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Sample records for brunfelsia nitida benth

  1. Observações preliminares do "Angelim" (Andira nitida Mart. ex Benth) para uso na arborização urbana

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Soares Martins; Daniela Biondi

    1990-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar as qualidades estéticas e funcionais do Angelim (Andira nitida) a fim de verificar as potencialidades e limitações dessa espécie para o uso na arborização urbana. Foram analisadas características como: altura da árvore, copa, floração, frutificação, altura do primeiro esgalhamento e sistema radicular. Também foram feitos plantios em sementeira a fim de obter informações como: percentagem de germinação, desenvolvimento da espécie, e característica...

  2. Observações preliminares do "Angelim" (Andira nitida Mart. ex Benth para uso na arborização urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Soares Martins

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar as qualidades estéticas e funcionais do Angelim (Andira nitida a fim de verificar as potencialidades e limitações dessa espécie para o uso na arborização urbana. Foram analisadas características como: altura da árvore, copa, floração, frutificação, altura do primeiro esgalhamento e sistema radicular. Também foram feitos plantios em sementeira a fim de obter informações como: percentagem de germinação, desenvolvimento da espécie, e característica da muda.The objective of this paper was to analize the functional and aesthetic qualities of "angelim" (Andira nitida to verify the potential of this species as am urban landscape plant. The analyzed characteristics were: height, crown form, flowering season, frutification, trunk height and root system. The percentage of germination and the seedling development and characteristics were also evaluate.

  3. Brunfelsia spp (yesterday, today, tomorrow) toxicity in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Cowan, S; Child, G

    2008-06-01

    Four dogs were treated for acute toxicity following ingestion of the popular garden shrub 'Yesterday, today, tomorrow' (Brunfelsia spp). Clinical signs included vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle tremors, anxiousness, opisthotonus and seizures. All dogs recovered following treatment with any or all of general anaesthetic, gastric lavage, enema, diazepam, phenobarbitone or propofol sedation. Brunfelsia spp toxicity should be considered in young, previously healthy dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs that rapidly progress to muscle tremors and seizures. Examination of faeces was required for diagnosis in all cases. Owners should also be questioned thoroughly about their dogs' access to such plants.

  4. Fatty acid composition of Brunfelsia uniflora (Solanaceae seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, C. A.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Brunfelsia uniflora contained 30.5% of oil. The oil was analysed and components were identified by infrared (IR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and chemical methods. Linoleic acid predominated (75.5% followed by oleic (11.8% and palmitic (7.25% acids. Ricinoleic acid was present in small quantities (0.52%.Las semillas de Brunfelsia uniflora contuvieron 30.5% de aceite. El aceite fue analizado y los componentes fueron indentificados por espectroscopia de infrarrojo (IR, cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masa (CGEM y métodos químicos. Predominó el ácido linoleico (75.5% seguido por el oleico (11.8% y el palmítico (7.25%. El ácido ricinoleico estuvo presente en pequeñas cantidades (0.52%.

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    .... Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method...

  6. Importance ethnobotanique et valeur d'usage de Picralima nitida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il urge donc d'évaluer les connaissances des populations sur l'importance des ressources en vue d'élaborer des stratégies de conservation et de gestion durable. Le but de la ... Results revealed that local populations belonging to the 04 socio-cultural groups use the different parts of P. nitida for 21 treatments. P. nitida is ...

  7. Picranitine, a new indole alkaloid from picralima nitida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new indole alkaloid, picranitine, has been isolated from the seeds of Picralima nitida, along with five known indole alkaloids picratidine, akuammine, pseudoakuammine, akuammicine and akuammidine previously identified from the same source. Structures were elucidated through exhaustive spectral studies including ...

  8. IN-VITRO PROPAGATION OF Picralima nitida (Stapf) - A threatened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Gbadamosi

    management of botanical collections. Embryo culture was used as a method of regenerating this species for domestication purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Seed source and sterilization. Mature fruits of P. nitida were collected from J4 Forest Reserve,. Ijebu-Ode, Southwest, Nigeria (Latitude 6° 491 N; Longitude 3° ...

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Garcinia kola and Cola nitida Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other organisms showed sensitivity to the alcohol extract of Cola nitida, but higher sensitivity was observed with the hot water extract of the plant. Some of the results provided scientific evidence for the use of the plants by traditional herbalists in the treatment of microbial infections. Key word: Garcinia kola, Bitter Kola, ...

  10. Evaluation of the Antifungal properties of Picralima Nitida seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complete inhibition of growth (100%) was achieved on Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae and Rhizopus stolonifer at 250 mg/ml concentration of Picralima nitida seed ... Since these extracts at appropriate doses inhibited and eventually killed the test fungi, they could successfully be used to control plant pathogens and in food ...

  11. Proximate and phytochemical of Cola nitida and Cola acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewole, E A; Dewumi, D F A; Alabi, J Y T; Adegoke, A

    2013-11-15

    The aim of the research was to examine Cola nitida and Cola acuminata for their phytochemical and proximate compositions. Presence of secondary metabolites do provide information about the plants for their potentials as a lead candidates for the novel drug discovery. The proximate analysis was done using the method of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the phytochemical analysis was done using methods of Markkar and Goodchild for tannin, Brunner for saponin, Harbone for alkaloid and Bohm and Koupai-Abyazani for flavonoid. The proximate results showed that the moisture content of Cola acuminata and Cola nitida were in the range of 9.73-9.81%, ash 2.72-2.21%, fat 3.02-2.20%, protein 19.14-15.24%, crude fiber 7.30-4.18% and carbohydrate 58.09 66.45%. Cola acuminate has more protein content, ash and fat than Cola nitida. The result of phytochemical analysis showed that Cola acuminata has more alkaloids (2.22%), tannin (6.46%) and saponin (8.06%) than Cola nitida. The phenol contents of the two kola nuts were the same range 0.27%, the flavonoid were in the range of 0.12-0.14%. The presence of secondary metabolites in these plants are indications that if well researched, novel bioactive compounds can be discovered in them as there are worldwide efforts by scientists looking for new bioactive compounds to combat various ailments which have developed high resistant to already known antibiotics.

  12. Inhibitory activity of seed extract from Picralima nitida , (Staph) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of hydrolysis of p- nitrophenyl β-D- glucopyranoside (PNPG) by β-D glucosidase from African giant snail (Achatina achatina) has been studied in the presence of seed extracts from Picralima nitida (Staph) Th&H.D. A at a substrate concentration range of 0.04-0.2mM there was no product (P- nitrophenol) inhibition of ...

  13. Importance ethnobotanique et valeur d'usage de Picralima nitida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (http://database.prota.org/PROTAhtml/Picrali ma%20nitida_En.htm.). En ethnopharmacologie, les graines, l'écorce, les racines et les feuilles de l'espèce ont la réputation d'être un fébrifuge et un remède contre le paludisme et le diabète (Aguwa et al., 2001; Betti et al., 2013; Teugwa et al.,. 2013). En médecine traditionnelle ...

  14. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

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    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  15. Brunfelsia australis (Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow tree) and Solanum poisoning in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipsham, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A 2.5 yr old female beagle presented for acute abdominal pain and vomiting after consuming limited offerings of green potato skins. Progressive complications associated with suspected ingestion of a higher potency toxin followed within 5 hr. Subsequent investigations revealed a significant ingestion of an Australian shrub commonly called a "Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow" tree (Brunfelsia australis). The toxic principle for this emerging toxicity is referred to as "strychnine-like" and is potentially lethal with gastrointestinal, central nervous system, and cardiac pathology. This plant is currently being aggressively promoted by United States nurserymen for its dramatic tri-colored blooms and drought resistance.

  16. Brunfelsia (Solanaceae): a genus evenly divided between South America and radiations on Cuba and other Antillean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-07-01

    Hallucinogenic or toxic species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae: Petunieae) are important in native cultures throughout South America, and the genus also contains several horticulturally important species. An earlier morphological revision of the c. 50 species recognized three main groups, one consisting of the 23 Antillean species, another of southern South American and Andean species, and a third of species from the Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield. Based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 65 accessions representing 80% of the species, we generated a phylogeny and a calibrated chronogram for Brunfelsia to infer clade expansion and shifts in pollinators and fruit types. Brunfelsia flowers offer nectar, and attract lepidoptera, hummingbirds, or bees; the fruits are dry or fleshy. Our results imply that Brunfelsia is 16-21 Myr old and entered the Antilles from South America early during its history, with subsequent expansion along the island arc. The ancestor of the Antillean clade was hawk-moth-pollinated and had fleshy capsules, perhaps facilitating dispersal by birds. The only shift to hummingbird pollination occurred on Cuba, which also harbors the largest single radiation, with 11 species (10 included in our study) that apparently arose over the past 4 Myr. Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico each sustained smaller radiations. The data also reveal at least one new species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a new marine algal species Pyropia nitida sp. nov. (Bangiales: Rhodophyta) from Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Leeanne K; Morales, Karina M; Hughey, Jeffery R

    2016-07-01

    An unidentified marine red algal species classified in Pyropia J. Agardh was discovered from Monterey, CA. Morphological, barcode, and complete mitochondrial genome analysis of the alga support its recognition as a new species, Pyropia nitida sp. nov. The species is a high-intertidal, winter annual that is lanceolate in shape, monostromatic, and dioecious. Based on CO1 sequences, P. nitida is closely allied with the P. nereocystis clade. The mitogenome of P. nitida is 35 313 bp in length and contains 53 genes, including two ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs, four ribosomal proteins, two ymfs, four ORFs, and 17 genes involved in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. The results support the recognition of P. nitida as distinct from the morphologically similar P. lanceolata.

  18. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Brunfelsia uniflora flower oleoresin extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, L C T; Sugauara, E Y Y; Tešević, V; Glamočlija, J; Soković, M; Gonçalves, J E; Gazim, Z C; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B

    2017-04-13

    Brunfelsia genus is traditionally utilized in popular medicine due to its antibacterial and antifungal properties to name but a few. However, studies on the antimicrobial activity of Brunfelsia uniflora flower oleoresin have not been found yet. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of B. uniflora flower oleoresin obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide. Oleoresin from the plant dried flowers was obtained by carbon dioxide, and the chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of this oleoresin for seven bacteria and eight fungi were determined using 96-well microtiter plates. The oleoresin MBC for Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0.01 to 0.08 mg/mL, whereas the controls streptomycin and ampicillin varied from 0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL. The oleoresin MFC for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride varied from 0.01 to 0.08 mg/mL, whereas the controls bifonazole and ketoconazole ranged from 0.2 to 3.5 mg/mL. The oleoresin obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide presented bacteriostatic, bactericidal, fungistatic, and fungicidal activities that were higher than the positive controls streptomycin, ampicillin, bifonazole, and ketoconazole. The high antimicrobial activity was related to the high content of (E, E)-geranyllinalool that composes 21.0% of the oleoresin and a possible synergic action with fatty acid esters that made up 50.5% of the oleoresin. The oleoresin antimicrobial activity against common multiresistant bacteria in severe infectious processes as P. aeruginosa or against toxin

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

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    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  20. Triterpenos de Hyptis fasciculata Benth.

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    D.Q. Falcão

    Full Text Available Partes aéreas do arbusto Hyptis fasciculata Benth. foram estudadas do ponto de vista químico. Após vários processos cromatográficos em coluna de gel de sílica, foi possível isolar um triterpeno livre (ácido betulínico, além de triterpenos em mistura (ácido ursólico com ácido betulínico e ácido ursólico com ácido oleanólico, esteróides em mistura (sitosterol e estigmasterol e misturas de estigmasterol com ácido caféico e sitosterol com lignana. Tais substâncias foram identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de 1H e 13C.

  1. Triterpenos de Hyptis fasciculata Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, D.Q.; Fernandes, S.B.O.; Menezes, F.S.

    2003-01-01

    Partes aéreas do arbusto Hyptis fasciculata Benth. foram estudadas do ponto de vista químico. Após vários processos cromatográficos em coluna de gel de sílica, foi possível isolar um triterpeno livre (ácido betulínico), além de triterpenos em mistura (ácido ursólico com ácido betulínico e ácido ursólico com ácido oleanólico), esteróides em mistura (sitosterol e estigmasterol) e misturas de estigmasterol com ácido caféico e sitosterol com lignana. Tais substâncias foram identificadas por resso...

  2. In-vitro propagation of Picralima nitida (Stapf) through embryo culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryo abortion in wide crosses and seed dormancy has hampered the mass propagation of selected tree germplasm from the wild. An in vitro plant regeneration protocol was successfully established in Picralima nitida (Stapf), a medicinal tropical plant, by culturing excised embryo from mature seeds collected from the ...

  3. Preliminary studies on the use of kolanuts (cola nitida) for soft drink ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fresh nuts (seeds) of kola (Cola nitida) were used in the preparation of kola soft drink. Proximate analysis of the nut was carried out to determine its moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, fat and caffeine contents. The pH, total solids, specific gravity, caffeine and sensory attributes of the developed kola soft drink were ...

  4. Fase gametofítica del helecho Microgramma nitida (Polypodiaceae

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    Ma. del Rosario Ramírez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la fase gametofítica del helecho Microgramma nitid con esporas de Veracruz, México (siembra promedio 40 esporas/ cm². La morfogénesis se caracteriza por: germinación tipo Vittaria, un filamento inicial de seis células protálicas; gametofitos jóvenes espatulados que se transforman en gametofitos adultos cordiformes-alargados, con márgenes ondulados y tricomas unicelulares-capitados en los margenes y en las superficies; aparición de una célula meristemática obcónica apical, que es reemplazada rápidamente por un meristemo pluricelular. Los anteridios y arquegonios son del tipo usual de las Polypodiaceae s.str. El desarrollo protálico es del tipo Drynaria. Ocho meses después de la siembra apareció la primera hoja del esporofito; ésta es espatulada, con márgenes lisos y una hilera de células aclorofílicas, tricomas pluricelulares, bifurcados y estomas anomocíticos. Las células epidérmicas de la hoja del esporofito tienen paredes laterales onduladas en las superficies dorsal y ventral.The development of the gametophytic phase of Microgramma nitida is described based on spore samples that was obtained of fertil specimens gathered on Veracruz State, Mexico. The spore sowing density was 40 spores/cm2 ; it is characterized by Vittaria-type germination of the spore, a germinal filament of six cells; young gametophytes are naked, spathulated and later are transformed in cordate-elongated adult gametophytes with wavy borders; marginal, superficial capitated, unicellular hairs; the meristematic cell is wedge-shaped and is quickly replaced by a pluricellular meristem. The antheridia and archegonia are of the usual Polypodiaceae s. str.type. Prothallial development is thus of the Drynaria-type. The first leaf of the sporophyte appeared eight months after spore sowing. The leaf is spathulated, with smooth borders and the margin has a row of cells without chlorophyll; bifurcated and pluricellular hairs; anomocytic stomata; the

  5. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of oleoresin from leaves and flowers of Brunfelsia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, L F; Meniqueti, A B; Silva, R F; Santos, K A; Da Silva, E A; Gonçalves, J E; De Rezende, C M; Colauto, N B; Gazim, Z C; Linde, G A

    2017-08-17

    In this study, the temperature and pressure of supercritical CO2 extraction were evaluated to obtain oleoresin of Brunfelsia uniflora leaves and flowers. The oleoresin compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different methods. The highest oleoresin yields were 3.32% at 40°C and 200 bar for the leaves, and 1.03% at 60°C and 200 bar for the flowers. The main extracted compounds from leaves were phytol varying from 11.95 to 36.42% and α-tocopherol from 15.53 to 43.10%, and from flowers were geranyl linalool from 11.05 to 21.42% and α-amyrin from 9.66 to 22.12%. Oleoresin obtained at 60°C and 150 bar from leaves presented high antioxidant activity by DPPH (IC50 1.90 mg/mL) and by FRAP (1.8 µmol Fe2+/mg). β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation oleoresin from leaves at 0.25 mg/mL presented higher antioxidant activity than Trolox. The total phenolic content of the oleoresin from leaves ranged from 66.20 to 83.33 µg/mg and from flowers it was just up to 12.46 µg/mg. The extraction conditions affected yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of oleoresin from leaves and flowers. This is the first report on the antioxidant activity of B. uniflora oleoresin from leaves and flowers and provides subsidies for potential applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries.

  6. Ionic Liquid-Based Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth.

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    Wei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquids (IL-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min. The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations induced by Markhamia tomentosa (Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. Ex Engl. (Bignoniaceae) is used traditionally in the treatment of pain, oedema, pulmonary troubles and cancer. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. tomentosa was investigated using the Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay.

  8. Phytochemical, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Alnus nitida bark in carbon tetrachloride challenged Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Moniba; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Shah, Naseer Ali; Shah, Sayed Afzal; Ismail, Hammad; Younis, Tahira; Zahra, Zartash

    2016-08-03

    Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. is traditionally used for inflammatory disorders. Diarylheptanoids constituents having diverse therapeutically importance including hepato-protective was reported in A. nitida. The aim of this study was to explore the antioxidant and hepato-protective profile of A. nitida stem bark's crude methanol extract (ANM). Crude methanol extract of A. nitida stem bark and its derived fractions were assessed for phytochemical classes and in vitro antioxidant profiling by multidimensional assays. Hepato-protective assessment of ANM was investigated on rats, which were made hepatotoxic using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Additionally HPLC-DAD analysis of ANM, and its derived ethyl acetate and aqueous fraction was carried out to determine the presence of active constituents. Qualitative analysis of crude extract-and its fractions depicted the presence of terpenoids, saponins, coumarins, phenols and flavonoids. Maximum quantity of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) was recorded in ANM and its derived fractions; n-hexane (ANH), chloroform (ANC), ethyl acetate (ANE) and the residual aqueous (ANA). ANM exhibited the best total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power, and scavenging of DPPH and OH radicals. ANE and ANA exhibited strong scavenging potential for iron chelation, nitric oxide and β-carotene bleaching assay. ANM treatment converse the activities of serum-marker enzymes and lipid profile, altered by CCl4 treatment in rat. CCl4 induced hepatic-cirrhosis in rat resulted in decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase-which were restored towards the normal level with ANM. Similarly diminished level of reduced glutathione while enhanced level of lipid peroxides, hydrogen peroxide and nitrite in liver of cirrhotic rats was normalized by treatment of ANM. The histopathological studies of liver

  9. Antioxidant and antidiabetic profiles of two African medicinal plants: Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) and Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teugwa, Clautilde Mofor; Mejiato, Pascaline Chouadeu; Zofou, Denis; Tchinda, Bruno Tugnoua; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2013-07-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia generally associated with oxidative stress. The present study aims at evaluating the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of methanol and hydroethanol extracts of the stem bark and leaves of Pricralima nitida and the Sonchus oleraceus whole plant respectively. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) for free radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method in determining their phenol contents. The antidiabetic activity was tested in mice following streptozotocin diabetes induction, and selected oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde, Hydrogen peroxides and Catalase) were measured in order to evaluate the level of oxidative stress in treated animals. The in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH showed IC50 ranging from 0.19 ± 0.08 to 1.00 ± 0.06 mg/mL. The highest activity was obtained with the hydroethanol extracts of S. oleraceus (0.19 mg/mL and P. nitida (0.24 mg/mL). Polyphenol contents ranged from 182.25 ± 16.76 to 684.62 ± 46.66 μg Eq Cat/g. The methanol extract of P. nitida showed the highest activity, followed by the hydroethanol extract of S. oleraceus (616.89 ± 19.20 μEq Cat/g). The hydroethanol extract of whole plants (150 mg/Kg) and methanol leave extract of P. nitida (300 mg/Kg) exhibited significant antidiabetic activities with 39.40% and 38.48% glycaemia reduction, respectively. The measurement of stress markers in plasma, liver and kidney after administration of both extracts showed significant reduction in MDA and hydrogen peroxide levels, coupled with a substantial increase in catalase activity. These findings suggest that S. oleraceus whole plant and P. nitida leaves possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties, and therefore could be used as starting point for the development of herbal medicines and/or source of new drug molecules against

  10. Mass propagation of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, U; Rahman, M S M; Islam, S; Haque, N; Khatun, M; Jubair, T A; Paul, B C

    2008-05-01

    A protocol for mass propagation through axillary bud proliferation was established for Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth. (Apocynaceae). MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (4 multiple shoots) from nodal explants. These adventitious shoots were best rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) each of IBA and IAA. The in vitro raised plants were acclimatized in glass house and successfully transplanted to field condition with almost 95% survival.

  11. EFFECT OF PICRORHIZA KURROA BENTH. IN ACUTE INFLAMMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kantibiswas, Tuhin; Marjit, Bani; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the indigenous drug Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth was studied on experimental acute inflammation in rats. It was observed that Picrorhiza kurrooa at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. has significant (p

  12. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida (Papilionaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O O; Akindele, A J

    2008-03-28

    In our search for plants useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, we investigated the ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida (BN) using intestinal transit, enteropooling and gastric emptying tests in mice and rats. In the castor oil intestinal transit test, BN produced a significant (P400mg/kg vs. 89.33+/-6.28% for control. The effect at 400mg/kg was significantly lower than that of morphine, 10mg/kg, s.c. (20.29+/-3.78%), and was antagonized by isosorbide dinitrate, IDN (150mg/kg, p.o.) but not by yohimbine (1mg/kg, s.c.). This effect was not potentiated by atropine (1mg/kg, s.c.). In the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test, BN produced a significant increase in onset of diarrhoea (103.40+/-8.74, 138.80+/-17.04 and 174.8+/-29.04min, 100 to 400mg/kg, vs. 47.60+/-8.76min for control and 226.10+/-12.57min for morphine). The severity of diarrhoea (diarrhoea score) was dose dependently reduced (19.00+/-2.26, 17.04+/-1.89, 15.00+/-2.05, 100 to 400mg/kg, vs. 31.40+/-2.11 for control and 7.7+/-2.2 for morphine). This effect was not antagonized by IDN or yohimbine. The effect on severity was, however, potentiated by atropine. BN also reduced the number and weight of wet stools but did not have any significant effect on intestinal fluid accumulation and gastric emptying. Results obtained suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida is endowed with antidiarrhoeal activity possibly mediated by interference with the l-arginine nitric oxide pathway and synergistic with antagonistic action on muscarinic receptors.

  13. Cytotoxic abietane diterpenes from Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante Cruz; Lima, Mary Anne S; Montenegro, Raquel C; Nogueira, Marcelle; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Silveira, Edilberto R

    2006-01-01

    From roots of Hyptis martiusii Benth. two tanshinone diterpenes were isolated, the new 7beta-hydroxy-11,14-dioxoabieta-8,12-diene (1) in addition to the known 7alpha-acetoxy-12-hydroxy-11,14-dioxoabieta-8,12-diene (7alpha-acetoxyroyleanone) (2). Structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic means. The cytotoxic activity against five cancer cell lines was evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed considerable cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 3.1 to 11.5 microg/ml and 0.9 to 7.6 microg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxic activity seemed to be related to inhibition of DNA synthesis, as revealed by the reduction of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and induction of apoptosis, as indicated by the acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay and morphological changes after 24 h of incubation in leukemic cells.

  14. Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Efek Sitotoksik Ekstrak Kola (Cola Nitida) pada Kulter Sel Kanker Hati (HepG-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Endrini, Susi; Marsiati, Himmi; J, Suherman; O, Fauziah; R, Asmah

    2009-01-01

    Liver cancer is one among cancers with increasing incidence in the world. Cola fruit (Cola nitida) is a fruit that is rich in properties and has been known since the Dutch colonial era. This fruit contains ingredients such as those contained in tea and chocolate such as methylxanthine and its derivatives. This study aims to determine the content of antioxidants and cytotoxic effects of cola fruit extracts obtained from Indonesia and Malaysia on liver cancer cell lines. Antioxidant content of ...

  15. Occurrence and structure of extrafloral nectariesin Pterodon pubescens Benth. and Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth.

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    Paiva Élder Antônio Sousa e

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are structurally variable and widely spread among the angiosperms. The occurrence of EFNs in leaves of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth. and Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae were detected in adult specimens, at the time of production of new buds and flowers. The goals of the present study are to register the occurrence of the EFNs in P. pubescens and P. polygalaeflorus, and provide comparative data on the anatomical structures. The EFNs occur in the rachis and are located under the insertion of each petiolule. Each nectary consists of a small elevation whose apical portion is deeply invaginated, resulting in a depression (secretory pole, a common characteristic of both species. Unicellular, nonglandular trichomes occur along the rachis, being less numerous in P. polygalaeflorus while in P. pubescens they cover the EFNs. The secretory tissue consists of parenchyma cells with dense cytoplasm compactly arranged. The nectar reaches the surface of the EFNs by rupturing the thin cuticle which covers the secretory pole, since both species lack stomata or any other interruption at the epidermis. The basic difference between the two species, in relation to the EFNs, is the density of the pubescence, which is always greater in P. pubescens. Structural and dimensional modifications may be observed, even between basal and apical nectaries in the same rachis, so it does not constitute a taxonomical tool.

  16. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF EXTRACTS AND FRACTIONS OF Randia nitida LEAVES ON SOYBEAN PATHOGENS AND THEIR PHYTOCHEMISTRY

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    STHEFANY CAROLINE BEZERRA DA CRUZ-SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of methanol extract and fractions of leaves of Randia nitida (Kunth DC on Colletotrichum truncatum (Schw. Andrus & Moore, Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. De Bary and perform chemical and antioxidant activity tests. Crude methanol extract (EBM and fractions (hexane = FHX, dichloromethane = FDM and ethyl acetate = FAE underwent classical phytochemical analysis and determination of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Samples were individually incorporated into PDA culture mediums (potato-dextrose-agar at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 μg mL - 1 of extract or fraction. Mycelial growth was evaluated when control reached the edge of the plate. Phytochemical results indicated that flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids are the major chemical constituents in both EBM and fractions. Total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity were higher for FAE and EBM, followed by FDM and FHX; however, the latter showed higher content of steroids and triterpenoids compared to the other fractions. For C. truncatum , R. solani and S. sclerotiorum , the most efficient fractions were respectively FAE, FDM and FHX, all of them in the highest concentration (160 μg mL - 1 . The highest inhibition rate was observed against S. sclerotiorum , reaching 93.75%. We concluded that all fractions have antifungal activity on the plant pathogens, being FHX the most active against S. sclerotiorum , which might have been due to the presence of steroids and triterpenes.

  17. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) in tropical diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Falodun, Abiodun; Langer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Picralima nitida Durand and Hook, (fam. Apocynaceae) is a West African plant with varied applications in African folk medicine. Various parts of the plant have been employed ethnomedicinally as remedy for fever, hypertension, jaundice, dysmenorrheal, gastrointestinal disorders and malaria. In order to reveal its full pharmacological and therapeutic potentials, the present review focuses on the current medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological activities of this species. Literature survey on scientific journals, books as well as electronic sources have shown the isolation of alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols and steroids from different parts of the plant, pharmacological studies revealed that the extract or isolated compounds from this species posses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglyceamic, hypotensive, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, antiulcer and antitumorigenic activities. Results from various scientific investigations to date have revealed the potential of the extract from the plant or isolated compounds for use in the treatment and prevention of various kinds of human diseases. However, further studies on the extracts and pure compounds from this species is required to completely assess its phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the mechanism of action behind these pharmacological activities exhibited by the compounds isolated from this species. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efeito hipoglicemiante da farinha do fruto de maracujá-do-mato (Passiflora nitida Kunth em ratos normais e diabéticos Hypoglycemic effect of Passiflora nitida Kunth fruit flour on normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A região amazônica é detentora de uma vasta biodiversidade de frutos, porém pouco explorada quanto o seu potencial nutricional e econômico. Dentre estes frutos destaca-se o maracujá-do-mato (Passiflora nitida Kunth, espécie silvestre, de fruto comestível, com sabor exótico e de boa aceitabilidade para consumo. No presente estudo objetivou-se analisar as características nutricionais do mesocarpo do fruto da P. nitida e avaliar o potencial hipoglicemiante em ratos normais e diabéticos. A farinha do mesocarpo do fruto foi elaborada e analisada quanto a composição centesimal. A atividade hipoglicemiante foi avaliada por meio de dois modelos experimentais em ratos Wistar. O mesocarpo apresentou baixa concentração de macronutrientes e alto teor de umidade, cinzas e fibras. No experimento agudo, após 15 minutos da administração da sacarose, os níveis glicêmicos foram de 146±12 mg dL-1 no grupo controle e 112±2,5 mg dL-1, no grupo que recebeu 1g kg-1 de peso da farinha. No experimento crônico, após 21 dias, houve redução de 493 mg dL-1 para 302 mg dL-1 (38,7 % e 195 mg dL-1 (60,4% na glicemia nos grupos que foram tratados com 20 e 40% de ração enriquecida com a farinha, respectivamente, em relação ao grupo diabético não tratado. Em ambos os modelos experimentais, a farinha do mesocarpo mostrou-se eficaz na redução da glicemia. O fruto de P. nitida mostrou-se um produto natural em potencial para o controle da glicemia no diabetes.The Amazon region has a vast biodiversity of fruits but is little explored as to its nutritional and economic potential. Among these fruits is "maracuja-do-mato" (Passiflora nitida Kunth, a wild species of edible fruit with exotic flavor and good acceptability for consumption. The aim of the present study was to analyze the nutritional characteristics of P. nitida fruit mesocarp and to evaluate its hypoglycemic potential in normal and diabetic rats. Flour from the fruit mesocarp was prepared and

  19. EFFECT OF PICRORHIZA KURROA BENTH. IN ACUTE INFLAMMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantibiswas, Tuhin; Marjit, Bani; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the indigenous drug Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth was studied on experimental acute inflammation in rats. It was observed that Picrorhiza kurrooa at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. has significant (p<0.01) anti inflammatory effect with respect to control, vehicle and standard drug. PMID:22556764

  20. STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA BENTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, ...

  1. STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA BENTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids.

  2. In vitro multiplication of Pogostemon cablin Benth. through direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient method was developed to initiate multiple shoots from nodal explants of Pogostemon cablin Benth. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA initiated a mean of 45.66 shoots/nodal explant. Within 4 weeks of initiation, regenerated multiple shoots attained a height of 3.6 cm. Subsequent transfer of these in vitro ...

  3. Formulation of tablets of Xylopia parviflora benth (annonaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia species are widely available in West Africa. Xylopia parviflora (Benth) plant is used in folk medicine in the management of a number of ailments, one of these is the use of the leaves in the treatment of malaria fever for which a number of patients have reported its beneficial effects. This study was designed to ...

  4. Microbiological exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and Citrus aurantifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebana, R U; Madunagu, B E; Ekpe, E D; Otung, I N

    1991-11-01

    The four medicinal plants, Garcinia kola (roots), Borreria ocymoides (leaves), Kola nitida (bark) and Citrus aurantifolia (roots) were screened for phytochemical components. They were found to contain tannins, phlobatannins, polyphenols, hydroxymethyl anthraquinones, glucides, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavanoids and reducing compounds. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts as well as alkaloids and cardiac glycosides of the medicinal plants were tested on various pathogenic bacteria. They were found to inhibit such organisms as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, beta-haemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usefulness of the phytochemical bases of these plants as potential sources of pharmaceutical drug preparation is discussed.

  5. Long-PCR based next generation sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome of the peacock skate Pavoraja nitida (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence (16,760 bp) of the peacock skate Pavoraja nitida using a long-PCR based next generation sequencing method. It has 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region in the typical vertebrate arrangement. Primers, protocols, and procedures used to obtain this mitogenome are provided. We anticipate that this approach will facilitate rapid collection of mitogenome sequences for studies on phylogenetic relationships, population genetics, and conservation of cartilaginous fishes.

  6. Effects of chronic administration of ethanolic extract of kolanut (Cola nitida) and caffeine on vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahdeen, H M; Omoaghe, A O; Isehunwa, G O; Murtala, B A; Alada, A R A

    2014-03-01

    Kolanut (Cola nitida) is consumed in virtually every part of the world. The caffeine content of kolanut is scarce and the number of investigations studying the health benefits of kolanut is negligible compared to coffee. The present study was designed to identify the caffeine content of kolanut and evaluate the effect of its chronic consumption on cardiovascular functions in rats. The caffeine content of kolanut was determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (10 Rats/group). Kolanut extract (11.9 mg/kg), caffeine extracted from kolanut (7.5 mg/kg), decaffeinated of kolanut extract (6 mg/kg) and distilled water (control) was administered orally to each group for six-weeks. Effect of treatment on body weight, blood pressure and relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) of the aortic rings was assessed. The total caffeine content of kolanut extract was found to be 51% and it was 96% pure from GC-MS analysis. Chronic consumption of kolanut and caffeine significantly (p caffeine significantly (p caffeine also significantly (p Caffeine and kolanut consumption reduced the relaxation response to both acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Atropine and L-NAME considerably inhibit the ACh-induced relaxation of the rat aortic ring suggesting the involvement of cholinergic mechanism. However, indomethacin (10(-4)M) also attenuated the ACh response indicating involvement of protanoids. The results suggest that treatment with both kolanut extract and caffeine had similar characteristics between the two groups with no significant differences in the ACh-induced relaxation of thering suggesting that the action of kolanut extract is due to its caffeine content.

  7. Redescubrimiento del endemismo tinerfeño Micromeria densiflora Benth. (Labiatae

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    Reyes-Betancort, Jorge Alfredo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study confirms the existence of Micromeria densiflora Benth. on the Tenerife Island, Teno Massif, and detailed information on morphology, chorology and conservation status are provided. A natural hybrid of this species with Micromeria varia Benth. is described.Se confirma la presencia actual de Micromeria densiflora Benth. en la isla de Tenerife, en el macizo de Teno, y se aporta información sobre su caracterización morfológica, corología y estatus de conservación. Además se describe un híbrido natural de esta especie con Micromeria varia Benth.

  8. Dormancy break in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds

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    Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1; immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2, and 100 °C (T3, concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4, 10 minutes (T5 , and 15 minutes (T6, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 + immersion in water for six hours (T8, and for 12 hours (T9, soaking in water for 24 hours (T10, and for 48 hours (T11. The characteristics evaluated were such: emergency, mean emergency time, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter. The best method for breaking dormancy of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. is mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80.

  9. A survey of witchweed [ Striga hermonthica (Del.) benth.] on arable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of witchweed [Striga hermonthica (Del.) benth.] on arable and lands in Nunlan Local Government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. YA Jesse, MY Jada, H Sule, CB Phillip. Abstract. No Abstract. Ife Journal of Science Vol. 7(2) 2005: 319-321. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijs.v7i2.32191 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.

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    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%, but the esters showed great diversity.

  11. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

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    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  12. SOME EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THE BIOPREPARATION FROM Picralima nitida SEEDS EXTRACT AS ANTIDIABETIC AGENT

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    O. A. Akinloye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to investigate some untoward effects that could be associated with the use of P. nitida as hypoglycemic agent using some biochemical and histological evidences. The antioxidant property of the plant was determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Biochemical studies in plasma using determining the testes such as blood glucose, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, gamma glutamyl transferase activities, electrolytes (sodium, potassium and bicarbonate, lipid peroxidation levels, haematological parameters (red blood cell and whole blood cell, platelets, and lymphocyte counts, blood glucose level, lipid profile, and also liver and kidney function tests were performed. Histopathological examinations of the liver, kidney and pancreas were done following the standard Heamatoxylin and Eosin staining method. Methanol extract of the seeds has the highest antioxidant level (36.73%, indicating higher free radical scavenging activity; followed by aqueous extract (19.36% and coconut water extract (4.09%. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose of all the treated rats at the end of the experiment (ranging from 55.59% to 41.66%. Significant increase (p<0.05 in body weights of the treated rats were also observed at the end of the treatment (ranging from 9.26% to 38.89%. There was a significant (p<0.05 increase in the hematological parameters in all the extract treated groups. There was also significant decrease (p<0.05 in the lipid profiles of the treated groups. Plasma studied enzymes activities decreased in all treated groups. Ionoregulatory disturbances observed included hyperkalemia and hypernatremia in all the treated groups but were reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the end of the treatment. Urea and bicarbonate concentrations and also of lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly in all the groups. The histopathological studies revealed that the extracts were unable to

  13. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

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    V. O. Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of halides to the extract enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect which improved adsorption of cationic species present in the extract and was in the order KCl < KBr < KI suggesting possible role of radii of the halide ions. Thermodynamic parameters determined showed that the adsorption of BN on the metal surface is an exothermic and spontaneous process and that the adsorption was via a physisorption mechanism.

  14. Optimization and characterization of alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase produced by Bacillus pumillus grown on Ficus nitida wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The potentiality of 23 bacterial isolates to produce alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase) on Ficus nitida wastes was investigated. Bacillus pumillus ATCC7061 was selected as the most potent bacterial strain for the production of both enzymes. It was found that the optimum production of protease and CMCase were recorded at 30 °C, 5% Ficus nitida leaves and incubation period of 72 h. The best nitrogen sources for protease and CMCase production were yeast extract and casein, respectively. Also maximum protease and CMCase production were reported at pH 9 and pH 10, respectively. The enzymes possessed a good stability over a pH range of 8-10, expressed their maximum activities at pH10 and temperature range of 30-50 °C, expressed their maximum activities at 50 °C. Ions of Hg(2+), Fe2+ and Ag(+) showed a stimulatory effect on protease activity and ions of Fe(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Ag(+) caused enhancement of CMCase activity. The enzymes were stable not only towards the nonionic surfactants like Triton X-100 and Tween 80 but also the strong anionic surfactant, SDS. Moreover, the enzymes were not significantly inhibited by EDTA or cystein. Concerning biotechnological applications, the enzymes retained (51-97%) of their initial activities upon incubation in the presence of commercials detergents for 1 h. The potential use of the produced enzymes in the degradation of human hair and cotton fabric samples were also assessed.

  15. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  16. Antiurolithiatic activity of coleus Aromaticus Benth. In Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, R.B.; T. K. Sur; Maity, L.N.; Chakraborty, S.C

    2000-01-01

    Water extract of the leaves of Coleus aromaticus  Benth. Was tested for its antiurolithiatic activity against calcium oxalate stones in male albino rats. Calcium oxalate stones were induced by feeding 3% w/w sodium oxalate along with normal feed. The water extract of coleus aromaticus (0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, once, orally for 30 days) was found to be effective in reducing deposition of calcium oxalate. Hence, it is suggested, coleus aromaticus leaves may be effective in the therapy of calcium ...

  17. Diuretic activity of coleus aromaticus benth on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, T K; Pandit, S; Biswas, T K; Ghosh, R B; Bhattacharyya, D

    2003-04-01

    Water extract of the leaves of Coleus Aromaticus Benth was tested for its diuretic activity in male albino rats. The study was carried out on normal rats using furosemide as a standard reference drug. Rats were treated with furosemide (4 mg/kg. p.o) and Coleus aromaticus (0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, p/o). Urine was collected and its volume was recorded. Urinary levels of sodium, potassium and chloride were estimated. Treatment with Coleus aromaticus produced diuresis. The urine output and electrolytes concentration was significantly increased. Hence, it is suggested, Coleus aromaticus leaves has diuretic activity on rats.

  18. DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF COLEUS AROMATICUS BENTH ON RATS

    OpenAIRE

    T. K. Sur; S. Pandit; Biswas, T.K.; Ghosh, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2003-01-01

    Water extract of the leaves of Coleus Aromaticus Benth was tested for its diuretic activity in male albino rats. The study was carried out on normal rats using furosemide as a standard reference drug. Rats were treated with furosemide (4 mg/kg. p.o) and Coleus aromaticus (0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, p/o). Urine was collected and its volume was recorded. Urinary levels of sodium, potassium and chloride were estimated. Treatment with Coleus aromaticus produced diuresis. The urine output and electrol...

  19. Diploflavone, a New Flavonoid from Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto G.S. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Cabral, Analucia G.S.; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Silva, Marcelo S. da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica]. E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br; Da Cunha, Emidio V. Leitao [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Silene C. do [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2005-11-15

    The chemical examination of Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. resulted in the isolation of a new 3-methoxyflavone, 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6,6-dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone, to which was given the trivial name diploflavone (1); as well as the known 3,6-dimethoxy-6,6- dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone (2). The structure of the new compound was established by spectral analyses. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against the cells NClH292 (lung carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma). The cells HEp-2 were the most affected by the substances tested. (author)

  20. Phytochemical and Bioactivity Evaluation of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. is an Iranian endemic species of the genus Scrophularia, which comprises ca. 200 medicinally important herbaceous flowering plants . Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this species afforded two iridoid glycosides, scropolioside D (1 and scrophuloside B 4 (2, and two phenylalkanoid glycosides, salidroside (3 and verbascoside (4. S tructures of these compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Free-radical-scavenging activity, potential antimalarial property, and contact toxicity as well as general toxicity of the extract and fractions were assessed.

  1. Tree size and light availability increase photochemical instead of non-photochemical capacities of Nothofagus nitida trees growing in an evergreen temperate rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Rafael E; Briceño, Verónica F; Corcuera, Luis J; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alvarez, Daniela; Sáez, Katherine; García-Plazaola, José I; Alberdi, Miren; Bravo, León A

    2011-10-01

    Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser (Nothofagaceae) regenerates under the canopy in microsites protected from high light. Nonetheless, it is common to find older saplings in clear areas and adults as emergent trees of the Chilean evergreen forest. We hypothesized that this shade to sun transition in N. nitida is supported by an increase in photochemical and non-photochemical energy dissipation capacities of both photosystems in parallel with the increase in plant size and light availability. To dissect the relative contribution of light environment and plant developmental stage to these physiological responses, the photosynthetic performance of both photosystems was studied from the morpho-anatomical to the biochemical level in current-year leaves of N. nitida plants of different heights (ranging from 0.1 to 7 m) growing under contrasting light environments (integrated quantum flux (IQF) 5-40 mol m(-2). Tree height (TH) and light environment (IQF) independently increased the saturated electron transport rates of both photosystems, as well as leaf and palisade thickness, but non-photochemical energy flux, photoinhibition susceptibility, state transition capacity, and the contents of D1 and PsbS proteins were not affected by IQF and TH. Spongy mesophyll thickness and palisade cell diameter decreased with IQF and TH. A(max), light compensation and saturation points, Rubisco and nitrogen content (area basis) only increased with light environment (IQF), whereas dark respiration (R(d)) decreased slightly and relative chlorophyll content was higher in taller trees. Overall, the independent effects of more illuminated environment and tree height mainly increased the photochemical instead of the non-photochemical energy flux. Regardless of the photochemical increase with TH, carbon assimilation only significantly improved with higher IQF. Therefore it seems that mainly acclimation to the light environment supports the phenotypic transition of N. nitida from shade to

  2. Atividade hemaglutinante em sementes de Dioclea rostrata Benth

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    T.B Grangeiro

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Dioclea rostrata Benth. Têm uma lectina que é melhor extraída em tampão acetato de sódio a pH 4,0 e é seletivamente adsorvida em Sephadex G-50, apresentando um alto título de hemaglutinação contra eritrócitos de coelho. A lectina também aglutina inespecificamente hemácias de carneiro e humanas. A atividade hemaglutinante é inibida por glicose, frutose, manose e alfa-metil-D-manosídeo, sendo os dois últimos os mais potentes inibidores. A lectina é uma metaloproteína, uma vez que a atividade hemaglutinamente desaparece na presença de EDTA.Seeds of Dioclea rostrata Benth. Have a lectin which is best extracted with Na-acetate buffer at pH 4.0 and that is selectively adsorbed in a Sephadex G-50 matrix, yielding a protein fraction of high hemagg lutinating titre against rabbit erythrocytes. It also agglutinates sheep, and human cells inespecifically. Its hemagglutinating activity is inhibited by glucose fructose, mannose and O-methyl-D-mannopyranoside the latter two being the most active inhibitors. The lectin seems to be a metaloprotein since the hemagglutinating activity is lost in the presence of EDTA.

  3. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE AMOUNT OF FLAVONOIDS IN THE HERB OF SALVIA FARINACEA BENTH.

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    O. I. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic researches conducted have allowed determination of the flavonoids presence in raw materials of Salvia farinacea Benth. They were rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and 5 phenol carbonic acids: caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic, and cinnamic acids. The quantitative content of the sum of flavonoids in Salvia farinacea Benth. was conducted by the method of differential spectrophotometry, and it amounted to 0.55-0.60% in terms of rutin. The research conducted made it possible to expand the scientific data of phenolic compounds of Salvia farinacea Benth. and to offer the possibility of recycling, monitoring procurement and targeted use of Salvia farinacea Benth. herb in pharmacy and medicine.

  4. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toyang, Ngeh J; Krause, Michael A; Fairhurst, Rick M; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations...

  5. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toyang, Ngeh J; Wabo, Hippolyte K; Ateh, Eugene N; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) preparations are used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat a number of ailments, including prostate cancer and malaria, and is used as an anthelmintic, adaptogen and antidote...

  6. Propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species

  7. Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Plathymenia reticulata benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae Biometry of fruits and seeds and germination of Plathymenia reticulata benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae

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    Renata de Melo Ferreira Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou comparar características biométricas de frutos e sementes e o efeito de diferentes escarificações, temperaturas e luz na germinação de Plathymenia reticulata Benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. Foram registrados comprimento, largura, espessura, massa da matéria seca e fresca de frutos (n = 100 e sementes (n = 100 de cada espécie. Os diferentes tratamentos foram escarificações mecânica e química e temperaturas (fotoperíodo/nictoperíodo de 20, 30 e 35/15 °C (12/12 e 0/24 e 25 e 35 °C (12/12. Os frutos de P. foliolosa mostraram-se mais largos, espessos e pesados e as sementes, mais compridas e espessas do que as de P. reticulata. As sementes de ambas as espécies não apresentaram fotoblastismo. A escarificação ácida não aumentou significativamente a germinabilidade das sementes em relação ao grupo-controle, enquanto a escarificação mecânica incrementou significativamente a germinabilidade apenas de P. foliolosa. As germinabilidades a 25 °C das sementes de P. reticulata intactas, escarificadas com ácido e lixa foram, respectivamente, de 55%, 60% e 89%. Para as sementes de P. foliolosa esses valores foram 48%, 37,5% e 83%, respectivamente.Esses resultados apontam limitações na germinação de P. foliolosa impostas pelo tegumento, entretanto o efeito deste restringindo a germinação das sementes intactas decresceu com a elevação da temperatura.This study aimed to compare the biometry of fruits and seeds, as well as the effect of different scarification, temperature and light conditions on the germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. We measured the length, width, thickness, and fresh mass of fruits (n= 100 and seeds (n= 100 of each specie. The different treatments were mechanic and acid scarification, temperatures (photoperiod/nictoperiod of 20, 30 and 35/15 °C (12/12 and 0/24 and 25 and 35 °C (12/12. P. foliolosa fruits were wider, thickener and heavier

  8. The anti-shigellosis activity of the methanol extract of Picralima nitida on Shigella dysenteriae type I induced diarrhoea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouitcheu, Laure Brigitte Mabeku; Tamesse, Joseph Lebel; Kouam, Jacques

    2013-08-17

    Picralima nitida Stapf (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant used traditionally in Cameroon to cure various ailments such as gastrointestinal disorders and dysentery. This study reports the in vitro and in vivo anti-shigellosis activity of the methanol extract of this plant on rats. The antimicrobial activity of the extract against pathogenic strains was evaluated using the disc diffusion assay and broth microdilution method. After oral administration of a suspension of Shigella dysenteriae type I (sd1), diarrheic rats were divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle of the extract and the four others 125, 250, 500 mg/kg of the plant extract and ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg) respectively for 7 days. The frequency of faeces emission as well as the weight of normal and diarrheic faeces was recorded. The presence of stools containing mucus or blood and the number of sd1 in faeces were also recorded. In vitro, the extract had an antimicrobial effect on 11 out of the 17 pathogenic strains tested. The values of CMI and CMB obtain against Shigella dysenteriae type I were 800 and 6400 μg/ml respectively. In vivo, diarrhoea induction was effective and we notice an increase in faeces frequency and weight (p < 0.05), increase in the percentage of diarrheic stool released as well as the mucus contained in stool (p < 0.05), an increase in bacterial population in stool (p < 0.05). Picralima nitida extract, like ciprofloxacin markedly reduces the frequency faeces released and sd1 density from 100% (diarrheic rats) to 47.22 and 61.69% (500 mg/kg) respectively. It also slowed down the movement of charcoal meal through gastro-intestinal tract with the percentage of intestinal length covered of 60.54 (500 mg/kg). This anti-shigellosis activity in vitro and in vivo attests the usefulness of Picralima nitida in the traditional treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as dysentery.

