise rotations. The island of Samothraki belongs to the Circum-Rhodope Zone, a series of Triassic-Jurassic continental margin sedimentary and volcanic rocks that surround the crystalline Serbo-Macedonian and Rhodope Massifs. The geochronological data, along with the morphology and the eruption mode of the Samothraki Tertiary volcanic rocks, allow a division into three groups, namely the "old", the "intermediate" and the "young" ones. Several radiometric ages have been assigned to the three groups, spanning from 25 to 19 Ma. Isotope and trace-element modeling do not favor a continuous evolution of these magmas. The major granitic and volcanic formations of the island have been subjected to paleomagnetic studies. The results revealed a complex pattern with coexisting straightforward directions and puzzling ones, only within the younger lavas, mostly domes. These samples are characterized by a medium temperature component with an eastward declination and a positive inclination and a high temperature one with a negative inclination. Experiments of absolute paleointensity have been conducted on twenty-eight samples from 3 separate domes with ages between 22-19 Ma using a modified Thellier technique with very narrow 4°C to 10°C temperature steps between 500°C and 595°C. The results indicate significantly low field values at two sites

  14. Surface tension driven processes densify and retain permeability in magma and lava (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben M.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie; Ian Schipper, C.; Mark Jellinek, A.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kelly Russell, J.; Lavallée, Yan; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Dingwell, Donald B.


    densification and permits continued outgassing. We propose a regime diagram of the relative dominance of surface tension and gravitational compaction that illustrates the interplay between viscosity, permeability, lengthscale and timescale. We contend that surface tension-driven magma densification is an as-yet overlooked phenomenon that extends our volcanological, geothermal and hydrothermal knowledge of how gas can escape densifying volcanic plugs and why dense lavas remain permeable.

  15. Inflation rates, rifts, and bands in a pāhoehoe sheet flow (United States)

    Hoblitt, Richard P.; Orr, Tim R.; Heliker, Christina; Denlinger, Roger P.; Hon, Ken; Cervelli, Peter F.


    The margins of sheet flows—pāhoehoe lavas emplaced on surfaces sloping Inflation and rift-band formation is probably cyclic, because the pattern we observed suggests episodic or crude cyclic behavior. Furthermore, some inflation rifts contain numerous bands whose spacing and general appearances are remarkably similar. We propose a conceptual model wherein the inferred cyclicity is due to the competition between the fluid pressure in the flow's liquid core and the tensile strength of the viscoelastic layer where it is weakest—in inflation rifts. The viscoelastic layer consists of lava that has cooled to temperatures between 800 and 1070 °C. This layer is the key parameter in our model because, in its absence, rift banding and stepwise changes in the flow height would not occur.

  16. A long-scale biodiversity monitoring methodology for Spanish national forest inventory. Application to Álava region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iciar Alberdi


    Full Text Available Aim of study: In this study, a methodology has been designed to assess biodiversity in the frame of the Spanish National Forest Inventory with the aim of evaluating the conservation status of Spanish forests and their future evolution. This methodology takes into account the different national and international initiatives together with the different types and characteristics of forests in Spain. Area of study: Álava province (Basque country, Spain.Material and methods: To analyse the contribution of each of the different indices to the biodiversity assessment, a statistical analysis using PCA multivariate techniques was performed for structure, composition and dead wood indicators. Main Results: The selected biodiversity indicators (based on field measurements are presented along with an analysis of the results from four representative forest types in Álava by way of an example of the potential of this methodology. Research highlights: The statistical analysis revealed the important information contribution of Mingling index to the composition indicators. Regarding the structure indicators, it is remarkable the interest of using standard deviations and skewness of height and diameter as indicators. Finally it is interesting to point out the interest of assessing dead saplings since they provide additional information and their volume is a particularly useful parameter for analyzing the success of regeneration.Keywords: species richness; structural diversity; dead wood; NFI; PCA.

  17. Rock fracture as a precursor to lava dome eruptions at Mount St Helens from June 1980 to October 1986 (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Sammonds, P. R.


    Following its plinian eruption on 18 May 1980, Mount St Helens (Washington State, USA) entered a period of intermittent lava-dome extrusion until 1986. Renewed extrusion was frequently preceded by accelerating rates of seismicity, with more precursory seismicity observed prior to eruptions later in the sequence. Here the failure forecasting method (FFM) is used to investigate changes in the observed rate of volcano tectonic (VT) seismicity. The analysis indicates that: (1) all VT crises resulted in an eruption within 3 weeks (usually less than 10 days), (2) the majority of eruptions had VT precursors, and (3) patterns of precursory seismicity showed fluctuations about the ideal model trend. Thus, although these seismic events could be used to warn of an impending eruption, specific forecasts were subject to an uncertainty of weeks or more. It is proposed that: (1) increased seismicity prior to later eruptions is a result of a larger and more solidified dome acting as a greater impediment to magma ascent; (2) the consistency of seismic swarms resulting in an eruption indicates that stresses high enough to initiate fracturing in the country rock and lava dome carapace were only achieved once the approach to an eruption had already begun; and (3) discrepancies between models of accelerating rock fracture and the observed seismicity may arise due to a significant amount of the rocks deforming through ductile mechanisms rather than seismogenic fracture.

  18. Mantle amphibole control on arc and within-plate chemical signatures: Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province, Iran (United States)

    Kheirkhah, M.; Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Emami, M. H.; McLeod, C.


