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Sample records for brunfelsia nitida benth

  1. Observações preliminares do "Angelim" (Andira nitida Mart. ex Benth para uso na arborização urbana

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    Sérgio Soares Martins

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar as qualidades estéticas e funcionais do Angelim (Andira nitida a fim de verificar as potencialidades e limitações dessa espécie para o uso na arborização urbana. Foram analisadas características como: altura da árvore, copa, floração, frutificação, altura do primeiro esgalhamento e sistema radicular. Também foram feitos plantios em sementeira a fim de obter informações como: percentagem de germinação, desenvolvimento da espécie, e característica da muda.The objective of this paper was to analize the functional and aesthetic qualities of "angelim" (Andira nitida to verify the potential of this species as am urban landscape plant. The analyzed characteristics were: height, crown form, flowering season, frutification, trunk height and root system. The percentage of germination and the seedling development and characteristics were also evaluate.

  2. Fatty acid composition of Brunfelsia uniflora (Solanaceae seed oil

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    Guzmán, C. A.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Brunfelsia uniflora contained 30.5% of oil. The oil was analysed and components were identified by infrared (IR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and chemical methods. Linoleic acid predominated (75.5% followed by oleic (11.8% and palmitic (7.25% acids. Ricinoleic acid was present in small quantities (0.52%.Las semillas de Brunfelsia uniflora contuvieron 30.5% de aceite. El aceite fue analizado y los componentes fueron indentificados por espectroscopia de infrarrojo (IR, cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masa (CGEM y métodos químicos. Predominó el ácido linoleico (75.5% seguido por el oleico (11.8% y el palmítico (7.25%. El ácido ricinoleico estuvo presente en pequeñas cantidades (0.52%.

  3. Disposition of Glaphyria Nitida Jack (Ericaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1963-01-01

    The genus Glaphyria Jack (Trans. Linn. Soc. 14, 1823, 128; reimpr. Calc. J. Nat. Hist. 4, 1843, 306) was based on two species, G. nitida Jack from G. Bunko or Sugar Loaf Mt in Bencoolen (neighbourhood of Mt Dempo) and G. sericea Jack, l.c. 129, from Penang 1. Bentham & Hooker (Gen. Pl. 1, 1865, 703)

  4. Active anthocyanin degradation in Brunfelsia calycina (yesterday--today--tomorrow) flowers.

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    Vaknin, Hila; Bar-Akiva, Ayelet; Ovadia, Rinat; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Forer, Izhak; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2005-09-01

    Anthocyanins are the largest group of plant pigments responsible for colors ranging from red to violet and blue. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins, as part of the larger phenylpropanoid pathway, has been characterized in great detail. In contrast to the detailed molecular knowledge available on anthocyanin synthesis, very little is known about the stability and catabolism of anthocyanins in plants. In this study we present a preliminary characterization of active in planta degradation of anthocyanins, requiring novel mRNA and protein synthesis, in Brunfelsia calycina flowers. Brunfelsia is a unique system for this study, since the decrease in pigment concentration in its flowers (from dark purple to white) is extreme and rapid, and occurs at a specific and well-defined stage of flower development. Treatment of detached flowers with protein and mRNA synthesis inhibitors, at specific stages of flower development, prevented degradation. In addition, treatment of detached flowers with cytokinins delayed senescence without changing the rate of anthocyanin degradation, suggesting that degradation of anthocyanins is not part of the general senescence process of the flowers but rather a distinctive and specific pathway. Based on studies on anthocyanin degradation in wine and juices, peroxidases are reasonable candidates for the in vivo degradation. A significant increase in peroxidase activity was shown to correlate in time with the rate of anthocyanin degradation. An additional indication that oxidative enzymes are involved in the process is the fact that treatment of flowers with reducing agents, such as DTT and glutathione, caused inhibition of degradation. This study represents the first step in the elucidation of the molecular mechanism behind in vivo anthocyanin degradation in plants. PMID:15918029

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

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    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  6. Optimization and characterization of alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase produced by Bacillus pumillus grown on Ficus nitida wastes

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    Eman Zakaria Gomaa

    2013-01-01

    The potentiality of 23 bacterial isolates to produce alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase) on Ficus nitida wastes was investigated. Bacillus pumillus ATCC7061 was selected as the most potent bacterial strain for the production of both enzymes. It was found that the optimum production of protease and CMCase were recorded at 30 °C, 5% Ficus nitida leaves and incubation period of 72 h. The best nitrogen sources for protease and CMCase production were yeast extract and casein, re...

  7. Response of clonal plasticity of Fargesia nitida to different canopy conditions of subalpine coniferous forest

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    Jianping TAO; Lixia SONG; Yongjian WANG; Weiyin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of canopy conditions on clump and culm numbers, and the morphological plasticity and biomass distribution patterns of the dwarf bamboo species Fargesia nitida. Specifically, we investigated the effects of canopy condi-tions on the growth and morphological characteristics of F. nitida, and the adaptive responses of F. nitida to dif-ferent canopy conditions and its ecological senses. The results indicate that forest canopy had a significant effect on the genet density and culm number per clump, while it did not affect the ramet density. Clumps tended to be few and large in gaps and forest edge plots, and small under forest understory plots. The ramets showed an even distribution under the closed canopy, and clus-ter distribution under gaps and forest edge plots. The forest canopy had a significant effect on both the ramets'biomass and biomass allocation. Favourable light conditions promoted ramet growth and biomass accumulation. Greater amounts of biomass in gaps and forest edge plots were shown by the higher number of culms per clump and the diameter of these culms. Under closed canopy, the bamboos increased their branching angle, leaf biomass allocation, specific leaf area and leaf area ratio to exploit more favourable light conditions in these locations. The spacer length, specific spacer length and spacer branching angles all showed significant differences between gaps and closed canopy conditions. The larger specific spacer length and spacer branching angle were beneficial for bamboo growth, scattering the ramets and exploiting more favourable light conditions. In summary, this study shows that to varying degrees, F nitida exhibits both a wide ecological amplitude and high degree of morphological plasticity in response to differing forest canopy conditions. More-over, the changes in plasticity enable the plants to optimize their light usage efficiency to promote growth and increase access to resources available in

  8. A new combination in Orophea (Annonaceae for Uvaria nitida Roxb. ex G. Don

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    Ian M. Turner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of Uvaria nitida Roxb. ex G.Don. (Annonaceae has not been considered for 180 years. The plant is only known from material grown in the Calcutta Botanic Garden in India following introduction from, reportedly, the Moluccas. Examination of a specimen from the Brussels Herbarium, designated here as lectotype, indicates that the species is a member of Orophea subgenus Sphaerocarpon, similar to Orophea gabra Merr. A new combination in Orophea is made. 

  9. Caracterização anatômica, química e antibacteriana de folhas de Brunfelsia uniflora (manacá presentes na Mata Atlântica Anatomical, chemical and antibacterial characterization of leaves of Brunfelsia uniflora (manacá in the Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica

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    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Brunfelsia uniflora é uma espécie pertencente à família Solanaceae conhecida popularmente como manacá e empregada em medicina popular, suas folhas são empregadas contra artrite, reumatismo, sífilis, picadas de cobra, febre amarela, e ainda como diurética e antitérmica. Objetivou-se realizar um estudo anatômico foliar, através de microscopia de luz e de eletrônica de varredura, bem como análises químicas do extrato foliar através de cromatografia e testes microbiológicos com os extratos foliares para atividade antibacteriana frente a Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus. O material biológico foi coletado em área de Mata Atlântica, nas proximidades da cidade de São Vicente - SP. O estudo da anatomia foliar de Brunfelsia uniflora, evidenciou parênquima paliçádico com duas camadas celulares e o parênquima lacunoso com seis camadas de células; foi observada grande quantidade de drusas no parênquima clorofiliano e predominância de esclerênquima na região da nervura central da folha. A epiderme abaxial apresentou grande quantidade de estômatos, sendo estes quase que ausentes na epiderme adaxial. Estudos através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura permitiram evidenciar uma camada de cera epicuticular ornamental bem característica na epiderme adaxial da folha, predominância de estômatos paracíticos, presença de tricomas capitados e muitos tricomas peltados na epiderme abaxial da folha. A análise química evidenciou alguns picos nos cromatogramas que correspondem a grupos de substâncias que não puderam ser analisadas de forma qualitativa, mas que se pode inferir a ocorrência de derivados de ácido cafeico. Os testes microbiológicos obtidos apresentaram resultados negativos no controle das espécies de bactérias testadas, nas concentrações utilizadas.Brunfelsia uniflora is a species that belongs to the family Solanaceae, popularly known as manacá. In popular medicine the leaves are used for arthritis

  10. Ionic Liquid-Based Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth.

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    Wei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquids (IL-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min. The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  11. Effect of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ((Stapf Th. AND H. Durand on reproductive abilities and developmental indices in rodents

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    Lydia F. Otoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Picralima nitida is widely used in the traditional management of several ailments. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic seed extract of P.nitida on reproductive abilities and developmental indices and to establish its safety for use. Methods: Secondary metabolite screening, and safety assessment to estimate the NOAEL, and LD50 of P.nitida were conducted. Mating, estrous, fertility, live birth, and weaning indices, and the gestation period in female rodents pretreated with P.nitida (10-1000 mg/kg for 14 days were determined. In males the number of attempted mounts, sniffing, licking, genital and non-genital grooming, and hesitation time to female, in reproductive orientation (mating behavior studies were determined with P.nitida treatments. Spermatocyte count and quality (morphology, motility and viability as well as histopathological study of the seminiferous tubules were also performed. Results: P.nitida, which had alkaloids, tannins, steroids, glycosides, anthraquinones and terpenoids, present a NOAEL 2000 mg/kg. Treatment with P.nitida in females significantly reduced fertility index (40%, caused dose-dependent reduction in litter size and increased estrous index. Mating index, gestation period, live birth index and weaning index were not affected. In males, there was a significant increase P.nitida-induced sniffing, licking, genital and non-genital grooming and attempted mounts with acute (but not prolonged treatment. Treatment also significantly reduced the hesitation time of males for attraction towards females and sperm count. Spermatocyte morphology, motility and viability was not affected. Histopathological studies indicated progressive degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules with increasing P.nitida doses. Conclusion: Picralima nitida enhances sexual behaviors in both males and females. However, chronic administration reduces fertility in females and sperm count in males; at

  12. [An in vitro study of the action of kola nitida on bacterial strains implicated in dental caries and periodontal diseases].

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    Kamagate, A; Attoli, L; Kone, D; Ly, Bakayoko; Brou, E; Sixou, M

    2002-06-01

    The Nitida Kola is a substance extracted from the kolanut. In West Africa its use by chewing is widespread among the Manding people. It's said to have tonic, stimulant and aphrodisiac characteristics and even recent studies have shown that it has antibacterial characteristics. The aim of this study is to make an estimation of the Nitida Kola's effects on different bacterial species involved in the two main oral and dental pathologies (teeth decays and periodontal illnesses). The obtained results indicate that the kola extract is not effectual against the tried-out bacteria at regular dose used by chewing.

  13. Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Picralima nitida seeds(Apocynacaea) in rats

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    Okonta Jegbefume Mathew; Adibe Maxwell Ogochukwu; Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the antisecrectory activities of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The methanol extract of Picralima nitida seeds was fractionated into chloroform fraction and methanol fraction. They were evaluated for antiulcer activity and gastric emptying time in rats using aspirin-pylorus-ligation model. Results: Oral administration of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction at 1 000 mg/kg reduced gastric ulcer by 56.4%, 40.0% and 56.3%, respectively; and the fractions of the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced gastric emptying time when compared to the control. Gastric acidity was significantly decreased when compared with saline group, 40.25 mEq/L in methanol extract, 50.0 mEq/L in chloroform fraction 51.25 mEq/L in methanol fration but had no significant effect on the gastric secretion volume. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of the seeds of Picralima possessed potent antiulcer properties and some antisecretory properties.

  14. Biologia do Triatoma nitida Usinger, 1939 em laboratório (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Biology of Triatoma nitida usinger, 1939 under laboratory coditions

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    Cleber Galvão

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida is a wild species occurring in Mexico and Central America. In order to establish the length of its life cycle and transmission potential, the following parameters were observed: the incubation period, the interval between hatching, or moulting, and the first feeding; the number of blood meals and the time of development. The time-lapse before the bite, the length of feeding and the interval between the end of the blood meal and defecation, as well as the site of defecation were also analyzed. Average length of the egg incubation period was 18.2 days. Time interval between the food source offering and the bite was less than 4 min in 60//of the analyzed cases, except in the fifth instar, where only 38//of the insects began feeding in less than 5 min. The blood-sucking period was long and rising until the fifth instar, decreasing in adults, and ranging from 1 min to 2 and a half hours. Only 26//of the blood meals were followed by defecations within 20 min. The average length of the life cycle was 897.5 days.

  15. Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperproteinaemic Activity of Extracts of Picralima nitida Seed and Tapinanthus bangwensis Leaf on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    Bosede M. Adegoke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water extract of Picralima nitida seed and aqueous extract of Tapinanthus bangwensis leaf were investigated for their antidiabetic activities on some biochemical parameters (glucose, protein associated with diabetes in both the serum and tissues of experimental animals using alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits as model. The rabbits were fasted overnight before they were given a single intraperitoneal injection of aqueous alloxan monohydrate (Sigma, USA at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight to make them diabetic. The experimental rabbits (chinchilla were grouped into six and extracts administered orally, once daily for five weeks. Groups 1 and 2 (non-diabetic received only distilled water and coconut water respectively, group 3 (diabetic received 200 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of T. bangwensis leaf, group 4 received 400 mg/kg body weight of coconut water extract of P. nitida seed, groups 5 and 6 (diabetic received only distilled water and coconut water respectively. The results revealed that the extracts independently lowered significantly (pandlt;0.05 the blood glucose and protein levels of the diabetic rabbits. Both extracts significantly (pandlt;0.05 increased the tissue protein. Overall, aqueous extract of T. bangwensis leaf and coconut water extract of P. nitida seed independently possesses insulin-like properties as demonstrated by their antidiabetic actions, hence, may be good herbal extracts in the management of diabetes.

  16. Chemical Constituents of Phacellaria compressa Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two new compounds, 1-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propane (1) and 5, 7,3'-trimethyoxyflavan-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the dried aerial parts of Phacellaria compressa Benth., together with 2,3-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-methyl]-1,4-butanediol (3), ethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (4), methyl 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoate (5), β-sitosterol (6), 5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavan (7), lupeol (8), zhebeiresinol (9), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (10), (+)-catechin (11),betulin (12), β-daucosterol (13), (+)-syringaresinol (14), scopoletin (15), and proximadiol (16). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectral evidence or by comparing them with authentic samples.Compound 9 showed α-amylase inhibitory activity of 57.55% at a concentration of 50 μg/mL.

  17. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) in tropical diseases:A review

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    Osayemwenre Erharuyi; Abiodun Falodun; Peter Langer

    2014-01-01

    Picralima nitida Durand and Hook, (fam. Apocynaceae) is a West African plant with varied applications in African folk medicine. Various parts of the plant have been employed ethnomedicinally as remedy for fever, hypertension, jaundice, dysmenorrheal, gastrointestinal disorders and malaria. In order to reveal its full pharmacological and therapeutic potentials, the present review focuses on the current medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological activities of this species. Literature survey on scientific journals, books as well as electronic sources have shown the isolation of alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols and steroids from different parts of the plant, pharmacological studies revealed that the extract or isolated compounds from this species posses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglyceamic, hypotensive, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, antiulcer and antitumorigenic activities. Results from various scientific investigations to date have revealed the potential of the extract from the plant or isolated compounds for use in the treatment and prevention of various kinds of human diseases. However, further studies on the extracts and pure compounds from this species is required to completely assess its phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the mechanism of action behind these pharmacological activities exhibited by the compounds isolated from this species.

  18. Efeito hipoglicemiante da farinha do fruto de maracujá-do-mato (Passiflora nitida Kunth em ratos normais e diabéticos Hypoglycemic effect of Passiflora nitida Kunth fruit flour on normal and diabetic rats

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    E.S. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A região amazônica é detentora de uma vasta biodiversidade de frutos, porém pouco explorada quanto o seu potencial nutricional e econômico. Dentre estes frutos destaca-se o maracujá-do-mato (Passiflora nitida Kunth, espécie silvestre, de fruto comestível, com sabor exótico e de boa aceitabilidade para consumo. No presente estudo objetivou-se analisar as características nutricionais do mesocarpo do fruto da P. nitida e avaliar o potencial hipoglicemiante em ratos normais e diabéticos. A farinha do mesocarpo do fruto foi elaborada e analisada quanto a composição centesimal. A atividade hipoglicemiante foi avaliada por meio de dois modelos experimentais em ratos Wistar. O mesocarpo apresentou baixa concentração de macronutrientes e alto teor de umidade, cinzas e fibras. No experimento agudo, após 15 minutos da administração da sacarose, os níveis glicêmicos foram de 146±12 mg dL-1 no grupo controle e 112±2,5 mg dL-1, no grupo que recebeu 1g kg-1 de peso da farinha. No experimento crônico, após 21 dias, houve redução de 493 mg dL-1 para 302 mg dL-1 (38,7 % e 195 mg dL-1 (60,4% na glicemia nos grupos que foram tratados com 20 e 40% de ração enriquecida com a farinha, respectivamente, em relação ao grupo diabético não tratado. Em ambos os modelos experimentais, a farinha do mesocarpo mostrou-se eficaz na redução da glicemia. O fruto de P. nitida mostrou-se um produto natural em potencial para o controle da glicemia no diabetes.The Amazon region has a vast biodiversity of fruits but is little explored as to its nutritional and economic potential. Among these fruits is "maracuja-do-mato" (Passiflora nitida Kunth, a wild species of edible fruit with exotic flavor and good acceptability for consumption. The aim of the present study was to analyze the nutritional characteristics of P. nitida fruit mesocarp and to evaluate its hypoglycemic potential in normal and diabetic rats. Flour from the fruit mesocarp was prepared and

  19. Occurrence and structure of extrafloral nectariesin Pterodon pubescens Benth. and Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth.

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    Paiva Élder Antônio Sousa e

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are structurally variable and widely spread among the angiosperms. The occurrence of EFNs in leaves of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth. and Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae were detected in adult specimens, at the time of production of new buds and flowers. The goals of the present study are to register the occurrence of the EFNs in P. pubescens and P. polygalaeflorus, and provide comparative data on the anatomical structures. The EFNs occur in the rachis and are located under the insertion of each petiolule. Each nectary consists of a small elevation whose apical portion is deeply invaginated, resulting in a depression (secretory pole, a common characteristic of both species. Unicellular, nonglandular trichomes occur along the rachis, being less numerous in P. polygalaeflorus while in P. pubescens they cover the EFNs. The secretory tissue consists of parenchyma cells with dense cytoplasm compactly arranged. The nectar reaches the surface of the EFNs by rupturing the thin cuticle which covers the secretory pole, since both species lack stomata or any other interruption at the epidermis. The basic difference between the two species, in relation to the EFNs, is the density of the pubescence, which is always greater in P. pubescens. Structural and dimensional modifications may be observed, even between basal and apical nectaries in the same rachis, so it does not constitute a taxonomical tool.

  20. Estrategias de la reproducción sexual de Puya nitida (NT) Mez. (Bromeliaceae) en el Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza (Cundinamarca, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Saldarriaga, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Se estudiaron las estrategias de reproducción sexual de Puya nitida en el Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Cundinamarca, entre los meses de febrero del 2013 y febrero del 2014; se evaluó aspectos de la bióloga floral, como la morfología y desarrollo floral, antesis, y producción de néctar; los patrones fenológicos a nivel de población, parche y roseta; algunas interacciones planta-animal, y la viabilidad y germinación de semillas. Se encontró que P. nitida es una especie que se adecua al sín...

  1. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku, V. O.; E. E. Oguzie; Obi, C.; Ayuk, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN) leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of hali...

  2. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  3. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  4. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodbhane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida. PMID:23516220

  5. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Arnab [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Beauchemin, Nicholas [University of New Hampshire; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Furnholm, Teal [University of New Hampshire; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten [University of New Hampshire; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gtari, Maher [University of New Hampshire; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nouioui, Imen [University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Santos, Catarina [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Sur, Saubashya [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tavares, Fernando [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thakur, Subarna [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Wall, Luis [University of Quilmes, Argentina; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wishart, Jessie [University of New Hampshire; Tisa, Louis S. [University of New Hampshire

    2013-01-01

    Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.

  6. SOME EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THE BIOPREPARATION FROM Picralima nitida SEEDS EXTRACT AS ANTIDIABETIC AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Akinloye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to investigate some untoward effects that could be associated with the use of P. nitida as hypoglycemic agent using some biochemical and histological evidences. The antioxidant property of the plant was determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Biochemical studies in plasma using determining the testes such as blood glucose, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, gamma glutamyl transferase activities, electrolytes (sodium, potassium and bicarbonate, lipid peroxidation levels, haematological parameters (red blood cell and whole blood cell, platelets, and lymphocyte counts, blood glucose level, lipid profile, and also liver and kidney function tests were performed. Histopathological examinations of the liver, kidney and pancreas were done following the standard Heamatoxylin and Eosin staining method. Methanol extract of the seeds has the highest antioxidant level (36.73%, indicating higher free radical scavenging activity; followed by aqueous extract (19.36% and coconut water extract (4.09%. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose of all the treated rats at the end of the experiment (ranging from 55.59% to 41.66%. Significant increase (p<0.05 in body weights of the treated rats were also observed at the end of the treatment (ranging from 9.26% to 38.89%. There was a significant (p<0.05 increase in the hematological parameters in all the extract treated groups. There was also significant decrease (p<0.05 in the lipid profiles of the treated groups. Plasma studied enzymes activities decreased in all treated groups. Ionoregulatory disturbances observed included hyperkalemia and hypernatremia in all the treated groups but were reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the end of the treatment. Urea and bicarbonate concentrations and also of lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly in all the groups. The histopathological studies revealed that the extracts were unable to

  7. Dormancy break in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1; immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2, and 100 °C (T3, concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4, 10 minutes (T5 , and 15 minutes (T6, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 + immersion in water for six hours (T8, and for 12 hours (T9, soaking in water for 24 hours (T10, and for 48 hours (T11. The characteristics evaluated were such: emergency, mean emergency time, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter. The best method for breaking dormancy of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. is mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80.

  8. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%, but the esters showed great diversity.

  9. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. C. Kaplan; Castilho, Rachel O.

    2010-01-01

    The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae) , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%), but the ester...

  10. Triterpenoids from Gutenbergia Nigritana(Benth). Oliv and Hiern

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadu, Augustine A; Tarimaledei, Pondei; Onanuga, A

    2013-01-01

    Gutenbergia nigritana (Benth). Oliv and Hein (Asteraceae) is a Nigerian ethnomedicinal plant which has long being used medicinally in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has diverse ethnomedicinal uses which include: The Plant is used in the Ijaw area of Niger Delta region of Nigeria to treat Malaria, convulsion, diarrhea and as a remedy for skin infection. The antibacterial study on dichloromethane extract and chromatographic fractions:dichloromethane soluble part(DC1), ethyl acetate ...

  11. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

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    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  12. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

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    V. O. Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of halides to the extract enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect which improved adsorption of cationic species present in the extract and was in the order KCl < KBr < KI suggesting possible role of radii of the halide ions. Thermodynamic parameters determined showed that the adsorption of BN on the metal surface is an exothermic and spontaneous process and that the adsorption was via a physisorption mechanism.

  13. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Chalcone Isomerase Gene (CHI) from Brunfelsia acuminata Flowers%鸳鸯茉莉查尔酮异构酶基因(CHI)cDNA的克隆与生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉婷; 邱栋梁

    2012-01-01

    采用RT-PCR与RACE技术克隆了鸳鸯茉莉(Brunfelsia acuminata)花瓣中查尔酮异构酶基因(CHI)的全长cDNA,GenBank登录号为JN887637.该基因全长1051 bp,含有1个792 bp的开放阅读框,编码263个氨基酸,为不稳定蛋白.对保守区功能区的分析,推导CHI蛋白具有查尔酮超级家族的保守结构域,二级结构预测显示其主要以α螺旋和β折叠为主.氨基酸同源性分析表明,鸳鸯茉莉CHI蛋白与矮牵牛(Petunia hybrida)、金花茶(Camellia nitidissima)、甜樱桃(Prunus avium)、芍药(Paeonia lactiflora)、牡丹(P.suffruticosa)、菊花(Chry santhemum morifolium)等植物的同源性分别达到90%、89%、84%、85%、84%、80%.因此,CHI基因可能与鸳鸯茉莉的花色形成有关.

  14. Optimization and characterization of alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase produced by Bacillus pumillus grown on Ficus nitida wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The potentiality of 23 bacterial isolates to produce alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase) on Ficus nitida wastes was investigated. Bacillus pumillus ATCC7061 was selected as the most potent bacterial strain for the production of both enzymes. It was found that the optimum production of protease and CMCase were recorded at 30 °C, 5% Ficus nitida leaves and incubation period of 72 h. The best nitrogen sources for protease and CMCase production were yeast extract and casein, respectively. Also maximum protease and CMCase production were reported at pH 9 and pH 10, respectively. The enzymes possessed a good stability over a pH range of 8-10, expressed their maximum activities at pH10 and temperature range of 30-50 °C, expressed their maximum activities at 50 °C. Ions of Hg(2+), Fe2+ and Ag(+) showed a stimulatory effect on protease activity and ions of Fe(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Ag(+) caused enhancement of CMCase activity. The enzymes were stable not only towards the nonionic surfactants like Triton X-100 and Tween 80 but also the strong anionic surfactant, SDS. Moreover, the enzymes were not significantly inhibited by EDTA or cystein. Concerning biotechnological applications, the enzymes retained (51-97%) of their initial activities upon incubation in the presence of commercials detergents for 1 h. The potential use of the produced enzymes in the degradation of human hair and cotton fabric samples were also assessed. PMID:24294252

  15. Optimization and characterization of alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase produced by Bacillus pumillus grown on Ficus nitida wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Zakaria Gomaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of 23 bacterial isolates to produce alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase on Ficus nitida wastes was investigated. Bacillus pumillus ATCC7061 was selected as the most potent bacterial strain for the production of both enzymes. It was found that the optimum production of protease and CMCase were recorded at 30 °C, 5% Ficus nitida leaves and incubation period of 72 h. The best nitrogen sources for protease and CMCase production were yeast extract and casein, respectively. Also maximum protease and CMCase production were reported at pH 9 and pH 10, respectively. The enzymes possessed a good stability over a pH range of 8-10, expressed their maximum activities at pH10 and temperature range of 30-50 °C, expressed their maximum activities at 50 °C. Ions of Hg2+, Fe2+ and Ag+ showed a stimulatory effect on protease activity and ions of Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Ag+ caused enhancement of CMCase activity. The enzymes were stable not only towards the nonionic surfactants like Triton X-100 and Tween 80 but also the strong anionic surfactant, SDS. Moreover, the enzymes were not significantly inhibited by EDTA or cystein. Concerning biotechnological applications, the enzymes retained (51-97% of their initial activities upon incubation in the presence of commercials detergents for 1 h. The potential use of the produced enzymes in the degradation of human hair and cotton fabric samples were also assessed.

  16. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  17. Tree size and light availability increase photochemical instead of non-photochemical capacities of Nothofagus nitida trees growing in an evergreen temperate rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Rafael E; Briceño, Verónica F; Corcuera, Luis J; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alvarez, Daniela; Sáez, Katherine; García-Plazaola, José I; Alberdi, Miren; Bravo, León A

    2011-10-01

    Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser (Nothofagaceae) regenerates under the canopy in microsites protected from high light. Nonetheless, it is common to find older saplings in clear areas and adults as emergent trees of the Chilean evergreen forest. We hypothesized that this shade to sun transition in N. nitida is supported by an increase in photochemical and non-photochemical energy dissipation capacities of both photosystems in parallel with the increase in plant size and light availability. To dissect the relative contribution of light environment and plant developmental stage to these physiological responses, the photosynthetic performance of both photosystems was studied from the morpho-anatomical to the biochemical level in current-year leaves of N. nitida plants of different heights (ranging from 0.1 to 7 m) growing under contrasting light environments (integrated quantum flux (IQF) 5-40 mol m(-2). Tree height (TH) and light environment (IQF) independently increased the saturated electron transport rates of both photosystems, as well as leaf and palisade thickness, but non-photochemical energy flux, photoinhibition susceptibility, state transition capacity, and the contents of D1 and PsbS proteins were not affected by IQF and TH. Spongy mesophyll thickness and palisade cell diameter decreased with IQF and TH. A(max), light compensation and saturation points, Rubisco and nitrogen content (area basis) only increased with light environment (IQF), whereas dark respiration (R(d)) decreased slightly and relative chlorophyll content was higher in taller trees. Overall, the independent effects of more illuminated environment and tree height mainly increased the photochemical instead of the non-photochemical energy flux. Regardless of the photochemical increase with TH, carbon assimilation only significantly improved with higher IQF. Therefore it seems that mainly acclimation to the light environment supports the phenotypic transition of N. nitida from shade to

  18. Ramet Population Structure of Fargesia nitida (Mitford)Keng f. et Yi in Different Successional Stands of the Subalpine Coniferous Forest in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Yu; Jian-Ping Tao; Yuan Li; Yong-Jian Wang; Yi Xi; Wei-Yin Zhang; Run-Guo Zang

    2006-01-01

    Forest structure and succession in Wolong Nature Reserve is influenced by the understory dwarf bamboo population. However, less is known about how the forest succession affects the dwarf bamboo population.To examine the bamboo ramet population growth of Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f. et Yi and to determine how ramet population structure varies along the succession of coniferous forest, we sampled ramet populations of F. nitida from the following three successional stages:(i) a deciduous broad-leaved (BL)stand;(ii) a mixed broad-leaved coniferous (MI) stand;and (iii) a coniferous (CF) stand. We investigated the population structure, biomass allocation, and morphological characteristics of the bamboo ramet among the three stand types. Clonal ramets, constituting the bamboo population, tended to become short and small with succession. The ramet changed towards having a greater mass investment in leaves, branches and underground roots and rhizomes rather than in the culm. With respect to leaf traits, individual leaf mass and area in the BL stand were markedly bigger than those in both the MI and CF stands, except for no significant difference in specific leaf area. The age distribution showed that the bamboo population approached an older age with succession. The results demonstrate that the ramet population structure of F.nitida is unstable and its growth performance is inhibited by succession.

  19. Constituintes químicos e avaliação preliminar in vivo da atividade antimalárica de Ouratea nitida Aubl (Ochnaceae Chemical constituents and in vivo preliminary evaluation of antimalarial activity of Ouratea nitida Aubl. (Ochnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Estevam

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o isolamento de triterpenos (ácido 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-óico, friedelina e b-amirina e outros compostos (éster etílico do ácido p-hidroxibenzóico e tetracosano, bem como a avaliação preliminar in vivo da atividade antimalárica de extratos das folhas de Ouratea nitida Aubl. Análise qualitativa através de CG-EM de uma fração apolar do extrato em hexano também foi efetuada. Ésteres metílicos e etílicos dos ácidos laúrico, mirístico, palmítico, esteárico e oléico, metílicos dos ácidos pentadecanóico, heptadecanóico, araquidônico, behênico e lignocérico e o etílico do ácido linoléico foram os componentes majoritários; enquanto que o estearato de n-butila, o tetracosano e a 6,10,14-trimetil-2-pentadecanona foram os minoritários. Os compostos isolados foram identificados com base na análise dos dados espectrais (IV, EM e RMN, incluindo DEPT e estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez nesta espécie.This work describes the isolation of triterpenes (3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, friedelin, and b-amyrin and other compounds (p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester and tetracosane as well as a preliminary evaluation of in vivo antimalarial activity of the extracts from the leaves of Ouratea nitida Aubl. Qualitative analysis by GC-MS of an apolar fraction from the hexane extract was also carried out. Methyl and ethyl esters of lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids, methyl ester of pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic, arachidonic, beenic and lignoceric acids, and ethyl ester of linoleic acid were found to be the main constituents while n-butyl stearate, tetracosane and 6,10,14-trimetthyl-2-pentadecanone were the minor. All isolated compounds were identified on basis of the spectral data (IR, MS and NMR, including DEPT and are being described for the first time in this specie.

  20. Diploflavone, a New Flavonoid from Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto G.S. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Cabral, Analucia G.S.; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Silva, Marcelo S. da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica]. E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br; Da Cunha, Emidio V. Leitao [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Silene C. do [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2005-11-15

    The chemical examination of Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. resulted in the isolation of a new 3-methoxyflavone, 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6,6-dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone, to which was given the trivial name diploflavone (1); as well as the known 3,6-dimethoxy-6,6- dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone (2). The structure of the new compound was established by spectral analyses. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against the cells NClH292 (lung carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma). The cells HEp-2 were the most affected by the substances tested. (author)

  1. Hepatics alterations and genotoxic effects of Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA) in diabetic rats Alterações hepáticas e efeitos genotóxicos do Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA) em ratos diabéticos

    OpenAIRE

    Graziella Rodrigues; Éder Marcolin; Silvia Bona; Marilene Porawski; Mauricio Lehmann; Norma Possa Marroni

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusions of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated effects hepatics alterations and genotoxic and antidiabetic effect of Croton cajucara Benth bark extracts treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control rats; control rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth extrac...

  2. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Feng-sen Li; Nan-nan Pang; Ge Tian; Min Jiang; Hong-ping Zhang; Jian-bing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration o...

  3. Analisis Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Dari Batang Spatholobus Ferrugineus (Zoll & Moritzi) Benth Yang Berfungsi Sebagai Antioksidan

    OpenAIRE

    Marliana, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Spatholobus ferrugineus (Zoll & Moritzi) Benth is one of plants which used by Dayak’s Society in East Kalimantan to cure some diseases, such as colic, fever and irregular menstruation. In this research, secondary metabolic compounds from stems of Spatholobus ferrugineus (Zoll & Moritzi) Benth were extracted with methanol. Methanol extracts examined by phytochemical screening and screening for antioxidant with Thin Layer Cromathography (TLC) method also antioxidant activity assay. Screening fo...