  9. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

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    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  10. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

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    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  11. Anatomia do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os caracteres anatômicos do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth. e fornecidas 29 medições de sua estrutura. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias. A estrutura anatômica indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae e série Lepidotae Benth. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  12. EFEITO DE ALTAS TEMPERATURAS NA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Plathymenia reticulata Benth. E Dalbergia miscolobium Benth.

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    Daniel de Alencastro Bouchardet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO fogo é comum no Cerrado e, geralmente, ocorre durante a seca, quando várias espécies frutificam ou dispersam as sementes. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos do fogo na germinação das espécies do Cerrado. Este trabalho investigou o efeito da exposição a altas temperaturas na germinação de sementes de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. e Plathymenia reticulata Benth., comuns no Cerrado e com uso potencial para recuperação de áreas degradadas e na recomposição de áreas de preservação permanente. As sementes foram coletadas em agosto de 2011, pesadas, separadas em três classes de tamanho e expostas a três temperaturas: 80 ºC, 100 ºC e 150 ºC por 2 e 5 minutos. Após os tratamentos, as sementes foram colocadas para germinar. A exposição a altas temperaturas afetou, de forma diferenciada, a germinação das espécies. Independentemente da classe de tamanho, a exposição das sementes até 100 °C, por 2 e 5 minutos, não alterou a germinação de D. miscolobium (91%. Entretanto, apenas as sementes maiores germinaram após a exposição a 150 °C, porém com redução significativa na germinação (53%; p<0,01. Para P. reticulata, a exposição a 80 °C por 2 e 5 minutos e a 100 °C por 2 minutos não alterou a germinação (71%, e nenhuma semente germinou após a exposição a 150 °C. A baixa resistência das sementes às altas temperaturas pode afetar significativamente o recrutamento de novos indivíduos após a ocorrência de queimadas no Cerrado.

  13. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

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    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  14. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia hypoleuca Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca. Results The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1), β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), manool (4), 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5), ursolic acid (6), oleanolic acid (7), 3-epicorosolic acid (8), 3-epimaslinic acid (9) and coleonolic acid (10). Conclusions In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, some of the isolated compounds (1–7, 9) have not been previously reported from the species S. hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time. PMID:23351362

  15. Inhibitory effect of polyphenolic–rich extract from Cola nitida (Kolanut seed on key enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

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    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: This antioxidant and enzyme inhibition could be some of the possible mechanism by which C. nitida is use in folklore for the management/treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the enzyme inhibitory properties of the extract could be attributed to the presence of catechin, epicatechin, apigenin and naringenin.

  16. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae?

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    Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L. in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth, a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid coumpounds with similar chemical structures.

  17. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae) be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L.) in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth), a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid compounds with similar chemical structures.

  18. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae) be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae)?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L.) in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth), a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid coumpounds with similar chemical structures.

  19. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy.

  20. Diuretic activity and toxicity study of the aqueous extract of Cola nitida seed on markers of renal function and electrolytes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnemdi Ashibuogwu, Mirian; Isaac Adeosun, Olukayode; Ojo Akomolafe, Rufus; Olaniyi Sanni, Douglas; Sesan Olukiran, Olaoluwa

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundCola nitida is a plant, conventionally used in Africa in the treatment of various ailments such as migraine, morning sickness and indigestion. The aim of the present study was to explore the diuretic activity of the aqueous extract of C. nitida seed (AECONS) and alteration caused by its subchronic administration on the structure and function of the kidney of male Wistar rats. MethodsThe study was divided into diuretic and subchronic studies. Twenty-five male Wistar rats weighing between 140 and 180 g were divided into five groups of five rats each. The first 24 h of this study investigated the possible diuretic activity of C. nitida seed. Group I (the control) received 25 mL/kg of normal saline. Group II (the standard) received 20 mg/kg/day of furosemide. Groups III, IV, V received 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/day of AECONS, respectively, and orally. Urine volume, pH, specific gravity and electrolytes were estimated in the samples of urine collected after 6 h of the study. From the second day onward and up to a period of 4 weeks, the rats in each group were given normal saline, furosemide and AECONS once daily as was done on the first day. At the end of the 4-week treatment period, blood and urine samples were collected for the determination of creatinine, urea, Na+, K+ and Cl- concentrations. Results The results of the diuretic study showed that the AECONS at all doses used and furosemide produced a significant increase in urine output with respect to the control group. AECONS also induced a significant increase in the urine concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl- in the experimental and standard groups when compared with the control group, except for group III which showed no significant variation in K+ concentration. In the subchronic study, AECONS caused a significant increase in the urine levels of Na+, K+, Cl- in the experimental and standard groups when compared with the control rats. The plasma Na+ concentration of groups IV and V was significantly lower

  1. The anti-shigellosis activity of the methanol extract of Picralima nitida on Shigella dysenteriae type I induced diarrhoea in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Picralima nitida Stapf (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant used traditionally in Cameroon to cure various ailments such as gastrointestinal disorders and dysentery. This study reports the in vitro and in vivo anti-shigellosis activity of the methanol extract of this plant on rats. Methods The antimicrobial activity of the extract against pathogenic strains was evaluated using the disc diffusion assay and broth microdilution method. After oral administration of a suspension of Shigella dysenteriae type I (sd1), diarrheic rats were divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle of the extract and the four others 125, 250, 500 mg/kg of the plant extract and ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg) respectively for 7 days. The frequency of faeces emission as well as the weight of normal and diarrheic faeces was recorded. The presence of stools containing mucus or blood and the number of sd1 in faeces were also recorded. Results In vitro, the extract had an antimicrobial effect on 11 out of the 17 pathogenic strains tested. The values of CMI and CMB obtain against Shigella dysenteriae type I were 800 and 6400 μg/ml respectively. In vivo, diarrhoea induction was effective and we notice an increase in faeces frequency and weight (p < 0.05), increase in the percentage of diarrheic stool released as well as the mucus contained in stool (p < 0.05), an increase in bacterial population in stool (p < 0.05). Picralima nitida extract, like ciprofloxacin markedly reduces the frequency faeces released and sd1 density from 100% (diarrheic rats) to 47.22 and 61.69% (500 mg/kg) respectively. It also slowed down the movement of charcoal meal through gastro-intestinal tract with the percentage of intestinal length covered of 60.54 (500 mg/kg). Conclusion This anti-shigellosis activity in vitro and in vivo attests the usefulness of Picralima nitida in the traditional treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as dysentery. PMID:23957940

  2. Caracterização anatômica, química e antibacteriana de folhas de Brunfelsia uniflora (manacá presentes na Mata Atlântica

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    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    Full Text Available Brunfelsia uniflora é uma espécie pertencente à família Solanaceae conhecida popularmente como manacá e empregada em medicina popular, suas folhas são empregadas contra artrite, reumatismo, sífilis, picadas de cobra, febre amarela, e ainda como diurética e antitérmica. Objetivou-se realizar um estudo anatômico foliar, através de microscopia de luz e de eletrônica de varredura, bem como análises químicas do extrato foliar através de cromatografia e testes microbiológicos com os extratos foliares para atividade antibacteriana frente a Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus. O material biológico foi coletado em área de Mata Atlântica, nas proximidades da cidade de São Vicente - SP. O estudo da anatomia foliar de Brunfelsia uniflora, evidenciou parênquima paliçádico com duas camadas celulares e o parênquima lacunoso com seis camadas de células; foi observada grande quantidade de drusas no parênquima clorofiliano e predominância de esclerênquima na região da nervura central da folha. A epiderme abaxial apresentou grande quantidade de estômatos, sendo estes quase que ausentes na epiderme adaxial. Estudos através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura permitiram evidenciar uma camada de cera epicuticular ornamental bem característica na epiderme adaxial da folha, predominância de estômatos paracíticos, presença de tricomas capitados e muitos tricomas peltados na epiderme abaxial da folha. A análise química evidenciou alguns picos nos cromatogramas que correspondem a grupos de substâncias que não puderam ser analisadas de forma qualitativa, mas que se pode inferir a ocorrência de derivados de ácido cafeico. Os testes microbiológicos obtidos apresentaram resultados negativos no controle das espécies de bactérias testadas, nas concentrações utilizadas.

  3. El género Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. (Leguminosae en Cuba

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    Beyra Matos, Ángela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary synopsis of the Cuban species of Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. that includes keys, descriptions, illustrations, chromosome numbers, palinology, phenology, ecology, distribution maps, notes on chemical composition and ethnobotany for each of the four species known for Cuba. We also discuss on the diagnostic characters of the genus and the species present in the Cuban flora.Se presenta una sinopsis de las especies del género Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. presentes en Cuba. Se incluyen claves dicotómicas, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos químicos, cromosómicos, palinológicos, fenológicos, etnobotánicos, así como la distribución y ecología de las cuatro especies del género. Se discuten los caracteres diagnósticos del género y de las especies presentes en Cuba.

  4. Volatile secondary metabolites of Micromeria dalmatica Benth. (Lamiaceae): biosynthetical and chemotaxonomical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D

    2012-07-01

    Analysis by GC and GC/MS of the essential oil obtained from above-ground parts of Micromeria dalmatica Benth. allowed the identification of 116 components, comprising 93.6% of the total oil composition. The major compounds are 3-oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes and were identified as pulegone (29.6%), menthone (11.7%), and piperitenone (10.8%). The chemical composition of this and additional 30 oils obtained from selected Micromeria Benth. taxa were compared by using multivariate statistical analysis (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA)). The results of statistical analyses, as well as the domination of different concurrent p-menthane-skeleton-type monoterpene biosynthetical sub-branches in the compared M. dalmatica samples, implied the occurrence of at least two different chemotypes of the mentioned species. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica M. Penteado-Dias; Carvalho, Fabrício M. de

    2008-01-01

    Four species of Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924), T. mecanga sp.nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae), Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae) and Eurytoma sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) were reared from two different types of galls of Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Juiz-de-Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The two Tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the Braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round g...

  6. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Wabo, Hippolyte K.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) preparations are used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat a number of ailments, including prostate cancer and malaria, and is used as an anthelmintic, adaptogen and antidote. The aim of this study was to continue the validation of the activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. extracts and isolated molecules against cancer cell lines following the previous isolation of an anti-prostate cancer sugar ester from the root extract. Materials and methods Acetone extracts of Vernonia guineensis Benth. leaves were tested for activity against 10 cancer cell lines (Breast—MDA-MB-231, Breast—MCF-7, Colon—HCT-116, Leukemia—HL-60, Lung—A549, Melanoma—A375, Ovarian—OVCAR3, Pancreas—Mia-paca, Prostate—PC-3 and Prostate—DU-145). The acetone extract was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation. Anti-proliferation and clonogenic activity of the isolated compounds were tested. The WST-1 assay was used for the anti-proliferation activity, while the standard clonogenic test was used to determine the clonogenic activity. Results The acetone extract of Vernonia guineensis Benth. demonstrated in vitro activity ranging from IC50 4–26 mg/mL against the 10 cell lines. Activity guided fractionation of this extract yielded two sesquiterpene lactones, isolated for the first time from the genus Vernonia. The compounds were characterized using spectroscopic experiments, including a combination of 1D and 2D NMR data. Vernopicrin (1) and Vernomelitensin (2) demonstrated in vitro activity against human cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.35–2.04 μM (P sesquiterpenes against cancer cell lines highlights the medicinal potential of V. guineensis. The selective anti-proliferation and dose dependent anticlonogenic activities suggest that the identified sesquiterpenes could be potential antitumor agents.. PMID:23376285

  7. Phytochemical study of essential oil from the aerial parts of Coleus aromaticus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, G; Pande, C; Kharkwal, G; Singh, S; Singh, C

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil composition of Coleus aromaticus Benth. (family Lamiaceae) was examined by capillary GC and GC-MS. Analyses revealed the presence of 28 constituents, of which 16 were identified. Thymol (83.39%) was found to be the major compound, while 1-octen-3-ol, terpine-4-ol, eugenol, trans-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and α-cadinol were present as minor constituents.

  8. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J; Wabo, Hippolyte K; Ateh, Eugene N; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-03-27

    Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) preparations are used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat a number of ailments, including prostate cancer and malaria, and is used as an anthelmintic, adaptogen and antidote. The aim of this study was to continue the validation of the activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. extracts and isolated molecules against cancer cell lines following the previous isolation of an anti-prostate cancer sugar ester from the root extract. Acetone extracts of Vernonia guineensis Benth. leaves were tested for activity against 10 cancer cell lines (Breast-MDA-MB-231, Breast-MCF-7, Colon-HCT-116, Leukemia-HL-60, Lung-A549, Melanoma-A375, Ovarian-OVCAR3, Pancreas-Mia-paca, Prostate-PC-3 and Prostate-DU-145). The acetone extract was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation. Anti-proliferation and clonogenic activity of the isolated compounds were tested. The WST-1 assay was used for the anti-proliferation activity, while the standard clonogenic test was used to determine the clonogenic activity. The acetone extract of Vernonia guineensis Benth. demonstrated in vitro activity ranging from IC50 4-26μg/mL against the 10 cell lines. Activity guided fractionation of this extract yielded two sesquiterpene lactones, isolated for the first time from the genus Vernonia. The compounds were characterized using spectroscopic experiments, including a combination of 1D and 2D NMR data. Vernopicrin (1) and Vernomelitensin (2) demonstrated in vitro activity against human cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.35-2.04μM (Psesquiterpenes against cancer cell lines highlights the medicinal potential of V. guineensis. The selective anti-proliferation and dose dependent anticlonogenic activities suggest that the identified sesquiterpenes could be potential antitumor agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new bis-seco-abietane diterpenoid from Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Sook; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Nakane, Takahisa; Takano, Akihito; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yuji; Inoue, Hideshi

    2014-12-05

    A new, highly oxidized, bis-seco-abietane diterpenoid named hyptisolide A (1) was isolated from Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth. Its structure and stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of data obtained by HRESIMS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction analyses, and its absolute configuration was determined with vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy. By reporter gene assay, 1 was demonstrated to induce cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcription in Neuro2A cells.

  10. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae) be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae)?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L.) in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth), a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid coumpounds with similar chemical structures. Estudos clínicos e experimentais tem incriminado, de forma consistente, na França, a planta medicinal g...

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Cecília M. A. de; Silva,Maria do Rosário R; Kato, Lucília; Silva,Cleuza C. da; Heleno D. Ferreira; Souza,Lúcia K. H.

    2004-01-01

    The leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation and the resulting volatiles were investigated by GC/MS. The main constituent representing 60% of the essential oil was isolated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods as (R)-6-[(Z)-1-heptenyl]-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1). This compound showed strong in vitro activity against four dermatophyte fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, and Tricophyt...

  12. Post-harvest Treatment of the Pogostemon cablin Benth Oil Yield

    OpenAIRE

    TASKIRAWATI, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli oil is one of the essential oils that are important in the perfume industry, cosmetics, and medicine. Patchouli oil is obtained from the distillation of the trunk, branches, and leaves of patchouli. One of the factors affecting the yield of patchouli oil is a post-harvest treatment. This study aims to determine the yield of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth) oil from different processes in post-harvest management. There were two post-harvest treatments committed to patchouli leaves...

  13. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth Anatomy of the secondary xylem of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth., fornecidos dados quantitativos, determinações estereológicas e fotomicrografias de sua estrutura anatômica. Foram encontrados raios muito finos, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes não septadas, pontoações ornamentadas e poros agrupados em cachos, com arranjo tendente a diagonal. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para a família Leguminosae e gênero Mimosa, em análise filogenética, taxonômica e ecológica.The wood anatomy of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth. is described. Photomicrographs as well as quantitative and stereological data of its minute structure were furnished. Very fine rays, paratracheal parenchyma, libriform and not septated fibres, vestured pits and pores in clusters, tending to a diagonal pattern, were found. The wood anatomy was checked with literature of the Leguminosae family and genus Mimosa, considering its phylogenetical, taxonomical and ecological aspects.

  14. Características físico-químicas e produtividade de acessos de Passiflora nitida Kunth procedentes do Centro-Norte do Brasil Physical and chemical characteristics and yield of Passiflora nitida Kunth accessions from North and Central regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-suspiro (Passiflora nitida Kunth é uma espécie silvestre amplamente distribuída no território nacional. Tem alto potencial para o melhoramento visando à resistência a diversas doenças que provocam perdas expressivas em cultivos comerciais de maracujá-azedo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Seus frutos são comestíveis e têm elevado valor comercial como fruta fresca. Dessa forma, esse estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características físicas e químicas dos frutos e determinar, em condições de campo, o rendimento de dez acessos de P. nitida procedentes de estados e/ou de diferentes tipos fitofisionômicos das regiões Centro - Norte do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, Distrito Federal. Os acessos avaliados foram coletados em Manaus-AM, de capoeira; no Núcleo Rural São José - DF, de chapada e de vereda; no Vale do Amanhecer - DF, de vereda; Jardim Botânico-DF, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Silvânia-GO, de mata ciliar e de chapada; em Itiquira - MT, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Alto Paraíso-GO, de chapada, e em Natividade-TO, de chapada. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por repetição. As plantas foram propagadas por estacas enraizadas de cada acesso e conduzidas em espaldeiras verticais de 1,80 metro de altura, com irrigação por gotejamento. As avaliações foram feitas durante as colheitas de 2006 e 2007. O acesso do Vale do Amanhecer apresentou o melhor rendimento de frutos. Este acesso pode ser usado no programa de melhoramento visando à inserção de P. nitida no mercado. Também foi possível observar que as fontes provenientes do Cerrado têm características físicas mais desejáveis, produzindo frutos maiores e com melhor rendimento em polpa. Por outro lado, o acesso do Amazonas teve a menor espessura da casca, característica desejável para o mercado de frutas naturais.The passion fruit

  15. Constituintes químicos e avaliação preliminar in vivo da atividade antimalárica de Ouratea nitida Aubl (Ochnaceae

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    Charles S. Estevam

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o isolamento de triterpenos (ácido 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-óico, friedelina e b-amirina e outros compostos (éster etílico do ácido p-hidroxibenzóico e tetracosano, bem como a avaliação preliminar in vivo da atividade antimalárica de extratos das folhas de Ouratea nitida Aubl. Análise qualitativa através de CG-EM de uma fração apolar do extrato em hexano também foi efetuada. Ésteres metílicos e etílicos dos ácidos laúrico, mirístico, palmítico, esteárico e oléico, metílicos dos ácidos pentadecanóico, heptadecanóico, araquidônico, behênico e lignocérico e o etílico do ácido linoléico foram os componentes majoritários; enquanto que o estearato de n-butila, o tetracosano e a 6,10,14-trimetil-2-pentadecanona foram os minoritários. Os compostos isolados foram identificados com base na análise dos dados espectrais (IV, EM e RMN, incluindo DEPT e estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez nesta espécie.

  16. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

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    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  17. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling

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    Vladimir Morocho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling (Lamiaceae from Ecuador. Thirty-four compounds accounting to 93.4% of the total oil were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were δ-3-carene (19.9%, β-pinene (17.0%, (E-β-caryophyllene (9.7% and (E-E-α-farnesene (9.4%. The essential oil of L.radula possessed strong antifungal activity against Trichophytonrubrum (ATCC® 28188 and Trichophytonmentagrophytes (ATCC® 28185.

  19. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário de Mimosa sparsa Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Maccari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Os caracteres microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa sparsa Benth. são descritos, com base em 30 dados quantitativos de sua estrutura anatômica. A descrição ‚ ilustrada com fotomicrografias tomadas nos três planos anatômicos. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura, em análise taxonômica e filogenética.

  20. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Kato, Lucilia [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: cecilia@quimica.ufg.br; Silva, Maria do Rosario R.; Souza, Lucia K.H. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Patologia Tropical; Silva, Cleuza C. da [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Ferreira, Heleno D. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2004-10-01

    The leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) were subjected to hydro distillation and the resulting volatiles were investigated by GC/MS. The main constituent representing 60% of the essential oil was isolated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods as (R)-6-[(Z)-1-heptenyl]-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1). This compound showed strong in vitro activity against four dermatophyte fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, and Tricophyton rubrum (a total of 60 strains) with a minimal inhibitory concentration observed in the range of 125-7.8 mg {mu}L{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Phytochemical analysis of bark from Helietta apiculata Benth and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tanize S; Copetti, Daniele; do Carmo, Gabriele; Neto, Alexandre T; Pedroso, Marcelo; Silva, Ubiratan F; Mostardeiro, Marco A; Burrow, Robert E; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

    2017-09-01

    Extraction and characterization of natural products from the bark of the trunk of Helietta apiculata Benth (Rutaceae) afforded nine alkaloids, eight furoquinoline and one quinolone, limonine, three cinnamic acid derivatives, three neolignans, tetracosanoic acid, six coumarins, of which apiculin A and apiculin B (neolignans), and tanizin (coumarin) are previously undescribed compounds. The structures of all compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, and the crystal structures of two of the newly undescribed compounds, apiculin A and apiculin B, were determined by X-ray analysis. Extracts and pure compounds isolated from Helietta apiculata showed promising antimicrobial activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seed morphology of section Edentulae Benth. of the genus Pedicularis L. (Orobanchaceae Vent.) in the Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Peregrym O.; Futorna O.

    2013-01-01

    The seeds ultrastructure of the five species of the section EdentulaeBenth. of the Eastern Europe were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The seeds descriptions of surface of the species of this section were presented in this article. These species are heterogeneous by characteristics of seeds surface, which we consider as valuable addition features for identification within the section.

  3. Penstemon lanceolatus Benth. or P. ramosus Crosswhite in Arizona and New Mexico, a peripheral or endemic species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Anderson; S. Richmond-Williams; O. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The red-flowered member of Penstemon sect. Chamaeleon from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico has been treated taxonomically both as part of the Mexican species, P. lanceolatus Benth., and as a separate species, P. ramosus Crosswhite. Under the former treatment the Arizona and New Mexico populations are peripheral populations of a primarily Mexican...

  4. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glaburata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have higher levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa. Higher RUP can result in more efficient utilization of nitrogen by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmen...

  5. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ((Stapf Th. AND H. Durand on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Francisca Otoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Methodology: The size and length of the combs of White leghorn day-old chicks treated with Testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg, Cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg, or PNE (50-500 mg/kg for 7 days, as well as Cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg on Testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the Chick Comb Test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17- beta-estradiol (0.1-0.9 and micro;g, PNE (30-300 mg/kg or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function, was well lipid and haematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: Seven-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P and #8804;0.01-0.001, while Cyproterone significantly decreased (P and #8804;0.001 comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P and #8804;0.001 of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P and #8804;0.001. Administration of 17- beta oestradiol and PNE increased (P and #8804;0.001 oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed on assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile and haematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 293-301

  6. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  7. Vascular Reactivity Concerning Orthosiphon stamineus Benth-Mediated Antihypertensive in Aortic Rings of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Nurul Maizan Manshor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthosiphon stamineus Benth has been traditionally used to treat hypertension. The study aimed to investigate the vascular reactivity of water extract (WOS and water : methanolic (1 : 1 extract (WMOS of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and AT1 receptors blocker in the mechanisms of antihypertensive mediated by α1-adrenergic receptor and EDNO and PGI2 releases in the SHR aortic rings. SHR (230–280 g were divided into four groups: control, WOS, WMOS, and losartan. After being fed orally for 14 days, the aorta was harvested and subjected to PE (10−9 to 10−5 M and ACh (10−9 to 10−5 M with and without L-NAME (100 µM and indomethacin (10 µM, respectively. WOS, WMOS, and losartan significantly reduced the contractile responses to PE intact suggesting the importance of endothelium in vasorelaxation. Losartan significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. L-NAME significantly inhibited the ACh-induced relaxation in all groups. Indomethacin enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation in WMOS. Collectively, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract reduced vasoconstriction responses by the alteration of α1-adrenergic and AT1 receptors activities. The involvement of EDNO releases was clearly observed in this plant. In WOS, PGI2 releases might not participate in the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. However, in WMOS, enhancement of vasorelaxation possibly due to continuous release of PGI2.

  8. Efficacy of Pcroriza kurrooa benth in experimentally induced Hepato-toxicity in Cross-bred calves

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    V.R. Talmale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic extract of roots of picrorhiza kurrooa Benth was screened for its photochemical & hepato protective activity by metabolic (biochemical profile for hepato-protective activity by invasive blood sampling in calves. The mean extractability percentage obtained was 40.5. Phyto-chemical study revealed that the presence of reducing sugar, glycosides & saponins. The level of SGOT (AST, SGPT (ALT, alkaline phosphates, bilirubin increased significantly while the level of protein, albumin, globulin and glucose decreased significantly and moderate but not significant increase in cholesterol level in serum in calves treated with CC14 (thrice a week for two weeks, intra ruminally were observed. The bio-chemical alterations might be due to damage of liver cells and impairment in its functions. The animals treated with alcoholic extract 10 & 15 mg/kg Body wt. For 14 days by oral route afforded a significant protection against biochemical alterations induced by carbon tetrachloride. Thus the efficient protection of calves to varying degree, by the alcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth given with carbon tetrachloride was observed from the clinical & biochemical investigations. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 29-31

  9. UMEDECIMENTO DO SUBSTRATO E TEMPERATURA NA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Parkia platycephala BENTH.

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    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parkia platycephala Benth. (faveira is a leguminous tree, known as a provider of commercial wood in the Amazon rain forest. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different volumes of water for substrate moisture and temperatures on germination of Parkia platycephala . After this, they were sowing over towel paper, organized in rolls wetted with water contents equivalent to 2.0; 2.5; 3.0 and 3.5 times the weight of the substrate without new water addition, and they were maintained in chambers at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30°C and alternate temperature 20-30°C. The following parameters were analyzed: the germination percentage, first count germination, index of germination speed, length and dry mass of seedlings (shoot and root. A completely randomized design was used with a 4 x 4 factorial (water volumes and temperatures. The moistening of the substrate with 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 times the weight of the paper at temperatures of 25, 30 and 20-30ºC can be used for germination and vigor of Parkia platycephala Benth. The temperature of 20ºC and all volumes of water tested for wetting the substrate reduced the germination and the vigor of these seeds.

  10. SABIA (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. SEEDLINGS GROWTH AND SURVIVAL INOCULATED WITH SYMBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS IN FIELD CONDITIONS

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    Marília Malta Cavalcante Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989277Sabia (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. has ecological characteristics and symbiotic associations with nitrogen fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These associations are used as biological tool that could be used as an able alternative to minimize chemical fertilizer use and benefit plant development at environments under nutritional deficit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of Leguminosae Sabia (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. like response to rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation, to establish growth curves to height and stem based diameter, to determine the N and F contents in plants aerial parts and to evaluate plants survival at field. The strain used was BR3405, The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi used was Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita. The Glomus clarum + Gigaspora margarita + BR3405 and Gigaspora margarita inoculation provided better values for the studied variables (height, diameter, N and P , and this last one was the best choice to Sabia plantation. The plants showed 100% survival, regardless the treatment ued. There was not significant statistical difference for N and F content in Sabia aerial part., Nevertheless, it was noticed a faster growth in plants with symbiont.

  11. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Piptadenia moniliformis Benth. SOB ESTRESSE HÍDRICO

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    Gilvaneide Alves de Azerêdo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of germination and the establishment of seedlings are important factors for the survival of species, mainly in places where availability of water is limited, as in the Caatinga region. In this sense, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of water stress on the germination of Piptadenia moniliformis Benth seeds. Three lots (L 1 , L 2 e L 3 were used, corresponding to the production years of 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. Before the germination test, the seeds were submitted to scarification in concentrated sulfur acid for 30 minutes. To induce water deficit, polyethyleneglicol (PEG 6000 was used, in the following osmotic potentials: - 0,3; -0,6; -0,9, -1,2 and -1,5 MPa and water (0 MPa under the temperatures of 25 and 30 ºC. The features the experiment evaluated were: percentage of germination and of normal seedlings, germination speed index and the dry mass of seedlings. The germinating process of Piptadenia moniliformis Benth seeds is jeopardized from water potentials inferior to -0,6 MPa at 25 and 30 °C; water potentials equivalent or inferior to -1,2 MPa inhibit the formation of normal seedlings in both temperatures; the tolerance to water stress simulated with PEG 6000 is variable among seedling lots and germination temperatures.

  12. Physiological maturity of ingazeiro Inga striata Benth. SeedsMaturação fisiológica de sementes de ingazeiro (Inga striata Benth

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    Marlene Feliciano Mata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inga striata Benth., Popularly known as ingazeiro, is a native fruit of tropical forests and riparian forests of the Amazon, Northeast and Minas Gerais. It is used in the reclamation of degraded areas and in rural and urban forestry. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate indices for assessing the maturity and ideal harvest seeds I. striata Benth. Trees I. striata were in swamp forest of altitude on Campus II of the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB, Areia-PB. Assessments of seed maturation were performed in six seasons fruit harvests after anthesis (95, 110, 125, 140, 155 and 170 DAA and two consecutive years of observations (two seasons. The experimental design was completely randomized following a factorial 2 x 6 (two periods of observation and six seasons crop of fruit. At each harvest were evaluated dimensions of fruits and seeds, water content and dry weight of seeds and their germination and vigor (first germination, speed of germination, length and mass of the primary root and shoot. The seed physiological maturity was reached at 146 to 166 days after flowering in the first year and 155 days in the second year, in which periods had the lowest water content, maximum dry matter accumulation and germination; The size, content water, dry mass of seed germination and the dry weight of the aerial part of the seedling, were the best parameters that determined the physiological maturity of seeds of I. striata. Inga striata Benth. é uma arbórea nativa de ocorrência nas florestas tropicais e matas ciliares, distribui-se nas Antilhas, Sul da América tropical e Bolívia. No Brasil ocorre na Amazônia e região Nordeste até Minas Gerais, sendo utilizada na recuperação de solos de áreas degradadas, como frutífera e na arborização urbana. O objetivo do Inga striata Benth., popularmente conhecida como ingazeiro, é uma frutífera nativa das florestas tropicais e matas ciliares da Amazônia, Nordeste e Minas

  13. Evaluación de un sistema para la micorrización in vitro en plantas de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus, Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Manuel Núñez-Zarante; Gabriel Roveda-Hoyos; Marcela Franco-Correa; María Margarita Ramírez-Gómez; Urley Adrian Pérez-Moncada

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of an in vitro mycorrhization system of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth). Objective. Obtain an in vitromycorrhization system in autotrophic culture systems of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth). Materials and methods. We usedspores and root fragments with vesicles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) Glomus sp (GEV02). We established an autotrophicculture system of blackberry plantlets comparing two methods of direct inoculation of the AMF. We measured the number of...

  14. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipids contained in numerous lipid bodies dispersed in the cytoplasm. Proteins, more concentrated in the adaxial face of the cotyledons, occur in all the mesophyll and are stored in protein bodies containing globoids, with variable number and size, responsible for accumulation of mineral reserves. Calcium oxalate druses have distribution restricted to the cotyledons adaxial face and are associated with protein bodies. Starch, also distributed all over the cotyledon mesophyll, occurs in small amounts in plastids with developed lamellar system. Secretory cavities rich in phenolic compounds occur among procambial strands.Este trabalho procurou correlacionar dados de observações em microscopia de luz através de técnicas histoquímicas e de luz polarizada e investigações em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para caracterizar os materiais de reserva em cotilédones de C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, conhecida popularmente como sibipiruna, ou falso pau-brasil, uma espécie tropical com ampla distribuição no Brasil. O mesofilo cotiledonar, especialmente na face abaxial, apresenta-se rico em lipídios neutros, insaturados, contidos em numerosos corpos lipídicos dispersos no citoplasma. As proteínas, mais concentradas na face adaxial dos cotilédones, ocorrem em todo o mesofilo e são armazenadas em corpos proteicos contendo globoides, com número e tamanho variáveis, responsáveis pelo acúmulo de reservas minerais. Drusas de oxalato

  15. Distribuição de biomassa e nutrientes na aréa de Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth Biomassa and nutrients distribution of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth

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    Orieudo Nunes Moura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado na Estação Experimental de Itambé, PE, para avaliar a distribuição da biomassa e nutrientes em povoamentos de Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. Foram estudados dois povoamentos, em solo e topografia similares com oito e 11 anos de idade, nos espaçamentos de 3,0 x 3,0 m e 4,5 x 4,5 m, respectivamente. A biomassa foi determinada para cada componente aéreo. As amostras de folhas, galhos, cascas e fuste foram coletadas e analisadas quimicamente. A biomassa total encontrada foi de 66,22 e 80,78 t/ha, nos povoamentos I e II, respectivamente. O material lenhoso (galhos e lenho representou 96,52 e 97,98% da biomassa total, nos povoamentos I e II. A distribuição de biomassa nos povoamentos I e II foi, respectivamente; de galhos (44,99 e 53,40%, fuste (51,53 e 44,58%, casca (2,39 e 1,40% e folhas (1,10 e 0,62%. A ordem de concentração de nutrientes nos dois povoamentos, em todos os componentes da parte aérea, de modo geral, obedeceu à seguinte ordem decrescente: nitrogênio > cálcio > potássio > magnésio > enxofre > fósforo.This work was carried out at Itambé Experimental Station, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, to study biomass and nutrient distribution in stands of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. Two stands with similar soil and topographical conditions were studied, involving plants eight and eleven years old, at 3.0 x 3.0 m and 4.5 x 4.5 m spacing, respectively. The biomass of each tree component was determined. Samples of leaves, branches, bark and stem were collected and chemically analyzed. Total biomass was 66.22 and 80.78 t/ha in stands I and II, respectively. Biomass distribution in stands I and II was: branches (44.99 and 53.40%, wood (51.53 and 44.58%, bark (2.39 and 1.40% and leaves (1.10 and 0.62%. Nutrients of the components for both stands showed the following concentration trend: Nitrogen > Calcium > Potassium > Magnesium > Sulfur > Phosphorus.

  16. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic

  17. Dormancy and Germination of Castilla Blackberry Seeds (Rubus glaucus Benth / Latencia y Germinación de Semillas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth

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    Díaz Diez Cipriano Arturo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We categorized the dormancy and germination ofblackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth seeds from the GermplasmBank System for Food and Agriculture of the Colombian Nation. A tetrazolium test showed normal seedling production viability, but seed coat impermeability prevented imbibition, which is considered an expression of exogenous dormancy; however, this was released by immersing the seeds in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 16 to 21 hours. The treatment was applied to 10 accessions of Castilla blackberry, harvested during the dry and rainy seasons. The seeds were germinated under light and dark conditions. The highest germination counts were obtained with the dry-season-collected seeds incubated in darkness and with the rainy-season seeds incubated under light conditions. Differential germination responses were also independently determined by genotype, incubation conditions (light or darkness and collecting season. / Se categorizaron la latencia y la germinación ensemillas de mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth, provenientes del Sistema de Bancos de Germoplasma para la Alimentación y la Agricultura de la Nación Colombiana. La prueba del tetrazolio demostró que las semillas tenían la capacidad para dar origen a una plántula normal; sin embargo, al contacto con el agua la imbibición fue restringida por la impermeabilidad de la testa, lo que se considera como una expresión de latencia exógena. Ésta pudo ser removida con la inmersión de las semillas durante 16 a 21 horas en hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%. El tratamiento fue aplicado a 10 accesiones de mora de Castila cosechadas en épocas seca y lluviosa; las semillas se germinaron bajo condiciones deluz y oscuridad, con una mayor germinación al incubar lasprovenientes de tiempo seco en condiciones de oscuridad y en aquellas de época lluviosa al ser germinadas con luz. También al aplicar el procedimiento de remoción de latencia exógena se observaron respuestas germinativas diferenciales

  18. Contribuição ao conhecimento químico de espécies de Hyptis com ocorrência no semiárido paraibano: Hyptis macrostrachys Benth. e Hyptis umbrosa Salzm. Ex Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    A família Lamiaceae possui 295 gêneros e cerca de 7.775 espécies com distribuição cosmopolita. Estima-se que 22 gêneros e 402 espécies ocorrem no Brasil. Neste trabalho, realizou-se um estudo fitoquímico de duas espécies do gênero Hyptis encontradas no semiárido paraibano, Hyptis macrostachys Benth. e Hyptis umbrosa Salzm. ex Benth. As folhas e os caules das espécies em estudo foram submetidas a processos de extração, de filtração e cromatografia de seus respectivos extratos. Posteriormente, ...

  19. Peningkatan kadar patchouli alcohol pada minyak nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth dengan metode distilasi fraksinasi vakum

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    Rahma Isfaroiny

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth oil depend on it patchouli alcohol value. At there time nilam farmers just has produced nilam oil with patchouli alcohol value about 26–28%. To increase this value, fractional vacuum distillation had been done in this study. Nilam oil has been isolated from drying leaf of nilam plant. Patchouli alcohol in this oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, next the oil was distillated by fractional vacuum and the patchouli alcohol was determined from each fraction. This study showed that fractional vacuum distillation of nilam oil gives a higher patchouli alcohol value. The increasing was 23.3387%; from 35.022% at nilam oil before fractination vacuum distillation to 58.3515% at the third fraction from fractional vacuum distillation. In fact, the fourth fraction had the highest patchouli alcohol, but it had dark colour so isn’t fill the standard quality.

  20. Licanol, um novo flavanol, e outros constituintes de Licania macrophylla Benth

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    Fernando Antônio de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of L. macrophylla Benth led to the isolation of a new flavanol named licanol: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin-3'-O-α-L-rhamnoside, along with nine known compounds, identified as: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin, pheophytin A, 13²-hydroxy-(13²-S-pheophytin A, pheophytin B, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol-β-O-glucoside, betulinic alcohol and oleanolic acid. The structures were established based on IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectrometric data analysis with the aid of 2D techniques. The methanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark as well as the compounds licanol, 13²-hidroxi-(13²-S-feofitina A, and betulinic alcohol demonstrated antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains.

  1. Pyrolysis of Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell for bio-oil production

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    Temitope E. Odetoye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional agricultural residues such as Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell (PPBFS are potential sources of biomass feedstock that have not been investigated for bio oil production. In this study, PPBFS was pyrolyzed via an intermediate pyrolysis process for the production of bio oil. The bio oils were obtained using a fixed bed reactor within a temperature range of 375–550 oC and were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. The most abundant organic compounds present were acetic acid, toluene, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-furanmethanol, phenol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The bio-oil produced at 550 oC possessed a higher quantity of desirable compounds than those produced at lower temperatures. The presence of acetic acids in the bio-oil suggested the need to upgrade the bio-oil before utilization as a fuel source.

  2. Studies on the efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract for domestic wastewater treatment

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    O.M. Kolawole

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. Comparative studies using varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/v with alum and ferric chloride showed that the bark extract was effective in the clarification and sedimentation of total solids in the waste water sample. The optimum dose achieved was 2.5 % w/v with a minimum of 24 hours contact time. The total bacteria counts were reduced by 46 % after 24 hours when the extract was used whereas ferric chloride achieved 50 % reduction and alum achieved 55 % reduction under similar conditions. The feasibility of using the bark extract as an additional coagulant is therefore discussed.

  3. Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of volatile oils from Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Edigênia C C; Silveira, Edilberto R; Lima, Mary Anne S; Neto, Manoel Andrade; de Andrade, Israel L; Lima, Marcos Aurélio A; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Mesquita, Antonio Lindemberg M

    2003-06-18

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Hyptis martiusii Benth were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds representing 93.2% of the essential oil of leaves were characterized; Delta-3-carene (22.5%), 1,8-cineole (24.27%), beta-caryophyllene (6.15%), and bicyclogermacrene (6.32%) were found as the major components. In the essential oil of inflorescences 27 compounds representing 87.7% of the oil were identified. The major components were Delta-3-carene (13.5%), alpha-pinene (5.78%), beta-caryophyllene (6.59%), viridiflorene (8.25%), and germacrene B (5.21%). The essential oil of leaves and 1,8-cineole showed pronounced insecticidal effect against Aedes aegypti larvae and Bemisia argentifolii, the vectors of dengue fever and white fly fruit plague, respectively.

  4. In vitro interference of Hyptis martiusii Benth. & chlorpromazine against an aminoglycoside-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Costa, José G M; Lima, Edeltrudes O; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S; Siqueira-Júnior, José P

    2009-05-01

    The antibacterial and synergistic activity of the ethanol extract from Hyptis martiusii Benth. was assayed by microdillution. The growth of two isolates of Escherichia coli tested was inhibited by the extract. The minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) values ranged from 512 and >1024 microg/ml for the E. coli 27 and 1024 and > 1024 microg/ml for the E. coli ATCC8539, respectively. A synergism between this extract and all aminoglycosides assayed was demonstrated. In the same form synergism between chlorpromazine and kanamycin, amikacin and tobramycin was observed, indicating the involvement of an efflux system. Extracts from H. martiusii could be used as a source of plant derived natural products with modifying antibiotic activity and these products may interact and affect multidrug resistance systems (MDR) as efflux pumps.

  5. Nothoapiole and α -Asarone Rich Essential Oils from Himalayan Pleurospermum angelicoidesBenth

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    Chandra S. Mathela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurospermum angelicoides Benth. , a herb used in folk medicine, was collected from near Milam glacier of Uttarakhand. Different plant parts were investigated for their terpenoid compositions, antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant potential. Nothoapiole (5-allyl-4,6,7-trimethoxy-benzo[1,3] dioxide 1 was observed as a single major constituent (87.3% in the root essential oil while α -asarone was the major constituent of leaf and flower essential oils (23.2%, 20.7% respectively. Monoterpenes viz. limonene, α-pinene, γ-terpinene and perilla aldehyde were other constituents of leaf and flower oils. All the essential oils exhibited broad range of antioxidant potential. The leaf essential oil showed significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

  6. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

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    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  7. The micropropagation of Coleus blumei Benth. vitrocultures under different paraffin or silicon oil stratums

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    Dorina RADOVET-SALINSCHI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of this experiment was the study of the reaction of Coleus blumei Benth. vitrocultures in hypoxic conditions, using vitroplantlets having 2 weeks from initiation whereupon them was applied an oil stratum: paraffin or silicon oil. The oil stratum was of 1 cm3, 2 cm3 or 5 cm3, the witness – lot vitroplantlets bare of oil. In the moment when the vitroplantlets surpassed the oil stratum was initiated a subculture bare of oil. After each 4 weeks the vitroplantlets was analyzed and was determined the assimilatory pigments in leafs. After the first 12 weeks witness lot grew up of the oil stratums, over 48 experimental weeks were subcultivated 3 times. Using a stratum of 1 cm3 of paraffin or silicon oil, after 24 of weeks in double stratum culture, the vitroplantlets surpassed the oil stratum, at this faze was no observed any eminent inhibitory reaction. Covering the vitrocultures with a stratum of 2 cm3 of paraffin oil, it was noted an inhibition of increase on a period of 32 of weeks, the content of assimilatory pigments being with 8.9% lower than that earmarked to the witness lot to 4 weeks from inoculation (vitroplantule bare of oil. In this case – in subculture - was observed an inhibitory reaction for 9 weeks. Covering the vitroplantlets with 5 cm3 of paraffin oil or silicon stratum was observed a prolongation of grow inhibition until 44 weeks – which determine a stronger inhibition in subcultures for 24 weeks. For inducing a long time grow inhibition on Coleus blumei Benth. vitrocultures the best solution is using paraffin or silicon oil in a 5 cm3 stratum of paraffin or silicon oil, the vitroplantlets reaction being similar.

  8. Evaluation of chemical composition and antiedematogenic activity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Andreza G R; Oliveira, Cicera D M; Lacerda-Neto, Luiz J; Vidal, Cinara S; Saraiva, Rogério de A; da Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Galvao, Hericka B F; de Menezes, Irwin R A

    2017-02-01

    Evaluations of the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants and their components have been the subject of many studies. Furthermore, the biological activities of various plant species have been reported in various pieces of literature. Hyptis martiusii Benth (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "mad balm" is commonly found in the North, Southeast, and Northeast of Brazil. Its leaves are used ethnobiologically as antiulcerogenic, antimicrobial, antitumor and as insecticide. This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil of H. martiusii Benth (OEHM) by GC/MS as well as its possible topical activity as an antiedematogenic. This is verified by the models of ear edema induced by single (acute edema) and multiple (chronic edema) applications of croton oil topically, and systemically verified through the model of paw edema induced by carrageenan 1%. Doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg OEHM were used in all tests. Chemical analysis of the oil revealed the 1,8-cineole (34.58%) and δ-carene (21:58%) as major components present in the essential oil. On the model of ear edema, acute and chronic OEHM in all the tested doses showed no significant antiedematogenic activity (p < 0.05). The systemic model of paw edema induced by carrageenin showed that a dose of 100 mg/kg effectively reduced swelling by 55.37% in the second hour evaluation when compared to the saline group. The anti-inflammatory systemic effect can give greater bioavailability of the components present in the essential oil and your interference in cytokines and leukotriene, thromboxane and prostaglandin biosynthesis. It is therefore concluded that OEHM presents systemic antiedematogenic activity but not topical activity at these doses.

  9. Evaluation of chemical composition and antiedematogenic activity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth

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    Andreza G.R. Barbosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluations of the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants and their components have been the subject of many studies. Furthermore, the biological activities of various plant species have been reported in various pieces of literature. Hyptis martiusii Benth (Lamiaceae, popularly known as “mad balm” is commonly found in the North, Southeast, and Northeast of Brazil. Its leaves are used ethnobiologically as antiulcerogenic, antimicrobial, antitumor and as insecticide. This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil of H. martiusii Benth (OEHM by GC/MS as well as its possible topical activity as an antiedematogenic. This is verified by the models of ear edema induced by single (acute edema and multiple (chronic edema applications of croton oil topically, and systemically verified through the model of paw edema induced by carrageenan 1%. Doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg OEHM were used in all tests. Chemical analysis of the oil revealed the 1,8-cineole (34.58% and δ-carene (21:58% as major components present in the essential oil. On the model of ear edema, acute and chronic OEHM in all the tested doses showed no significant antiedematogenic activity (p < 0.05. The systemic model of paw edema induced by carrageenin showed that a dose of 100 mg/kg effectively reduced swelling by 55.37% in the second hour evaluation when compared to the saline group. The anti-inflammatory systemic effect can give greater bioavailability of the components present in the essential oil and your interference in cytokines and leukotriene, thromboxane and prostaglandin biosynthesis. It is therefore concluded that OEHM presents systemic antiedematogenic activity but not topical activity at these doses.

  10. New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Brazil Novas espécies de Hymenoptera associadas a galhas de Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica M. Penteado-Dias; Carvalho, Fabrício M. de

    2008-01-01

    Four species of Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924), T. mecanga sp.nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae), Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae) and Eurytoma sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) were reared from two different types of galls of Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Juiz-de-Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The two Tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the Braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round g...

  11. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) procured by the French Benthédi-expédition, 1977, and the Md 32-réunion-expédition, 1982, in the Southwestern Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1985-01-01

    The late Eugène Leloup examined samples from five stations of the Benthédi-Expédition, 1977, in the North of the Mozambique Channel, containing four species of chitons, two of which proved to be new to science. The material here discussed, coming from eighteen Benthédistations, proved to contain

  12. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

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    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  13. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA BLACKBERRY LIQUOR (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH DIFFERENT PULP PERCENTAGES

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    Álvaro Montoya Gómez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth es una fruta de interés comercial y altamente perecedera, que presenta deterioro debido a su fragilidad e inadecuado manejo poscosecha, cantidades apreciables de fruta son afectadas, básicamente en sus características físicas, siendo este producto apto para el procesamiento industrial. Veinte kg de mora fueron despulpados, homogenizados y caracterizada la pulpa, determinando; grados brix de 6,0; porcentaje de acidez de 2,91 % y densidad de 0,991 g/ml en promedio. Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa; la levadura inoculada fue Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen en concentración del 0,2 %; la fermentación se llevó a cabo en reactores con capacidad de 2 litros, con desfogue de manguera de látex, el mosto fermentable fue dejado en los reactores durante 20 semanas, luego los licores fueron filtrados y caracterizados físico-químicamente, evaluando el porcentaje de alcohol por destilación, encontrando que el porcentaje de 40 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor concentración con 8,36 % de volumen de alcohol en promedio. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron una diferencia significativa entre los porcentajes de participación de pulpa y su influencia sobre la producción de alcohol para los valores de 25 % y 30 % con respecto a los porcentajes 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 %. Un modelo matemático lineal apropiado para la producción de alcohol en función de la participación de pulpa fue obtenido. La prueba sensorial con 10 jueces, mostró que el licor preparado con 35 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor aceptación.The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth is a fruit of commercial interest that is highly perishable, showing appreciable damage due to fragileness and inadequate pos-harvesting handling

  14. Adventitious bud regeneration from leaf expiants of the shrubby ornamental honeysuckle, Lonicera nitida Wils. cv. 'Maigrün': effects of thidiazuron and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambecèdes, J; Duron, M; Decourtye, L

    1991-11-01

    Different combinations of auxins and cytokinins were employed to assess the regeneration capacity from in vitro leaf explants of Lonicera nitida Wils. cv 'Maïgrün'. A high frequency of rhizogenesis was noticed, with 2.3 μM thidiazuron plus 2.9 μM indole-3-acetic acid as the only hormonal combination to support caulogenic responses. Increasing thidiazuron concentration and/or suppressing auxin did not improve caulogenesis. Combining thidiazuron with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid produced a dramatic increase in the percentage of caulogenic explants. A maximum of 74% of adventitious bud forming explants was obtained with 2.3 μM thidiazuron plus 20 μM 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. Buds were often in a rosette form and were vitreous, so that shoot elongation was difficult to obtain. The effect of the duration of the 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid treatment on shoot elongation was investigated.