    New analyses of Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province in west Iran shed light on the nature of collision zone magmatism. The rocks are from the Turkish-Iranian plateau within the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Compositions are typically basanite, hawaiite and alkali basalt. Sr-Nd isotope values are close to BSE, which is similar to Quaternary alkali basalts of NW Iran, but distinct from a depleted source melting under Mount Ararat. The chemical signatures suggests variable melting of two distinct sources. One inferred source produced melts with La/Nb from~3.5 to~1.2, which we model as the result of depletion of amphibole during ≤1% melting in the garnet stability field. We infer phlogopite in the source of potassic lavas from Takab. Lithosphere delamination or slab break-off mechanisms for triggering melting are problematic, as the lithosphere is~150-200km thick. It is possible that the negative dT/dP section of the amphibole peridotite solidus was crossed as a result of lithospheric thickening in the collision zone. This explanation is conditional upon the mantle source being weakly hydrated and so only containing a small proportion of amphibole, which can be exhausted during small degrees of partial melting. Our model maybe viable for other magmatic areas within orogenic plateaux, e.g. northern Tibet. Depletion of mantle amphibole may also help explain larger scale transitions from arc to within-plate chemistry in orogens, such as the Palaeogene Arabia-Eurasia system.

  19. Geochronology and petrology of OIB-type lavas from the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mexican Volcanic Belt, typical continental margin arc volcanic activities have occurred accompanying the subduction of Rivera Plate and Cocos Plate into North American Plate. It has been known by recent geochemical research that the oceanic island type magma which does not show the characteristic chemical composition of subduction zone has extruded. In order to investigate the relation of the development of volcanic belt in continental margin are with the change of wide area tectonics, and to impose important limit on magma formation models, it is important to know the state of production of oceanic island type magma in continental margin arc and the age of its activities. In this report, the results of the K-Ar age measurement for the oceanic island type lava produced in the middle of Mexican Volcanic Belt are shown, and the geochemical features of those samples are clarified. The state of production and the petrography of oceanic island type igneous rock samples are explained. The K-Ar age measurement experiment and the results are reported. The chemical composition of oceanic island type lava determined by photon activation process and fluorescent X-ray analysis is shown. (K.I.)

  20. Geochemistry of Garibaldi Lake andesites and dacites indicates crustal contamination involved in formation of Northern Cascade arc lavas (United States)

    Martindale, M.; Mullen, E.; Weis, D.


    The Cascade Arc presents a unique setting for studying the controls on andesite genesis and the implications for growth and evolution of the continental crust. It is the type-locality for a ';hot' subduction zone, where the downgoing slab is young and subduction is relatively slow. The northern segment of the Cascade arc, the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt (GVB), hosts the youngest subducting crust in Cascadia and the termination of the subducting slab. These conditions may affect magma generation processes by reducing the amount of water reaching the area of melt generation [1,2] and imparting an adakitic signature to magmas generated there if the slab edge melts [3]. We provide insights on the origin of andesites and dacites from the Garibaldi Lake area using new high-precision Pb, Sr, Nd, Hf isotope ratios and trace element data. Andesites and dacites from the Garibaldi Lake area (The Black Tusk, Mt. Price, and The Table) are calc-alkaline and show evidence for crustal contamination such as positive correlations between Ba/Nb and SiO2. Silica variation diagrams show no systematic trend for any of the volcanic centres, suggesting the presence of distinct magma batches. Garibaldi Lake andesites and dacites have among the least radiogenic Pb isotope ratios of all Cascade arc lavas, and define a linear array in Pb-isotope space. This most likely reflects mixing between MORB-source mantle (similar to Gorda and Explorer plate sources) and locally subducting sediments [4]. However, relative to GVB basalts and lavas from the rest of the Cascades (High Cascades), the andesites and dacites have higher 207Pb/204Pb (15.55-15.56) for a given 206Pb/204Pb (18.66-18.74). The Garibaldi Lake lavas also have higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.7033-0.7036) and lower ɛNd (5.8-7.9) at a given 206Pb/204Pb than GVB basalts and High Cascades lavas but among the highest ɛNd for a given SiO2 for the whole of the Cascades. ɛHf values (10.5-13.5) are higher at a given SiO2 value for Garibaldi Lake evolved

  1. Age of the Lava Creek supereruption and magma chamber assembly at Yellowstone based on 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating of sanidine and zircon crystals (United States)

    Matthews, Naomi E.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Calvert, Andrew T.


    The last supereruption from the Yellowstone Plateau formed Yellowstone caldera and ejected the >1000 km3 of rhyolite that composes the Lava Creek Tuff. Tephra from the Lava Creek eruption is a key Quaternary chronostratigraphic marker, in particular for dating the deposition of mid Pleistocene glacial and pluvial deposits in western North America. To resolve the timing of eruption and crystallization history for the Lava Creek magma, we performed (1) 40Ar/39Ar dating of single sanidine crystals to delimit eruption age and (2) ion microprobe U-Pb and trace-element analyses of the crystal faces and interiors of single zircons to date the interval of zircon crystallization and characterize magmatic evolution. Sanidines from the two informal members composing Lava Creek Tuff yield a preferred 40Ar/39Ar isochron date of 631.3 ± 4.3 ka. Crystal faces on zircons from both members yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 626.5 ± 5.8 ka, and have trace element concentrations that vary with the eruptive stratigraphy. Zircon interiors yield a mean 206Pb/238U date of 659.8 ± 5.5 ka, and reveal reverse and/or oscillatory zoning of trace element concentrations, with many crystals containing high U concentration cores that likely grew from highly evolved melt. The occurrence of distal Lava Creek tephra in stratigraphic sequences marking the Marine Isotope Stage 16–15 transition supports the apparent eruption age of ∼631 ka. The combined results reveal that Lava Creek zircons record episodic heating, renewed crystallization, and an overall up-temperature evolution for Yellowstone's subvolcanic reservoir in the 103−104 year interval before eruption.