  4. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ((Stapf) Th. AND H. Durand) on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Francisca Otoo; George Asumeng Koffuor; Charles Ansah; Kwesi Boadu Mensah; Charles Benneh; Inemesit Okon Ben

    2015-01-01

    Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE) has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Methodology: The size and length of the combs of White leghorn day-old chicks treated with Testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg), Cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg), or PNE (50-500 mg/kg) for 7 days, as well as Cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg) on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg) on Testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the Chick Comb Test. The ef...

  5. Propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species

  6. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  7. Biologia reprodutiva de populações de Ocimum selloi Benth Reproductive biology of Ocimum selloi Benth. populations

    OpenAIRE

    R. Facanali; M.M.S. Campos; O. Pocius; L.C. Ming; M.D. Soares-Scott; M.O.M. Marques

    2009-01-01

    Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal no Brasil, encontra-se Ocimum selloi Benth., planta anual herbácea da família Lamiaceae que ocorre nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do país. Este trabalho avaliou os aspectos da biologia floral (estrutura floral, floração e frutificação) e mecanismos reprodutivos de Ocimum selloi em quatro populações oriundas das regiões de Piquete e Apiaí, Estado de São Paulo, Camanducaia, Estado de Minas Gerais, e Colombo, Estado do Paraná. O período de antese teve início ...

  8. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Feng-Sen; Pang, Nan-Nan; Tian, Ge; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Ding, Jian-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development. PMID:27073403

  9. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  10. Anatomia do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os caracteres anatômicos do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth. e fornecidas 29 medições de sua estrutura. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias. A estrutura anatômica indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae e série Lepidotae Benth. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  11. Treatment with Aqueous Extract from Croton cajucara Benth Reduces Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Ramos Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g. in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB, through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  12. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery. PMID:22811599

  13. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  14. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

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    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  15. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia Hypoleuca Benth

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    Ahmad R Gohari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca.Results:The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, manool (4, 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5, ursolic acid (6,oleanolic acid (7, 3-epicorosolic acid (8, 3-epimaslinic acid (9 and coleonolic acid (10.Conclusions:In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, someof the isolated compounds (1–7, 9 have not been previously reported from the species S.hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time.

  16. Treatment with Aqueous Extract from Croton cajucara Benth Reduces Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Graziella Ramos Rodrigues; Fábio Cangeri Di Naso; Marilene Porawski; Éder Marcolin; Nélson Alexandre Kretzmann; Alexandre de Barros Falcão Ferraz; Marc Francois Richter; Cláudio Augusto Marroni; Norma Possa Marroni

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activit...

  17. Dormancy and germination of castilla blackberry seeds (rubus glaucus benth) / latencia y germinación de semillas de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Diez Cipriano Arturo; Lobo Arias Mario; Cartagena Valenzuela José Régulo; Medina Cano Clara Inés

    2013-01-01

    We categorized the dormancy and germination ofblackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) seeds from the GermplasmBank System for Food and Agriculture of the Colombian Nation. A tetrazolium test showed normal seedling production viability, but seed coat impermeability prevented imbibition, which is considered an expression of exogenous dormancy; however, this was released by immersing the seeds in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 16 to 21 hours. The treatment was applied to 10 accessions of Castilla blackb...

  18. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Borges Corte; Marília Contin Ventrella; Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges; Claudia Aparecida Pontes; Daniel Pinho

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipid...

  19. Bahan Anti Nyamuk (Mosquito repellent) dari Akar Tuba (Derris elliptica (Roxb.) Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Miduk

    2012-01-01

    Penggunaan bahan kimia untuk pengendalian serangga dapat berdampak negatif terhadap lingkungan maupun manusia. Pemanfaatan bahan alami yang bersifat racun dan ramah lingkungan merupakan salah satu solusi yang diharapkan dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan alternatif untuk perlindungan terhadap serangan serangga. Salah satu tumbuhan yang dapat dimanfaatkan adalah tumbuhan tuba (Derris elliptica (Roxb.) Benth). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui rendemen ekstraktif akar tuba dan mengevaluasi ...

  20. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:27266891

  1. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae?

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    Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L. in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth, a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid coumpounds with similar chemical structures.

  2. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae) be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L.) in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth), a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid compounds with similar chemical structures. PMID:15586905

  3. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae) be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae)?

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L.) in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth), a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid coumpounds with similar chemical structures.

  4. A CLINICAL STUDY ON COLEUS AROMATICUS BENTH W.S.R TO KAPHAJAKASA

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    Binu B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Coleus aromaticus Benth. is a drug which is being used by some folklore practitioners for the diseases like fever, cough and uro-genital disorders. The drug, Coleus aromaticus Benth. which is widely available in India, which is often discussed as a controversy for the source of Pashanabheda. The above mentioned drug is having Kaphavatahara property. Clinical trials were done on 40 patients, assigned in 2 groups of 20 each. The patients were treated with Ambrodil syrup and Arka of Coleus aromaticus Benth. in Group A and Group B respectively. The duration of the treatment was 10 days. Patients were assessed on 5th, 10th day and a follow up was of 20 days. The effects of treatment were assessed statistically on the basis of gradation of cardinal signs and symptoms, before and after treatment. The results were analysed statistically. The analysis suggested that The Coleus aromaticus Benth. is a good choice of drug in Kaphajakasa (productive cough associated with Aruchi (Anorexia, and number of cough bouts.

  5. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Cultivos celulares de Choibá Dipteryx oleifera Benth

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    Paola Andrea Murillo Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Cell cultures of Choiba Dipteryx oleifera BenthTítulo corto: Cultivos celulares de ChoibáResumen: Choibá (Dipteryx oleifera Benth es un árbol de la familia Fabaceae (Papilionoideae, con una distribución geográfica reportada desde Nicaragua  hasta Colombia a una altura de hasta 1000 msnm. Crece en bosque húmedo, muy húmedo o premontano húmedo. Esta especie es considerada vulnerable debido a la sobreexplotación de su madera, ya que es un árbol altamente apetecido por esta y por sus frutos. Su almendra almacena una buena cantidad de aceites con potencial para la industria alimentaria, lo que podría resultar en una nueva fuente alimenticia, por lo cual el cultivo in vitro de vegetales con el propósito de producir compuestos de interés, marca un punto de partida para reducir el uso del suelo y lograr componentes bioactivos bajo condiciones controladas. En este trabajo, como una primera etapa experimental, se evaluó el crecimiento celular en suspensiones,  a partir de callo inducido en explantes de cotiledón; se ensayaron 6 tratamientos diferentes, la mitad de estos con MS como medio basal y la otra mitad con B5, cada uno de los dos grupos con un control y la combinación hormonal de 2.5 mg/L de 2,4-D y 1 mg/L de BAP o kinetina, suplementado con adenina, biotina, glutamina y ácido pantoténico y 30 g/L de sacarosa, bajo completa oscuridad. Se encontró que dos tratamientos con MS en combinación con 2.5 mg/L de 2,4-D y 1 mg/L de kinetina o BAP fueron los mejores.Palabras clave: Biomasa, choibá, cultivos celulares, Dipteryx oleifera.Abstract: Choibá (Dipteryx olifera is a tree of the Fabaceae family, with a geographical distribution reported from Nicaragua to Colombia, nearly 1.000 msnm in a tropical rain forest. This species is a highlydesiredtreefor its timber andfruits, thekernelstore alot ofimportant oilsfor the food industry, resulting in a new possible food source,so we are making in vitro cultivation

  7. Inhibitory effect of polyphenolic-rich extract from Cola nitida (Kolanut) seed on key enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganiyu Oboh; Kate E Nwokocha; Ayodele J Akinyemi; Adedayo O Ademiluyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic-rich extracts from Cola nitida (C.nitida ) seeds on key enzymes linked with type-2 diabetes and Fe2+ induced oxidative stress in rat pancreas.Methods:antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of the extract on α - amylase and α - glucosidase as well as on Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas were determined in vitro.Results:The phenolic extract was prepared with 80% acetone (v/v). Subsequently, theα-glucosidase (EC50=0.32 mg/mL) activities as well as Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the extract had high DPPH radical scavenging ability (EC50=2.2 mg/mL) and reducing power (8.2 mg AAE/g). Characterization of the main phenolic compounds of the extract using gas chromatography analysis revealed catechin (6.6 mg/100 g), epicatechin (3.6 mg/100 g), apigenin (5.1 mg/100 g) and naringenin (3.6 mg/100 g) were the main compounds in the extract.Conclusions:This antioxidant and enzyme inhibition could be some of the possible mechanism The result revealed that C. nitida extract inhibited α-amylase (EC50=0.34 mg/mL) and by which C. nitida is use in folklore for the management/treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the enzyme inhibitory properties of the extract could be attributed to the presence of catechin, epicatechin, apigenin and naringenin.

  8. Hepatics alterations and genotoxic effects of Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA in diabetic rats Alterações hepáticas e efeitos genotóxicos do Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA em ratos diabéticos

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    Graziella Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusions of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated effects hepatics alterations and genotoxic and antidiabetic effect of Croton cajucara Benth bark extracts treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control rats; control rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth extract during 5 and 20 days; diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth during 5 and 20 days. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg. Eight weeks later we measured glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and hepatic transaminases on blood. The bone marrow micronucleus assay was used to assess the genotoxic activity of Croton cajucara Benth. RESULTS: Treatment with aqueous extrat of Croton cajucara was able to significantly reduce levels of triglycerides in diabetic animals, however, did not modify significantly the levels of glucose and cholesterol in these animals. There was no significant elevation in liver transaminases in the control group treated with Croton cajucara Benth, as there was no genotoxic effect of treatment in this model. Our results did not show a significant effect on glucose and cholesterol reduction, the treatment was able to significantly reduce triclycerides plasmatic level. There was no significant alterations on hepatic transferase in the animals from the control group treated with Croton cajucara Benth. It was observed no genotoxic effect of the treatment in the model studied. CONCLUSION: In this study Croton cajucara bark extract showed absence of hepatotoxicity in this animal model and presented a hypolipidemic activity, and could be used to reverse dyslipidemia associated with diabetes and to prevent the cardiovascular complications that are very prevalent in diabetic

  9. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Almeida Gonçalves; Aristéa Alves Azevedo; Wagner Campos Otoni

    2010-01-01

    Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de ...

  10. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção; Luciana Muratori Costa; Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo; Bruno Quirino Araújo; Maria do Carmo Gomes Lustosa; Klinger Antônio da França Rodrigues; Fernando Aécio Amorim de Carvalho; Amilton Paulo Raposo Costa; Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Me...

  11. BIOLOGIA DA REPRODUÇÃO EM QUATRO ESPÉCIES DE Centrosema (DC. BENTH

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    Alice Battistin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com a finalidade de obter informações básicas sobre biologia floral das espécies: C. brasilianum (L. Benth., C. Virginianum (L Benth., C. shottii (Mill. K. Sch. e C. pascuorum (Mart. Benth., foram estudados comparativamente três parâmetros biológicos: número de óvulos por ovário, sementes por vagem que chegaram à maturidade e grãos de pólen viáveis. Os dados foram coletados no Campo Experimental do Instituto de Genética da ESALQ/USP - Piracicaba, SP e no Jardim Botânico do Departamento de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM - Santa Maria, RS. As diferenças ocorridas nos parâmetros analisados mostram, de uma certa forma, a individualidade comportamental de cada espécie, decorrente de uma sensibilidade e variabilidade específicas. Todas as espécies estudadas tiveram uma produção de óvulos férteis acima de 78% e pólen viável acima de 95%. que refletiu uma elevada porcentagem de sementes viáveis (com exceção de C. shottii e C. pascuorum - Santa Maria, RS, garantindo desta forma a perpetuação da espécie.

  12. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ([Stapf] Th. and H. Durand) on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoo, Lydia Francisca; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ansah, Charles; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Benneh, Charles; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE) has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Materials and Methods: The size and length of the combs of white leghorn day-old chicks treated with testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg), cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg), or PNE (50-500 mg/kg) for 7 days, as well as cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg) on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg) on testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the chick comb test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in an oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17-β-estradiol (0.1-0.9 µg), PNE (30-300 mg/kg) or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function was well lipid, and hematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: 7-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01-0.001) while cyproterone significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.001) comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P ≤ 0.001) of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Administration of 17-β estradiol and PNE increased (P ≤ 0.001) oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed in assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile, and hematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist) and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use. PMID:26649234

  13. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ((Stapf Th. AND H. Durand on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Francisca Otoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Methodology: The size and length of the combs of White leghorn day-old chicks treated with Testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg, Cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg, or PNE (50-500 mg/kg for 7 days, as well as Cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg on Testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the Chick Comb Test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17- beta-estradiol (0.1-0.9 and micro;g, PNE (30-300 mg/kg or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function, was well lipid and haematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: Seven-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P and #8804;0.01-0.001, while Cyproterone significantly decreased (P and #8804;0.001 comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P and #8804;0.001 of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P and #8804;0.001. Administration of 17- beta oestradiol and PNE increased (P and #8804;0.001 oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed on assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile and haematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 293-301

  14. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

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    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  15. Licor de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth) con diferentes porcentajes de pulpa.

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Gómez, Álvaro; Londoño Gómez, Jenny Katherine; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio

    2011-01-01

    La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth) es una fruta de interés comercial y altamente perecedera, que presenta deterioro debido a su fragilidad e inadecuado manejo poscosecha, cantidades apreciables de fruta son afectadas, básicamente en sus características físicas, siendo este producto apto para el procesamiento industrial. Veinte kg de mora fueron despulpados, homogenizados y caracterizada la pulpa, determinando; grados brix de 6,0; porcentaje de acidez de 2,91 % y densidad de 0,991 g/ml ...

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling

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    Vladimir Morocho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling (Lamiaceae from Ecuador. Thirty-four compounds accounting to 93.4% of the total oil were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were δ-3-carene (19.9%, β-pinene (17.0%, (E-β-caryophyllene (9.7% and (E-E-α-farnesene (9.4%. The essential oil of L.radula possessed strong antifungal activity against Trichophytonrubrum (ATCC® 28188 and Trichophytonmentagrophytes (ATCC® 28185.

  17. [First record of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), in Tipuana tipu (Benth.), from Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Dalva L Q; Burckhardt, Daniel; Aguiar, António M F

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, Acizzinae), is reported for the first time, in Brazil. The psyllid was observed causing injuries on leaves and shoots of Tipuana tipu (Benth.), in urban areas of Paraná State. P. nigrivirga are tiny sap-sucking insects that feed on phloem and cause curling, stains and fall of leaves. The excrements of these insects accumulate on the leaves propitiating fungus growth on the leaves, or they fall in great amount on the cars dirtying them as if they were sparkling of white and sticky ink.

  18. Antioxidant activity of A New Flavone Glycoside from the seeds of Albizzia Odoratissima Benth.

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    Prakrati Yadav

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new compound (A  3,5,7,3¢-tetrahydroxy-4¢-methoxyflavone-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1®2O-β-D-glucopyranoside alongwith with  two known compounds Luteolin (B and  Acacetin  (C were isolated from methanolic extracts of the defatted seeds of Albizzia Odoratissima Benth. The structure of a new compound was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, colour reactions and chemical degradations. Compound A exhibited higher radical scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay system.  

  19. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM. PMID:24047122

  20. Two New Koumine-Type Indole Alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans Benth.

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    Huanhuan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new indole alkaloids, 21-oxokoumine (1 and furanokoumine (2, were isolated from the roots of Gelsemium elegans Benth together with three known compounds. The structures of the two novel compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, CD and molecular modeling. Compound 1 is the first instance of a koumine-type alkaloid with a carbonyl at the C-21 position, while compound 2 possesses a tetrahydrofuran ring located on C-20 and C-21.

  1. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  2. Efectos centrales de los constituyentes de Mimosa opthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Leônia Maria; Nóbrega de Almeida, Reinaldo

    1997-01-01

    La fracción conteniendo los alcaloides totales (FTA) obtenidos de Mimosa opthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. en dosis de 50 y 100 mg/kg por vía intraperitoneal (v. ip.) y N, N- Dimetiltriptamina (DMT) en dosis de 32,64 y 128 mg/kg (v. ip.) produjo, en ratones, el "síndrome serotonérgico". En el caso de hordenina, el otro compuesto obtenido de M. Opthalmocentra, no mostró diferencias significativas en relación a los animales del grupo utilizado como control. En los ratones tratados con quetanserina...

  3. Estudos Morfoanatômicos e genéticos de Salvia lachnostachys Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Erbano, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Salvia lachnostachys Benth., pertencente à família Lamiaceae, é uma erva endêmica no Brasil, presente principalmente no Estado do Paraná. Sua composição química indica que essa espécie possui potencial para tornar-se matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de fármacos anti-inflamatórios. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar e descrever as características morfológicas e anatômicas diagnósticas e realizar testes microquímicos das partes aéreas vegetativas de S. lachnostachys, elabora...

  4. Composition of the essential oil of Phlomis olivieri Benth. from north of Iran

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    Parisa Sarkhail

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from aerial parts of Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Twenty two constituents, representing 93.6% of the oil of P. olivieri were identified. The main compounds were germacrene D (66.1%, β- selinene (5.1%, b-caryophyllene (4.2% and -pinene (4.2%. A comparison of the composition of this oil with other oils of P. olivieri from different regions showed that germacrene D and β- caryophyllene are main compounds of all oils.

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Kato, Lucilia [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: cecilia@quimica.ufg.br; Silva, Maria do Rosario R.; Souza, Lucia K.H. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Patologia Tropical; Silva, Cleuza C. da [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Ferreira, Heleno D. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2004-10-01

    The leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) were subjected to hydro distillation and the resulting volatiles were investigated by GC/MS. The main constituent representing 60% of the essential oil was isolated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods as (R)-6-[(Z)-1-heptenyl]-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1). This compound showed strong in vitro activity against four dermatophyte fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, and Tricophyton rubrum (a total of 60 strains) with a minimal inhibitory concentration observed in the range of 125-7.8 mg {mu}L{sup -1}. (author)

  6. A synopsis of Guettardella Benth. and the Old World species of Antirhea A.L. de Jussieu (Rubiaceae: Guettardeae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The generic differences between Antirhea Comm. ex A.L. de Juss. and Guettardella Benth. in Champ. (Rubiaceae: Guettardeae) are discussed. Antirhea borbonica J.F. Gmel. and A. bifurcata (Desr.) Hook, f., the only Old World species of Antirhea and until now inadequately known are fully described. In Guettardella, 10 new species are proposed and 8 new combinations are made.

  7. Vascular Reactivity Concerning Orthosiphon stamineus Benth-Mediated Antihypertensive in Aortic Rings of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Nurul Maizan Manshor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthosiphon stamineus Benth has been traditionally used to treat hypertension. The study aimed to investigate the vascular reactivity of water extract (WOS and water : methanolic (1 : 1 extract (WMOS of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and AT1 receptors blocker in the mechanisms of antihypertensive mediated by α1-adrenergic receptor and EDNO and PGI2 releases in the SHR aortic rings. SHR (230–280 g were divided into four groups: control, WOS, WMOS, and losartan. After being fed orally for 14 days, the aorta was harvested and subjected to PE (10−9 to 10−5 M and ACh (10−9 to 10−5 M with and without L-NAME (100 µM and indomethacin (10 µM, respectively. WOS, WMOS, and losartan significantly reduced the contractile responses to PE intact suggesting the importance of endothelium in vasorelaxation. Losartan significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. L-NAME significantly inhibited the ACh-induced relaxation in all groups. Indomethacin enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation in WMOS. Collectively, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract reduced vasoconstriction responses by the alteration of α1-adrenergic and AT1 receptors activities. The involvement of EDNO releases was clearly observed in this plant. In WOS, PGI2 releases might not participate in the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. However, in WMOS, enhancement of vasorelaxation possibly due to continuous release of PGI2.

  8. SABIA (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. SEEDLINGS GROWTH AND SURVIVAL INOCULATED WITH SYMBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS IN FIELD CONDITIONS

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    Marília Malta Cavalcante Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989277Sabia (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. has ecological characteristics and symbiotic associations with nitrogen fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These associations are used as biological tool that could be used as an able alternative to minimize chemical fertilizer use and benefit plant development at environments under nutritional deficit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of Leguminosae Sabia (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. like response to rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation, to establish growth curves to height and stem based diameter, to determine the N and F contents in plants aerial parts and to evaluate plants survival at field. The strain used was BR3405, The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi used was Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita. The Glomus clarum + Gigaspora margarita + BR3405 and Gigaspora margarita inoculation provided better values for the studied variables (height, diameter, N and P , and this last one was the best choice to Sabia plantation. The plants showed 100% survival, regardless the treatment ued. There was not significant statistical difference for N and F content in Sabia aerial part., Nevertheless, it was noticed a faster growth in plants with symbiont.

  9. Target guided isolation, in-vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of some flavonoids from Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. bark

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Danish; Kumar, Vikas; Sharma, Manju; Verma, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Background Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoid...

  10. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic

  11. Especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae para Costa Rica y Panamá: lectotipificación de la sect. Densiflori Benth New species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae from Costa Rica and Panama: lectotypification of sect. Densiflori Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sousa S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus y L. monteviridis, dos endémicas de Costa Rica, una de Panamá y la otra habita en ambos países. De las especies nuevas, tres pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., a la cual se le lectotipifica aquí, y se elaboró una clave de esta sección para Costa Rica y Panamá.Four new species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus and L. monteviridis, are described and illustrated; two are endemic to Costa Rica, one to Panama and one is found in both countries. Of these new species, three belong to sect. Densiflori Benth., which is herein lectotypified; a key to the section for Costa Rica and Panama is provided.

  12. Anti-bacterial activity of the methanolic extract of leucas hyssopifolia (Benth.

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    Devendra Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Methanolic extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots was investigated for its anti-bacterial property. Aim: Evaluation of anti-bacterial activity of Leucas hyssopifolia Benth. Settings and Design: Roots of the plant were collected, extracted and finally evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity. Materials and Methods: Paper disc diffusion method and microdilution technique were employed for the determination of zone of inhibition and minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. Results: The extract showed anti-bacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Anti-bacterial activity of extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots may be due to the presence of secondary plant metabolites like terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids, which are present in the extract. The extract can be further studied for the isolation of chemical compounds and their biological activity.

  13. Effects of Pithecellobium clypearia Benth extract and its main components on inflammation and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Li; Yao, Xinsheng; Xu, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hongwei; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2009-09-01

    The ethanol extract of Pithecellobium clypearia Benth (PCE) was characterized to be rich in polyphenols by HPLC analysis, and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. In our assay, PCE showed anti-inflammatory activity in both acute and auto-immune inflammation animal models. Administration of PCE can effectively inhibit the croton oil-induced ear edema and capillary permeability, the carrageenin-induced paw edema, and the liver injury caused by propionibacterium acnes plus lipopolysaccharide. PCE was also found to possess anti-allergic activity in inhibiting the DNFB-induced delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Meanwhile, seven main components (1-7) from PCE were studied for their effect on histamine release stimulated by compound 48/80 from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Compound 2 ((-)-epigallocatechin-7-gallate), 3 ((-)-5, 7, 3', 4', 5'-pentahydroxyflavan), and 5 ((-)-tetra hydroxyflavan-7-gallate) showed significant inhibition effect on histamine release. PMID:19427894

  14. Licanol, um novo flavanol, e outros constituintes de Licania macrophylla Benth

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    Fernando Antônio de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of L. macrophylla Benth led to the isolation of a new flavanol named licanol: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin-3'-O-α-L-rhamnoside, along with nine known compounds, identified as: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin, pheophytin A, 13²-hydroxy-(13²-S-pheophytin A, pheophytin B, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol-β-O-glucoside, betulinic alcohol and oleanolic acid. The structures were established based on IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectrometric data analysis with the aid of 2D techniques. The methanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark as well as the compounds licanol, 13²-hidroxi-(13²-S-feofitina A, and betulinic alcohol demonstrated antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains.

  15. IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES STUDY OF ALBIZZIA LEBBECK (L BENTH LEAF EXTRACTS

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    Sahoo Anjulata Manjari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To know the in vitro antibacterial activities of benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of the leaves of Albizzia lebbek(L Benth. (Shirish, Family: Mimosaceae, present study was conducted. All the extracts were used at 3mg/ml and 6mg/ml concentrations. Against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, antibacterial activities of the different extracts were studied. Considering the overall antibacterial activity pattern, it can be mentioned that both the chloroform and ethanol extracts possessed antibacterial activities against all the strains used. Out of these two extracts, chloroform extract was more potent than the ethanol extract as far as their antibacterial activities were concerned. The extracts, which displayed antibacterial activity, produced such activity in a dose dependent manner. For the study Tetracycline (25µg/ml was used as positive control, while DMSO was the negative control.

  16. RP-HPLC method for the quantitation of β-Sitosterol in Elaeagnus Gonyanthes Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish an RP-HPLC method for the determination of β-Sitosterol in Elaeagnus Gonyanthes Benth.Methods The separation was performed on a luna C8(2)(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)column with the mobile phase of methanol-water(88∶12,v/v)at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min,the detection wavelength was set at 210 nm,and the temperature of the column was maintained at 35 ℃.Results The calibration curve of β-Sitosterol was linear over the concentration range of 0.075-0.375 mg/mL(r=0.9999)and the average recovery of β-...

  17. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-06-10

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars.

  18. Derris scandens Benth extract potentiates radioresistance of Hep-2 laryngeal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematulin, Arunee; Meethang, Sutiwan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Sagan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The use of herbal products as radiosensitizers is a promising approach to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. However, adverse effects related to the use of herbal medicine on radiotherapy are not well characterized. The present study concerns the impact of Derris scandens Benth extract on the radiosensitivity of Hep-2 laryngeal cancer cells. Pretreatment with D. scandens extract prior to gamma irradiation significantly increased clonogenic survival and decreased the proportion of radiation-induced abnormal nuclei of Hep-2 cells. Furthermore, the extract was found to enhance radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest, induce Akt activation, and increase motility of Hep-2 cells. The study thus indicated that D. scandens extract potentiates radioresistance of Hep-2 cells, further demonstrating the importance of cellular background for the adverse effect of D. scandens extract on radiation response in a laryngeal cancer cell line. PMID:22799321

  19. 藤花一城吹古香——常州苏东坡终老地修缮整治札记%A Review of the Repair Works on the Hypserpa Nitida Hall in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻梦哲

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the repair works on the Hypserpa nitida hall in Changzhou, which was being well-known initially as the place that the literary giant Su-Dongpo spent his last days in. The hall was rebuilt in Ming Dynasty, and the reservation program includes the environmental improvements as well.%常州藤花旧馆据传为苏轼终殁之地,其建筑本体为明代所建,2009年修复。本文介绍了其历史沿革及修缮过程,并对周边的环境设计工作进行了回顾和评述。

  20. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

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    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth

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    Rupali Vitthal Sarpate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth belongs to family Acanthaceae. The plants have been the subject of scientific research which confirms its use in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory drugs showing potent anti-rheumatic effects. Previous research claims the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of Lupeol and 19α-H Lupeol isolated from Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala roots. Based on the literature cited, the unexplored parts stems and leaves of the two species were selected for the present study. Aim: The present study is designed to isolate steroidal and alkaloidal components from the two species Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala using the unexplored parts viz. stems and leaves and to investigate its anti-inflammatory effect. Settings and Design: The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated employing subacute anti-inflammatory models namely cotton pellet granuloma and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using isolated test components RVS-A (Lupeol, RVS-C (Doctriacantone and standard drug Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg. Results: The present study has dealt up with isolation of two phytoconstituents Lupeol and Dotriacontane which gave marked anti-inflammatory activity at the dose 20 mg/kg in both the models Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and Cotton pellet granuloma. Conclusion: The results confirm that the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of RVS-A (Lupeol and RVS-C (Doctriacantone involves reduction of prostaglandins through inhibition of cyclooxygenase and suppression of proliferative phase of sub acute inflammation. Thus the steroidal and alkaloidal components Lupeol and Doctriacantone isolated from Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth shows marked anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the ne...

  3. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  4. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the microwave aqueous extract of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa ZE; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the fatty acid profile, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities from the microwave aqueous extract of the leaves of three different varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Results The chemical analysis of the extract showed that fatty acids (palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic) acid as the main components in three varieties of L. pumila leaves. Furthermore, the obtained results of the anti-oxidant reveal...

  5. Technological development of aqueous extracts from Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum., Rubiaceae, (mulateiro) using factorial design

    OpenAIRE

    Leidyana M. da Costa; Viviane A. dos Santos; Débora T. Ohana; Lima, Emerson S.; Maria de M. Pereira; de Souza, Tatiane P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to characterize the vegetal raw material of the Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum., Rubiaceae, known as "mulateiro", and to evaluate the influence of extractive parameters for attainment of standardized aqueous extractive solutions. The physical-chemical characterization of the samples was performed using pharmacopoeic and not pharmacopoeic methodologies. A 2³ factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of extraction techniques (infu...

  6. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

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    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  7. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA BLACKBERRY LIQUOR (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH DIFFERENT PULP PERCENTAGES

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    Álvaro Montoya Gómez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth es una fruta de interés comercial y altamente perecedera, que presenta deterioro debido a su fragilidad e inadecuado manejo poscosecha, cantidades apreciables de fruta son afectadas, básicamente en sus características físicas, siendo este producto apto para el procesamiento industrial. Veinte kg de mora fueron despulpados, homogenizados y caracterizada la pulpa, determinando; grados brix de 6,0; porcentaje de acidez de 2,91 % y densidad de 0,991 g/ml en promedio. Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa; la levadura inoculada fue Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen en concentración del 0,2 %; la fermentación se llevó a cabo en reactores con capacidad de 2 litros, con desfogue de manguera de látex, el mosto fermentable fue dejado en los reactores durante 20 semanas, luego los licores fueron filtrados y caracterizados físico-químicamente, evaluando el porcentaje de alcohol por destilación, encontrando que el porcentaje de 40 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor concentración con 8,36 % de volumen de alcohol en promedio. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron una diferencia significativa entre los porcentajes de participación de pulpa y su influencia sobre la producción de alcohol para los valores de 25 % y 30 % con respecto a los porcentajes 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 %. Un modelo matemático lineal apropiado para la producción de alcohol en función de la participación de pulpa fue obtenido. La prueba sensorial con 10 jueces, mostró que el licor preparado con 35 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor aceptación.The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth is a fruit of commercial interest that is highly perishable, showing appreciable damage due to fragileness and inadequate pos-harvesting handling

  8. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of extracts and condensed tannins from Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. Atividades antioxidante e antifúngica de extratos e taninos condensados de Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth.

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    Andréia Cristina Conegero Sanches

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of stem-bark extracts from Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth., including fractions and isolated compounds, was evaluated by DPPH in thin-layer chromatography. All the fractions and isolated compounds showed antioxidant activity. Antifungal activity was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC against the yeasts Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. All extracts (CE, EtOAc and FW, subfractions (F1-F12 and the compounds I, II and III were inactive against the yeasts. Against C. parapsilosis and C. albicans, fractions F13-15 and F20 showed moderate antifungal activity, and fractions F16-19 and F21-22 showed good activity. Chemical isolation of the ethyl-acetate fraction resulted in the identification of three compounds: epigallocatechin, gallocatechin and epigallocatechin-(4b®8-gallocatechin.Atividade antioxidante de extrato, frações, subfrações e substâncias isoladas das cascas de Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. foi avaliada através da redução do radical 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazila (método DDPH· em cromatografia em camada delgada. O extrato bruto (CE, acetona:água, as frações acetato de etila (EtOAc e aquosa (FW, as subfrações (F1-F12 e as substâncias isoladas I, II e III apresentaram a capacidade de reduzir o radical DDPH·. A atividade antifúngica foi determinada pela concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração fungicida mínima (CFM frente às amostras de leveduras Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei e Candida tropicalis. O extrato bruto (CE, as frações (EtOAC e FW, e os compostos isolados I, II e III, como também as subfrações cromatográficas (F1-F12 foram inativos frente a todas as leveduras testadas. Por outro lado, as subfrações cromatográficas F13-15 e F20 apresentaram atividade antifúngica moderada. Já as subfrações F16-19 e F21-22 mostraram boa atividade

  9. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

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    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  10. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  11. PEMANFAATAN BAKTERI PELARUT FOSFAT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS KUDZU TROPIKA (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth.

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    N. G. K Roni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is one of the essential nutrients for plants that availability is strongly influenced by soil pH. In acid soils, most of the P is given will form insoluble compounds and is not available to plants. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria is a soil microorganism that can improve the provision ofP in acid soils. The study aimed to determine the effect of Phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the productivity of tropical kudzu was conducted using a completely randomized design with four treatments ie without isolate (I0, standard isolate (I1, isolate B.80.1649-1 (I2 and isolate B.80.1649-8 (I3, each treatment was repeated four times. The results showed that both isolates were isolated and selection were able to increase the length of the plants, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, shoot P content,  N uptake, P uptake, and production of crude protein of tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth.. The ability of isolates B.80.1649-1 higher than isolates B.80.1649-8, and comparable with standard isolate.

  12. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  13. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  14. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  15. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

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    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  16. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

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    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation, as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%, lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%, α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34% and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80% were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption.

  17. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna

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    Pontes Claudia Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento na porcentagem de germinação e no vigor das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna, por meio de testes fisiológicos. O teor de água aumentou nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e reduziu naquelas a 20 degreesC. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes mantidas a 5 e 20 degreesC apresentou redução aos 220 e 120 dias, respectivamente. O índice de velocidade de germinação decresceu de maneira similar. A condutividade elétrica não foi alterada nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e aumentou nas que permaneceram a 20 degreesC. O envelhecimento acelerado nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas detectou redução significativa na qualidade das sementes em ambos os ambientes de armazenamento. A redução da porcentagem de germinação e do vigor foi maior nas sementes armazenadas a 20 degreesC.