  15. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  16. Triterpenoid saponins from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin-Di; Hong, Jing-Yi; Bao, Feng-Da; Xing, Na; Wang, Ling-Tian; Sun, Zhong-Hao; Luo, Yun; Jiang, Hai; Xu, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Nai-Liang; Wu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Gui-Bo; Yang, Jun-Shan

    2017-09-11

    Four new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins, clinopoursaponins A-D (1-4), six new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, clinopodiside VII-XII (5-10), as well as eight known triterpene analogues (11-18), were isolated from the aerial parts of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze. The structures of the new compounds were determined based on extensive spectral analyses, including 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, 2D TOCSY, HSQC-TOCSY and HMBC), HR-ESI-MS and chemical methods. Compounds 1-18 were evaluated for their protective effects against anoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and cytotoxicities against murine mammary carcinoma cell line 4T1. Compounds 8, 9 and 18 exhibited significant protective effects, while compound 1 exhibited cytotoxic activity with IC 50 value of 7.4 μm compared to 7.6 μm for the positive control 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  17. Carbohydrate metabolism in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic tissues of variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madore, M.A. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Mature, variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth. contained stachyose and other raffinose series sugars in both green, photosynthetic and white, nonphotosynthetic tissues. However, unlike the green tissues, white tissues had no detectable level of galactinol synthase activity and a low level of sucrose phosphate synthase indicating that stachyose and possibly sucrose present in white tissues may have originated in green tissues. Uptake of exogenously supplied ({sup 14}C)stachyose or ({sup 14}C)sucrose into either tissue type showed conventional kinetic profiles indicating combined operation of liner first-order and saturable systems. Autoradiographs of white discs showed no detectable minor vein labeling with ({sup 14}C)stachyose, but some degree of vein labeling with ({sup 14}C)sucrose. Autoradiographs of green discs showed substantial vein loading with either sugar. In both tissues, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid had no effect on the linear component of sucrose or stachyose uptake but inhibited the saturable component. Both tissues contained high levels of invertase, sucrose synthase and {alpha}-galactosidase and extensively metabolized exogenously supplied {sup 14}C-sugars. In green tissues, label from exogenous sugars was recovered as raffinose-series sugars. In white tissues, exogenous sugars were hydrolyzed and converted to amino acids and organic acids. The results indicate that variegated Coleus leaves may be useful for studies on both phloem loading and phloem unloading processes in stachyose-transporting species.

  18. (L. Benth. en bosques secundarios en Escárcega, Campeche, México

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    J. L. López-Torres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El T´zalam Lysiloma latisiliquum (L. Benth. en la región de Escárcega, Campeche, México, es la especie más abundante y con mayor importancia económica en bosques secundarios derivados de selva mediana subperennifolia, después haber sido intervenida mediante el sistema rosa-tumba-quema. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el comportamiento del crecimiento en diámetro de esta especie, en un periodo de 20 años de desarrollo. A partir de la variable diámetro normal (d1.3, agrupada en categorías diamétricas, se estimaron los incrementos anuales medio, máximo y mínimo para cada categoría. Los resultados indican que en el escenario más ventajoso se requiere de 10.6 años para que los árboles pasen de categoría reserva a categoría aprovechable y, en promedio, es necesario de 21.5 años para alcanzar la misma condición. El incremento en diámetro fue, en promedio, de 0.511 cm y se clasifica como medio.

  19. Furano diterpenes from Pterodon pubescens Benth with selective in vitro anticancer activity for prostate cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindola, Humberto M.; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Rodrigues, Rodney A. F.; Denny, Carina; Sousa, Ilza M. de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas (CPQBA)]. E-mail: foglioma@cpqba.unicamp.br; Tamashiro, Jorge Y. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    Activity guided fractionation of Pterodon pubescens Benth. methylene chloride-soluble fraction afforded novel 6{alpha}-acetoxi 7{beta}-hydroxy-vouacapan 1 and four known diterpene furans 2, 3, 4, 5. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human normal cells and tumour cell lines UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), OVCAR-03 (ovarian), PC-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon), 786-0 (renal), K562 (leukemia) and NCI-ADR/RES (ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drugs resistance). Results were expressed by three concentration dependent parameters GI{sub 50} (concentration that produces 50% growth inhibition), TGI (concentration that produces total growth inhibition or cytostatic effect) and LC{sub 50} (concentration that produces .50% growth, a cytotoxicity parameter). Also, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against 3T3 cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts). Antiproliferative properties of compounds 1, 4 and 5 are herein reported for the first time. These compounds showed selectivity in a concentration-dependent way against human PC-3. Compound 1 demonstrated selectivity 26 fold more potent than the positive control, doxorubicin, for PC-3 (prostrate) cell line based on GI{sub 50} values, causing cytostatic effect (TGI value) at a concentration fifteen times less than positive control. Moreover comparison of 50% lethal concentration (LC{sub 50} value) with positive control (doxorubicin) suggested that compound 1 was less toxic. (author)

  20. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

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    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  1. Organogenesis and plant regeneration of Arachis villosa Benth. (Leguminosae) through leaf culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, María Laura; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Rey, Hebe Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    With the aim of developing an efficient plant regeneration protocol, leaflet explants of three accessions of Arachis villosa Benth. (S2866, S2867 and L97) were cultured on basic Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different combinations of plant growth regulators: alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and thidiazuron. The accession L97 was the only one able to differentiate buds through indirect organogenesis. The most suitable combination for bud regeneration was the basic medium added with 13.62 microM thidiazuron and 4.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine. These results show the important role of the genotype in morphogenetic responses and the organogenetic effect of thidiazuron in Arachis villosa accession L97. A thidiazuron lacking media (only 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, 13.95 microM kinetin and 13.32 microM 6-benzylaminopurine were added) promoted the elongation of the regenerated buds. Adventitious rooting was achieved 90 days after the isolated shoots were transferred to a rooting medium containing 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid.

  2. Preparation and characterization of microcapsules of Pterodon pubescens Benth. by using natural polymers

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    Alexandre Espada Reinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An oleaginous fraction obtained from an alcohol extract of the fruit of Pterodon pubescensBenth. (FHPp was microencapsulated in polymeric systems. These systems were developed using a complex coacervation method and consisted of alginate/medium-molecular-weight chitosan (F1-MC, alginate/chitosan with greater than 75% deacetylation (F2-MC, and alginate/low-molecular-weight chitosan (F3-MC. These developed systems have the potential to both mask the taste of the extract, and to protect its constituents against possible chemical degradation. The influence of the formulation parameters and process were determined by chemical profiling and measurement of the microencapsulation efficiency of the oleaginous fraction, and by assessment of microcapsule morphology. The obtained formulations were slightly yellow, odorless, and had a pleasant taste. The average diameters of the microcapsules were 0.4679 µm (F2-MC, 0.5885 µm (F3-MC, and 0.9033 µm (F1-MC. The best formulation was F3-MC, with FHPp microencapsulation efficiency of 61.01 ± 2.00% and an in vitro release profile of 75.88 ± 0.45%; the content of vouacapans 3-4 was 99.49 ± 2.80%. The best model to describe the release kinetics for F1-MC and F3-MC was that proposed by Higuchi; however, F2-MC release displayed first-order kinetics; the release mechanism was of the supercase II type for all formulations.

  3. Micromorphological traits and essential oil contents of Micromeria kerneri Murb. and M. juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Dario; Dunkić, Valerija; Ruščić, Mirko; Matevski, Vlado; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk; Eleftheriadou, Eleni; Stešević, Danijela; Kosalec, Ivan; Bezić, Nada; Stabentheiner, Edith

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the types and distribution of trichomes and pollen morphology (analysed by scanning electron microscopy) were investigated in two closely related species, Micromeria kerneri Murb. and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) from Southeast Europe as a contribution to their taxonomy. The essential oil of M. kerneri was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with caryophyllene-oxide as the major compound. Caryophyllene-oxide was also the major component of the essential oil of M. juliana from all localities, except from Mt Krivošije (Montenegro), where piperitone oxide was the major constituent. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and two types of capitate trichomes (type 1 composed of one basal epidermal cell, and one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2 composed of one basal epidermal cell, two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, the calyx and on the stem. Pollen of both species had six apertures (hexacolpate) set in the equatorial pollen belt (zonocolpate) and showed medium reticulate ornamentation. Multivariate analysis (PCA and UPGMA) of essential oil components clearly separated the investigated M. kerneri and M. juliana populations, and confirmed the opinion that they are different taxa. On the other hand, micromorphological traits between these species were the same. Nevertheless, definitive conclusions about the taxonomic relationships among these species will require genetic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Delnavazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species. Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT, respectively. Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1, one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2, two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3 and verbascoside (5, along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4 and naringenin (6 were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL, compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL, without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.

  5. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Kofi D; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Suzuki-Ohashi, Mitsuko; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. Copyright © 2016 Kwofie et al.

  6. Seasonal variability of the essential oil of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth. Epling.

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    C. G. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was developed to evaluate the effect of seasonality on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth. Epling, a native species from the Brazilian Pampa. Leaves were collected from four specimens of a single population in each of the four seasons for a year and were extracted in triplicate by hydro-distillation for 2 hours. The yield of EO (% w/w was calculated on fresh weight basis (FWB, and the 16 oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used as statistical tools to evaluate differences in chemical composition. The highest yields were obtained in autumn, spring and summer (2.32-4.38%, while the lowest yields were detected in winter, ranging from 1.15 to 1.91%. Oxygenated monoterpenoids were the predominant class of chemical constituents in the EO obtained in all seasons, showing the highest contents in autumn and summer, and pulegone was identified as a major compound, whose contents varied between 54.13 and 81.17%. The EO samples were divided into three chemical groups by HCA and PCA and were assigned to the same group, except for the three samples gathered in winter. The results showed a seasonal influence on the yield and chemical composition of the EO.

  7. Ultrasound as pretreatment to convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth).

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    Romero J, Carlos A; Yépez V, Byron D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment for convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth). For this, a Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effect of ultrasound vibration amplitude (0-90μm), time of sonication (10-30min) and air temperature (40-60°C) on the retention of antioxidant compounds and on the kinetics of convective drying. The results showed that the antioxidant activity on fruit was reduced as the vibration amplitude and time of sonication increased, while was found that vibration amplitude ultrasound and air drying temperature were the variables that more affect the drying rate of blackberries. The drying rate increased by almost five times when samples were treated with ultrasound at 90μm for 20min. They were then dried using air at 60°C. It is concluded that the application of ultrasound in blackberry processing allows to obtain a dehydrated product with better functional quality and shows to be effective in reducing the time necessary to achieve a given value of moisture during convective drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

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    Cássia A. O. Feres

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.

  9. Pollination ecology of Acacia gerrardii Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae under extremely hot-dry conditions

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    Abdulaziz Saad Alqarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. are acacias that are native to the arid and semiarid Africa and west Asia. We investigated the flowering biology, pod set and flower visitors of Talh and discussed the role of these visitors in pollen transfer. The Talh trees blossomed laterally on the nodes of one-year-old twigs. Each node produced 21 flower buds seasonally. Each flower bud opened to a flower head (FH of 60 florets. The bagged FHs podded significantly (p ⩽ 0.05 less than did the unbagged FHs. The FHs were visited by 31 insect species (25 genera, 16 families and 5 orders. The major taxa were honeybees, megachilids, butterflies, ants, beetles and thrips. Each of honeybees, megachilids and beetles showed a significant (p ⩽ 0.05 hourly pattern, while each of butterflies, ants and thrips had no hourly pattern (p > 0.05. Furthermore, some birds and mammals touched the Talh FHs. Talh trees evolved a mass flowering behavior to face pre- and post-flowering obstacles. Megachilids seemed to play the major effort of zoophily because of their relatively high numbers of individuals and species and their effective movement behavior on the FH surface. Nevertheless, honeybees and other insects and vertebrate taxa also contributed to the pollen transfer. These results greatly contribute to our understanding of the pollination ecology of acacias, especially Arabian acacias.

  10. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

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    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  11. Palinotaxonomia de representantes das tribos Coussareeae. Benth. Hook. F. e Psychotrieae Cham. & Schtdl (Rubiaceae Juss.) ocorrentes no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Reboredo Menezes Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae Juss. é a quarta família em número de espécies entre as Angiospermas no Mundo e no Neotrópico, apresentando grande diversidade de espécies com representantes na maioria dos biomas. No Brasil são registrados 124 gêneros e 1.395 espécies sendo considerada uma das principais famílias da flora brasileira. O presente trabalho trata do estudo palinológico de 61 espécies da família Rubiaceae subordinadas às tribos Coussareeae Benth. & Hook.f e Psychotrieae Cham. & Schltdl. o...

  12. New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea in Brazil Novas espécies de Hymenoptera associadas a galhas de Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea

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    Angélica M. Penteado-Dias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924, T. mecanga sp.nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae, Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae and Eurytoma sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae were reared from two different types of galls of Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea in Juiz-de-Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The two Tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the Braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round gall type. The two new species are described and illustrated, including their immature stages.Quatro espécies de Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924, T. mecanga sp. nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae, Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae e Eurytoma sp. foram obtidas de dois diferentes tipos de galhas de Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea em Juiz-de-Fora, MG, Brasil. As duas espécies de Tanaostigmatidae são os prováveis indutores das galhas; a espécie de Braconidae, provavelmente é um inquilino fitófago das galhas globosas. Estas duas novas espécies são descritas e ilustradas, incluindo os seus estágios imaturos.

  13. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters, in particular, can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO su...

  14. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-10-01

    Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass along the symplast via plasmodesmata into the adjoining

  15. Gastroprotective effects of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth. on gastric ulcer models.

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    Diniz, Lúcio Ricardo Leite; Vieira, Charliene Freire Xavier; Santos, Edgleyson Chaves Dos; Lima, Glauber Cruz; Aragão, Kalynca Kayla Viana; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Araújo, Pâmella Cristina da Costa; Vasconcelos, Yuri de Abreu Gomes; Oliveira, Ariclécio Cunha de; Oliveira, Hermógenes David de; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha

    2013-10-07

    Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "hortelã-brava" or "hortelã do campo", is widely distributed in the northeast of Brazil. In Brazil, the leaves of this plant have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, including gastric ulcers. In an attempt to experimentally validate this claimed antiulcerogenic activity, the gastroprotective effects of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of the Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth (EOHc) were evaluated in recognized gastric ulcer models in mice. EOHc was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Swiss male mice (25-30g) were used for the studies. The gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of absolute ethanol or indomethacin 45min after oral pretreatment with EOHc, vehicle and positive control drugs. One hour after the ulcerative challenges, the stomachs were removed and the area of the lesions was measured. The volume, pH and total acidity of the gastric secretions were determined using the pylorus ligature model. The gastrointestinal motility was measured using gastric emptying and intestinal transit. The ethanol-induced gastric mucus depletion and lipid peroxidation were also analyzed. Our findings are as follows: A significant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol was observed in the mice pre-treated with EOHc, at a dose of 30 and 100 and 300mg/kg (5.56±1.51, 2.88±0.82 and 1.71±0.54mm(2), respectively) compared to control group (118.03±35.4mm(2)). Also, EOHc (300mg/kg) produced a gastroprotective effect against the gastric lesions induced by indomethacin (16.07±4.68mm(2)) compared to control group (38.64±6.1mm(2)). EOHc pretreatment produced a reduction in the ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation from 3.9±0.22 to 2.4±0.1μmol/mg tissue (EOHc-300mg/kg and control group, respectively). We also observed that EOHc pretreatment decreased the gastric emptying, but did

  16. Differential proteomics of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. in response to dark stress.

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    Parkash, Jai; Kashyap, Sanjeeta; Kalita, Prakash Jyoti; Devi, Manjula; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Dutt, Som

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.) an important medicinal herb of western Himalayan region has been used to treat various diseases and disorders. Over-harvesting and lack of cultivation has led to its entry in Red Data Book as an endangered species. Further, its very restrictive habitat and lesser biomass production are major limitations for bringing it under commercial cultivation. All these issues necessitate deeper insights into mechanisms governing its growth and interaction with the environmental cues. Light may be one of the important factors to be studied for its role in regulating growth and adaptation of Picrorhiza as in natural habitat it prefers shady niches. Keeping this in view, proteome of Picrorhiza kept under light vis-à-vis under dark was analysed and compared. Leaf as well as root proteome of Picrorhiza was studied. Denaturing two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques were used to detect and identify differentially expressed proteins, respectively. Twenty two proteins from leaf and 25 proteins from root showed differential expression levels under dark and light conditions. Among the differentially expressed proteins, majority were those involved in metabolism, protein synthesis, and stress and defense response. Other differentially expressed proteins were those involved in photosynthetic process, photorespiration and few proteins were with unknown function indicating that many different processes work together to establish a new cellular homeostasis in response to dark and light conditions. Proteins found to be differentially expressed under light vis-à-vis dark conditions suggested a range of biochemical pathways and processes being associated with response of plant to dark conditions. The identified proteins may be utilized for developing strategies for improving the biomass production/performance of Picrorhiza under varied light/dark habitats.

  17. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

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    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  19. Gastroprotective effect of a flavone from Lonchocarpus araripensis Benth. (Leguminosae) and the possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Deive A; de Lima, Almi F; Ribeiro, Saulo Rodrigo L; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia L; Rao, Vietla S; Santos, Flávia A

    2008-03-01

    The gastroprotective effect of DDF (3,6-dimethoxy-6'', 6''-dimethyl-[2'', 3'' : 7,8]-chromeneflavone) from Lonchocarpus araripensis Benth. (Leguminosae) on gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol (96%, 0.2 mL/mouse) and indometacin (30 mg kg(-1), p.o.) in mice was investigated. Intraperitoneally administered DDF at dose levels of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) markedly reduced the gastric lesions in the ethanol model by 62, 72 and 96%, and in the indometacin model by 34, 70 and 75%, respectively, as compared with misoprostol (50 microg kg(-1), p.o.), the reference compound that caused lesion suppression by 67% in ethanol model and by 72% against indometacin-induced ulceration. The ED50 of DDF in reducing gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indometacin (dose of the DDF that reduced the gastric lesion area by 50% in relation to the control value) was 50.87 and 61.56 mg kg(-1), respectively. Mechanistic studies were carried out at 100 mg kg(-1) DDF using the ethanol model. Compared with N-acetylcysteine (750 mg kg(-1), p.o.), a donor of sulfhydryls, DDF only partially replenished the ethanol-induced depletion of gastric mucosal NP-SH. Pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indometacin (10 mg kg(-1), p.o.) effectively blocked the gastroprotective effect of DDF (100 mg kg(-1)) against ethanol damage. Furthermore, the effect of DDF was significantly reduced in mice pretreated with L-NAME, or glibenclamide, the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and K+ ATP channel activation. These data provide evidence to show that DDF affords gastroprotection against gastric damage induced by ethanol and indometacin by different and complementary mechanisms, which include involvement of endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide release, the activation of TRPV1 receptor or K+ ATP channels, besides a sparing effect on NP-SH reserve.

  20. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Krause, Michael A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations. Materials and methods 10-g samples of the leaf and tuber powders of V. guineensis were extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used in bioassays. These extracts and three compounds previously isolated from V. guineensis [vernopicrin (1), vernomelitensin (2) and pentaisovalerylsucrose (3)] were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (Hb3) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum lines. Results Crude extracts and pure compounds from V. guineensis showed antiplasmodial activity against both Hb3 and Dd2. The IC50 values of extracts ranged from 1.64 – 27.2 μg/ml for Hb3 and 1.82 – 30.0 μg/ml for Dd2; those for compounds 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 0.47 – 1.62 μg/ml (1364 – 1774 nM) for Hb3 and 0.57 – 1.50 μg/ml (1644 – 2332 nM) for Dd2. None of the crude extracts or pure compounds was observed to exert toxic effects on the erythrocytes used to cultivate the P. falciparum lines. Conclusion In Cameroonian folk medicine, V. guineensis may be used to treat malaria in part due to the antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones (1, 2), a sucrose ester (3) and perhaps other compounds present in crude plant extracts. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of these compounds in vivo requires further study. PMID:23542146

  2. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J; Krause, Michael A; Fairhurst, Rick M; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-06-03

    Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations. Ten gram samples of the leaf and tuber powders of Vernonia guineensis were extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used in bioassays. These extracts and three compounds previously isolated from Vernonia guineensis [vernopicrin (1), vernomelitensin (2) and pentaisovalerylsucrose (3)] were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (Hb3) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum lines. Crude extracts and pure compounds from Vernonia guineensis showed antiplasmodial activity against both Hb3 and Dd2. The IC50 values of extracts ranged from 1.64 to 27.2 µg/ml for Hb3 and 1.82-30.0 µg/ml for Dd2; those for compounds 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 0.47 to 1.62 µg/ml (1364-1774 nM) for Hb3 and 0.57-1.50 µg/ml (1644-2332nM) for Dd2. None of the crude extracts or pure compounds was observed to exert toxic effects on the erythrocytes used to cultivate the Plasmodium falciparum lines. In Cameroonian folk medicine, Vernonia guineensis may be used to treat malaria in part due to the antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones (1, 2), a sucrose ester (3) and perhaps other compounds present in crude plant extracts. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of these compounds in vivo requires further study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glandular trichomes and essential oil characteristics of in vitro propagated Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

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    Stojičić, Dragana; Tošić, Svetlana; Slavkovska, Violeta; Zlatković, Bojan; Budimir, Snežana; Janošević, Dušica; Uzelac, Branka

    2016-08-01

    In vitro conditions and benzyladenine influenced both content and composition of micropropagated Micromeria pulegium essential oils, with pulegone and menthone being the main essential oil components. The content and chemical composition of Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Benth. essential oils were studied in native plant material at vegetative stage and in micropropagated plants, obtained from nodal segments cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin at different concentrations, alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid. Shoot proliferation was achieved in all treatments, but the highest biomass production was obtained after treatment with 10 μM BA. Phytochemical analysis identified up to 21 compounds in the essential oils of wild-growing and in vitro cultivated plants, both showing very high percentages of total monoterpenoids dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes of the menthane type. Pulegone and menthone were the main essential oil components detected in both wild-growing plants (60.07 and 26.85 %, respectively) and micropropagated plants grown on either plant growth regulator-free medium (44.57 and 29.14 %, respectively) or BA-supplemented medium (50.77 and 14.45 %, respectively). The percentage of total sesquiterpenoids increased in vitro, particularly owing to sesquiterpene hydrocarbons that were not found in wild-growing plants. Differences in both content and the composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples indicated that in vitro culture conditions and plant growth regulators significantly influence the essential oils properties. In addition, the morphology and structure of M. pulegium glandular trichomes in relation to the secretory process were characterized for the first time using SEM and light microscopy, and their secretion was histochemically analyzed.

  4. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; Oliveira, Alisson Rodrigo da Silva; Araújo, Alice Valença; Quixabeira, Dafne Carolina Alves; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Ferreira, Fabiano; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. is an aromatic plant found in abundance in northeastern Brazil that is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved in the gastroprotection of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) and to evaluate its healing capacity. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols and subsequently were treated with 1% Tween-80 aqueous solution (negative control), pantoprazole, carbenoxolone, N-acetylcysteine (depending on the specificity of each model) or EOHM. The antisecretory activity (basal or stimulated) was determined using the pyloric ligature method. The gastroprotective action of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups (-SH groups), as well as the quantification of adherent mucus and the levels of malondialdehyde and -SH groups in gastric mucosa, were evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The healing ability was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (HE, PAS and PCNA). EOHM (400 mg/kg) reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and pentagastrin. The gastroprotective effect of EOHM involves the participation of endogenous sulfhydryl groups. EOHM increased mucus production (54.8%), reduced levels of MDA (72.5%) and prevented the depletion of -SH groups (73.8%) in the gastric mucosa. The treatment with EOHM reduced in 70.3% the gastric lesion area, promoting significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by histological analysis and analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results show that gastroprotective effect of EOHM is mediated by cytoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms and by their antisecretory activity, and suggest that the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers.

  5. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae.

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    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    Full Text Available Hyptis martiusii Benth. is an aromatic plant found in abundance in northeastern Brazil that is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved in the gastroprotection of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM and to evaluate its healing capacity. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols and subsequently were treated with 1% Tween-80 aqueous solution (negative control, pantoprazole, carbenoxolone, N-acetylcysteine (depending on the specificity of each model or EOHM. The antisecretory activity (basal or stimulated was determined using the pyloric ligature method. The gastroprotective action of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups (-SH groups, as well as the quantification of adherent mucus and the levels of malondialdehyde and -SH groups in gastric mucosa, were evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The healing ability was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (HE, PAS and PCNA. EOHM (400 mg/kg reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and pentagastrin. The gastroprotective effect of EOHM involves the participation of endogenous sulfhydryl groups. EOHM increased mucus production (54.8%, reduced levels of MDA (72.5% and prevented the depletion of -SH groups (73.8% in the gastric mucosa. The treatment with EOHM reduced in 70.3% the gastric lesion area, promoting significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by histological analysis and analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results show that gastroprotective effect of EOHM is mediated by cytoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms and by their antisecretory activity, and suggest that the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers.

  6. New anti-trypanosomal active tetracyclic iridoid isolated from Morinda lucida Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mitsuko; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Adegle, Richard; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Sakyiamah, Maxwell; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo Kyereme; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaoka, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo; Ohta, Nobuo; Boakye, Daniel A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly known as sleeping sickness has remained a serious health problem in many African countries with thousands of new infected cases annually. Chemotherapy, which is the main form of control against HAT has been characterized lately by the viewpoints of toxicity and drug resistance issues. Recently, there have been a lot of emphases on the use of medicinal plants world-wide. Morinda lucida Benth. is one of the most popular medicinal plants widely distributed in Africa and several groups have reported on its anti-protozoa activities. In this study, we have isolated one novel tetracyclic iridoid, named as molucidin, from the CHCl3 fraction of the M. lucida leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification. Molucidin was structurally elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR including HMQC, HMBC, H-H COSY and NOESY resulting in tetracyclic iridoid skeleton, and its absolute configuration was determined. We have further demonstrated that molucidin presented a strong anti-trypanosomal activity, indicating an IC50 value of 1.27 μM. The cytotoxicity study using human normal and cancer cell lines indicated that molucidin exhibited selectivity index (SI) against two normal fibroblasts greater than 4.73. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was undertaken with molucidin and oregonin, which is identical to anti-trypanosomal active components of Alnus japonica. Overlapping analysis of the lowest energy conformation of molucidin with oregonin suggested a certain similarities of aromatic rings of both oregonin and molucidin. These results contribute to the future drug design studies for HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Superação da dormência em sementes de faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth Dormancy breaking of faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. seeds

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    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A faveira é planta semidecídua, heliófita, que ocorre em formações secundárias e áreas abertas de terreno elevado do agreste nordestino e campinas amazônicas. A madeira dessa espécie é empregada para caixotaria, compensados, brinquedos, lenha e carvão, as vagens maduras constituem-se em excelente forragem para todos os ruminantes e a árvore é recomendada para arborização paisagística. O primeiro problema encontrado foi a baixa germinação das sementes devido à impermeabilidade do tegumento à água. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar a metodologia mais eficiente para superação da dormência de sementes de Parkia platycephala, as quais foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica com lixa d'água n. 80 (T2, imersão em ácido muriático concentrado (98% por 30 min e 1 h (T3 e T4, respectivamente, escarificação mecânica com brita por 5, 10 e 15 min (T5, T6 e T7, respectivamente e imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado (98% por 5, 15, 30, 45 e 60 min (T8, T9, T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados através da porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas, além de comprimento e massa seca da raiz e parte aérea. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em todas as variáveis. A causa mais evidente da dormência foi a impermeabilidade do tegumento, cujos tratamentos mais eficientes para superar a dormência das sementes foram a escarificação mecânica do tegumento com lixa e a imersão em ácido sulfúrico (15 a 45 min.The faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. is a perennial, heliophyte, secondary plant that occurs in (non-flooded areas of the Amazon area. The wood of this species is used to make boxes, supports and

  8. Escarificación artificial y natural de la semilla de Lupinus bilineatus Benth

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    J. M. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Lupinus colonizan áreas incendiadas y fijan N. En otros países las especies de este género se emplean en plantaciones forestales y sistemas agroforestales. Sus semillas presentan latencia física. En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis de semillas y se evaluó la germinación de Lupinus bilineatus Benth. considerando los siguientes factores y niveles: escarificación (natural: fuego, humo; artificial: inmersión en ácido sulfúrico durante 10, 20, 30 y 40 min y control, régimen de temperatura día/noche en cámaras de ambiente controlado (15/10, 20/15, 25/20, 30/25 °C y luz (con y sin. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar, con los bloques anidados dentro del factor temperatura. Se realizó un análisis de varianza mixto (con el procedimiento mixto de SAS y la prueba de Tukey. La pureza fue 97.1 %, el peso 66,666.7 semillas·kg-1, el contenido de humedad (base anhidra 7.1 % y la viabilidad 98 % (prueba de tetrazolio. Para la germinación, resultó significativa (P=0.0101 la interacción entre tratamiento escarificatorio, temperatura y luz. La máxima germinación (82.5 % se registró para semilla escarificada químicamente durante 30 o 40 min, a 25/20 °C y con luz. A mayor tiempo de escarificación química, mayor porcentaje de germinación. A 20/15 °C y con luz, la germinación posterior a la escarificación con fuego (38.5 % superó al control (18.5 %. Generalmente el control mostró valores de germinación menores a 30 % en los diferentes tratamientos, denotando latencia física con diferentes intensidades en el lote. Destaca la eficiencia de la escarificación química para cesar la latencia.

  9. Estudo das folhas e caule de Hyptidendron canum(Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae

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    Tatiana S. Fiuza

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae, é utilizada popularmente como antimalárica, antiinflamatória, antiulcerativa, anti-hepatotóxica e anticancerígena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico das folhas e caules e identificar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes nas folhas de H. canum, dados ainda não descritos na literatura. As folhas e caules jovens coletados em Goiânia (GO foram seccionados à mão livre e preparados para análise microscópica. Foram realizadas reações de identificação de metabólitos secundários do material dessecado e pulverizado. Preparou-se o extrato etanólico bruto, que posteriormente foi fracionado por partição líquido-líquido com hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As frações foram submetidas à análise cromatográfica em camada delgada (CCD. As lâminas foliares apresentam epiderme adaxial constituída por células poligonais com parede reta. Na epiderme abaxial observam-se células com parede reta a ondulada e estômatos diacíticos e anisocíticos. Tricomas tectores e glandulares estão presente em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar. O pecíolo apresenta aspecto canaletado, epiderme adaxial e abaxial unisseriada. O caule, em secção transversal possui contorno em geral quadrangular, com presença de tricomas tectores e glandulares. As reações e a CCD das folhas evidenciaram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos e lignanas. Este trabalho contribuiu para um maior conhecimento da morfo-anatomia e das classes químicas presentes em H. canum.

  10. Antitrypanosomal activity of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) against Trypanosoma congolense isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergia, Ermias; Shibeshi, Workineh; Terefe, Getachew; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2016-09-15

    African Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with a large impact on the livelihood of the rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available drugs for managing this disease are old, expensive and are facing the problem of drug resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antitrypanosomal efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate. Verbascum sinaiticum (Local name 'qetetina') is a biennial plant, and 60-150 cm tall. It is traditionally used to treat wound, stomachache, viral infection, cancer, sunstroke, fever, abdominal colic, diarrhea, hemorrhage, anthrax, and hepatitis. The efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of V. sinaiticum was evaluated in a randomized experiment with Swiss albino mice infected with T. congolense field isolate. The extracts were administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection for seven days at 12 Days Post-Infection (DPI) when the peak parasitaemia level was approximately 10(8) trypanosomes/ml. Parasitaemia, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), mean survival time and change in body weight were used as indices for monitoring the efficacy of the extracts. Diminazene (28 mg/kg) was used as a positive control while 2 % Tween was used as the negative control. Phytochemicals screening were conducted following standard methods. The extracts showed no toxicity effect in Swiss albino mice and had LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. The phytochemicals screened in V. sinaiticum were alkaloids, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, steroids, phenolic compounds, and tannins. The mice treated with absolute methanol leaf extract of V. sinaiticum at 400 mg/kg dose had significantly lower mean parasitaemia (7.20 ± 0.16) (p < 0.001) as compared to the negative control group (8.82 ± 0.12) on day 14 of treatment. Animals treated with the same dose had significant (p < 0.001) higher PCV value and body

  11. Histologic evaluation of rats' liver after Croton cajucara Benth (sacaca administration Estudo histológico do fígado de ratos após administração de Croton Cajucara Benth (sacaca

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    Jair Francisco de Santana Graim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the hepatic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (sacaca herbal extract in rats. METHODS: 60 Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus albinus were used, weighing between 250 and 350 g. The animals were distributed randomically in 2 groups: GS - animals which received daily 0,1 ml/ 100 g of sacaca herbal extract through gavage, and GA -animals which received daily 0,1 ml/100g of distilled water through gavage. These were distributed in 3 subgroups with 10 animals, according to theirs euthanasia dates, which were 14th, 28th and 56th day of treatment. RESULTS: Architectural alterations were not observed, however when it was analyzed the presence or absence of necrosis, it was observed in 50% of GS28 subgroup and 90% of subgroup. In 50% of the animals from GS28 subgroup and 90% of GS56 subgroup was observed vast degeneration areas and zonal necrosis, regarding center-lobular veins alterations, there were no alterations in any of the groups CONCLUSION: The Croton cajucara Benth (sacaca herbal extract in this experiment caused degeneration and hepatic necrosis, suggesting dose-dependent action.OBJETIVO: Avaliar histologicamente os efeitos do infuso, por gavagem, do Extrato Bruto Aquoso Seco (EBAS do Croton cajucara Benth no fígado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos (Rattus novergicus albinus Wistar, pesando entre 250 e 350g. Os animais foram distribuídos de maneira aleatória em 2 grupos: GS - Grupo de animais que receberam 0,1ml/100g do infuso de sacaca, pela via oral e GA - Grupo de animais que recebeu 0,1ml/100g de água destilada, pela via oral. Estes foram distribuídos em 3 subgrupos de acordo com o dia da eutanásia, sendo esta realizada no 14º, 28º e 56º dia, cada um com 10 animais. RESULTADOS: Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que, microscopicamente, não houve alterações arquiteturais, porém quando se analisou a necrose hepatocitária, esta esteve presente em 50% do subgrupo GS28 e 90% do subgrupo GS56; as altera

  12. In vitro anti-staphylococcal activity of Hyptis martiusii Benth against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: MRSA strains

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    Henrique D. M. Coutinho

    Full Text Available This is the first report about the antibacterial activity of Hyptis martiusii Benth. In this study the ethanol extract of H. martiusii was tested for its antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The growth of all bacterial strains tested was inhibited by the extract. The diameter of inhibition zones varied from 13 to 20 mm for the extract. The MIC and MBC values ranged from 128 to > 1024mg/mL and 256 to > 1024 mg/mL, respectively. It is therefore suggested that extracts from H. martiusii could be used as an anti-Staphylococcus agent. Compared with methicillin and gentamicin, the extract was more effective, being a promising antibacterial agent.

  13. Pharmacological activities and medicinal properties of endemic Moroccan medicinal plant Origanum compactum (Benth and their main compounds

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    Abdelhakim Bouyahya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oregano [Origanum compactum Benth. (O. compactum, Lamiaceae] is an endemic Moroccan medicinal herb. It is used traditionally to fight against several disorders such as diarrhea, urolithiasis, hypertension, diabetes, and inflammation. A large number of components have been identified and isolated from the essential oil of this plant. Carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and γ-Terpinene are among the more compounds presented in O. compactum essential oil and considered to be the main biologically active components. Numerous experimental studies showed that O. compactum organic extracts, essentials oil and its main compounds possess a broader spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer activity. The present review attempts to give an overview of pharmacological studies of O. compactum and its major compounds.

  14. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

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    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  15. Caracterização farmacognóstica da espécie Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae

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    Emanuel Eustáquio Almeida

    Full Text Available Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, conhecida popularmente no Brasil pelos nomes de mulungu, sapatinho-de-judeu, corticeira-da-serra, muchoco, é usada pela população como planta medicinal indicada como sedativo, ansiolítico ou para doenças do aparelho respiratório. Seu uso indiscriminado, no entanto, pode trazer consequências graves à saúde, devido à forte presença de alcaloides, particularmente nas sementes e na casca. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudos fitoquímicos para identificação dos principais grupos de substâncias existentes na espécie, além de estudos morfológicos e histológicos para diferenciação entre outras espécies do gênero.

  16. In vivo anti-plasmodial activities and toxic impacts of lime extract of a combination of Picralima nitida, Alstonia boonei and Gongronema latifolium in mice infected with Chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Emmanuel T; Ajaegbu, Henry Cn; Omotayo, Ahmed I; Aina, Oluwagbemiga O; Otubanjo, Olubunmi A

    2015-12-01

    Lime extracts of powdered combination of seeds of Picralima nitida, stem bark of Alstonia boonei and leaves of Gongronema latifolium is a common remedy used in the treatment of malaria in South Western Nigeria. To determine the antiplasmodial activities of the combined herbal extracts and its impact on the haematological, hepatological and renological parameters in mice. The 4-day suppressive and curative tests were used to assess the antiplasmodial activities of the extract in mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei at concentration of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight. The haematological parameters including red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and haemoglobin count were analysed with an auto analyser. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined, while urea, protein and creatinine were analysed by standard procedural methods. The 4-day suppressive test revealed that the test extract achieved percentage suppression of 39.0%, 41.6% and 54.68% for the 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg concentration respectively. Additionally, the curative test achieved a high percentage suppression of 80.97%, 83.84% and 86.16% at the 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg concentration respectively. The extracts did not induce significant change on haematological parameters (P>0.05), while significant elevation in the values of the ALT and AST (P<0.05) was observed and elevation of creatinine (P<0.05) at 800mg/kg. The results support the traditional use of the herbal combination in the treatment of malaria, however the liver cells were impacted by the extracts in bioassay conducted with mice.

  17. Cathepsin B cysteine protease gene is upregulated during leaf senescence and exhibits differential expression behavior in response to phytohormones in Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jai Parkash; Sanjeeta Kashyap; Shruti Kirti; Anil Kumar Singh; Som Dutt

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal importance of Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth — an herb of western Himalayan region) and its endangered status in Red Data Book presses an urgent need for intensive R&D interventions towards ensuring its availability for the medicinal use, its sustainability and improvement. The present study was conducted on cathepsin B cysteine protease in Picrorhiza. Cathepsin B cysteine protease has been reported to function in diverse processes such as senescence, abscission, prog...

  18. Actividad citotóxica, anti-inflamatoria y anti-ulcerogénica de plantas silvestres e in vitro de castilleja tenuiflora benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Ocampo, Paul Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae) es una planta usada en la medicina tradicional mexicana para tratar tumores, esterilidad, desordenes gastrointestinales y cirrosis. Se han identificado iridoides, feniletanoides y flavonoides en plantas silvestres y en cultivos in vitro de C. tenuiflora, los cuales están asociados a diversas actividades biológicas como antioxidante, antitumoral, citotóxica, anti-inflamatoria e inmunoestimulante. Por estos antecedentes la planta se pr...

  19. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Jinten (Coleus Aromatikus Benth) Dengan GC – MS Dan Uji Anti Bakteri

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    Sinulingga, Bagus

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted whit the scale of laboratore. The object ofthis research was fresh leave jinten. The treatment done was to isolatethe essential oil of leave jinten (Coleus Aromaticus Benth) though water distillation . To analyzed chemical components was done with mass Spectrometry – gas Cromatography. The reuslt of gas cromatography showed 15 apexes meaning that the essensial oil of the leave jinten. Based on analysis with spectrometry mass inducted that chemical compound in...

  20. Evaluación de un sistema para la micorrización in vitro en plantas de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus, Benth

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    Víctor Manuel Núñez-Zarante

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of an in vitro mycorrhization system of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth. Objective. Obtain an in vitromycorrhization system in autotrophic culture systems of blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth. Materials and methods. We usedspores and root fragments with vesicles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF Glomus sp (GEV02. We established an autotrophicculture system of blackberry plantlets comparing two methods of direct inoculation of the AMF. We measured the number of sporesproduced, the length of the extraradical mycelium as well as the percentage of colonization of the AMF. Additionally, we measuredthe shoot and root length, and the fresh and dry weight of the leaf and root parts to determine the plant development. Results. Theautotrophic culture system was successful for blackberry plants (Rubus glaucus, Benth; an optimal shoot and root growth was observed.Additionally, we obtained a system that allowed the development of Glomus sp. in in vitro conditions, with the formation of structurestypical of the symbiosis as well as a good intraradical colonization, with the production of arbuscules and vesicles, development ofextraradical mycelium with branched hyphae, and formation of new spores. Conclusion. For the first time, micropropagated blackberryplants associated successfully with an AMF under in vitro conditions, enabling the development of the symbiotic system AMF Glomussp. associated to roots of micropropagated blackberry plantlets.

  1. Influência do tamanho e da procedência de sementes Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. Sobre a germinação e vigor Influence of size and provenance on the germination and vigor of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. Seeds

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    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. é uma planta nativa da Região Nordeste que vem sendo progressivamente cultivada do Maranhão ao Rio de Janeiro. A planta apresenta grande potencial para arborização, cerca viva e produção de madeira. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da procedência e tamanho das sementes sobre a germinação e vigor. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (CCA-UFPB, em Areia, PB, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3x3, com os fatores procedência (Areia, Usina e Arara e classes de tamanho (sementes pequenas, médias e grandes, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foram analisadas as seguintes características: peso de 100 sementes, dimensões das sementes (comprimento, largura e espessura, porcentagem, primeira contagem e velocidade de germinação, comprimento e massa seca da raiz primária e hipocótilo e massa seca dos cotilédones. Constatou-se que a germinação não foi influenciada pelo tamanho das sementes, no entanto, ela foi significativamente influenciada pela procedência. Os testes de primeira contagem e de velocidade de germinação não se mostraram adequados para avaliação do vigor das sementes, sendo este mais bem avaliado pela massa seca dos cotilédones e hipocótilo. O vigor das sementes, apresentou relação direta com o seu tamanho, justificando-se a adoção de classes de tamanho para a formação de mudas.Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. is a native species from the Northeast region, Brazil, which has been increasingly cultivated from the States of Maranhão to Rio de Janeiro. It presents great potential for urban forestry, hedging and wood production. The present research had as objective to evaluate the influence of the provenance and seed size on the germination and vigor of Mimosa

  2. Chemical and Antimicrobial Analyses of Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood, an Endemic of the Western Balkan.

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    Tadić, Vanja; Oliva, Alessandra; Božović, Mijat; Cipolla, Alessia; De Angelis, Massimiliano; Vullo, Vincenzo; Garzoli, Stefania; Ragno, Rino

    2017-08-23

    A comprehensive study on essential oil and different solvent extracts of Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood (Lamiaceae) from Montenegro is reported. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oil revealed a total of 43 components with bicyclogermacrene (23.8%), germacrene D (8%), (E)-caryophyllene (7.9%) and spathulenol (5.5%) as the major ones. Sesquiterpenoid group was found to be the most dominant one (64.8%), with 19.9% of the oxygenated forms. In the crude methanol extract of the investigated plant, obtained by Sohhlet exraction, the total phenol content was 14.7 ± 0.4 mg of GA/g, the total flavonoids were 0.29 ± 0.03% expressed as hyperoside percentage, whereas the total tannins content was 0.22 ± 0.04% expressed as pyrogallol percentage. For the antimicrobial activity determination, the following microorganisms have been used: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29213)) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA (clinical strain)), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical strain), carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (clinical strain) and Candida albicans (ATCC 14053). The essential oil showed high potency against MSSA and MRSA, both at high (~5 × 10⁵ CFU/mL) and low (~5 × 10³ CFU/mL) inoculum. With respect to MSSA, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was 0.307 mg/mL, with bactericidal activity obtained at 0.615 mg/mL, while, in the case of MRSA, the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were 0.076 and 0.153 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding anti-Candida albicans activity, the MIC value was 2.46 mg/mL without reaching fungicidal activity. In addition to the observed essential oil efficacy, different solvent extracts were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. Similarly to the essential oil, thehighest efficacy was observed against both MSSA and MRSA strains, at high and

  3. Flavonoids and their derivatives with β-amyloid aggregation inhibitory activity from the leaves and twigs of Pithecellobium clypearia Benth.

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    Wang, Yu-Xi; Ren, Qiang; Yan, Zhi-Yang; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Bai, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2017-11-01

    To explore potential compounds with marked effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Pithecellobium clypearia Benth., nineteen compounds (1-19) were obtained, including two new flavonoid derivatives, named pithecellobiumol A (1) and pithecellobiumol B (2) and 17 flavonoids (3-19). Their structures were elucidated based on 1D and 2D-NMR spectra as well as HR-ESI-MS data. The absolute configurations of new compounds were assigned by comparing their experimental specific rotation or ECD curves with the calculated data. The inhibitory activity on Aβ aggregation was screened by ThT assay, and compounds 7 (70.7%), 9 (86.5%), 10 (88.4%), 15 (86.1%) and 16 (87.7%) showed outstanding inhibition rate at 20μM compared to the positive control, curcumin (65.64%). In addition, docking study was performed to initially examine possible molecular mechanisms. Considering the important role of oxidative stress in AD, all the isolated compounds were tested for their H2O2-induced damage in human neuronblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Among them, compound 16 (91.0%) was the most potent candidate in the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts

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    Renata Colombo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.

  5. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth

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    Raghunath Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ajuga bracteosa Wall Ex Benth. (Labiateae is described in Ayurveda for the treatment of rheumatism, gout, palsy and amenorrhea.Objective: Present study was aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Neelkanthi (whole plant and to support its traditional use.Methods: Methanolic extract of plant Ajuga bracteosa (ABE was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema, egg albumin induced inflammation in rats and the study was further supported with in vitro antiinflammatory study by using Human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Three doses of the extract (ABE- 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, i.p. were used in the study and diclofenac sodium (5mg/kg, i.p. was used as standard. Results: ABE (500 and 750 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (P<0.05 reduced increased in paw volume induced by carrageenan and egg albumin. ABE also showed significant stabilization toward HRBC membrane. Conclusions: ABE at the dose of 500 and 750 mg/kg showed potent action on comparison with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  6. Cryopreservation of shoot tips of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, an indigenous endangered medicinal plant, through vitrification.

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    Sharma, Neelam; Sharma, Bindu

    2003-01-01

    The cryopreservation of shoot tips of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (IC 266698), an endangered medicinal plant of India was investigated. Shoot tips (about 1 mm in length) excised from four-week-old proliferating shoot cultures were precultured on MS medium supplemented with various osmotica before dehydrating with PVS2 solution at 0 degrees C. The dehydrated shoot tips were directly immersed in LN2. Following cryopreservation, and after rapid rewarming at 45 degrees C, shoot tips were quickly washed with 1.2 M sucrose solution and then plated on solidified shoot culture medium. Shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification, when they were precultured on medium supplemented with 5% DMSO at 4 degrees C for two days before dehydrating in PVS2 for 10-20 minutes at 0 degrees C. Average survival in terms of normal shoot formation after 4 wks of plating was about 20% without callus formation. Cold hardening of shoot cultures for four weeks at 4 degrees C significantly improved the survival and shoot regeneration of cryopreserved shoot tips to 70% and 35%, respectively.

  7. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

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    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat

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    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (in descending order: cabbage, papaya and chicken. A probable mode of action of extracts was investigated by analyzing the changes they cause in bacterial cell wall and leakage of nucleic acid from bacterial cells. Both acetone and ethyl acetate extracts at their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations resulted in leakage of cell constituents to an extent of 40 to 80 and 60 to 95 %, respectively, compared to the control, and finally leading to disintegration of cell walls. These findings indicate the potential use of ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Indian borage leaves in food preservation.