  2. Gilbert-Gauss geomagnetic reversal recorded in Pliocene volcanic sequences from Lesser Caucasus: Revisited (United States)

    Gogichaishvili, A.; Cervantes, M. A.; Rathert, M. C.; Camps, P.; Sologashvili, J.; Maissuradze, G.


    We carried out a detailed paleomagnetic, rock-magnetic and Thellier paleointensity study of a ~ 3.6 My Pliocene lava flow succession from southern Georgia. Previous study (Camps et al. 1996, PEPI, vol. 96, pp. 41-59) revealed that several consecutive lava flows record an intermediate polarity direction at the base of the section followed by a thick reverse polarity zone. The transitional field was interpreted as an excursion within chron 2Ar or an upper Cochiti-Gilbert reversal. New paleomagnetic data reported in present study are obtained from nearby lava successions. This allowed the better knowing the nature and morphology of geomagnetic record. In total about 140 standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to 23 consecutive lava flows were obtained during the 2006 sample collection campaign. Rock-magnetic experiments show that the remanence is carried by Ti-poor titanomagnetite in most of cases. The fraction of grains with multidomain magnetic structure does not seem to be important. Characteristic remanent magnetization is successfully determined on all samples. The direct correlation with original (Thoki) sequence and field observations allowed to establish a new magnetic stratigraphy. The lower part of section is characterized by intermediate magnetic polarity followed by thick reversely magnetized lavas. The upper sequence, represented by 11 consecutive flows yielded normal magnetic polarity. The mean paleointensity of the intermediate field is 12.8 (2.7) microT (10 flows). The reverse polarity paleointensity is higher with a mean 27.3 (9.3) microT (22 flows) while normal polarity yielded in average 34.2 (6.8) microT. Considering all available radiometric ages and new paleomagnetic data it may be speculated that Gilbert-Gauss (R-N) reversal is recorded at the upper part of sequence. Lower intermediate polarity flows possibly represent a kind of precursor of this reversal similarly to Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic transition.

  3. Rakvere suveteatri "Noor Eesti" lava = Stage design for the Rakvere summer theatre production "Noor Eesti" / Ott Kadarik, Mihkel Tüür ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadarik, Ott, 1976-


    Lava autorid: Ott Kadarik, Mihkel Tüür (Kadarik Tüür Arhitektid), kaasautor: Uku-Kristjan Küttis. Näidendi lavastaja: Jaanus Rohumaa. Tallinna fotokuu puhul Vabaduse väljakul olnud installatsioonist "Camera obscura", autorid Ott Kadarik ja Mihkel Tüür

  4. Sobre la inscripción "HAEp" 2540 procedente de lruña (Álava)


    Ciprés Torres, María Pilar


    Este trabajo ha sido realizado en el marco del Proyecto de Investigación EHU06/116 «Base de datos epigráfica sobre instrumenta doméstica hallados en el País Vasco». Homenaje a Ignacio Barandiarán Maestu / coord. por Javier Fernández Eraso, Juan Santos Yanguas. [ES] El objetivo de este artículo es la revisión de la inscripción "HAEp" 2540, considerada como un epígrafe funerario procedente de Iruña (Álava) hasta este momento desaparecido. Sin embargo el estudio de un fragmento de inscripc...

  5. Burn-out and isotope structure of nuclear fuel in lavas of 4-th unit Ch NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In article the question on legitimacy of application of the relation 134Cs/137Cs for definition of a degree of burn-out of the fulfilled nuclear fuel in lava like fuel contained mass (LFCM) broken down of 4-th unit ChNPP is considered. This method is compared to this purpose with other independent methods of account of burn-out. In particular, precision the analysis of the chosen samples LFCM was carried out with use of a method isotope dilution with alpha- and mass-spectrometer measurement of the isotope relations in plutonium and uranium. Is shown, that use of cesium relation for calculation of burn-out is quite allowable. The man powers at definition of this value received by results a gamma-spectrometric analysis of samples, do not go in any comparison with expenditure of labour of all other methods. 6 refs., 10 tab., 2 figs

  6. Monitoring lava-dome growth during the 2004-2008 Mount St. Helens, Washington, eruption using oblique terrestrial photography (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Dzurisin, D.; Schilling, S.P.; Poland, Michael P.