  18. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

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    M.R. Delnavazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species. Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT, respectively. Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1, one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2, two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3 and verbascoside (5, along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4 and naringenin (6 were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL, compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL, without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.

  19. Furano diterpenes from Pterodon pubescens Benth with selective in vitro anticancer activity for prostate cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindola, Humberto M.; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Rodrigues, Rodney A. F.; Denny, Carina; Sousa, Ilza M. de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas (CPQBA)]. E-mail: foglioma@cpqba.unicamp.br; Tamashiro, Jorge Y. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    Activity guided fractionation of Pterodon pubescens Benth. methylene chloride-soluble fraction afforded novel 6{alpha}-acetoxi 7{beta}-hydroxy-vouacapan 1 and four known diterpene furans 2, 3, 4, 5. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human normal cells and tumour cell lines UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), OVCAR-03 (ovarian), PC-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon), 786-0 (renal), K562 (leukemia) and NCI-ADR/RES (ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drugs resistance). Results were expressed by three concentration dependent parameters GI{sub 50} (concentration that produces 50% growth inhibition), TGI (concentration that produces total growth inhibition or cytostatic effect) and LC{sub 50} (concentration that produces .50% growth, a cytotoxicity parameter). Also, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against 3T3 cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts). Antiproliferative properties of compounds 1, 4 and 5 are herein reported for the first time. These compounds showed selectivity in a concentration-dependent way against human PC-3. Compound 1 demonstrated selectivity 26 fold more potent than the positive control, doxorubicin, for PC-3 (prostrate) cell line based on GI{sub 50} values, causing cytostatic effect (TGI value) at a concentration fifteen times less than positive control. Moreover comparison of 50% lethal concentration (LC{sub 50} value) with positive control (doxorubicin) suggested that compound 1 was less toxic. (author)

  20. Micromorphological traits and essential oil contents of Micromeria kerneri Murb. and M. juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Dario; Dunkić, Valerija; Ruščić, Mirko; Matevski, Vlado; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk; Eleftheriadou, Eleni; Stešević, Danijela; Kosalec, Ivan; Bezić, Nada; Stabentheiner, Edith

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the types and distribution of trichomes and pollen morphology (analysed by scanning electron microscopy) were investigated in two closely related species, Micromeria kerneri Murb. and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) from Southeast Europe as a contribution to their taxonomy. The essential oil of M. kerneri was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with caryophyllene-oxide as the major compound. Caryophyllene-oxide was also the major component of the essential oil of M. juliana from all localities, except from Mt Krivošije (Montenegro), where piperitone oxide was the major constituent. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and two types of capitate trichomes (type 1 composed of one basal epidermal cell, and one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2 composed of one basal epidermal cell, two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, the calyx and on the stem. Pollen of both species had six apertures (hexacolpate) set in the equatorial pollen belt (zonocolpate) and showed medium reticulate ornamentation. Multivariate analysis (PCA and UPGMA) of essential oil components clearly separated the investigated M. kerneri and M. juliana populations, and confirmed the opinion that they are different taxa. On the other hand, micromorphological traits between these species were the same. Nevertheless, definitive conclusions about the taxonomic relationships among these species will require genetic analysis. PMID:24388062

  1. Chemical variability of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels leaf oil from ivory coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Zana Adama; Boti, Jean Brice; Attioua, Koffi Barthelemy; Ahibo, Antoine Coffy; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2013-11-01

    The chemical composition of 48 leaf oil samples isolated from individual plants of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels harvested in four Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID (determination of retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The main components identified were β-pinene (traces-59.1%), sabinene (traces-54.2%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.3-39.3%), linalool (0.1-38.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (0.1-33.2%), germacrene D (0.0-33.1%), α-pinene (0.1-32.3%), and germacrene B (0-21.2%). The 48 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical clustering and principal components analyses, which allowed the distinction of three groups within the oil samples. The oil composition of the major group (GroupI, 33 samples) was dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene and linalool. The oils of Group II (eight samples) contained mainly β-pinene and α-pinene, while those of Group III (seven samples) were dominated by sabinene, limonene, and β-phellandrene. Moreover, the compositions of the Ivoirian C. patens leaf oils differed from those of Nigerian and Cameroonian origins.

  2. In vitro anti- bacterial activity of leaves extracts of Albizia lebbeck Benth against some selected pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Nazneen Bobby; Edward Gnanaraj Wesely; MarimuthuAntonisamy Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-bacterial activity of Albizia lebbeck (A. lebbeck) Benth leaves extract against the selected bacterial pathogens viz., Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441), Escherichia coli (MTCC443), Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC 109), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC742), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC741), Salmonella typhii (MTCC733) and Staphylococus aureus (MTCC96).Methods:The leaves extracts of A. lebbeck was tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: Results of the present study indicated that different extracts of A. lebbeck showed inhibitory effects against the pathogens. The present study results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of A. lebbeck conferred the widest spectrum activities that inhibited the growth of all studied pathogens with the maximum zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts ofA. lebbeck illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against the pathogens Bacillus subtilis (16 mm), Escherichia coli (22 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (11 mm), Proteus vulgaris (18 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm), Salmonella typhii (23 mm) and Staphylococus aureus (17 mm). The ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (26 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm) and Klebsiella pneumonia (16 mm). Conclusions: It is expected that this study would direct to the establishment of some active compounds that could be used to formulate new and more potent anti-bacterial drugs of natural origin.

  3. Preparation and characterization of microcapsules of Pterodon pubescens Benth. by using natural polymers

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    Alexandre Espada Reinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An oleaginous fraction obtained from an alcohol extract of the fruit of Pterodon pubescensBenth. (FHPp was microencapsulated in polymeric systems. These systems were developed using a complex coacervation method and consisted of alginate/medium-molecular-weight chitosan (F1-MC, alginate/chitosan with greater than 75% deacetylation (F2-MC, and alginate/low-molecular-weight chitosan (F3-MC. These developed systems have the potential to both mask the taste of the extract, and to protect its constituents against possible chemical degradation. The influence of the formulation parameters and process were determined by chemical profiling and measurement of the microencapsulation efficiency of the oleaginous fraction, and by assessment of microcapsule morphology. The obtained formulations were slightly yellow, odorless, and had a pleasant taste. The average diameters of the microcapsules were 0.4679 µm (F2-MC, 0.5885 µm (F3-MC, and 0.9033 µm (F1-MC. The best formulation was F3-MC, with FHPp microencapsulation efficiency of 61.01 ± 2.00% and an in vitro release profile of 75.88 ± 0.45%; the content of vouacapans 3-4 was 99.49 ± 2.80%. The best model to describe the release kinetics for F1-MC and F3-MC was that proposed by Higuchi; however, F2-MC release displayed first-order kinetics; the release mechanism was of the supercase II type for all formulations.

  4. Histologic evaluation of rats' liver after Croton cajucara Benth (sacaca) administration Estudo histológico do fígado de ratos após administração de Croton Cajucara Benth (sacaca)

    OpenAIRE

    Jair Francisco de Santana Graim; Gaspar de Jesus Lopes Filho; Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito; Lia Tavares de Moura Brasil Matos

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the hepatic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (sacaca) herbal extract in rats. METHODS: 60 Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus albinus) were used, weighing between 250 and 350 g. The animals were distributed randomically in 2 groups: GS - animals which received daily 0,1 ml/ 100 g of sacaca herbal extract through gavage, and GA -animals which received daily 0,1 ml/100g of distilled water through gavage. These were distributed in 3 subgroups with 10 animals, according to theirs e...

  5. 丰城鸡血藤异黄酮及黄烷类化学成分的研究%Isoflavones and flavans from Millettia nitida var.hirsutissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余弯弯; 金晨; 双鹏程; 廖辉; 张凌

    2015-01-01

    The current study to separate and identify constituents from Millettia nitida var.hirsutissima.The compounds from Millettia nitida var.hirsutissima were isolated by means of various chromatographic techniques such as column chromatography over ODS and Sephadex LH-20,preparative HPLC,and the structures of these isolated compounds were identified through spectroscopic analyses.Nine isoflavonoids and two flavans were isolated and identified as 5-O-methy genistein(1),7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone (2),ononin (3),catechin (4),formononetin (5),genistein (6),calycosin (7),(-)-gallocatechin (8),sissotrin (9),wistin (10),daidzin(11).Compounds 1,2,9 are obtained from the genus Millettia for the first time,and compounds 4,8 are isolated from this plant for the first time.%对丰城鸡血藤的化学成分进行分离及鉴定.利用硅胶柱色谱、反相硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和制备液相色谱等各种色谱技术对丰城鸡血藤进行化学成分分离和纯化,并经核磁共振等现代波谱技术对得到的化合物进行结构鉴定.从丰城鸡血藤中分离鉴定了9个异黄酮类化合物和2个黄烷类化合物,分别为:5-O-methy genistein(1)、7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyi soflavone(2)、芒柄花苷(3)、儿茶素(4)、刺芒柄花素(5)、染料木素(6)、毛蕊异黄酮(7)、没食子儿茶素(8)、sissotrin(9)、Wistin(10)、大豆苷(11).其中,化合物1,2,9是首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物4,8是首次从该植物中分离得到.

  6. Ocorrência de Sciaphila purpurea Benth (Triuridaceae) em restinga do estado do Espírito Santo – Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Theófilo Valadares; Fabíola Schunk Souza Arçari; Marcio Lacerda Lopes Martins; Solange Zanotti Schneider

    2015-01-01

    Apresentamos o primeiro registro de Sciaphila purpurea Benth. (Triuridaceae) para o estado do Espírito Santo incluindo dados sobre sua distribuição e aspectos ecológicos. A espécie foi encontrada em formação florestal inundável componente de vegetação de restinga entre raízes de Symphonia globulifera L.f. e Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess, espécies típicas de ambientes inundáveis. O registro desta espécie contribui para o enriquecimento do projeto envolvendo a Flora do Estado do Espírito Sant...

  7. Atividade repelente do óleo essencial de Ocimum selloi Benth. (variedade eugenol) contra o anopheles braziliensis chagas

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane P. Paula; Paulo V. Farago; Checchia, Lizianne E. M.; Hirose, Karla M.; Ribas, Joao L.

    2004-01-01

    Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) é uma planta herbácea nativa do Brasil. Seu óleo essencial tem sido utilizado como flavorizante em comidas e em produtos orais e como componente de fragrâncias. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade repelente de mosquitos do óleo essencial de O. selloi (variedade eugenol) em humanos. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas da espécie. Em estudo de campo, no qual seis voluntários (cada qual como seu próprio contr...

  8. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  9. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of the Essential Oils of Cantinoa stricta (Benth.) Harley & J.F.B. Pastore (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dilamara Riva Scharf; Simionatto, Edésio L.; João E. Carvalho; Marcos J. Salvador; Élide P. Santos; Maria Élida A. Stefanello

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Cantinoa stricta (Benth.) Harley & J.F.B. Pastore (Lamiaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/ MS. The major components of both oils were caryophyllene oxide (leaf – 31.6%; flower – 21.7%) and cis-pinane (leaf – 15.4%; flower – 9.7%). The flower oil also contained significant amounts of a -pinene (9.4%) and b -pinene (9.1%). The oils were tested in vitro against U251 (glioma), UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast)...

  10. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EXTRACT OF THE BARKS OF Licania macrophylla BENTH: PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    Ryan da Silva Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil fitoquímico, físico-químico da espécie vegetal e determinar a toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico de L. macrophylla Benth frente às larvas de Artemia salina L. A análise fitoquímica foi realizado por meio do extrato bruto etanólico das cascas do caule e a determinação físico-química foi realizada de acordo com a Farmacopeia Brasileira. As análises fitoquímicas detectaram a presença de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, taninos, antraquinonas, depsídios e depsidonas. Em relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos a planta apresentou pH=4,64, pela ocorrência de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos e taninos; Lipídeos= 0,55% indica que o material vegetal apresenta poucos lipídios de baixo peso molecular; Umidade= 12,09%±0,12, o que relaciona a pouca quantidade de água, fator indispensável para a não ocorrência de desenvolvimento de microrganismo ou degradação enzimática. Os resíduos por incineração (cinzas da espécie se encontra dentro dos padrões farmacognósticos de 8,30%±0,54. O extrato bruto segundo o teste de toxicidade é atóxico com CL50=1253µg/mL, isto é, confirma-se a relação estabelecida entre a taxa de mortalidade e CL50 deve ser superior a 1000µg/mL para serem considerados atóxicos. As análises fitoquímicas confirmaram em parte a utilização da espécie para fins fitoterápicos, porém a forma de tratamento e acondicionamento pode influenciar na determinação de metabólitos secundários. Os parâmetros físico-químicos adotados mostraram que espécie encontra-se livre de agentes decompositores. Palavras-chave: Fitoquímica, L. macrophilla Benth, Toxicidade, Físico-Química. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p94-99

  11. Estudo das folhas e caule de Hyptidendron canum(Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae

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    Tatiana S. Fiuza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae, é utilizada popularmente como antimalárica, antiinflamatória, antiulcerativa, anti-hepatotóxica e anticancerígena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico das folhas e caules e identificar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes nas folhas de H. canum, dados ainda não descritos na literatura. As folhas e caules jovens coletados em Goiânia (GO foram seccionados à mão livre e preparados para análise microscópica. Foram realizadas reações de identificação de metabólitos secundários do material dessecado e pulverizado. Preparou-se o extrato etanólico bruto, que posteriormente foi fracionado por partição líquido-líquido com hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As frações foram submetidas à análise cromatográfica em camada delgada (CCD. As lâminas foliares apresentam epiderme adaxial constituída por células poligonais com parede reta. Na epiderme abaxial observam-se células com parede reta a ondulada e estômatos diacíticos e anisocíticos. Tricomas tectores e glandulares estão presente em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar. O pecíolo apresenta aspecto canaletado, epiderme adaxial e abaxial unisseriada. O caule, em secção transversal possui contorno em geral quadrangular, com presença de tricomas tectores e glandulares. As reações e a CCD das folhas evidenciaram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos e lignanas. Este trabalho contribuiu para um maior conhecimento da morfo-anatomia e das classes químicas presentes em H. canum.Hyptidendron canum(Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae, is popularly used as an antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerative, antihepatotoxic and anticancer agent. The goal of this research was to perform the morphoanatomy study of H. canumleaves and stem and identify the main classes of secondary metabolites present in the of H. canumleaves. Such data have not been reported in the

  12. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  13. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively.

  14. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; Oliveira, Alisson Rodrigo da Silva; Araújo, Alice Valença; Quixabeira, Dafne Carolina Alves; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Ferreira, Fabiano; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. is an aromatic plant found in abundance in northeastern Brazil that is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved in the gastroprotection of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) and to evaluate its healing capacity. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols and subsequently were treated with 1% Tween-80 aqueous solution (negative control), pantoprazole, carbenoxolone, N-acetylcysteine (depending on the specificity of each model) or EOHM. The antisecretory activity (basal or stimulated) was determined using the pyloric ligature method. The gastroprotective action of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups (-SH groups), as well as the quantification of adherent mucus and the levels of malondialdehyde and -SH groups in gastric mucosa, were evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The healing ability was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (HE, PAS and PCNA). EOHM (400 mg/kg) reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and pentagastrin. The gastroprotective effect of EOHM involves the participation of endogenous sulfhydryl groups. EOHM increased mucus production (54.8%), reduced levels of MDA (72.5%) and prevented the depletion of -SH groups (73.8%) in the gastric mucosa. The treatment with EOHM reduced in 70.3% the gastric lesion area, promoting significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by histological analysis and analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results show that gastroprotective effect of EOHM is mediated by cytoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms and by their antisecretory activity, and suggest that the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers. PMID:24454726

  15. Mechanism of antiulcerogenic activity of semi-synthetic crotonin obtained from Croton cajucara Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz A. Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Croton cajucara Benth. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Transdehydrocrotonin (DHC isolated from the bark of Croton cajucara has antiulcerogenic activity25. The presence of similar activity in semi-synthetic crotonin obtained from dehydrocrotonin from Croton cajucara was observed in gastric ulcer-induced models (HCl/ethanol, ethanol, indomethacin, stress and pylorus ligature. The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanisms involved in the antiulcerogenic activity of semi-synthetic crotonin. We investigated the effects of semi-synthetic crotonin on the response to histamine of right atria isolated from guinea pigs and on the response to carbachol of stomach fundus strips from rats. Semi-synthetic crotonin (3, 10 or 30 mM induced a shift to the right in the concentrationresponse curves to carbachol in the isolated rat stomach at the pD2 level (pD2: 5.42±0.05, 5.76±0.061, 5.77±0.076, 6.48±0.012, respectively, without any alteration in the maximum response. Semi-synthetic crotonin also induced a shift to the right in the concentration-response curves to histamine in guinea pig right atria, pD2 (5.54±0.06, 6.01±0.06, 5.89±0.06, 5.92±0.03 and (% maximum response (80±6.18, 118±6.18, 114±6.18, 122±1.4, respectively. Thus, the protective effect of semi-synthetic crotonin on induced gastric lesions could be due to antagonism of histaminergic and cholinergic effects on gastric secretion.

  16. Adaptations to soil drying in woody seedlings of African locust bean, (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonubi, O; Fasehun, F E

    1987-12-01

    Stomatal conductance, transpiration and xylem pressure potential of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) seedlings subjected from the sixth week after emergence to four weeks of continuous soil drought did not differ from those of well-watered, control plants until two-thirds of the available soil water had been used. In both well-watered and drought-treated plants, stomatal conductance was highest early in the day when vapor pressure deficits were low, but decreased sharply by midday when evaporative demand reached its highest value. There was no increase in stomatal conductance later in the day as vapor pressure deficit declined. The relationship between transpiration rate and xylem pressure potential showed non-linearity and hysteresis in both control and drought-treated plants, which seems to indicate that the plants had a substantial capacity to store water. The rate of leaf extension in African locust bean seedlings subjected to six consecutive 2-week cycles of soil drought declined relative to that of well-watered, control plants, whereas relative root extension increased. It appears that African locust bean seedlings minimized the impact of drought by: (1) restricting transpiration to the early part of the day when a high ratio of carbon gain to water loss can be achieved; (2) utilizing internally stored water during periods of rapid transpiration; (3) reducing the rate of leaf expansion and final leaf size in response to soil drought without reducing the rate of root extension, thereby reducing the ratio of transpiring leaf surface area to absorbing root surface area.

  17. Superação da dormência em sementes de faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth Dormancy breaking of faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. seeds

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    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A faveira é planta semidecídua, heliófita, que ocorre em formações secundárias e áreas abertas de terreno elevado do agreste nordestino e campinas amazônicas. A madeira dessa espécie é empregada para caixotaria, compensados, brinquedos, lenha e carvão, as vagens maduras constituem-se em excelente forragem para todos os ruminantes e a árvore é recomendada para arborização paisagística. O primeiro problema encontrado foi a baixa germinação das sementes devido à impermeabilidade do tegumento à água. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar a metodologia mais eficiente para superação da dormência de sementes de Parkia platycephala, as quais foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica com lixa d'água n. 80 (T2, imersão em ácido muriático concentrado (98% por 30 min e 1 h (T3 e T4, respectivamente, escarificação mecânica com brita por 5, 10 e 15 min (T5, T6 e T7, respectivamente e imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado (98% por 5, 15, 30, 45 e 60 min (T8, T9, T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados através da porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas, além de comprimento e massa seca da raiz e parte aérea. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em todas as variáveis. A causa mais evidente da dormência foi a impermeabilidade do tegumento, cujos tratamentos mais eficientes para superar a dormência das sementes foram a escarificação mecânica do tegumento com lixa e a imersão em ácido sulfúrico (15 a 45 min.The faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. is a perennial, heliophyte, secondary plant that occurs in (non-flooded areas of the Amazon area. The wood of this species is used to make boxes, supports and

  18. Phenotypic variation in Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth (Fabaceae from the humid lowlands of Cameroon

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    Tchoundjeu Zac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth (Fabaceae has emerged as one of the top underutilized agroforestry species with considerable economic and nutritional value in West and Central Africa where the species is endemic and exploited by farmers. However, the species suffers from a level of exploitation that is unsustainable. This dramatically decreases the natural resource base. Key information such as tree variation is needed to develop an efficient strategy for its domestication. This study therefore assesses the species phenotypic variation in two populations in the forest zone of Cameroon. Overall, 49 trees (19 in Lomie and 30 in Djoum were sampled. Tree characteristics (diameter at breast height (DBH, height, crown diameter, pod (number of seeds per pod, seed (width, length, thickness, weight and kernel traits (weight were recorded. All these parameters were subjected to a combination of multivariate, PCA and cluster analyses. Results revealed four clusters of P. macrophylla trees with cluster IV considered as the best because it contains four elite trees (LOM/PM/09, LOM/PM/13, LOM/PM/15 and LOM/PM/16 with desirable tree characteristics. Clusters were further considered as different groups of trees, and seeds and kernel traits variation assessed using ANOVA analysis. Significant differences in mean kernel weight occured between groups. Cluster IV presented the highest mean kernel weight (19.25 ± 0.16 g, while cluster III had the lowest (13.28 ± 0.57 g. Within cluster IV, the highest kernel weight (25.83 ± 5.62 g was found in tree number LOM/PM/09. Kernel weight was found to be positive and strongly correlated (r = 0.95 with seed weight. We can conclude that there is phenotypic variation between the trees of P. macrophylla in terms of DBH, height, crown diameter, number of seeds, seed width, seed length, seed thickness, seed and kernel weight. Results obtained in this study could serve as a useful guide for the selection of targeted P. macrophylla

  19. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lúcio Soares da Silva; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Silene Carneiro do Nascimento; Diógenes Luiz da Mota; Nicassio Henrique da Silva; Edvaldo Rodrigues de Almeida; Marta Gerusa Soares da Silva

    2010-01-01

    A espécie Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae é uma planta que pertence à família Fabaceae, popularmente conhecida como mucunã-de-caroço e olho-de-boi, e, encontra-se distribuída nas regiões da caatinga e serrado do Brasil. Os extratos aquoso, etanólico e hidroalcoólico da casca do caule, da casca da raiz e da folha de D. grandiflora, nas concentrações de 313 µg/mL a 10.000 µg/mL, foram analisados por meio de técnica de difusão em ágar, frente a vinte microrganismos representantes ...

  20. Histologic evaluation of rats' liver after Croton cajucara Benth (sacaca administration Estudo histológico do fígado de ratos após administração de Croton Cajucara Benth (sacaca

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    Jair Francisco de Santana Graim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the hepatic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (sacaca herbal extract in rats. METHODS: 60 Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus albinus were used, weighing between 250 and 350 g. The animals were distributed randomically in 2 groups: GS - animals which received daily 0,1 ml/ 100 g of sacaca herbal extract through gavage, and GA -animals which received daily 0,1 ml/100g of distilled water through gavage. These were distributed in 3 subgroups with 10 animals, according to theirs euthanasia dates, which were 14th, 28th and 56th day of treatment. RESULTS: Architectural alterations were not observed, however when it was analyzed the presence or absence of necrosis, it was observed in 50% of GS28 subgroup and 90% of subgroup. In 50% of the animals from GS28 subgroup and 90% of GS56 subgroup was observed vast degeneration areas and zonal necrosis, regarding center-lobular veins alterations, there were no alterations in any of the groups CONCLUSION: The Croton cajucara Benth (sacaca herbal extract in this experiment caused degeneration and hepatic necrosis, suggesting dose-dependent action.OBJETIVO: Avaliar histologicamente os efeitos do infuso, por gavagem, do Extrato Bruto Aquoso Seco (EBAS do Croton cajucara Benth no fígado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos (Rattus novergicus albinus Wistar, pesando entre 250 e 350g. Os animais foram distribuídos de maneira aleatória em 2 grupos: GS - Grupo de animais que receberam 0,1ml/100g do infuso de sacaca, pela via oral e GA - Grupo de animais que recebeu 0,1ml/100g de água destilada, pela via oral. Estes foram distribuídos em 3 subgrupos de acordo com o dia da eutanásia, sendo esta realizada no 14º, 28º e 56º dia, cada um com 10 animais. RESULTADOS: Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que, microscopicamente, não houve alterações arquiteturais, porém quando se analisou a necrose hepatocitária, esta esteve presente em 50% do subgrupo GS28 e 90% do subgrupo GS56; as altera

  1. Effect of Four Kinds of Environment Factors on Seed Germination of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth%4种环境因子对少花蒺藜草(Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.)种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲波; 朱明星; 王巍; 韩志松; 吕林有; 李天来

    2011-01-01

    本试验以少花蒺藜草种子为研究材料,通过设定不同的温度、土壤湿度、土壤基质和光照等条件研究环境因子对少花蒺藜草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:少花蒺藜草种子萌发最适温度为25℃,萌发最低温度为20℃,萌发最高温度为30℃;光照对少花蒺藜草种子萌发有一定影响,光照促进种子萌发;土壤湿度对其萌发有影响,最适萌发湿度为20%,最低萌发湿度为6%;少花蒺藜草种子萌发对土壤基质要求不严格,于沙土及草炭土中均可萌发.%With Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth. seed as material to study the effect of different emperature, soil moisture, soil substrate and illumination on seed germination. The result showed that temperature had great influence on seed germination of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth, and the lowest germination at 20 ℃, and the highest germination rate at 30 ℃ ,and the best suitable germination temperature was 25 ℃. Light could improve seed germination. Soil moisture had great influence on seed germination, the best humidity was 20%, the minimum humidity was 6%. Soil substrate had little effect on seed germination, and seed could germination in sand and turfy soil.

  2. Ocorrência de Sciaphila purpurea Benth (Triuridaceae em restinga do estado do Espírito Santo – Brasil.

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    Rodrigo Theófilo Valadares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos o primeiro registro de Sciaphila purpurea Benth. (Triuridaceae para o estado do Espírito Santo incluindo dados sobre sua distribuição e aspectos ecológicos. A espécie foi encontrada em formação florestal inundável componente de vegetação de restinga entre raízes de Symphonia globulifera L.f. e Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess, espécies típicas de ambientes inundáveis. O registro desta espécie contribui para o enriquecimento do projeto envolvendo a Flora do Estado do Espírito Santo, fornecendo informações para que políticas públicas de conservação incluam este táxon no contexto regional.

  3. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

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    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  4. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  5. Termiticidal Activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth Seed Extracts on the Termite Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolarinwa Olugbemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and mineral composition of raw and boiled seeds of the African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth, was determined while the termiticidal action of the aqueous, alcoholic, and acetone extracts of the bean seeds were investigated. Variations in the proximate and mineral composition of the raw and boiled seeds were obtained while heavy minerals such as cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and copper had been leached out of the seed during the process of boiling. Extracts from the raw seeds exhibited varying degree of termiticidal activity, while extracts from the boiled seed had no effect on the workers of Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri. Alcoholic extracts were more active than the aqueous and acetone extracts. Termites die within 30 min, 40 min, and 110 min when exposed to concentration of 4 g mL−1 treatments of alcoholic, aqueous, and acetone extracts, respectively.

  6. Modulation of the Antibiotic Activity by Extracts from Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan

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    Fernando G. Figueredo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between ethanol extracts of Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, combined with six antimicrobial drugs against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from humans. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The microdilution assay was performed to verify the interactions between the natural products and the antibiotics using a subinhibitory concentration. The activity of amikacin associated with the extract of Anadenanthera macrocarpa against EC 27 was enhanced, demonstrating an MIC reduction from 128 to 4 μg/mL. Among the β-lactams, no potentiation on its activity was observed, with exception to the antagonism of the natural products with ampicillin against S. aureus 358.

  7. Composition chimique et activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles de Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. et Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. essential oils of Morocco. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. of Morocco against seven microorganisms. The essential oils of T. ciliatus are characterized by the presence of thymol (44.2%, β-E-ocimene (25.8% and α-terpinene (12.3% as principal chemical components. The essential oils of T. algeriensis are formed mainly by camphor (27.7% and α-pinene (20.5%. The oil of T. ciliatus showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. This bioactivity is due mainly to the richness of this essential oil in thymol known for its effectiveness against the microbial agents.

  8. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Evaldo Pires; Clovis Manica; Roberta Nogueira; Jeandson Carneiro; William Rodrigues; Marcus Soares

    2014-01-01

    Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. are plants species commonly used for medicinal and gastronomic purposes, respectively. Caterpillars of the Spodoptera genus are generalists due to the wide variety of plants species used as food souce. The aim of this research was record the occurrence of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sinop, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and also record C. barbatus and O. basilicum as potencial host plants for this insect species. It is r...

  9. Soil Ecological Suitability of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.in Guangdong Province%广东省广藿香土壤生态适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭治兴; 柴敏; 王静; 魏秀国

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析广藿香的适宜生长区域,为确定广藿香种植产区以及合理规划生产布局提供科学依据.[方法]通过在作物环境需求数据库--Ecocrop 1 中筛选重点土壤生态环境因子作为评价指标,以地理信息系统空间分析技术为手段,对广藿香的土壤生态适宜性进行分析和评价.[结果]在珠江三角洲以及粤东粤西的沿海区域仍然存在适宜广藿香生长的农地.[结论]本方法是一种方便快捷的进行中药材道地性产地评价和选择的技术.%Objective To provide scientific evidence for the cultivation area for Pogostemon cablin (Blanco)Benth. through analyzing the appropriate producing areas of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.. Methods With the main soil environment factors which were screened from Ecocropl database as the evaluation indexes, the soil ecological suitability of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. in Guangdong province was analyzed and evaluated by GIS spatial analysis techniques. Results The Pearl River delta as well as the coastal areas of western and eastern Guangdong is still suitable for the growth of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.. Conclusion The established method is convenient and efficient for the evaluation and selection of producing areas for genuine traditional Chinese medicinal material.

  10. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Jinten (Coleus Aromatikus Benth) Dengan GC – MS Dan Uji Anti Bakteri

    OpenAIRE

    Sinulingga, Bagus

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted whit the scale of laboratore. The object ofthis research was fresh leave jinten. The treatment done was to isolatethe essential oil of leave jinten (Coleus Aromaticus Benth) though water distillation . To analyzed chemical components was done with mass Spectrometry – gas Cromatography. The reuslt of gas cromatography showed 15 apexes meaning that the essensial oil of the leave jinten. Based on analysis with spectrometry mass inducted that chemical compound in...

  11. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1). No varietal differences w...

  12. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 week...

  13. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Ethiopian Indigenous Medicinal Plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar P. Nair; Kumar Ganesan; Henok Gulilat Azalewor; Neethu Letha; Sharmila Banu Gani

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants are the chemical substances which prevent the free radicals damage in the body. Numerous researches are going globally focussed on investigating natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of the present study were to evaluate preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro antioxidant activities of Ethiopian indigenous medicinal plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. Aqueous, benzene and hexane crude leaves extracts of O. lamiifolium and O....

  14. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Mallappa Kumara Swamy; Uma Rani Sinniah

    2015-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytostero...

  15. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol dan Fraksi Daun Sintrong (Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore) Terhadap Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Winda Mustika

    2016-01-01

    Sintrong (Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore) is a type of plant Compositae tribes, sintrong leaves chemical constituents are saponins, flavonoids and polyphenols are efficacious as a cure ulcers. In Africa in addition used as a vegetable, sintrong leaves also be used as traditional medicine; among them to cope with stomach disorders, headache, and injury. The purpose of this research was to know about characteristic, determinan of cemical compounds group and antibacterial activity...

  16. Comparison of the susceptibility of two hardwood species, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Eucalyptus viminalis labill, to steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    L P RAMOS DE; S. T. Carpes; F. T. Silva; J. L. M. Ganter

    2000-01-01

    Steam explosion of two hardwood species was carried out with and without addition of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 0.5%, p/v) as a pretreatment catalyst. In general, wood chips of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill were shown to be more amenable to pretreatment than chips derived from bolds of Mimosa scabrella Benth (bracatinga). This was apparent from all pretreatment parameters tested including the overall recovery yields of pretreated fractions, carbohydrates (pentoses and hexoses) recovered as water-solu...

  17. 药用植物广藿香4个品种染色体数研究%Studies on Chromosome Number of Four Varieties of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄珊珊

    2013-01-01

    采用酶解去壁低渗法对中药广藿香(Pogostemon cablin(Blanco)Benth.)4个栽培品种的体细胞染色体进行研究.结果表明,石牌广藿香(Pogostemon cablin(Blanco) Benth.CV.shipaiensi)、湛江广藿香(Pogostemon cablin(Blanco) Benth.CV.zhanjiangensi)、高要广藿香Pogostenwn cablin(Blanco)Benth.CV.gaoyaoensi)和印尼广藿香Pogostenwn cablin (Blanco) Benth.CV.yinniensi)的染色体数均为2n=2x=64,均为二倍体,结果证实广藿香4个栽培品种染色体数一致,均为同一种植物.广藿香植物的染色体数的研究,为种的鉴定、遗传育种提供依据.