  9. KANDUNGAN KIMIA BERBAGAI EKSTRAK DAUN MIANA (COLEUS BLUMEI BENTH DAN EFEK ANTHELMINTIKNYA TERHADAP CACING PITA PADA AYAM

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    Yusuf Ridwan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on the chemical compound of painted nettle (Coleus blumei Benth leave extract and its anthelmintic activity against chicken tapeworm were conducted. Leave of painted nettle were collected and extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was carried out to determine the chemical compound of secondary metabolites. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated with an assay using chicken tapeworm in a serial microplate dilution method by determination of efective concentration 50 (EC50 using probit analysis. The result of phytochemistry analysis showed that Coleus leaves consisted of flavonoid, steroid, tannin and saponin. Three of four extracts displayed strong anthelmintic activity with the higest activity belong to chloroform extract with EC50 5 mg/ml followed by n-hexane 9 mg/ml and metanol extract 10,2 mg/ml, while water extract has a weak anthelmintic activity with 106,2 mg/ml. In general, chloroform extract proved to be a more efficient extractant of biologically active compounds than either hexane, ethanol or water extract. The promising activity displayed by a number of extracts has led to further investigation of the active compound. Unfortunately, the result of invivo assay showed that the chloroform extract treatment with dose level 25 mg/kg BW could not to reduce the number of tapeworm in chicken. It is interesting for further investigate the differences of respon between in vitro and in vivo to determine involved factors.

  10. Essential Oils of Phoebe angustifolia Meisn., Machilus velutina Champ. ex Benth. and Neolitsea polycarpa Liou (Lauraceae from Vietnam #

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    Tran D. Thang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the leaves of Phoebe angustifolia Meisn, Machilus velutina Champ. ex Benth and Neolitsea polycarpa H. Liu., were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major compound found in the oils of Phoebe angustifolia were n -hexacadecanoic acid (13.0%, spathulenol (17.0%, sabinene (6.0%, artemisia triene (5.1% and bicyclogermacrene (5.9%. Appreciable quantities of ( E -β-ocimene (9.5%, ( Z -β-ocimene (8.2%, germacrene D (6.8%, allo-ocimene (6.4%, α-phellandrene (5.9%, β-caryophyllene and bicyclogermacrene (ca 5.5% could be identified from Machilus velutina . However, we have identified ( E -β-ocimene (85.6% as the singly abundant constituent of Neolitsea polycarpa with significant amounts of limonene (6.5%. Apart from allo-ocimene (1.8% and spathulenol (1.1%, the other nineteen compounds were identified in amount less than 1%. This is the first comprehensive report on the volatile oils of the studied species.

  11. IDENTIFIKASI MOLEKULER BROAD BEAN WILT VIRUS 2 (BBWV2 DAN CYMBIDIUM MOSAIC VIRUS (CYMMV ASAL TANAMAN NILAM (POGOSTEMON CABLIN BENTH.

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    Miftakhurohmah .

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular identification Broad Bean Wilt Virus 2 (BBWV2 and Cymbidium Mosaic Virus (CymMV from patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth.. Several viruses have been reported to be associated with mosaic disease on patchouli plant in Indonesia. This study aims to identify the two viruses in patchouli cultivation in West Java by studying the molecular characterization. Mosaic symptomatic leaf samples taken from patchouli cultivation in Manoko (Bandung Barat District, West Java Province. RNA extraction was performed using Xprep Plant RNA mini kit. RNA amplification with RT-PCR technique using primers for the cp gene region of BBWV2 and CymMV. The PCR product was sent to PT. Science Genetics Indonesia to do sequencing, then analyzed nucleotide sequences. Results of RT-PCR were performed successfully obtained DNA bands with size accordance with the predictions of the primer design for BBWV2 and CymMV cp region. Further, based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses, the two virus isolates were confirmed as BBWV2 and CymMV respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 Manoko clustered with BBWV2 from Singapore (original host of Brazilian red-cloak, China (pepper and South Korea (chili. Whereas, CymMV Manoko become one cluster with CymMV from India (Phaius sp., Indonesia (Dendrobium, China (vanilla, Thailand (Oncidium, Hawai (Dendrobium and South Korea Cymbidium.

  12. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

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    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Hymete, Ariaya; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Tadesse, Mekuria

    2017-05-02

    Ajuga remota Benth is traditionally used in Ethiopia for the management of diabetes mellitus. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. After acute toxicity test, the Swiss albino mice were induced with alloxan to get experimental diabetes animals. The fasting mean blood glucose level before and after treatment for two weeks in normal, diabetic untreated and diabetic mice treated with aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts were performed. Data were statistically evaluated by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20. P-value Phytochemical screening of both extracts indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids, which might contribute to the antidiabetic activity. The extracts, however, did not contain alkaloids and anthraquinones. The aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) showed the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose levels and the ability of A. remota extracts in reducing blood glucose levels presumably due to the presence of antioxidant constituents such as flavonoids. The effect of the extract supported the traditional claim of the plant.

  13. Technological development of aqueous extracts from Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. Hook. f. ex K. Schum., Rubiaceae, (mulateiro using factorial design

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    Leidyana M. da Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to characterize the vegetal raw material of the Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. Hook. f. ex K. Schum., Rubiaceae, known as "mulateiro", and to evaluate the influence of extractive parameters for attainment of standardized aqueous extractive solutions. The physical-chemical characterization of the samples was performed using pharmacopoeic and not pharmacopoeic methodologies. A 2³ factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of extraction techniques (infusion/decoction, drug: solvent ratio (2.5 and 7.5%, and extraction time (5 and 15 min on the total tannin content of aqueous extractive solutions from C. spruceanum. The extractive solution that showed higher total tannin and dry residue content had their physical-chemical characteristics determined. The results suggest that an aqueous extractive solution from rinds of C. spruceanum barks with higher tanning yield (9.9 g%, must be standardized using decoction as extraction methodology, with 2.5% of vegetal drug for an extraction time of 15 min. The results of the physical-chemical characterization suggest that environmental factors modify the properties of this species and, therefore, they can influence the quality and security of a product derived from this medicinal plant.

  14. Total Flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth. O. Ktze Protect against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Rong Chang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin has cardiotoxic effects that limit its clinical benefit in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth. O. Ktze (TFCC against doxorubicin- (DOX- induced cardiotoxicity. Male rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (3 mg/kg every 2 days for three injections. Heart samples were collected 2 weeks after the last DOX dose and then analyzed. DOX delayed body and heart growth and caused cardiac tissue injury, oxidative stress, apoptotic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Bcl-2 expression disturbance. Similar experiments in H9C2 cardiomyocytes showed that doxorubicin reduced cell viability, increased ROS generation and DNA fragmentation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced apoptotic cell death. However, TFCC pretreatment suppressed all of these adverse effects of doxorubicin. Signal transduction studies indicated that TFCC suppressed DOX-induced overexpression of p53 and phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK. Studies with LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT inhibitor demonstrated that the mechanism of TFCC-induced cardioprotection also involves activation of PI3K/AKT. These findings indicated the potential clinical application of TFCC in preventing DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress.

  15. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) in Swiss Mice.

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    Freire Rocha Caldas, Germana; Araújo, Alice Valença; Albuquerque, Giwellington Silva; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM). Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg) for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice.

  16. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae in Swiss Mice

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    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM. Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice.

  17. Assessment of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity properties of Uvaria chamae P. Beauv (Annonaceae) and Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) in mice.

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    Awodiran, M O; Adepiti, A O; Akinwunmi, K F

    2017-08-31

    The toxicity profile of medicinal plants is an important preclinical requirement in the development of phytomedicines. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the leaf of Uvaria chamae P. Beauv (Annonaceae) and stem bark of Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) were investigated in order to provide information on their safety as antimalarial plants. The methanol extract of U. chamae and ethanol (70%) extract of M. lucida were separately orally administered (125, 250, and 750 mg/kg/day) to mice for 10 consecutive days. Cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg, single dose) and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mice were injected with colchicine (0.04%) intra-peritoneally 24 h after the last administration of the extracts and the bone marrows harvested. Giemsa-stained slides of bone marrow cells were microscopically assessed for dividing cells to determine the mitotic index (MI) and scored for chromosomal aberrations (CA) according to standard methods. chamae exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity. At 750 mg/kg, the MI was significantly (p lucida was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from that of the negative control. The total CA observed from treatment with both plants at all doses were significantly (p lucida exerted only genotoxic effect. Nevertheless, the two plants should be used with caution in antimalarial therapy.

  18. Alternative formation of anthraquinones and lipoquinones in heterotrophic and photoautotrophic cell suspension cultures of Morinda lucida Benth.

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    Igbavboa, U; Sieweke, H J; Leistner, E; Röwer, I; Hüsemann, W; Barz, W

    1985-12-01

    Photoheterotrophic and photoautotrophic cell suspension cultures were raised from a callus tissue derived from a Morinda lucida Benth. plant (Rubiaceae). The cultures were characterized with regard to fresh weight, dry weight, cell number, pH, chlorophyll and quinoid natural products. The amount of lipoquinones (phylloquinone, α-tocopherol, plastoquinone, ubiquinone) isolated from the photoautotrophic cultures matched the amount detected in an intact leaf. Anthraquinone glycosides which are found in the roots of Morinda plants were not present in the photoautotrophic culture. The photoheterotrophic culture contained only trace amounts of these pigments. Abundant anthraquinone synthesis was observed when photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic suspension cultures were transferred into darkness, provided sucrose was present in the medium. Induction of synthesis of anthraquinone pigments coincided with a rapid disappearance of lipoquinones from the culture. Thus, in the suspension culture, photoautotrophy correlates with lipoquinone synthesis and heterotrophy correlates with anthraquinone synthesis. This reflects the situation in the intact plants where lipoquinones are chloroplast-associated whereas anthraquinones occur in the roots.

  19. Chemical Composition, Modulatory Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil the Hyptis martiusii Benth by Direct and Gaseous Contact.

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    de Oliveira, Allan Demetrius Leite; Galvao Rodrigue, Fabiola Fernandes; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; da Costa, Jose Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have shown that species of the genus Hyptis, have promising antimicrobial and antifungal effects. Identify of chemical constituents of essential oil from leaves of Hyptis martiusii and evaluate its effect against bacterial strains by direct and gaseous contact. Essential oil was extracted from leaves of Hyptis martiusii Benth using hydro-distillation, and its composition was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemical analysis showed that there was a predominance of sesquiterpenes. The leaf essential oil was screened for its minimal inhibitory concentration and modulatory effect of aminoglycoside by the direct (MIC) and gaseous (MID) micro-dilution assays for various pathogenic microorganisms. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of all of the tested bacteria (MIC essential oil of leaves were characterized; δ -3-carene (6.88%), 1, 8-cineole (7.01%), trans-caryophyllene (9.21%), Cariophyllene oxide (7.47%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.61%) were found as the major components. Modulatory aminoglycoside effect, by direct contact, was showed antagonistic relationship with antimicrobial activity. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of all of the tested bacteria in 50% and 25% of oil concentration and demonstrated synergistic interactions can be attributed to the constituting the oil compounds. These results show that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

  20. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

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    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  1. 5-H¡droxi-2-Metil-1,4-Naftoquinona obtenida de Pera nítida (Benth. Jablonski(Euforbiaceae

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    Luis E. Cuca S.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto clorofórmico de la corteza del tronco de Pera nítida (Benth. Jablonski se aisló una sustancia amarilla que fue identificada como 5—hidro.x¡-2— metil —1,4—naftoquinona. Esta sustancia es conocida como plumbagina y ha mostrado una destacada acción biológica. La estructura fue deducida con base en los datos espectroscópicos y su presencia en esta especie tiene importancia quimiotaxonómica.

  2. Respuesta al estrés por limitación de nitrógeno de plántulas de castilleja tenuiflora benth. cultivadas in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Morales, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae), es una planta medicinal silvestre que sintetiza diversos compuestos químicos como feniletanoides e iridoides glicosilados y flavonoides. El perfil químico de los cultivos in vitro de C. tenuiflora varía dependiendo de factores bióticos y de factores abióticos como el nitrógeno. El objetivo general de este trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta al estrés por limitación de nitrógeno de plántulas de C. tenuiflora cultivadas in vitro. Se cult...

  3. Crescimento inicial de mudas de pau ferro (Caesalpinia ferreaMart. ex Tul. var. leiostachya Benth. sob diferentes regimes hídricos Initial growth of wood iron (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul var. leiostachya Benth under different hydric regimes

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    Nádia Regina Lenhard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul. var. leiostachya Benth -Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae sob quatro regimes hídricos (alagamento, 70%, 40% e 12,5% de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram submetidas aos tratamentos aos 60 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de oito mudas por tratamento. Após 7 dias de permanência sob tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações. O diâmetro (6,5 mm, teor relativo de água (52,45%, área foliar específica (174,58 g cm², taxa de crescimento relativo (0,0160 g g-1, taxa assimilatória líquida (0,0004 g dm-2 dias-1 e peso específico de folha (0,0062 g cm² não variaram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. As mudas sob 70% CC apresentaram maior altura (84,6cm, tamanho da raiz (28,9 cm, massa seca da raiz (6,24 g, área foliar (376,0 cm², massa seca da folha (1,98 g, massa seca da parte aérea (8,27 g e teor de clorofila (31,67 ìg cm². A razão de peso específico (0,2368 g g-1 e o teor de nitrogênio (0,37 g kg-1 foram maiores sob 12,5% CC. A razão de área foliar (35,09 g g-1 foi menor sob 12,5% CC. Dessa forma, a melhor condição para a produção das mudas é em 70% da capacidade de campo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of Caesapinia ferrea Mart ex. Tul var. leiostachva Benth (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae under four hidric regimes (overflow, 70, 40 and 12.5% of field capacity. The seedlings were submitted to the treatments after 60 days of age. The experimental delineation was completely randomized with four repetitions of eight seedlings for treatment. After 7 days of permanence under treatment, the evaluations had been initiated. The diameter (6,5 mm, relative water content (52.45%, specific foliar area (174.58 g cm², rate of relative growth (0.0160 g g-1, liquid assimilated rate (0.0004 g dm-2 days-1 and specific weight of leaf (0.0062 g

  4. Germinação de sementes de dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae no armazenamento Germination of Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae during storage

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (jacarandá-da-bahia, espécie de alto valor econômico pela qualidade da madeira e potencial ornamental em razão da copa bem formada e à delicadeza da folhagem, está na lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção. Em função disso, conduziu-se este trabalho, visando à avaliação da qualidade de suas sementes, submetidas a períodos crescentes de armazenamento. Os frutos foram coletados em outubro de 2003, e as sementes armazenadas em geladeira a 6º C ± 2, em sacos de plástico transparente fechados. Mensalmente, durante 690 dias, foram retiradas 200 sementes, sendo que 100 foram utilizadas nos ensaios de germinação (quatro repetições de 25 sementes e 100 para a determinação do teor de água. Os ensaios germinativos foram conduzidos em estufa tipo B.O.D., a 25º C e com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. As variáveis analisadas foram a porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e massa seca das plântulas originadas. Os resultados indicaram que, até 360 dias de armazenamento, as sementes apresentaram porcentagem de germinação próxima de 50%, com redução de cerca da metade do índice de velocidade de germinação, porém, com maior comprometimento do acúmulo da massa seca das plântulas. A porcentagem de germinação inicial e final foram de 87% e 36%, respectivamente. As sementes de D. nigra têm comportamento ortodoxo e podem ser armazenadas por um período de até dois anos em sacos de plástico a baixa temperatura, com redução em cerca de 50% de sua capacidadeDalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Brazilian rosewood is a highly economically valuable species because of its wood quality and ornamental potential, mainly due to its well formed canopy and the delicacy of its foliage. Unfortunately, these features contributed to list it as an endangered Brazilian species (IBAMA Regulation number 06/92. This work had as its objective to study the quality of Dalbergia

  5. Lowering blood pressure effect of Apium graviolens (seledri and Orthosipleon stamineus benth (kumis kucing in mild and moderate hypertension

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    Siti Supari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth have been used to as traditional medicines to lower blood pressure. Since at present time is avaiLable as a combination of those phytopharmaca in the market, therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to evaLtnte the ffictivity and side effects of those phytopharmaca toward hypertensive subjects. A randomized double blind conftolled trial was conducted at area of Monica - Jakarta in South of Jalarta from July-untiL 29 October 2001 toward mild and moderate hypertensive subjects. The first group (72 subjects received phytophanmaca (Tensigard® /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} which contains Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth 3 x 250 mg, whiLe the second grottp (70 subjects had Amlodipine I x 5 mg. Obseruation were conducted for 12 weelcs, and the parameter observed wère systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, plasma lipid, blood glucose before and after treatment, and electrolyte with nvo week intervals. The Resuhs revealed that the phytopharmaca treatment for 12 weel 0,05; DBP 10.00 t0.96 mmHg vs 9.49 t 1.37 ntmHg; P> 0.05. Phytopharmaca treatment for 12

  6. C15083. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-02-10

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9-94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1.7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into 3 groups and 2 subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6 to -32.4%, and from -2.5 to -64.4%, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

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    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  8. Cytotoxic activity of acyl phloroglucinols isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. cultivated in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Fathy, Magda M.; Salama, Maha M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; Saber, Fatema R.; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Two acyl phloroglucinol compounds namely; Sideroxylonal B (1) and Macrocarpal A (2) were isolated from the Sideroxylonal-Rich Extract (SRE) of the juvenile leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea; F. Muell. ex Benth cultivated in Egypt. Identification of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis (1D & 2D NMR). The two compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. The SRE alongside with the isolated compounds were tested against three human cancer cell lines; MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line), HEP2 (laryngeal carcinoma), CaCo (colonic adenocarcinoma) and one type of normal human cell line;10 FS (fibroblast cells). The SRE, (1), and (2) showed cytotoxic activity with IC50 13.6 ± 0.62, 7.2 ± 0.5, 14.8 ± 0.55 μg mL−1 against HEP2 respectively, 11.6 ± 0.47, 4 ± 0.36, 11.4 ± 0.45 μg mL−1 against CaCo, respectively, and 8.6 ± 0.29, 4.4 ± 0.25, and 7.8 ± 0.3 μg mL−1 against MCF7, respectively. Meanwhile, the (SRE) together with (1) and (2) exhibited low cytotoxicity against normal cell line 10 FS, with IC50 55.4 ± 1.4, 43 ± 0.8 and 50.1 ± 1.12 μg mL−1, respectively. The antiprofilerative activity of the tested compounds was evaluated. The cell cycle profile of cells treated with Sideroxylonal-B and Macrocarpal-A indicates possible S-phase specific effects. PMID:24986654

  9. Caracterização farmacognóstica das folhas e sementes de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Cláudia G. Miranda

    Full Text Available Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. é popularmente conhecida no Brasil por coração-de-negro. É uma espécie aclimatada nesse país. As sementes dessa espécie são utilizadas no tratamento de diarréia, disenteria e hemorróidas e as folhas, no tratamento de úlceras e nas conjuntivites alérgicas. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas e sementes dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó das folhas e sementes de A. lebbeck. Saponinas, alcalóides e cumarinas foram detectados nas folhas e sementes; flavonóides foram também identificados nas folhas. O teor de umidade foi 6,78% e 7,91%, respectivamente, para o pó das folhas e sementes. Os valores de cinzas totais e cinzas insolúveis em ácido foram 9,60% e 0,62% para as folhas e 4,13% e 0,21% para as sementes. Os dados obtidos são importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa planta medicinal. O extrato bruto da planta não apresentou atividade antibacteriana.

  10. Caracterização botânica e química de Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth., (Rubiaceae

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    R.M.S. Alves

    Full Text Available Congonha, congonha-de-bugre e bugre são nomes populares atribuídos a várias espécies medicinais, incluindo Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth. (Rubiaceae, cujas folhas são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, antireumáticas e depurativas do sangue. Esta espécie vem sendo comercializada como porangaba e utilizada em regimes de emagrecimento, substituindo Cordia ecalyculata Vell. (Boraginaceae. Neste estudo, foram determinadas as características botânicas, fisico-químicas e químicas para R. viburnoides com o objetivo de auxiliar sua identificação taxonômica e o controle de qualidade de produtos preparados com esta planta. Uma amostra referência foi coletada e submetida à caracterização macroscópica, microscópica e organoléptica, determinação de cinzas totais e umidade, prospecção fitoquímica e determinação dos perfis cromatográficos em CCD. Amostras de R. viburnoides podem ser reconhecidas pela epiderme pilosa com marcantes estrias cuticulares, estômatos paracíticos, presença de idioblastos com ráfides no mesofilo e pela configuração em arco dos tecidos vasculares da nervura de primeira ordem, caracteres ausentes em C. ecalyculata. A presença de cistólitos e canais mucilaginosos na medula diferem prontamente C. ecalyculata de R. viburnoides. A análise por CCD evidenciou a presença de flavonóides e saponinas. Amostras adquiridas no comércio e submetidas aos mesmos ensaios permitiram validar os métodos propostos e confirmaram a ampla comercialização de R. viburnoides em Minas Gerais.

  11. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  12. Insectos plagas y benéficos asociados al cultivo de mora (Rubus glaucus, benth en La Sabana, Madriz, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jiménez-Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available LA MORA (RUBUS GLAUCUS, BENTH ES UNA PLANTA en proceso de domesticación que se cultiva en pequeñas parcelas. Es hospedera de muchos insectos plaga y enfermedades. En Nicaragua se establecieron plantaciones de mora desde hace unos tres años, como alternativa de diversificación de fincas cafetaleras en los departamentos de Madriz y Nueva Segovia. Hasta ahora no hay información formal sobre los principales insectos plaga y benéficos presentes en este cultivo, que está tomando gran importancia. Por ello, se hizo una investigación para describir la fluctuación poblacional de los insectos plaga y sus depredadores naturales, asociados a este cultivo. El estudio se realizó en la finca La Patasta, municipio La Sabana, departamento de Madriz, entre septiembre de 2004 y abril de 2005. El monitoreo se realizó semanalmente en cinco sitios específicos, mediante capturas manuales de especimenes, con ayuda de bolsas de plástico y vasos de vidrio con alcohol. Como resultado, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de insectos de las principales familias Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Cantharidae, y de los órdenes Hemíptero (Cicadellidae, Pentatomidae, Miridae y Orthóptero (Acrididae y Tettigonidae. Igualmente, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de depredadores naturales de insectos de la familia Staphilinidae, Coccinelidae, Vespidae y Aracnidae, presentes en este cultivo.

  13. Antidiarrheal activity of 80 % methanol extract of the aerial part of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Teshager; Shibeshi, Workineh; Nedi, Teshome

    2016-08-22

    In the Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aerial part of Ajuga remota Benth is used in the treatment of diarrhea. There are different mechanisms by which Ajuga remota may have antidiarrheal effect. Some of the possible mechanisms are through its anthelmintic and antibacterial activity. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the antidiarrheal effect of the plant also include antimotility and antisecretory effect using 80 % methanol extract of A. remota (MEAR). The MEAR was administered at doses of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg to four groups of mice (six animals per group) orally in castor oil diarrhea model. The effect of the extract on enteropooling and gastrointestinal transit model was also evaluated using the same grouping and dosing. Two other groups, one as control and the other as standard (loperamide 5 mg/kg) were used for comparison with the treatment groups. The extract at the doses of 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent and significant inhibition both on the frequency and onset of diarrhea. The percentage purging frequency was 53.4, 66.7, 79.6, and 66.7 % (p < 0.001) at three doses of MEAR (400, 600, and 800 mg/kg) and with loperamide (5 mg/kg), respectively. The percentage inhibition in intestinal fluid accumulation was 42.5, 62.1, and 74.2 % (p < 0.001) at the doses of 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg of MEAR, respectively. The MEAR also inhibited the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in a dose dependent manner both in the normal and castor oil induced intestinal transit. This study has shown that the 80 % methanol extract of A. remota contains pharmacologically active substances with significant antimotility and antisecretory effect contributing for its antidiarrheal activity.

  14. The inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) against Bothrops atrox envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; da Silva, Wania Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Juliana D A; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena

    2016-05-13

    Ethnobotanical studies have shown that Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) has been widely used in cases of snake envenomation, particularly in Northern Brazil. In light of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction obtained from the bark of P. reticulata against the main biological activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV). The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of P. reticulata (AEPr) was first investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the extract was then fractionated by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. This yielded five main fractions (Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5), which were analyzed by colorimetry to determine their concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins and to assess their potential for blocking the phospholipase activity of BaV. The Pr5 fraction was defined as the fraction rich in condensed tannins (CTPr), and its inhibitory potential against the activities of the venom was evaluated. CTPr was evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols. The in vivo protocols consisted of (1) pre-incubation (venom:CTPr, w/w), (2) pre-treatment (orally administered) and (3) post-treatment (orally administered) to evaluate the effect on the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV; in the in vitro protocol the effect on phospholipase and coagulant activity using pre-incubation in both tests was evaluated. There was statistically significant inhibition (psource of natural inhibitors of the components of snake venom responsible for inducing local inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Kolanut (Cola Nitida Vent Schott of Endlicher)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harvest were evaluated at the Cocoa. Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan Nigeria. Several samples of healthy and infected kolanut were obtained at various stages of primary processing (skinning, washing, sweating and storage). Fungi isolations ...

  16. Parâmetros bioquímicos foliares das espécies Licania tomentosa (Benth. e Bauhinia forficata (Link. para avaliação da qualidade do ar Foliar analyses of biochemical parameters of Licania tomentosa (Benth. and Bauhinia forficata (Link. species for air quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Luiz Gusso Maioli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar analysis of biochemical parameters were carried out in order to investigate the influence of air pollutants on two tropical tree species (Licania tomentosa (Benth. and Bauhinia forfícata (Link.. Special attention was given to tropospheric ozone due to the fact that concentration levels in the region were found to be up to 140 µg m-3 for a 4 h average time, which is well above the value that can cause injuries to orchides and tobacco (59 µg m-3. Other pollutants such as nitrogen and sulphur oxides were measured and their ambient concentrations were also associated to biochemical alterations in the investigated species.

  17. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

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    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  18. Phytotoxic Effects of Nepeta meyeri Benth. Extracts and Essential Oil on Seed Germinations and Seedling Growths of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Kordali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Nepeta meyeri Benth. by hydrodistilation was analysed by GC and GC-MS methods. A total 18 components were identified in the oil representing 100.0% of the oil. Main components were 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (80.3%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (10.3%, trans-pulegol (3.1%, 1, 8-cineole (3.0% and β-bourbonene (2.0%. In addition, n-hexane extract of N. meyeri was analysed by using GC and GC-MS methods and 18 components were identified. Likewise, nepetalactones, 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (83.7%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (3.6%, 1, 8-cineole (1.9% and α-terpinene (1.5% were the predominat compounds in the hexane extract. Three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL of the essential oil and n-hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts isolated from the aerial partsand roots were tested for the herbicidal effects on the germination of the seeds of four weed species including Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense L. and Sinapsis arvensis L. The essential oil of N. meyeri completely inhibited the germination of all weed seeds whereas the extracts showed various inhibition effects on the germination of the weed species. Herbicidal effect was increased with the increasing application concentrations of the extracts. In general, the acetone extract was found to be more effective as compared to the other extracts. All extracts also exhibited various inhibition effects on the seedling growths of the weed species. All extracts also tested for their phytotoxic effects on the weeds at greenhouse condition and the results showed that the oil and extracts caused mortality with 22.00-66.00% 48h after the treatments. These findings suggest that the essential oil and the extracts of N. meyeri have potentials for use as herbicides against those weed species.

  19. Color, phenolics, and antioxidant activity of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.), blueberry (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.), and apple wines from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jacqueline; Marín-Arroyo, María-Remedios; Noriega-Domínguez, María-José; Navarro, Montserrat; Arozarena, Iñigo

    2013-07-01

    Seventy wines were produced in Ecuador under different processing conditions with local fruits: Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.) and Golden Reinette apples. Wines were evaluated for antioxidant activity (AA) using the radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) method, total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs) using the pH differential test, and color parameters using VIS-spectrophotometry. For blackberry wines, ellagitannins and anthocyanins were also analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Apples wines (n = 40) had the lowest TPC (608 ± 86 mg/L) and AA (2.1 ± 0.3 mM Trolox). Blueberry wines (n = 12) had high TPC (1086 ± 194 mg/L) and moderate AA (5.4 ± 0.8 mM) but very low TMA (8 ± 3 mg/L), with a color evolved toward yellow and blue shades. Blackberry wines (n = 10) had the highest TPC (1265 ± 91 mg/L) and AA (12 ± 1 mM). Ellagitannins were the major phenolics (1172 ± 115 mg/L) and correlated well with AA (r = 0.88). Within anthocyanins (TMA 73 ± 16 mg/L), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (62%) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (15%) were predominant. Wines obtained by cofermentation of apples and blackberries (n = 8) showed intermediate characteristics (TPC 999 ± 83 mg/L, AA 6.2 ± 0.7 mM, TMA 35 ± 22 mg/L) between the blackberry and blueberry wines. The results suggest that the Andean berries, particularly R. glaucus, are suitable raw materials to produce wines with an in vitro antioxidant capacity that is comparable to red grape wines. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. seedlings for different substrates = Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. em função de diferentes substratos

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    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effects of different substrates on the emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth seedlings. For this purpose an experiment was done in a greenhouse of the Department of Plant Sciences of Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. The statistical design was completely randomized (CRD, where treatments were composed of nine substrates (T1: vermiculite, T2: coconut fiber, T3: trade hortimix®, T4: vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1: 1:1, T5: coconut fiber and compost (1:1, T6: coconut fiber and compost (1:2,T7: vermiculite and compost (1:1, T8, vermiculite and compost organic (1:2 and T9: organic compost. All treatments were represented by four replications containing 25 seeds. The following variables were evaluated: emergency percentage, emergence rate index, length of shoot and root, stem diameter, dry leaves, stem, root and total leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, and leaf weight ratio. Data were submitted to the Tukey test at 5% probability. The coconut fiber substrates, commercial hortimix® and vermiculite proved superior promoted good emergence and early development of seedlings. The mixture of vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1:1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:2 and organic compost and vermiculite (1: 1 was not shown to be adequate for the cultivation of seedlings. There was no emergency in the pure organic compound in the mixture of compost and vermiculite (1:2.Key words - Vermiculite. Organic compost. Coconut fiber. Sabiá. Substrates. = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. O delineamento estat

  1. Avaliação do potencial antioxidante do Croton cajucara benth e seus efeitos sobre o estresse oxidativo no diabetes mellitus experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Éder Marcolin

    2008-01-01

    O Diabetes Mellitus (DM) é uma doença endócrino-metabólica freqüente, com expectativa de alcançar 350 milhões de pessoas no mundo em 2025, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Estudos experimentais e clínicos sugerem que o estresse oxidativo esteja envolvido na patogênese e na progressão desta doença. A espécie Croton cajucara BENTH (CcB) é uma planta da região amazônica que tem suas folhas e casca do caule utilizadas pela população na forma de chá ou cápsulas, para tratar várias doe...

  2. The Main Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd. Benth

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    Ji-Wen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd. Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%, (Z-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%, cyclohexene (4.41%, α- cadinol (3.99%, 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%, 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%, β-cubebene (1.97%, guaia-1(10,11-diene (1.58%, cadinene (1.41% (E-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36% and β-guaiene (1.30%. The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  3. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  4. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oil of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID. A total yield of 3 mg of essential oil per100 g of plant dry mass was obtained, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 97. 7 % of total oil. The essential oil were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The main constituents were eugenol (53.8%, eugenol acetate (24.5%, b -caryophyllene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4% and aromadendrene oxide II (2.1%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method, and t he free-radical-scavenging activity was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  5. Preparative isolation and purification of coumarins from Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffn) Benth, et Hook. f (Chinese traditional medicinal herb) by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renmin; Li, Aifeng; Sun, Ailing

    2004-10-15

    A preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for isolation and purification of coumarins from Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffin) Benth, et Hook. f(Baizhi in Chinese) was successfully established by using n-hexane-methanol-water as the two-phase solvent system in gradient elution mode. The upper phase of n-hexane-methanol-water (5:5:5, v/v) was used as the stationary phase of HSCCC. The mobile phase used in HSCCC was the lower phase of n-hexane-methanol-water (5:5:5, v/v) and n-hexane-methanol-water (5:7:3, v/v) that was changed in gradient. Three major components including imperatorin, isoimperatorin and oxypeucedanine were isolated, each at over 98% purity as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak fractions of HSCCC were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  6. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  7. Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric artery Efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, em artéria mesentérica de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo J. A. Moreira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa dichloromethane extract (HFDE on isolated rings of rat mesenteric artery was evaluated in this study. In intact rings, HFDE (0.1-3000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxations (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6 of phenylephrine tonus that were not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, after KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 or in rings pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. In endothelium denuded rings, HFDE (300 or 1000 µg/mL inhibited contractions induced by CaCl2 (maximal inhibition = 25±7% and 95±1%; respectively. Furthermore, HFDE promoted an additional vasorelaxation (15±3%; n = 7 after maximal response of 10 µM nifedipine (78±3%; n = 7. In conclusion, HFDE induces vasorelaxant effect through an endothelium-independent pathway, which appears to be due in major part to inhibition of the Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels.O efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae (HFDE, em anéis isolados de artéria mesentérica de ratos foi avaliado nesse estudo. Em anéis intactos, pré-contraídos com fenilefrina (10 µM, HFDE (0,1-3000 µg/mL induziu vasorelaxamento de maneira dependente de concentração (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6, o qual não foi afetado após remoção do endotélio (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, após KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 ou em anéis pré-contraídos com KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. Em anéis sem endotélio, HFDE (300 ou 1000 µg/mL inibiu as contrações induzidas por CaCl2 (inibição máxima = 25±7% e 95±1%, respectivamente. Além disso, HFDE promoveu um vasorelaxamento adicional (15±3%; n = 7 sobre o relaxamento máximo de 10 µM de nifedipina (78±3%, n = 7. Em conclusão, HFDE induz efeito vasorelaxante através de uma via independente de endotélio, possivelmente devido à inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através de canais de Ca2+ operados por voltagem.

  8. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  9. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil Duas cochonilhas mirmecófilas, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae e Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, coabitando no interior de ramos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae em área de Cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.O coccídeo Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 e o pseudococcídeo Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 são registrados coabitando no interior de galhos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, ambos atendidos pela formiga Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Essa interação foi observada em uma região de Cerrado sensu stricto, na Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, Brasil. A. oecocordia é registrada pela primeira vez para o Brasil.

  10. Abordagem fitoquímica, composição bromatológica e atividade antibacteriana de Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret E Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke =Phytochemical approach, bromatologic composition and antibacterial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Aline Casimiro Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de encontrar novas drogas eficazes no combate microbiano tem aumentado a cada dia e estimulado a busca de novos compostos naturais com atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se estudo fitoquímico e análises microbiológicas com os extratos etanólicos das espécies (jurema-preta Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret e (juremabranca Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke, frente a linhagens de bactérias patogênicas. O pó da casca do caule de ambas as espécies foi submetido à avaliação bromatológica e determinados os teores de Matéria Seca, Matéria Mineral, Proteína Bruta, Fibra em Detergente Neutro e Energia Bruta. Os resultados para a prospecção química indicaram a presença de taninos e outros compostos fenólicos, bem como a presença de saponinas em ambos os extratos. Os extratos das duas espécies demonstraram que mais de uma parte das plantas possui atividade antimicrobiana. A composição bromatológica da casca do caule de jurema-preta e jurema-branca apresentou teores diferenciados para as variáveis avaliadas.The need to find new efficient drugs to combat microbes has increasedthe search for new natural compounds with biological activities. In this work, phytochemical studies and microbiological analysis were carried out with the ethanol extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke on pathogenic bacteria strains. The bark powders of both species were submitted to bromatologic evaluation and the levels of dry matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude energy were determined. The results of the chemical search chemical showed the presence of tannins and other phenolic compounds as well as the presence of saponins in both extracts. The microbiologic evaluation of the extracts of both species showed that more than one part of the plants had antimicrobial activity. The bromatologic composition of the bark powder of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild

  11. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... based on the zones of inhibition and MIC values were higher indicating that leaves have a potential ... Nature has bestowed on us a very rich botanical ... Patchouli (P. cablin) is a herb belonging to the Labiatae family originating from Southeast Asia. Patchouli leaves contain an essential oil which is made ...

  12. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos extratos e frações orgânicas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Dias Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, conhecida popularmente como sabiá e cerva viva, é uma planta arbórea encontrada na caatinga nordestina brasileira, amplamente utilizada pela população na forma de infusões para o tratamento de feridas, bronquites e anti-inflamatório. Diante do exposto, os objetivos deste estudo, foram determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do extrato etanólico das folhas (EHM, caules (EHL, cascas do caule (EHC, raízes (EHR e frações obtidas das folhas de M. caesalpiniifolia Benth. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada através do método de captação do radical DPPH, enquanto a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, sobre leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. A capacidade antioxidante mostrou que a fração acetato de etila (Fr-EtOAc foi diretamente proporcional ao teor de polifenóis totais com IC50 de 20,08 ± 0,10 µg/ mL e 721,29±0,60 mg de EAG (equivalentes de ácido gálico por g de extrato. Na atividade antimicrobiana, todos os extratos e frações exibiram atividade inibitória de crescimento frente aos micro-organismos microrganismos avaliados e em concentrações variando de 5 a 1000 μg/mL. A Fr-EtOAc apresentou valores promissores de inibição de crescimento frente a fungos, como Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030 e Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, com concentrações de 20 e 40 μg/mL, respectivamente. Estes resultados são importantes, pois são os primeiros a serem realizados com a espécie M. caesalpiniifolia.

  13. Synthesis of amide derivatives of 6{alpha},7{beta}-di-hydroxyvouacapan-17{beta}-oic acid isolated from the Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth fruits (leguminosae); Sintese de amidas derivadas do acido 6{alpha},7{beta}-di-hidroxivouacapan-17{beta}-oico isolado dos frutos de Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, A.L.; Belinelo, V.J.; Stefani, G.M.; Pilo-Veloso, D. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: dorila@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br; Reis, G.T. [Universidade de Itauna, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias; Ferreira-Alves, D.L. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia

    2001-04-01

    Hydro-alcoholic infusions from fruits of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth, commonly known as 'Sucupira branca', are used in Brazilian folk medicine for rheumatic problems and throat infections. Since it has been verified that furanediterpene 6?,7?-di-hydroxyvouacapan-17?-oic acid (ADV), isolated from the hexane extract of these fruits presents anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and plant growth regulatory activity, a variety of ADV derivatives has been synthesized with the aim of obtaining more information about the structure-activity relationships of this series of compounds. In this work four new amide (4-7) derivatives of ADV have been synthesized. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data, including 2D-NMR methods. (author)

  14. Inhibitory Effect of the Hexane Fraction of the Ethanolic Extract of the Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth in Acute and Chronic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Hoscheid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth have been used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism, sore throat, and respiratory disorders, and also as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, depurative, tonic, and hypoglycemic agent. The study was aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane fraction of an ethanolic extract of P. pubescens fruits. The oil from P. pubescens fruits was extracted with ethanol and partitioned with hexane. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured with increasing doses of the hexane fraction (FHPp by using a carrageenan-induced rat model of pleurisy and a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis by using an FHPp dose of 250 mg/kg for 21 days. Treatment with an FHPp resulted in anti-inflammatory activity in both models. The results of biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses indicated a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (18.32%, 34.20%, and 41.70%, resp. and reduction in the numbers of total leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The FHPp dose of 1000 mg/kg induced no changes in behavioral parameters, and no animal died. The results of this study extend the findings of previous reports that have shown that administration of extracts and fractions obtained from species of the genus Pterodon exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and lacks toxicity.

  15. The extraction of essential oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Putri, D. K.; Kusuma, H. S.; E Syahputra, M.; Parasandi, D.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of the important essential oil-producing plant, contributes more than 50% of total exports of Indonesia’s essential oil. However, the extraction of patchouli oil that has been done in Indonesia is generally still used conventional methods that require enormous amount of energy, high solvent usage, and long time of extraction. Therefore, in this study, patchouli oil extraction was carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Based on this research, it is known that the extraction of patchouli oil using microwave hydrodistillation method with longer extraction time (240 min) only produced patchouli oil’s yield 1.2 times greater than solvent-free microwave extraction method which require faster extraction time (120 min). Otherwise the analysis of electric consumption and the environmental impact, the solvent-free microwave extraction method showed a smaller amount when compared with microwave hydrodistillation method. It is conclude that the use of solvent-free microwave extraction method for patchouli oil extraction is suitably method as a new green technique.

  16. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71

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    Abeer Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth. against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR.

  17. ALTERAÇÕES NA ARQUITETURA TÍPICA DE Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze NA ARBORIZAÇÃO DE RUAS DE CURITIBA, PARANÁ

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    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban structure and equipments can restrict the correct development of trees and its typical architecture. Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (rosewood has been pruned continuously for being a species of large size and for being the most planted tree in the city of Curitiba. Because of that, this work aimed to assess the changes in the typical architecture of Tipuana tipu on street trees of Curitiba through completely randomized design containing a check plot composed by 6 trees and a treatment with 6 trees under utility lines and another with 6 trees in streets without utility lines. From horizontal photographs of trees there were obtained dendrometric variables based on a metric scale attached at DBH. Thus, the morphometric indexes were calculated to describe dimensional relationships for the species on trees without pruning (check plot and on pruned trees (treatments. The results showed that raising pruning change typical architecture of rosewood modifying its outline and its form, in addition to harm its aesthetic effect. The indexes that can express changes significantly (p<0.05, were: range index, salience index, crown angle, crown proportion and relation RH/PH.

  18. Antibacterial activity of 14, 15-dihydroajugapitin and 8-o-acetylharpagide isolated from Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth against human pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Hilal A; Ali, Md Niamat; Ganai, Bashir A; Meraj, Maryum; Ahmad, Mudasar

    2017-02-01

    Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as Bungle Weed has been in use since ancient times and is mentioned Ayurvedic literature. The upper ground parts of the plant are used for treatment of various diseases. The weed is credited with astringent, febrifugal, stimulant, aperient, tonic, diuretic and depurative properties and is used for the treatment of gout and rheumatism, palsy and amenorrhoea. Two compounds 1) 14, 15-dihydroajugapitin and 2) 8-o-acetylharpagide were isolated from the aerial parts of the plant and tested for antibacterial activity against various pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion method. Compound 1 and 2 showed maximum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with zone of inhibitions of 25. 0 ± 1.4 mm and 22.6 ± 0.9 mm respectively. The MIC value of compound 1 and 2 ranged between 500 and 1000 μg/ml. It could be concluded that both compounds isolated from the aerial parts of Ajuga bracteosa possess antibacterial activity against pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Primeros ensayos para el cultivo y caracterización del aceite esencial de Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. para el Pacífico colombiano

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    Robert Tulio González Mina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. es una planta silvestre de humedales de la que no hay antecedentes de su cultivo o domesticación. El presente trabajo intenta obtener resultados preliminares para su reproducción en condiciones experimentales de siembras simulando su entorno natural contrastada con siembras en materas. Como se ha reportado previamente interés por esta especie como fuente de aceites esenciales ricos en timol, sustancia valiosa de uso industrial y medicinal, se analiza la composición cromatográfica de los volátiles para una población local. Se enuncia un nuevo quimiotipo para el aceite esencial de C. scoparioides procedente de los humedales del Pacífico colombiano. Se presentan los resultados de los ensayos sobre la reproducción vegetativa y por semillas de la especie en cuestión, aunque los resultados reproductivos indican un limitado potencial agrícola para esta especie.

  20. Controles físico, físico-químico, químico e microbiológico dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae

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    Silviane Z. Hubinger

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a qualidade dos fitoterápicos, é importante salientar que a preocupação com esta questão inclui rigoroso acompanhamento das diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e produção, desde a coleta do vegetal até o produto final. O controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e seus extratos é essencial quando utilizados como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos. Neste trabalho foram utilizadas diversas técnicas (farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas visando estabelecer parâmetros de qualidade dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae, popularmente conhecida como faveiro. Os resultados obtidos determinaram as características físico-químicas da droga vegetal e mostraram que o pó dos frutos e o extrato etanólico 70% de D. mollis apresentam um teor de flavonóides de 10,25% e 17,21%, respectivamente. A análise fitoquímica preliminar dos frutos caracterizou a presença de taninos, saponinas e flavonóides. Na análise microbiológica do extrato não houve crescimento de patógenos entre os testes realizados.

  1. Distinct substrate specificities and unusual substrate flexibilities of two hydroxycinnamoyltransferases, rosmarinic acid synthase and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl-transferase, from Coleus blumei Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Marion; Petersen, Maike

    2011-06-01

    cDNAs and genes encoding a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (CbRAS; rosmarinic acid synthase) and a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (CbHST) were isolated from Coleus blumei Benth. (syn. Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd; Lamiaceae). The proteins were expressed in E. coli and the substrate specificity of both enzymes was tested. CbRAS accepted several CoA-activated phenylpropenoic acids as donor substrates and D-(hydroxy)phenyllactates as acceptors resulting in ester formation while shikimate and quinate were not accepted. Unexpectedly, amino acids (D-phenylalanine, D-tyrosine, D-DOPA) also yielded products, showing that RAS can putatively catalyze amide formation. CbHST was able to transfer cinnamic, 4-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic as well as sinapic acid from CoA to shikimate but not to quinate or acceptor substrates utilized by CbRAS. In addition, 3-hydroxyanthranilate, 3-hydroxybenzoate and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate were used as acceptor substrates. The reaction product with 3-aminobenzoate putatively is an amide. For both enzymes, structural requirements for donor and acceptor substrates were deduced. The acceptance of unusual acceptor substrates by CbRAS and CbHST resulted in the formation of novel compounds. The rather relaxed substrate as well as reaction specificity of both hydroxycinnamoyltransferases opens up possibilities for the evolution of novel enzymes forming novel secondary metabolites in plants and for the in vitro formation of new compounds with putatively interesting biological activities.

  2. Phloem loading in Coleus blumei in the absence of carrier-mediated uptake of export sugar from the apoplast. [Coleus blumei Benth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, R.; Gowan, E. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Phloem loading in Coleus blumei Benth. leaves cannot be explained by carrier-mediated transport of export sugar from the apoplast into the sieve element-companion cell complex, the mechanism by which sucrose is thought to load in other species that have been studied in detail. Uptake profiles of the export sugars sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose into leaf discs were composed of two components, one saturable and other other not. Saturable (carrier-mediated) uptake of all three sugars was almost completely eliminated by the inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS). However, when PCMBS was introduced by transpiration into mature leaves it did not prevent accumulation of {sup 14}C-photosynthate in minor veins or translocation of labeled photosynthate from green to nonchlorophyllous regions of the leaf following exposure to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. The efficacy of introducing inhibitor solutions in the transpiration stream was proven by observing saffranin O and calcofluor white movement in the minor veins and leaf apoplast. PCMBS introduced by transpiration completely inhibited phloem loading in tobacco leaves. Phloem loading in C. blumei was also studied in plasmolysis experiments. The carbohydrate content of leaves was lowered by keeping plants in the dark and then increased by exposing them to light. The solute level of intermediary cells increased in the light (phloem loading) in both PCMBS-treated and control tissues. A mechanism of symplastic phloem loading is proposed for species that translocate the raffinose series of oligosaccharides.

  3. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  4. CONTENIDO DE TANINOS EN LA CORTEZA DE DOS ESPECIES DE PARÁCATA (Erythroxylon compactum Rose y Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin & Barneby

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    Serafín Colín-Urieta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron taninos de la corteza de Parácata (Erythroxylon compactum Rose y Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin & Barneby mediante extracción acuosa aplicando un diseño experimental 2k, con k = 4 y n = 2. Los factores y niveles fueron: Factor A = tamaño de partícula (0.417, 6.68 mm, Factor B = tiempo de extracción (120, 180 min, Factor C = temperatura de extracción (80, 87 °C, Factor D = relación sólido-líquido (1:15, 1:12. Se evaluó la calidad curtiente de los taninos. Se curtió una piel de venado con taninos de S. skinneri y se determinó la resistencia al desagarre y la resistencia a la tensión. Los resultados de las propiedades físico-mecánicas de la piel curtida fueron superiores a los valores mínimos recomendados por las normas mexicanas. Con base en lo anterior, se estima que la corteza de S. skinneri pudiera ser susceptible de aprovechamiento para la extracción de taninos y así usarlos en el curtido de pieles.