    We present an analysis of lava dome growth during the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens using oblique terrestrial images from a network of remotely placed cameras. This underutilized monitoring tool augmented more traditional monitoring techniques, and was used to provide a robust assessment of the nature, pace, and state of the eruption and to quantify the kinematics of dome growth. Eruption monitoring using terrestrial photography began with a single camera deployed at the mouth of the volcano's crater during the first year of activity. Analysis of those images indicates that the average lineal extrusion rate decayed approximately logarithmically from about 8 m/d to about 2 m/d (± 2 m/d) from November 2004 through December 2005, and suggests that the extrusion rate fluctuated on time scales of days to weeks. From May 2006 through September 2007, imagery from multiple cameras deployed around the volcano allowed determination of 3-dimensional motion across the dome complex. Analysis of the multi-camera imagery shows spatially differential, but remarkably steady to gradually slowing, motion, from about 1–2 m/d from May through October 2006, to about 0.2–1.0 m/d from May through September 2007. In contrast to the fluctuations in lineal extrusion rate documented during the first year of eruption, dome motion from May 2006 through September 2007 was monotonic (± 0.10 m/d) to gradually slowing on time scales of weeks to months. The ability to measure spatial and temporal rates of motion of the effusing lava dome from oblique terrestrial photographs provided a significant, and sometimes the sole, means of identifying and quantifying dome growth during the eruption, and it demonstrates the utility of using frequent, long-term terrestrial photography to monitor and study volcanic eruptions.

  7. Viscous flow behavior of tholeiitic and alkaline Fe-rich martian basalts (United States)

    Chevrel, Magdalena Oryaëlle; Baratoux, David; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.


    The chemical compositions of martian basalts are enriched in iron with respect to terrestrial basalts. Their rheology is poorly known and liquids of this chemical composition have not been experimentally investigated. Here, we determine the viscosity of five synthetic silicate liquids having compositions representative of the diversity of martian volcanic rocks including primary martian mantle melts and alkali basalts. The concentric cylinder method has been employed between 1500 °C and the respective liquidus temperatures of these liquids. The viscosity near the glass transition has been derived from calorimetric measurements of the glass transition. Although some glass heterogeneity limits the accuracy of the data near the glass transition, it was nevertheless possible to determine the parameters of the non-Arrhenian temperature-dependence of viscosity over a wide temperature range (1500 °C to the glass transition temperature). At superliquidus conditions, the martian basalt viscosities are as low as those of the Fe-Ti-rich lunar basalts, similar to the lowest viscosities recorded for terrestrial ferrobasalts, and 0.5 to 1 order of magnitude lower than terrestrial tholeiitic basalts. Comparison with empirical models reveals that Giordano et al. (2008) offers the best approximation, whereas the model proposed by Hui and Zhang (2007) is inappropriate for the compositions considered. The slightly lower viscosities exhibited by the melts produced by low degree of mantle partial melting versus melts produced at high degree of mantle partial melting (likely corresponding to the early history of Mars), is not deemed sufficient to lead to viscosity variations large enough to produce an overall shift of martian lava flow morphologies over time. Rather, the details of the crystallization sequence (and in particular the ability of some of these magmas to form spinifex texture) is proposed to be a dominant effect on the viscosity during martian lava flow emplacement and

  8. Gilbert-Gauss geomagnetic reversal recorded in Pliocene volcanic sequences from Georgia (Lesser Caucasus): revisited (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Cervantes, Miguel Angel; Rathert, Manuel Calvo; Camps, Pierre; Sologashvili, Jemal; Maissuradze, Givi


    We carried out a detailed paleomagnetic, rock-magnetic, and Thellier paleointensity study of an ~3.6 My Pliocene lava flow succession in southern Georgia. An earlier study (Camps et al., 1996) revealed that several consecutive lava flows record an intermediate polarity direction at the base of the section followed by a thick reverse polarity zone. The transitional field was interpreted as an excursion within chron 2Ar or an upper Cochiti-Gilbert reversal. New paleomagnetic data reported here have been obtained from nearby lava successions. In total, about 170 standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to 22 lava flows were collected during the 2005 sample collection campaign. Rock-magnetic experiments showed that the remanence is carried by Ti-poor titanomagnetite in most of the samples. The fraction of grains with multidomain magnetic structure does not seem to be important. Characteristic remanent magnetization was successfully determined on all samples. The direct correlation with the original (Thoki) sequence, previous preliminary measurements of natural remanent magnetization (Sologashvili, 1986), and field observations allowed us to establish a new magnetic stratigraphy. The lower part of section is characterized by intermediate magnetic polarity followed by thick reversely magnetized lavas. The upper sequence, represented by 18 consecutive flows yielded normal magnetic polarity. The mean paleointensity of the intermediate field is drastically reduced with respect to the post-transitional field strength. Based on all available radiometric ages and new paleomagnetic data, it may be speculated that Gilbert-Gauss (R-N) reversal was recorded at the upper part of sequence. Lower intermediate polarity flows possibly represent a form of precursor of this reversal that is similar to the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic transition.

  9. Pyroxenite-derived Early Cretaceous lavas in the Liaodong Peninsula: Implication for metasomatism and thinning of the lithospheric mantle beneath North China Craton (United States)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wen, Shu-Nv; Kuang, Yong-Sheng; Hong, Lu-Bing


    The Xiaoling lavas, erupted at ca. 110 Ma in the Liaodong Peninsula, North China, provide vital constraints on the thermochemical state of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) during the destruction of the craton. The Xiaoling lavas comprise basalt, andesite and dacite. They are characterized by depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and EM1-like Sr-Nd isotopic compositions (εNd(t) = - 8.7--16.0; 87Sr/86Sri = 0.7046-0.7054), consistent with a derivation from the SCLM. With the exception of TiO2, the studied samples have major element compositions similar to those of experimentally determined partial melts of volatile-free Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalt (MORB)-like eclogite at 3-5 GPa, but differ from anhydrous peridotite-derived melts. The olivine phenocrysts of the basaltic samples have high Ni and Fe/Mn, and low Ca contents, which are typical of the olivines crystallized from melts derived from a garnet pyroxenitic mantle source. This suggests that the Xiaoling lavas were derived from a pyroxenitic mantle source, which may have been formed by the solid-state reaction between recycled crustal materials and their surrounding peridotites. The presence of abundant amphibole phenocrysts in the Xiaoling lavas suggests a highly hydrated SCLM in this region. The high Rb/Sr but low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the Xiaoling samples require a recent metasomatism in the mantle source, which is most likely related to the Pacific subduction. The genesis of the Xiaoling lavas therefore highlights the important role of water and Pacific subduction in the destruction of the North China Craton.