  18. Germination and vigor of Dimorphandra mollis benth. seeds under different temperatures and substrates Germinação e vigor de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis benth. sob diferentes temperaturas e substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vasconcelos Pacheco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Caesalpiniaceae is a native forest species coming from the Cerrado and Caatinga due to its economical and ecological use, which justifies the studies on seed germination. In this work, germinative performance of D. mollis seeds were studied in different conditions of temperature regime and substrate. The experimental delineation used was completely randomized in factorial 4 x 4 (4 substrates -sand, coconut fiber, vermiculite and paper towel; and 4 temperatures: 25, 30, 35 and 20-30ºC, with four replications of 25 seeds each. The following parameters were evaluated: seed moisture content, final germination, first germination count, germination speed index, length and dry matter weight. The best germination and vigor is obtained at 30 and 35ºC. The substrates paper towel and vermiculite allow satisfactory germinative performance of seeds, being suitable to evaluate the physiological quality of D. mollis seeds.A fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie florestal nativa, encontrada nos biomas Cerrado e Caatinga, de grande importância em função de sua utilidade econômica e ecológica, o que justifica estudos sobre a germinação das sementes. Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho germinativo de sementes de D. mollis em diferentes substratos e regimes de temperatura. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 (quatro substratos: entre areia, pó de coco, vermiculita e papel-toalha; quatro temperaturas: 25, 30, 35, 20-30 ºC, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: teor de água, germinação, primeira contagem da germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento e massa seca da plântula. As temperaturas de 30 e 35 ºC proporcionaram às sementes os melhores resultados de germinação e vigor. Os substratos papel e entre vermiculita permitiram bom desempenho germinativo

  19. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats Avaliação dos efetos imunotoxicológicos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, em ratos

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    Cássia A. O. Feres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.A Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, conhecida como faveira ou fava-d'anta, é uma planta comum do cerrado central do Brasil, muito utilizada por suas propriedades antioxidante, antiplaquetária e, principalmente, como vasoprotetora. Seu principal marcador é a rutina. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a segurança da utilização do extrato seco de D. mollis em roedores. O extrato foi extraído, padronizado e quantificado apresentando teor de 76,0±3% de rutina. Nos parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos avaliados, não se observou alterações nos grupos de machos e fêmeas que receberam a dose de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg de D. mollis, mas observou-se um aumento de eosinófilos. Nos estudos histopatológicos detectou-se hiperreatividade da polpa branca esplênica, no grupo que recebeu a dose de 2000 mg/kg de D. mollis. Na avaliação da resposta

  20. Nitric oxide mediates the fungal elicitor-induced puerarin biosynthesis in Pueraria thomsonii Benth. suspension cells through a salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent signal pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Maojun; DONG; Jufang; ZHU; Muyuan

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule in plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis recently. In order to investigate the molecular basis of NO signaling in elicitor-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis of plant cells, we determined the contents of NO, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and puerarin in Pueraria thomsonii Benth. suspension cells treated with the elicitors prepared from cell walls of Penicillium citrinum. The results showed that the fungal elicitor induced NO burst, SA accumulation and puerarin production of P. thomsonii Benth. cells. The elicitor-induced SA accumulation and puerarin production was suppressed by nitric oxide specific scavenger cPITO, indicating that NO was essential for elicitor-induced SA and puerarin biosynthesis in P. thomsonii Benth. cells. In transgenic NahG P. thomsonii Benth. cells, the fungal elicitor also induced puerarin biosynthesis, NO burst, and JA accumulation, though the SA biosynthesis was impaired. The elicitor-induced JA accumulation in transgenic cells was blocked by cPITO, which suggested that JA acted downstream of NO and its biosynthesis was controlled by NO. External application of NO via its donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced puerarin biosynthesis in transgenic NahG P. thomsonii Benth. cells, and the NO-triggered puerarin biosynthesis was suppressed by JA inhibitors IBU and NDGA, which indicated that NO induced puerarin production through a JA-dependent signal pathway in the transgenic cells. Exogenous application of SA suppressed the elicitor-induced JA biosynthesis and reversed the inhibition of IBU and NDGA on elicitor-induced puerarin accumulation in transgenic cells, which indicated that SA inhibited JA biosynthesis in the cells and that SA might be used as a substitute for JA to mediate the elicitor- and NO-induced puerarin biosynthesis. It was, therefore, concluded that NO might mediate the elicitor-induced puerarin biosynthesis through SA- and JA-dependent signal

  1. Study on Characters of Hard Seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae)and Methods for Breaking Dormancy%Study on Characters of Hard Seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae)and Methods for Breaking Dormancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifeng ZHANG; Xingwen WU; Yuehui SHE

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to understand the characters of hard seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae) and explore the methods for break- ing dormancy. [Method] For both aerial and subterranean seeds of A. edgeworthii, the morphological characteristics were observed and the appropriate temperature for germination was explored. For aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii, the characters of hard seeds were studied, and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment, hot water soak treat- ment and mechanical damage treatment were compared to explore the methods for breaking seed dormancy. [Result] The aerial seeds were oblate and averaged 3.38 mm in length, 3.02 mm in width, 1.88 mm in thickness, 15.32 g in thousand grain weight, with a hard seed rate after of up to 98% natural maturation. The subter- ranean seeds were approximately oblate with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and a hundred grain weight of (50.08-58.26 g); among all the treatments for breaking hardseededness, cutting seed coat treatment and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 20 minutes were the most effective methods, whereas hot water soak treatment was the least effective method; constant temperature between 20 and 30 ℃ was optimum for the germination of aerial seeds, and alternative temperature of 30/20 ℃ was most appropriate for the germination of subterranean seeds. [Conclusion] Cutting seed coat treatment and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 20 minutes were the most effective methods to break the hardseededness of A. edgeworthii.

  2. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  3. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. in alloxan induced diabetic albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Sonia Kohli; Renu Arya; Jyoti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. bark in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Methods: Group-Ⅰ (normal control) mice received only basal diet without any treatment. In Group-Ⅱ (Diabetic control) mice, diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kgi.p.) and received only Tween80, 5% v/v in normal saline. Group-Ⅲ and Group-Ⅳ mice received metformin (10 mg/kg) and gliclazide (10 mg/kg) as standard drugs. Group-Ⅴ and Ⅵ mice received methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima at doses of250 and500 mg/kg body weightp.o., respectively.Results: The results of the study indicates thatAlbizia odoratissima bark extract significantly (P<0.01) reduced the blood sugar level. The bark extract also significantly reduced the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and decreases level of total proteins in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Conclusions:Methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima has protective effects on the protection of vital tissues (pancreas, kidney, liver, heart and spleen), thereby reducing the causation of diabetes in experimental animals.

  4. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

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    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  5. Vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents against four stored-product pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymavathi, Atmakur; Devanand, Peta; Suresh Babu, Katragadda; Sreelatha, Thonthula; Pathipati, Usha Rani; Madhusudana Rao, Janaswamy

    2011-03-01

    The vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents was evaluated against four stored-product pests ( Callosobruchus chinensis L., Sitophilus oryzae L., Rhyzopertha dominica L., and Tribolium castaneum H.) using fumigation bioassays and compared to those of commonly used insecticides. The structures of all constituents of were characterized by spectroscopic analyses [nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry]. The sensitivity of the test insect to compounds varied with exposure time, concentration, and insect species. Over 100% mortality after 24 h was achieved with the compounds osajin (2), scandinone (5), sphaerobioside (8), and genistein (9) against all of the test insects, while laxifolin (3) and lupalbigenin (4) showed 100% mortality after 72 h against T. csataneum and R. dominica . Scandenone (1), scandenin A (6), and scandenin (7) were less effective. Among the insects, C. chinensis , S. oryzae , and R. dominica were more susceptible to the treatments, whereas T. castaneum was less susceptible. The results of fumigation tests indicated that compounds from D. scandens whole plant extract are potential candidates to control stored-product pests. PMID:21314138

  6. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  7. Croton cajucara Benth. leaf extract scavenges the stable free radical DPPH and protects against oxidative stress induced by paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieppo, Marcelo; Porawski, Marilene; Salvador, Mirian; Moreira, Andrea Janz; Collado, Pilar Sanzchez; González-Gallego, Javier; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of extracts from Croton cajucara BENTH. leaves was investigated in different in vitro and in vivo models. Extracts showed inhibitory radical scavenging activity against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (75%, 43% and 25% of the standard trolox at 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml, respectively; IC50 218 mg/ml). Percentage survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated with 10 mM paraquat increased by 21% and 55%, when 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extract, respectively, were added. The cytosolic concentration of TBARS increased in animals treated with paraquat (+283%), while values did not significantly differ from the controls in rats additionally receiving the leaf extract. Paraquat administration also induced a significant increase in hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminiscence (+76%), that was partially prevented by the leaf extract (+31%). Liver SOD activity was a 158% higher in animals receiving paraquat as compared to the controls. This effect was abolished by administration of the leaf extract. Paraquat administration did not significantly modify the activity of GPx or catalase. Croton cajucara extract increased GPx and catalase activities in paraquat treated-animals by 342% and 70%, respectively. Our results confirm that Croton cajucara leaf extract present radical scavenging activity and reduce oxidative stress induced by paraquat, suggesting the beneficial use as a potential source of antioxidant agents of natural origin. PMID:16394531

  8. EFFECT OF WATER STRESS SIMULATED WITH NaCl, MANNITOL AND PEG (6000 ON THE GERMINATION Erythrina falcata Benth SEEDS

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    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989295Erythrina falcata Benth. (Fabaceae species is used in agroforestry, restoration of riparian vegetation in flooded areas, and in the recovery of degraded ecosystems. This work aimed to evaluate the possible effects of water stresses on germination of Erythrina falcata seeds. The study was carried out in The Forestry Seeds Laboratory, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, in Parana state, Brazil. The experimental units consisted in boxes gerbox (25 seeds on 2 filter papers with 10 ml of osmotic solution. Gerbox was sealed with PVC plastic film and led to germinate in Mangelsdorf type chamber (under light continues at 25±2ºC. Six osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.2; -0.4; -0.6; -0.8; and -1.0 MPa were induced with NaCl, manitol and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000.The lowest tolerance limit to water stress was observed in PEG solutions. The germination limit was -0.2 to -0.4 MPa of PEG, whereas the osmotic potentials tested with NaCl and mannitol did not affect the germination process.

  9. Crescimento e sobrevivência de Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae, em uma área de caatinga, Alagoinha, PE

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    Silva Lucia Maria Bezerra da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do crescimento e da sobrevivência de Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan foi realizado na Fazenda Geraldão (8°29'28" S e 36°47'00" W, Alagoinha, PE, no período de julho/1996 a junho/1997. selecionaram-se 10 indivíduos adultos de A. macrocarpa dividindo-se suas copas em quadrantes, e quantificaram-se todos os indivíduos jovens acompanhando crescimento e sobrevivência da estação chuvosa de 1996 até a estação chuvosa de 1997 . A estrutura e distribuição espacial de uma população foi estudada em 10 parcelas de 10m x 10m (1.000m² , subdividida em 250 parcelas de 2m x 2m. Os indivíduos estudados no período de um ano totalizaram 344, sendo 211 jovens e 133 juvenis. A estrutura da população consistiu de 192 indivíduos: 170 jovens (88,5%, oito juvenis (4,2% e 14 adultos (7,3%. A distribuição espacial foi do tipo agregado. A. macrocarpa apresentou-se resistente durante a estação seca, devido ao seu alto índice de sobrevivência (73,3% na área estudada.

  10. HPLC and GC-MS determination of bioactive compounds in microwave obtained extracts of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS. PMID:21829154

  11. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  12. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

  13. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  14. Antifertility effects of methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.S.Gupta; J.B.S.Kachhawa; R.Chaudhary

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifertility activity of the methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male albino rats. Methods: The methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck was administrated orally for 60 days at 50, 100 and 200 mg·kg-1·day-1 to male albino rats. Sperm motility and density in cauda epididymides were assessed.Biochemical and histological analysis were performed in blood samples and reproductive organs. Results: A. lebbeck pod extract brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testis, seminal vesicles, epdidymis and ventral prostate. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. There was a marked reduction in the numbers of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The Sertoli cell count as well as its cross sectional surface area were significantly decreased. The Leydig cell nuclear area and the number of mature Leydig cells were also significantly decreased. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol content of the testis, the fructose in the seminal vesicles and protein in the epididymis were significantly decreased. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin,haematocrit and blood sugar were within the normal range. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of A. lebbeck pods causes spermatogenic arrest in male albino rats.

  15. Evaluation and decontamination of crude oil-polluted soils using Centrosema pubescen Benth and amendment-support options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia O; Osuji, Leo C; Onyeike, Eugene N

    2011-04-01

    Growth performance and phytoremediation of soil of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria artificially-contaminated with crude oil (up to 100 mL/2 kg soil) using centrosema pubescen Benth was investigated for 12 weeks. The soil samples in which the plants were established were either un-amended, or amended with NPK, or UREA or chicken manure. The extents of removal of PAHs and BTEX were measured as well as the rates of growth of the plants. Gas Chromatographic analysis confirmed the degradation of carcinogenic hydrocarbons like BTEXs and PAHs with this technique. At the highest dose of crude, the contaminant concentrations were 43 mg/kg PAHs, 10 mg/kg BTEX, and 5,613 mg/kg O&G. The greatest percent removal of BTEX was observed at the highest contaminant dose, and with the manure amendment. Similar trends were observed with PAHs and although they were less marked, the trends with PAHs may have been more highly statistically significant. There was no measurable plant uptake of contaminants. Inhibition of plant growth (measured as leaf area, shoot length and production of dry weight) was proportional to the dose of crude oil, but the manure amendment was very effective at reducing the growth inhibition. Interestingly, manure amendment reduced the phytotoxicity significantly in this study. PMID:21598799

  16. Technological development of aqueous extracts from Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. Hook. f. ex K. Schum., Rubiaceae, (mulateiro using factorial design

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    Leidyana M. da Costa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to characterize the vegetal raw material of the Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. Hook. f. ex K. Schum., Rubiaceae, known as "mulateiro", and to evaluate the influence of extractive parameters for attainment of standardized aqueous extractive solutions. The physical-chemical characterization of the samples was performed using pharmacopoeic and not pharmacopoeic methodologies. A 2³ factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of extraction techniques (infusion/decoction, drug: solvent ratio (2.5 and 7.5%, and extraction time (5 and 15 min on the total tannin content of aqueous extractive solutions from C. spruceanum. The extractive solution that showed higher total tannin and dry residue content had their physical-chemical characteristics determined. The results suggest that an aqueous extractive solution from rinds of C. spruceanum barks with higher tanning yield (9.9 g%, must be standardized using decoction as extraction methodology, with 2.5% of vegetal drug for an extraction time of 15 min. The results of the physical-chemical characterization suggest that environmental factors modify the properties of this species and, therefore, they can influence the quality and security of a product derived from this medicinal plant.

  17. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of the Essential Oils of Cantinoa stricta (Benth. Harley & J.F.B. Pastore (Lamiaceae

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    Dilamara Riva Scharf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Cantinoa stricta (Benth. Harley & J.F.B. Pastore (Lamiaceae were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/ MS. The major components of both oils were caryophyllene oxide (leaf – 31.6%; flower – 21.7% and cis-pinane (leaf – 15.4%; flower – 9.7%. The flower oil also contained significant amounts of a -pinene (9.4% and b -pinene (9.1%. The oils were tested in vitro against U251 (glioma, UACC-62 (melanoma, MCF-7 (breast, NCI-H460 (lung, PC-3 (prostate, K-562 (leukemia human cancer cell lines and against HaCat (no cancer cell, using the sulforhodamine B method. Both oils showed antiproliferative activity against all tested cells lines (TGI < 50 m g/mL, with exception of K562 cells. The highest activity was observed against MCF-7 cell lines (TGI = 4.54-10.36 m g/mL.

  18. Total Flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth. O. Ktze Protect against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Rong Chang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin has cardiotoxic effects that limit its clinical benefit in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth. O. Ktze (TFCC against doxorubicin- (DOX- induced cardiotoxicity. Male rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (3 mg/kg every 2 days for three injections. Heart samples were collected 2 weeks after the last DOX dose and then analyzed. DOX delayed body and heart growth and caused cardiac tissue injury, oxidative stress, apoptotic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Bcl-2 expression disturbance. Similar experiments in H9C2 cardiomyocytes showed that doxorubicin reduced cell viability, increased ROS generation and DNA fragmentation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced apoptotic cell death. However, TFCC pretreatment suppressed all of these adverse effects of doxorubicin. Signal transduction studies indicated that TFCC suppressed DOX-induced overexpression of p53 and phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK. Studies with LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT inhibitor demonstrated that the mechanism of TFCC-induced cardioprotection also involves activation of PI3K/AKT. These findings indicated the potential clinical application of TFCC in preventing DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress.

  19. 广藿香抗青枯病鉴定方法的研究%Study on Bacterial-wilt-resistance Identification Methods for Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红; 温雁鹰; 许仕仰; 梁志毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the optimal concentration and inoculation procedure of crude toxin from Ralstonia solanacearum, and to establish the identification method for bacterial wilt resistance of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. seedling, so as to lay the foundation for resistance breeding of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco)Benth.. Methods The growth curve of Ralstonia solanacearum was determined. And then we studied the effect of seedling age, crude toxin concentrations and inoculation ways for the crude toxin on the pathogenicity of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.. Results The growth of Ralstonia solanacearum presented as the S-shaped curve, the highest concentration being 12. 46 × l08 cfu/mL. The seedling of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. aged 100 days was optimal for the identification of bacterial wilt resistance. In the crude toxin concentration range of 0. 4 ×108 ~ 0. 6 × 108 cfu/mL, the inoculated plant showed a moderately advanced progress of bacterial wilt, which was suitable for the resistance identification. Having the advantage of shortening the experiment period, the rootsubmerging method was recommended for the resistance identification of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth..Conclusion The indoor identification method for Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. resistance to bacterial wilt has been established preliminarily.%[目的]对广藿香幼苗接种青枯茵粗毒素,观察其感病状况,建立广藿香苗期抗性鉴定方法,为广藿香抗病育种奠定基础.[方法]测定不同培养时间的青枯茵菌液浓度,绘制青枯菌的生长曲线;分别设置不同广藿香苗龄、不同浓度青枯菌制备粗毒素及不同接种方法等试验,探讨影响致病性的因素.[结果]青枯茵的生长曲线呈"S"型,青枯茵菌液浓度在稳定期最高可达12.46×108cfu/mL.对于广藿香抗青枯病的苗期鉴定,以100d左右苗龄的植株较适宜;在0.4×108~0.6×108cfu/mL浓度范围内,接种植株表现渐进的发病过

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE ENDANGERED PLANTS (COSTUS SPECIOUS, GLORIOSSA SUPERBA LINN AND RAUVOLFIA SERPENTINE (LINN BENTH FROM KANKER DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH, INDIA

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    NITISH KUMAR SAHU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chhattisgarh, the herbal state houses with rich and unique biodiversity of medicinal plants which are widely usedby traditional healers of the state for treatment of various disease and extensively exploited for commercialpurpose which leads to serious threat. Several plants have been studied and listed as rare and endangered whichneed to be conserved. We selected three such plants viz. Costus specious, Gloriossa superba Linn and Rauvolfiaserpentine (Linn Benth., from Kanker district of Chhattisgarh for their phytochemical analysis by chemicalscreening and Thin layer chromatography. On primary analysis of the methanolic and ethanolic extract ofrhizome of C. specious and G. superba and root and leaves of R. serpentine (Linn Benth. we found the presenceof phytocompounds like saponin, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and glycosides in them. Thisphytocompounds were further separated by TLC using petroleum ether: methanol: benzene (8:1:1.5 as mobilephase in silica gel coated glass plates. Maximum 9 bands were observed in methanolic extract of rhizome of C.specious with Rf value between 0.05 – 0.97 and 6 bands in methanolic extract of rhizome of G. superba with Rfvalue between 0.02 – 0.94.Similarily in ethanolic and methanolic extract of leaves of R. serpentine (Linn Benth.Maximum 13 bands were observed with Rf value between 0.05 – 0.96 and 0.04 – 0.98 respectively whereasethanolic extract of root showed maximum 11 bands with Rf value between 0.04 – 0.98 in comparison withchloroform and petroleum ether extracts. This result can further help in development of new drugs for diseaseslike cancer and hypertension based on their traditional uses.

  1. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF FIVE FLAVONOIDS FROM POGOSTEMON CABLIN BENTH BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY AND PREPARATIVE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kang; Zhang, Hongwu; Xie, Huichun; Liang, Yong; Wang, Xiaohong; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) were successively used for the separation of pogostone and four flavonoids from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. An efficient HSCCC separation was achieved on a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (11:5:11:5, v/v/v/v). Three well-separated peaks were obtained in the HSCCC chromatogram. The first and the second fractions each contained two ...

  2. Propagação vegetativa de aroeira schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Canela Sassafras Ocotea pretiosa Benth & Hook e cedro Cedrela fissilis Vellozo atraves de estacas radicais e caulinares

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Valdemir Antonio, 1956-

    2013-01-01

    A presente pesquisa teve a finalidade de avaliar o enraizamento de estacas radiciais e caulinares de três espécies florestais nativas: aroeira [ Schinus terebinthlfolius Raddi); canela sassafrás [ Ocotea pretiosa Benth & Rook); e cedro [Cedrela fissilis Vellozo), agrupadas em três classes diamétricas, em condições de viveiro parcialmente controladas de telado, sombrite 501., ap6s tratamentos com promotores do enraizamento. Os testes foram realizados em duas épocas do ano [outono/inverno e pri...

  3. Antibakterijski učinak ekstrakta lista biljke Plectranthus amboinicus Benth u uzorcima voća, povrća i pilećeg mesa

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Gupta, Sandeep; Singh Negi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    U radu je ispitan učinak ekstrakata lišća drevne indijske ljekovite biljke Plectranthus amboinicus Benth, izoliranih pomoću acetona i etilnog acetata, na sprečavanje rasta bakterija uzročnika kvarenja inokuliranih u uzorke svježeg kupusa i papaje, te na prirodnu mikrofloru pilećeg mesa. Dobiveni su ekstrakti uspješno smanjili broj bakterija u svim uzorcima hrane, no njihova je učinkovitost ovisila o složenosti sastava uzorka, pa je najveća bila u kupusu, zatim u papaji, a najmanja u mesu. Isp...

  4. Evaluación in vivo del potencial mutagénico de los quimiotipos Estragol y Eugenol del aceite esencial de Ocimum selloi Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Josiane de F.P. de; Paulo V. Farago; Ribas, Joao Luiz C.; Spinardi, Gisele Mara S.; Döll, Patricia M.; Artoni, Roberto F.; Zawadzki, Sónia F.

    2007-01-01

    Se determinó la composición química y la mutagenicidad de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas del Ocimum selloi Benth, perteneciente a la familia Lamiaceae, nativos de la región sur de Brasil. Para el estudio se utilizaron técnicas de cromatografía gaseosa capilar acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Para la evaluación de la mutagenicidad in vivo se utilizó el ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratones Wistar. Del aceite esencial nominado quimiotipo A, fueron identifica...

  5. Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Dubey, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium c...

  6. 两型豆种子发育的解剖学研究%Anatomic Study on the Seed Development of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立峰; 佘跃辉

    2011-01-01

    Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. is a wild species of the legume, with important value on the soybean breeding and researchs of plant developmental biology. The seed development of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. were observed using paraffin sectioning method by microscope. The ovule was fertilized and formed the zygote after flowering about 12 hours. The zygote was transfersely divided into a terminal cell and a basal cell in 2 days after flowering. The proembryo continued cell division in very directions forming globular embryo and then heart-shaped embryo, in which the cotyledons primordium began to occur. In 24 days after flowering, the embryo differentiated into matured embryo through Tropedo-shaped embryo( in 16 days after flowering). The endosperm cell began to form when the globular proembryo was formed, and the development of the endosperm was nuclear type. The mature seed of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth is the seed without endosperm. The outer integument developed into the seed coat, and the seed coat cells were the fence cells with corneum, that might be one of the important reasons of hard seeds for Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth.%两型豆为豆科野生物种,对大豆育种和植物发育生物学研究具有重要价值.试验采用石蜡切片法进行了两型豆种子发育的解剖学研究,结果表明:(1)胚珠在花后12 h完成受精;(2)花后2 d合子进行第1次分裂,第1次分裂为横分裂,花后4 d形成原胚;(3)花后24 d,原胚经过球形胚期、心形胚期、鱼雷胚期,发育为成熟胚;(4)胚乳发育为核型,成熟种子为无胚乳种子;(5)外珠被发育为种皮,种皮细胞呈栅栏状且外被角质层,是造成三籽两型豆地上种子硬实的重要原因之一.

  7. Caracterização botânica e química de Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth., (Rubiaceae Morphological and chemical diagnosis of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth., (Rubiaceae

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    R.M.S. Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Congonha, congonha-de-bugre e bugre são nomes populares atribuídos a várias espécies medicinais, incluindo Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth. (Rubiaceae, cujas folhas são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, antireumáticas e depurativas do sangue. Esta espécie vem sendo comercializada como porangaba e utilizada em regimes de emagrecimento, substituindo Cordia ecalyculata Vell. (Boraginaceae. Neste estudo, foram determinadas as características botânicas, fisico-químicas e químicas para R. viburnoides com o objetivo de auxiliar sua identificação taxonômica e o controle de qualidade de produtos preparados com esta planta. Uma amostra referência foi coletada e submetida à caracterização macroscópica, microscópica e organoléptica, determinação de cinzas totais e umidade, prospecção fitoquímica e determinação dos perfis cromatográficos em CCD. Amostras de R. viburnoides podem ser reconhecidas pela epiderme pilosa com marcantes estrias cuticulares, estômatos paracíticos, presença de idioblastos com ráfides no mesofilo e pela configuração em arco dos tecidos vasculares da nervura de primeira ordem, caracteres ausentes em C. ecalyculata. A presença de cistólitos e canais mucilaginosos na medula diferem prontamente C. ecalyculata de R. viburnoides. A análise por CCD evidenciou a presença de flavonóides e saponinas. Amostras adquiridas no comércio e submetidas aos mesmos ensaios permitiram validar os métodos propostos e confirmaram a ampla comercialização de R. viburnoides em Minas Gerais.Congonha, congonha-de-bugre and bugre are popular names for several medicinal plant species, including Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth. (Rubiaceae, whose leaves are widely used in popular medicine as diuretic, hypotensive, antirheumatic, and blood depurative. This species has been commercialized as porangaba, and used for diet purposes in substitution of Cordia ecalyculata Vell. (Boraginaceae. This study

  8. Caracterização farmacognóstica das folhas e sementes de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Fabaceae Pharmacognostic characterization of leaves and seeds of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Cláudia G. Miranda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. é popularmente conhecida no Brasil por coração-de-negro. É uma espécie aclimatada nesse país. As sementes dessa espécie são utilizadas no tratamento de diarréia, disenteria e hemorróidas e as folhas, no tratamento de úlceras e nas conjuntivites alérgicas. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas e sementes dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó das folhas e sementes de A. lebbeck. Saponinas, alcalóides e cumarinas foram detectados nas folhas e sementes; flavonóides foram também identificados nas folhas. O teor de umidade foi 6,78% e 7,91%, respectivamente, para o pó das folhas e sementes. Os valores de cinzas totais e cinzas insolúveis em ácido foram 9,60% e 0,62% para as folhas e 4,13% e 0,21% para as sementes. Os dados obtidos são importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa planta medicinal. O extrato bruto da planta não apresentou atividade antibacteriana.Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., is popularly known in Brazil as "coração-de-negro". It is a species acclimatized in Brazil. The seeds of this species are used to treat diarrhea, dysentery and hemorrhoids and the leaves are used for the treatment of ulcers and allergic conjunctivitis. The purpose of this work was to determine the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the leaves and seeds of this plant, since these are the parts used popularly. Some characters of diagnostical value are pointed out and illustrated by photomicrographs. Phytochemistry reactions and determination of water and ash were done on the powder of A. lebbeck. Saponins, alkaloids, coumarins were detected in the leaves and seeds; flavonoids were also detected

  9. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae extracts

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    Luiz Lúcio Soares da Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae é uma planta que pertence à família Fabaceae, popularmente conhecida como mucunã-de-caroço e olho-de-boi, e, encontra-se distribuída nas regiões da caatinga e serrado do Brasil. Os extratos aquoso, etanólico e hidroalcoólico da casca do caule, da casca da raiz e da folha de D. grandiflora, nas concentrações de 313 µg/mL a 10.000 µg/mL, foram analisados por meio de técnica de difusão em ágar, frente a vinte microrganismos representantes de bactérias Gram positivas, Gram negativas, fungos filamentosos e leveduras. O extrato aquoso da casca do caule, na concentração de 10.000 µg/mL, inibiu o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureuscom halo de 20 mm. Já o extrato hidroalcoólico da casca do caule inibiu apenas S. aureuscom halo de 18 mm, enquanto o extrato da folha inibiu o crescimento de dois dermatófitos, Trichophyton mentagrophytese Microsporum canis. Por outro lado, o extrato hidroalcoólico da casca da raiz inibiu apenas M. caniscom halo de 15 mm de diâmetro. Das frações do extrato aquoso da folha, apenas acetato de etila inibiu o crescimento de Streptococcus epidermides, Candida albicans, T. metagrophytese M. canis.Para o extrato etanólico do caule, a fração aquosa inibiu S. epidermidese S. aureus.The species Dioclea grandifloraMart. ex. Benth., Fabaceae is a plant that belongs to the Fabaceae family, popularly known as "mucunã-de-caroço" and "olho-de-boi". It can be found distributed in mountainous regions and in the scrub savanna of Brazil. The aqueous, ethanol and hydroalcoholic extracts of stem bark, root bark and leaves of D. grandifloraon concentration from 313 µg/mL to 10.000 µg/mL, were analyzed by the agar diffusion technique, front to twenty microorganisms, representatives of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. The aqueous extract of stem bark, on concentration of 10.000 µg/mL, inhibited the growth of

  10. Modelagem do volume do povoamento para Mimosa scabrella Benth. na regição metropolitana de Curitiba Stand volume modelling of Mimosa scabrella benth. from Curitiba metropolitan region

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar o volume total com casca do povoamento da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.. Coletaram-se dados em bracatingais com regeneração induzida pelo fogo, em 14 municípios da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba (RMC, Estado do Paraná - Brasil. Utilizou-se uma base de dados constituída por 229 unidades amostrais de 100 a 400 m². Em cada parcela, mensurou-se o diâmetro à altura do peito, bem como a altura total de todas as árvores, em bracatingais de 3 a 18 anos de idade. Para a estimativa do volume total com casca, testaram-se vários modelos de regressão selecionados da literatura, o que gerou uma matriz com 58 variáveis independentes, visando construir modelos por meio do método Stepwise. As equações de melhor ajuste foram validadas utilizando-se o teste Qui-quadrado, a análise gráfica de resíduos e o erro-padrão da estimativa. Várias equações tiveram bom desempenho, apresentaram valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados superiores a 0,995, erro-padrão da estimativa inferior a 3% e adequada distribuição de resíduos. As duas equações de melhor desempenho foram validadas, apresentando erro-padrão da estimativa de 2,37% e 2,13%, valor não-significativo para o teste do Qui-quadrado e equilibrada distribuição dos resíduos.The objective of this research was to model the stand volume outside bark of Mimosa scabrella Benth. stands, from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region (CMR, Parana State - Brazil. To reach this aim, a database of 229 permanent and temporary sample plots measuring from 100 to 400 m² each, from 14 municipalities in the CMR, was used. In each sample plot, the diameter at breast height and the total height of all 3- to 18-year-old bracatinga trees were measured. To estimate the total volume, regression models selected from the literature were tested. A set of 58 independent variables was generated also to construct models by the Stepwise method. The equations of best

  11. Avaliação do efeito antinociceptivo e da toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso da Hyptis fruticosa Salmz. ex Benth Evaluation of the analgesic effect and acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of Hyptis fruticosa (Salmz. ex Benth.

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    Aline B.L. Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o efeito antinociceptivo e a toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso das folhas da Hyptis fruticosa Salmz. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae. O extrato aquoso liofilizado, administrado por via oral, reduziu as contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético (200, 400 e 500 mg/kg e o tempo de reação dos animais na primeira fase do teste da formalina (100 mg/kg e 400 mg/kg. No teste da placa quente, o extrato aquoso aumentou o tempo de latência ao calor (100 e 200 mg/kg tendo este efeito sido revertido pelo antagonista opióide naloxona (5 mg/kg; i.p.. No ensaio de toxicidade aguda, não foi detectada a morte de nenhum animal após tratamento com doses de até 5 g/kg (v.o. do extrato. Em conclusão, os resultados obtidos indicam que o extrato aquoso da Hyptis fruticosa apresenta efeito antinociceptivo em camundongos e não apresenta toxicidade aguda nas doses testadas.The antinociceptive effect and the acute toxicity of Hyptis fruticosa leaves were evaluated through the administration of its aqueous extract in mice. The extract, administered orally (200, 400, and 500 mg/kg, reduced the nociceptive response in the writhing test as well as in the early phase of the formalin test (100 and 400 mg/kg and it increased the latency time in the hot plate test (100 and 200 mg/kg. The antinociceptive effect was reversed by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.. Moreover, no animal deaths were observed in doses up to 5 g/kg. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Hyptis fruticosa showed no acute toxicity at the evaluated doses and revealed antinociceptive effect in mice. Such effects are possibly associated with the opioid system activation.