  5. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance

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    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  6. Primeros ensayos para el cultivo y caracterización del aceite esencial de Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. para el Pacífico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tulio González Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. es una planta silvestre de humedales de la que no hay antecedentes de su cultivo o domesticación. El presente trabajo intenta obtener resultados preliminares para su reproducción en condiciones experimentales de siembras simulando su entorno natural contrastada con siembras en materas. Como se ha reportado previamente interés por esta especie como fuente de aceites esenciales ricos en timol, sustancia valiosa de uso industrial y medicinal, se analiza la composición cromatográfica de los volátiles para una población local. Se enuncia un nuevo quimiotipo para el aceite esencial de C. scoparioides procedente de los humedales del Pacífico colombiano. Se presentan los resultados de los ensayos sobre la reproducción vegetativa y por semillas de la especie en cuestión, aunque los resultados reproductivos indican un limitado potencial agrícola para esta especie.

  7. Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Dubey, N K

    2014-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium castaneum, the essential oils of A. conyzoides and C. aromaticus completely checked the damage of wheat grains by the insect at 1000 ppm while essential oil of H. suaveolens checked the grain damage completely even at 500 ppm concentration. There was no adverse effect on seed germination as well as on seedling growth of EOs treated seeds showing non-phytotoxic nature of the oils. Hence, these EOs may be recommended as botanical insecticide against insect invasion of stored food commodities, thereby enhancing their shelf life.

  8. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae in the Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO C.C. MISSAGIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae, endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337. Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  9. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Al-Huqail, A A; Shah, M A

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR).

  10. Preliminary study on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the leave extract of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae

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    Alexandre M. Andrade

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of Hyptis are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory. In order to evaluate the actions of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, studies were performed on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The ethanol extract (EE of H. fruticosa leaves and its n-CH, CHCl, EtOAc, and MeOH/HO partitions were used in the following experiments. Oral treatment with the EE of H. fruticosa leaves (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg or its n-C6H14, EtOAc, and MeOH/H2O partitions (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg elicited inhibitory activity (p<0.05 on carrageenan-induced oedema formation and leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in rats. However, the CHCl3 partition did not show any inhibitory effect on paw oedema and peritonitis experimental models. The EE and EtOAc partition present highest antioxidant potential (IC50 = 35.00±1.01 and 36.67±2.65 µg/mL DPPH, respectively, similar to the reference compound (IC50 = 16.67±1.21 µg/mL. In conclusion, H. fruticosa shows anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  11. Avaliação do efeito antinociceptivo e da toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso da Hyptis fruticosa Salmz. ex Benth

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    Aline B.L. Silva

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o efeito antinociceptivo e a toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso das folhas da Hyptis fruticosa Salmz. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae. O extrato aquoso liofilizado, administrado por via oral, reduziu as contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético (200, 400 e 500 mg/kg e o tempo de reação dos animais na primeira fase do teste da formalina (100 mg/kg e 400 mg/kg. No teste da placa quente, o extrato aquoso aumentou o tempo de latência ao calor (100 e 200 mg/kg tendo este efeito sido revertido pelo antagonista opióide naloxona (5 mg/kg; i.p.. No ensaio de toxicidade aguda, não foi detectada a morte de nenhum animal após tratamento com doses de até 5 g/kg (v.o. do extrato. Em conclusão, os resultados obtidos indicam que o extrato aquoso da Hyptis fruticosa apresenta efeito antinociceptivo em camundongos e não apresenta toxicidade aguda nas doses testadas.

  12. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  13. Influencia da intensidade luminosa e do substrato no crescimento, no conteudo de clorofila e na fotossintese de Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. Subsp. canjerana, Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. e centrolobium robustum (Vell.) Mart. Ex Benth., na fase ju

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Paulo Ernani Ramalho, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    Visando estudar a auto-ecologia de três espécies florestais brasileiras; Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. subsp. canjerana (canjarana); Callophyllum brasiliense Camb. (guanandi) e Centrolobium robustum (VelI.) Mart. ex Benth. (araribá-rosa), estudou-se o comportamento na fase juvenil de mudas envasadas em dois substratos (Colombo e Santa Helena) e sob intensidades luminosas de 10%, 30%, 50% e 100%. Para todas as espécies, foram estudados vários parâmetros ecofisiológicos: altura, diâmetro do ...

  14. Dynamics of litter production and decomposition of araribá (Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth. _ Fabaceae) in a riparian forest, Jacaré-Pepira river, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Aidar, Marcos P.M.; Joly, Carlos A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted in a remaining riparian forest (42 ha) in the Jacaré-Pepira river, where Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth., an early secondary and deciduous species, is the most important tree in the seasonal semideciduous forest. C. tomentosum's litter production reached 4.2 kg.ind-1, with two peaks of leaf shedding (January/February _ 25.1% and July/August _ 52.3%) representing an input to soil surface of (g.ind.¹ year¹): 74.7 N; 6.1 P; 29.0 K; 73.9 Ca; 25.8 Mg and 14.1 S. L...

  15. A planta facilitadora Trischidium molle (Benth.) H. E. Ireland (Leguminosae) e sua relação com a comunidade de plantas em ambiente semi-árido no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Meiado, Marcos Vinícius

    2008-01-01

    A interação entre os arbustos de Trischidium molle (Benth.) H. E. Ireland (Leguminosae) e a comunidade de plantas em ambiente semi-árido foi avaliada para responder as seguintes questões: (1) Os fatores abióticos diferem sob a copa dos arbustos quando comparado com os locais abertos? (2) A disponibilidade de recurso é maior sob a copa dos arbustos do que nos locais abertos? (3) Os arbustos de T. molle promovem a facilitação intra-específica em ambientes semi-áridos? (4) Os efei...

  16. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DE NITRÓGENO EN EL METABOLISMO DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS EN BROTES DE Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. CULTIVADOS EN BIORREACTOR DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Pérez, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (“hierba del cáncer”) es recomendada por la medicina tradicional Mexicana para tratar síntomas asociados con el cáncer, que podrían deberse a que acumula compuestos fenólicos como flavonoides y feniletanoides. El nitrógeno (N) es un elemento fundamental para el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas y, su deficiencia provoca el incremento en la concentración de compuestos fenólicos y de la actividad de enzimas claves de su biosíntesis como es la fenilalanina amon...

  17. Elicitación con oligosacáridos de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici en la biosíntesis de feniletanoides de cultivos in vitro de Castilleja tenuiflora Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Sandoval, Blanca Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae) es una planta silvestre, conocida como “hierba del cáncer” y utilizada de manera tradicional para tratar enfermedades con sintomatología cancerosa. Esta especie sintetiza feniletanoides, que son de gran interés farmacológico por sus actividades biológicas como antioxidante, anti cancerígena, regulación del sistema inmune, neuro y hepato protectora. Por ello la importancia de conocer su ruta de biosíntesis la cual ha sido estudia en l...

  18. Effects of Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. and Bauhinia candicans Benth infusions on onion root-tip and rat bone-marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjori Leiva Camparoto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are widely used to treat various diseases, and in Brazil the plants Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. and Bauhinia candicans Benth are commonly used in popular medicine. However, there are a large number of compounds in plants which can produce alterations in genetic material, and this study was conducted to investigate any possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects that M. ilicifolia and B. candicans infusions may have on the cell cycle and chromosomes. Infusions were prepared with in natura leaves to give two concentrations of infusions, one at the concentration normally used by the population in general and the other at 10 times this value (i.e. 3.5 and 35 mg/mL for M. ilicifolia and 0.465 and 4.65 mg/mL for B. candicans. Onion (Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (RTC and Wistar rat bone-marrow cells (BMC were used as test systems in in vivo assays. The M. ilicifolia infusions at both concentrations, and the B. candicans infusion at the lower concentration, had no statistically significant depressive mitotic effect on RTC. A statistically significant depressive mitotic effect on RTC was found with the more concentrated (4.65 mg/mL B. candicans infusion as compared with a negative control. In BMC, infusions of B. candicans and M. ilicifolia produced no statistically significant increase in the number of chromosome alterations or rates of cell division as compared to controls. The significance of these findings are discussed in the light of the use of these plants as therapeutic agents.

  19. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (ɸ and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  20. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

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    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds.

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    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone.

  2. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  3. Germinação e vigor de plântulas de Parkia platycephala Benth. em diferentes substratos e temperaturas

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    Romário Bezerra e Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Conhecida popularmente como fava de bolota, a Parkia platycephala Benth. pertence a família Fabaceae, ocorre em áreas de transição Caatinga-Cerrado e apresenta grande potencial madeireiro, paisagístico e, principalmente, forrageiro. O objetivo da pesquisa é fornecer informações para a elaboração de protocolos de testes de germinação de sementes e vigor de plântulas de P. platycephala, submetidas a diferentes subtratos e temperaturas. Para avaliar o efeito do substrato e da temperatura, as sementes foram semeadas entre os substratos: vermiculita, areia, pó de coco, bagaço da cana-de-açúcar, tropstrato®, papel (RP, marca Germitest e papel mata-borrão, distribuídas em caixas plásticas transparentes, todos sob luz contínua em germinador tipo Biochemical oxygen Demand (B.O.D., com temperaturas constantes de 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35 e 40 °C, e temperaturas alternadas de 20-30 ºC e 25-35 ºC. Foram avaliadas as variáveis germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, tempo médio da germinação, comprimento da raiz primária e da parte aérea, e massa seca da raiz primária e da parte aérea. A temperatura alternada de 25-35 °C combinada com o substrato vermiculita é recomendada para realização de testes de germinação e vigor de P. platycephala.

  4. ESTUDO PROSPECTIVO SOBRE PROPRIEDADES ANTINEOPLÁSICAS DE PLANTAS DA FAMÍLIA FABACEAE COM ÊNFASE EM Mimosa caesalpiniifolia BENTH.

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    Jurandy Nascimento Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por utilização de métodos alternativos para o tratamento do câncer está aumentando a cada ano e estudos sugerem ação citotóxica e antitumoral de um grande número de moléculas de origem vegetal contra diferentes tipos de cânceres. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. é uma planta nativa do bioma Caatinga, presente em grande parte da Região Nordeste do Brasil que vem sendo progressivamente cultivada do Maranhão ao Rio de Janeiro e apresenta-se como promissora na buscas de moléculas com atividades antineoplásicas. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma prospecção científica e tecnológica sobre a utilização dessa espécie vegetal no tratamento de neoplasias e/ou cânceres. Esse levantamento prospectivo mostrou que de um modo geral que as patentes foram depositadas em maior número nas bases WIPO (Word Intelectual Property Organization e EPO (European Patent Office, com classificação internacional principalmente nas áreas de ciência médica ou veterinária e higiene (A61K e alimentos, produtos alimentícios ou bebidas não alcoólicas (A23L. As produções científicas estão alocadas principalmente nas áreas de medicina, farmacologia, toxicologia, farmacêutica e bioquímica, genética e biologia molecular, com um ápice de publicações em nossa década atual, demostrando o interesse da comunidade científica.

  5. Alterações fisiológicas em sementes de Tachigalia multijuga (Benth. (mamoneira relacionadas aos métodos para a superação da dormência Physiological modifications of Tachigalia multijuga (Benth. (mamoneira seeds related to dormacy overcoming methods

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    Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as alterações fisiológicas causadas por métodos de quebra da dormência em sementes de Tachigalia multijuga (Benth provenientes de três matrizes. Compararam-se os efeitos do ácido sulfúrico, da água fervente e do desponte na porcentagem de embebição, na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação, na atividade de alfagalactosidase e betamananase, na síntese de proteína e na alteração da membrana que recobre o embrião. Não houve germinação em sementes tratadas com água quente. Todos os tratamentos resultaram em porcentagem de germinação superior (PThis work aimed to study the effects of methods to overcome the dormancy of Tachigalia multijuga (Benth seeds. It was compared the effects of the sulfuric acid, of the boiling water and of the it blunts in the imbibition percentage, in the percentage and speed of germination, in the activity of alpha galactosidase and beta mananase, in the protein synthesis and in the alteration in the membrane that recovers the embryo. There was no germination in seeds treated with hot water. All the treatments resulted in germination percentage superior (P<0.05 to the control, except for the seeds of Cachoeira, where the treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes was the same. On the other hand, the speed of germination of the control was only different (P<0.05 from all the treatments in seeds of Araponga 2. The water percentage of the seeds treated with hot water by 60 seconds went the same to those of the control and different (P<0.05 from the treated with hot water by 30 minutes and by acid for 20 minutes. The activities of the enzymes and proteins content during the germination were different (P<0.05 among the treatments with water and acid. It is discussed the alterations of the membrane sugars content that recovers the embryo seeds.

  6. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts Validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta performance para padronização de extratos comerciais de Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae

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    Renata Colombo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularmente conhecida como marapuama, muirapuama ou miriantã, é uma espécie nativa da região da Amazônia do Brasil. Extratos das cascas da planta são tradicionalmente usados por suas propriedades estimulantes e afrodisíacas, e frequentemente comercializados como constituinte de uma grande variedade de formulações fitoterápicas. O fracionamento por coluna cromatográfica aberta seguida por CLAE-UV/PAD das cascas do caule de três extratos comerciais de P. olacoides permitiram o isolamento de três substâncias comuns em todos os extratos analisados. Os compostos foram identificados por RMN como ácido vanílico, ácido protocatecuíco e teobromina. O ácido vanílico foi utilizado como marcador fitoquímico para P. olacoides e empregado como padr

  7. Preliminary study on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the leave extract of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae Avaliação das atividades anti-inflamatória e antioxidante do extrato etanólico das folhas da Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae

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    Alexandre M. Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Various species of Hyptis are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory. In order to evaluate the actions of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, studies were performed on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The ethanol extract (EE of H. fruticosa leaves and its n-CH, CHCl, EtOAc, and MeOH/HO partitions were used in the following experiments. Oral treatment with the EE of H. fruticosa leaves (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg or its n-C6H14, EtOAc, and MeOH/H2O partitions (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg elicited inhibitory activity (pVárias espécies do gênero Hyptis são utilizadas na medicina popular para tratar processos inflamatórios. Para avaliar as ações anti-inflamatória e antioxidante da Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, utilizou-se extrato etanólico (EE das folhas desta planta e suas partições n-C6H14, CHCl3, AcOEt e MeOH/H2O. O tratamento oral com o EE das folhas da H. fruticosa (100, 200 e 400 mg/kg ou suas partições n-C6H14, AcOEt e MeOH/H2O (50, 100 e 200 mg/kg apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a formação de edema e migração leucocitária para a cavidade peritoneal induzidas pela carragenina em ratos (p<0,05. Entretanto, a partição CHCl3 não causou nenhum efeito sobre a formação de edema e migração de células peritoneais. O EE bruto e a partição AcOEt apresentaram alto potencial antioxidante (IC50 = 35,00±1,01 e 36,67±2,65 µg/mL DPPH, respectivamente, similar ao composto referência (IC50 = 16,67±1,21 µg/mL. Em conclusão, demonstrou-se que a H. fruticosa apresenta atividades anti-inflamatória e antioxidante.

  8. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  9. Sobre a botânica, a etnofarmacologia e a química de Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. Hook. f. ex K. Schum

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    A.B. SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O fato de possuir espécies com potencial econômico ilimitado, faz com que o ambiente amazônico se torne alvo constante da biopirataria e da extração predatória dos recursos. Muitas espécies deste ambiente sequer possuem catalogação e, mesmo assim, encontram risco eminente de desaparecimento. Neste âmbito, trabalhos que reúnam dados sobre estas espécies possuem grande valor científico, cultural e econômico, sendo este o estímulo que desencadeou a produção desta revisão. Aqui a espécie Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. Hook. f. ex K. Schum., uma Rubiaceae amazônica, é contemplada por meio de características botânicas, indicações etnofarmacológicas e propriedades químicas. Popularmente conhecida como mulateiro, a espécie é frequentemente receitada na etnomedicina como cicatrizante e rejuvenescedor, além de ser usada no controle de manchas de pele. Como peculiaridade botânica, mulateiro apresenta tronco retilíneo com epiderme fina esverdeada que evolui para uma periderme castanho-escuro, que é anualmente renovada. Em termos químicos, há destaque para a presença de alcalóides, taninos e, sobretudo, secoiridóides (7-metoxididerrosideo, 6´-acetil-β-D-glucopiranosildiderrosideo e 8-0-tigloildiderrosideo são peculiares à espécie. Mesmo com propriedades fotoprotetoras comprovadas, C. spruceanum ainda carece de pesquisas, sobretudo àquelas voltadas para a produção ex situ da planta e àquelas que demonstrem a relação entre a ecologia da planta e a produção de metabólitos funcionais para a indústria.

  10. Demonstration of biological activities of extracts from Isodon rugosus Wall. Ex Benth: Separation and identification of bioactive phytoconstituents by GC-MS analysis in the ethyl acetate extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Anwar; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2017-05-30

    Since long, natural sources have been explored for possible managements of various diseases. In this context, the study is designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth for biological potentials including antibacterial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anti-termites and anti-Pharaoh activities followed by GC-MS analysis of active fraction to identify various bioactive compounds. I. rugosus was investigated against eight bacterial strains using well diffusion method and microdilution method with ceftriaxone as positive control. Similarly, the insecticidal activity was carried out against Tribolium castaneum, Rhyzopertha dominica, Monomorium pharaonis and Heterotermis indicola following contact toxicity method. Likewise, anthelmintic activity was performed against Ascaridia galli and Pherethima posthuma using albendazole as positive control, in which the paralysis and death times of the worms were observed. The GC-MS analysis of the most active solvent fraction was performed for identifications of various bioactive compounds. Among the tested samples of I. rugosus, flavonoids and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited high antibacterial activities. The crude saponins showed highest anthelmintic activity against Pherethima posthuma and Ascaridia galli with death times of 27.67 and 29.22 min respectively at concentrations of 40 mg/ml. In insecticidal activity, chloroform fraction and saponins exhibited notable results against R. dominica (60 and 70%) and T. castaneum (70 and 76%) at concentration of 200 mg/ml. In anti-termite assay, all the plant samples showed overwhelming results, i.e. all the 25 termites were killed on the 3rd day. Similarly, in anti-Pharaoh activity, the chloroform, ethyl acetate and saponins fractions were most potent, each exhibiting LD 50 of ethyl linolate, cyclohexanone, hinokione, methyl palmitate, ethyl palmitate and stigmasterol acetate. Based on our current results, it can be concluded that I. rugosus possess strong antibacterial, insecticidal

  11. In vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of extracts from wild growing and in vitro plants of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Paul Mauricio; Villarreal, María Luisa; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela

    2013-12-12

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae) is a perennial shrub used since the 16(th) century in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of a number of health disorders including inflammation, stomach pain and tumors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of ethyl acetate (EaE), methanol (ME) and aqueous extracts (AE) of Castilleja tenuiflora wild grown (CtW) and in vitro plants (CtIv). Phytochemical analysis of the phenylethanoid glycoside (PhG) and iridoid glycoside (IG) components was carried out by chromatographic methods. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated in the following four carcinoma cell lines: colon (HF-6), breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and nasopharyngeal (KB). The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mouse ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Anti-ulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats using an absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer model. The main compounds in the extracts were isoverbascoside, verbascoside and aucubin and their concentration depended both on the solvent used and on the plant material origin. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. In contrast, CtWEaE, CtWAE and CtIvEaE (1.6 mg/ear) showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity similar to dexamethasone (1 mg/ear) with a 38.2, 39.3 and 49.1% decrease of inflammation, respectively. CtWEaE and CtIvEaE (100 mg/kg) showed high anti-ulcerogenic activity with 88.3 and 83.1% inhibition, respectively, compared to famotidine (20 mg/kg, 32.8% inhibition). Castilleja tenuiflora extracts provided significant gastric protection in an acute ulcer induction model and topical anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse ear edema model. These activities are related to verbascoside and may explain the traditional use of Castilleja tenuiflora in the treatment of anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal disorders. Cultured

  12. Abordagem fitoquímica, composição bromatológica e atividade antibacteriana de Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret E Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5366 Phytochemical approach, bromatologic composition and antibacterial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5366

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    Onaldo Guedes Rodrigues

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de encontrar novas drogas eficazes no combate microbiano tem aumentado a cada dia e estimulado a busca de novos compostos naturais com atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se estudo fitoquímico e análises microbiológicas com os extratos etanólicos das espécies (jurema-preta Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret e (jurema-branca Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke, frente a linhagens de bactérias patogênicas. O pó da casca do caule de ambas as espécies foi submetido à avaliação bromatológica e determinados os teores de Matéria Seca, Matéria Mineral, Proteína Bruta, Fibra em Detergente Neutro e Energia Bruta. Os resultados para a prospecção química indicaram a presença de taninos e outros compostos fenólicos, bem como a presença de saponinas em ambos os extratos. Os extratos das duas espécies demonstraram que mais de uma parte das plantas possui atividade antimicrobiana. A composição bromatológica da casca do caule de jurema-preta e jurema-branca apresentou teores diferenciados para as variáveis avaliadas.The need to find new efficient drugs to combat microbes has increased the search for new natural compounds with biological activities. In this work, phytochemical studies and microbiological analysis were carried out with the ethanol extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke on pathogenic bacteria strains. The bark powders of both species were submitted to bromatologic evaluation and the levels of dry matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude energy were determined. The results of the chemical search chemical showed the presence of tannins and other phenolic compounds as well as the presence of saponins in both extracts. The microbiologic evaluation of the extracts of both species showed that more than one part of the plants had antimicrobial activity. The bromatologic composition of the bark powder of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild

  13. Crescimento Inicial de Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Allophylus edulis (St. Hil. Radl. sob Diferentes Regimes de Adubação Initial Growth of Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Allophylus edulis (St. Hil. Radl. with Different Levels of Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Garcia Knapik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho estudou a produção de mudas em viveiro envolvendo as espécies Mimosa scabrella Benth. (bracatinga, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeira-vermelha e Allophylus edulis (ST Hil. Radl (vacum. O experimento foi conduzido no Município de Colombo, PR, no viveiro da Embrapa Florestas. Em fevereiro de 2004, foi realizada a semeadura das três espécies, em tubetes com cerca de 50 cm3, preenchidos com 70% de substrato comercial a base de casca de pínus e vermiculita e 30% de fibra de coco granulada. Os tratamentos corresponderam à três diferentes dosagens de adubos, parceladas em adubação de base e de cobertura, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas de nove mudas e sete repetições, correspondendo a 63 mudas por espécie/tratamento. Aos quatro meses após a semeadura, foi realizada a avaliação do experimento, com medições de altura e diâmetro o caule de todas as mudas, e selecionada uma muda por repetição para as análises destrutivas de biomassa seca (parte aérea e radicial, tendo como critério a escolha da muda mais próxima da média da repetição. A aroeira-vermelha foi a espécie que melhor respondeu à adubação, seguida da bracatinga. Diferentemente das demais espécies, o vacum apresentou baixa exigência quanto à adubação no processo de produção de mudas. O crescimento das espécies pode ter sido mais lento devido à época do ano, que envolveu o inverno. 
    In order to study the influence of mineral nutrition on quality and the growth of��seedlings of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Mimosa scabrella Benth. and Allophylus edulis (ST. Hil. Radl, a experiment was conducted in the nursery facilities of Embrapa Florestas, Colombo – PR. The three species were sown in plastic containers of 50 cm3 in February 2004. The substrate was a mixture of a commercial formula (pine bark and vermiculite and granulated coconut fiber in a proportion of 70% and 30

  14. Colonização micorrízica e nodulação radicular em mudas de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. sob diferentes níveis de salinidade Mycorrhizal colonization and root nodulation in sabiá seedlings (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. at different salinity levels

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    Rodrigo Castro Tavares

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. é uma espécie vegetal nativa do nordeste brasileiro e reúne algumas características fundamentais para compor programas de reabilitação de áreas salinizadas, principalmente quanto associado aos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e a bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio (BFN. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica e a nodulação radicular de mudas de sabiá adubadas com composto orgânico e irrigadas com águas de diferentes condutividades elétricas. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial com 2 (presença e ausência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares x 2 (presença e ausência de composto orgânico x 5 níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (0,7; 1,2; 2,2; 3,2 e 4,2 dS m-1, com 3 repetições. Os resultados obtidos indicam que: a salinidade reduziu a colonização micorrízica e a nodulação radicular das mudas de sabiá; a intensificação das condições de estresse salino aumentaram a dependência micorrízica das mudas de sabiá; a colonização das mudas de sabiá com os FMAs proporcionou aumentos na matéria seca dos nódulos radiculares da ordem de 1900%; as micorrizas arbusculares reduziram o pH após o cultivo do solo; e a adição de vermicomposto não promoveu efeito sobre a colonização micorrízica das mudas de sabiá, entretanto, aumentou a produção de matéria seca dos nódulos radiculares.The sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. is a plant species native to the Brazilian northeast and brings together some fundamental features for use in rehabilitation programs of salinized areas, especially if associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (BFN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycorrhizal colonization and root nodulation of sabiá seedlings fertilized with organic compost and irrigated

  15. Estudo fitoquímico e análise mutagênica das folhas e inflorescências de Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth. através do teste de micronúcleo em roedores Phytochemical and mutagenic analysis of leaves and inflorescences of Erythrina mulungu (Mart. Ex Benth through micronucleus test in rodents

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    A.P De Bona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a composição química, estabelecer a dose letal média (DL50 e avaliar os potenciais efeitos mutagênicos do extrato hidroalcoólico de folhas e inflorescências de Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth por meio do teste de micronúcleo em medula óssea de camundongos. Os ensaios fitoquímicos foram realizados através de reações preliminares com mudança de coloração e/ou formação de precipitado; a DL50, por meio da administração intraperitoneal de três concentrações dos extratos, avaliando-se o número de óbitos após 48 horas e o teste de micronúcleo foi feito por meio do método do esfregaço, após exposição dos animais a cinco dias de tratamento. Os resultados fitoquímicos demonstraram presença de açúcares redutores, fenóis e taninos, proteínas e aminoácidos, flavonóides, alcalóides, depsídeos e depsidonas e derivados de cumarina em ambos os órgãos; saponinas espumídicas e esteróides e triterpenóides nas folhas e glicosídeos cardiotônicos e antraquinônicos e alcalóides nas inflorescências. Para a DL50 a folha demonstrou-se atóxica e a inflorescência moderadamente tóxica. Para o teste de micronúcleo, os resultados indicaram ausência de citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade dose-dependente para as folhas e independente da dose para as inflorescências. Assim, esses resultados sugerem que a planta, nas condições analisadas, possui potencial para induzir danos ao DNA.This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, to establish the mean lethal dose (LD50 and to assess the potential mutagenic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and inflorescences of Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth by using micronucleus test in bone marrow of mice. Phytochemical assays were carried out through preliminary reactions with color change and/or precipitate formation; the LD50 was obtained by intraperitoneal administration of three concentrations of the extracts, assessing

  16. Composição química de forrageiras e seletividade de bovinos em bosque-de-sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. nos períodos chuvoso e seco Chemical composition of forage and selectivity by bovines of "sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in the rainy and dry seasons

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    Ednéia de Lucena Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no período de junho de 1999 a março de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar, nos períodos chuvoso e seco, a composição química de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., com acúleo e sem acúleo, na dieta de bovinos em condições de pastejo e a composição botânica do bosque de sabiá e da dieta selecionada. Não foi observada diferença significativa quanto à composição química entre os sabiás com e sem acúleo, obtendo-se valores médios, no período chuvoso, de 26,45% de matéria seca (MS, 27,63% de proteína bruta (PB, 44,39% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, 25,80% de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, 1,24% de cálcio (Ca, 0,22% de fósforo (P, 1,63% de potássio (K e 1,12% de sódio (Na. No período seco, os valores médios observados foram de 42,39% de MS; 19,30% de PB; 39,05% de FDN; 21,83% de FDA; 1,25% de Ca; 0,15% de P; 1,63% de K e 0,27% de Na. Para a composição botânica da dieta, observou-se que, durante o período chuvoso, as amostras de extrusa apresentaram maior participação de sabiá (83,1% que no período seco ( 12,3%. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, durante o período chuvoso, os animais selecionaram sabiá em maior quantidade para sua dieta e que a coleta manual, como realizada, superestimou a fração fibrosa da dieta calculada a partir da composição química da extrusa.This trial was carried out from June 1999 to March 2000 to evaluate the chemical composition of samples of sabiá legume (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., with and without thorns, collected in the rainy and dry seasons and to compare the botanical composition of sabiá pasture with that of the diet selected by the grazing animals. No significant difference was observed in chemical composition between samples of sabiá with and without thorns. The mean values obtained in the rainy samples were: 26.45% drymatter (DM, 27.63% crude protein (CP, 44.39% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, 25.80% acid detergent fiber

  17. Deposição e acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes em serapilheira em um bosque de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. Litter dry mass and nutrient deposition and accumulation in a sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. woodlot

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    Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo Ferreira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantificação da deposição de serapilheira e o acúmulo de manta orgânica são etapas importantes dos estudos de ciclagem de nutrientes. Com esse fim, objetivou-se quantificar a deposição de serapilheira e o acúmulo de manta orgânica em um povoamento de Sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., no campo experimental pertencente à Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária - IPA, Itambé, PE. Para quantificação da serapilheira foram utilizados 20 coletores de madeira de 0,50 x 0,50 x 15 cm, à distância do solo de 30 cm, distribuídos sistematicamente na área. O material depositado foi coletado mensalmente no período de outubro/2000 a setembro/2001. O material colhido em cada coletor foi separado em folhas, galhos, flores, frutos e miscelânea. A manta orgânica não decomposta sobre o solo foi amostrada, ao acaso, nas proximidades da caixa coletora, obtendo-se 20 amostras mensais. De cada amostra foi retirado o material contido numa área de 30 x 30 cm. O material colhido foi separado em folhas, flores, frutos, miscelânea e galhos. As amostras foram levadas à estufa a 60 º C no período de 48 horas até peso constante. A deposição mensal de serapilheira e frações folha e legume ocorreu em outubro, provavelmente devido ao início do período seco. A deposição e o estoque de serapilheira foram estimados em 7830,44 kg.ha-1.ano-1 e 8906.9, kg.ha-1, respectivamente, com a fração folha dominando. A fração folha apresentou os maiores teores de nutrientes.Quantification of litter deposition and organic mantle accumulation are important steps on nutrient cycling studies. This study aimed to quantify litter deposition and organic mantle in a sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth woodlot in an experimental farm in the Brazilian northeast region. Twenty 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.15 m wood collectors, to quantify litter deposition, were systematically distributed over the area elevated 30 cm above the soil. Deposited material was

  18. Efeitos potencialmente alelopáticos dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e Pogostemon heyneanus Benth sobre plantas daninhas Potentially allelopathic effects of the essential oils of Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and Pogostemon heyneanus (Benth on weeds

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    Antônio Pedro da Silva Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática de óleos essenciais de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth e analisar, comparativamente, seus efeitos alelopáticos. Óleos essenciais obtidos foram preparados em concentrações de 0,25, 0,5 e 1,0%, tendo como eluente o éter metílico, e testados sobre a germinação de sementes, desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas de área de pastagens cultivadas, malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os óleos das duas espécies evidenciaram atividade alelopática em intensidades que variaram em função da concentração do óleo, da espécie doadora, da planta receptora e do fator da planta analisado. A germinação das sementes foi o fator mais intensamente inibido pelos óleos. As intensidades das inibições estiveram positivamente associadas à concentração, com inibições máximas verificadas a 1,0%. Malícia foi à espécie receptora mais sensível aos efeitos do óleo. Comparativamente, o óleo essencial da pimenta longa revelou maior potencial para inibir a germinação e o desenvolvimento das duas plantas receptoras, notadamente em relação à germinação de sementes, quando as diferenças foram mais marcantes. Os resultados foram atribuídos à composição química dos óleos, especialmente em relação à presença de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados e sesquiterpenos.This study aimed to characterize the potential allelopathic activity of essential oils of pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth, and to examine, comparatively, their allelopathic effects. Essential oils obtained were prepared at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0%, with ether methanol as eluent, and tested upon the germination of seeds and the development of the radicle and the hypocotyl of the weeds of cultivated grassland areas, malícia (Mimosa

  19. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the fruitrind of Picralima nitida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater and remarkable antimicrobial activities of the (EA) extract of CG were recorded with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus T whereas it was recorded with Proteus mirabilis for the (M) extract of PN. These results provide a rationalization for the traditional use of both plants for the treatment ...

  20. Importance ethnobotanique et valeur d'usage de Picralima nitida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aux personnes souffrantes de l'angine et toutes autres douleurs de la gorge. -. Analgésique,. Stimulant. Décoction d'écorce de racine ou des graines séchées réduit en poudre. Un verre bambou une fois par jour jusqu'à la disparition de la douleur. Contre la jaunisse, les vers intestinaux et surtout l'ulcère gastrique. -. Contre.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of camwood (Baphia nitida) dyes on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... that the extracts exhibited inhibitory activity against the test organisms at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 37.5 mg/ml. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoid and a trace of alkaloids. These results show that camwood dye possessed significant antimicrobial activity.

  2. Effect of seed extract of Picralima nitida on haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -infected albino mice and its interference with the serum electrolyte levels. ... b.w. of artesunate were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to the ones inoculated with malaria parasite and treated with placebo (positive control) on days 3 and ...

  3. Antimicrobial activity of camwood (Baphia nitida) dyes on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... This has led to the search for new sources of antibiotics which is of ... most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the health care ..... enteritis and other gastrointestinal problems which the test isolates are ...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of camwood ( Baphia nitida ) dyes on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of four aqueous extracts of camwood dyes obtained from different locations in Nigeria were investigated by agar diffusion, disc diffusion and agar dilution method against five clinical isolates obtained from inpatient attending the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. The isolates were ...

  5. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar, petiole and stem anatomical characters of Thaumatococcus daniellii and Megaphrynium macrostachyum in Ile-Ife and Osogbo, environs, Osun State in Nigeria are reported. The aim is to determine the macro and micro-characters that could facilitate their identification and classification. It is envisaged that this will ...

  6. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    useful in roof thatching as well as making cushion for sleeping mats (Terashima and. Ichikawa, 2003). There are other numerous examples of disposable utensils made of ... There is a dark green region along the mid-rib of all M. macrostachyum studied and again they have big and robust size when compared with T.

  7. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (3): 601-612. Dilcher DL. 1974. Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains. Bot Rev, 40(1): 1–157. Doege SJ. 2003. The role of natural calcium oxalate crystals in plant defense against chewing insects. Inquiry, 4: 88-94.

  8. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

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    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira, às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (jurema-preta ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da madeira relacionando-os com o ambiente caatinga e apresentar o potencial energético que sua madeira possui. O estudo anatômico e a determinação da densidade da madeira foram realizados com amostras ao nível do peito (1,30 m acima do solo e em dois galhos com diferentes diâmetros, de espécimes ocorrentes nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, Pernambuco, Brasil. As espécies apresentam distinção expressa através do tipo de casca, coloração do cerne e do alburno, além das características peculiares da madeira. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, constituídas por linhas de parênquima axial contendo cristais, parênquima axial escasso e menor quantidade de raios por mm². Já Mimosa tenuiflora apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, porém sem cristais, parênquima axial vasicêntrico, em faixas ou aliforme confluente, e maior percentagem de raios. Ambas apresentam algumas estruturas da madeira com as características anatômicas comuns às diversas espécies do gênero Mimosa, contribuindo assim para uma melhor caracterização do gênero. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos da madeira e pela elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que as duas espécies apresentam perspectivas seguras para a produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal desde a fase de lenho juvenil. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta maior potencial energético, pela maior percentagem de fibras e por possuir par

  9. Efeito da temperatura e do teor de umidade na iniciação e desenvolvimento do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae Effect of temperature and the water content in the initiation and developmental of the rhizome of Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae

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    Julieta Andrea Silva de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. pertence à família Gesneriaceae e possui órgão subterrâneo, que está associado à reprodução vegetativa. Este órgão apresenta gemas envoltas por folhas modificadas, as quais armazenam amido. Em seções do rizoma (1,5 a 2,0cm compr. contendo seis gemas, só uma gema geralmente brota. Esta pode diferenciar-se em dois padrões morfológicos: parte aérea ou rizoma. Em seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água ou em sua ausência, houve brotação do padrão rizoma, em seções em substrato com elevado teor de umidade (12mL de água, brotação do padrão parte aérea. A temperatura de 20ºC também favoreceu a brotação do padrão rizoma, independente do volume de água do substrato. Seções também desenvolveram o padrão rizoma em substrato com adição de solução de polietilenoglicol 6000 (PEG, nas concentrações de 161,2; 235,2 e 340,0g/L, que geraram os potenciais de -3, -6 e -12 MPa, respectivamente. Seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água apresentaram redução de massa seca e elevada concentração osmótica em relação àquelas em substrato com elevado teor de umidade. Verificou-se que a formação do padrão rizoma foi influenciada pelos fatores teor de umidade e temperatura. Sugere-se que a brotação do padrão rizoma foi induzida pelo baixo potencial hídrico nas seções, quando mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade. Além disto, evidenciou-se que as gemas do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha apresentam elevado grau de plasticidade.Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst is a plant belonging to the family Gesneriaceae, with an underground organ, which is associated with vegetative reproduction. This organ is a rhizome, whose stem bears buds covered with modified leaves that store up starch. In small sections of this rhizome, containing six buds (1.5 to 2.0cm long, only one bud sprouted. The sprouted bud could be differentiated

  10. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

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    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  11. Online HPLC-DPPH method for antioxidant activity of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. and characterization of kutkoside by ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir S

    2010-03-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., is widely used in the Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various liver ailments. Since, the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of liver injury has become generally recognized, in present study the free radical scavenging effect of P. kurroa was assessed by on-line HPLC-DPPH and colorimetric DPPH methods. The comparative study on antioxidant activity of P. kurroa extracts by both methods revealed that colorimetric method showed very less free radical scavenging effect while HPLC-DPPH method showed high activity. Further, the kutkoside, an important ingredient of a potent hepatoprotective formulation "kutkin/picroliv" was investigated for its chemical composition by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD/ESI-QTOF-MS). Kutkoside was considered to be a single compound and reported as picroside-II or kutkoside, however, present investigation illustrated that kutkoside is a mixture of iridoid glycosides namely, picroside II, picroside IV and 6-ferulloylcatalpol.

  12. 3,6-Dimethoxy-6″,6″-Dimethyl-(7,8,2″,3″)-Chromeneflavone, a Flavonoid Isolated from Lonchocarpus Araripensis Benth. (Fabaceae), Reduces Nociceptive Behaviour in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jackson R G S; Silva, Juliane C; Guimarães, Amanda L; Oliveira, Ana P; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Júnior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Barbosa-Filho, José M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Botelho, Marco Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Lonchocarpus araripensis Benth. is largely distributed in the northeast region of Brazil. It is popularly known as 'sucupira'. Recent studies have shown that some species of Lonchocarpus have interesting pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive effect of a flavone isolated from L. araripensis. The chemical examination resulted in the isolation of 3,6-dimethoxy-6″,6″-dimethyl-(7,8,2″,3″)-chromeneflavone (DDF). The structure of the compound was established by spectral analysis. Antinociceptive activity of DDF was evaluated by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin and hot plate tests. The rota rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. The results demonstrated that DDF was able to prevent acetic-acid-writhing-induced nociception (p DDF produced a significant reduction of the nociceptive behaviour at the early and late phases of paw licking in the formalin test. Also, DDF produced an inhibition of the nociceptive behaviour during a hot-plate test. No alteration in motor coordination was observed. These results confirm the hypothesis that DDF reduces the nociceptive behaviour in mice, probably through central mechanisms, but without compromising the motor coordination of animals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de sabiá na germinação de sementes de fava Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in seed germination of Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Grazielle Borba de Sousa Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. é uma planta medicinal que pode ser utilizada em sistemas agroflorestais. É empregada na composição de pastagens arbóreas, em faixas entre plantações, para enriquecer capoeiras e ainda pode ser empregada como cerca viva. A fava (Phaseolus lunatus L. é uma das quatro espécies do gênero Phaseolus exploradas comercialmente, seu consumo é preferencialmente na forma de grãos verdes cozidos ou na forma de conserva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso do sabiá sobre a germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de fava. As sementes de fava foram postas para germinar em caixas plásticas, onde foram semeadas entre o substrato vermiculita, e em seguida colocados em germinador a 25 ºC e sob luz contínua. O substrato foi umedecido, com o extrato aquoso de folhas jovens de sabiá, nas concentrações de 25; 50; 75 e 100%, além da testemunha umedecida apenas com água destilada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação além do comprimento da raiz primária. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. No estudo da regressão polinomial foi empregada a equação que melhor se ajustou aos dados. Os valores em porcentagem foram transformados em arc sen (n/1000,5. Conclui-se que as diferentes concentrações do extrato de folhas jovens de sabiá utilizadas não prejudicaram a germinação das sementes de fava.The Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. is a medicinal plant that can be used in agroforestry systems, is also employed in the composition of pasture trees in strips between fields, to enrich brush fields and as a hedge. The Phaseolus lunatus L. is one of four species of the genus Phaseolus exploited commercially; its

  14. Aporte e decomposição de serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. na Flona Mário Xavier, RJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Marques Fernandes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o aporte e a decomposição da serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária espontânea, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e plantio de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.. Para avaliação do aporte de serapilheira, foram instalados dez coletores cônicos sendo o aporte avaliado durante o período de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004. Posteirormente, foi feita a quantificação dos macronutrientes (N, P e K. A avaliação da taxa de decomposição foi realizada utilizando-se o método dos litter bags. A área de plantio de andiroba aportou a maior quantidade de serrapilheira 9,20 Mg ha-1, sendo seguida pelo plantio de sabiá com 9,06 Mg ha-1 e pela floresta secundária espontânea 7,63 Mg ha-1 por ano. A serapilheira das áreas de plantio de sabiá e do plantio de andiroba apresentou maiores valores de nitrogênio e fósforo que a área de floresta secundária. A velocidade de decomposição da serapilheira foi maior nas áreas de plantio de sabiá e andiroba, podendo tal comportamento ter sido influenciado pelo maior conteúdo de nitrogênio na serapilheira. O fósforo foi o nutriente que apresentou maior velocidade de liberação.

  15. Protective effect of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara extract on acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A in mice through inhibition of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Feng Zhai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara (ERA, a traditional Chinese medicine has antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, anti-hepatitis and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the hepatoprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of ERA on acute liver injury have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and liver protection of ERA against the acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A (Con A and its underlying molecular mechanisms in mice. Mice received ERA (50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight by gavage before Con A intravenous administration. We found that ERA pretreatment was able to significantly reduce the elevated serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels and liver necrosis in Con A-induced hepatitis. In addition, ERA treatment significantly decreased the myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde levels and augmented superoxide dismutase level in the liver tissue, and also suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum, compared with Con A group by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we observed that ERA pretreatment can significantly decrease the expression level of Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 mRNA or protein in liver tissues. Further results showed that ERA pretreatment was capable of attenuating the activation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting IκBα kinase and p65 phosphorylation in Con A-induced liver injury. Our results demonstrate that ERA pretreatment has hepatoprotective property against Con A-induced liver injury through inhibition of inflammatory mediators in mice. The beneficial effect of ERA may be mediated by the downregulation of TLR4 expression and the inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  16. Biometria, caracterização física e rendimento lipídico do fruto de Licania rigida Benth adquiridos no município de Pombal-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. S. Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Licânia rigida Benth, popularmente oiticica, é uma vegetação típica no sertão nordestino. Destaca-se pelo alto teor de óleos em seus frutos e boa produtividade mesmo em épocas de seca, sendo capaz de promover desenvolvimento social e econômico para a região, pela utilização industrial de tintas, vernizes, sabão, lonas e esmaltes finos. Portanto, objetiva-se no presente estudo determinar a biometria, parâmetros físicos e rendimento lipídico do fruto da oiticica. Os frutos foram colhidos, selecionados, sanitizados. Em seguida, utilizou-se um paquímetro para a realização da biometria dos frutos e então sofreram separação em exocarpo-mesocarpo, endocarpo e amêndoas. As amostras foram trituradas e armazenadas ate procedidas as análises. Para a determinação do pH e condutividade, utilizou-se cerca de 5g de cada amostra, acrescidos de 50mL de água destilada e homogeneização, por conseguintemente foi utilizado o peagâmetro digital e condutivímetro, respectivamente. Para a acidez total titulável (ATT, utilizou-se as amostras anteriores e titulou-se com NaOH 0,1N, usando fenolftaleína como indicador, até as amostras alcançarem pH de 8,1. Procedeu-se a determinação do teor lipídico pelo método de Sohlext, com 2 a 5 g das amostras e hexano como solvente. Os frutos apresentaram peso médio de 9g. A variação do pH para as diferentes amostra foi irrelevante, enquanto o exocarpo-mesocarpo apresentou maior condutividade, com 308,6 mScm-1, e o endocarpo foi evidenciado por apresentar maior ATT, com 16,8%. Obteve-se na amêndoa maior percentual lipídico, com rendimento médio de 43,0%. Diante da importância e alta rentabilidade lipídica do fruto, faz-se necessário desenvolvimento de metodologias para utilização dessa matéria-prima.Biometrics, physical characteristics and yield fruit of lipid Licania rigid Benth purchased in the municipality of Pombal-PBAbstract: Licania rigid Benth, popularly oiticica, is

  17. AVALIAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E ENERGÉTICA DA MADEIRA DAS ESPÉCIES Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke E Amburana cearensis (Allemao A. C. Smith DE OCORRÊNCIA NO SEMIÁRIDO NORDESTINO BRASILEIRO

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    Antonio Marcos César de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Caatinga’ is an exclusive Brazilian biome, which features a wide variety of fauna and flora, and a good part of these are endemic varieties. Over the years, the abolition of ‘Caatinga’ by human activities has greatly reduced this biome. This fact is mainly due to the use of the energy potential of plant species without proper concern about the sustainability of it. A better understanding of the energy potential of plant species of ‘Caatinga’ enables a more appropriate management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential energy and the physical and chemical characteristics of wood species Amburana cearensis (Germans A. C. Smith and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke. Five trees of each species were felled, randomly sampled in ‘São Bento’ site, located in the city of Patos, Paraíba state. The trees were identified and transported to the Department of Forest Product Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande. From each tree, small discs were removed (5 cm thick to 0 (base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height of the trunk (up to 5 cm in diameter and large disks (15 cm thick before and after each small disk, the small discs were divided into four parts, wedge-shaped, passing through the medulla. Two opposing wedges were used to determine the density and the rest was reserved for the physical and chemical wood analyses and the wood discs were destined for greater achievements of carbonizations. Basic density was determined according to the method of hydrostatic balance and to determine the basic density of each tree used as a weighting factor the volume between sections of each disk. After air drying, the samples for chemical analysis were transformed into sawdust and made quantitative determinations of total extractives, lignin, ash and holocellulose content was estimated by difference from the initial mass [100% - (content total extractives + lignin + ash]. Samples intended for carbonizations were

  18. Avaliação da ação espasmolítica do flavonoide 3,6-Dimetil éter galetina, isolado de Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth.) Ducke e investigação do mecanismo de ação em traqueia de cobaia e aorta de rato

    OpenAIRE

    Macêdo, Cibério Landim

    2012-01-01

    O flavonoide 3,6-dimetil éter galetina (FGAL) foi isolado das partes aéreas de Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth.) Ducke e foi investigada sua possível atividade hemolítica em eritrócitos de rato e espasmolítica em vários músculos lisos isolados como útero de rata, íleo e traqueia de cobaia, e aorta de rato. FGAL não causou efeito hemolítico em eritrócitos de ratos, o que é sugestivo de baixa toxicidade. Na triagem farmacológica preliminar realizada em músculos lisos, FGAL apresentou efeito espasm...

  19. Cultivos celulares de Choiba Dipteryx oleifera Benth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murillo Gomez, Paola A; Atehortua, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    ... por sus frutos. Su almendra almacena una buena cantidad de aceites con potencial para la industria alimentaria, lo que podria resultar en una nueva fuente alimenticia, por lo cual el cultivo in vitro de vegetales...

  20. (Jacq) Benth (Mimosaceae) root: Hemoglobin polymerization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: All the solvent-partitioned fractions of C. portoricensis showed a high percentage inhibition of hemoglobin polymerization at 5 mg/mL with the ethyl acetate fraction showing the highest percentage inhibition of 98.97 ± 1.62 % The pooled chromatographic fraction C3 containing two compounds (Rf value: 0.71, 0.83); ...