  10. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and presents the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurements. The trial shows that hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was determined by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping indicated major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is northwest of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was chosen for the study because its surface outcrop geology is similar to the underlying bedrock fracture system at the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC)

  11. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang


    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  12. Dynamics of obsidian flows inferred from microstructures: insights from microlite preferred orientations (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan; Manga, Michael; Cashman, Katharine


    The flow of obsidian lava leads to crystal alignments that reflect both the accumulated strain and the type of flow across the surface. Microlite preferred orientations are used to investigate the emplacement dynamics, strain history, and structural evolution of Obsidian Dome, eastern California. Measurements of three-dimensional microlite trend and plunge in samples from the near-vent region, distal flow, and flow front show: (1) the flow directions along the dome margins, (2) the deformation style (e.g., pure versus simple shear) at the dome margins, and (3) the variation in strain as a function of position within the flow. Microlites form well-developed lineations in the plane of flow banding in all samples. Stereographic projections indicate that lineations trend normal to the western flow front and plunge shallowly away from the margin. The radial flow pattern indicated by measurements made along the western margin suggests that extrusion was from a roughly elliptical vent. These results highlight a strong correlation between microlite trend and the bulk flow direction inferred from the geometry of the flow. Along most of the eastern periphery, lineations trend parallel to the margin and likely reflect the local flow direction as influenced by compression against the thickening flow crust, marginal talus piles, and topography. Orientation distributions imply that radial spreading accompanied by flattening was the dominant mechanism for flow emplacement. Comparisons of measured orientation distributions with theoretical predictions suggest that microlite fabrics in flow front and near-vent samples developed in a pure shear flow. Microstructures in a sample from near the distal flow base records a component of simple shear. Variance in microlite trend provides a measure of the amount of strain acquired during flow. Standard deviation in trend decreases from the near-vent region to the flow margins, reflecting progressive alignment of microlites during transport

  13. Brunhes-Matuyama Polarity Reversal Records and Discussion on Its Recording Phase Lag between Ocean and Terrestrial Sediment%布容-松山极性倒转事件的海陆地质记录及其不同步性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥辉; 周卫健; 鲜锋; 武振坤


    The Brunhes-Matuyama (B/M) reversal is the most recent happened geomagnetic polarity reversal since the Quaternary period. The polarity reversal is considered as occurring synchronously around the world and so is a key time marker which can be used to divide the stratigraphie sequences and correlating climatic proxies between different sediments. It is also very important for understanding the variation in the geomagnetic field. However, the paleomagnetic studies have revealed that the records of B/M reversal in Chinese loess-paleosol and the marine sediments are not synchronous, there is an time/climatic "offset" between these two sediments. The "offset" both leads to a challenge for the certainties of correlation between Chinese loess-paleosol sequences and the global climate records based on the paleomagnetic time scale. To discuss this "offset" question, this paper intends to review the study history and recent progress on the B/M reversal event in marine and Chinese loess sediments, and to evaluate the possible explanations of this "offset" phenomenon. In addition, the paper also introduces the recent progress of paleogeomagnetie field variation studies traced by cosmogenic nuclide 10Be in Chinese loess, suggesting the feasibility of combining the 10Be with paleomagnetic analysis to trace the exact position of B/M event recorded in Chinese loess.%布容-松山(B/M)极性倒转事件是第四纪发生的最近一次地磁极性倒转,研究地磁极性倒转的特征不仅对理解地磁场演化规律具有重要意义,同时极性倒转通常具有全球等时性,因此常被视为地层划分和全球气候对比的关键时间标记物。然而古地磁研究表明,布容-松山事件在海洋与中国黄土沉积物中的记录存在着“错位”现象,使得基于磁性地层年代框架下的中国黄土-古土壤序列与全球气候记录之间的对比存在不确定性。基于这一问题,重点回顾了B/M倒转事件在海

  14. Paleomagnetism of some Precambrian basaltic flows and red beds, Eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona (United States)

    Elston, D.P.; Robert, Scott G.


    Lava flows and red sandstone beds near the middle of the Upper Precambrian Grand Canyon Series exhibit stable remanent magnetization. The beds are about 1000 m stratigraphically above rocks of the Grand Canyon Series for which paleomagnetic poles have been reported. All specimens were subjected to stepwise thermal (200??-700??C) or alternating field (25-5000 Oe) demagnetization for the determination of characteristic magnetization. The pole for two flows and an intercalated sandstone bed of the Cardenas Lavas of Ford, Breed and Mitchell (upper Unkar Group), is at 174.6W, 0.4N (N = 10, K = 50, ??95 = 6.9??). The pole for a weathered zone developed across the Cardenas Lavas is at 167.8W, 49.4N (N = 5, K = 79, ??95 = 8.6??). The pole for directly overlying sandstone of the Nankoweap Formation of Maxson is at 174.4E, 12.5N (N = 6, K = 105, ??95 = 6.6??). These poles lie on or near, and appear to follow, part of an apparent polar wandering path recently proposed for the Precambrian of North America by Spall. If the fit is not accidental, little or no rotation has occurred between north-central Arizona and parts of the North American continent used to define the proposed path. ?? 1973.