  12. Lowering blood pressure effect of Apium graviolens (seledri and Orthosipleon stamineus benth (kumis kucing in mild and moderate hypertension

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    Siti Supari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth have been used to as traditional medicines to lower blood pressure. Since at present time is avaiLable as a combination of those phytopharmaca in the market, therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to evaLtnte the ffictivity and side effects of those phytopharmaca toward hypertensive subjects. A randomized double blind conftolled trial was conducted at area of Monica - Jakarta in South of Jalarta from July-untiL 29 October 2001 toward mild and moderate hypertensive subjects. The first group (72 subjects received phytophanmaca (Tensigard® /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} which contains Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth 3 x 250 mg, whiLe the second grottp (70 subjects had Amlodipine I x 5 mg. Obseruation were conducted for 12 weelcs, and the parameter observed wère systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, plasma lipid, blood glucose before and after treatment, and electrolyte with nvo week intervals. The Resuhs revealed that the phytopharmaca treatment for 12 weel 0,05; DBP 10.00 t0.96 mmHg vs 9.49 t 1.37 ntmHg; P> 0.05. Phytopharmaca treatment for 12

  13. Scopolin isolated from Erycibe obtusifolia Benth stems suppresses adjuvant-induced rat arthritis by inhibiting inflammation and angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Rong; DAI Yue; GAO Xing-hua; XIA Yu-feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effects and mechanisms of scopolin isolated from the stems of Erycibe obtusifolia Benth in arthritis-associated inflammation and angiogenesis. Methods Adjuvant-induced arthritic rat, an animal model for human RA was used in this study for examining the potential remedial effect of scopolin. The swelling in both inoculated and non-inoculated paws, body weights and articular index (AI) scores were detected to evaluate the severity of the arthritis. Histologic assessment of tissue sections from rat ankles was also performed. Furthermore, the blood vessel density in the synovial tissues was quantitatively evaluated. In addition, expressions of VEGF, FGF-2, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in rat synovial tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry assay in an attempt to explain the mechanisms of scopolin for suppressing arthritis. Results Scopolin dose-dependently inhibited both inoculated and non-inoculated paw swelling in rat AIA. The mean AI scores of scopolin treated groups were also dose-dependently lower than that of model group. In addition, compared with the weights of model group, the mean body weights of rats treated with scopolin (50,100 mg·kg-1) were higher from day 13 to 22, perhaps indicative of healthier animals. The histologic architecture of the joint was highly abnormal in the model group rats, while high dose of scopolin treated rats preserved a nearly normal histologic architecture of the joint. Moreover, the new blood vessels were reduced dose-dependently in the synovial tissue of rat AIA treated with scopolin. Further, scopolin reduced the overexpression of IL-6,VEGF and FGF-2 in rat synovial tissues. Conclusions Scopolin is capable of reducing clinical symptoms of rat AIA by inhibiting inflammation and angiogenesis, and this compound may be a potent therapeutic agent for angiogenesis related diseases and can serve as structural base for screening for more potent synthetic analogs.

  14. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  15. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control. PMID:21623314

  16. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  17. MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DE Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. A PARTIR DE SEGMENTOS NODAIS E ÁPICES CAULINARES

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    Francisco Fábio Mesquita Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., (Mimosaceae it´s a Northeast native species from Brazil and cause its multiple utilities, it has been intensively used. Is conventionally propagated through seeds, but this process isn't easy and plant with a wide range of genetic variability. For this reason, the micropropagation assumes importance. Two experiments had been lead, being that in the first, different combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and benzilaminopurine (BAP were evaluated and in the second, two ways of culture. In the first experiment the explants had been gotter from three years old plants and inoculated with MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962 substance in different concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP. The observed variables were number of shoots for explants, number sprouted explants and percentile of contamination. In the second experiment explants from sprouted in vitro plantlets inoculated with a complementary formularization substances called MC1 (25 mL of medium with next composition: 20% water coconut (v/v, myo-inositol (0,1 g.L-1, ascorbic acid (0,09g.L-1 and MC2 (20% water coconut (v/v, myo-inositol (0,1 g.L-1, ascorbic acid (0,1 g.L-1, (0,0155 g.L-1, tiamin (0,02 g.L-1, boron (0,0015 g.L-1, extract of malt (0,3 g.L-1, both solidificed with agar (7g.L-1. In these experiments the observed variables were number of shoots per treatment and number of callus per treatment. In the combination of 2,4-D and BAP, none morphogenetic reply in the inoculeted tissues was identified. The substances MC1 and MC2 had induced in average callus sprouted in 85,8% of the inoculeted explants. In the first experiment, 34% were infested by fungus.

  18. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth. PMID:22695235

  19. Influência da escarificação e da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de Samanea tubulosa (Benth.) Barneby & J.W. Grimes (sete cascas) Influence of scarification and temperature on seed germination of Samanea tubulosa (Benth.) Barneby & J.W. Grimes (seven shells)

    OpenAIRE

    Roseli Muniz Giachini; Francisco de Almeida Lobo; Maria Cristina de Figueiredo e Albuquerque; Carmen Eugenia Rodríguez Ortíz

    2010-01-01

    Samanea tubulosa (Benth.) Barneby & J.W Grimes (sete cascas) é uma planta arbórea nativa do Pantanal Matogrossense, cujas sementes possuem dormência provavelmente causada pela impermeabilidade do tegumento à água. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência da escarificação mecânica e química para superar a dormência tegumentar e o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de sete cascas. Foram empregados quatro diferentes procedimentos de escarificaçã...

  20. Parâmetros bioquímicos foliares das espécies Licania tomentosa (Benth. e Bauhinia forficata (Link. para avaliação da qualidade do ar Foliar analyses of biochemical parameters of Licania tomentosa (Benth. and Bauhinia forficata (Link. species for air quality assessment

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    Otávio Luiz Gusso Maioli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar analysis of biochemical parameters were carried out in order to investigate the influence of air pollutants on two tropical tree species (Licania tomentosa (Benth. and Bauhinia forfícata (Link.. Special attention was given to tropospheric ozone due to the fact that concentration levels in the region were found to be up to 140 µg m-3 for a 4 h average time, which is well above the value that can cause injuries to orchides and tobacco (59 µg m-3. Other pollutants such as nitrogen and sulphur oxides were measured and their ambient concentrations were also associated to biochemical alterations in the investigated species.

  1. Actividad antiparasitaria in vitro de extractos etanólicos de Erythrina crista-galii L., Erythrina falcata Benth y Erythrina dominguezii Hassl

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    Gloria Yaluff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La tripanosomiasis americana y la leishmaniosis son problemas de salud pública relevantes en Iberoamérica. Se evaluó la actividad antiparasitaria in vitro de extractos de cortezas y hojas de Erythrina crista-galli L., E. dominguezii Hassl y E. falcata Benth sobre formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi y promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum L. braziliensis. El extracto de corteza de E. dominguezii Hassl presentó CI50 de 11,7 μg/ml y 14,9 μg/ml con dos cepas de T. cruzi, Ypsilon y Cl Brener. El extracto de hoja presentó CI50 mayor a 250 μg/ml. La corteza de E. falcata Benth tuvo CI50 de 11,29 μg/ml y 7,37 μg/ml con Ypsilon y Cl Brener y el extracto de hojas CI50 de 37,2 μg/ml y 25,68 μg/ml. El extracto de hojas de E. crista-galli L. presentó CI50 mayor a 250 μg/ml, y el de corteza CI50 11,2μg/ml y 7,1μg/ml con Ypsilon y Cl Brener. El extracto de corteza de E. dominguezii Hassl presentó CI50 de 3,22 μg/ml, 6,94 μg/ml y 1,9 μg/ml para L. amazonensis, L. infantum y L. braziliensis y en hojas la CI50 fue mayor a 100 μg/ml. La corteza de E. crista-galli L. tuvo CI50 de 2,1 μg/ml, 2,09 μg/ml y 1,6 μg/ml para las tres especies. El extracto de hoja tuvo una CI50 mayor a 100 μg/ml. El extracto de corteza de E. falcata Benth tuvo CI50 de 2,17 μg/ml, 2,09 μg/ml y 1,52 μg/ml con las tres especies de Leishmania y el de hoja CI50 de 14,9 μg/ml, 10,4 μg/ml y 11,6 μg/ml. Los extractos de corteza podrían ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de estas enfermedades parasitarias, previa confirmación con estudios in vivo y de toxicidad.

  2. Phytotoxic Effects of Nepeta meyeri Benth. Extracts and Essential Oil on Seed Germinations and Seedling Growths of Four Weed Species

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    Saban Kordali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Nepeta meyeri Benth. by hydrodistilation was analysed by GC and GC-MS methods. A total 18 components were identified in the oil representing 100.0% of the oil. Main components were 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (80.3%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (10.3%, trans-pulegol (3.1%, 1, 8-cineole (3.0% and β-bourbonene (2.0%. In addition, n-hexane extract of N. meyeri was analysed by using GC and GC-MS methods and 18 components were identified. Likewise, nepetalactones, 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (83.7%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (3.6%, 1, 8-cineole (1.9% and α-terpinene (1.5% were the predominat compounds in the hexane extract. Three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL of the essential oil and n-hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts isolated from the aerial partsand roots were tested for the herbicidal effects on the germination of the seeds of four weed species including Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense L. and Sinapsis arvensis L. The essential oil of N. meyeri completely inhibited the germination of all weed seeds whereas the extracts showed various inhibition effects on the germination of the weed species. Herbicidal effect was increased with the increasing application concentrations of the extracts. In general, the acetone extract was found to be more effective as compared to the other extracts. All extracts also exhibited various inhibition effects on the seedling growths of the weed species. All extracts also tested for their phytotoxic effects on the weeds at greenhouse condition and the results showed that the oil and extracts caused mortality with 22.00-66.00% 48h after the treatments. These findings suggest that the essential oil and the extracts of N. meyeri have potentials for use as herbicides against those weed species.

  3. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

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    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  4. Dormência de sementes e produção de mudas de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    Mauro Vasconcelos Pacheco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth. é uma espécie florestal nativa, encontrada nos biomas Cerrado e Caatinga, de grande importância em função de sua utilidade econômica e ecológica, o que justifica a existência de programas de produção de mudas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar metodologias eficientes para superação da dormência das sementes e avaliar, em viveiro florestal, os efeitos de diferentes substratos e da fertilização sobre o crescimento inicial das mudas. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos para superação de dormência: T1 - testemunha (sementes sem escarificação; T2 - escarificação manual com lixa no50; T3 - imersão em água a 80°C e (T4 a 100ºC até atingir a temperatura ambiente; T5 - fervura em água a 100ºC durante 10, (T6 30 e (T7 60 segundos; T8 - escarificação química com ácido sulfúrico durante 20, (T9 30 e (T10 40 minutos. Para a produção de mudas, o delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro substratos: Tropstrato® puro, e os demais: Tropstrato®, pó de coco e vermiculita com composto orgânico; sem e com fertilização. Os melhores resultados para a superação da dormência são obtidos com a escarificação manual com lixa para metal nº50 ou fervura em água durante 10 segundos. O pó de coco e a vermiculita, combinados com composto orgânico, são bons substratos para produção de mudas de Dimorphandra mollis.

  5. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

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    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As formações savânicas do Brasil Central caracterizam-se por uma camada rasteira contínua, em que predominam gramíneas, entrecortada por uma camada de arbustos e árvores de densidade variável. Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. é uma leguminosa arbórea típica dos cerrados do Planalto Central. Este estudo examinou os efeitos da seca, disponibilidade de luz, herbivoria e fogo no estabelecimento e crescimento dessa espécie no campo sujo (estrato herbáceo contínuo com árvores e arbustos esparsos e no cerrado sensu stricto, onde a vegetação arbustivoarbórea é mais densa. Mudas foram transplantadas nas duas fitofisionomias, sendo acompanhadas mensalmente as variações na altura, produção de folhas e percentagem da área foliar removida por herbivoria, ao longo de cinco anos (1993-1998. A mortalidade ocorreu principalmente durante a época chuvosa. A seca sazonal não foi um importante fator de mortalidade. Número maior de mudas sobreviveu no campo sujo. Estas mudas não foram mortas por uma queimada ao final da seca de 1994, enquanto várias morreram no cerrado. O crescimento da parte aérea foi lento, em torno de 2,2cm/ano no campo sujo e 3,1cm/ano no cerrado, ocorrido principalmente na estação chuvosa. A maioria das mudas apresentou lesões necróticas de cor preta nas folhas, causada pelo ataque do fungo Phoma sp. A queda das folhas ocorreu durante a estação seca e o número máximo de folhas foi alcançado do meio para o final da época chuvosa, sempre seguido por um pico na herbivoria. Dados de disponibilidade de luz sugerem que plantas com folhas horizontais a 5cm do solo, atingiriam em média apenas 32% da capacidade máxima de assimilação de CO2, devido ao sombreamento. Entretanto, aumento da altura da planta de 5 para 50cm, onde não há mais sombreamento do estrato herbáceo, dobraria os valores estimados de assimilação de CO2 Assim sendo, o desenvolvimento desta espécie seria limitado pela disponibilidade de água e

  6. Emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. seedlings for different substrates = Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. em função de diferentes substratos

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    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effects of different substrates on the emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth seedlings. For this purpose an experiment was done in a greenhouse of the Department of Plant Sciences of Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. The statistical design was completely randomized (CRD, where treatments were composed of nine substrates (T1: vermiculite, T2: coconut fiber, T3: trade hortimix®, T4: vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1: 1:1, T5: coconut fiber and compost (1:1, T6: coconut fiber and compost (1:2,T7: vermiculite and compost (1:1, T8, vermiculite and compost organic (1:2 and T9: organic compost. All treatments were represented by four replications containing 25 seeds. The following variables were evaluated: emergency percentage, emergence rate index, length of shoot and root, stem diameter, dry leaves, stem, root and total leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, and leaf weight ratio. Data were submitted to the Tukey test at 5% probability. The coconut fiber substrates, commercial hortimix® and vermiculite proved superior promoted good emergence and early development of seedlings. The mixture of vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1:1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:2 and organic compost and vermiculite (1: 1 was not shown to be adequate for the cultivation of seedlings. There was no emergency in the pure organic compound in the mixture of compost and vermiculite (1:2.Key words - Vermiculite. Organic compost. Coconut fiber. Sabiá. Substrates. = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. O delineamento estat

  7. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  8. The Main Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd. Benth

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    Ji-Wen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd. Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%, (Z-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%, cyclohexene (4.41%, α- cadinol (3.99%, 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%, 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%, β-cubebene (1.97%, guaia-1(10,11-diene (1.58%, cadinene (1.41% (E-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36% and β-guaiene (1.30%. The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  9. CONTENIDO DE TANINOS EN LA CORTEZA DE DOS ESPECIES DE PARÁCATA (Erythroxylon compactum Rose y Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin & Barneby)

    OpenAIRE

    Serafín Colín-Urieta; Héctor G. Ochoa-Ruiz; José G. Rutiaga-Quiñones

    2013-01-01

    Se obtuvieron taninos de la corteza de Parácata (Erythroxylon compactum Rose y Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin Barneby) mediante extracción acuosa aplicando un diseño experimental 2k, con k = 4 y n = 2. Los factores y niveles fueron: Factor A = tamaño de partícula (0.417, 6.68 mm), Factor B = tiempo de extracción (120, 180 min), Factor C = temperatura de extracción (80, 87 °C), Factor D = relación sólido-líquido (1:15, 1:12). Se evaluó la calidad curtiente de los taninos. Se curtió una piel de ...

  10. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oil of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID. A total yield of 3 mg of essential oil per100 g of plant dry mass was obtained, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 97. 7 % of total oil. The essential oil were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The main constituents were eugenol (53.8%, eugenol acetate (24.5%, b -caryophyllene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4% and aromadendrene oxide II (2.1%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method, and t he free-radical-scavenging activity was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  11. Ethanolic extract from Derris scandens Benth mediates radiosensitzation via two distinct modes of cell death in human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematulin, Arunee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Sagan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing of radioresponsiveness of tumors by using radiosensitizers is a promising approach to increase the efficacy of radiation therapy. Recently, the ethanolic extract of the medicinal plant, Derris scandens Benth has been identified as a potent radiosensitizer of human colon cancer HT29 cells. However, cell death mechanisms underlying radiosensitization activity of D scandens extract have not been identified. Here, we show that treatment of HT-29 cells with D scandens extract in combination with gamma irradiation synergistically sensitizes HT-29 cells to cell lethality by apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Furthermore, the extract was found to decrease Erk1/2 activation. These findings suggest that D scandens extract mediates radiosensitization via at least two distinct modes of cell death and silences pro-survival signaling in HT-29 cells. PMID:24641423

  12. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  13. Strong Polarity Components of Pogostemon cablin(Blance)Benth.%广藿香大极性化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文兵; 刘梅芳; 魏孝义; 林立东

    2009-01-01

    从广藿香(Pogostemon cablin (Blance)Benth.)地上部分乙醇提取物的正丁醇萃取部位分离得到13个化合物.通过光谱和波谱分析,分别鉴定为:芹菜素(1)、3,5,4'-三羟基-7-甲氧基黄酮(2)、3,5-二羟基_4',7-二甲氧基黄酮(3)、Apigenin 7-galacturonide(4)、Apigenin 7-(O-methylghacuronide)(5),Luteolin 7-O-(6-O-methyl-β-D-glucuronopyranoside)(6),4',5-二羟基-3',7-二甲氧基二氢黄酮(7)、Quercetha-7-β-D-ghcoside(8),3,23-Dihydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid(9)、Syringaresinol-β-D-glucoside(10),毛蕊花糖苷(11)、列当苷(12)、紫葳新苷(13),化合物2~13均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Thirteen compounds were isolated from n-butanol extraction of ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Pogostemon cablin (Blance) Benth. On the basis of spectral data,they were identified as apigenin (1),3,5,4'-Trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2),3,5-Dihydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (3),apigenin 7-galacturonide(4),apigenin 7-(O-methylghcuronide)(5),luteolin 7-O-(6-O-methyl-β-D-glucuronopyranoside)(6),4',5-Dihydroxy-3',7-dimethoxyflavanone (7),quercetin-7-β-D-glucoside (8),3,23-dihydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid (9),syringaresinolβ-D-glucoside(10),verbascoside(11),orobanchoside(12),campneoside Ⅰ(13).Compounds 2~13 were isolated from the plant for the first time.

  14. 湖北野生香茶菜花期挥发油GC—MS分析%Analysis of Volatile Oil of Hubei Wild Rabdosia Amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara in the Flower Period by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁利香; 陈琼; 陈利军

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究香茶菜花期挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取香茶菜花期的挥发油,以气相色谱—质谱联用(GC-MS)仪测定挥发油化学组分.结果:主要成分为2-甲氧基-4-乙烯基苯酚(33.076%),1,2,3,4-四甲基-5-亚甲基-1,3-环戊二烯(13.826%),2,3,4,6-四甲基苯酚(11.426%).结论:香茶菜含大量常用食品添加剂2-甲氧基-4-乙烯基苯酚,可以综合开发利用.%Objective:Studies on the chemical constituents of flower volatile oil from Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.)H. Hara. Method:The essential oil was extracted from Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.)H.Hara.by steam distillation. Compon-ents of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. Result:The main chemical components are 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol (33.076%), 1,3-Cyclopentadiene, 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5-methylene-(13.826%), Phenol, 2,3,4,6-tetramethyl-(11.426%). Con-clusion:Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara.contains a lot of 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, which is a common food ad-ditives. Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara.can be comprehensive utilization.

  15. 湖北野生香茶菜花期挥发油GC—MS分析%Analysis of Volatile Oil of Hubei Wild Rabdosia Amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara in the Flower Period by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁利香; 陈琼; 陈利军

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Studies on the chemical constituents of flower volatile oil from Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.)H. Hara. Method:The essential oil was extracted from Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.)H.Hara.by steam distillation. Compon-ents of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. Result:The main chemical components are 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol (33.076%), 1,3-Cyclopentadiene, 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5-methylene-(13.826%), Phenol, 2,3,4,6-tetramethyl-(11.426%). Con-clusion:Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara.contains a lot of 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, which is a common food ad-ditives. Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara.can be comprehensive utilization.%目的:研究香茶菜花期挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取香茶菜花期的挥发油,以气相色谱—质谱联用(GC-MS)仪测定挥发油化学组分.结果:主要成分为2-甲氧基-4-乙烯基苯酚(33.076%),1,2,3,4-四甲基-5-亚甲基-1,3-环戊二烯(13.826%),2,3,4,6-四甲基苯酚(11.426%).结论:香茶菜含大量常用食品添加剂2-甲氧基-4-乙烯基苯酚,可以综合开发利用.

  16. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL), Maliondialdehyde (MDA) and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Nur Farhana Mohamad Fakri; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%...

  17. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  18. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil Duas cochonilhas mirmecófilas, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae e Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, coabitando no interior de ramos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae em área de Cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.O coccídeo Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 e o pseudococcídeo Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 são registrados coabitando no interior de galhos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, ambos atendidos pela formiga Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Essa interação foi observada em uma região de Cerrado sensu stricto, na Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, Brasil. A. oecocordia é registrada pela primeira vez para o Brasil.

  19. Abordagem fitoquímica, composição bromatológica e atividade antibacteriana de Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret E Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke =Phytochemical approach, bromatologic composition and antibacterial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke

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    Denise Aline Casimiro Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de encontrar novas drogas eficazes no combate microbiano tem aumentado a cada dia e estimulado a busca de novos compostos naturais com atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se estudo fitoquímico e análises microbiológicas com os extratos etanólicos das espécies (jurema-preta Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret e (juremabranca Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke, frente a linhagens de bactérias patogênicas. O pó da casca do caule de ambas as espécies foi submetido à avaliação bromatológica e determinados os teores de Matéria Seca, Matéria Mineral, Proteína Bruta, Fibra em Detergente Neutro e Energia Bruta. Os resultados para a prospecção química indicaram a presença de taninos e outros compostos fenólicos, bem como a presença de saponinas em ambos os extratos. Os extratos das duas espécies demonstraram que mais de uma parte das plantas possui atividade antimicrobiana. A composição bromatológica da casca do caule de jurema-preta e jurema-branca apresentou teores diferenciados para as variáveis avaliadas.The need to find new efficient drugs to combat microbes has increasedthe search for new natural compounds with biological activities. In this work, phytochemical studies and microbiological analysis were carried out with the ethanol extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke on pathogenic bacteria strains. The bark powders of both species were submitted to bromatologic evaluation and the levels of dry matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude energy were determined. The results of the chemical search chemical showed the presence of tannins and other phenolic compounds as well as the presence of saponins in both extracts. The microbiologic evaluation of the extracts of both species showed that more than one part of the plants had antimicrobial activity. The bromatologic composition of the bark powder of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild

  20. Caracterização morfológica de frutos, de sementes e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch Morphological characteristics of fruit, seed e post-seminal development of Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Leite Monteiro; Camila de Oliveira; Breno Marques da Silva e Silva; Fabiola Vitti Môro; Douglas Antônio de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever a morfologia do fruto, da semente e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de oiti (Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch.). As sementes e os frutos foram avaliados quanto às dimensões e forma por meio de mensurações com paquímetro digital e observações realizadas em microscópio estereoscópico e microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Os frutos de oiti são drupáceos, elípticos, monospérmicos, carnosos, indeiscentes, com pedúnculos não articulados, epicarpo li...

  1. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos extratos e frações orgânicas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae

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    Marcelo José Dias Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, conhecida popularmente como sabiá e cerva viva, é uma planta arbórea encontrada na caatinga nordestina brasileira, amplamente utilizada pela população na forma de infusões para o tratamento de feridas, bronquites e anti-inflamatório. Diante do exposto, os objetivos deste estudo, foram determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do extrato etanólico das folhas (EHM, caules (EHL, cascas do caule (EHC, raízes (EHR e frações obtidas das folhas de M. caesalpiniifolia Benth. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada através do método de captação do radical DPPH, enquanto a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, sobre leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. A capacidade antioxidante mostrou que a fração acetato de etila (Fr-EtOAc foi diretamente proporcional ao teor de polifenóis totais com IC50 de 20,08 ± 0,10 µg/ mL e 721,29±0,60 mg de EAG (equivalentes de ácido gálico por g de extrato. Na atividade antimicrobiana, todos os extratos e frações exibiram atividade inibitória de crescimento frente aos micro-organismos microrganismos avaliados e em concentrações variando de 5 a 1000 μg/mL. A Fr-EtOAc apresentou valores promissores de inibição de crescimento frente a fungos, como Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030 e Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, com concentrações de 20 e 40 μg/mL, respectivamente. Estes resultados são importantes, pois são os primeiros a serem realizados com a espécie M. caesalpiniifolia.

  2. HPLC法测定异叶青兰中迷迭香酸的含量%Determination of Rosmarinic acid content in Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth .by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关新莉; 李洁; 王东东; 周晓英

    2013-01-01

    目的建立异叶青兰中迷迭香酸含量的HPLC测定方法。方法采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定异叶青兰中迷迭香酸的含量。色谱条件:Kromasil C18柱(4.6 mm ×150 mm ,5μm),流动相为甲醇-1.5%乙酸水(38∶62),流速为1.0 mL/min ,检测波长为330 nm ,柱温25℃。结果迷迭香酸峰面积与进样量在0.3056~3.9728μg 范围内有良好的线性关系(r =0.9999),平均回收率为98.77%,RSD为1.19%(n =6)。结论HPLC法操作简单、准确可靠,可用于异叶青兰中迷迭香酸含量的测定。%Objective To establish a method for the content determination of Rosmarinic acid in Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth .Methods The content of Rosmarinic acid was detected by HPLC . The separation was carried out on a Kromasil C18 column (150 mm × 4 .6 mm ,5 μm) .The mobile phase was Methanol -1 .5% Acetic acid solution (38∶62);the flow rate was 1 .0 mL/min ;the detective wave-length was set at 330 nm .The column temperature was 25℃ .Results The calibration curve showed good linearity over the range of 0 .305 6~3 .972 8 μg (r =0 .999 9) .The average recovery was 98 .77% with RSD 1 .19% (n =6) .Conclusion This method was rapid ,accurate ,reliable ;it could be used as a deter-mination of Rosmarinic acid in Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth .

  3. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  4. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance

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    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  5. ALTERAÇÕES NA ARQUITETURA TÍPICA DE Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze NA ARBORIZAÇÃO DE RUAS DE CURITIBA, PARANÁ

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    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban structure and equipments can restrict the correct development of trees and its typical architecture. Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (rosewood has been pruned continuously for being a species of large size and for being the most planted tree in the city of Curitiba. Because of that, this work aimed to assess the changes in the typical architecture of Tipuana tipu on street trees of Curitiba through completely randomized design containing a check plot composed by 6 trees and a treatment with 6 trees under utility lines and another with 6 trees in streets without utility lines. From horizontal photographs of trees there were obtained dendrometric variables based on a metric scale attached at DBH. Thus, the morphometric indexes were calculated to describe dimensional relationships for the species on trees without pruning (check plot and on pruned trees (treatments. The results showed that raising pruning change typical architecture of rosewood modifying its outline and its form, in addition to harm its aesthetic effect. The indexes that can express changes significantly (p<0.05, were: range index, salience index, crown angle, crown proportion and relation RH/PH.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of the Hexane Fraction of the Ethanolic Extract of the Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth in Acute and Chronic Inflammation

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    Jaqueline Hoscheid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth have been used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism, sore throat, and respiratory disorders, and also as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, depurative, tonic, and hypoglycemic agent. The study was aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane fraction of an ethanolic extract of P. pubescens fruits. The oil from P. pubescens fruits was extracted with ethanol and partitioned with hexane. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured with increasing doses of the hexane fraction (FHPp by using a carrageenan-induced rat model of pleurisy and a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis by using an FHPp dose of 250 mg/kg for 21 days. Treatment with an FHPp resulted in anti-inflammatory activity in both models. The results of biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses indicated a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (18.32%, 34.20%, and 41.70%, resp. and reduction in the numbers of total leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The FHPp dose of 1000 mg/kg induced no changes in behavioral parameters, and no animal died. The results of this study extend the findings of previous reports that have shown that administration of extracts and fractions obtained from species of the genus Pterodon exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and lacks toxicity.

  7. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields. PMID:25985355

  8. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography method for quantification of xanthorrhizol in roots of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth ex Hemsl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, María Isabel; Osorio, Nadia; Bernal, Israel; Navarrete, Andrés; Bye, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Roots of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth ex Hemsl are used mainly in Mexican traditional medicine to heal skin problems. The development of a column high-performance liquid chromatography (LC)-UV detector method for the determination of xanthorrhizol, the major and active component of the roots of I. heterophylla, is described in this paper. The content of this compound was quantitatively determined employing a Symmetry C18 5 microm particle size column with the isocratic mobile phase acetonitrile-water (85 + 15). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and UV detection was at 230 nm. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.2 and 0.5 microg/mL, respectively. Quantities of xanthorrhizol measured by this method ranged between 1.8 to 10.94 mg/g of root of the plant in 11 different samples of I. heterophylla. Xanthorrhizol was not detected in a sample of I. madrensis, so xanthorrhizol could be used as a marker compound of I. heterophylla. The LC method described here was shown to be reliable, reproducible, and accurate. PMID:17760325

  9. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

  10. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71

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    Abeer Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth. against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR.

  11. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  12. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO(2) enrichment (1,200 µmol mol(-1)) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha(-1)). No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha(-1), the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC), where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r(2) = 0.88) than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r(2) = -0.87). A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21191319

  13. Anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e Bacopa Monnierioides (Cham. Robinson (Scrophulariaceae em ambientes aquático e terrestre

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    Bona Cleusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho enfoca a anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e B. monnierioides (Cham. Robinson e suas adaptações aos ambientes aquático e terrestre. Foram analisadas raízes adventícias das duas espécies, coletadas no Município de Bonito e no Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. As análises foram feitas do ápice à base da raiz, enfatizando a origem e desenvolvimento dos tecidos. O meristema apical apresenta a mesma estrutura nas duas espécies e não sofre alterações marcantes com a mudança do ambiente. Todos os tecidos se originam de três camadas distintas, na região do promeristema. A endoderme jovem é meristemática e dá origem ao córtex. O aerênquima é abundante e os septos podem conter espessamento em fi. A exoderme é unisseriada e composta por células curtas e longas. A coifa das duas espécies é pouco desenvolvida e apresenta estrutura semelhante nos dois ambientes.

  14. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Ethiopian Indigenous Medicinal Plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Suresh Kumar P. Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the chemical substances which prevent the free radicals damage in the body. Numerous researches are going globally focussed on investigating natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of the present study were to evaluate preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro antioxidant activities of Ethiopian indigenous medicinal plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. Aqueous, benzene and hexane crude leaves extracts of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening using standard procedures. In addition, we investigated the antioxidant potential of crude aqueous leaves extract of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. Preliminary phytochemical investigation for benzene, hexane and aqueous extracts found alkaloids, sterols, carbohydrate and glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The fraction inhibition of lipid peroxide at the first stage of oxidation illustrated antioxidant activity of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum as 90% and 88% compared to those of gallic acid (97% and BHT (84% respectively. Also, the aqueous leaves extract of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity, nitric acid free radical scavenging activity assay, superoxide anion scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging assay. Our findings provide confirmation that the aqueous leaves extract of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum are potential source of natural antioxidants, and this warranted its uses in traditional medicine systems.

  15. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened. PMID:25590708

  16. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Al-Huqail, A A; Shah, M A

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  17. The Reserpine Production and Callus Growth of Indian Snake Root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz Culture by Addition of Cu2+

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    NUNUNG NURCAHYANI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the effects of Cu2+ addition on the reserpine production and callus growth from in vitro culture indian snake root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz. This research frame work was based on the potency of snake root which was many exploited as anti-hypertension. The addition of elicitor Cu2+ in the form of CuCl2 would influence the ion transport of cell and changed of cytoplasm pH, and also has effects on synthesis and activity of enzymes which role in reserpine production and callus growth. The research was conducted in two steps, using Completely Randomized Design. The first step was the callus initiation to promote callus growth. Second step was the treatment to induce reserpine production. The callus was divided into five groups: 0; 5; 10; 20; 40; and 80 µM. Morphology, wet weight, dry weight, growth rate, and reserpine content of callus were determined after 15 treatment day. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued by DMRT 5%. The result showed that reserpine production increased in addition of 5 µM and 10 µM Cu2+ in callus culture of R. serpentina and reduced in addition of Cu2+ more than 10 µM. The callus growth significantly decreased by increasing concentration of Cu2+.

  18. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  19. Influencia da intensidade luminosa e do substrato no crescimento, no conteudo de clorofila e na fotossintese de Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. Subsp. canjerana, Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. e centrolobium robustum (Vell.) Mart. Ex Benth., na fase ju

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Paulo Ernani Ramalho, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    Visando estudar a auto-ecologia de três espécies florestais brasileiras; Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. subsp. canjerana (canjarana); Callophyllum brasiliense Camb. (guanandi) e Centrolobium robustum (VelI.) Mart. ex Benth. (araribá-rosa), estudou-se o comportamento na fase juvenil de mudas envasadas em dois substratos (Colombo e Santa Helena) e sob intensidades luminosas de 10%, 30%, 50% e 100%. Para todas as espécies, foram estudados vários parâmetros ecofisiológicos: altura, diâmetro do ...

  20. APORTE E DECOMPOSIÇÃO DE SERAPILHEIRA EM ÁREAS DE FLORESTA SECUNDÁRIA, PLANTIO DE SABIÁ (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth.) E ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) NA FLONA MÁRIO XAVIER, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Rômulo Guimarães Giácomo; Adriano Rosa Cruz; Luis Mauro Sampaio Magalhães; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Milton Marques Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o aporte e a decomposição da serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária espontânea, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth.) e plantio de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.). Para avaliação do aporte de serapilheira, foram instalados dez coletores cônicos sendo o aporte avaliado durante o período de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004. Posteirormente, foi feita a quantificação dos macronutrientes (N, P e K). A avaliação da taxa de decomposiçã...

  1. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DE NITRÓGENO EN EL METABOLISMO DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS EN BROTES DE Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. CULTIVADOS EN BIORREACTOR DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Pérez, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (“hierba del cáncer”) es recomendada por la medicina tradicional Mexicana para tratar síntomas asociados con el cáncer, que podrían deberse a que acumula compuestos fenólicos como flavonoides y feniletanoides. El nitrógeno (N) es un elemento fundamental para el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas y, su deficiencia provoca el incremento en la concentración de compuestos fenólicos y de la actividad de enzimas claves de su biosíntesis como es la fenilalanina amon...