  1. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  2. Essential Oil of Otostegia integrifolia Benth: Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of the oil was either comparable to or better than griseofulvin against most of the fungal pathogens tested. The study provides evidence for an excellent broadspectrum antimicrobial and significant antioxidant activity of O. integrifolia essential oil, a possible explanation for the traditional use of the plant.

  3. Antinociceptive potential of Parkia platycephala Benth. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AcOEt 50 mg/kg presented antinociceptive effect in the late phase of formalin test. These findings indicate that E.EtOH and F.AcOEt showed analgesic actions in diabetic rats. Key words: Parkia platycephala, diabetic neuropathy, tactile allodynia, ...

  4. Hypoglycemic Potential of Verbesina Encelioides Benth. Roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood sugar level was determined using digital glucometer. The oral administration of roots extracts at doses of 400 mg/ kg lead to a significant blood glucose reduction in normal and in Streptozotocin, alloxan diabetic mices significantly within 4h. Continued, daily administration of the drug produced a sustained effect.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity Of Coleus aromaticus (Benth) Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida krusei showed the highest zone of inhibition of growth, followed by Candida albicans, Proteus mirablis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Klebsiella pneumoniae and the least inhibition was observed for Neisseria gonohorreae. Coleus aromaticus exhibits an effective antifungal and ...

  6. Seleção e melhoramento do timbó: II - Estudo de uma população de 153 plantas de timbó macaquinho - Derris nicou (benth.

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    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Para fins de seleção foi estudada, no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, uma população de 153 plantas de timbó macaquinho - Derris nicou (Benth.. Depois de colhidas as raízes e postas a secar ao ar, foram analisadas para determinação de umidade, cinzas, extratos totais (etéreo e por gravimetria, rotenona + deguelina (por colorimetria e rotenona (por gravimetria. Pelo estudo dos dados pôde-se verificar que havia dois grupos distintos de plantas: um constituído por 82 plantas (POPULAÇÃO A contendo menos de 5% de rotenona nas raízes e outro, com 71 plantas (POPULAÇÃO B, com 9% ou mais de rotenona em suas raízes. Essas populações foram estudadas separadamente. Para um estudo mais detalhado dêsses grupos de plantas também foram calculados o peso líquido das raízes, bem como o rendimento líquido, por planta e em média, em extratos totais, rotenona + deguelina e rotenona. Foram também calculados os teores em deguelina e rotenona contidos nos extratos totais e outros extratos (que não rotenona e deguelina contidos nos extratos totais e, finalmente, a rotenona contida no conjunto rotenona + deguelina. São apresentados os resultados referentes às melhores plantas selecionadas dessa população. Vários fatôres foram levados em consideração para a separação dessas plantas, tidas como os melhores. Os resultados mostram que mediante adequada multiplicação do material selecionado será possível a instalação de culturas de timbó com elevado rendimento em rotenona.A population composed of 153 plants of "timbó macaquinho" (Derris nicou was studied for selection and establishment of high yielding rotenone clones. The roots were air dried and the humidity content determined. Ashes, total extracts, rotenone + degueline and rotenone were determined by chemical analyses. Individual results of the analyses are presented. From the data were calculated the net weight per plant of: a air dried roots; b total extracts; c rotenone

  7. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Kola Nut (Cola Nitida Rubra) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    The soxhlet apparatus was then set up and left for 72 hours. The extracted solution was taken to the oven for concentration to dryness at a regulated temperature of. 400 and left for 6 days. With this a powdery product was obtained, from which aqueous extract of 8mg/kg body weight was prepared. Animals: Adult male rats ...

  8. Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    OpenAIRE

    DE OLIVEIRA, L M; Nepomuceno, C.F; Freitas,N.P; Pereira,D.M.S; Silva, G.C; Lucchese, A.M

    2011-01-01

    O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae) apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas...

  9. Influência da adubação verde e diferentes adubos orgânicos na produção de fitomassa aérea de atroveran (Ocimum selloi Benth. Influence of green manure and different organic manure on production of aereal phytomass of Ocimum selloi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.S. Morais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito de diferentes adubos orgânicos em associação ou não com adubo verde na produção de folhas de Ocimum selloi Benth., planta nativa do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente (CNPMA, localizado no município de Jaguariúna, em duas áreas distintas, sendo uma delas submetidas anteriormente ao plantio e incorporação de adubo verde (Crotalaria juncea. Os tratamentos utilizados foram T1 - testemunha (solo sem adubação, T2 - cama de aviário (5 kg m-2, T3 - hidrolisado de peixe (produto comercial Fishfértil - 5 mL m-2 e T4 - composto orgânico (4 kg m-2. A colheita foi realizada 180 dias após o plantio, em janeiro de 2011, sendo colhidas as plantas úteis (quatro plantas por parcela. Avaliou-se o rendimento de fitomassa fresca e seca. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o esquema fatorial 2x4, com quatro repetições (blocos. As médias obtidas foram submetidas à análise de variância seguida de teste de médias (Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a cama de aviário apresentou resultados mais satisfatórios quanto à produção de folhas de Ocimum selloi quando comparados aos demais tratamentos orgânicos, não se observando incremento nos resultados pela associação com o adubo verde Crotalaria juncea.The aim of this work was to avail the effect of different manures in association or nor with green manure on yield of leaves of Ocimum selloi Benth. The assay was accomplished on experimental area of Embrapa Environmental (Jaguariúna district, at two different spaces (with or without green manure Crotalaria juncea. The treatments used were T1 - witness (no manure, T2 - chicken manure (5 kg m-2, T3 - commercial product Fishfértil - 5 mL m-2 and T4 - composting (4 kg m-2. The cut was realized on 180 days after the planting (january - 2011, and were collected four plants/ plot. The yield of dried and fresh Ocimum

  10. Anatomia do lenho de cinco espécies comercializadas como 'Sucupira'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Felício Soares

    Full Text Available A análise comparativa da anatomia do lenho das espécies Bowdichia nitida Spruce ex Benth, Diplotropis brasiliensis (Tul. Benth., Diplotropis martiusii Benth., Diplotropis purpurea (Rich. Amshoff e Diplotropis racemosa (Hoehne Amshoff é descrita no presente trabalho, visando a determinar as principais características anatômicas necessárias à distinção dessas espécies. Qualitativamente, as características anatômicas mais importantes para a diferenciação do lenho dessas espécies foram: camadas de crescimento, estratificação dos raios, arranjo dos vasos e fileira marginal dos raios. Quantitativamente, a análise estatística mostrou que os parâmetros anatômicos mais importantes no agrupamento das espécies foram: diâmetro dos elementos de vasos, largura dos raios em micrometros, comprimento, espessura da parede e largura das fibras. Verificou-se que a anatomia do lenho pode ser utilizada como importante subsídio na identificação das espécies estudadas.

  11. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e produção de óleo essencial de patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth. após a aplicação de ácido giberélico e extrato de alga marinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Storck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth., comumente conhecido como patchouli, é uma espécie aromática utilizada pela indústria de perfumes devido a fragrância amadeirada e propriedade fixadora do óleo essencial. Fatores que afetam o teor dos constituintes do óleo essencial devem ser avaliados visando obter matéria prima de melhor qualidade. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x3 e 4 repetições, sendo dois níveis de giberelina (0 e 200 mg L-1 e três níveis de extrato de alga marinha (0, 15 e 30 mg L-1. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio das mudas, e a avaliação do experimento deu-se 45 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Não houve diferença significativa para a altura das plantas, a concentração de extrato de alga marinha de 15 mg L-1 promoveu aumento no número de folhas em relação à testemunha e a concentração de 30 mg L-1 promoveu decréscimo. Em relação à área foliar e ao número de folhas houve relação inversa para os níveis de extrato de alga marinha, onde o tratamento com maior concentração do regulador resultou em aumento da área foliar e redução do número de folhas. O teor de óleo essencial foi superior após a aplicação de 15 mg L-1 de extrato alga marinha isoladamente ou combinado com GA3. A produtividade do óleo essencial também aumentou com a aplicação 15 mg L-1 de extrato de alga marinha e quando utilizado somente GA3. A utilização de extrato de alga marinha aumentou a concentração de patchoulol no óleo essencial.

  12. 234 Fruiting Efficiency of Pentaclethra Macraphylla Benth: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    One of the major problems of P. macrophylla is the threat of extinction mainly due to .... evolution of mast fruiting in the aseasonal tropics. Am. Nat. 132-44-. 66. Bawa, K.S. and C.J. Webb (1984): Flower, fruit and seed abortions in tropical forest trees: implications for the evolution of maternal and paternal reproductive ...

  13. Hypoglycaemic effects of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth seed extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimosoideae), its chloroform, hexane, and mother liquor fractions were evaluated in glucose-loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The methanol extract of the seed exhibited a peak percentage decrease of 64% and 44.1% in blood glucose ...

  14. Bioassay-guided investigation of Lonchocarpus cyanescens benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP), total phenol content and total flavonoid content using catechin as standard antioxidant. Bioguided column chromatographic separation was carried out and the resultant ...

  15. Contents of Aerial Parts of Salvia leriifolia Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseinpoor Mohsen Abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have reported the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia extracts and fractions. Methanolic, n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts were screened to analysis their antioxidant activities by four complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity (RSA, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and ferrous ion cheating (FIC. In most cases the leaf extracts and ethyl acetate fraction had more activity. The methanolic extracts of leaf and flower showed considerable antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts showed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia.

  16. PENGARUH PENGUSANGAN TERHADAP VIABILITAS BENIH WERU (Albizia procera Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliya Suita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengusangan dipercepat adalah pengujian yang menggunakan kondisi diperburuk dengan panas, oksigen, sinar matahari, getaran, dan lain-lain, untuk mempercepat proses penuaan benih. Hal ini digunakan untuk menentukan efek jangka panjang dari tingkat stres yang diharapkan dalam waktu yang lebih pendek, biasanya dilaksanakan di laboratorium dengan metode uji standar yang dikendalikan. Tujuan dari kegiatan ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pengusangan terhadap viabilitas benih weru. Pengusangan dilakukan dengan cara menempatkan benih dalam bak plastik yang telah diisi air, kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam inkubator pada suhu 40°C selama jangka waktu tertentu sesuai dengan taraf pengusangan yang diberikan yaitu mulai dari pengusangan 120 jam sampai 880 jam. Pengusangan benih weru selama 880 jam sudah menurunkan daya berkecambah hingga daya berkecambah 69%. Benih weru dapat digolongkan kepada benih ortodoks sejati karena meskipun mendapatkan kondisi yang tidak menguntungkan viabilitasnya tetap tinggi.

  17. Antiproliferative activity of spinasterol isolated of Stegnosperma halimifolium (Benth, 1844

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    Salvador Enrique Meneses-Sagrero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the major cause of death in the world, representing a significant public health problem. Plants have been shown as a great source of secondary metabolites with anticancer activity. The aim of this work was evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extracts, chemical fractions and the compound spinasterol isolated of medicinal plant Stegnosperma halimifolium. The methanolic extracts of stem, leaf and stem/leaf was obtained by maceration. The methanolic extract of stem was purified by successive extractions with solvents as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The n-hexane fraction was separated by column chromatographic and monitored by thin layer chromatographic. The compound spinasterol was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass Spectrometry. Methanolic extracts, chemical, chromatographic fractions and spinasterol was evaluated against RAW 264.7, M12.C3.F6, PC-3, LS-180, A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines by the standardized method MTT for determinate the antiproliferative activity. Methanolic extract of stem shown the better antiproliferative activity against the murine macrophage cancer cell line RAW 264.7. n-Hexane chemical fraction shown antiproliferative activity against human alveolar cancer cell line A549 and RAW 264.7. Was isolated and characterized a compound by NMR 1H and 13C, revealing the presence of sterol spinasterol. Spinasterol shown to have antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer cell line HeLa and RAW 264.7, indicating that spinasterol can be a responsible compound of antiproliferative activity found in the methanolic extract of Stegnosperma halimifolium.

  18. Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Rawat, A K S; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2003-08-01

    For assessing free radical scavenging potential of P. kurrooa, the antioxidant activity of P. kurrooa extract was studied by lipid peroxidation assay using rat liver homogenate. The extract (1 mg/ml) showed marked protection (up to 66.68%) against peroxidation of liver phospholipids. Besides, reduced glutathione showed very encouraging activity. The extract also exhibited significant scavenging activity. Thus augmenting the wide use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine, which may partly be due to antioxidant and free radical scavening activity of the extract.

  19. Alkaloid and other chemical constituents from Psychotria stachyoides Benth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Antonia T.A.; Uchoa, Daniel E.A.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Lima, Mary Anne S. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Braz-Filho, Raimundo, E-mail: mary@dqoi.ufc.br [Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense and Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    The organic extracts of leaves and roots of Psychotria stachyoides provided the new glucoside monoterpenoid indole alkaloid N-demethylcorreantoside, besides bizantionoside B, a-amyrin, alizarine methyl-ether, rubiadine, scopoletin, barbinevic acid and a mixture of b-sitosterol and stigmasterol glucosides. The structural characterization of the isolates was established based on infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and, particularly, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  20. Salvia broussonetii Benth.: aroma profile and micromorphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Basma; Pistelli, Luisa; Cervelli, Claudio; Fico, Gelsomina; Giuliani, Claudia

    2017-10-26

    The volatile profiles (VOC) and the essential oil (EO) composition from the aerial parts of Salvia broussonetii were analysed. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominate the VOCs from leaves (95.7%) and flowers (67.6%), followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (2.6 and 29.7%, respectively). The main common compounds are germacrene D, β-bourbonene, α-pinene, α-copaene and α-gurjunene, even if with divergent relative abundances. In the leaf EOs the sesquiterpenes prevail, even if not overwhelmingly (about 50.0%), followed by monoterpenes (23.0-35.0%) and by minor fractions of diterpene hydrocarbons and non-terpene derivates. The most abundant common compounds across the two sampling periods are α-pinene, β-pinene, isobornyl acetate, α-gurjenene, germacrene D and bifloratriene. A morphological characterisation of the trichomes responsible for the productivity in terpenes was also performed. Four different morphotypes were observed on the above ground organs of S. brussonetii: peltates and capitates of type II and III resulted the only producers of volatile substances.

  1. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnancy induced diabetes also known as gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an insulin resistant state that may induce impaired glucose tolerance and often gestational diabetes in susceptible women. Gestational diabetes causes serious problems to the mother and the baby.

  2. Micropropagation of Micromeria juliana (L. Benth. ex Rchb. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić, S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromeria juliana belongs to family Lamiaceae, whose representatives are characterized by a significant level of essential oils and antioxidant components. Several species of genus Micromeria contain biologically active substances and are therefore used in folk medicine, food industry and cosmetic industry. Methods of their tissue culture may provide rapid mass multiplication of plants for various purposes, including research on production, accumulation and metabolism of important secondary metabolites. The goal of this paper was to determine the protocol for regeneration of M. juliana plants through use of nodal explants on nutritive substrate with various growth regulators. The greatest number of axillary buds was formed in explants grown on MS nutritive medium with 3 μM benzyladenine (BA and 0.57 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. The explants grown at the medium without any growth regulators and the medium with auxin have shown spontaneous root formation.

  3. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...

  4. 234 Fruiting Efficiency of Pentaclethra Macraphylla Benth: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    inflorescence as a percentage of the pooled mean number of flowers produced per inflorescence. P.macrophylla had regular fruiting pattern in both locations with no ... commercial value especially in the southeastern part of Nigeria. Its seed is an essential component of the popular “African salad” served in homes, wedding ...

  5. Germinação de sementes de Enterolobium schomburgkii (Benth. Benth. submetidas a estresse salino e aplicação de poliamina Enterolobium schomburgkii (Benth. Benth. seed germination under saline stress and polyamine application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Braga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do estresse salino com NaCl e CaCl2 nos potenciais osmóticos 0 (controle; -0,2; -0,3 e -0,4 MPa com e sem aplicação da poliamina putrescina nas concentrações de 5 mM e 10 mM. As sementes de E. schomburgkii foram previamente escarificadas com lixa, no lado oposto à radícula, tratadas com fungicidas e colocadas para germinar nos diferentes tratamentos, à temperatura de 30ºC, sendo utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (agentes salinos x potenciais. No segundo experimento realizado após 11 meses, foram adicionadas as concentrações de 5 e 10 mM de putrescina. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 x 2 (agentes salinos x potenciais osmóticos x concentrações de putrescina. As sementes foram avaliadas quanto a porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Menor porcentagem de germinação e IVG foram observadas à medida que os potenciais se tornam mais negativos quando as sementes foram submetidas ao estresse salino com CaCl2. A aplicação de putrescina promoveu aumento na porcentagem de germinação e IVG sob os potenciais mais negativos, com maiores valores na concentração de 5 mM.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of salt stress by using NaCl and CaCl2 at the following osmotic potentials: 0 (control, -0.2, -0.3, and -0.4 MPa with and without putrescine application at 5 mM and 10 mM. E. Schomburgkii seeds were previously scarified with sandpaper in the region opposite to the radicle, treated with fungicides and allowed to germinate in the different treatments at 30ºC. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 2x4 (osmotic potentials x saline agents factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 25 seeds each. After 11 months, a second experiment was carried out, in which putrescine concentrations of 5 and 10 mM were added and the experimental design was completely randomized, in a 2x4x2 (osmotic potentials x saline agents x putrescine concentrations factorial arrangement. Germination percentage and velocity index (GVI were evaluated. Germination percentage and GVI increased with lower potentials in seeds subjected to salt stress with CaCl2. Putrescine application (5mM increased germination percentage and GVI at the most negative potentials.

  6. Diuretic activity of the leaves of Coleus aromaticus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, G P

    2009-07-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves of Coleus aromaticus was evaluated for diuretic activity. Both extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in albino rats. Results revealed that both the aqueous and ethanolic extract at dose 500mgl kg showed significant diuretic activity by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration electrolyte. Furosamide (10 mg/kg) was used as reference drug while normal saline (0.9%) solution was used as control.

  7. Genetic Transformation of Coleus blumei Benth. Using Agrobacterium

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    Nataša Bauer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency in transformation of three hybrids of Coleus blumei using wild and mutant strains of Agrobacterium sp. was evaluated. Successful transformation depended on specific bacterial strain-plant genotype combination and co-cultivation treatment. The wild type B6S3 of the bacterial strains employed gave the maximum efficiency. Strains C58C1(pArA4abc, GV3101(pGV2215, 8196 and A281 were also effective. Among several co-cultivation conditions tested, the most efficient treatment was as follows: excised leaf explants were incubated immeadiately in bacterial suspension for 5 min and were co-cultured with Nicotiana tabacum crown gall callus for two days. Plant hormone autotrophy, PCR analyses and hybridization analysis confirmed genetic transformation of the cultures. Sixteen different transgenic callus and cell cultures were maintained for more than four years in the absence of exogenous growth regulators and antibiotics without deterioration in the growth rate.

  8. Integrated control of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year field study investigated integrated management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum through host crop resistance, biocontrol (Fusarium oxysporum isolate 34-FO), and fertilizer application. The experiment was conducted in a field with natural Striga infestation at Kouaré Research Station in Fada N'Gourma, Burkina ...

  9. (Jacq) Benth (African Locust Bean) on Hypertension in Bogou and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Minerals. Plasma potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and calcium were determined using commercial diagnostic kits (Cypress. Diagnostics Laboratory) on an automated spectrophotometer (Clima Plus, Ral.SA), following the kit manufacturers' guide in each case. For potassium, the absorbance was.

  10. STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA BENTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology College of Medicine,. University of Ilorin, Nigeria ... The dried pieces were then pulverized using the laboratory mill (Christy and Morris Limited, .... The interest shown in the second half of the nineteenth century in chemical methods for treating wastewater is being ...

  11. Bioassay-guided investigation of Lonchocarpus cyanescens benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... health related benefits (Mali et al., 2004; Chaudhary et al., 2004). Recently, there has been growing interest in natural antioxidants of plant origin ..... antioxidant action of caffeine: mechanistic considerations, Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 41:267-269. Evans P, Halliwall B (1999). “Free radicals and hearing” Ann N. Y..

  12. Spectral assignments of new diterpenes from Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha

    2004-12-01

    The structural characterization of two new abietanes and a new spiro-fused tricyclic diterpene isolated from the roots of Hyptis martiusii is described. The first member of a new class of rearranged abietane diterpenoids designated martiusane was characterized by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). Unambiguous 1H and 13C chemical shift assignments for all compounds are reported. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Two New Phenolic Compounds from Schizonepeta tenuifolia (Benth. Briq

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    Xu-Hua Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenolic compounds, Schitenoside A (1 and Schitenoside B (2, have been isolated together with six known compounds: 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl ethanol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, benzyl 7-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (6, m-hydroxybenzoic acid (7 and trans-caffeic acid (8, from the Schizonepeta tenuifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds (3-7 were isolated from Schizonepeta genus for the first time. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a week antibacterial activity against four test strains, involving both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria .

  14. Management of Striga Hermonthica (Del.) Benth in Upland Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different rates of Nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N/ha) on the reaction of five (FARO 46, FARO 11, FARO 45, FARO 48 and FARO 38) and seven (FARO 46, FARO 11, FARO 45, FARO 48, FARO 38, FARO 40 and WAB 56-50) varieties of upland rice were studied in field trials conducted in both the dry and ...

  15. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth.

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    Bhanuz Dechayont

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (Lamiaceae has been widely used in traditional medicine. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaves from P. cablin extracts were investigated. The water extracts had the highest total phenolic content 116.88±0.48 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry plant extract. Nevertheless, high levels of total flavonoid content were found in ethanolic extracts 280.12±2.04 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry plant extract. The highest antioxidant activities were found for the ethanolic extract (IC50=18±0.90, 20±0.24 μg/mL by DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays, respectively. Both extracts showed moderate inhibition of superoxide inhibition (O2∙- and nitric oxide (NO production in concentration-dependent manner. Antibacterial activity was calculated by disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC. The ethanolic extract had the greatest activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin sensitive S. aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes with zone diameters of 11.67±1.53, 10.33±2.52, and 10.33±1.15 mm, respectively. The corresponding MIC and MBCs were 5, 0.625, and 0.039 mg/mL. P. cablin extracts contain antioxidant and antibacterial properties that should be exploited for possible clinical application.

  16. Morphometric Studies of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex. Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical taxonomic study was conducted on five populations of C. anisata in the coastal savanna zone of Ghana to determine their patterns of taxonomic variation and identify diagnostic characters among the populations studied. The results showed that the five populations of C. anisata exhibited complex patterns of ...

  17. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    administration volume of 1.0ml/100g bw. Results: Oral glucose tolerance test showed that pregnancy induced glucose intolerance in the rats. However, B. ferruginea caused a reduction in glycaemic response to glucose challenge and an increased glucose tolerance in rats that had pregnancy-induced glucose intolerance.

  18. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods). The tender branchlets and leaves are used as fodder. The heartwood is dark brown, tough and durable and is used in making cart wheels and agricultural implements. The bark and seeds are astringent and are given for treating piles and diarrhoea.

  19. Response of African oil bean ( Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the response (seedling emergence) of Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds sown in soils contaminated with spent lubricating oil using 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w in Asaba, Delta State in 2009. The results showed that 100% of the seeds sown in the control germinated. Significant reductions (P ≥ 0.05) were ...

  20. Germinação in vitro de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F Nepomuceno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis leucocephala e Hyptis platanifolia (Lamiaceae são espécies aromáticas endêmicas do semiárido nordestino e possuem grande importância econômica devido ao seu potencial medicinal. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo obter o protocolo para o estabelecimento inicial in vitro das espécies H. leucocephala e H. platanifolia. O meio de cultura WPM promoveu a maior porcentagem de germinação (96,81% para H. leucocephala, porém não diferiu estatisticamente dos resultados obtidos no MS½ na última semana de cultivo. Para a germinação de sementes de H. platanifolia, o MS½ foi o meio que proporcionou a maior porcentagem (40,83%. O tipo de esterilização não interferiu na germinação in vitro para as duas espécies. Para a espécie H. platanifolia, quando se utilizou o fechamento dos tubos de ensaio com tampão de algodão, a hiperidricidade foi eliminada; porém, a porcentagem de germinação das sementes foi menor. Avaliando-se o tipo de meio de cultura no crescimento in vitro de H. leucocephala observou-se que este fator não influenciou no número de brotações, nem o comprimento de parte aérea e da matéria seca de raiz. O meio MS proporcionou incremento para o número de folhas, matéria seca da parte aérea, e comprimento da maior raiz, enquanto o meio MS½ foi o que promoveu maior número de raízes. O meio de cultura ideal para a germinação de H. leucocephala e H. platanifolia foi o MS½, podendo ser esterilizado com hipoclorito de sódio, enquanto que o MS foi o melhor meio de cultura para o crescimento in vitro de H. leucocephala.

  1. Food plants and life histories of sawflies of the families Argidae and Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera in Costa Rica, a supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food plants and information on life history are presented for six species of Argidae and four species of Tenthredinidae in Costa Rica. The Argidae include cocoons of Atomacera josefernandezi Smith, sp. n., found on Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae and likely feeding on its leaves before pupation, and larvae of Eriglenum tristum Smith feeding on Machaerium seemanii Benth. Ex Seem. (Fabaceae, Ptenos leucopodus (Cameron feeding on Inga oerstediana Benth. and I. vera Willd. (Fabaceae, Ptilia peleterii (Gray feeding on Cnestidium rufescens (Connaraceae, and Scobina lepida (Klug and S. notaticollis (Konow feeding on Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae. The Tenthredinidae include larvae of Dochmioglene crassa (Cameron feeding on the fern Lomariopsis vestita E. Fourn. (Lomariopsidaceeae, Dochmiogleme Smith03 feeding on Blechnum occidentale L. (Blechnaceae, Waldheimia laeta (Cameron feeding on Cissus alata Jacq. (Vitaceae, and Waldheimia lucianocapellii Smith, sp. n., feeding on Davilla nitida (Vahl Kubitzki (Dilleniaceae. Waldheimia lucianocapellii is described from specimens from both Panama and Costa Rica. Selandria crassa Cameron, 1883 is a comb. n. in Dochmioglene.

  2. Biology of a Neotropical Harlequin Stink Bug, Runibia perspicua (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro, A L; Panizzi, A R; Lucini, T

    2017-12-07

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted with nymphs and adults of the Neotropical stink bug Runibia perspicua (F.) to evaluate their biology on plants. Total nymph mortality was ca. 13% on immature fruits of Brunfelsia australis Benth. (IFBA) and 90% on raw shelled peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L. (RSP); no nymphs survived on immature pods of green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., or on immature fruits of privet, Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Nymph developmental time was ca. 36 on IFBA and 55 days on RSP. Body weight was significantly greater when nymphs were raised isolated compared to those raised in groups. Adult feeding activity was greater than third instars on IFBA. Adult longevity on IFBA + cherry tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. fruit, reached ca. 150 days. On IFBA, fecundity was 2.5 egg masses/female and 48.3 eggs/female; 25.6% of the eggs hatched. Adults did not reproduce on tomato. Body weight gain did not increase significantly for both sexes during the first four weeks of adult life on IFBA. In the field, plants of B. australis were surveyed in Passo Fundo, RS (28°15'S; 52°24'W). The majority of egg masses were deposited on the lower (abaxial) surface of leaves. Nymphs aggregated on immature fruits, and adults were seldom found on the plants. These are the first data on the performance of R. perspicua on B. australis indicating that this plant species is suitable to the bug's biology.

  3. Ethnopharmacological inventory of plants used in Coronel Portillo Province of Ucayali Department, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesna, Lucie; Polesny, Zbynek; Clavo, Mirella Z; Hansson, Anders; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2011-02-01

    Despite a rich tradition of folk medicinal usage of plants in the Peruvian Amazon, no studies documenting ethnobotanical information of Coronel Portillo Province of Ucayali Department have been published at an international level. This field research documented traditional ethnobotanical knowledge related to the local use of medicinal plants. Ethnobotanical data were collected in native communities around Pucallpa city (Coronel Portillo Province of Ucayali Department, Peru) and in the city itself during the period June-October 2007. The data were collected through direct interviews with 23 people. Uses of 30 plant species belonging to 18 families in traditional medicine are described in this article. Botanical and vernacular names, plant part used, popular medicinal use, forms of preparation and applications of the herbal remedies for each species are reported. Among investigated species, Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don (Solanaceae), Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) K. Schum. (Rubiaceae), Naucleopsis glabra Spruce (Moraceae), Phthirusa pyrifolia Eichler (Loranthaceae) were identified to be widely used in the studied area. However their beneficial health properties have not been well studied.

  4. FLORISTIC AND PHYTOSSOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN CAPÃO DE TUPANCIRETÃ RESERVATION, TUPANCIRETÃ, RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Ferreira da Luiz Rosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was accomplished in Capão de Tupanciretã Reservation, in the city of Tupanciretã, Rio Grande do Sul, in an area with 8 hectares, belonging to the Fundation of Agropecuary Research of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of the paper was to evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure of the forest. Ten samplings of 10 x 20 m were distributed systematically in the area. In the sampling module, every individual with DAP major or equal to 5 cm was measured and identified. In the sampling, a split sample of 5 x 5 m was marked to evaluate the bush component (DAP between 1 and 5 cm and one of 2 x 2 was used to evaluate the regeneration (DAP smaller than 1 cm and higher than 30 cm. The results were analyzed considering the FITOANALISE program, it was calculated the traditional phytosociological parameters like density, dominancy, frequency, importance of the value, coverage of the value and index of the diversity. The most present species in the tree component of the forest were Cupania vernalis Cambess. and Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L. B. Sm. & Downs. The biggest number of species in the bush component and in regeneration were Cupania vernalis Cambess., Brunfelsia australis Benth., Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil. Cambess. & A. Juss. Radlk. and Nectandra lanceolata Nees.

  5. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  6. Una nueva especie de Centrosema (DC. Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae del Orinoco Una nueva especie de Centrosema (DC. Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae del Orinoco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultze Kraft Rainer

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Centrosema is described and named C. tetragonolobum. It occurs in the region of the Orinoco river between latitudes 4° and 6° N in the Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, and the Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Characteristic features of the species are winged pods, chartaceous to coriaceous leaves, and an erect-climbing growth habit. Una nueva especie de Centrosema es descrita como C. tetragonolobum. Su distribución está limitada a la región del río Orinoco entre latitudes 4° y 6° N en la Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, y el Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Son características de la especie las legumbres aladas, hojas cartáceas a coriáceas, y un hábito de crecimiento erecto-trepador.

  7. Caracterização anatômica das folhas de Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae Anatomic characterization of Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Teixeira de Toledo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho fez-se a análise da organização estrutural das folhas de Cunila microcephala em microscopia fotônica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Seguiram-se as técnicas convencionais no preparo do material para obtenção das lâminas semipermanentes. Para a preparação de lâminas permanentes utilizou-se a técnica de inclusão em glicol metacrilato (GMA. A organização estrutural das folhas desta espécie revela: estômatos em ambas as faces com predominância na face abaxial (folha anfi-hipoestomática. Os estômatos da face adaxial são do tipo diacítico. As paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas da face adaxial são sinuosas e apresentam espessamentos irregulares. As epidermes de ambas as faces são uniestratificadas. Tricomas tectores unisseriados e tricomas glandulares do tipo capitado unicelular e pluricelular se fazem presentes em ambas as faces. O mesofilo é heterogêneo dorsiventral. Idioblastos contendo cristais de inulina se fazem presentes em toda a extensão do limbo. A nervura principal em secção transversal, na porção mediana da lâmina foliar revela uma organização bastante simples, pouco saliente, na qual o parênquina clorofiliano paliçádico apresenta solução de continuidade. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais.This work has focused on the structural organization analysis of Cunila microcephala leaves in photonic microscopic and electronic scanning. Conventional techniques have been used to prepare the material for obtaining semi-permanent plates. For the preparation of permanent plates, the immersion into glycol methacrylate (GMA has been performed. The structural organization of leaves belonging to this species reveals stomata in both faces with predominance in the abaxial face (amphihypostomatic leaf. The adaxial face stomata belongs to the diacytic type. The anticlinal walls of the epidermis cells of the adaxial face are sinuous and present irregular thickening. The epidermis of both faces is single layered. Uniserial tectorial trichomes and single celled and multicelled capitate glandular trichomes are present in both faces. The mesophyll is heterogeneous dorsi-ventral. Idioblasts containing inulin crystals are present throughout the foliar plate. The central veins in cross-section, in the medium portion of the foliar plate, have shown a very simple organization, not an outstanding one, where the chlorophyllian palisade parenchyma presents a solution of continuity. The vascular fagots are collateral.

  8. OSMODESHIDRATACIÓN DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON TRES AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMODEHYDRATION OF BLACKBERRY (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH THREE SWEETENING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Giraldo Bedoya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la deshidratación osmótica de mora de castilla con tres jarabes diferentes, sacarosa (js, sacarosa invertida (jsi y miel de caña (jmc, en iguales condiciones iniciales de concentración, 70 grados Brix, temperatura promedio de 20°C, y humedad relativa de 65% desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Frutas y Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, permitió conocer que el jarabe de miel de caña presenta mayor poder osmótico (69,2% que los jarabes de sacarosa invertida (54,5% y sacarosa (50%, medido a partir del porcentaje de pérdida de peso de la mora. Con el proceso de estabilización del producto secado por convección forzada con aire caliente a 1,5 ms-1 de velocidad y 55°C de temperatura, durante 24 horas, logrando disminuir la humedad de los tres productos hasta 27,3%hbh, 30,8%hbh y 25,9%hbh para los jarabes de sacarosa, sacarosa invertida y miel de caña, respectivamente y mejorar las condiciones de empaque y almacenamiento, haciendo más estable el producto al ataque microbiano. Las pruebas preliminares de conservación se efectuaron en envases de vidrio de 250g durante 15 días. Se realizó además una prueba sensorial de ordenación con 10 jueces entrenados para la evaluación de las moras deshidratadas osmóticamente antes y después de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento y como resultado se obtuvo que antes de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento, el producto de mayor aceptación fue el correspondiente a las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa invertida y luego del empaque, la mayor aceptación fue para las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa.Studies of osmotic dehydration of blackberry with three different syrups, sucrose (ss, reverse sucrose (rss, and cane syrup (cs with identical initial concentration conditions, 70°Brix, mean temperature of 20°C, and relative humidity of 65% were undertaken in the Fruit and Vegetable Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, showing that the cane syrup presented greater osmotic potential (69,2% compared to the reverse sucrose (54,5% and sucrose (50%, measured as the percentage weight loss of the blackberry samples. With the product dehydration process of drying with forced convection hot air at 1,5 ms-1 velocity and 55°C during 24 hours, it was possible to reduce the humidity of the three products to 27,3% hbh, 30,8% hbh and 25,9 % hbh for syrups of sucrose, reverse sucrose and cane syrup, respectively and improve the packaging and storage conditions, making the product more stable against microbial attacks. An ordenation sensorial test also was conducted with 10 judges trained for evaluation of osmotically dehydrated blackberries before and after the packing and storage process, the most accepted product was the one corresponding to the blackberries osmodehydrated in inverted sucrose syrup and after packaging the most accepted was blackberries osmodehydrated in sucrose syrup.

  9. Anatomia foliar de Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. e R. macrophylla Benth. (Rubiaceae Leaf anatomy of Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. and R. macrophylla Benth. [Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mantovani

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados sobre a anatomia das folhas de Rudgea decipiens e R. macrophylla (Rubiaceae. Ambas ocorrem na Floresta de Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro. As folhas são hipostomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paralelocítico, dotadas de mesofilo dorsiventral, feixes vasculares do tipo colateral, papilas na epiderme abaxial e cutícula estriada. Em R. macrophylla, destaca-se a ocorrência de estômatos peculiares.Anatomical characteristics of Rudgea decipiens and R. macrophylla leaves were examined. The two species grow in Floresta da Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro municipality. The leaves are hipostomatics, with parallelocytic stomata, dorsiventral mesophyll, colateral vascular bundles, papillae on the lower surface and striate cuticle. The stomata show peculiar aspects in R. macrophylla.

  10. Chemical constituents of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) R. Harley (Lamiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) R. Harley (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Geralda de Fatima; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: geralda@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lopes, Marcia Nasser [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Chemical investigation of Hyptidendron canum stems resulted in the isolation of betulinic, ursolic and euscaphic acids. From the leaves were isolated 3{beta}-O-{beta}-galactopiranosilsitosterol, ursolic aldehyde, and mixtures of maslinic acid and 2{alpha}-hydroxy ursolic acid, {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin, uvaol and erythrodiol, sitosterol and stigmasterol, spathulenol and globulol. Hexane and chloroform leave fractions as well as ursolic and betulinic acids showed antifungal activities against the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. (author)

  11. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five repetitions per treatment, each constituted by 20 seeds. At 40 days, germination percentage and dry mass of the roots and the aerial parts were evaluated. A significant increase was observed in dry matter of the root and aerial part for all the rhizobacteria isolates tested, compared to the control. All the isolates provided significant germination increase, except 3918 and CIIB, which did not differ from the control. Among the tested isolates, four were the most promising (FL2, MF4, MF2 and CIIB. The results obtained show significant gains in seedling production, without any adjustment in nursery management or structure. In addition to this direct gain, it is possible to make a better use of the physical structure of the nurseries by reducing the time needed for seedling formation, reducing the production costs.

  12. Aspectos florísticos e fitossociológicos da reserva Capão de Tupanciretã, Tupanciretã, RS, Brasil.

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    Suzana Ferreira da Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Reserva Capão de Tupanciretã, município de Tupanciretã (RS, em uma área com 8 hectares pertencente à Fundação de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Rio Grande do Sul (FEPAGRO. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica da floresta. Utilizaram-se dez parcelas de tamanho 10 x 20 m distribuídas sistematicamente na área. Nessas parcelas, foram medidos e identificados todos os indivíduos com DAP maior ou igual a 5 cm. Dentro das parcelas principais, alocaram-se subunidades de 5 x 5 m para avaliar o componente arbustivo (DAP entre 1 e 5 cm e de 2 x 2 m para a regeneração natural (DAP menor que 1 cm e altura superior a 30 cm. Os resultados foram analisados usando o programa FITOANALISE, calculando-se os parâmetros fitossociológicos tradicionais de densidade, dominância, freqüência, valor de importância, valor de cobertura e índice de diversidade. As espécies com maior representatividade no componente arbóreo da floresta foram Camboatá-vermelho (Cupania vernalis Cambess. e o Branquilho (Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L. B. Sm. & Downs. No componente arbustivo e na regeneração, as espécies que apresentaram o maior número de indivíduos foram Camboatá-vermelho (Cupania vernalis Cambess., Primavera (Brunfelsia australis Benth., Chal-chal (Allophylus edulis (A. St.–Hil, Cambess. & A. Juss. e Canela-amarela (Nectandra lanceolata Nees

  13. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picralima nitida commonly called picralima or pile plant is a tree or shrub with widely varied applications in West African folk medicine. The study evaluated the free radical scavenging activities of the crude methanol extract of Picralima nitida root bark and its various fractions. The methanol extract of P. nitida and its fractions ...

  14. Juvenile Demography of Copaifera pubiflora Benth. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) near Parent Tree

    OpenAIRE

    NELSON, RAMIREZ; OMAIRA, HOKCHE; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Fac. de Ciencias, Centro Botanica Tropical

    1995-01-01

    The age structure and distribution of seeds, seedlings, and non-reproductive (juveniles) plants of Copaifera pubiflora relative to the distance from parent trees were studied in the Venezuelan central plains. Age structure differentiated between years when comparisons were made for plants in one-year interval classes. This difference was associated with the proportion of plants less than one year old and those eight years old. Age structure did not differ between years when comparisons were m...

  15. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

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    O. Chukwu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  16. Antileishmanial activity of 12-methoxycarnosic acid from Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, Salvia repens is used traditionally to treat sores, stomach ache and diarrhoea. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based activity profiling of S. repens whole plant extract showed an active abietane diterpene...

  17. Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutaki Royle ex Benth as a hepatoprotective agent--experimental & clinical studies.

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    Vaidya A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Picrorhiza kurroa (Pk, a known hepatoprotective plant, was studied in experimental and clinical situtations. The standardization of active principles--Picroside 1 and 2 was done with High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Picroside 1 ranged from 2.72 to 2.88 mg/capsule and picroside 2 from 5.50 to 6.00 mg/capsule. In the galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats, Pk at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in liver lipid content, GOT and GPT. In a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial in patients diagnosed to have acute viral hepatitis (HBsAg negative, Pk root powder 375 mg three times a day was given for 2 weeks (n = 15 or a matching placebo (n = 18 was given. Difference in values of bilirubin, SGOT and SGPT was significant between placebo and Pk groups. The time in days required for total serum bilirubin to drop to average value of 2.5 mg% was 75.9 days in placebo as against 27.44 days in Pk group. The present study has shown a biological plausability of efficacy of Pk as supported by clinical trial in viral hepatitis, hepatoprotection in animal model and an approach for standardizing extracts based on picroside content.

  18. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Shitiz

    Full Text Available Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I and Picroside-II (P-II, which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE, coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa.

  19. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa.

  20. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Puc, Juan Alberto; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Miron-Lopez, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J., E-mail: mrejon@uady.mx [Laboratorio de Quimica Farmaceutica. Facultad de Quimica. Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan (Mexico); Moo-Puc, Rosa Esther [Unidad de Investigacion Medica Yucatan, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Yucatan (Mexico); Quijano, Leovigildo [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Cyclolignan (+)-lyoniresinol (1), veratric acid (2), vanillic acid (3), lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4), the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+)-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC{sub 50} 17.57 μM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4) in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol. (author)

  1. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  2. Una nueva variedad de centrosema Macrocarpum Benth. (Leguminoae: Papilionoideae de los Andes Colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultze Kraft Rainer

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Centrosema macrocarpum is described. It occurs only in Colombia, mainly at intermediate altitudes (1000-2000 m in the Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Diagnostic features of the variety are the reddish colour of young leaves, the purpleviolaceous colour of the corolla, and the unusually large pods and seeds. Una nueva variedad de Centrosema macrocarpum es descrita. Su distribución se concentra sobre todo en el piso térmico medio en la franja altitudinal de 1000-2000 m en los Andes colombianos y la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Son características diagnósticas de la variedad el color rojizo de las hojas jóvenes, el color morado-violáceo de la corola y el tamaño extremadamente grande de las legumbres y semillas.

  3. A pharmacognostic study of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) : bioactivity, safety, and phytochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toyang, Ngeh Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The world continues to be plagued by numerous diseases and health complications. Unfortunately, current drug discovery efforts are lagging behind compared to the pace of emergence of new diseases or the development of resistance to current therapies. Medicinal plants especially for people in

  4. CARACTERIZACION FISICOQUÍMICA DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth. EN SEIS ESTADOS DE MADUREZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEIDY CAROLINA AYALA S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El interés de productores, comercializadores y consumidores de la región por la mora de Castilla producida en el municipio de Ibagué y la poca información sobre sus cualidades dieron origen a la presente caracterización del fruto en seis estados de madurez. Los resultados morfológicos y fisicoquímicos indican que el grado óptimo de recolección es 5 atendiendo al buen índice de cosecha, firmeza, peso, sólidos solubles totales (SST, rendimiento y material insoluble en alcohol (MIA, en esta fase de maduración la acidez limita el crecimiento bacteriano no obstante persistan problemas fúngicos como Botritys Cinérea. Así mismo, la cosecha en grados de madurez 4 y 6 no son viables, debido a bajo peso y volumen; y fragilidad estructural que con frecuencia incide en la lixiviación, fermentación y magullado de la fruta respectivamente. En general el análisis estadístico pone de manifiesto diferencias significativas entre grados de madurez respecto a peso, diámetro mayor, volumen, acidez, SST, minerales y MIA, ratificando la importante relación entre el momento de cosecha y estado de desarrollo del fruto debido a su incidencia directa en la calidad del producto y competitividad comercial.

  5. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  6. Antiulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; do Amaral Costa, Iggor Macêdo; da Silva, Juciene Bezerra Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Rafaella Farias; Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes Galvão; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "cidreira-do-mato" or "cidreira-brava", grows in abundance in the Northeast region of Brazil, where its leaves are traditionally used in folk medicine in the treatment...

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims. and Ocimum selloi Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson C. Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons, while the oils of O. selloi did not. Methylchavicol and linalool were the main chemical components found in the aerial parts and leaves of O. canum. This finding permitted to characterize this specimen as a new chemotype of O. canum. Regarding the aerial parts of O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, transcaryophyllene and linalool were identified as their major components. All extracted oils from the aerial parts showed biological activity against gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - but only the O. canum one showed activity against gram-negative bacilli - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.Este trabalho descreve a composição química e a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos voláteis de Ocimum canum e Ocimum selloi, que ocorrem em Jequié/BA, nordeste do Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2006 e os óleos extraídos por destilação a vapor foram posteriormente analisados por GC-MS. Um total de 30 e 31 compostos foi identificado a partir dos óleos de O. selloi e O. canum, respectivamente. Foi observado que o teor de óleo de O. canum apresentou variação durante as estações do ano, enquanto o óleo de O. selloi não. Metilchavicol e linalol foram os principais componentes químicos encontrados na parte aérea e folhas de O. canum. Esta descoberta permitiu caracterizar este espécime como um novo quimiotipo de O. canum. Com relação às partes aéreas de O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineol, trans-cariofileno e linalol foram identificadas como os seus principais componentes. Todos os óleos extraídos das partes aéreas apresentaram atividade biológica contra cocos gram-positivo - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - mas apenas aquele de O. canum apresentou atividade contra bacilo gram-negativo - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.

  8. Twigs of Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth. Burkart as a nesting resource for ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Guilherme Morais da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ants can use twigs from fragments of tree branches as a nesting resource. The present study analyzed gatherings of ants in twigs of Albizia niopoides, a Fabaceae native to the Atlantic Forest that is used in landscaping in parks and squares in Brazil. Expeditions were performed in an urban park located in Atlantic Forest areas between February and June 2014. A total of 70 twigs with ants were collected and included 9357 workers, 2309 broods ants, 68 winged ants and 19 queens. Four subfamilies, 10 genera and 17 species/morphospecies were recorded. The species with the largest number of nests were Nylanderia sp.1, Hypoponera sp.4, and Wasmannia auropunctata. Ants of different species were found coexisting in the same twig, and Pheidole gr. tristis was the most common species found sharing a nest. Among the species recorded, only Pseudomyrmex gracilis and P. phyllophilus are arboreal; the others also live in litter. For some species, our results indicate that the twig occupation in the litter can be structured and not by chance. No correlation was found between the twig structure and the colony components.

  9. Antifungal activities and active ingredients of Melodinus suaveolens Champ. ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanan; Ling, Siquan; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tang, Wenwei

    2017-07-16

    Four Melodinus species with antifungal activity were found in survey of the floral resources, in Shiwan Mountain Natural Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. Crude methanolic extracts of the twigs and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens exhibited potent antifungal activities against the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum graminicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria musae, and the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited these pathogens at rates of 85.37, 91.47, 72.77 and 89.87%, respectively (5 mg/mL). A new compound, (2R, 3S, 5S, 6R)-1-O-methyl- chiro-inositol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction, along with 15 known compounds. The antifungal activities of compounds (1-16) were evaluated for the first time. Compound (4) had potent antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, C. graminicola and A. musae.

  10. Twigs of Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth.) Burkart as a nesting resource for ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Silva, Rogério Rosa; da Silva, Otávio Guilherme Morais; Fernandes, Tae Tanaami; de Souza-Campana, Débora Rodrigues; Morini, Maria Santina de Castro

    2016-01-01

    ... boring beetles ( Carvalho, 2009 ). Usually, ants cannot excavate plant tissue to build their nests in tree twigs, with the exception of some Pseudomyrmex and Azteca species, which can bore into tree trunks when the plant is still young ( Hölldobler and Wilson, 1990 ). Ants, including arboreal species, typically use cavities made by wood boring inse...

  11. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth. Pax. & Hoffman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract was tested against a range of microorganisms using standard microbiological methods for antimicrobial activities. The extract inhibited the growth of all the bacterial and 15 fungal isolates tested. The zones of inhibition exhibited against the test bacteria ranged between 12 mm and 24 mm and between 11 mm and 24 mm for the extract and the antibiotic streptomycin, respectively. The zones of inhibition observed against the fungal isolates by the extract ranged between 12 mm and 23 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs exhibited by the extract against test bacteria ranged between 0.78 mg/mL–25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL–25 mg/mL, respectively, while the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs values for the test fungi ranged between 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/mL and 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/L, respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars as major phytoconstituents in the extract. A. laxiflora leaf extract is a potent source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds; further studies on the extract are ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate the probable mechanism(s of action on bacteria and fungi found to be susceptible to the extract.