  15. Chemical zoning and colour changes in the phases of the sodalite group from the Mt. Vulture haüynophyre lava (Potenza-italy). (United States)

    di Muro, A.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Principe, C.


    The haüynophyre is a sulfur-rich differentiated lava flow erupted from a parasitic vent of the Vulture volcano (Potenza-Italy). This porphyritic lithotype (43 vol%) is characterised by a very high content (20-30 vol%) of feldspathoids belonging to the sodalite group. Chemical and structural analysis of the sodalite-group minerals has led to the identification of i) a colourless to white nosean, ii) a blue to light-blue haüyne, and iii) a black to grey haüyne. Numerous phenocrysts present a resorbed core and/or a pronounced concentric division into zones with a complex colour sequence. The X-ray diffraction study (XRPD through Gandolfi technique and single crystal structure refinements) has confirmed the occurrence of nosean and has allowed to discard the presence of lazurite. All the analysed crystals, those chromatically homogeneous as well as the zoned ones, have marked core-rim chemical variations. Nosean crystals contain small pyrite inclusions and are characterised by an evolution from a Ca-K poor core to Ca-K rich rim. K_2O content increases towards the rim in blue haüyne, while Na_2O/CaO ratio remains almost constant. Black haüyne has chemical characteristics intermediate between the nosean and the blue haüyne-end members and has the highest S/Cl ratio in the core. Black and blue haüyne have similar patterns of depletion in REE and most other highly lithophile elements relative to the bulk rock. Positive anomaly for the Eu content and spinel composition are indicative of high fO_2 conditions in the magmas in which both haüyne varieties formed. Higher contents of compatible (Sr, Ba) and semicompatible (Ta) elements characterise the black phase. A high Fe content in the black variety could be at least in part responsible for the chromatic difference. Limited contamination by sedimentary evaporites and probably mixing between a sulfur-rich black haüyne-bearing magma and a more cooled magma having stable blue haüyne and nosean is proposed to explain

  16. Timing and composition of continental volcanism at Harrat Hutaymah, western Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Duncan, Robert A.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Thornber, Carl R.; Schlieder, Tyler D.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M.


    Harrat Hutaymah is an alkali basalt volcanic field in north-central Saudi Arabia, at the eastern margin of a large Neogene continental, intraplate magmatic province. Lava flow, tephra and spatter cone compositions in the field include alkali olivine basalts and basanites. These compositions contrast with the predominantly tholeiitic, fissure-fed basalts found along the eastern margin of the Red Sea. The Hutaymah lava flows were erupted through Proterozoic arc-associated plutonic and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Arabian shield, and commonly contain a range of sub-continental lithospheric xenoliths, although the lavas themselves show little indication of crustal contamination. Previous radiometric dating of this volcanic field (a single published K-Ar age; 1.8 Ma) is suspiciously old given the field measurement of normal magnetic polarity only (i.e. Brunhes interval, ≤ 780 Ka). We report new age determinations on 14 lava flows by the 40Ar-39Ar laser step heating method, all younger than ~ 850 Ka, to better constrain the time frame of volcanism, and major, trace and rare earth element compositions to describe the chemical variation of volcanic activity at Harrat Hutaymah. Crystal fractionation was dominated by olivine ± clinopyroxene at a range of upper mantle and crustal pressures. Rapid ascent and eruption of magma is indicated by the array of lower crustal and lithospheric xenoliths observed in lava flows and tephra. Modeling suggests 1-7% melting of an enriched asthenospheric mantle source occurred beneath Harrat Hutaymah under a relatively thick lithospheric cap (60-80 km).

  17. Evidence for the development of permeability anisotropy in lava domes and volcanic conduits (United States)

    Farquharson, Jamie I.; Heap, Michael J.; Lavallée, Yan; Varley, Nick R.; Baud, Patrick


    The ease at which exsolving volatiles can migrate though magma and outgas influences the explosivity of a volcanic eruption. Volcanic rocks often contain discrete discontinuities, providing snapshots of strain localisation processes that occur during magma ascent and extrusion. Whether these features comprise pathways for or barriers to fluid flow is thus of relevance for volcanic eruption and gas emission modelling. We report here on nine discontinuity-bearing andesite blocks collected from Volcán de Colima, Mexico. We present a systematic porosity and permeability study of fifty cores obtained from the blocks collected, and interpret the genetic processes of the discontinuities through detailed microstructural examination. Bands in pumiceous blocks were inferred to be relicts of inhomogeneous bubble expansion which, despite significantly increasing porosity, do not markedly affect permeability. Other discontinuities in our blocks are interpreted to be shear strain-induced flow banding, cavitation porosity, and/or variably healed fractures. In each of these cases, an increase in permeability (up to around three orders of magnitude) was measured relative to the host material. A final sample contained a band of lower porosity than the host rock, characterised by variably infilled pores. In this case, the band was an order of magnitude less permeable than the host rock, highlighting the complex interplay between dilatant and densifying processes in magma. We therefore present evidence for significant permeability anisotropy within the conduit and/or dome of a volcanic system. We suggest that the abundance and distribution of strain localisation features will influence the escape or entrapment of volatiles and therefore the evolution of pore pressure within active volcanic systems. Using a simple upscaling model, we illustrate the relative importance of permeable structures over different lengthscales. Strain localisation processes resulting in permeability