  2. Drift of sub-doses of glyphosate in young plants of Varjão (Parkia multijuga, Benth. Deriva de sub-dosis de glyphosate en plantas jóvenes de Varjão (Parkia multijuga Benth. Deriva de sub-doses de glyphosate em plantas jovens de Varjão (Parkia multijuga Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mitsuo Yamashita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la respuesta a la toxicidad de diferentes sub-dosis de glyphosate en las plantas jóvenes de Varjão (Parkia multijuga Benth.. El experimento se ha instalado en área experimental de la UNEMAT - Universidad de lo Estado de Mato Grosso, en el Campus de Alta Floresta, Alta Floresta-MT. Los tratamientos fueron tres sub-dosis de glifosato (T1-6%, T2-12%, T3-24% de la dosis recomendada de 3,0 L ha-1 y T4 - control (sin aplicación. Después de 7, 14, 21, y 28 días y de 6 meses de aplicación del herbicida, se hicieron mediciones de la altura y de lo diámetro de las plantas con la atribución de las notas de fitotoxicidad. Después de 6 meses de aplicación del herbicida, se encontró que dosis crecientes de glyphosate provocan lesiones en las hojas y reducción del crecimiento en altura de las plantas de Parkia multijuga, hubo uno pequeño índice de mortalidad, sin embargo, se observó una mejoría significativa en todos los tratamientos probados.

    This work aimed to evaluate the response to toxicity of different sub-doses of glyphosate in young plants of varjão (Parkia multijuga, Benth.. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of UNEMAT – State University of Mato Grosso, in Alta Floresta – Mato Grosso state. The treatments tested were three sublethal rates of glyphosate (T1-6%, T2-12%, T3-24% of the recommended dose of 3.0 L ha-1 and T4-control (without application. After 7, 14, 21, 28 days and 6 months of the application of the herbicide, it was performed measurements of the height and diameter of the cervix of plants and given the notes of phytotoxicity. After 6 months of the application of the herbicide, it was found that the increasing doses of glyphosate caused injuries in the leaves and reduction of growth in height in plants of Parkia multijuga, there was low index of mortality

  3. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  4. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1.

  5. Primary, secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) exposed to potassium fertilization under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  6. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone. PMID:27458379

  7. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil and its constituents furanodienone and curzerenone from Lindera pulcherrima (Nees. Benth. ex hook. f.

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    Subhash C Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lindera pulcherrima (Nees. Benth. ex Hook. f. (Family: Lauraceae, an evergreen shrub, is an important medicinal plant distributed in temperate Himalayan regions. The leaves and bark are used as spice in cold, fever, and cough. Materials and Methods: In this study, the terpenoid composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil and its major constituents are being analyzed. Conclusion: The in vitro antioxidant activity showed a potent free radical scavenging activity for the essential oil as evidenced by a low IC 50 value for DPPH radical followed by furanodienone (0.087 ± 0.03 and 1.164 ± 0.58 mg/ml respectively and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation for the oil and furanodienone also followed the same order (IC 50 0.74 ± 0.13 and 2.12 ± 0.49 mg/ml, respectively. The oil and the constituents were also tested against three Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica enterica, and (Pasturella multocida and one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The essential oil was effective against S. aureus (IZ = 19.0 ± 0.34; MIC 3.90 μl/ml while furanodienone showed potent activity against E. coli and S. enterica enterica (IZ = 18.0 ± 0.14 and 16.0 ± 0.10 respectively. On the other hand, curzerenone was found to be slightly effective against E. coli (IZ = 10.8 ± 0.52. The MIC value of the essential oil was least against S. aureus (MIC = 3.90 μl/ml and that of furanodienone against E. coli (MIC = 3.90 μl/ml.

  8. Studies on Chemical Constituents of Leaves of Melicope pteleifolia (Champ.ex Benth.) Hartley%三桠苦叶的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢海啸; 倪林; 李树华; 张丽媛; 高幼衡

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of leaves of Melicope pteleifolia (Champ. Ex Benth. ) Hartley. Methods The chemical constituents of leaves of Melicope pteleifolia were isolated and purified by chromatography, and their structures were identified on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR) spectroscopic evidence. Results Ten constituents were obtained from the acetone-extracts of Melicope pteleifolia, and seven constituents were identified as kaempferol ( Ⅰ ) , quercetin ( Ⅱ ), daucosterol (Ⅲ) , isorhamnetin (Ⅳ), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (Ⅴ), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-4C1-galacturonopyranoside (Ⅵ), 3, 5, 4' -trihydroxy-8, 3' -dimethoxy-7- (3-methylbut-2-enyloxy) flavone (Ⅶ) . Conclusion Constituents Ⅰ, Ⅱ ,Ⅳ, Ⅵ are obtained from Melicope pteleifolia for the first time.%[目的]研究三桠苦叶丙酮部位的化学成分.[方法]应用多种色谱方法进行分离和纯化,并利用核磁共振等方法解析化合物结构.[结果]从三桠苦叶丙酮部位中分离得到10个化合物,鉴定了7个化合物,它们的结构分别被鉴定为山奈酚(Ⅰ),槲皮素(Ⅱ),胡萝卜苷(Ⅲ),异鼠李素(Ⅳ),山奈酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄吡喃糖苷(V),山奈酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄吡喃糖醛酸苷(Ⅵ),3,5,4’-三羟基-8,3’-二甲氧基-7-异戊烯氧基黄酮(Ⅶ).[结论]化合物Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅳ、Ⅵ为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  9. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofou, Denis; Kengne, Archile Bernabe Ouambo; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P K

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the potential of the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth as source of new anti-malarial leads, n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and four compounds isolated from the stem bark were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using lactate dehydrogenase assay. The products were also tested for their cytotoxicity on LLC/MK2 monkey kidney cells. The EtOAc extract exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) = 11.15 μg/mL on W-2; 3.91 and 4.74 μg/mL on field CAM10 and SHF4 isolates, respectively), whereas the n-hexane fraction showed a weak activity (IC(50) = 73.78 μg/mL on W-2 and 21.85 μg/mL on SHF4). Three out of the four compounds showed good activity against all the three different parasite strains (IC(50) atranorin (IC(50) = 4.41 μM), while p-hydroxycinnamic acid was the least active (IC(50) =53.84 μM). The EtOAc extract and its isolated compounds (specicoside and p-hydroxycinnamic acid) were non-cytotoxic (CC(50) > 30 μg/mL), whereas the n-hexane extract and two of its products, atranorin and 2β, 3β, 19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid showed cytotoxicity at high concentrations, with the last one being the most toxic (CC(50) = 9.37 μg/mL). These findings justify the use of K. africana stem bark as antimalaria by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new leads or natural drugs for malaria. PMID:21487780

  10. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (ɸ and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  11. Controles físico, físico-químico, químico e microbiológico dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae Physic, physic-chemical, chemical and microbiological control of fruits of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae

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    Silviane Z. Hubinger

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a qualidade dos fitoterápicos, é importante salientar que a preocupação com esta questão inclui rigoroso acompanhamento das diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e produção, desde a coleta do vegetal até o produto final. O controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e seus extratos é essencial quando utilizados como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos. Neste trabalho foram utilizadas diversas técnicas (farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas visando estabelecer parâmetros de qualidade dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae, popularmente conhecida como faveiro. Os resultados obtidos determinaram as características físico-químicas da droga vegetal e mostraram que o pó dos frutos e o extrato etanólico 70% de D. mollis apresentam um teor de flavonóides de 10,25% e 17,21%, respectivamente. A análise fitoquímica preliminar dos frutos caracterizou a presença de taninos, saponinas e flavonóides. Na análise microbiológica do extrato não houve crescimento de patógenos entre os testes realizados.Considering the quality of phytotherapic agents, it is important to point out that the concern with this subject includes rigorous attendance the different steps of development and production of these products, from the collection of the vegetable to the availability of the final product. The quality control for the plants and their extracts is essential when they are used in the development of phytotherapics. In this work, methodologies (pharmacopoeic and no pharmacopoeic were employed to establish norms for the quality control of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae fruit, popularly known as faveira. Pharmacopoeic and no pharmacopoeic methodologies were employed to physic, physic-chemical, chemical and microbiological quality control. The results obtained established the physic-chemical characters of the drug and showed that the fruits and the ethanol 70% extract present a content of flavonoids

  12. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  13. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts Validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta performance para padronização de extratos comerciais de Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae

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    Renata Colombo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularmente conhecida como marapuama, muirapuama ou miriantã, é uma espécie nativa da região da Amazônia do Brasil. Extratos das cascas da planta são tradicionalmente usados por suas propriedades estimulantes e afrodisíacas, e frequentemente comercializados como constituinte de uma grande variedade de formulações fitoterápicas. O fracionamento por coluna cromatográfica aberta seguida por CLAE-UV/PAD das cascas do caule de três extratos comerciais de P. olacoides permitiram o isolamento de três substâncias comuns em todos os extratos analisados. Os compostos foram identificados por RMN como ácido vanílico, ácido protocatecuíco e teobromina. O ácido vanílico foi utilizado como marcador fitoquímico para P. olacoides e empregado como padr

  14. Genistein-Inhibited Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Reduced Chemoresistance of Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weifeng Huang; Chunpeng Wan; Qicong Luo; Zhengjie Huang; Qi Luo

    2014-01-01

    Genistein, the predominant isoflavone found in soy products, has exerted its anticarcinogenic effect in many different tumor types in vitro and in vivo. Accumulating evidence in recent years has strongly indicated the existence of cancer stem cells in gastric cancer. Here, we showed that low doses of genistein (15 µM), extracted from Millettia nitida Benth var hirsutissima Z Wei, inhibit tumor cell self-renewal in two types of gastric cancer cells by colony formation assay and tumor sphere f...

  15. Morphogenesis and Developmental Law of Glandular Hairs of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth%木香薷腺毛形态结构发生发育规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱广龙; 赵挺; 康冬冬; 魏学智

    2011-01-01

    采用常规石蜡切片法及扫描电镜技术对木香薷(Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth)腺毛发生发育及其规律进行了研究.结果表明:木香薷表皮上主要有两种表皮毛:无分泌细胞的表皮毛与有分泌细胞的腺毛.前者包括单细胞乳头状毛、2~3细胞管状毛、分枝状毛及多细胞管状毛;后者包括头状腺毛与盾状腺毛.成熟头状腺毛头部由1、2或4个分泌细胞构成,头部呈圆球形或半圆球形;成熟盾状腺毛头部由8~12个分泌细胞构成,分泌细胞横向扩展形成盾状头部.木香薷腺毛主要在茎端幼叶处大量发生,从茎端第一对幼叶处开始产生;从幼叶期到成熟期均有腺毛发生,大部分腺毛在幼叶期发生发育,只有极少部分在叶的成熟期进行发生发育.%The paraffin sectionning and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) were used to study the morphogenesis and law of development of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth. The results showed that glandular hairs of E. Stauntoni Benth has two main types of trichomes: trichomes without secreting cells and trichomes with secreting cells. The former include: single-cell mastoid trichomes ,2-3 cells tubular trichomes ,2-3 cells ramose trichomes and multicellular tubular trichomes. The latter include peltate and capitate hairs. The mature capitate glandular hairs comprise one, two or four secretory cells and its head is spherical or half spherical. The head of mature peltate glandular hairs comprises eight to twelve secretory cells and the secretory cells expand to a shield-shaped head. The glandular hairs of E. Stauntoni Benth mainly occur gready on younger leaves and start to generate from the first pair of younger leaves of stem apex. The morphogenesis of new glandular hairs can be observed to occur from young leaves stage to mature stage, however, only a relatively small amount occurs in maturation stage.

  16. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil from Clausena anisata (Willd.)Hook. f. exBenth (Rutaceae) against three mosquito species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their chemical constituents fromClausena anisata(C. anisata) (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti andAnopheles Stephensi.Methods:Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and the chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mosquitoes were reared in the vector control laboratory and twenty late III instar larvae of three mosquito species were exposed to based on the wide range and narrow range tests, essential oil was tested at50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm and each compound was tested at various concentration (5-75 ppm) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol ofWHO 2005; the 24 hLC50 values of theC. anisata leaf essential oil and their major compounds were determined following Probit analysis.Results:The oil contained were mainly β-pinene (32.8%), sabinene(28.3%), germacrene-D (12.7%), estragole (6.4%) and linalool(5.9%). The essential oil from the leaves ofC. anisataexhibited significant larvicidal activity, with24 hLC50 values of140.96, 130.19 and119.59ppm, respectively. The five pure constituents extracted from theC. anisata leaf essential oil were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC50values of β-pinene, sabinene, germacrene-D, estragole and linalool appeared to be most effective againstAnopheles stephensi(LC50-23.17, 19.67, 16.95, 11.01, 35.17ppm) followed byAedes aegypti (LC50-27.69, 21.20,18.76, 12.70, 38.64 ppm) and Culex quinquefasciatus(LC50-32.23, 25.01, 21.28, 14.01, 42.28).Conclusions:The essential oil of C. anisata contains five major compounds and has remarkable larvicidal properties, which may be considered as a potent source for the production of natural larvicides.

  17. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  18. Abordagem fitoquímica, composição bromatológica e atividade antibacteriana de Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret E Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5366 Phytochemical approach, bromatologic composition and antibacterial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5366

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    Onaldo Guedes Rodrigues

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de encontrar novas drogas eficazes no combate microbiano tem aumentado a cada dia e estimulado a busca de novos compostos naturais com atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se estudo fitoquímico e análises microbiológicas com os extratos etanólicos das espécies (jurema-preta Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret e (jurema-branca Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke, frente a linhagens de bactérias patogênicas. O pó da casca do caule de ambas as espécies foi submetido à avaliação bromatológica e determinados os teores de Matéria Seca, Matéria Mineral, Proteína Bruta, Fibra em Detergente Neutro e Energia Bruta. Os resultados para a prospecção química indicaram a presença de taninos e outros compostos fenólicos, bem como a presença de saponinas em ambos os extratos. Os extratos das duas espécies demonstraram que mais de uma parte das plantas possui atividade antimicrobiana. A composição bromatológica da casca do caule de jurema-preta e jurema-branca apresentou teores diferenciados para as variáveis avaliadas.The need to find new efficient drugs to combat microbes has increased the search for new natural compounds with biological activities. In this work, phytochemical studies and microbiological analysis were carried out with the ethanol extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke on pathogenic bacteria strains. The bark powders of both species were submitted to bromatologic evaluation and the levels of dry matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude energy were determined. The results of the chemical search chemical showed the presence of tannins and other phenolic compounds as well as the presence of saponins in both extracts. The microbiologic evaluation of the extracts of both species showed that more than one part of the plants had antimicrobial activity. The bromatologic composition of the bark powder of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild

  19. Viabilidade do tratamento preservativo de moirões de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.), por meio de metodos simples, e comparações de sua tratabilidade com a do Eucalyptus viminalis Lab.

    OpenAIRE

    Paes, Juarez Benigno

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo a avaliação da tratabilidade de moirões de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.), e sua comparação com moirões de Eucaliptus viminalis Lab. por meio dos processos de substituição da seiva por transpiração radial e de difusão por imersão prolongada. Os moirões, com comprimento de 2.0 metros e diâmetro no meio das peças, variando de 7,0 a 12,0 cm, foram submetidos às concentrações de 2, 3.5 e 5X de ia. do produto preservativo CCB, durante 2, 5 e S dias...

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DO TRATAMENTO PRESERVATIVO DE MOIRÕES DE Eucalyptus viminalis LAB. E DE BRACATINGA (Mimosa scabrella BENTH.) PELO MÉTODO DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO DA SEIVA

    OpenAIRE

    José Gabriel de Lelles; João Carlos Moreschi; Juarez Benigno Paes

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a penetração e a retenção do preservativo CCB em moirões de Eucalyptus viminalis Lab. e de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.), quando submetidos ao método de substituição da seiva. Os moirões foram expostos às concentrações de 2; 3,5 e 5% de ingredientes ativos do produto “Osmose CCB”, durante 2; 5 e 8 dias. Foram analisadas as penetrações em seis posições nas peças e as retenções em três posições nos discos retirados na posição correspondente a linha de a...

  1. Comparison of the susceptibility of two hardwood species, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Eucalyptus viminalis labill, to steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis

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    L. P. Ramos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion of two hardwood species was carried out with and without addition of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 0.5%, p/v as a pretreatment catalyst. In general, wood chips of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill were shown to be more amenable to pretreatment than chips derived from bolds of Mimosa scabrella Benth (bracatinga. This was apparent from all pretreatment parameters tested including the overall recovery yields of pretreated fractions, carbohydrates (pentoses and hexoses recovered as water-solubles, yield of dehydration by-products and lignin susceptibility to acid hydrolysis. There was no evidence for complete deacetylation of both wood species during pretreatment and lignin appeared to undergo extensive acid hydrolysis at higher pretreatment severities. Steam treatment at 205ºC for 5 min without addition of an acid catalyst was shown to be uncapable of removing the hemicellulose component from bracatinga chips, as determined by chemical analysis of the steam-treated water-insoluble fractions. Nearly 30% of the hemicellulose (xylan found in bracatinga remained unhydrolysed after pretreatment, whereas more than 90% of this component could be removed from eucalypt chips under the same pretreatment conditions. Likewise, pretreatment of eucalypt chips resulted in a more extensive solubilization of glucans (cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Addition of dilute H2SO4 as a pretreatment catalyst generally increased the recovery yield of fermentable sugars in the water-soluble fractions and this effect was more pronounced for the pretreatment of bracatinga chips. Steam-treated substrates produced from bracatinga were also less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis than those produced from eucalypt chips, regardless of the use of an acid catalyst.Duas espécies de angiospermas foram comparadas em relação à suas susceptibilidades ao pré-tratamento por explosão a vapor. De um modo geral, cavacos industriais de Eucalyptus viminalis Labill apresentaram-se mais

  2. Estudo fitoquímico e análise mutagênica das folhas e inflorescências de Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth. através do teste de micronúcleo em roedores Phytochemical and mutagenic analysis of leaves and inflorescences of Erythrina mulungu (Mart. Ex Benth through micronucleus test in rodents

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    A.P De Bona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a composição química, estabelecer a dose letal média (DL50 e avaliar os potenciais efeitos mutagênicos do extrato hidroalcoólico de folhas e inflorescências de Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth por meio do teste de micronúcleo em medula óssea de camundongos. Os ensaios fitoquímicos foram realizados através de reações preliminares com mudança de coloração e/ou formação de precipitado; a DL50, por meio da administração intraperitoneal de três concentrações dos extratos, avaliando-se o número de óbitos após 48 horas e o teste de micronúcleo foi feito por meio do método do esfregaço, após exposição dos animais a cinco dias de tratamento. Os resultados fitoquímicos demonstraram presença de açúcares redutores, fenóis e taninos, proteínas e aminoácidos, flavonóides, alcalóides, depsídeos e depsidonas e derivados de cumarina em ambos os órgãos; saponinas espumídicas e esteróides e triterpenóides nas folhas e glicosídeos cardiotônicos e antraquinônicos e alcalóides nas inflorescências. Para a DL50 a folha demonstrou-se atóxica e a inflorescência moderadamente tóxica. Para o teste de micronúcleo, os resultados indicaram ausência de citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade dose-dependente para as folhas e independente da dose para as inflorescências. Assim, esses resultados sugerem que a planta, nas condições analisadas, possui potencial para induzir danos ao DNA.This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, to establish the mean lethal dose (LD50 and to assess the potential mutagenic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and inflorescences of Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth by using micronucleus test in bone marrow of mice. Phytochemical assays were carried out through preliminary reactions with color change and/or precipitate formation; the LD50 was obtained by intraperitoneal administration of three concentrations of the extracts, assessing

  3. Composição química de forrageiras e seletividade de bovinos em bosque-de-sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. nos períodos chuvoso e seco Chemical composition of forage and selectivity by bovines of "sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in the rainy and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia de Lucena Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no período de junho de 1999 a março de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar, nos períodos chuvoso e seco, a composição química de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., com acúleo e sem acúleo, na dieta de bovinos em condições de pastejo e a composição botânica do bosque de sabiá e da dieta selecionada. Não foi observada diferença significativa quanto à composição química entre os sabiás com e sem acúleo, obtendo-se valores médios, no período chuvoso, de 26,45% de matéria seca (MS, 27,63% de proteína bruta (PB, 44,39% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, 25,80% de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, 1,24% de cálcio (Ca, 0,22% de fósforo (P, 1,63% de potássio (K e 1,12% de sódio (Na. No período seco, os valores médios observados foram de 42,39% de MS; 19,30% de PB; 39,05% de FDN; 21,83% de FDA; 1,25% de Ca; 0,15% de P; 1,63% de K e 0,27% de Na. Para a composição botânica da dieta, observou-se que, durante o período chuvoso, as amostras de extrusa apresentaram maior participação de sabiá (83,1% que no período seco ( 12,3%. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, durante o período chuvoso, os animais selecionaram sabiá em maior quantidade para sua dieta e que a coleta manual, como realizada, superestimou a fração fibrosa da dieta calculada a partir da composição química da extrusa.This trial was carried out from June 1999 to March 2000 to evaluate the chemical composition of samples of sabiá legume (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., with and without thorns, collected in the rainy and dry seasons and to compare the botanical composition of sabiá pasture with that of the diet selected by the grazing animals. No significant difference was observed in chemical composition between samples of sabiá with and without thorns. The mean values obtained in the rainy samples were: 26.45% drymatter (DM, 27.63% crude protein (CP, 44.39% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, 25.80% acid detergent fiber

  4. Efeitos potencialmente alelopáticos dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e Pogostemon heyneanus Benth sobre plantas daninhas Potentially allelopathic effects of the essential oils of Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and Pogostemon heyneanus (Benth on weeds

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    Antônio Pedro da Silva Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática de óleos essenciais de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth e analisar, comparativamente, seus efeitos alelopáticos. Óleos essenciais obtidos foram preparados em concentrações de 0,25, 0,5 e 1,0%, tendo como eluente o éter metílico, e testados sobre a germinação de sementes, desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas de área de pastagens cultivadas, malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os óleos das duas espécies evidenciaram atividade alelopática em intensidades que variaram em função da concentração do óleo, da espécie doadora, da planta receptora e do fator da planta analisado. A germinação das sementes foi o fator mais intensamente inibido pelos óleos. As intensidades das inibições estiveram positivamente associadas à concentração, com inibições máximas verificadas a 1,0%. Malícia foi à espécie receptora mais sensível aos efeitos do óleo. Comparativamente, o óleo essencial da pimenta longa revelou maior potencial para inibir a germinação e o desenvolvimento das duas plantas receptoras, notadamente em relação à germinação de sementes, quando as diferenças foram mais marcantes. Os resultados foram atribuídos à composição química dos óleos, especialmente em relação à presença de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados e sesquiterpenos.This study aimed to characterize the potential allelopathic activity of essential oils of pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth, and to examine, comparatively, their allelopathic effects. Essential oils obtained were prepared at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0%, with ether methanol as eluent, and tested upon the germination of seeds and the development of the radicle and the hypocotyl of the weeds of cultivated grassland areas, malícia (Mimosa

  5. Comparative anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of terpenoids and an aqueous extract obtained from Croton cajucara Benth Avaliação comparativa dos efeitos anti-inflamatório e antinociceptivo de terpenóides e de extrato aquoso obtidos de Croton cajucara Benth

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The 19-nor-clerodane trans-crotonin (CTN and the triterpene acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA, isolated from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae, a traditional medicinal plant from Amazon region of Brazil, as well as the aqueous extract (AE from its stem bark, were submitted to pharmacological screening for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in animal models. The oral administration of AAA (50 mg/kg, CTN (50 mg/kg or AE (300 mg/kg inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The AE, CTN and AAA had shown significant inhibition of carrageenin-induced edema in rats, in all time intervals measured after the injection of the stimulus, with the greatest inhibition at the first hour for AAA (47.7% and the second hour for CTN (54.4%. They have also exhibited significant inhibition in the dextran-induced edema 90 minutes after the stimulus: 31.9% for CTN and 28.5% for AAA. In the histamine-induced edema, the inhibition showed by CTN and AAA were 43.2% and 40.5%, respectively, 90 minutes after the injection of stimulus. This study extends and supports the popular medicine and folkloric uses of Croton cajucara in the Amazon region of Brazil.O 19-nor-clerodano trans-crotonina (CTN e o triterpeno ácido acetil aleuritólico (AAA, isolados das cascas do caule de Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae, uma planta tradicional da Região Amazônica do Brasil, bem como o extrato aquoso (EA das cascas do caule deste Croton, foram submetidos a experimentos farmacológicos utilizando animais, para avaliação das atividades anti-inflamatória e antinociceptiva. A administração oral de AAA (50 mg/kg, CTN (50 mg/kg ou AE (300 mg/kg inibiram as contorções em ratos, induzidas por ácido acético. Os terpenóides AAA e CTN, bem como o extrato polar EA, inibiram significativamente o edema de pata em ratos, induzido por carragenina. As inibições foram observadas em todos os intervalos de medições, tendo sido evidenciado melhores

  6. Caracterização morfológica de frutos, de sementes e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Licania tomentosa (Benth. Fritsch Morphological characteristics of fruit, seed e post-seminal development of Licania tomentosa (Benth. Fritsch

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    Kênia Leite Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever a morfologia do fruto, da semente e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de oiti (Licania tomentosa (Benth. Fritsch.. As sementes e os frutos foram avaliados quanto às dimensões e forma por meio de mensurações com paquímetro digital e observações realizadas em microscópio estereoscópico e microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Os frutos de oiti são drupáceos, elípticos, monospérmicos, carnosos, indeiscentes, com pedúnculos não articulados, epicarpo liso, glabro, de coloração amarela a alaranjada, mesocarpo carnoso, fibroso, coloração amarela a laranja e endocarpo membranáceo, de coloração branca a creme, medindo aproximadamente 6,19cm de comprimento, 3,3cm de largura, 39,5g de massa fresca e 17,3g de massa seca. As sementes são exalbuminosas, de forma elíptica, com tegumento liso, de coloração marrom, de cartáceo a coriáceo, com rafe visível longitudinalmente, micrópila inconspícua e hilo pouco aparente, com cotilédones crassos, elípticos e plano-convexos, de coloração creme a levemente rósea. O embrião é diminuto, reto, central, com eixo embrionário diferenciado em plúmula e eixo hipocótilo-radicular. O comprimento, largura e massa fresca e seca das sementes são cerca de 4,07, 2,18cm, 12,7 e 7,2g, respectivamente. A germinação é criptocotiledonar hipógea, com eófilos alterno-dísticos e lanosos, com estômatos paracíticos e duas glândulas na base do limbo ou, raramente no ápice, na face abaxial da folha.The objective of the present work was to describe the morphology of fruit, seed and the post-seminal development of "oiti" (Licania tomentosa (Benth. Fritsch.. The size and shape of seeds and fruits were evaluated with a digital calipter ruler and in stereo-microscope and scanning electron microscope. The fruits are drupaceous, ellipticals, monospermics, succulents, indehiscents, with non articulated peduncle, with smooth and glabrous exocarp of yellow

  7. Influência da escarificação e da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W. Grimes (sete cascas Influence of scarification and temperature on seed germination of Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W. Grimes (seven shells

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    Roseli Muniz Giachini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W Grimes (sete cascas é uma planta arbórea nativa do Pantanal Matogrossense, cujas sementes possuem dormência provavelmente causada pela impermeabilidade do tegumento à água. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência da escarificação mecânica e química para superar a dormência tegumentar e o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de sete cascas. Foram empregados quatro diferentes procedimentos de escarificação: testemunha (sem escarificação; a escarificação mecânica; a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico durante cinco minutos e a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico durante dez minutos. Os níveis de temperatura empregados foram de 20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. A semeadura foi realizada em papel toalha germitest, na forma de rolo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4x4. Para cada tratamento, foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foi avaliada a porcentagem de germinação das sementes, utilizado como critério emissão da raiz primária com 2 mm de comprimento. Foi observado que a espécie S. tubulosa possui dormência tegumentar causada pela impermeabilidade do tegumento a água. As escarificações química com ácido sulfúrico por cinco e dez minutos foram eficientes para superação da dormência e as combinações de escarificação com temperatura que promoveram maiores porcentagens de germinação para a espécie foram a escarificação com imersão em ácido sulfúrico durante cinco e dez minutos e as temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35ºC.Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & JW Grimes (seven shells is a tree plant native to the Mato Grosso Pantanal, whose seeds have dormancy probably caused by impregnability of its integument to water. This work was carried out to compare the efficiency of mechanical and chemical scarification for overcoming integumentary dormancy

  8. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

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    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  9. Efeito da temperatura e do teor de umidade na iniciação e desenvolvimento do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae Effect of temperature and the water content in the initiation and developmental of the rhizome of Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae

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    Julieta Andrea Silva de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. pertence à família Gesneriaceae e possui órgão subterrâneo, que está associado à reprodução vegetativa. Este órgão apresenta gemas envoltas por folhas modificadas, as quais armazenam amido. Em seções do rizoma (1,5 a 2,0cm compr. contendo seis gemas, só uma gema geralmente brota. Esta pode diferenciar-se em dois padrões morfológicos: parte aérea ou rizoma. Em seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água ou em sua ausência, houve brotação do padrão rizoma, em seções em substrato com elevado teor de umidade (12mL de água, brotação do padrão parte aérea. A temperatura de 20ºC também favoreceu a brotação do padrão rizoma, independente do volume de água do substrato. Seções também desenvolveram o padrão rizoma em substrato com adição de solução de polietilenoglicol 6000 (PEG, nas concentrações de 161,2; 235,2 e 340,0g/L, que geraram os potenciais de -3, -6 e -12 MPa, respectivamente. Seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água apresentaram redução de massa seca e elevada concentração osmótica em relação àquelas em substrato com elevado teor de umidade. Verificou-se que a formação do padrão rizoma foi influenciada pelos fatores teor de umidade e temperatura. Sugere-se que a brotação do padrão rizoma foi induzida pelo baixo potencial hídrico nas seções, quando mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade. Além disto, evidenciou-se que as gemas do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha apresentam elevado grau de plasticidade.Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst is a plant belonging to the family Gesneriaceae, with an underground organ, which is associated with vegetative reproduction. This organ is a rhizome, whose stem bears buds covered with modified leaves that store up starch. In small sections of this rhizome, containing six buds (1.5 to 2.0cm long, only one bud sprouted. The sprouted bud could be differentiated

  10. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

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    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira, às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (jurema-preta ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da madeira relacionando-os com o ambiente caatinga e apresentar o potencial energético que sua madeira possui. O estudo anatômico e a determinação da densidade da madeira foram realizados com amostras ao nível do peito (1,30 m acima do solo e em dois galhos com diferentes diâmetros, de espécimes ocorrentes nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, Pernambuco, Brasil. As espécies apresentam distinção expressa através do tipo de casca, coloração do cerne e do alburno, além das características peculiares da madeira. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, constituídas por linhas de parênquima axial contendo cristais, parênquima axial escasso e menor quantidade de raios por mm². Já Mimosa tenuiflora apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, porém sem cristais, parênquima axial vasicêntrico, em faixas ou aliforme confluente, e maior percentagem de raios. Ambas apresentam algumas estruturas da madeira com as características anatômicas comuns às diversas espécies do gênero Mimosa, contribuindo assim para uma melhor caracterização do gênero. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos da madeira e pela elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que as duas espécies apresentam perspectivas seguras para a produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal desde a fase de lenho juvenil. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta maior potencial energético, pela maior percentagem de fibras e por possuir par

  11. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

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    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  12. Características físico-químicas y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite crudo extraído de residuos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth

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    Moreno-Álvarez, Mario José

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acids composition of oil extracted from blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth residue were determined. Mature fruits from ‘‘La Colonia Tovar’’, Aragua state, Venezuela harvested on April 2001, were processed to obtain seeds and residues of pulp. This residue was extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method. The crude oil was assayed by means of COVENIN and AOCS methods. The results showed: Iodine index 160.16 cg I2/g, refraction index to 25ºC 1.4780 , saponification value 193.76 mg K0H/g, peroxide value 30.40 meq 02/kg, free fatty acidity 2.83% (oleic acid, insaponifiable value 2.77%, phosphorus content 0.22% and stability 3.09 h (AOM. The major fatty acids found were oleic acid (55.39% and linoleic acid (29.51%.El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar físico-químicamente el aceite extraído de residuos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y determinar su composición de ácidos grasos. Frutos maduros procedentes de ‘‘La Colonia Tovar’’, estado Aragua, Venezuela perteneciente a la cosecha Abril 2001, fueron procesados para obtener residuos constituidos por semillas y restos de pulpa. Los residuos fueron sometidos a un proceso de extracción mediante equipo Soxhlet utilizando como solvente n-hexano. El aceite crudo extraído fue caracterizado mediante normas COVENIN y AOCS. Se determinaron valores de índice de Iodo 160,16 cg I2/g; índice de refracción 1,4780 a 25ºC; índice de saponificación 193,76 mg KOH/g; índice de peróxidos 30,40 meq O2/kg; acidez libre oleica 2,83 %; materia insaponificable 2,77 %; fósforo 0,22 % y estabilidad AOM de 3,09 horas. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios encontrados fueron el ácido oleico (55,39% y el ácido linoleico (29,51%.

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Total Sterol of Salvia Chinensis Benth.Against SGC-7901 Cells%石见穿总甾醇对 SGC -7901细胞的影响

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    魏清; 王燕燕; 周政涛; 柳蔚

    2015-01-01

    s:Objective To observe the effect total sterol of Salvia Chinensis Benth.on growth of human gastric carcinoma line SGC-7901, and explore its possible mechanism.Methods To observe the effect of total sterol of Salvia Chinensis Benth.on proliferation of SGC-7901 cells by MTT method, and detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle.Results The total sterol can inhibit the pro-liferation of SGC-7901 cells significantly in a dose and time dependent manner, and it has no notable effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential of SGC-7901 cells, and the results of flow cytometry showed the total sterol induce the SGC-7901 cells to necrosis.Conclusions The total sterol inhibit human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 proliferation by induction of cell necrosis.%目的:观察石见穿总甾醇对人胃癌细胞SGC-7901生长的影响,并探讨其可能的作用机制。方法用MTT法观察石见穿总甾醇对SGC-7901细胞增殖的影响,用荧光酶标仪检测对线粒体膜电位的影响,用流式细胞术检测细胞周期的影响。结果石见穿总甾醇能显著抑制SGC-7901细胞的增殖,具有剂量依赖性和时间依赖性,对SGC-7901细胞的线粒体膜电位没有显著影响,流式细胞术结果表明石见穿总甾醇处理后SGC-7901细胞以坏死为主。结论石见穿总甾醇对人胃癌细胞SGC-7901的增殖具有显著抑制作用,其作用机制可能是诱导细胞坏死有关。

  14. Avaliação do tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus viminalis Lab. e de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth. pelo método de substituição da seiva.