  12. Rosmarinic acid synthesis in transformed callus culture of Coleus blumei benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Natasa; Leljak-Levanic, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

    2004-01-01

    Agrobacteria mediated Coleus blumei tumour tissues were cultured in vitro on MS medium. Sixteen diversified transformed callus cultures were maintained for several years in the absence of plant growth regulators and antibiotics without affecting the growth rate. Rosmarinic acid was detected spectrophotometrically in all tissue lines but in different quantities. The highest rosmarinic acid accumulation detected was 11% of dry tissue mass. The relation between culture growth and rosmarinic acid production was investigated in three callus lines. The lines showed different rosmarinic acid accumulation in relation to their growth rate; it was either parallel or inversely related to the tissue growth. The effects of certain medium constituents on the callus growth and rosmarinic acid accumulation were examined in four tumour cell lines. Addition of 4% or 5% sucrose stimulated rosmarinic acid synthesis and decreased callus growth. Nitrogen reduction to one half or one quarter of initial concentration did not affect rosmarinic acid synthesis and decreased callus growth in three lines, while it increased rosmarinic acid accumulation and callus growth in one line. Addition of 0.1 mg/l Phe stimulated rosmarinic acid production in two lines but had little effect on the rosmarinic acid level in others. Rosmarinic acid production was significantly improved on modified macronutrients, where the Ac2 line produced 16.5 mg of rosmarinic acid per tube (0.2 g of dry wt) after being in culture for 35 days.

  13. Protective effect of Coleus aromaticus Benth (Lamiaceae) against naphthalene-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavel, K; Anbuselvam, C; Ashokkumar, B

    2013-04-01

    To investigate protective effect of Coleus aromaticus leaf extract against naphthalene induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups. Group I rats were treated as control. Group II rats were intraperitoneally administered with naphthalene (435 mg/kg b.wt) dissolved in corn oil once a day for a period of 30 days. Group III rats were treated with leaf extract (100 mg/kg b.wt) dissolved in 0.9% saline and naphthalene (435 mg/kg b.wt) dissolved in corn oil once a day for a period of 30 days. Significant protective effect was observed against naphthalene induced liver damage, which appeared evident from the response levels of marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase). The biochemical components viz. triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol acyl transferase, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol and bilirubin were found to be increased in liver and serum of naphthalene stressed rats when compared to control. Treatment of naphthalene intoxicated rats with plant extract reversed these distorted parameters to near normal levels. Liver histology showed supportive evidence regarding the protective nature of plant extract against fatty changes induced by naphthalene. The present study provides a scientific rationale for using C. aromaticus in the management of liver disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Licor de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth) con diferentes porcentajes de pulpa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Álvaro Montoya Gómez; Jenny Katherine Londoño Gómez; Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2005-01-01

    .... Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa...

  15. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth) CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montoya Gómez, Álvaro; Londoño Gómez, Jenny Katherine; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio

    2005-01-01

    .... Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa...

  16. Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles using Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) fruit and leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Brajesh Kumar; Kumari Smita; Luis Cumbal; Alexis Debut; Yolanda Angulo

    2017-01-01

    Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) of a desired size remains a significant challenge. In this report, CuO-NPs were fabricated by treating 10 mM copper nitrate with Andean blackberry fruit (ABF) and leaf (ABL); and evaluated its antioxidant activity. As-prepared NPs characterization were determined by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...

  17. Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles using Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth. fruit and leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs of a desired size remains a significant challenge. In this report, CuO-NPs were fabricated by treating 10 mM copper nitrate with Andean blackberry fruit (ABF and leaf (ABL; and evaluated its antioxidant activity. As-prepared NPs characterization were determined by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM with selected area electron diffraction (SAED and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. UV–visible spectroscopy showed an electronic excitonic transition at 250–255 nm clearly reveals the formation of ABF and ABL CuO-NPs. DLS analysis demonstrated mean diameter of ABF CuO-NPs (43.3 nm smaller than ABL CuO-NPs (52.5 nm. TEM with SAED confirmed the CuO-NPs are spherical and of partial crystalline nature. Furthermore, the antioxidant efficacy of ABF CuO-NPs showed 89.02%, 1 mM whereas ABL CuO-NPs 75.92%, 1 mM against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green CuO-NPs could be used effectively in future biomedical concerns.

  18. Technology for efficient and successful delivery of vermicompost colonized bioinoculants in Pogostemon cablin (patchouli) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakshapal; Divya, S; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of vermicompost as a supporting media for growth of bioinoculants was evaluated for successful transfer of sufficient propagules of bioinoculants into the organic fields. The rooted plants after 50 days were pot and field tested for their growth and yield performances when transplanted along with rooting medium into pots/organic fields. The rooting medium, 50 days of inoculation, contained sufficient population of bioinoculants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Treatment with bioinoculants (except Trichoderma harzianum) substantially improved the root and shoot biomass of nursery raised rooted cuttings particularly in treatments containing Azotobacter chroococcum (150 and 91.67%, respectively), Glomus intraradices (117 and 91.67%, respectively) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (117 and 83%, respectively). The transplanted rooted plants in pots, over two harvests, yielded higher shoot biomass when rooting medium contained A. chroococcum (147%), G. intraradices (139%) and P. fluorescencs (139%). Although the treatments did not affect the content of essential oil, the quality of essential oil as measured by the content of patchouli alcohol improved with Glomus aggregatum (18%). Similar trends were observed in field trials with significantly higher biomass yield achieved with A. chroococcum (51%), G. intraradices (46%) and P. fluorescencs (17%) compared to control (un-inoculated) plots. Increased in herb yield was found to be related with increased nutrient uptake. The population of bioinoculants in the rhizosphere was observed to be considerably higher in plots receiving vermicompost enriched with bioinoculants. This technology can be a successful way of delivering sufficient propagules of bioinoculants along with vermicompost especially in organic fields.

  19. Influence of Environmental Factors on Essential Oil Variability in Origanum compactum Benth. Growing Wild in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukhalid, Kaoutar; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Douaik, Ahmed; Bakha, Mohamed; Kursa, Karolina; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Machon, Nathalie; Tomi, Félix; Lamiri, Abdeslam

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on essential oils (EOs) composition of Origanum compactum populations sampled all over the distribution area of the species in Morocco, and to determine the extent of the chemical profiles throughout the geographical distribution of the species. The chemical compositions were submitted to canonical correlation analysis and canonical discriminant analysis that indicated a significant relationship between oil components and some environmental factors. According to their chemical composition and edapho-climatic characteristics, two major groups of populations were differentiated. The first group was composed of samples growing in regions with humid climate, clayey, sandy, and alkaline soils. These samples showed high thymol, α-terpineol, linalool, and carvacryl methyl oxide content. The second group consisted of plants belonging to semi-arid climate, and growing at high altitudes and silty soils. These samples were characterized by high carvacrol, α-thujene, α-terpinene, and myrcene content. However, populations exposed to sub-humid climate, appeared less homogeneous and belong mainly either to the first or second group. A significant correlation between some edaphic factors (pH, K2 O content, soil texture) and the EOs yield of O. compactum plants was evidenced. In spite of the correlation obtained for the oil composition with edapho-climatic factors and the variance explained by the environmental data set, the observed EO diversity might be also genetically determined. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Quality characterization of Andean blackberry fruits (Rubus glaucus Benth. in different maturity stages in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product quality and safety are two essential characteristics for the fruit market, making it necessary to normalize and standardize processes in order to improve their commercialization. In this study, the quality of two Andean blackberry cultivars grown in two regions of Antioquia (Envigado and Guarne, Colombia, from different maturity stages as defined by the Norma Tecnica Colombiana 7146 (NTC Spanish was characterized. The parameters that were found suitable for the fruit quality characterization were: weight, total solid soluble content (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index (MI, color index (CI and firmness (F. The equatorial diameter (ED maintained its importance relative to the standard and the market, along with the juice yield (JY. The quotient a*/b* presented the best correlation with the visual color scale as defined in the standard. The TSS ranges defined in NTC 4106 were not verified in this studied for fruits grown in the agro-climatic conditions of Antioquia. Linear regression models are a useful tool for making quick and easy comparisons and estimations of the quality parameters.

  1. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celuta S. Alviano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as “sacaca”. Two morphotypes are known: white and red “sacaca”. The essential oils (EO obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%–37.5%. The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10−3 μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10−8 μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC50 less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  2. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  3. Forensic Identifiation of Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz) Using DNA Barcoding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurlings, M.C.M.; Lens, F.; Pakusza, C.; Peelen, T.; Wieringa, J.J.; Gravendeel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina) is a valuable forest product, root extracts of which are used as an antihypertensive drug. Increasing demand led to overharvesting in the wild. Control of international trade is hampered by the inability to identify root samples to the species level. We

  4. Forensic identification of Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz) using DNA barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurlings, M.C.M.; Lens, F.; Pakusza, C.; Peelen, T.; Wieringa, J.J.; Gravendeel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina) is a valuable forest product, root extracts of which are used as an antihypertensive drug. Increasing demand led to overharvesting in the wild. Control of international trade is hampered by the inability to identify root samples to the species level. We

  5. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzymińska Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  6. ESSENTIAL OIL OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden IN STIMULATING MYCORRHIZAL SIBIPIRUNA SEEDLINGS (Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO Os metabólitos secundários extraídos de espécies florestais formadoras de ectomicorrizas podem estimular a simbiose entre fungos ectomicorrízicos e espécies florestais nativas do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de associação ectomicorrízica e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna, em condições de casa de vegetação. Plântulas de sibipiruna foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos constituídos pela presença e au...

  7. Growth of a leguminous tree (Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth.) inoculated with Rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M S; Gonçalves, L M; Lemos-Filho, J P; Rocha, D; Vale, M T; Scotti, M R

    1997-01-01

    Leguminous trees are being suggested for revegetation programs due to their ability to develop associations with rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. The growth of a native species of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Centrolobium tomentosum, was evaluated in a native forest soil and in a Eucalyptus forest soil under different treatments of inoculation. C. tomentosum produced more biomass under nursery conditions after inoculation with Rhizobium BHICB-Ab1 associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM). This treatment improved shoot and root growth and nodule weight under forest soil condition, while in eucalyptus soil only shoot biomass and nodule weight were significantly modified. In another experiment, using forest soil, height and stem diameter were also increased by dual inoculation procedures. The height and diameter growth promoting effect was observed when BHICB-Ab1 was used as inoculant associated with AM, but not with BHICB-Ab1 alone. In contrast, plants inoculated with BHICB-Ab3 alone were similar in height and diameter growth, to those which were inoculated with BHICB-Ab3 associated with AM. These results suggest that benefits of dual inoculation depend on triparty symbiosis and especially on the choice of Rhizobium strain.

  8. Karyotypic studies of Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and C. mollis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae - Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, S M; Torres, G A; Sobrinho, F S; Pereira, A V; Davide, L C

    2007-09-30

    Cratylia argentea and C. mollis (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae) are legume shrubs native to the Cerrado and Caatinga, respectively. Both species show great resistance to drought and high nutritive value, which makes them a valuable forage resource in tropical regions. Cytogenetic studies were carried out on accessions of C. argentea and C. mollis from Germplasm Banks of Embrapa Gado de Leite (Juiz de Fora, MG) and Embrapa Semi-Arido (Petrolina, PE), respectively. Root tips were treated with 3 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline and slides were made using the air-dry technique. Karyotype description for each accession took into account the following features: chromosome number; total length, relative length and arm ratio of each chromosome; haploid set length, and degree of asymmetry. Mitotic metaphases in both species showed 2n = 22 chromosomes, where this is the first report of diploid number for C. mollis. Chromosome length was also quite similar for the two species, ranging from 5.08 to 2.50 microm in C. argentea and 5.12 to 2.51 microm in C. mollis, with haploid sets of equal size, measuring 38.10 and 37.85 microm, respectively. However, they did not show the same karyotypic formula, which was 5 m + 4 sm + 2 st for C. argentea and 7 m + 2 sm + 2 st for C. mollis. This indicates the occurrence of rearrangements within chromosomes I and VI. Both karyotypes showed a tendency for asymmetry.

  9. Orofacial antinociceptive effect and antioxidant properties of the hydroethanol extract of Hyptis fruticosa salmz ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Amanda C B; Paixão, Monica S; Melo, Mônica; de Santana, Marilia T; Damascena, Nicole P; Dias, Antonio S; Porto, Yasmin C B S; Fernandes, Ximene A; Santos, Clisiane C S; Lima, Clésio A; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo J; dos S Estevam, Charles; Araújo, Brancilene S

    2013-03-07

    Hyptis fruticosa is a plant native to Brazil with antinociceptive and antiinflamatory properties. This study evaluated the antinociceptive activity of the hydroethanol extract of the plant leaves (CHEE) against orofacial pain as well as its in vitro effect against lipid peroxidation. The antinociceptive activity was investigated in mice orally treated with different doses of the CHEE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and morphine (5 mg/kg) using formalin, glutamate, and capsaicin orofacial pain models using. Lipoperoxidation was induced in egg yolk by AAPH and FeSO4 in the absence and presence of the CHEE (5, 50, 100, and 150 μg/mL). CHEE (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced (ρHyptis fruticosa leaf CHEE is of pharmacological interest because it was able to inhibit the peripheral and central transmission of orofacial pain, while reducing the spreading of the inflammatory processes by neutralizing reactive oxygen species, which are by-products in the biosynthesis of pain mediators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro phototoxic activity of Eugenia jambolana L. and Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Costa, José G M; Lima, Edeltrudes O; Siqueira-Júnior, José P

    2009-07-17

    Ethanol extracts from Hyptis martiusii and Eugenia jambolana were assayed for light-mediated activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. Both extracts showed activity against at least two bacterial strains, but H. martiusii was the most active extract, being active against all strains of S. aureus and E. coli. The results represent a first report of the light-mediated antimicrobial activities of H. martiusii and E. jambolana and suggest that phytochemical investigations may be warranted.

  11. Antiproliferative effects of abietane diterpenoids isolated from Hyptis martiusii Benth (Labiatae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lotufo, L V; Araújo, E C C; Lima, M A S; Moraes, M E A; Pessoa, C; Silviera, E R; Moraes, M O

    2004-01-01

    Two abietane diterpenes were isolated from a hexane extract of Hyptis martiusii roots and identified as carnasol 11,14-dihidroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one. These compounds were tested for their antiproliferative effects on tumor cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide and on the sea urchin egg development. Both compounds displayed cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines, but only carnasol was able to inhibit the sea urchin egg cleavages.

  12. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan seedlings

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    Ezequiel Gasparin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate of CRF (18-5-9 NPK and three different container volumes (50, 110 and 180 cm3 on seedling height (H and collar diameter (CD measured monthly for seven months and then calculated H/CD ratios. After 210 days of growth, the dry masses of the aerial portions, root systems, and total masses were determined, as well as the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in the aerial portions of the seedlings. In general, the dose 9 g L-1 substrate combined with the 180 cm3 cultivation tubes demonstrated the best results in terms of the morphological variables analyzed, resulting in consistent quality seedlings for field planting.

  13. Essential Oil Composition of Nepeta raphanorhiza Benth growing in Kashmir valley

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    Bilal A. Dar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Nepeta raphanorhiza is reported for the first time. Capillary GC-FID & GC-MS analysis of the essential oil led to the identification of 16 components accounting for 97.5% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated the oil composition accounting for 65.3 % followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 19.5 % of the total oil composition. The major components were (Z β-farnesene (49.2%, δ-3-carene (12.3%, α bisabolene (9.4% and germacrene D 4 ol (5.8%.

  14. New Betaproteobacterial Rhizobium Strains Able To Efficiently Nodulate Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulé, Cecilia; Zabaleta, María; Mareque, Cintia; Platero, Raúl; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Sicardi, Margarita; Frioni, Lillian; Battistoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Among the leguminous trees native to Uruguay, Parapiptadenia rigida (Angico), a Mimosoideae legume, is one of the most promising species for agroforestry. Like many other legumes, it is able to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and belongs to the group known as nitrogen-fixing trees, which are major components of agroforestry systems. Information about rhizobial symbionts for this genus is scarce, and thus, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize rhizobia associated with P. rigida. A collection of Angico-nodulating isolates was obtained, and 47 isolates were selected for genetic studies. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their nifH and 16S rRNA genes, the isolates could be grouped into seven genotypes, including the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium, among which the Burkholderia genotypes were the predominant group. Phylogenetic studies of nifH, nodA, and nodC sequences from the Burkholderia and the Cupriavidus isolates indicated a close relationship of these genes with those from betaproteobacterial rhizobia (beta-rhizobia) rather than from alphaproteobacterial rhizobia (alpha-rhizobia). In addition, nodulation assays with representative isolates showed that while the Cupriavidus isolates were able to effectively nodulate Mimosa pudica, the Burkholderia isolates produced white and ineffective nodules on this host. PMID:22226956

  15. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae

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    Juan Alberto Moo-Puc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclolignan (+-lyoniresinol (1, veratric acid (2, vanillic acid (3, lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4, the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC50 17.57 µM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4 in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol.

  16. Substrate moisture in the germination and vigor of Albizia niopoides Benth. seeds

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    Dandara Yasmim Bonfim de Oliveira Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Albizia niopoides, popularly known as white mimosa, is a native forest species of fast-growing and with high potential for reforestation purposes. However, there is little information about its seminiferous spread. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the germination performance and vigor of A. niopoides seed under different water volumes for substrate moistening. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates and each replicate with 25 seeds. The seeds were sown on germitest paper (arranged in rolls moistened with water volumes equivalent to 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; and 4.0 times the dry weight (DW of the substrate without further water addition. Germination occurred in a germination chamber (Biochemical Oxygen Demand-B.O.D-type set at 25 °C and continuous light. The analyzed variables were percentage of germination, length of shoot and primary root, dry weight of shoot, and root seedling system. Decreasing effect on germination percentage values, primary root length, and dry weight of the root system from the substrate moistening with the water volume equivalent to 2.0 times its dry weight were found. Water volumes in the range of 1.0 to 2.0 times the mass of paper favor the germination and vigor of A. niopoides seed.

  17. Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric artery

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    Ítalo J. A. Moreira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa dichloromethane extract (HFDE on isolated rings of rat mesenteric artery was evaluated in this study. In intact rings, HFDE (0.1-3000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxations (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6 of phenylephrine tonus that were not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, after KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 or in rings pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. In endothelium denuded rings, HFDE (300 or 1000 µg/mL inhibited contractions induced by CaCl2 (maximal inhibition = 25±7% and 95±1%; respectively. Furthermore, HFDE promoted an additional vasorelaxation (15±3%; n = 7 after maximal response of 10 µM nifedipine (78±3%; n = 7. In conclusion, HFDE induces vasorelaxant effect through an endothelium-independent pathway, which appears to be due in major part to inhibition of the Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels.

  18. Antiulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; do Amaral Costa, Iggor Macêdo; da Silva, Juciene Bezerra Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Rafaella Farias; Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes Galvão; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2011-09-01

    Hyptis martiusii (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "cidreira-do-mato" or "cidreira-brava", grows in abundance in the Northeast region of Brazil, where its leaves are traditionally used in folk medicine in the treatment of intestinal and stomach diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical constituents and to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of the leaves of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) in in vivo models of experimental ulcers in rodents. EOHM was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Acute gastric ulcer was induced using absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol and indomethacin. The volume, pH and total acidity of gastric secretion were determined by the pyloric ligature method and gastrointestinal motility using gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of 24 components that account for 92.13% of the essential oil of dried leaves, indicating the occurrence of mono and sesquiterpenes. Oral administration of EOHM (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) inhibited ethanol-, HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin-induced ulcers. In the case of pylorus ligature, the oil reduced the volume of gastric juices and total acidity, and increased gastric pH. The EOHM reduced the rate of gastric emptying with only the highest doses, but did not show any effect on intestinal transit at any of the three doses. The results indicate that the essential oil of leaves of Hyptis martiusii has an antiulcerogenic activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers in various models. This effect could be related to an increase of gastric mucosal defensive factors. Further pharmacological studies are being undertaken in order to provide more precise elucidation of the action mechanism involved in this activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PENGARUH UMUR BAHAN SETEK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SETEK AKOR (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth

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    nurmawati siregar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akor (Acacia auriculiformis termasuk salah satu jenis sumber energi biomassa mempunyai prospek yang baik untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan untuk pengembangannya adalah ketersediaan bibit bermutu. Bibit bermutu dapat diperoleh dari perbanyakan generatif (biji dan vegetatif (setek. Melalui setek dapat diproduksi bibit bermutu dalam jumlah yang cukup, setiap waktu dan tidak tergantung dengan musim. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan perbanyakan vegetatif dengan setek adalah juvenilitas (umur bahan setek, oleh karena itu dilakukan penelitian pengaruh umur bahan setek. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan perlakuan umur bahan setek yaitu umur 2,3,4 dan 5 bulan, ulangan tiga kali dan setiap unit perlakuan terdiri dari 45 setek. Respon pertumbuhan yang diamati meliputi: waktu tumbuh tunas setek, persentase tumbuh setek, panjang akar, jumlah akar, panjang tunas, berat kering akar, berat kering tunas, ratio tunas dengan akar dan analisis ratio C/N. Umur bahan setek berpengaruh nyata terhadap semua parameter yang diamati kecuali persen tumbuh setek. Bahan setek yang paling optimal digunakan untuk jenis akor adalah pada umur 3 - 4 bulan.

  20. In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida, benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Ohashi, Mitsuko; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Agyapong, Jeffrey; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Djameh, Georgina I; Azerigyik, Faustus A; Botchie, Senyo K; Anyan, William K; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Appiah, Alfred A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against 010 was determined by microscopy while the IC50 of compounds against L. hertigi was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Guava viacount analysis. We found two of the three compounds, molucidin and ML-F52, to have anti-Leishmania activity against both strains. The fluor-microscope observation with DAPI stain revealed that both Molucidin and ML-F52 induced abnormal parasites with two sets of nucleus and kinetoplast in a cell, suggesting that compounds might inhibit cytokinesis in Leishmania parasites. Molucidin and ML-F52 might be good lead compounds for the development of new anti-Leishmania chemotherapy.

  1. Anti-malarial synergy of secondary metabolites from Morinda lucida Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithambo, Bertha; Noundou, Xavier Siwe; Krause, Rui W M

    2017-03-06

    The roots, stem and leaves of Morinda lucida are used in some African countries as treatment against different types of fevers including yellow fever, malaria, trypanosomiasis and feverish conditions during child birth. To determine the in vitro cell toxicity and anti-malarial activity of the extracts of stem bark of M. lucida and to identify the secondary metabolites in the extract that may be responsible for this activity. The cell toxicity studies of crude extract [dichloromethane (DCM): Methanol (MeOH) in a ratio of1:1 (v/v)] as well as compounds isolated from the same extract were carried out using human cervix adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa cells); while the anti-malarial activities of the same samples were performed against Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The isolation of the active compounds was carried out using chromatographic techniques (column and thin layer chromatography) where as mass spectrometry (MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as 1D- and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses were employed in the characterisation and identification of the isolated secondary metabolites. The pLDH and cell toxicity assays for the crude extract and the fractions of M. lucida indicated that some fractions reduced the malaria parasite viability by approximately 50% at 100μg/mL and they were not significantly cytotoxic. An IC50 done on the crude extract gave a value of 25μg/mL. The % cell viability for the crude extract in cell toxicity assay remained at 100%. Seven chemical constituents i.e. asperuloside (1), asperulosidic acid (2), stigmasterol (3a), β-sitosterol (3b), cycloartenol (3c), campesterol (3d) and 5,15-O-dimethylmorindol (4) were isolated from the DCM-MeOH extract of stem bark. The isolated compounds tested were not that active by themselves individually at 20μM but their activities were increased when the isolated compounds were combined. As seen when compounds 2, 3 and 4 (% viability: 93, 123 and 101 respectively) were combined yielding an IC50 value of 17μM. Furthermore, this is the first report of compounds 1, 2, 3c, 3d and 4 isolated from M. lucida. The crude extract completely suppressed the growth of P. falciparum. This indicates that the crude extract contains many compounds that might be acting in synergy. The observed activity of the crude extract and the samples containing a mixture of different compounds support the traditional use of M. lucida for the treatment of malaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Azar; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sadeghnia, Hamid-Reza

    2007-01-01

    Background Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Methods Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) root and normal saline (10 ml/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. During preischemia, ischemia and reperfusion conditions the electromyographic (EMG) potentials in the muscles were recorded. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay) were measured. Results In peripheral ischemia, the average peak-to-peak amplitude during ischemic-reperfusion was found to be significantly larger in extracts groups in comparison with control group. Following extracts administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was also declined significantly in test groups. Conclusion It is concluded that S. leriifolia root extracts have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in muscle tissue injury caused by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:17617916

  3. Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Pollen in Some Turkish Teucrium L. (Labiatae)

    OpenAIRE

    DÖNMEZ, Emel OYBAK

    2014-01-01

    Detailed exine sculpturing of the pollen of 32 Turkish Teucrium L. (Labiatae) taxa has been investigated under SEM. Two main exine sculpturing types, verrucate (in sections Teucrium, Scordium, Boiss, Chamaedrys Benth., Polium Benth., Stachyobotrys Benth. and Scorodonia Benth.) and reticulate, (only in section Isotriodon Boiss.) have been defined and their photographs have been presented.

  4. Efecto de la escarificación húmeda y seca en la emergencia de plántulas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth Effect of moist and dry scarification on the emergence of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. seedlings

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    Marlen Navarro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la aplicación de diferentes métodos de escarificación para favorecer la emergencia de plántulas a partir de semillas de A. lebbeck almacenadas al ambiente, para lo cual se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con arreglo factorial 4 x 13 y 3 x 13 para la escarificación húmeda y la seca, respectivamente. Se encontró interacción significativa entre los factores para la escarificación húmeda (PThe application of different scarification methods to favour seedling emergence from A. lebbeck seeds stored under ambient conditions was evaluated, for which a completely randomized design was used with 4 x 13 and 3 x 13 factorial arrangement for moist and dry scarification, respectively. Significant interaction was found among the factors for moist scarification (P<0,001. The best values for the acid, hot water and soaking were found at 4 mos; they were lower than the control and among them only water and soaking and water and control were statistically different. The contrast between the values at 6 mos for the acid (6,3% and the control (40,1% stands out; in this last evaluation the highest emergence for moist scarification was achieved. In dry scarification, the highest percentage was obtained in the treatment based on the coat cut and 3 mos (71,0%, and differed statistically from the rest. In the cutting method all the emergence records were higher than the control. For the cut and puncture, statistical differences were detected only between 2 and 3 mos; in both the prevailing value was that of the cutting method. The emergence results allow to evaluate the coat cut as an appropriate method for A. lebbeck seeds, without obviating that soaking also constitutes an alternative for scarification.

  5. Conservação de Dimorphandra mollis benth. (fabaceae baseada na estrutura genética de populações naturais Conservation of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (fabaceae based on the genetic structure of natural populations

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    Ana Cecília Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis é uma espécie nativa do Cerrado com grande potencial econômico e tem sido alvo de intensa exploração, principalmente de seus frutos por causa do princípio ativo do composto rutina, importante para a produção de fármacos. Algumas propostas têm surgido para uma coleta controlada desses frutos, de forma a minimizar a perda de diversidade genética, entretanto existem poucas informações sobre aspectos ecológicos e genéticos da espécie. Nesse sentido, realizou-se o estudo da estrutura genética por meio de marcadores aloenzimáticos, visando dar subsídios a propostas de conservação de populações naturais de D. mollis. Dez locos polimórficos foram utilizados para estimar as frequências alélicas referentes a 180 indivíduos, distribuídos em três populações naturais (Campina Verde, Vargem da Cruz e Pau de Fruta no Município de Jequitaí, Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os resultados indicam alta diversidade genética da espécie ( ou = 0,463, sendo pequena a variabilidade genética entre populações ( > ou = 0,025. Foi verificada ausência de endogamia dentro das populaçõe s( ou = -0,018 ( 0,007. O fluxo gênico estimado no conjunto das populações foi alto, com igual a 4,0, e suficiente para contrapor os efeitos da deriva genética. a alta diversidade genética nas populações da espécie indica potencial para a conservação genética in situ e também para o seu manejo. As estratégias de manejo da espécie devem considerar o tamanho efetivo populacional, no intuito de manter os níveis de variabilidade genética observados e a regeneração natural nas áreas. Palavras-chave: Fava d'anta, Marcadores aloenzimáticos e Variabilidade genética.Dimorphandra mollis is a native species of Cerrado and has high economic value due to the active compound Rutin present in its fruit, which has made it a target of intense commercial exploitation. Some proposals to minimize the negatives genetic/physiological effects of exploitation have been proposed, but little is known about the ecology or genetic structure of natural populations of this species. To delineate conservation programs, it is necessary to elucidate the levels of genetic variation in local natural populations. The genetic variability was assessed using ten allozyme loci. The genetic structure of the species was carried out using a sample of 180 individuals distributed in three natural populations located in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results showed a high level of genetic diversity within the species ( or = 0.463. Analysis of genetic structure indicated that most of the genetic variability of D. mollis is within its natural populations with low difference among populations ( or = 0.025. Inbreeding within the populations ( or = -0.018 and among them ( or = 0.007 was insignificant. Gene flow among populations was or = 4.0, indicating to be enough to prevent the effects of genetic drift. The high genetic diversity index in these populations indicates potential for in situ genetic conservation and management. Management strategies for this species should take into consideration the effective population size in order to keep the high levels of genetic variability observed and allow natural regeneration in the areas.

  6. Estimación de la Fitomasa Aérea del Gatuño (Mimosa biuncifera Benth.

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    Gabriel Córdova Duarte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized in the shrubland area of the Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas (ICA of the Universidad de Guanajuato, to determine the regression equation and dimensional variables that forecast with greater exactitude the aerial biomass of catclaw (Mimosa biuncifera, a shrub important for its density and the part it plays in the ecosystems where it is found. A random sample of 15 shrubs was taken in the stages of growth, flowering, maturity and latency, measuring the height, number of basel stems and their diameter; the greater and lesser diameter of the shrub top; and in determining the area and volume of the shrub. The biomass of the leaves plus the small branches and stems was obtained, culting the shrubs even with the soil. A multiple linear regression analysis was made. In the estimation of the biomass of leaves plus small branches the most important dimensional variable and the r2 value of the equation for growth, flowering and maturity was 0.7118, 0.8561 and 0.9507 respectively, while in latency it was the minor canopy diameter and r2 = 0.7117. For the estimation of dry weight of stems it was plant height and r2 =0.9104, the minor canopy diameter and r2 =0.8851, the number of stems and r2 =0.9728, and the minor canopy diameter and r2 =0.6275. Este estudio se realizó en un área de matorral del Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas (ICA de la Universidad de Guanajuato; buscando determinar la ecuación de regresión y las variables dimensionales que predicen con mayor exactitud la biomasa aérea del gatuño (Mimosa biuncifera, arbusto importante por su densidad y por el papel que desempeña en los ecosistemas donde se encuentra. Se muestrearon al azar 15 arbustos por fase fenológica: Crecimiento, Floración, Madurez y Latencia, midiéndoles altura, número y diámetro de tallos basales; diámetro mayor y menor de la copa, determinándose área y volumen. La biomasa de hojas más ramitas y la de tallos, se obtuvo, cortando las plantas al ras del suelo. Se aplicó la regresión lineal múltiple. En la estimación de la biomasa de hojas más ramitas, la variable dimensional más importante y la r2 de la ecuación para el Crecimiento, Floración y Madurez, fueron el volumen y 0.7118, 0.8561 y 0.9507, respectivamente, en Latencia fue el diámetro menor de la copa y 0.7117. Para la estimación del peso seco de tallos fueron la altura de planta y 0.9104, el diámetro menor de la copa y 0.8851, el número de tallos y 0.9728 y el diámetro menor de la copa y 0.6275 para el orden mencionado.

  7. Almacenamiento refrigerado de frutos de mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. en empaques con atmósfera modificada

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    Sora Ángel Dayron

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objeto de aumentar la vida útil de la mora de Castilla en poscosecha, se colocaron frutos en el grado de madurez (GM 3 y 5, según Icontec (Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación, en atmósferas modificadas activas con concentraciones de gases de 25% CO2, 5% O2, 70% N2 y 20% CO2, 10% O2, 70% N2, empleando empaques de polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD y polipropileno (PP, calibre   (0,035 mm. La temperatura de almacenamiento fue 4 ºC, la humedad relativa varió entre 90% y 95% y el tiempo de almacenamiento fue 16 d. Los empaques con atmósferas modificadas activas disminuyeron las tasas respiratorias y las pérdidas de peso de los frutos, comparados con los almacenados sin atmósfera modificada y sin película plástica. El pH, los sólidos solubles totales y la relación de madurez aumentaron progresivamente en los frutos con los días de almacenamiento, mientras que la acidez titulable disminuyó. Los frutos en el GM 5 mantuvieron las características organolépticas (sabor hasta los 6 d de almacenamiento, cuando se almacenaron en empaque de PEBD y una atmósfera modificada activa con concentración de gases de 20% CO2, 10% O2 y 70% N2; el mismo comportamiento benéfico se observó con los frutos que se almacenaron en el GM 3, película de PP y una atmósfera modificada activa de 25% de CO2, 5% de O2 y 70% de N2. Los resultados indican que los empaques con atmósferas modificadas activas  disminuyen los procesos de la maduración del fruto de la mora.

  8. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth Kurz

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    Aniel K. OWK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens develop resistance to antibiotics after repeated administration during the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternative antimicrobial drugs and the present trend is focused on medicinal plants. The hereby research work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of solvents as well as aqueous extracts of Rauwolfia serpentina roots. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that methanol extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity against multi drug resistance S. aureus at 100 mg/ml concentration, while S. aureus was the most susceptible bacterium to all extracts. However, E. faecalis, M. luteus and S. pneumoniae were also susceptible to the experimented solvents and extracts. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae was resistant against the solvent and aqueous extracts. The present study suggested that methanol extracts of R.  serpentina roots would be helpful in treating diseases caused by human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. In particular, based on the results obtained in the current experiment, it can be recommended for the control of infectious Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sapna N; Mengi, Sushma; Vaidya, Rama; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2010-07-01

    As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR) drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD) - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group) - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective.Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g) and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g) compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001). Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g) of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001). In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out.

  10. Cardioprotective effect of root extract of Picrorhiza kurroa (Royle Ex Benth) against isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Kumari, Santosh; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Mehra, Raj; Narang, Rajiv; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2013-09-01

    Normal rats pre-treated with P. kurroa (200 mg/kg) alone did not showed significant change, however, isoproterenol (ISP) administration resulted in hemodynamic and left ventricular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation. Such cardiac dysfunction was significantly prevented by P. kurroa root extract pre-treatment. Pre-treatment significantly attenuated the ISP-induced oxidative stress by restoring myocardial superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes except reduced glutathione content. P. kurroa pre-treatment markedly attenuated the ISP-induced rise in lipid peroxidation, thereby prevented leakage of myocyte creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The results suggest that P. kurroa root extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-peroxidative, and myocardial preservative properties.

  11. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Sapna N Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective. Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001. Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001. In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out.

  12. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver and respiratory diseases. Extensive use of P. kurroa needs detailed analysis and recognition of chemical diversity, is of great importance to evaluate their role as quality control markers. In the present study, comprehensive metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaves and rhizomes of P. kurroa was carried out using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS. Primary and secondary metabolites were unambiguously identified along with a new report of monoterpenic glycoside (1-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-2(E),6(E)-dienoate) in P. Kurroa. Significant qualitative differences with respect to the secondary metabolites were noticed between the leaves and rhizomes tissues. Leaves contained more cucurbitacins and flavonoids while iridoids were present more in rhizomes. The comprehensive chemical profiling is expected to give an idea of chemical diversity and quality of P. kurroa, for their ultimate utilisation in various applications.

  13. Plant regeneration, genetic fidelity, and active ingredient content of encapsulated hairy roots of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Janhvi Mishra; Rawat, Balwant; Mehrotra, Shakti

    2013-06-01

    Among five hairy root lines of Picrorhiza kurrooa that were established through Agrobacterium rhizogenes, one (H7) was selected for encapsulation due to high accumulation of picrotin and picrotoxinin (8.3 and 47.6 μg/g DW, respectively). Re-grown encapsulated roots induced adventitious shoots with 73 % frequency on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 μM 6-benzylaminopurine, following 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Regenerated plantlets had 85 % survival after 2 months. Regenerants were of similar morphotype having increased leaf number and branched root system as compared to non-transformed plants. The transformed nature of the plants was confirmed through PCR and Southern blot analysis. Genetic fidelity analysis of transformed plants using RAPD and ISSR showed 5.2 and 3.6 % polymorphism, respectively. Phytochemical analysis also showed that picrotin and picrotoxinin content were similar in hairy root line and its regenerants.

  14. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-Ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1-8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced.

  15. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, H2O2, Malondialdehyde and Photosynthetic Responses of Orthosiphon stimaneus Benth. to Different Irradiance Levels

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource availability hypothesis predicts an increase in the allocation to secondary metabolites when carbon gain is improved relative to nutrient availability, which normally occurs during periods of low irradiance. The present work was carried out to confirm this hypothesis by investigating the effects of decreasing irradiance on the production of plant secondary metabolites (flavonoids and phenolics in the herbal plant Orthosiphon stamineus, and to characterize this production by carbohydrate, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, net photosynthesis, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N. Four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s were imposed onto two-week old seedlings for 12 weeks in a randomized complete block design experiment. Peak production of total flavonoids, phenolics, soluble sugar, starch and total non-structural carbohydrate ocurred under low irradiance of 225 µmol/m2/s, and decreased with increasing irradiance. The up-regulation of secondary metabolites could be explained by the concomitant increases in H2O2 and MDA activities under low irradiance. This condition also resulted in enhanced C/N ratio signifying a reduction in nitrogen levels, which had established significant negative correlations with net photosynthesis, total biomass and total chlorophyll content, indicating the possible existence of a trade-off between growth and secondary metabolism under low irradiance with reduced nitrogen content. The competition between total chlorophyll and secondary metabolites production, as exhibited by the negative correlation coefficient under low irradiance, also suggests a sign of gradual switch of investment from chlorophyll to polyphenols production.

  16. Free Radical Scavenging, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities from Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L. Wild. ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth. Brenan

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    T. Kalaivani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of phytochemicals having antioxidant activity is associated with a lower risk of mortality from many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the free radical scavenging, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of leaves of Acacia nilotica by using various methods. The results of the present study revealed that ethanol extract was the most effective and IC50 value was found to be 53.6 μg mL−1 for Vero cell lines and 28.9 μg mL−1 for Hela cell lines in cytotoxicity assays. The zone of color retention was 14.2 mm in -carotene bleaching assay, which was as significant as positive control, butylated hydroxy toluene. None of the tested extracts possessed any hemolytic activity against rat and human erythrocytes revealing their cytotoxic mechanism and non-toxicity. Thus, only the ethanol extract could be considered as a potential source of anticancer and antioxidant compounds. Further phytochemical studies will be performed for specification of the biologically active principles.

  17. Antidepressive and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract and fruticuline A from Salvia lachnostachys Benth leaves on rodents.

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    Joyce Alencar Santos

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice.In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p.o. were also evaluated with respect to nociceptive behavior induced by formalin. In addition, clonidine-induced depressive-like behavior was also analyzed.The oral administration of SLEE for up to 15 days and the subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of ketamine (positive control significantly inhibited SNI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased immobility in the FST. On the 15th day of oral treatment, SLEE prevented the SNI-induced increase in cold sensitivity. In the formalin test, SLEE and fruticuline A significantly reduced the frequency of paw licking during the first and second phases and decreased the formation of edema. In locomotor analysis (open field test without clonidine treatment, SLEE and fruticuline A did not alter the response. SLEE and fruticuline A significantly attenuated clonidine-induced suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity (squares invaded and licking and emotionality (grooming and freezing compared with controls, similar to the naive group.SLEE exhibits antihyperalgesic, antidepressant, and antinociceptive effects, and fruticuline A appears to be at least partly responsible for the effects of SLEE. Together, these results demonstrate the antidepressive effects of SLEE and fruticuline A and indicate that both derivatives obtained from S. lachnostachys act against spontaneous neuropathic pain.

  18. Development of Texturized Vegetable Protein from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus and African Oil Bean Seed [Pentaclethrama crophylla (Benth]: Optimization Approach

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    Arueya Gibson. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures to combat protein shortages in form of meat analogues, extrusion processing conditions for the development of Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP from under-utilized sources (Lima bean and African oil bean seed are analysed. Optimum parameters for processing were established as being: barrel temperature (92.45°C, screw speed (101.48 rpm, feed moisture (59.63% and African oil bean seed protein concentrates (AOBSPC of 1%. Concentrations of essential amino-acids were also found to be significant (0.90-7.3% with a near absence of anti-nutritional factors (0.0022–1.0008 g/kg. Sensory evaluation showed that TVP5 (100% LBPC compared favourably with the control sample (cooked meat in overall acceptability. An Acceptable and nutritious meat analogue had been developed.

  19. Sustratos orgánicos en la producción de plantas de Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.

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    Carlos Abanto-Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E ste trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la influencia del compuesto orgánico en la producción de plantas de capirona. El experimento fue realizado en el Centro de Investigaciones Dale E. Bandy del IIAP Ucayali. Los tratamientos fueron distribuidos mediante un Diseño Completos al Azar (DCA, con 5 tratamientos 3 repeticiones y 10 plantas por unidad experimental, los tratam ientos fueron: T1 [Tierra aluvial]; T2 [tierra agrícola]; T3 [Tierra aluvial + tierra agrícola (1:1]; T4 [Tierra aluvial + cascarilla de arroz + gallinaza (1:1:1] y T5 [Tierra Agrícola+ cascarilla de arroz + gallinaza (1:1:1]. Las variables evaluadas al final del experimento fueron altura de planta (H (cm; diámetro basal (DB (mm; número de hojas; relación altura y diámetro basal (H∕DB; masa seca de la parte aérea (MSPA (g; masa seca de la raíz (MSR (g e índice de calidad de Dickson (IQD. Los res ultados muestran que los tratamientos T4 y T5 presentaron diferencias significativas superiores en todas las variables evaluadas en relación a los otros tratamientos. En ese sentido se concluye que los sustratos [Tierra aluvial + cascarilla de arroz + gall inaza] y [Tierra Agrícola+ cascarilla de arroz + gallinaza], provenientes de residuos de origen animal y vegetal proporcionaron mayor eficiencia en el crecimiento y mejor calidad de plantas de capirona aptas para campo definitivo .

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF PATCHOULI OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLIN, BENTH WITH STEAM DISTILLATION ASSISTED BY PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD VIA RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

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    SUKARDI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the role of pulsed electric field (PEF treatment before hydro-distillation of the patchouli oil. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize PEF treatment (voltages, frequencies and times of distillation of patchouli oil from dried patchouli crops. The experimental design and analysis the result to obtain the optimal processing parameters was a Box-Behnken Design (BBD. Three variables were examined in this study: voltages (1,000-2,000 volt; frequencies (1,000-2,000 Hz; and distillation time (4-8 hours. The results showed that the voltage greatly affects the volume of patchouli oil obtained and optimum condition of PEF was voltages of 2,000 volts, frequencies of 1,874 Hz, and 8 hours distillation. The patchouli oil obtained is 8.037 ml of 300 g of dry material (±2.7%. The verification of the model shows that 96.6% (7.76±0.15 ml can adequately for reflecting the expected optimization.

  1. Nutraceutic effect of free condensed tannins of Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth) benth on parasite infection and performance of Pelibuey sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Cesar; Arece-García, Javier; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Mendoza-Martínez, German David; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Olmedo-Juárez, Agustín; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; López-Leyva, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg-1 of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg-1 of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measurement analysis. Even though the three FCT doses decreased (P nematodes (females and males) in the higher dose of FCT was similar to chemical treatment. Dose of 37.5 mg kg-1 of BW decreased the parasite infection and improved the lamb performance. Therefore, this dose could be used as a nutraceutic product in sheep production.

  2. Effect of seed harvesting season and sterilization treatments on germination and in vitro propagation of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.

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    Kuldeep YADAV

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objective of standardizing the protocol for the micropropagation of Albizia lebbeck (L.. Seeds were collected from three different colored pods (yellow, dark yellow and brownish yellow harvested from field grown Albizia tree from November to January and were surface sterilized using different concentration of mercuric chloride (0.05-0.15% w/v for different exposure durations (2, 5 and 8 min. Seeds collected from dark-yellow colored pod showed the highest germination (83.3 % and short germination time (4.29 days, while those collected from brownish yellow colored pod showedrelatively less germination (53.3% and longer germination time (6.0 days. Success of seed germination increased with maturity upto a certain level after which it declines significantly with increasing harvesting time. A five-minute dip of HgCl2 (0.1% was found to be the optimum duration for giving the maximum (83.3% germinated and healthy seedlings. Increasing time and concentration ofHgCl2 significantly reduced the contamination, but on the other hand it also effected the germination of seeds. Best shoot regeneration response from in vitro nodal segment was obtained on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l + NAA (0.5 mg/l. The highest percentage of callus induction (85% was also observed in the above same media from in vitro internodal segment. Proliferated micro-shoots showed 60% rooting on half strength medium supplemented with IAA (2.0 mg/l after 4 weeks of culturing. The well rooted micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (1:1 with 60% survival rate under field conditions.

  3. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

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    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  4. A New Furofuran Lignan Diglycoside and Other Secondary Metabolites from the Antidepressant Extract of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth

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    Maribel Herrera-Ruiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Castilleja tenuiflora has been used for the treatment of several Central Nervous System (CNS diseases. Herein we report the antidepressant activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of this medicinal plant. The oral administration of MeOH extract (500 mg/kg induced a significant (p < 0.05 decrement of the immobility parameter on Forced Swimming Test (FST and an increment in the latency and duration of the hypnosis, induced by administration of sodium pentobarbital (Pbi, 40 mg/kg, i.p.. Chemical analysis of this antidepressant extract allowed the isolation of (+-piperitol-4-O-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-O-glucopyranoside. This new furofuran lignan diglycoside was named tenuifloroside (1 and its complete chemical structure elucidation on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra analysis of the natural compound 1 and its peracetylated derivative 1a is described. This compound was found together with two flavones—apigenin and luteolin 5-methyl ether—a phenylethanoid—verbascoside—and three iridoids—geniposide, caryoptoside and aucubin. All these compounds were purified by successive normal and reverse phase column chromatography. Tenuifloroside, caryoptoside and luteolin 5-methyl ether were isolated from Castilleja genus for the first time. These findings demonstrate that C. tenuiflora methanol extract has beneficial effect on depressive behaviors, and the knowledge of its chemical constitution allows us to propose a new standardized treatment for future investigations of this species in depressive illness.

  5. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  6. Inhibitory effects of a Kunitz-type inhibitor from Pithecellobium dumosum (Benth) seeds against insect-pests' digestive proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Fabiola P S; Pedroso, Vanessa M A; Araujo, Jonalson N; França, Anderson F J; Rabêlo, Luciana M A; Migliolo, Ludovico; Kiyota, Sumika; Santos, Elizeu A; Franco, Octavio L; Oliveira, Adeliana S

    2013-02-01

    Pithecellobium dumosum is a tree belonging to the Mimosoideae subfamily that presents various previously characterized Kunitz-type inhibitors. The present study provides a novel Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor isoform purified from P. dumosum seeds. Purification procedure was performed by TCA precipitation followed by a trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and a further reversed-phase HPLC. Purified inhibitor (PdKI-4) showed enhanced inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. Furthermore, PdKI-4 showed remarkable inhibitory activity against serine proteases from the coleopterans Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, and the lepidopterans Alabama argillacea and Telchin licus. However, PdKI-4 was unable to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, pineapple bromelain and Carica papaya papain. SDS-PAGE showed that PdKI-4 consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of 21 kDa. Kinetic studies demonstrated that PdKI-4 is probably a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 5.7 × 10(-10) M for bovine trypsin. PdKI-4 also showed higher stability over a wide range of temperature (37-100 °C) and pH (2-12). N-termini sequence was obtained by Edman degradation showing higher identity with other Mimosoideae subfamily Kunitz-type inhibitor members. In summary, data here reported indicate the biotechnological potential of PdKI-4 for development of products against insect-pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

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    Sanha Panichajakul

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both isoflavones consistently. The culture temperature played an important role in the growth and isoflavone production. Over twofold of growth and threefold of isoflavone production were demonstrated at 32±2ºC. The callus established from the stems in MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.46 µM kinetin produced the highest yield of daidzein (5.12 mg/g, DW and genistein (2.77 mg/g, DW, which was remarkably higher than the intact plants.