  18. Flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few aspects of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are as potentially confusing as the effect of motion on the MR image. While the MR image is anatomically similar to the image produced by CT, the MR appearance of flowing blood has no correlate in CT. Flowing blood can appear bright or dark, depending on the velocity and direction of flow. To a first approximation, rapidly flowing blood appears dark ('flow void') and slowly flowing blood appears bright. This phenomenon is illustrated. This appearance is markedly influenced by factors related to the imaging sequence and to the MR imager itself. The signal from flowing blood depends on the position of the slice relative to the rest of the multislice imaging volume. It depends on the repetition time TR, the echo-delay time TE, the echo number, and the slice thickness. In fast scanning techniques with short repetition times, gradient echoes, and flip angles less than 90 degrees, flow has a different appearance than on standard 90 degrees/180 degrees spin-echo images. The principles which affect the appearance of flowing blood also affect the appearance of flowing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Examples of CSF flow phenomena are given

  19. Shallow fractionation signature of phase chemistry in Taburiente lavas, La Palma, Canary Islands: Results of MELTS modeling (United States)

    Guetschow, H. A.; Nelson, B. K.


    Depth of crystal fractionation influences the chemical evolution of ocean island basalts and has significant implications for the physical structures of these volcanoes. In contrast to dominantly shallow systems such as Hawaii, a range of fractionation depths have been reported for Canary Islands lavas. Magmas erupted on La Palma preserve fluid- and melt-inclusion evidence for high-pressure (> 10 kbar) crystallization (Klügel et al., 1998; Hansteen et al., 1998; Nikogosian et al., 2002). If high-pressure fractional crystallization were an early and dominant process, it would generate specific patterns in rock and phase chemistry of eruptive sequences. Alkalic basalts from Taburiente volcano display coherent major element trends consistent with evolution dominated by fractional crystallization while their phenocryst compositions, trace elements, and isotopic trends require mixing between multiple sources. The current model confirms the importance of both fractionation and mixing to achieve the full range of lavas observed. A low-pressure (1 kbar) thermodynamic fractional crystallization model performed with the MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) software closely reproduces major element trends from two stratigraphic sequences. This model also predicts the observed sequence of groundmass clinopyroxene compositions and phenocryst zoning reversals. In all low pressure simulations, olivine remains a modally significant liquidus phase during the first 20% and last 30% of the crystallization sequence, resulting in a negative correlation between the CaO and Fo content of olivine. These results are consistent with the presence of olivine phenocrysts that bear petrographic evidence of early crystallization, as well as observed compositional trends of groundmass olivine and clinopyroxene in Taburiente lavas. MELTS models that include an initial period of high pressure (12 kbar) clinopyroxene fractionation produce major element trends comparable to the low pressure model, but

  20. Fractionation of the platinum-group elments and Re during crystallization of basalt in Kilauea Iki Lava Lake, Hawaii (United States)

    Pitcher, L.; Helz, R.T.; Walker, R.J.; Piccoli, P.


    Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, then crystallized and differentiated over a period of 35??years. It offers an opportunity to evaluate the fractionation behavior of trace elements in a uniquely well-documented basaltic system. A suite of 14 core samples recovered from 1967 to 1981 has been analyzed for 5 platinum-group elements (PGE: Ir, Os, Ru, Pt, Pd), plus Re. These samples have MgO ranging from 2.4 to 26.9??wt.%, with temperatures prior to quench ranging from 1140????C to ambient (110????C). Five eruption samples were also analyzed. Osmium and Ru concentrations vary by nearly four orders of magnitude (0.0006-1.40??ppb for Os and 0.0006-2.01??ppb for Ru) and are positively correlated with MgO content. These elements behaved compatibly during crystallization, mostly likely being concentrated in trace phases (alloy or sulfide) present in olivine phenocrysts or included chromite. Iridium also correlates positively with MgO, although less strongly than Os and Ru. The somewhat poorer correlation for Ir, compared with Os and Ru, may reflect variable loss of Ir as volatile IrF6 in some of the most magnesian samples. Rhenium is negatively correlated with MgO, behaving as an incompatible trace element. Its behavior in the lava lake is complicated by apparent volatile loss of Re, as suggested by a decrease in Re concentration with time of quenching for lake samples vs. eruption samples. Platinum and Pd concentrations are negatively, albeit weakly, correlated with MgO, so these elements were modestly incompatible during crystallization of the major silicate phases. Palladium contents peaked before precipitation of immiscible sulfide liquid, however, and decline sharply in the most differentiated samples. In contrast, Pt appears to have been unaffected by sulfide precipitation. Microprobe data confirm that Pd entered the sulfide liquid before Re, and that Pt is not strongly chalcophile in this system. Occasional high Pt values

  1. Influence of porcelain veneering on the marginal fit of Digident and Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns (United States)

    Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun


    PURPOSE Marginal fit is a very important factor considering the restoration's long-term success. However, adding porcelain to copings can cause distortion and lead to an inadequate fit which exposes more luting material to the oral environment and causes secondary caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of 2 different all-ceramic crown systems before and after porcelain veneering. This study was also intended to verify the marginal fit of crowns originated from green machining of partially sintered blocks of zirconia (Lava CAD/CAM system) and that of crowns obtained through machining of fully sintered blocks of zirconia (Digident CAD/CAM system). MATERIALS AND METHODS 20 crowns were made per each system and the marginal fit was evaluated through a light microscope with image processing (Accura 2000) at 50 points that were randomly selected. Each crown was measured twice: the first measurement was done after obtaining a 0.5 mm coping and the second measurement was done after porcelain veneering. The means and standard deviations were calculated and statistical inferences among the 2 groups were made using independent t-test and within the same group through paired t-test. RESULTS The means and standard deviations of the marginal fit were 61.52 ± 2.88 µm for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns before porcelain veneering and 83.15 ± 3.51 µm after porcelain veneering. Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns showed means and standard deviations of 62.22 ± 1.78 µm before porcelain veneering and 82.03 ± 1.85 µm after porcelain veneering. Both groups showed significant differences when analyzing the marginal gaps before and after porcelain veneering within each group. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the marginal gaps of each group before porcelain veneering and after porcelain veneering as well. CONCLUSION The 2 all-ceramic crown systems showed marginal gaps that were within a reported clinically

  2. Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Miller, T.; Waythomas, C.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A.; Layer, P.


    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain

  3. Isotope geochemistry of lavas of central Java, Indonesia and Heard Island, Indian ocean - evidence for sedimentary and mantle plume source components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for Slamet basalt-andesites indicate that their parental magmas are affected by small degrees of crustal contamination. The geochemistry of their mantle sources, rich in LILE and LREE has been influenced by a sedimentary component of the underlying subducted lithosphere. This contribution presents some of the elemental and isotopic data (including new Pb- isotope data) upon which this interpretation is based, and compares the isotopic compositions of the Slamet lavas of north-central Java, Indonesia, with estimates of Heard Island (an oceanic island volcano, in the southern Indian Ocean ) low 87Sr/86Sr end-members and also lavas of Muriah and Ringgit-Beser, Java

  4. Geological flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bratkov, Yu N


    In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

  5. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N


    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics

  6. Petrogenesis of intraplate lavas from isolated volcanoes in the Pacific : implications for the origin of the enriched mantle source of OIB


    Tian, Liyan


    Years of studies show that most of the ocean island basalts (OIB) that comprise the bulk of prominent linear volcanic chains are geochemically different from mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). However, the cause of the geochemical differences between OIB and MORB as well as the origin of geochemical enrichment and heterogeneity in OIB are highly controversial. Volcanic glasses and lavas with OIB-like composition from isolated intraplate volcanoes in the northern Lau Basin in the southwestern Pac...

  7. New and interesting small-celled naviculoid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from a lava tube cave on Île Amsterdam (TAAF, Southern Indian Ocean)


    Van de Vijver, B.; Cox, E. J.


    The analysis of a sample taken in a lava tube cave on Île Amsterdam (southern Indian Ocean) revealed the presence of three interesting small-celled naviculoid diatom taxa. Based on light and detailed scanning electron microscopy, two of these taxa are described as new: Mayamaea cavernicola sp. nov. and Sellaphora barae sp. nov. A third taxon, Chamaepinnularia aerophila Van de Vijver et Beyens, was previously only found in the type locality on the nearby Crozet Archipelago. The three taxa are ...

  8. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina in Hawai'i.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Ward-Fear

    Full Text Available Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai'i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records. Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai'ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings, foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses and breeding (artificial ponds. Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors. Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter, and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation. Cane toads in Hawai'i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species' ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance.

  9. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site. PMID:27213370

  10. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai’i (United States)

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Shine, Richard


    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai’i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai’ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings), foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses) and breeding (artificial ponds). Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors). Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter), and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation). Cane toads in Hawai’i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species’ ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27027738

  11. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan. (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site. PMID:27213370

  12. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo


    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I, Vanua-Lava (Class II and Viangchan (Class II. For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT. Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site.

  13. Radiogenic and U-Series isotope variations in Vanuatu ARC lavas: Fluid and sediment addition to an isotopically heterogenous mantle wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the isotopic signature of lavas along the Vanuatu island arc, it is demonstrated that the major tectonic disruption caused by the D'Entrecasteaux collision produced an influx of new mantle material from the back-arc region into the source region of the central Vanuatu arc volcanism, replacing the existing mantle wedge. Lavas in the north and south of the arc, away from the influence of the collision have Pb isotope characteristics of Pacific-MORB mantle, whereas lavas from the central islands have Pb isotope compositions that overlap with Indian- MORB mantle. Lateral variations in Sr-Nd isotope composition are considered to be caused by the differences in the isotopic composition of the unmodified mantle wedge followed by addition of about 1-3% of local sediments. The systematics of 238U-230Th disequilibrium data provides information about he timing of U-enrichment and the composition of mantle wedge prior to fluid addition derived from the subducted slab of the D'Entrecasteaux Zone

  14. Olivine and chromian spinel in primitive calc-alkaline and tholeiitic lavas from the southernmost cascade range, California: A reflection of relative fertility of the source (United States)

    Clynne, M.A.; Borg, L.E.


    Chromian spinel and coexisting olivine phenocrysts from a geochemically diverse suite of primitive tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalts and magnesian andesites from the Lassen region, in the southernmost Cascade Range, in California, show that the sub-arc mantle is zoned. Depleted calc-alkaline basalts and magnesian andesites erupt in the forearc region, and calc-alkaline basalts contain increasing abundances of inc