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a penetração e a retenção do preservativo CCB em moirões de Eucalyptus viminalis Lab. e de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth., quando submetidos ao método de substituição da seiva. Os moirões foram expostos às concentrações de 2; 3,5 e 5% de ingredientes ativos do produto "Osmose CCB", durante 2; 5 e 8 dias. Foram analisadas as penetrações em seis posições nas peças e as retenções em três posições nos discos retirados na posição correspondente a linha de afloramento em moirões instalados. O aumento da concentração e do tempo de tratamento proporcionou ganhos significativos na penetração e na retenção do CCB nos moirões. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi conduzido o eucalipto apresentou uma melhor resposta ao tratamento.

  15. 胡蔓藤中非生物碱类成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅲ)%Isolation and identification of the non-alkaloid constituents from whole plant of Gelsemium elegans Benth.(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆春; 华威; 付艳辉; 杜占权; 郭涛; 吴立军

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究胡蔓藤(Gelsemium elegans Benth.)中的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱和ODS柱色谱进行分离,Sephadex LH-20及制备液相进行纯化,根据理化性质和光谱分析进行结构鉴定.结果 分离鉴定了8个化合物,分别为(+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol(1)、cleomiscosin C(2)、cleomiscosin A(3)、3,4-二羟基苯甲醛(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl aldehyde,4)、咖啡酸(caffeic acid,5)、1-D-咖啡酰基奎宁酸(1-O-caffeoylquinic acid,6)、4-O-咖啡酰基奎宁酸(4-O-caffeoylquinic acid,7)、1-O-咖啡酰基奎宁酸甲酯(1-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester,8).结论 化合物1-8为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  16. Influencia de cinco tipos de embalagens na germinaçao e no vigor de sementes de Angico - Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth)Brenan, Caixeta - Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam)Dc. e caroba-Jacaranda micrantha Cham. armazenadas em câmara fria e a temperatura ambiente

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    Ramos, Adson

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Silvicultura do Departamento de Silvicultura e Manejo da Universidade Federal do Paraná, com o intuito de apresentar informações que permitam estudar a viabilidade de lotes de sementes de angico vermelho -Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan, caixeta -Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam.) DC. Caroba – Jacaranda micrantha Cham., através de um armazenamento adequado. Após uma secagem inicial, em estufa a 42ºC por períodos de 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 e 8 ...

  17. Aporte e decomposição de serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth.) e andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) na Flona Mário Xavier, RJ.

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Marques Fernandes; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Luis Mauro Sampaio Magalhães; Adriano Rosa Cruz; Rômulo Guimarães Giácomo

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o aporte e a decomposição da serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária espontânea, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth.) e plantio de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.). Para avaliação do aporte de serapilheira, foram instalados dez coletores cônicos sendo o aporte avaliado durante o período de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004. Posteirormente, foi feita a quantificação dos macronutrientes (N, P e K). A avaliação da taxa de decomposiçã...

  18. Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de sabiá na germinação de sementes de fava Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in seed germination of Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Grazielle Borba de Sousa Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. é uma planta medicinal que pode ser utilizada em sistemas agroflorestais. É empregada na composição de pastagens arbóreas, em faixas entre plantações, para enriquecer capoeiras e ainda pode ser empregada como cerca viva. A fava (Phaseolus lunatus L. é uma das quatro espécies do gênero Phaseolus exploradas comercialmente, seu consumo é preferencialmente na forma de grãos verdes cozidos ou na forma de conserva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso do sabiá sobre a germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de fava. As sementes de fava foram postas para germinar em caixas plásticas, onde foram semeadas entre o substrato vermiculita, e em seguida colocados em germinador a 25 ºC e sob luz contínua. O substrato foi umedecido, com o extrato aquoso de folhas jovens de sabiá, nas concentrações de 25; 50; 75 e 100%, além da testemunha umedecida apenas com água destilada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação além do comprimento da raiz primária. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. No estudo da regressão polinomial foi empregada a equação que melhor se ajustou aos dados. Os valores em porcentagem foram transformados em arc sen (n/1000,5. Conclui-se que as diferentes concentrações do extrato de folhas jovens de sabiá utilizadas não prejudicaram a germinação das sementes de fava.The Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. is a medicinal plant that can be used in agroforestry systems, is also employed in the composition of pasture trees in strips between fields, to enrich brush fields and as a hedge. The Phaseolus lunatus L. is one of four species of the genus Phaseolus exploited commercially; its

  19. Protective effect of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth.on blood vessel endothelium of hypertensive rats%异叶青兰总黄酮对高血压大鼠血管内皮的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雯; 邬利娅·伊明; 司丽君; 闫冬; 王雪飞; 萨迪克·诺莫诺夫; 帕尔哈提·克热木

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究异叶青兰总黄酮(Dracocephalumheterophyllum Benth flavonoid,DHBF)对高血压大鼠血管内皮的保护作用.方法:左肾动脉狭窄法建立“两肾一夹”高血压大鼠模型,设假手术组(Sham),模型组(Model),异叶青兰总黄酮低剂量组(DHBF-L)300 mg·kg 1·d-1、高剂量组(DHBF-H)600 mg·kg-1·d-1,卡托普利组(Captopril)20 mg·kg-1·d-1.灌胃给药6周,每周无创尾套法测量大鼠尾动脉收缩压.硝酸还原酶法测定血清中一氧化氮(NO)水平,放射免疫法测定心肌中ET-1含量,血浆中TXB2、6-keto-PGF1.含量,计算其比值.结果:异叶青兰总黄酮两剂量组能明显降低肾性高血压大鼠尾动脉收缩压(P<0.05,P<0.01),升高NO水平(P<0.05,P<0.01),降低ET水平(P<0.01),降低TXB2与6-keto-PGF1α比值(P<0.05).结论:异叶青兰总黄酮对高血压大鼠的血管内皮具有一定的保护作用.%OBJECTIVE To study the protective effect of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth flavonoid(DHBF) on blood vessel endothelium of hypertensive rats.METHODS Two-kidney-one-clip hypertensive rats were obtained by narrowing left kidney arteries.5 groups were divided as sham; model; DHBF low dose group (DHBF-L,300 mg·kg-1 ·d-1); DHBF high dose group (DHBF-H,600 mg· kg-1· d-1) and captopril (20 mg· kg-1) group.The drugs were given by intragastric administration for 6 weeks.Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail cuff approach every week.After the sixth week,,the levels of NO in serum were measured by nitrate reductase method,The levels of ET in heart,TXB2,6-keto-PGF1α in plasma were all measured by radioimmunoassay and the ratio of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α were calculated.RESULTS DHBF significantly reduced hypertensive rats' blood pressure(P<0.05,P<0.01),increased the concentration of NO (P<0.05,P<0.01)while decreased the content of ET(P<0.01) ; reduced the ratio of TXB2and 6-keto-PGF10 (P<0.05).CONCLUSION The re sults suggest that DHBF could be used to

  20. Alterações na arquitetura típica de Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze na arborização de ruas de Curitiba, Paraná

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    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810540A estrutura e os equipamentos urbanos podem restringir o correto desenvolvimento das árvores e de sua arquitetura típica. A Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (tipuana tem sido podada de forma contínua por ser uma espécie de grande porte e por estar entre as mais plantadas na cidade de Curitiba. Por conta disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a alteração da arquitetura típica de Tipuana tipu na arborização de ruas de Curitiba, por meio de delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo uma parcela testemunha composta por 6 árvores, um tratamento com 6 árvores sob fiação e outro com 6 árvores em ruas livres de fiação. A partir de fotografias horizontais das árvores foram obtidas variáveis dendrométricas, tendo por base uma escala métrica acoplada à altura do DAP. Assim, foram calculados índices morfométricos para descrever relações interdimensionais para a espécie, em árvores sem poda (testemunha e em árvores podadas (tratamentos. Os resultados demonstraram que as podas de elevação alteram a arquitetura típica da tipuana modificando seu contorno e sua forma, além de prejudicar seu efeito estético. Os índices que podem expressar as alterações, de forma significativa (p<0,05, foram: índice de abrangência, índice de saliência, ângulo de copa, proporção de copa e relação HR/HP.

  1. APORTE E DECOMPOSIÇÃO DE SERAPILHEIRA EM ÁREAS DE FLORESTA SECUNDÁRIA, PLANTIO DE SABIÁ (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. E ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis Aubl. NA FLONA MÁRIO XAVIER, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Guimarães Giácomo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o aporte e a decomposição da serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária espontânea, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e plantio de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.. Para avaliação do aporte de serapilheira, foram instalados dez coletores cônicos sendo o aporte avaliado durante o período de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004. Posteirormente, foi feita a quantificação dos macronutrientes (N, P e K. A avaliação da taxa de decomposição foi realizada utilizando-se o método dos litter bags. A área de plantio de andiroba aportou a maior quantidade de serrapilheira 9,20 Mg ha-1, sendo seguida pelo plantio de sabiá com 9,06 Mg ha-1 e pela floresta secundária espontânea 7,63 Mg ha-1 por ano. A serapilheira das áreas de plantio de sabiá e do plantio de andiroba apresentou maiores valores de nitrogênio e fósforo que a área de floresta secundária. A velocidade de decomposição da serapilheira foi maior nas áreas de plantio de sabiá e andiroba, podendo tal comportamento ter sido influenciado pelo maior conteúdo de nitrogênio na serapilheira. O fósforo foi o nutriente que apresentou maior velocidade de liberação.

  2. Aporte e decomposição de serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. na Flona Mário Xavier, RJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Marques Fernandes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o aporte e a decomposição da serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária espontânea, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e plantio de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.. Para avaliação do aporte de serapilheira, foram instalados dez coletores cônicos sendo o aporte avaliado durante o período de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004. Posteirormente, foi feita a quantificação dos macronutrientes (N, P e K. A avaliação da taxa de decomposição foi realizada utilizando-se o método dos litter bags. A área de plantio de andiroba aportou a maior quantidade de serrapilheira 9,20 Mg ha-1, sendo seguida pelo plantio de sabiá com 9,06 Mg ha-1 e pela floresta secundária espontânea 7,63 Mg ha-1 por ano. A serapilheira das áreas de plantio de sabiá e do plantio de andiroba apresentou maiores valores de nitrogênio e fósforo que a área de floresta secundária. A velocidade de decomposição da serapilheira foi maior nas áreas de plantio de sabiá e andiroba, podendo tal comportamento ter sido influenciado pelo maior conteúdo de nitrogênio na serapilheira. O fósforo foi o nutriente que apresentou maior velocidade de liberação.

  3. AVALIAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E ENERGÉTICA DA MADEIRA DAS ESPÉCIES Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke E Amburana cearensis (Allemao A. C. Smith DE OCORRÊNCIA NO SEMIÁRIDO NORDESTINO BRASILEIRO

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    Antonio Marcos César de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Caatinga’ is an exclusive Brazilian biome, which features a wide variety of fauna and flora, and a good part of these are endemic varieties. Over the years, the abolition of ‘Caatinga’ by human activities has greatly reduced this biome. This fact is mainly due to the use of the energy potential of plant species without proper concern about the sustainability of it. A better understanding of the energy potential of plant species of ‘Caatinga’ enables a more appropriate management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential energy and the physical and chemical characteristics of wood species Amburana cearensis (Germans A. C. Smith and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth. Ducke. Five trees of each species were felled, randomly sampled in ‘São Bento’ site, located in the city of Patos, Paraíba state. The trees were identified and transported to the Department of Forest Product Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande. From each tree, small discs were removed (5 cm thick to 0 (base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height of the trunk (up to 5 cm in diameter and large disks (15 cm thick before and after each small disk, the small discs were divided into four parts, wedge-shaped, passing through the medulla. Two opposing wedges were used to determine the density and the rest was reserved for the physical and chemical wood analyses and the wood discs were destined for greater achievements of carbonizations. Basic density was determined according to the method of hydrostatic balance and to determine the basic density of each tree used as a weighting factor the volume between sections of each disk. After air drying, the samples for chemical analysis were transformed into sawdust and made quantitative determinations of total extractives, lignin, ash and holocellulose content was estimated by difference from the initial mass [100% - (content total extractives + lignin + ash]. Samples intended for carbonizations were

  4. Control effect of acetochlor on growth Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.%乙草胺及其复配剂对少花蒺藜草的防除效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坤芳; 彭爽; 姚凤军

    2014-01-01

    Because of the long-term lack of grassland poisonous grass attention, Cenchrus pauci-florus Benth. spread all over ZhangWu county ,and it was almost out of controlling, which had brought great influence to the grassland ecological environment. The herbicide acetochlor and its 3 mixtures with quizalofop-p-ethyl, nicosulfuron and clethodim were tested for measuring their con-trolling effects on C. pauciflorus. These treatments of acetochlor and its mixtures all had good performance with rates of 75% higher 40d after spraying . It was to say that spraying soil treat-ment agent acetochlor and its mixture with leaf treatment herbiside may be used as a means of man-agement on controlling Cenchrus pauciflorus,which has a positive meaning for comprehensive manage-ment effectly with no pollution on the biological invasion plant C. pauciflorus in the grassland.%由于长期缺乏对草原毒害草的重视,少花蒺藜草在彰武县全县范围内扩散蔓延,并已发展到难以控制的局面,给草原生态生产环境带来极大影响。本文通过喷施乙草胺单剂和乙草胺同精喹禾灵、烟嘧磺隆、烯草酮混合的3种复配剂来研究其对少花蒺藜草的防除效果。结果表明:喷施乙草胺单剂及其3种复配剂乙草胺+精喹禾灵、乙草胺+烟嘧磺隆、乙草胺+烯草酮40 d对少花蒺藜草均有较好的防治效果,防治效果都在75%以上。说明喷施乙草胺土壤处理剂及其和茎叶处理剂的复配剂可作为防除少花蒺藜草的手段之一,这对于草原上入侵生物少花蒺藜草的安全、有效防除有着重要意义。

  5. Avaliação “in vitro” do efeito da infusão de Cunila microcephala Benth sobre a atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase e biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo em eritrócitos de agricultores

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    R.C. HORN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Tivemos como objetivo avaliar o efeito da infusão de Cunila microcephala Benth sobre a atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE e marcadores de estresse oxidativo em eritrócitos de agricultores. Foram utilizadas amostras provenientes de 16 trabalhadores rurais expostos a pesticidas agrícolas pelo período mínimo de 5 anos e um grupo controle constituído de 16 indivíduos não expostos a agrotóxicos. As hemácias dos agricultores e o grupo A foram expostos “in vitro” à solução salina (NaCl 0,9%. Os demais grupos foram expostos à infusão de poejo nas concentrações de 0; 5; 10; 25 e 50 g/L (Grupos B; C; D e E, respectivamente. Em seguida, foram realizadas as determinações da atividade da AChE e dos níveis de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, proteínas carboniladas (PCs e glutationa reduzida (GSH. Os resultados mostram que a infusão de poejo 50g/L, aumenta a atividade da enzima AChE e os níveis de GSH. Contudo, os níveis de TBARS e PCs diminuíram após o tratamento com a infusão de poejo 25 e 50 g/L. A infusão de poejo, na concentração de 50 g/L, é capaz de reverter, “in vitro” a inibição da atividade da AChE que ocorre pela exposição a pesticidas, e ainda demonstra um importante potencial antioxidante, tendo em vista que diminuiu danos lipídicos e proteicos e ainda, estimulou a produção do principal antioxidante não enzimático endógeno.

  6. Avaliação do tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus viminalis Lab. e de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) pelo método de substituição da seiva.

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Benigno Paes; João Carlos Moreschi; José Gabriel de Lelles

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a penetração e a retenção do preservativo CCB em moirões de Eucalyptus viminalis Lab. e de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.), quando submetidos ao método de substituição da seiva. Os moirões foram expostos às concentrações de 2; 3,5 e 5% de ingredientes ativos do produto "Osmose CCB", durante 2; 5 e 8 dias. Foram analisadas as penetrações em seis posições nas peças e as retenções em três posições nos discos retirados na posição correspondente a linha de a...

  7. Dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica de bracatingais na região metropolitana de Curitiba Dinamic of the diameter distribuition of Mimosa Scabrella Benth stands in the metropolitam region of Curitiba

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica com relação à idade, em povoamentos nativos de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth. localizados nos municípios da região metropolitana de Curitiba. Os dados utilizados provieram de um experimento de densidades iniciais, delineado em blocos ao acaso, constituído de cinco blocos e quatro tratamentos, perfazendo um total de 20 parcelas de 325 m², as quais foram remedidas às idades aproximadas de 4, 5, 6 e 7,5 anos. A densidade inicial sofreu redução para 2.000, 4.000 e 8.000 árvores por hectare quando o povoamento tinha 1 ano de idade. Deixou-se também uma parcela-testemunha em cada bloco, as quais não sofreram nenhum raleamento e tinham em média 25.000 árvores por hectare. Desses cinco blocos, um estava localizado na classe de sítio I, 2 na classe de sítio II e 2 blocos na classe de sítio III. Paralelamente, foram medidos os diâmetros e as alturas de todas as árvores em 124 parcelas temporárias distribuídas nos vários municípios da região metropolitana de Curitiba, representativos de povoamentos de bracatinga sob regime tradicional de cultivo e manejo, cobrindo idades de 3 a 18 anos, e as três classes de sítio. Dentre as funções de densidade de probabilidade testadas por Bartoszeck (2000, a S B de Johnson foi a de melhor desempenho, sendo, portanto, utilizada para a estimativa do número de árvores por classe diamétrica e por hectare e conseqüente construção das curvas de distribuição diamétrica para as inúmeras combinações de idade, sítio e densidades disponíveis. Através da observação visual das curvas sobrepostas, evidenciou-se que essas apresentaram assimetria para a direita e achatamento (curtose, com o aumento da idade. As curvas foram, então, comparadas analiticamente entre si, pelo teste qui-quadrado, o qual revelou a existência de diferenças significativas entre as curvas de distribuição diamétrica em

  8. 广藿香辐射诱变筛选抗病突变体的研究%Selection of Bacterial-wilt-resistance Mutants of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.by Radiation Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红; 许仕仰; 吴立蓉; 张燕玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To select the bacterial-wilt-resistance mutants of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. By 60Co γ ray radiation mutation, so as to lay a foundation for disease-resistance breeding. Methods The effects of 60Co γ ray radiation on plant regeneration from the explants of Pogostemon cablin were studied. The explants from regenerated plants after radiation mutation were cultured in the media supplemented with crude toxin extracted from Ralstonia solanacearum, and then the mutants resistant to bacterial wilt in Pogostemon cablin were selected. Results The crude toxins extracted from 1.34×108 cfu/mL and 2.48×108 cfu/mL R. Solanacearum were suitable for screening resistant shoots and resistant plant respectively. Survival rate and regenerated ability of the explants irradiated by 60Co γ ray were decreased with the increase of radiation dose. The radiation dose of 40 Gy and 60 Gy was suitable for mutation breeding. After 60Co γ ray radiation mutation combined with in vitro selection, 24 resistant plants were obtained. Conclusion A proper method for selection of the bacterial-wilt-resistance mutants of Pogostemon cablin has been established, which will supply valuable germplasm for disease-resistance breeding of Pogostemon cablin.%[目的]将辐射诱变与离体选择相结合,筛选广藿香抗青枯病突变体,为广藿香抗病育种奠定基础.[方法]观察60Coγ射线辐射对广藿香离体再生的影响;以辐射诱变的广藿香为材料,以青枯菌粗毒素为选择压力,筛选抗青枯病植株.[结果]在进行抗性芽及抗性植株筛选中,分别以1.34×108 cfu(菌落形成单位)/mL及2.48×108 cfu/mL青枯菌制备的粗毒素作为选择压力,可能筛选到抗性的材料.60Co γ射线辐射对广藿香离体再生有明显的影响,随着辐射剂量的增加,外植体存活率及再生芽的能力显著下降.最终选取剂量为40 Gy和60 Gy进行辐射诱变,结合离体培养筛选抗病突变体,获得了24株抗性植株.[

  9. 青枯菌侵染广藿香的组织病理学研究%Histopathological Study of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.Infected with Ralstonia solanacearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燃; 贺红; 邓素坚; 李润美; 杨玉秀; 邓志成; 金华

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨青枯菌对广藿香的入侵过程及侵染后寄主植物的组织病理学特征.[方法]以青枯菌HX6为供试菌株,分别对伤根及不伤根的广藿香试管苗进行侵染试验.通过扫描电镜观察青枯菌从广藿香根部入侵的过程,并采用光学显微镜观察青枯菌侵染后广藿香的组织病理学变化.[结果]青枯菌侵染前期,伤根的植株比不伤根的植株发病更严重;侵染后期,两者的病情指数均为100.电镜观察发现侵染24 h后,青枯菌及其胞外分泌物在广藿香根部出现;48 h时后,在茎部导管出现.青枯菌入侵造成植株茎部导管离析、扭曲及破裂,随之,叶表皮组织也逐渐破坏,植株死亡.[结论]青枯菌对广藿香具有强的亲和性,侵染速度快,青枯菌及其胞外致毒素能直接破坏寄主维管组织,使得水分运输受阻,造成植株枯萎死亡.%Objective To investigate Ralstonia solanacearum infection process in Pogostemon cablin ( Blanco) Benth. and to observe the histopathological changes of the infected plants. Methods The test-tube plantlets of Pogostemon cablin were used as host plants, and Ralstonia solanacearum HX6 was used as infecting strain. Invasion and colonization of R. solanacearum from the root of host plants were observed under scanning electronic microscope ( SEM) , and changes of the stem vessel and leaf abaxial epidermis of infected plants were observed via optical microscopy. Results At the prophase of infection, the disease developed faster in the plants with wound root than in the plants without wound root. With the prolongation of infection time, all the plants with or without wound root showed wilting, the disease index being 100. Under SEM, the bacteria and their extracellular secretion occurred in root section at hour 24 after inoculation, and in the vessel of stems at hour 48 after inoculation. Observation of infected tissues by optical microscopy indicated that the stem vessels seperated

  10. 异叶青兰总黄酮对高血压大鼠心肌肥厚的影响%Effects of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth flavonoid on cardiac hypertrophy of hypertension rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雯; 邬利娅·伊明; 司丽君; 苗娜; 阿吉艾克拜尔·艾萨; 帕尔哈提·克热木

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察异叶青兰总黄酮对肾性高血压大鼠心肌肥厚的影响.方法 左肾动脉狭窄(2K1C)法建立高血压大鼠模型,术后第6周随机分为5组:假手术组(Sham);模型组(Model);异叶青兰总黄酮高剂量组(DHBFH)、低剂量组(DHBFL);卡托普利组(Captopril).灌胃给药6周后进行超声心动图、心肌病理学检测,白介素-1β(IL-1β)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMP-9)和基质金属蛋白酶抑制剂-1(TIMP-1)mRNA的测定.结果 给药6周后,模型组大鼠左心室室壁厚度、心肌细胞大小及左心室心肌间质纤维化程度较假手术组明显升高,IL-1β、TNF-α明显升高(P<0.01),MMP-9、TIMP-1 mRNA的相对表达量明显升高(P<0.01),给予DHBFH后,左心室肥厚及心肌纤维化较模型组明显降低,IL-1β、TNF-α明显降低,MMP-9、TIMP-1 mRNA的相对表达量明显降低(P<0.01).结论 异叶青兰总黄酮能改善高血压大鼠心肌肥厚及心肌纤维化程度,可能与其能够降低血压,降低IL-1β、TNF-α水平,调节MMP-9/TIMP-1的表达有关.%Aim To study the effect of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth flavonoid ( DHBF ) on cardiac hypertrophy of hypertension rats. Methods Hypertension rats model was established by renal artery stenosis surgery ( two kidneys one clip ). Six weeks after the surgery, the rats were randomly divided into 5 groups Sham group; Model group; DHBF high dose group ( DHBFH ); DHBF low dose group( DHBFL ) and Cap-topril group. After treated for 6 weeks, the echocardio-graphy, histological examination of the heart were performed. The levels of IL-1 β , TNF-α, the relative expression of MMP-9 mRNA and TIMP-1 mRNA were detected by real-time PCR . Results After 6 weeks treatment, the wall thickness of left ventricle, myocar-dial cell size and interstitial fibrosis of the myocardial cells in the left ventricl in Model group were significantly increased compared with those in sham group( P <0. 01 ). Treatment with

  11. 黔产毛蒟提取物的制备及其化学成分的定性分析%Analysis of Piper puberulum (Benth.) Maxim.extracts preparation and the preliminary qualitative chemical composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 吴芹; 龚其海; 徐世兵; 石京山

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate optimal extraction process of Piper puberulum ( Benth.) Maxim.and qualitative analyze the chemical component of the extracts.Methods Method of solvent heating reflux was used for extraction.On the basis of single factor experiment, L9 (34 ) orthogonal experiment was designed with the variants of extraction frequency, time, material-liquid ratio, and immersion time.Extraction rate as index, extraction processes were optimized to achieve best extraction.The extracts, including total extract, water elution, and ethanol elution, were physiochemically analysed to achieve an initial qualitative result.Results The optimal extraction process was: extractions 3 times for 2 hours, with an 1︰30 material -liquid ratio and 2 hours of immersion, Initial qualitative analyzed the total extracts containing amino acids, polypeptides, proteins, alkaloids, steroids or triterpenes, flavones, saponins, polysaccharides, reducing sugars or glucosides, cumarins, terpene lactones, phenols, and tannins.The water elution containing: amino acids, polypeptides, proteins, saponins, polysaccharides, reducing sugars or glucosides, cumarins, and terpene lactones.The ethanol elution containing: amino acids, polypeptides, proteins, alkaloids, steroids or triterpenes, flavones, polysaccharides, reducing sugars or glucosides, phenols, and tanins.Conclusion The experiments show that optimal extraction process can achieve high extraction yield, stable and practical.%目的:考察黔产毛蒟提取物制备的最佳工艺,定性分析各提取物的化学成分。方法采用溶剂回流加热法进行提取。在单因素试验的基础上,以提取次数、提取时间、料液比和浸泡时间为因素安排L9(34)正交试验,以提取率为指标,优选黔产毛蒟提取的最佳工艺;经D-101大孔吸附树脂分离,得到黔产毛蒟水洗脱液、醇洗脱液;采用理化分析方法对黔产毛蒟提取物进行初步定性分析。结果提取

  12. Antioxidant Flavonoids from Nepeta floccosa Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Liaqat Ali; Samina Ali; Tania Shamim Rizvi; Abdul Latif Khan; Zahid Hassan; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Javid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants are the substances which significantly delay or prevent the development of age-related degenerative and chronic diseases caused by oxidative damage. Due to this, there is a considerable interest in the identification of lead molecules, which can inhibit the oxidation process or slow it down considerably. Based on the spectrofluorimetric analysis of superoxide and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability, the bio-assay guided isolation of methanolic extract of Nepeta floc...

  13. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  14. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties and Aromatic Profile During Maturation of The Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and The Bilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz / Evaluación las Propiedades Antioxidantes y el Perfil Aromático Durante la Maduración

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    Luisa Juana Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and thebilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz are natural sourcesof antioxidants; they are known for their preventive role against degenerative diseases. In this study, the aromatic profile was evaluated using an electronic nose, including the antioxidant properties and the vitamin C, phenolic and anthocyanin contents during three stages of blackberry and bilberry ripening. A completely random statistical design was followed and the results presented differences in the aromatic profile: a higher anthocyanin content (1.59 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the bilberry and 0.26 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the blackberry and total phenols (5.57 mg of caffeic acid g-1 bilberry and 2.68 mg caffeic acid g-1 blackberry. The behavior of the evaluated properties was independent in each of the fruits. / Los frutos como la mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y el agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz son fuentes naturales de sustancias antioxidantes reconocidas por su papel preventivo en el desarrollo de enfermedades degenerativas. En este estudio se evaluó el perfil aromático por medio de nariz electrónica, las propiedades antioxidantes y el contenido de vitamina C, fenoles y antocianinas totales, durante tres estados de maduración de mora y agraz. El diseño estadístico que se siguió fue completamente aleatorio y los resultados muestran que las frutas en el último estado de madurez evaluado se diferencian por su perfil aromático, un contenido mayor de antocianinas (1,59 y 0,26 mg cyn-3-glu g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente y fenoles totales (5,57 y 2,68 mg ácido caféico g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente. El comportamiento de las propiedades evaluadas es independiente en cada una de las frutas.

  15. Seleção e melhoramento do timbó: II - Estudo de uma população de 153 plantas de timbó macaquinho - Derris nicou (benth.

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    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Para fins de seleção foi estudada, no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, uma população de 153 plantas de timbó macaquinho - Derris nicou (Benth.. Depois de colhidas as raízes e postas a secar ao ar, foram analisadas para determinação de umidade, cinzas, extratos totais (etéreo e por gravimetria, rotenona + deguelina (por colorimetria e rotenona (por gravimetria. Pelo estudo dos dados pôde-se verificar que havia dois grupos distintos de plantas: um constituído por 82 plantas (POPULAÇÃO A contendo menos de 5% de rotenona nas raízes e outro, com 71 plantas (POPULAÇÃO B, com 9% ou mais de rotenona em suas raízes. Essas populações foram estudadas separadamente. Para um estudo mais detalhado dêsses grupos de plantas também foram calculados o peso líquido das raízes, bem como o rendimento líquido, por planta e em média, em extratos totais, rotenona + deguelina e rotenona. Foram também calculados os teores em deguelina e rotenona contidos nos extratos totais e outros extratos (que não rotenona e deguelina contidos nos extratos totais e, finalmente, a rotenona contida no conjunto rotenona + deguelina. São apresentados os resultados referentes às melhores plantas selecionadas dessa população. Vários fatôres foram levados em consideração para a separação dessas plantas, tidas como os melhores. Os resultados mostram que mediante adequada multiplicação do material selecionado será possível a instalação de culturas de timbó com elevado rendimento em rotenona.A population composed of 153 plants of "timbó macaquinho" (Derris nicou was studied for selection and establishment of high yielding rotenone clones. The roots were air dried and the humidity content determined. Ashes, total extracts, rotenone + degueline and rotenone were determined by chemical analyses. Individual results of the analyses are presented. From the data were calculated the net weight per plant of: a air dried roots; b total extracts; c rotenone

  16. FLORISTIC AND PHYTOSSOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN CAPÃO DE TUPANCIRETÃ RESERVATION, TUPANCIRETÃ, RS, BRASIL

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    Suzana Ferreira da Luiz Rosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was accomplished in Capão de Tupanciretã Reservation, in the city of Tupanciretã, Rio Grande do Sul, in an area with 8 hectares, belonging to the Fundation of Agropecuary Research of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of the paper was to evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure of the forest. Ten samplings of 10 x 20 m were distributed systematically in the area. In the sampling module, every individual with DAP major or equal to 5 cm was measured and identified. In the sampling, a split sample of 5 x 5 m was marked to evaluate the bush component (DAP between 1 and 5 cm and one of 2 x 2 was used to evaluate the regeneration (DAP smaller than 1 cm and higher than 30 cm. The results were analyzed considering the FITOANALISE program, it was calculated the traditional phytosociological parameters like density, dominancy, frequency, importance of the value, coverage of the value and index of the diversity. The most present species in the tree component of the forest were Cupania vernalis Cambess. and Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L. B. Sm. & Downs. The biggest number of species in the bush component and in regeneration were Cupania vernalis Cambess., Brunfelsia australis Benth., Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil. Cambess. & A. Juss. Radlk. and Nectandra lanceolata Nees.

  17. 维药异叶青兰醇提物对肾性高血压大鼠的影响及机制研究%Effect and mechanisms investigation of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth from Uighur Medicine in the renal hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司丽君; 马晓玲; 何雯; 王雪飞; 萨迪克·诺莫诺夫; 帕尔哈提·克力木

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨异叶青兰醇提物对肾性高血压大鼠血压的影响及其降压机制。方法利用肾动脉狭窄法建立两肾一夹高血压大鼠模型;将成模的高血压大鼠随机分为假手术组、模型组、异叶青兰高剂量组(D HBE-H)、异叶青兰低剂量组(DHBE-L)、卡托普利组;灌胃给药5 w ,每周无创尾套法测量大鼠尾动脉血压;5 w 后用颈总动脉插管测血流动力学指标,采用硝酸还原酶法测定心肌组织中一氧化氮(N O )水平,化学比色法测定心肌组织中一氧化氮合成酶(NOS)水平,酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定心肌组织中内皮素(ET)和血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngII)水平。结果与模型组相比,异叶青兰醇提物能使肾性高血压大鼠尾动脉收缩压明显降低;颈动脉收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、左室收缩压(LVSP)、降低左室舒张末期压(LVEDP)均显著降低,室内压对数值最大变化速率(± dp/dtmax)/LVSP和收缩指数(CI)升高,NO水平升高,ET水平降低;AngII水平降低。结论异叶青兰醇提物能降低肾性高血压大鼠血压,增强心脏舒缩功能。%Objective To observe the effects of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth (DHBE) on blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive rats (RHR) and explore its mechanisms .Methods Two-kidney-one-clip RHRs were obtained by narrowing left kidney arteries .6 groups were divided as control ,model ,DH-BE high dose group (DHBE-H) ,DHBE low dose group (DHBE-L) and captopril groups .The drugs were given by intragastric administration for 5 weeks .Systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured by tail cuff approach every week .After the fifth week ,we utilized left ventricular incubation to measure hemodynamic parameters .The levels of nitric oxide (NO) ,nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in heart were respectively meas-ured by nitrate reductase method and chemical colorimetry .The levels of endothelin (ET ) and

  18. Food plants and life histories of sawflies of the families Argidae and Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera in Costa Rica, a supplement

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    David Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food plants and information on life history are presented for six species of Argidae and four species of Tenthredinidae in Costa Rica. The Argidae include cocoons of Atomacera josefernandezi Smith, sp. n., found on Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae and likely feeding on its leaves before pupation, and larvae of Eriglenum tristum Smith feeding on Machaerium seemanii Benth. Ex Seem. (Fabaceae, Ptenos leucopodus (Cameron feeding on Inga oerstediana Benth. and I. vera Willd. (Fabaceae, Ptilia peleterii (Gray feeding on Cnestidium rufescens (Connaraceae, and Scobina lepida (Klug and S. notaticollis (Konow feeding on Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae. The Tenthredinidae include larvae of Dochmioglene crassa (Cameron feeding on the fern Lomariopsis vestita E. Fourn. (Lomariopsidaceeae, Dochmiogleme Smith03 feeding on Blechnum occidentale L. (Blechnaceae, Waldheimia laeta (Cameron feeding on Cissus alata Jacq. (Vitaceae, and Waldheimia lucianocapellii Smith, sp. n., feeding on Davilla nitida (Vahl Kubitzki (Dilleniaceae. Waldheimia lucianocapellii is described from specimens from both Panama and Costa Rica. Selandria crassa Cameron, 1883 is a comb. n. in Dochmioglene.