  8. Structure and substrate docking of a hydroxy(phenyl)pyruvate reductase from the higher plant Coleus blumei Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Verena; Petersen, Maike; Zentgraf, Matthias; Klebe, Gerhard; Heine, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Hydroxy(phenyl)pyruvate reductase [H(P)PR] belongs to the family of D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases and catalyzes the reduction of hydroxyphenylpyruvates as well as hydroxypyruvate and pyruvate to the corresponding lactates. Other non-aromatic substrates are also accepted. NADPH is the preferred cosubstrate. The crystal structure of the enzyme from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) has been determined at 1.47 A resolution. In addition to the apoenzyme, the structure of a complex with NADP(+) was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A. H(P)PR is a dimer with a molecular mass of 34 113 Da per subunit. The structure is similar to those of other members of the enzyme family and consists of two domains separated by a deep catalytic cleft. To gain insights into substrate binding, several compounds were docked into the cosubstrate complex structure using the program AutoDock. The results show two possible binding modes with similar docking energy. However, only binding mode A provides the necessary environment in the active centre for hydride and proton transfer during reduction, leading to the formation of the (R)-enantiomer of lactate and/or hydroxyphenyllactate.

  9. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathelet B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9-46.8/ of the total fatty acids, oleic (12.6-14.6/, palmitic (10.2-11.3/, stearic (10.0-13.4/, and behenic (12.6-13.4/ predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg per 100g fat. The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 a 540 g per kg and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine.

  10. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-01-01

    ... and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts...

  11. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  12. Fenologia reprodutiva e biologia da polinização de Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-08-01

    trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia e biologia da polinização de C. brasiliensis. Quinze indivíduos foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se freqüência, horário e comportamento de suas visitas. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrou padrão de floração anual, contínua, de longa duração com períodos de maior atividade fenológica de floração na estação seca. As inflorescências são do tipo paniculada, com flores cujos atributos florais estão relacionados à síndrome da melitofilia. A antese é diurna, com início às 05h00. Há néctar desde a fase de pré-antese, com concentração de açúcares em torno de 44-60%. Os visitantes florais observados foram abelhas (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta e X. sp. Apis mellifera e Centris similis e pássaros (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura e Coereba flaveola. Xylocopa frontalis atuou como polinizadora efetiva, enquanto que os pássaros restringem-se a pilhar o néctar.

  13. Growth of Jacaranda-da-Bahia (Dalbergia nigra((Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth under different levels of NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of well-nourished and quality seedlings is one of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of forest plantations. The present study aimed to verify, by means of morphological characteristics, the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth of jacarandá-da-bahia seedlings (Dalbergia nigra ((Vell. Fr. All. in order to establish the optimal dose of each nutrient to be added in different substrates thus aiming to ensure the production of seedlings with better quality. The seedlings were produced in three types of soils: mesotrophic Ultisol (PVAm, Alic Oxisol (LVAa and distrofic Oxisol (LVAd. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions from February to June of 2006. 11 treatments were defined according baconian matrix, in which the nutrients (N, P and K ranged in three different doses and two additional treatments (Zero and Reference. A completely randomized design with four replications was adopted. The seedlings were planted in pots with a capacity of 2.1 dm3 and 120 days after sowing the data was collected. After analyzing the data, it was concluded that for the production of jacarandá-da-bahia seedlings it is recommended an addition of dosages greater than or equal to 600 mg.dm-3 of P and 200 mg.dm-3 of N when using underground earth in the production of seedlings, from distrofic Oxisol and 300 mg.dm-3 of P and 90 mg.dm-3 of N when using mesotrophic Ultisol. As for the addition of K, since the seedlings were undemanding or the available contents in the soil were sufficient to supply their needs, it is recommended the application of the minimum tested dose of 50 mg.dm-3 of soil until further studies with lower doses is tested.

  14. Aspectos ecofisiológicos da germinação de sementes de mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum Benth.) Rubiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marilene de Campos [UNESP

    2003-01-01

    Informações sobre a ecofisiologia da germinação de sementes florestais amazônicas são escassas e fundamentais à compreensão do seu comportamento natural visando subsidiar programas de manejo, propagação ou estudos de regeneração natural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos da germinação de sementes de Calycophyllum spruceanum, espécie arbórea nativa da região amazônica. Foram avaliados o efeito da luz branca e de sombreamento, da temperatura constante e alternada, do fotoequ...

  15. Contribución al conocimiento de Salvia sordida. Benth. Historia natural y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia sordida es una especie de labiada endémica de Colombia, que está constituida por arbustos que pueden llegar hasta los 4 m de altura, con indumentos densos en el envés de las hojas, en los ejes de la inflorescencia y en los cálices, con corolas moradas de 15 mm en promedio; presenta una variabilidad morfológica que se manifiesta en su hábito, en la forma, coloración e indumento de sus hojas y en la densidad de su inflorescencia, producida posiblemente como adaptación a diferentes condiciones de luz. Existen tres poblaciones de esta especie que indican que S. sordida se distribuye en el altiplano cundiboyacense en un rango altitudinal entre los 2.600 y los 2.800 msnm. De acuerdo con observaciones hechas en la población tipo, ubicada en la vereda Torca en jurisdicción de Bogotá, el hábitat de la salvia se caracteriza por presentar
    un clima con una temperatura promedio de 13º C, una humedad relativa media de 74% y una precipitación de 1.200 mm anuales; en áreas de piedemonte, con suelos originados de cenizas volcánicas poco evolucionados, con textura franco-arenosa en la superficie, muy fuertemente ácidos y con una baja fertilidad; el hábitat de S. sordida hace parte del bosque de Cordia-Oreopanax, se caracteriza por un estrato arbustivo predominante y un estrato herbáceo bien representado, compuesto por 101 especies tanto del bosque climácico como de ambientes alterados o cultivadas, lo que indicaría que la comunidad de S. sordida hace parte de las etapas de sucesión secundaria del bosque; por lo tanto el hábitat se caracteriza por ser inestable y está delimitado por las condiciones de alteración de la vegetación y la variación de los factores de humedad y luz en un rango altitudinal estrecho. Salvia sordida presenta una floración y fructificación constantes y en ella se han reconocido 14 visitantes florales tanto en campo como en cultivo, que incluyen especies de Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera y Aves. De acuerdo con su morfología se plantea que Salvia sordida es una planta melitofila que permite la psicofilia y la ornitofilia. Las núculas de S. sordida presentan una viabilidad máxima del 90% y esta puede llegar
    hasta los 58 meses; una germinación máxima de un 90% que llega hasta los 25 meses; presentan un mucílago lechoso que puede llegar a un espesor de 1 mm y aumentar su peso 13 veces. La etapa de plántula en la especie se puede considerar hasta los seis meses y su desarrollo
    depende de las condiciones de humedad. De acuerdo con su morfología la dispersión de la salvia es dada por barocoria y por boleocoria, las cuales se consideran estrategias poco eficientes por las condiciones del ambiente y las características del fruto. El grado de rareza de S. sordida corresponde a la categoría de persistencia larga y distribución estrecha y su vulnerabilidad está dada por su rango geográfico pequeño, las pocas poblaciones representadas en relictos, el tamaño pequeño de las poblaciones, la poca capacidad de dispersión, el efecto de especies
    exóticas, el uso del suelo y la deforestación. De acuerdo con los criterios de la UICN (2001 se propone que S. sordida se incluya dentro de la categoría CR (en peligro crítico.

  16. Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Sausage tree): Phytochemistry and pharmacological review of a quintessential African traditional medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Idris; Shehu, Mustapha W; Musa, Mustapha; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd; Mahmud, Roziahanim

    2016-08-02

    Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care. The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant. The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books. Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market. The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated scientifically. Further probing of the existential researches on its pharmacological activity is recommended with the end-goal of unravelling the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical relevance and possible toxicity and side effects of both the extract and the active ingredients isolated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physico-chemical characterization and antibacterial activity of inclusion complexes of Hyptis martiusii Benth essential oil in β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Tatianny A; Freitas, Thiago S; Araújo, Francielly O; Menezes, Paula P; Dória, Grace Anne A; Rabelo, Alessandra S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santos, Márcio R V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Irwin Rose A; Nunes, Paula Santos; Araújo, Adriano A S; Costa, Maria S; Campina, Fábia F; Santos, Antonia T L; Silva, Ana R P; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2017-05-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been used as important pharmaceutical excipients for improve the physicochemical properties of the drugs of low solubility as the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii. This oil is important therapeutically, but the low solubility and bioavailability compromises your use. Therein, the aim of this study was to obtain and to characterize physico-chemically the samples obtained by physical mixture (PM), paste complexation (PC) and slurry complexation (SC) of the essential oil Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) in β-CD, and to compare the antibacterial and modulatory-antibiotic activity of products obtained and oil free. The physicochemical characterization was performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Karl Fischer titration. Additionally, the antibacterial tests were performed by microdilution technique. Thus, it was observed that the PM method showed low complexing capacity, unlike PC and SC in which it was observed the formation of inclusion complexes. In addition, the second stage of the TG/DTG curves showed that SC was the best method inclusion with mass loss of 6.9% over the PC that was 6.0%. The XRD results corroborate with the results above suggesting the formation of new solid phase and the SEM photomicrographs showed the porous surface of the samples PC and SC. The essential oil alone demonstrated an antibacterial and modulatory effect against the S. aureus and the Gram negative strain, respectively. However, the β-CD and the inclusion complex did not demonstrate any biological activity in the performed antibacterial assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation, characterization and HPLC quantification of compounds from Aquilegia fragrans Benth: Their in vitro antibacterial activities against bovine mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Aga, Mushtaq A; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Ali, Md Niamat; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Lone, Sajad Ahmad; Shah, Aiyatullah; Hussain, Aehtesham; Rasool, Faheem; Dar, Hafizullah; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Lone, Shabir H

    2016-02-03

    The underground parts of Aquilegia fragrans are traditionally used for the treatment of wounds and various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports on the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial studies of A. fragrans. To isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans and determine their antibacterial activity against the pathogens of bovine mastitis. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of A. fragrans. Five compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done using spectral data analysis and comparison with literature. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of isolated compounds in the crude methanol extract. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activities against mastitis pathogens using broth micro-dilution technique. The five isolated compounds were identified as (1) 2, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (2) β-sitosterol (3) Aquilegiolide (4) Glochidionolactone-A and (5) Magnoflorine. A quick and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the first time for qualitative and quantitative determination of four isolated marker compounds from A. fragrans. The crude methanol extract and compound 5 exhibited weak antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=500-3000 µg/ml). The above results show that the crude methanol extract and isolated compounds from A. fragrans exhibit weak antibacterial activities. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required for proper scientific validation of the folk use of this plant species in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) ethyl acetate and acetone fractions on insulin resistance in fructose drinking mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoma, Batomayena; Berké, Bénédicte; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amegnona; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Gbeassor, Messanvi; Moore, Nicholas

    2014-05-14

    The root of Bridelia ferruginea is traditionally used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effect of Bridelia ferruginea root bark fractions on some markers of type 2 diabetes on fructose drinking mice. Mice received a solution of fructose 15% during 42 days ad libitum; at the 15th day to the 42nd day, they received distilled water for fructose drinking control group, metformin 50 mg/kg per day or fractions 50 mg/kg per day for treatment groups. The normal control group received only distilled water during the experiment. After 6 weeks of experiment, OGTT, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, AST and ALT levels were measured. Fructose drinking control group (F) showed significant (pethyl acetate fraction, acetone fraction and metformin at the same dose of 50 mg/kg per day during 4 weeks administration. In ethyl acetate fraction and metformin treated groups, biochemical parameters and insulin index were significantly (pethyl acetate fraction improved insulin resistance as metformin significantly in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES NO ARMAZENAMENTO E PROMOÇÃO DE CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Parapiptadenia rigida (BENTH.) BRENAN

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Luiz Missio

    2015-01-01

    Parapiptadenia rigida é uma espécie florestal de ocorrência em várias regiões do Brasil, produzida com freqüência em viveiros florestais, sendo a semente sua forma de multiplicação. Geralmente apresenta boa germinação, porém, aspectos envolvendo a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária dos lotes ainda ocasiona perdas em viveiro. Nesse contexto, microrganismos com características antagônicas e/ou promotoras de crescimento associados a diferentes produtos e revestidos com polímeros surgem como alter...

  1. A new furofuran lignan diglycoside and other secondary metabolites from the antidepressant extract of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; López-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Domínguez-Mendoza, Blanca Eda; González-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Zamilpa, Alejandro

    2015-07-21

    Castilleja tenuiflora has been used for the treatment of several Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. Herein we report the antidepressant activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of this medicinal plant. The oral administration of MeOH extract (500 mg/kg) induced a significant (p Castilleja genus for the first time. These findings demonstrate that C. tenuiflora methanol extract has beneficial effect on depressive behaviors, and the knowledge of its chemical constitution allows us to propose a new standardized treatment for future investigations of this species in depressive illness.

  2. A New Furofuran Lignan Diglycoside and Other Secondary Metabolites from the Antidepressant Extract of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel Herrera-Ruiz; Ricardo López-Rodríguez; Gabriela Trejo-Tapia; Blanca Eda Domínguez-Mendoza; Manases González-Cortazar; Jaime Tortoriello; Alejandro Zamilpa

    2015-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora has been used for the treatment of several Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. Herein we report the antidepressant activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of this medicinal plant. The oral administration of MeOH extract (500 mg/kg) induced a significant (p < 0.05) decrement of the immobility parameter on Forced Swimming Test (FST) and an increment in the latency and duration of the hypnosis, induced by administration of sodium pentobarbital (Pbi, 40 mg/kg,...

  3. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes in Hyptis villosa Pohl ex Benth. (Lamiaceae and differential labeling of cytoskeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo dos Santos Tozin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lamiaceae contains many species known for their aromatic properties that are produced by the production of essential oils in glandular trichomes. Hyptis is one of the most common genera of Lamiaceae in the Brazilian flora, and includes several species with medicinal value. However, studies on the morphology and functioning of their glandular trichomes are lacking. We analyzed the morphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes in leaves of H. villosa, emphasizing the differential distribution of actin filaments and microtubules in cells secreting hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. Four morphotypes of glandular trichomes were identified. Total lipid, terpenes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, proteins and polysaccharides were histochemically detected in all morphotyes. This evidences the mixed nature of the secretions of this species, although there are differences in the prevalence of lipophilic and hydrophilic components among the glandular morphotypes and among the cells of the same trichome. The actin microfilaments are more abundant in cells that secrete mainly hydrophilic compounds, and microtubules predominate in cells that secrete lipophilic compounds. Our results corroborate the correlation between the glandular morphotype and the composition of the secretion produced, with a differential distribution of the cytoskeletal elements according to the prevalence of either hydrophilic or lipophilic substances.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and biological activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliza M. Rebelo

    Full Text Available The essential oils of fresh and dried leaves and fine stems of Hyptis crenata furnished the following yields: 1.4% and 0.9%. The main volatile constituents were ±-pinene (22.0%; 19.5%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%; 23.2%, ²-pinene (17.0%; 13.8%, camphor (4.7%; 11.6%, limonene (5.4%; 4.4% and ³-terpinene (3.5%; 2.4%, totalizing more than 70% in the oils. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50, 16.7 + 0.4 µg/mL of the methanol extract was comparable to BHT (19.8 ± 0.5 µg/mL showing a significant antioxidant activity. The oils showed low activities. The amount of total phenolics (TP, 373.0 + 15.9 mg GAE/g and trolox equivalent (TEAC, 226.8 + 0.5 mg TE/g confirmed the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract that can be attributed to the presence of polar phenolic compounds. In the brine shrimp bioassay the lethal concentrations (LC50 for the oil and methanol extract were 6.7 + 0.2 µg/mL and 13.0 + 3.7 µg/mL, respectively, providing important evidence of their biological activities.

  5. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99% of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL. Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract.

  6. [Effect of Morinda lucida Benth. (Rubiaceae) and Newbouldia leavis P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) on sickling of red blood cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, K M; Vovor, A; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K; Agbonon, A; Aklikokou, K; Gbeassor, M

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the In vitro anti-sickling activity of two plants widely used for treatment of sickle cell disease in Togo, i.e., Morinda lucida et Newbouldia leavis. A concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of sickling was observed after incubation of red blood cells with plant extracts and 2% sodium metabisulfite as compared to incubation with 0.9% NaCl. On samples with a SS blood genotype the inhibition rate of Morinda lucida was 17.30% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 92.31% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml. On samples with an AS blood genotype, the inhibition rate of Morinda lucida 48.10% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 99.34% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml. Using Newbouldia leavis the inhibition rates at concentrations of 1 mg/ml and 30 mg/ml were 15.66% and 90.42% respectively on samples with a SS blood genotype and 64.03% and 99.02% respectively on samples with an AS blood genotype. The study protocol appeared to be adequate for both SS and AS blood genotypes since the Pearson correlation coefficient between rates measured on the two types of samples was 0.92 for Newuboulida and 0.89 for Morinda. These findings show that these two plants have clear-cut in vitro anti-sickling activity and support their use in traditional medicine.

  7. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem, M. I.; Adamson, J. O.; Ogunwande, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α -glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α -amylase and α -glucosidase. This was performed using α -amylase from Aspergi...

  8. Modes of inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase by aqueous extract of Morinda lucida Benth leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, M I; Adamson, J O; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99%) of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts) and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL). Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract.

  9. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées dans le traitement de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Allium cepa, Baphia nitida, Carissa spinarum, Elaeis guineensis, Garcinia kola, Kigelia africana, Monodora myristica, Morinda lucida, Musa sapientum, Olax subscorpioidea, Pupalia lappacea, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Piper guineense, ...

  10. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  11. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf, employ response surface methodology to optimize its ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and determine the antioxidant activity of the obtained extract. Methods: The main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf was obtained by traditional solvent extraction and ...

  12. Rooting, growth and sustainability of yellow Ficus ( Ficus retusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rooting, growth and sustainability of yellow Ficus ( Ficus retusa 'Nitida') as affected by growth media under nursery conditions. ... Significantly (P<0.05) highest vegetative and root length was produced by plants grown on a mixture of sawdust, cow dung and topsoil (1:1:3). Root length of Ficus retusa 'Nitida' was best ...

  13. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf, employ response surface methodology to optimize its ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and determine the antioxidant activity of the obtained extract. Methods: The main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf was obtained by traditional solvent extraction and.

  14. New combinationsand a new name for Sri Lankan Coleus species (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    Seven Coleus species, of which six occur in Sri Lanka and one in East Africa, are transferred to Plectranthus. The following new names are published: P. grandis (Cramer) Willemse, P. inflatus (Benth.) Willemse, P. malabaricus ( (Benth.) Willemse, var. malabaricus and var. leptostachys (Benth.)

  15. 2735-IJBCS-Article-Marie Solange Tiebre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Euphorbiaceae x. 46 Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell. Celastraceae x. 47 Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) Kuntze. Rubiaceae x. 48 Morinda lucida Benth. Rubiaceae x. 49 Nauclea latifolia Sm. Rubiaceae x x. 50 Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. Chrysobalanaceae x x x. 51 Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. Mimosaceae.

  16. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun state of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Facully of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various

  17. Comprehensive extraction method integrated with NMR metabolomics: a new bioactivity screening method for plants, adenosine A1 receptor binding compounds in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Nancy Dewi; Khatib, Alfi; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2011-09-01

    A large number of plant metabolites has provided as an incomparable chemical source for drug development. However, the wide range of the polarity of metabolites has been a big obstacle for full use of the chemical diversity. The initial step conventional extraction method by a single solvent does not make use of all the metabolites contained in plants. Also, it takes a long time to confirm the target activity of a single compound because of tedious separation steps. To solve the problem, a new extraction method coupled to NMR-based metabolomics is applied to identify bioactive natural products. A comprehensive extraction method consisting of a continuous flow of solvent mixtures through plant material was developed to provide extracts with a wider chemical variety than those yielded with a single solvent extraction. As the model experiment, (1)H NMR spectra of the extracts obtained from the comprehensive extraction of Orthosiphon stamineus were subjected to multivariate data analysis to find its adenosine A1 binding activity. On the basis of the results, two flavonoids from a large number of chemicals were clearly verified to show the adenosine A1 binding activity without any further purification steps. This method could provide a solution to the major drawbacks of natural products in drug development.

  18. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra all. ex. benth and Eucalyptus grandis w.hill ex. maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Juliana L. P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the decomposition of D. nigra and E. grandis leaves under laboratory conditions when incubated in soils from Atlantic Forest and from a 40-year-old eucalypt plantation for a year. The obtained values of pH in forest and eucalypt plantation soils were 5.61 and 4.47 and for aluminum 0.32 and 1.89mEqx100, respectively. A great number of microorganisms (total fungi, phosphate solubilising and cellulolytic organisms were found in forest soil. Litterbag study revealed a higher mass loss of the leaves in forest soil in the first four months (c. 30%. In the eucalypt plantation soils loss was observed only after eight months (c. 40%. The initial contents of N and P were greater in D. nigra than in E. grandis leaves, although lignin and cellulose contents were similar. The C/N ratio was higher in E. grandis indicating that its degradation could be slower. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the decay rates (k among the treatments. Phosphorus, lignina and cellulose were lost at the end of the experiment in all treatments. The results show the differences between decomposition of both species and the influence of forest and eucalypt plantation soils in the decomposition process.

  19. Effects of Aqueous Shoot Extract of Tithonia diversifolia on the Growth of Seedlings of Monodora tenuifolia (Benth., Dialium guineense (Willd. and Hildegardia barteri (Mast. Kosterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMSON OLAJIDE OKE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A.Gray, an invasive species introduced into Africa from North and Central America, on the growth of seedlings of three woody species: Monodora tenuifolia, Dialium guineense and Hildegardia barteri were investigated. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia was applied to the established seedlings of the three woody species over a period of ten weeks. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia had a significant effect (inhibitory and stimulatory on growth parameters such as shoot hThe allelopathic effects of fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray, an invasive species introduced into Africa from North and Central America, on the growth of seedlings of three woody species: Monodora tenuifolia, Dialium guineense and Hildegardia barteri were investigated. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia was applied to the established seedlings of the three woody species over a period of ten weeks. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia had a significant effect (inhibitory and stimulatory on growth parameters such as shoot height, leaf area, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of the three woody species.The study revealed that the fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversofolia have different effects (inhibitory and stimulatory on the seedlings and the mode of action depends on the associated woody plant species.eight, leaf area, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of the three woody species.The study revealed that the fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversofolia have different effects (inhibitory and stimulatory on the seedlings and the mode of action depends on the associated woody plant species.

  20. Effects of Aqueous Shoot Extract of Tithonia diversifolia on the Growth of Seedlings of Monodora tenuifolia (Benth.), Dialium guineense (Willd.) and Hildegardia barteri (Mast.) Kosterm

    OpenAIRE

    SAMSON OLAJIDE OKE; Abisola Victoria AWOWOYIN; Shaid Remi OSENI; Emmanuel Lekan ADEDIWURA

    2011-01-01

    The allelopathic effects of fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray, an invasive species introduced into Africa from North and Central America, on the growth of seedlings of three woody species: Monodora tenuifolia, Dialium guineense and Hildegardia barteri were investigated. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia was applied to the established seedlings of the three woody species over a period of ten weeks. The fresh shoot aqueous extract of Tit...

  1. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego S. Podadera; Vera L. Engel; John A. Parrotta; Deivid L. Machado; Luciane M. Sato; Giselda Durigan

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at...

  2. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Saliou Sarr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P<0.05 higher (81% and 10.83%, resp. than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P<0.05 increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop’s biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation.

  3. Pharmacology and chemistry of a potent hepatoprotective compound Picroliv isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa royle ex benth. (kutki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Praveen C; Basu, Vaishali; Gupta, Vijayta; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq Ur

    2009-09-01

    Natural products from plants are of major pharmaceutical and therapeutic importance, several of which are often obtained from the underground parts of the concerned plants. Deviation from standard rules in modern medicines, where instead of a single isolated fraction, a group of naturally occurring components exerts the desired therapeutic effect, was noted in case of Picroliv or Kutkin of Picrorhiza kurroa. "Picroliv" mainly a glucoside, is one such compound, normally obtained from 3 - 4 years old roots and rhizomes of an endangered medicinal plant - Picrorhiza kurroa (kutki) and constitute an important component of many Indian herbal preparations, used mainly for the treatment of a variety of liver ailments. It is an iridoid glycoside mixture containing 60% picroside I and kutkoside in the ratio of 1:1.5. Picroliv has shown efficacy comparable to silymarin in rodent models of galactosamine, paracetamol, thioacetamide and CCl(4) induced hepatic damage. Picroliv has also shown cholerectic effect in rats and anti-cholestatic effect in rats, guinea pigs and cats treated with paracetamol and ethinyl estradiol. It has also anti-viral and immune-stimulant activities and is devoid of any significant CNS and CVS, autonomic and other systemic activity. Because of its apparent ability as a strong hepato-protective and immune-modulatory compound, it is in high demand in both national and international markets. The review discusses the potential of Picrorhiza in various hepatic diseases as well as the chemistry and activity of individual compound of crude drug Picroliv.

  4. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells.

  5. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  6. Comportamento de Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong cultivadas em solo contaminado com cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated by copper may interfere with the physiological development and establishment of plants. An alternative for the revegetation of these soils is the use of native species tolerant to copper. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of three native forest species to excess copper in the soil. The species used were: angico - Parapiptadenia rigida, canafistula - Peltophorum dubium and timbauva - Enterolobium contortisiliquum. The experiment was completely randomized in a 3 x 5 schedule, with three tree species and five doses of copper (0, 64, 128, 192 and 256 mg kg-1 soil with six replicates. Plant height, shoot dry weight, length and specific root surface area and copper content in shoots and roots were determined. Canafistula and timbauva species showed storage of copper in roots and low translocation to the shoot. The shoot dry weight of timbauva and canafistula increased with small doses of copper while the shoot dry mass of angico was not affected by the doses tested. The timbauva and angico showed greater capacity for tolerance to copper contamination in the soil than did canafistula.

  7. Modelagem da altura, volume e afilamento do fuste de Calycophyllum Spruceanum Benth. empregando regressão e redes neurais artificiais

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Breno Henrique Pedroso de

    2015-01-01

    As várzeas estuarinas são ecossistemas ripários que estão associados a rios de águas brancas, com grande aporte de água doce e sedimentos decorrentes do ciclo diário de enchentes e vazantes representados pelas marés. Nestes ecossistemas ainda são poucos os planos de manejo aprovados, principalmente em virtude da falta de regularização fundiária das áreas. Além disso, existe a necessidade de estudos e métodos que viabilizem o manejo adequado desse ecossistema de modo a promover seu sustento e ...

  8. In Vitro Culture of Pogostemon Cablin Benth. (Nilam Plant: the Effect of Naa and Bap on Embryogenic Callus Proliferation and Subsequent Somatic Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to investigate the somatic embryogenesis from shoot-derived callus of Pogostemon cablin (nilam plant has been conducted at the Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Jambi from January through to July 2004. Callus proliferation was induced on explants taken from young shoots cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with phytohormones NAA (0.8, 1.1, 1.4, and 1.7 ppm and BAP (1.1, 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0 ppm under in vitro conditions. Cultures were maintained at 25 ± 1 oC, light intensity 50 μmol m-2 s-1, and 16 hours photoperiod. The results indicated that all cultured explants showed positive responses on callus proliferation on all treatments within two weeks of culture initiation. The effect of phytohormones, however, was unspecific as all callus showed similar properties, from non-embryogenic to embryogenic. The addition of NAA and/or BAP to the culture medium was not significantly affected the number of days to callus proliferation. Callus fresh weight was significantly affected by NAA (P = 0.01 or BAP (P = 0.05, but the interaction of these phytohormones resulted in a non-significant effect on callus fresh weight (P = 0.18. Also, BAP significantly affected callus dry weight (P = 0.03. However, neither NAA nor its interaction with BAP significantly affected callus dry weight (P = 0.07 and 0.16, subsequently. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were subcultured separately onto new fresh media with the same composition as for callus induction. Following this subculture, embryogenic callus regenerated somatic embryos within ten days, whereas non-embryogenic callus did not show any symptom of embryogenesis, and lost their proliferative capacity after six weeks of subculture. The regenerated somatic embryos continued to grow to form profuse mass of young plantlets ready for in vivo acclimatization.

  9. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoe Nakashima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%, dried leaves—Spring (85.32%, flowers—Winter (78.76% and fruits—Winter (80.97%. Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%, limonene (1.46% to 4.43%, α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%, and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus—Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL.

  10. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE ALBÍZIA (ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L. BENTH EM FUNÇÃO DA LUZ E DO REGIME DE TEMPERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alek Sandro Dutra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The albizia is a species arbores of the Leguminosae - Mimosoideae family (Momosaceas, native of Tropical Asia and characterized for presenting a speed growth, ability to fix nitrogen and to improve the structure of earth, especially in areas degraded, having uses multiples and facility to co associate with cultures agricultural. The research was lead in two experiments with the objective of to identify methods to superation of dormancy in seeds of albizia and to verify the effect of light and temperatures in germination of this species. In first the seeds were submitted the twelve methods to superation of dormancy: humid heat, immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid, and escarification mechanic, beyond of the witness, being determined the percentage of germination of seeds seard and deceased. In second experiment, after treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes, the seeds were sowed in tabledoch paper type Germitest and put to germinate under nine combinations: continue light and constant temperature of 25oC; continue light and constant temperature of 35oC; continue light and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; dark continue and constant temperature of 25oC; dark continue and constant temperature of 35oC; dark continue and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 25oC; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 35oC and alternance of light and temperature (light/35oC/8h and dark/20oC/16h. Conclusion the specie Albizia lebbeck presents seeds dormancy, detach-itself the escarification mechanic and the sulfuric acid as efficient methods to the superation of dormancy; the seeds of albizia are insensitive to the light and your germination was not influenced by the temperatures useds.

  11. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

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    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. Using leaf explants: bactericidal effect of leaf extracts and counteracting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anamika; Bakshi, Souvika; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2012-04-01

    An optimized protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of patchouli using leaf disk explants is reported. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of the plants revealed Agrobacterium sensitivity to the extracts. Fluorometric assay of bacterial cell viability indicated dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of callus extract against Agrobacterium cells. Addition of 0.1% Tween 20 and 2 g/l L-glutamine to Agrobacterium infection medium counteracted the bactericidal effect and significantly increased the T-DNA delivery to explants. A short preculture of explants for 2 days followed by infection with Agrobacterium in medium containing 150 μM of acetosyringone were found essential for efficient T-DNA delivery. Cocultivation for 3 days at 22 °C in conjunction with other optimized factors resulted in maximum T-DNA delivery. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf disk explants were found significantly related to physiological age of the explants, age and origin of the of the donor plant. Leaf explants from second node of the 3-month-old in vivo plants showed highest transformation efficiency (94.3%) revealed by transient GUS expression assay. Plants selected on medium containing 20 mg/l kanamycin showed stable GUS expression in leaves and stem. The elongated shoots readily developed roots on kanamycin-free rooting medium and on transfer to soil, plants were successfully established. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis in putative plants confirmed their transgenic nature. The established transformation method should provide new opportunities for the genetic improvement of patchouli for desirable trait.

  13. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigarroa Rieche Alina Katil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.

  15. Structural confirmation, single X-ray crystallographic behavior, molecular docking and other physico-chemical properties of gerberinol, a natural dimethyl dicoumarol from Gerbera lanuginosa Benth. (Compositae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Das, Saktipada; Kumar, Abhishek; Misra, Neeraj; Sharma, Sakshi; Gupta, Vivek K.

    2017-05-01

    The proposed structure of gerberinol (1), a naturally occurring dimethyl dicoumarol, has been conclusively established on the basis of its detailed spectral and single crystal X-ray analyses. The compound, C21H16O6, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with the following unit-cell parameters: a = 14.0884(14), b = 15.1746(15), c = 7.6392(8)Å, α = 90.00°, β = 98.949(4)°, γ = 90.00° and Z = 4. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures to a final R-value of 11.43 for 2377 observed reflections. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces, and molecular docking of this plant-derived natural molecule have also been performed. The equilibrium geometry of the title compound has been obtained and analyzed using DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) method. Molecular docking study of the molecule for predicting its possible biological activities revealed that the compound might be a potent antimicrobial, neurodegenerative and anticancer agent as evidenced from its excellent FF (full fitness) score for 1FUJ and 1ZX1 enzymes.

  16. Human red blood cell membrane stability testing for the estimation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of millettia pachycarpa benth leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Amin; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Rahman, Shadman; Azam, Shofiul; Shams, Kishower; Jainul, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    .... This investigation is made following the most simple, reliable and less time consuming method. As the human red blood corpuscular membrane is similar to lysosomal membranes that influence inflammatory process...

  17. Neuroprotective effects of Salvia aristata Aucher ex Benth. on hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

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    M. A. Esmaeili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Oxidative stress is implicated in the neuronal damage associated with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotropic lateral sclerosis and cerebral ischemic stroke. The present work was designed to establish the neuroprotective effects of Salvia aristata extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Methods: The total phenol and flavonoids contents of the plant extracts were quantified by colorimetric methods. The antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH free radicals scavenging activity assay, and the neuroprotective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative stress was also investigated using human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells by MTT assay and western blotting techniques. Results: The highest scavenging activity was found for methanol extract of S. aristata roots (85.28 ± 2.61 μg/mL, with the highest total phenolic and flavonoids content (90.28 mg total phenols as gallic acid and 250.12 mg total flavonoids as rutin, respectively. Our results also, showed that H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by treatment with S. aristata. Moreover, S. aristata root extract was effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic cell death has induced by H2O2.  S. aristata suppressed the down-regulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol. In addition, S. aristata attenuated caspase-3, and -9 activation, and eventually protected the cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Theresults of the present study suggest that treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with S. aristata could block H2O2-induced apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family members and by suppressing caspase cascade activation.

  18. Mosquito larvicidal activity of thymol from essential oil of Coleus aromaticus Benth. against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan

    2013-11-01

    Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have a worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. However, the indiscriminate use of conventional insecticides is fostering multifarious problems like widespread development of insecticide resistance, toxic hazards to mammals, undesirable effects on nontarget organisms, and environmental pollution. The aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oil from Coleus aromaticus and its pure isolated constituent thymol against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 14 components of the essential oil of C. aromaticus were identified. The major chemical components identified were thymol (82.68%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), and trans-Caryophyllene (3.18%). Twenty-five early third instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus were exposed and assayed in the laboratory. Thymol and essential oil were tested in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ppm, respectively. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The thymol had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus with an LC50 values of 28.19, 24.83, and 22.06 μg/mL respectively, whereas the essential oil of C. aromaticus had an LC50 values of 72.70, 67.98, and 60.31 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at p < 0.05 level. The result indicated that the essential oil of C. aromaticus and the isolated constituent have a potential for use in control of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  19. Phytochemical screening by LC-MS and LC-PDA of ethanolic extracts from the fruits of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Pellizzeri, Vito; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Kigelia africana is a tree native to Africa, with a local employment in numerous fields, ranging from traditional medicine to cosmetics and religious rituals. Parts of the plant generally used are stem bark, fruits, roots and leaves. The fruits, which have a singular 'sausage' shape, are widely exploited by local folk, in particular for applications/products involving genito-urinary apparatus of both human genders. The scope of this work was to make a consistent chemical investigation on this plant species, in order to clarify and increase the information at present available in literature. To this aim, ethanolic extracts of K. africana fruits were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) detection, revealing the presence of polyphenols and iridoids. The two detection systems used along with standard co-injection and comparison with previous reports, led to the identification and quantification of six phenolic compounds and three iridoids.

  20. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  1. Potencialidade acaricida sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus e estudo fitoquímico de Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), Palicourea marcgravii St. Hil (Rubiaceae) e Derris negrensis Benth (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Wilson Castro

    2008-01-01

    O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus é um ectoparasita que causa prejuízos econômicos à pecuária brasileira. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a potencialidade de extratos de Palicourea marcgravii e Derris negrensis e de extratos e óleo essencial de Piper aducum para o controle de R. microplus. Extratos de folhas de P. aduncum e P. marcgravii e caules de D. negrensis foram preparados com os solventes hexano, acetato de etila e etanol. Avaliou-se a atividade dos extratos sobre carrapatos ...

  2. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM Rubus glaucus Benth AND Solanum betaceum Cav.dark-red strain AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE, STORAGE TIME AND WATER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. OLAYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento, la temperatura y la actividad de agua (Aw sobre la estabilidad de antocianinas microencapsuladas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus y tamarillo (Solanum betaceum. Las frutas se sometieron a deshidratación osmótica con etanol y el extracto antociánico se microencapsuló con maltodextrina ED 20 por atomización. La vida media de las antocianinas; los cambios en color, fenoles totales y actividad antioxidante se analizaron durante el almacenamiento a dos temperaturas (25 °C y 40 °C y dos niveles de Aw (0,20 y 0,35. Se observó una disminución de la antocianina monomérica en las dos muestras. La vida media de los pigmentos de mora de Castilla varió entre 11 y 32 días, mientras que la vida media de los pigmentos del tamarillo varió entre 9 y 21 días. Hubo oscurecimiento de las muestras como resultado del tiempo de almacenamiento. La actividad antioxidante de las dos muestras disminuyó, mientras que el contenido fenólico aumentó con el tiempo. La actividad antioxidante de las muestras de mora de Castilla presentó una alta correlación con los contenidos de antocianinas y fenoles totales mientras que la actividad antioxidante de las muestras de tamarillo se correlacionó con el contenido de fenoles totales. Estos resultados son útiles en el desarrollo de aplicaciones de antocianinas microencapsuladas como colorantes alimenticios.

  3. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae nectar by parrots in a tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal.

  4. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae) nectar by parrots in a Tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netro, J

    2005-05-01

    Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea) in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal.

  5. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  6. Formulation of microbes inoculum: AMF, PSB and Rhizobium isolated of ex-coal mining site for Acacia crassicarpa Cunn. Ex-benth seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoddier succeed land revegetation particularly caused by least adaptability of the seedlings planted on this site. To encourage their growth and survival rate it can be achieved by means do inoculation with the compatible functional microbes such as rhizobium, Psolubilizing bacteria (PSB and/or arbuscular-mycorrhiza fungy (AMF. This reserach is aimed to formulate the most compatible inoculant to support the growth of A. crassicarpa seedlings. Compatibility study is carried out in RCB design with 3 replications, each contain 5 seedlings. Height and biomass are accessed to measure the growth responses of the seedlings. The result showed that the best reponse is given by consortia that consist of the three kinds of these microbes. This increase the shoot biomass (137% compare to the control. The consortia also improved N 164%, P 335% and K 167% in the plant tissues. While pure AMF improved absorption of N plants 80%, P 383% and K 51% compare to the control. It is suggested that to prepare the A. crassicarpa seedlings is better inoculated by consortium of microbes or AMF as a sole inoculant.

  7. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  8. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  9. Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Analysis, AEDA Sensorial Evaluation and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil from the Ecuadorian Plant Lepechinia mutica Benth (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Jorge; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Jácome, Miriam; Montesinos, José; Rodolfi, Marinella; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Cagliero, Cecila; Bicchi, Carlo; Vidari, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the GC-FID, GC/MS, GC-O, and enantioselective GC analysis of the essential oil hydrodistilled from leaves of Lepechinica mutica (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador. GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the characterization and quantification of 79 components, representing 97.3% of the total sample. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38.50%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (30.59%) were found to be the most abundant volatiles, while oxygenated sesquiterpenes (16.20%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (2.10%) were the minor components. In order to better characterize the oil aroma, the most important odorants, from the sensorial point of view, were identified by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) GC-O. They were α-Pinene, β-Phellandrene, and Dauca-5,8-diene, exhibiting the characteristic woody, herbaceus, and earthy odors, respectively. Enantioselective GC analysis of L. mutica essential oil revealed the presence of twelve couples and two enantiomerically pure chiral monoterpenoids. Their enantiomeric excesses were from a few percent units to 100%. Moreover, the essential oil exhibited moderate in vitro activity against five fungal strains, being especially effective against M. canis, which is a severe zoophilic dermatophyte causal agent of pet and human infections. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B. Slabaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS, Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS, lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT, and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT. Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG, and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM. The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop.

  11. Cysteine-stabilised peptide extract of Morinda lucida (Benth) leaf exhibits antimalarial activity and augments antioxidant defense system in P. berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Joseph O; Adewole, Kayode E; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2017-07-31

    Cysteine-stabilised peptides (CSP) are majorly explored for their bioactivities with applications in medicine and agriculture. Morinda lucida leaf is used indigenously for the treatment of malaria; it also contains CSP but the role of CSP in the antimalarial activity of the leaf has not been evaluated. This study was therefore performed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of partially purified cysteine-stabilised peptide extract (PPCPE) of Morinda lucida leaf and its possible augmentation of the antioxidant systems of liver and erythrocytes in murine malaria. PPCPE was prepared from Morinda lucida leaf. The activity of PPCPE was evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum W2 and its cytotoxicity against a BGM kidney cell line. PPCPE was also evaluated for its antimalarial activity and its effects on selected liver and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in P. berghei NK65-infected mice. PPCPE was not active against P. falciparum W2 (IC50: >50µg/ml) neither was it cytotoxic (MLD50: >1000µg/ml). However, PPCPE was active against P. berghei NK65 in vivo, causing 51.52% reduction in parasitaemia at 31.25mg/Kg body weight on day 4 post-inoculation. PPCPE significantly reduced (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and erythrocyte at higher doses compared to untreated controls. PPCPE increased glutathione concentration and activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in a dose-dependent manner, which was significant (P < 0.05) at higher doses compared to the untreated controls. The results suggest that PPCPE may require bioactivation in vivo in order to exert its antimalarial effect and that PPCPE may augment the antioxidant defense system to alleviate the reactive oxygen species-mediated complications of malaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth) used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Julia Penna; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Lima, Joaquim Corsino; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle Lima; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2013-12-01

    Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.

  13. Morphology, ultrastructure and mineral uptake is affected by copper toxicity in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana (Benth.) T.D. Penn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Tielle Abreu; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Oliveira, Sérgio José Ribeiro; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Souza, Vânia Lima; Dos Santos Silva, José Victor; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Toxic effects of copper (Cu) were analyzed in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana, a species that is highly tolerant to flooding and found in Brazil in wetlands contaminated with Cu. Plants were cultivated in fully nutritive solution, containing different concentrations of Cu (from 0.08 μmol to 0.47 mmol L(-1)). Symptoms of Cu toxicity were observed in both leaves and roots of plants cultivated from 0.16 mmol Cu L(-1). In the leaves, Cu clearly induced alterations in the thickness of the epidermis, mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, and intercellular space of the lacunose parenchyma. Also, this metal induced disorganization in thylakoid membranes, internal and external membrane rupture in chloroplasts, mitochondrial alterations, and electrodense material deposition in vacuoles of the parenchyma and cell walls. The starch grains disappeared; however, an increase of plastoglobule numbers was observed according to Cu toxicity. In the roots, destruction of the epidermis, reduction of the intercellular space, and modifications in the format of initial cells of the external cortex were evident. Cell walls and endoderm had been broken, invaginations of tonoplast and vacuole retractions were found, and, again, electrodense material was observed in these sites. Mineral nutrient analysis revealed higher Cu accumulation in the roots and greater macro- and micronutrients accumulation into shoots. Thus, root morphological and ultrastructural changes induced differential nutrients uptake and their translocations from root toward shoots, and this was related to membrane and endoderm ruptures caused by Cu toxicity.

  14. Selective in vitro and in silico butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of diterpenes and rosmarinic acid isolated from Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. and Salvia glutinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, F Sezer; Ślusarczyk, Sylwester; Matkowski, Adam; Pérez-Garrido, Alfonso; Girón-Rodríguez, Francisco; Cerón-Carrasco, José P; den-Haan, Helena; Peña-García, Jorge; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Domaradzki, Krzysztof; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2017-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibition is one of the most treatment strategies against Alzheimer's disease (AD) where metal accumulation is also strongly associated with pathology of the disease. In the current study, we assessed inhibitory effect against acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and metal-chelating capacity of twelve diterpenes: arucadiol, miltirone, tanshinone IIa, 1-oxomiltirone, cryptotanshinone, 1,2-didehydromiltirone, 1,2-didehydrotanshinone IIa, 1β-hydroxycryptotanshinone, 15,16-dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, isotanshinone II, 1(S)-hydroxytanshinone IIa, and rosmarinic acid, isolated from Perovskia atriplicifolia and Salvia glutinosa. The compounds were tested at 10 μg/mL using ELISA microtiter assays against AChE and BChE. QSAR and molecular docking studies have been also performed on the active compounds. All of the compounds showed higher [e.g., IC50 = 1.12 ± 0.07 μg/mL for 1,2-didehydromiltirone, IC50 = 1.15 ± 0.07 μg/mL for cryptotanshinone, IC50 = 1.20 ± 0.03 μg/mL for arucadiol, etc.)] or closer [1,2-didehydrotanshinone IIa (IC50 = 5.98 ± 0.49 μg/mL) and 1(S)-hydroxytanshinone IIa (IC50 = 5.71 ± 0.27 μg/mL)] inhibition against BChE as compared to that of galanthamine (IC50 = 12.56 ± 0.37 μg/mL), whereas only 15,16-dihydrotanshinone moderately inhibited AChE (65.17 ± 1.39%). 1,2-Didehydrotanshinone IIa (48.94 ± 0.26%) and 1(S)-hydroxytanshinone IIa (47.18 ± 5.10%) possessed the highest metal-chelation capacity. The present study affords an evidence for the fact that selective BChE inhibitors should be further investigated as promising candidate molecules for AD therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    OpenAIRE

    Slabaugh, Mary B.; Cooper, Laurel D.; Kishore, Venkata K.; Knapp, Steven J.; Jennifer G. Kling

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the ?5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified m...

  16. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, Mary B; Cooper, Laurel D; Kishore, Venkata K; Knapp, Steven J; Kling, Jennifer G

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS), lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT), and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT). Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG), and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM). The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop.

  17. Anticonvulsant profile of the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine isolated from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart ex Benth (Leguminosae-Papilionaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Silmara Aparecida; Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Fachim, Helene Aparecida; Gavin, Amanda Salomão; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Beleboni, Renê Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying the onset and maintenance of epileptic seizures involve alterations in inhibitory and/or excitatory neurotransmitter pathways. Thus, the prospecting of novel molecules from natural products that target both inhibition and excitation systems has deserved interest in the rational design of new anticonvulsants. We isolated the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu and evaluated the action of these compounds against chemically induced seizures in rats. Our results showed that the administration of different doses of (+)-erythravine inhibited seizures evoked by bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, and kainic acid at maximum of 80, 100, and 100%, respectively, whereas different doses of (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine inhibited seizures at a maximum of 100% when induced by bicuculline, NMDA, and kainic acid, and, to a lesser extent, PTZ (60%). The analysis of mean latency to seizure onset of nonprotected animals, for specific doses of alkaloids, showed that (+)-erythravine increased latencies to seizures induced by bicuculline. Although (+)-erythravine exhibited very weak anticonvulsant action against seizures induced by NMDA, this alkaloid increased the latency in this assay. The increase in latency to onset of seizures promoted by (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine reached a maximum of threefold in the bicuculline test. All animals were protected against death when treated with different doses of (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine in the tests using the four chemical convulsants. Identical results were obtained when using (+)-erythravine in the tests of bicuculline, NMDA, and PTZ, and, to a lesser extent, kainic acid. Therefore, these data validate the anticonvulsant properties of the tested alkaloids, which is of relevance in consideration of the ethnopharmacological/biotechnological potential of E. mulungu. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytoplankton community in relation to physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    the river Talar polluted by industrial effluents and domestic sewage from November 2008 to July 2009. .... decomposition of waste materials in the catchments area. ... +. Scenedesmus bernardii G. M.. Smith. -. +. +. Spirogyra singularis Nordstedt. +. +. +. Spirogyra nitida Tonbridge. +. +. +. Zygnema pectinatum (Vauch.) Ag. +.

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Abstract · Vol 20 (1987) - Articles The germination of colanuts (Cola nitida Ventenant) Schott and Endlicher Abstract · Vol 36, No 1 (2003) - Articles Intercropping robusta coffee with some edible crops in Ghana: Agronomic performance and ...

  20. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    2005-08-05

    Aug 5, 2005 ... measles (anti-viral) and used as hair shampoo for Taenia capitis (antifungal properties) ( Gill, 1992). In Nigeria ..... of cardiac glycoside and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and Citrus aurantifolia.