  19. Central nervous system activity of Leucas inflata Benth. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yousuf, M H; Ali, B H; Bashir, A K; Tanira, M O M; Blunden, G

    2002-09-01

    The analgesic activity of the methanol and acetone extracts of Leucas inflata L. (family Labiatae) was evaluated in mice using different experimental models. The effect of the two extracts on pentobarbitone-sleeping time, motor activity, sensorimotor coordination, carrageen induced inflammation, and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia has also been investigated. The two crude extracts have been phytochemically analyzed and some constituents isolated and characterized. These included stigmasterols, a chromone and coumarins. Extracts of L. inflata L., given at single oral doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg, significantly and dose-dependently, reduced formalin-induced pain, acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions and increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test. Both extracts caused significant and dose-related impairment in the sensorimotor control and ambulatory and total motor activity of treated mice. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory action by reducing paw edema of treated mice. The extracts did not significantly affect the rectal temperature of normothermic mice. However, they were effective in preventing Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. It is concluded that the crude methanol and acetone extract of L. inflata has CNS depressant properties, manifested as antinociception and sedation. Both extracts have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions.

  20. Alkaloid and other chemical constituents from Psychotria stachyoides Benth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Antonia T.A.; Uchoa, Daniel E.A.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Lima, Mary Anne S. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Braz-Filho, Raimundo, E-mail: mary@dqoi.ufc.br [Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense and Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    The organic extracts of leaves and roots of Psychotria stachyoides provided the new glucoside monoterpenoid indole alkaloid N-demethylcorreantoside, besides bizantionoside B, a-amyrin, alizarine methyl-ether, rubiadine, scopoletin, barbinevic acid and a mixture of b-sitosterol and stigmasterol glucosides. The structural characterization of the isolates was established based on infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and, particularly, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  1. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies on Leucas vestita Wall ex Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salem Varadharajan Rajesh; Thiruppathi Senthil Kumar; Mandali Venkateswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In search of alternative herbal medicine for pathogenic microorganism variety of plant species have been identified. However, search of new species are still in progress to reduce the pressure on biological diversity and increase availability of organic compound. In the light of this the present work identified phytochemical property and antibacterial activity of Leucas vestita.Methods:The ethanol extract of L. vestita was used for this study. The phytochemicals present in the extract was identified and the antibacterial activity was tested through disc diffusion method. Results: The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of primary and secondary metabolites which ensuring their herbal properties. Antimicrobial activity showed increasing zone of inhibition with increasing concentration of the extract with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis among the other microorganism. Larger zone of inhibition of 14mm was recorded for K. pneumoniae. Conclusions:The study suggests that this extract can be used as a medicine to control some of these pathogenic bacteria.

  2. A benzil and isoflavone derivatives from Derris scandens Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabusarakam, W; Deachathai, S; Phongpaichit, S; Jansakul, C; Taylor, W C

    2004-04-01

    A benzil derivative: scandione, 2',2"-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-4",5"-methylenedioxybenzil and two isoflavones: scandenal, 3'-formyl-4',5-dihydroxy-2",2"-dimethylchromeno-[6,7:5",6"]isoflavone and scanderone, 4',5-dihydroxy-3'-prenyl-2",2"-dimethylchromeno-[7,8:6",5"]isoflavone together with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the stem of D. scandens. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Radical scavenging, antibacterial and hypertensive activities of some of the compounds were investigated. PMID:15110702

  3. A new prenylated isoflavone from Derris scandens Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Tatipaka Hari; Tiwari, Ashok K; Rao, Vidadala Rama Subba; Ali, Amtul Z; Rao, Janaswamy Madhusudana; Babu, Katragadda Suresh

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical study of the whole plant of Derris scandens (Leguminosae) has resulted in the isolation of a new isoflavone derivative, scandinone A (11), together with 11 known compounds (1-10, 12). Structural elucidations of these compounds were performed using spectroscopic methods especially 1D, 2D NMR, and mass spectral analyses. The alpha-glucosidase-inhibitory activity of the isolates was also evaluated. PMID:20628945

  4. HARVEST SEASON AND PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF ENTEROLOBIUM SCHOMBURGKII SEEDS. BENTH.

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    P. A. Mojena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds Enterolobium shomburgkii collected in different months of the year 2014. There were made fruit harvests from trees located in the urban area of Sinop-MT, in the months of June, July, August and September. In each crop was rated the number of seeds per fruit, weight of 1,000 seeds, water content of the seeds, dry weight, germination percentage, germination speed index and it was also applied the electrical conductivity test. The results show that the harvest of Enterolobium schomburgkii seeds should be held in August and September

  5. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEUCAS URTICIFOLIA (VAHL BENTH

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    KALSOOM AKHTAR, SHER BAHADAR KHAN ABDUL MALIK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Many medicinal plants are used as traditional medicine in various countries for long time. A large number of secondary metabolites with various biological activities have been discovered from various medicinal plants and some bioactive substances derived from plants have diverse functional roles as secondary metabolites and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel pharmaceuticals. Leucas Urticifolia (family- Lamiaceae is an annual herbaceous plant and has various activities. Chemical studies have underlined the presence of various classes of compounds, the main being triterpenes, diterpene, flavonoids and fatty acids. The extract of this plant as well as pure compounds isolated from this plant, have been demonstrated to posses multiple pharmacological activities. In this review, we have explored the phytochemistry and pharmacological activites of Leucas Urticifolia in order to collate existing information on this plant as well as highlight its multi-activity properties as a medicinal agent.

  6. Geographical Distribution of Phacellaria Benth.(Santalaceae)and its Hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dognxue; Ding Yulong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the geographical distribution of the species of Phacellaria and its host plants in the world,we speculated on the possible time,sites,and migration of the origin of Phacellaria.The host plants of Phacellaria mainly belong to Loranthaceae.Plants of Phacellaria and their hosts are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical areas.The plants of Phacellaria might have originated from a tropical area in the south of China before the Tertiary.Their ancestors were parasitic on the ancestors of some plants of Loranthaceae by chance during the Tertiary.It possibly took them millions of years to form a sturdy relationship with their hosts.

  7. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEUCAS URTICIFOLIA (VAHL) BENTH

    OpenAIRE

    KALSOOM AKHTAR, SHER BAHADAR KHAN ABDUL MALIK

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Many medicinal plants are used as traditional medicine in various countries for long time. A large number of secondary metabolites with various biological activities have been discovered from various medicinal plants and some bioactive substances derived from plants have diverse functional roles as secondary metabolites and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel pharm...

  8. Effects of Different Cultivation Practices on the Amount of Seeds in the Soils and Seed Production of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth%不同农作措施对少花蒺藜草(Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth)种子库及其繁殖能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衍雷; 张瑞海; 付卫东; 宋振; 倪汉文; 张国良

    2015-01-01

    系统调查了天然草原及旱作农田2种典型生境中少花蒺藜草种子库动态,并深入研究了施肥、灌溉、刈割及替代种植对少花蒺藜草种群繁衍扩张的影响。结果表明:从2种生境土壤种子库中共鉴定出12科24属25种植物;天然草原及旱作农田少花蒺藜草种子总储量分别达12923粒·m-2和8960粒·m-2,分别占整个种子库的67.72%及79.74%;天然草原生境中少花蒺藜草种子主要集中分布在土壤上表层(0~2 cm),占种子总量的45.71%,而旱作农田生境中,少花蒺藜草种子在土壤表层(0~2 cm)、中层(2~5 cm)、下层(5~10 cm)中分布差异不显著(P﹥0.05)。试验也表明,低施肥量能显著提高少花蒺藜草结实量(P<0.05),而中、高水平施肥处理少花蒺藜草结实量反而降低;随着灌溉浇水量增加,少花蒺藜草结实量显著增加(P<0.05),高水平浇水量结实量平均为2562.8粒·株-1;刈割能有效抑制少花蒺藜草种群种子繁殖,每周刈割1次,抑制少花蒺藜草结实率为97.69%;替代种植向日葵、菊芋能极显著抑制少花蒺藜草生长及结实量(P<0.01)。%In the present study, the amount of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth seeds in the soils of natural grassland and farmland was measured. The effects of fertilization, irrigation, plant-mowing and using replacement plant species on C. pauciflorus were analyzed. From seeds of pas-ture and dry farmland soils, a total number of 25 plant species were identified, which fell into 24 genera of 12 families. The number of seeds of C. pauciflorus per square meter reached 12 923 in natural pasture soils and 8 960 in dry farming soils, which was 67.72%and 79.74%of the total seeds, respectively, from the two types of soils. In dry natural pasture soils, the seeds of C. pauciflorus were mainly distributed on the top 0~2.0 cm layer, being 45.71%of the total seeds. In dry farmland soils, however, the

  9. Effects of extract of Isodon Lophanthoides var.gerardianus (Benth.) Hara on the production of TNF-α and the change of ultrastructure of liver cell in mice induced by concanavalin A%狭基线纹香茶菜对肝损伤小鼠TNF-α肝组织超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小翚; 祝晨蔯; 李常青; 林朝展; 苏俊芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察狭基线纹香茶菜提取物对免疫性肝损伤小鼠TNF-α释放及肝组织超微结构的影响.方法 50只雄性NIH小鼠,随机分为5组,分别为正常对照组,模型组,狭基线纹香茶菜提取物高、低剂量组(剂量分别为18.2g/kg、4.55g/kg),与环磷酰胺(43mg/kg)对照组.除正常对照组外,其余小鼠于实验首日上午尾静脉注射刀豆蛋白A(Con A)20mg/Kg,并于首日、次日和第3d、第4d下午各给药1次,第5d给药后2h,模型组和各给药组小鼠再次尾静脉注射ConA 20mg/kg,4h后,每组取相同序号小鼠8只,取血检测血清TNF-α活生,每组所剩2只小鼠,8h后处死取肝组织,3%戊二醛固定,切片,染色后,透射电镜观察肝组织超微结构.结果 显示模型组TNF-α活性较正常组明显升高,肝组织超微结构发生了显著改变,肝细胞严重肿胀、线粒体破坏、毛细胆管和肝窦腔结构明显变形、中性粒细胞滞留,细胞及细胞器的完整性遭到破坏.狭基线纹香茶菜提取物高、低剂量组TNF-α活性较模型组明显降低(P<0.01、0.05)、肝组织超微结构虽有一定程度改变,但细胞及细胞器的形态及完整性得到保护.结论 狭基线纹香茶菜具有较好的保肝作用,其作用机理与抑制TNF-α的产生密切相关.%Objective To investigate effects of extract of Isodon Lophanthoides var. gerardianus (Benth.)Hara(LJVG) on the production of TNF-α and the change of ultrastructure of liver cell in mice induced by concanavalin A. Methods Fifty NIH mice were randomly divided into normal control group,model group,extract groups of LJVG (high- and lowdosage),and cyclophosphamidum group (43mg/kg). In the experimental groups,mice received the extract of ILVC (18.20,4.55g/kg,respectively) by gastric perfusion or injected with cyclophosphamidum into its abdominal cavity daily at the first,the second,the third and fourth day afternoon. Excepts those in normal control group .mice in other groups were

  10. Environ: E00639 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00639 Millettia nitida stem Crude drug Millettia nitida, Millettia [TAX:53625] Fabaceae (pea family) Mil...lettia nitida stem (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) E00639 Millettia nitida stem ...

  11. OSMODESHIDRATACIÓN DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON TRES AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMODEHYDRATION OF BLACKBERRY (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH THREE SWEETENING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Giraldo Bedoya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la deshidratación osmótica de mora de castilla con tres jarabes diferentes, sacarosa (js, sacarosa invertida (jsi y miel de caña (jmc, en iguales condiciones iniciales de concentración, 70 grados Brix, temperatura promedio de 20°C, y humedad relativa de 65% desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Frutas y Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, permitió conocer que el jarabe de miel de caña presenta mayor poder osmótico (69,2% que los jarabes de sacarosa invertida (54,5% y sacarosa (50%, medido a partir del porcentaje de pérdida de peso de la mora. Con el proceso de estabilización del producto secado por convección forzada con aire caliente a 1,5 ms-1 de velocidad y 55°C de temperatura, durante 24 horas, logrando disminuir la humedad de los tres productos hasta 27,3%hbh, 30,8%hbh y 25,9%hbh para los jarabes de sacarosa, sacarosa invertida y miel de caña, respectivamente y mejorar las condiciones de empaque y almacenamiento, haciendo más estable el producto al ataque microbiano. Las pruebas preliminares de conservación se efectuaron en envases de vidrio de 250g durante 15 días. Se realizó además una prueba sensorial de ordenación con 10 jueces entrenados para la evaluación de las moras deshidratadas osmóticamente antes y después de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento y como resultado se obtuvo que antes de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento, el producto de mayor aceptación fue el correspondiente a las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa invertida y luego del empaque, la mayor aceptación fue para las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa.Studies of osmotic dehydration of blackberry with three different syrups, sucrose (ss, reverse sucrose (rss, and cane syrup (cs with identical initial concentration conditions, 70°Brix, mean temperature of 20°C, and relative humidity of 65% were undertaken in the Fruit and Vegetable Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, showing that the cane syrup presented greater osmotic potential (69,2% compared to the reverse sucrose (54,5% and sucrose (50%, measured as the percentage weight loss of the blackberry samples. With the product dehydration process of drying with forced convection hot air at 1,5 ms-1 velocity and 55°C during 24 hours, it was possible to reduce the humidity of the three products to 27,3% hbh, 30,8% hbh and 25,9 % hbh for syrups of sucrose, reverse sucrose and cane syrup, respectively and improve the packaging and storage conditions, making the product more stable against microbial attacks. An ordenation sensorial test also was conducted with 10 judges trained for evaluation of osmotically dehydrated blackberries before and after the packing and storage process, the most accepted product was the one corresponding to the blackberries osmodehydrated in inverted sucrose syrup and after packaging the most accepted was blackberries osmodehydrated in sucrose syrup.

  12. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five repetitions per treatment, each constituted by 20 seeds. At 40 days, germination percentage and dry mass of the roots and the aerial parts were evaluated. A significant increase was observed in dry matter of the root and aerial part for all the rhizobacteria isolates tested, compared to the control. All the isolates provided significant germination increase, except 3918 and CIIB, which did not differ from the control. Among the tested isolates, four were the most promising (FL2, MF4, MF2 and CIIB. The results obtained show significant gains in seedling production, without any adjustment in nursery management or structure. In addition to this direct gain, it is possible to make a better use of the physical structure of the nurseries by reducing the time needed for seedling formation, reducing the production costs.

  13. Chemical constituents of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) R. Harley (Lamiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) R. Harley (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Geralda de Fatima; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: geralda@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lopes, Marcia Nasser [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Chemical investigation of Hyptidendron canum stems resulted in the isolation of betulinic, ursolic and euscaphic acids. From the leaves were isolated 3{beta}-O-{beta}-galactopiranosilsitosterol, ursolic aldehyde, and mixtures of maslinic acid and 2{alpha}-hydroxy ursolic acid, {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin, uvaol and erythrodiol, sitosterol and stigmasterol, spathulenol and globulol. Hexane and chloroform leave fractions as well as ursolic and betulinic acids showed antifungal activities against the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. (author)

  14. Caracterização anatômica das folhas de Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae Anatomic characterization of Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Teixeira de Toledo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho fez-se a análise da organização estrutural das folhas de Cunila microcephala em microscopia fotônica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Seguiram-se as técnicas convencionais no preparo do material para obtenção das lâminas semipermanentes. Para a preparação de lâminas permanentes utilizou-se a técnica de inclusão em glicol metacrilato (GMA. A organização estrutural das folhas desta espécie revela: estômatos em ambas as faces com predominância na face abaxial (folha anfi-hipoestomática. Os estômatos da face adaxial são do tipo diacítico. As paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas da face adaxial são sinuosas e apresentam espessamentos irregulares. As epidermes de ambas as faces são uniestratificadas. Tricomas tectores unisseriados e tricomas glandulares do tipo capitado unicelular e pluricelular se fazem presentes em ambas as faces. O mesofilo é heterogêneo dorsiventral. Idioblastos contendo cristais de inulina se fazem presentes em toda a extensão do limbo. A nervura principal em secção transversal, na porção mediana da lâmina foliar revela uma organização bastante simples, pouco saliente, na qual o parênquina clorofiliano paliçádico apresenta solução de continuidade. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais.This work has focused on the structural organization analysis of Cunila microcephala leaves in photonic microscopic and electronic scanning. Conventional techniques have been used to prepare the material for obtaining semi-permanent plates. For the preparation of permanent plates, the immersion into glycol methacrylate (GMA has been performed. The structural organization of leaves belonging to this species reveals stomata in both faces with predominance in the abaxial face (amphihypostomatic leaf. The adaxial face stomata belongs to the diacytic type. The anticlinal walls of the epidermis cells of the adaxial face are sinuous and present irregular thickening. The epidermis of both faces is single layered. Uniserial tectorial trichomes and single celled and multicelled capitate glandular trichomes are present in both faces. The mesophyll is heterogeneous dorsi-ventral. Idioblasts containing inulin crystals are present throughout the foliar plate. The central veins in cross-section, in the medium portion of the foliar plate, have shown a very simple organization, not an outstanding one, where the chlorophyllian palisade parenchyma presents a solution of continuity. The vascular fagots are collateral.

  15. Anatomia foliar de Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. e R. macrophylla Benth. (Rubiaceae Leaf anatomy of Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. and R. macrophylla Benth. [Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mantovani

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados sobre a anatomia das folhas de Rudgea decipiens e R. macrophylla (Rubiaceae. Ambas ocorrem na Floresta de Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro. As folhas são hipostomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paralelocítico, dotadas de mesofilo dorsiventral, feixes vasculares do tipo colateral, papilas na epiderme abaxial e cutícula estriada. Em R. macrophylla, destaca-se a ocorrência de estômatos peculiares.Anatomical characteristics of Rudgea decipiens and R. macrophylla leaves were examined. The two species grow in Floresta da Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro municipality. The leaves are hipostomatics, with parallelocytic stomata, dorsiventral mesophyll, colateral vascular bundles, papillae on the lower surface and striate cuticle. The stomata show peculiar aspects in R. macrophylla.

  16. Efeito do BAP no cultivo in vitro de Ocimum selloi Benth Effect of BAP on in vitro culture of Ocimum selloi Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.F. Monfort

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando promover a proliferação de brotações em segmentos apicais e nodais de Ocimum selloi em diferentes concentrações de BAP, plantas jovens de 60 dias serviram de doadoras de segmentos apicais e nodais. Os segmentos foram inoculados em meio MS preparado com a metade da concentração dos sais, e acrescido de 1,5% de sacarose e diferentes concentrações de BAP. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento fatorial, 3 x 4, sendo 3 as posições dos segmentos de O. selloi (segmento apical, primeiro e segundo segmentos nodais e 4 concentrações de BAP (0 - controle; 2; 4 e 6 mg L-1. Aos 30 dias, foram avaliados o número, comprimento e biomassa fresca e seca de brotos e raízes. Os primeiros e segundos segmentos apresentaram melhores resultados na indução de brotos de O. selloi, 7 e 8 brotos/explante, nas diferentes concentrações de BAP; porém, não houve formação de raízes na presença da citocinina. Nas condições testadas, recomenda-se o uso do primeiro e segundo segmento nodal suplementando o meio de cultivo com BAP para a proliferação in vitro de brotações de O. selloi.The present study was undertaken to develop the proliferation of sprouts in apical and nodal segments of Ocimum selloi with different BAP levels. Young plants aged 60 days were used as donors of nodal and apical segments. The segments were inoculated in MS medium at half the concentration of salts supplemented with 1.5% of sucrose and different BAP levels. The experiment was in 3 x 4 factorial arrangement, 3 positions of O. selloi segments (apical segment; first and second nodal segment and 3 BAP levels (0 - control; 2; 4 and 6 mg L-1. After 30 days, the number, the length, and the fresh and dry biomass of sprouts and roots were evaluated. The first and the second segments showed better results in inducing O. selloi sprouts, 7 and 8 sprouts/explant, at the different BAP levels, but there was not root formation in the presence of the cytokinin. Under the tested conditions, use of the first and the second nodal segments is recommended in addition to supplementing the culture medium with BAP for in vitro proliferation of O. selloi sprouts.

  17. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  18. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Gasparin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate of CRF (18-5-9 NPK and three different container volumes (50, 110 and 180 cm3 on seedling height (H and collar diameter (CD measured monthly for seven months and then calculated H/CD ratios. After 210 days of growth, the dry masses of the aerial portions, root systems, and total masses were determined, as well as the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in the aerial portions of the seedlings. In general, the dose 9 g L-1 substrate combined with the 180 cm3 cultivation tubes demonstrated the best results in terms of the morphological variables analyzed, resulting in consistent quality seedlings for field planting.

  19. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims. and Ocimum selloi Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson C. Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons, while the oils of O. selloi did not. Methylchavicol and linalool were the main chemical components found in the aerial parts and leaves of O. canum. This finding permitted to characterize this specimen as a new chemotype of O. canum. Regarding the aerial parts of O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, transcaryophyllene and linalool were identified as their major components. All extracted oils from the aerial parts showed biological activity against gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - but only the O. canum one showed activity against gram-negative bacilli - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.Este trabalho descreve a composição química e a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos voláteis de Ocimum canum e Ocimum selloi, que ocorrem em Jequié/BA, nordeste do Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2006 e os óleos extraídos por destilação a vapor foram posteriormente analisados por GC-MS. Um total de 30 e 31 compostos foi identificado a partir dos óleos de O. selloi e O. canum, respectivamente. Foi observado que o teor de óleo de O. canum apresentou variação durante as estações do ano, enquanto o óleo de O. selloi não. Metilchavicol e linalol foram os principais componentes químicos encontrados na parte aérea e folhas de O. canum. Esta descoberta permitiu caracterizar este espécime como um novo quimiotipo de O. canum. Com relação às partes aéreas de O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineol, trans-cariofileno e linalol foram identificadas como os seus principais componentes. Todos os óleos extraídos das partes aéreas apresentaram atividade biológica contra cocos gram-positivo - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - mas apenas aquele de O. canum apresentou atividade contra bacilo gram-negativo - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.

  20. In vitro and in vivo action of Piptadenia viridiflora (Kunth) Benth against Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Costa, F; Bastos, G A; Soares, A C M; Costa, E G L; Vasconcelos, V O; Oliveira, N J F; Braga, F C; Duarte, E R; Lima, W S

    2016-06-15

    Anthelminthic resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus are a major problem in sheep rearing, but plant extracts may offer viable alternative treatments. In our preliminary studies, Piptadenia viridiflora was frequently selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado. The present research evaluated its in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity. The HPLC chromatograms of P. viridiflora aqueous extract (AE) and ethanolic extract (EE) showed the presence of flavonoids. The total condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) was 0.2 and 1.01% in AE and EE, respectively. In an egg hatching inhibition (EHI) test, the LC90 of AE was 2.4mg/mL, and, of EE, was 2.1mg/mL. After tannin extraction, higher EHI and lower LC90 were observed. In a larval development inhibition test, the LC90 of AE was 13.66mg/g of fecal culture. The highest dose of AE administered to mice (203.0mg/kg bw) was well tolerated, suggesting low toxicity. In vivo, AE was orally administered to lambs at 283mg/kg bw, and, at weeks one, two, and three post-treatment, the mean fecal egg count (FEC) was significantly lower than in untreated lambs (Ptannin content and exhibited high anthelminthic efficacy in vitro and significantly reduced FEC. Tannins were not shown to be the principal components affecting EHI, hence it is necessary to isolate and characterize the principal active P. viridiflora compounds, and to assess their possible synergism. PMID:27198776

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated From the Fruits of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth

    OpenAIRE

    AT Tchinda; GA Agbor; DE Tsala; AJG Yaya; EN Nga; Talla, E.; J-N Wauters; M Frédérich

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the different flavonoids of the fruits of Xylopia parviflora used in Cameroon as spice in common traditional dishes. The fruits were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. The isolation of flavonoids was guided by the DPPH-TLC technique. The methanol crude extract and isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using DPPH radical-scavenging, β-carotene/linoleic acid and ferric reducin...

  2. Phenolic contents and bioactivities of pericarp and seeds of Pleiogynium solandri (Benth. Engl. (Anacardiaceae

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    Ataa Said

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aimed to develop drugs from natural sources to overcome the side effects of many of synthetic drugs. Methanol extracts of both pericarp and seeds of Pleiogynium solandri were used to investigate antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects and to determine the chemical composition of the extract responsible for bioactivity. Materials and Methods: Methanol (70% extracts of the seeds and pericarps of P. solandri were prepared. Hot plate method was used to test analgesic activity, carrageenan-induced paw inflammation method was used to test anti-inflammatory activity, and colorimetric methods were used to test antioxidant, hepatoprotective (by determination of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and renal function protective effects (by measuring uric acid and creatinine levels. Chromatographic methods and means of 1H-NMR, 13C –NMR, and UV spectra were used for isolation and identification of the responsible compounds. Results:In this study for the first time,four phenolic compounds were isolated from the pericarp of P. solandri which were identified as catechin, quercetin, quercetrin and rutin[m1] . Methanolic extract of both seeds and pericarp of P. solandri showed strong antioxidant effect, hepatoprotective, renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, seed extract had lower effect than pericarp in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study showed that methanol extract of pericarp of P. solandri is more powerful than that of the seed regarding its antioxidant, hepato-protective; renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects[m2] . The phenolic compounds isolated from the methanol extract of pericarp were responsible for bioactivity.

  3. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl. Benth with Macroporous Resins

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    Zhi-feng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutellarein-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (SG and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2>0.95. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34 % in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials.

  4. ACUTE TOXICITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM BRILLANTAISIA VOGELIANA (NÉES BENTH. (ACANTHACEAE

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    Aimé Valère SOH OUMBE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brillantaisia vogeliana (Acanthacées is a plant used in the West-Cameroon traditional pharmacopeia. This species have been used to facilitate deliverance and delivery and to treat stomach ailment. The aqueous extract of leaves was studied by conventional pharmacological methods.Twelve female rats were randomly assigned in two groups of 6 animals each designated as control and treated groups. After a sighting study, one group of the fasted animals for 12h received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of aqueous solution of Brillantaisia vogeliana while control group received distilled water.Oral consumption of 2 g/kg of Brillantaisia vogeliana produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and relative organs weights except relative liver weight between control and treated animals. Moreover, no abnormality and no histopathological changes were detectable between both control and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no difference in any of the parameters tested (WBC count, platelet, total leukocytes, RBC count, hematocrit and hemoglobin estimation in either control or treated groups. No significant change occurred in the blood chemistry parameters, including creatinine, urea nitrogen (UN, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase (ASAT, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, calcium and phosphorus. However, α-amylase and total protein showed a significant difference between control and treated groups. The results showed the innocuity of the aqueous extract of B. vogeliana and thus validated its utilization in Cameroonian traditional pharmacopoeia. The LD50 was higher than 2g/kg of body weight and according to Globally Harmonized Hazard Classification and Labelling Scheme (GHS, aqueous extract of B. vogeliana was classified in group 5.

  5. 钩吻的研究概况%Review of studying of Gelsemiu Elegans Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟晓乐; 甄汉深; 秦海龙; 李生茂; 葛静

    2007-01-01

    中国钩吻已分离出17种单体,其中以钩吻素予含量最高,钩吻素己毒性最强.毒理作用主要押制呼吸中枢,作用于迷走神经.其临床作用已从过去的仅供外用发展为用于抑制肿瘤细胞生长、治疗神经痛、扩瞳、免疫调节等方面.

  6. Research and development on Gelsemium elegans Benth.%钩吻研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志航; 邬静; 孙志良

    2015-01-01

    近年来对钩吻的研究主要集中在钩吻生物碱的提取、分离、纯化及结构分析,其毒理作用主要表现为抑制呼吸中枢,作用于迷走神经.也有学者对钩吻生物碱的促生长作用进行了初步探讨,但钩吻生物碱促生长作用机理在国内外尚未见报道.笔者等结合国内外研究现状,系统归纳总结了近年钩吻的研究应用情况,并对钩吻生物碱促生长作用发展前景进行了探讨.

  7. Photoassimilate-transport characteristics of nonchlorophyllous and green tissue in variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, L A; Wimmers, L E; Turgeon, R

    1988-07-01

    The nonchlorophyllous (albino) tissue of mature C. blumei leaves is a sink for photoassimilate. Transport from the green to the albino region of the same leaf was inhibited by cold and anoxia. When the green tissue of mature leaves was removed, the remaining albino portion imported labeled translocate from other mature leaves in the phloem. Photoassimilate unloading in the albino region of mature leaves was studied by quantitative autoradiography. The unloading was inhibited by cold but not by anoxia. No labeled photoassimilate could be detected in the free space of mature albino tissue by compartmental efflux analysis as phloem unloading proceeded in a N2 atmosphere, indicating that unloading, may occur by a symplastic pathway as it apparently does in sink leaves of other species. The minor veins of mature albino leaf tissue did not accumulate exogenous [(14)C]sucrose. Minor veins of green tissue in the same leaves accumulated [(14)C]sucrose but, in contrast to other species studied to date, this accumulation was insensitive to the inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzensulfonic acid (PCMBS).In its capacity to import and unload photoassimilate, and in the inability, of the minor veins to accumulate exogenous sucrose, the albino region of the mature C. blumei lamina differs from mature albino tobacco leaves and darkened mature leaves of other species. This, together with evidence indicating that phloem loading in C. blumei and other species may occur by different routes and with different sensitivity to PCMBS, indicates that the mechanism of transfer of photoassimilates between veins and surrounding tissues, and the mechanism of the sink-source transition, may not be the same in the leaves of all species. It is speculated that the unusual properties of the C. blumei leaf may be a consequence of the presence, in the minor veins, of "intermediary cells", large companion cells connected to the bundle sheath by abundant plasmodesmata. PMID:24221622

  8. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

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    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  9. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  10. Antidiarrheal Activity of 19-Deoxyicetexone Isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in Mice and Rats

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    Ernesto Sánchez-Mendoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA- and prostaglandin (PGE2-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS, as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis, infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE2-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats’ ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this.

  11. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Growth and Anatomical Characteristics of Pogostemoncablin (Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Pogostemoncablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in-vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in-vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to ext...

  12. Kinetic analysis of the thermostability of peroxidase from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds

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    Sabinus Oscar Onyebuchi EZE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A major problem in the storage and marketing of processed African oil bean seeds is its high deterioration rates due to the undesirable activity of peroxidases. The effect of heat treatment on the activity of peroxidase (POD from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds was studied over a range of 30°C to 80°C. A simple first-order reaction which assumes a biphasic thermoinactivation curves was used to study the denaturation of this enzyme. Results suggested that peroxidase is a stable enzyme with a Z-value as low as 0.0147. This indicates that it is more sensitive to increase in temperature than to the duration of the heat treatment making high temperature short time treatment a technique to be used for its inactivation. The results of the thermodynamic investigations indicated that the oxidation reactions were: (a not spontaneous (ΔG > 0 for peroxidase at 323oK, and at all the temperatures (2 slightly endothermic (ΔH > 0 at 323 K and (3 reversible (ΔS < 0 at all the temperatures under study.

  13. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.

  14. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth. Pax. & Hoffman

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    David A. Akinpelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract was tested against a range of microorganisms using standard microbiological methods for antimicrobial activities. The extract inhibited the growth of all the bacterial and 15 fungal isolates tested. The zones of inhibition exhibited against the test bacteria ranged between 12 mm and 24 mm and between 11 mm and 24 mm for the extract and the antibiotic streptomycin, respectively. The zones of inhibition observed against the fungal isolates by the extract ranged between 12 mm and 23 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs exhibited by the extract against test bacteria ranged between 0.78 mg/mL–25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL–25 mg/mL, respectively, while the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs values for the test fungi ranged between 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/mL and 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/L, respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars as major phytoconstituents in the extract. A. laxiflora leaf extract is a potent source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds; further studies on the extract are ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate the probable mechanism(s of action on bacteria and fungi found to be susceptible to the extract.

  15. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

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    Celuta S. Alviano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as “sacaca”. Two morphotypes are known: white and red “sacaca”. The essential oils (EO obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%–37.5%. The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10−3 μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10−8 μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC50 less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  16. A pharmacognostic study of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) : bioactivity, safety, and phytochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toyang, Ngeh Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The world continues to be plagued by numerous diseases and health complications. Unfortunately, current drug discovery efforts are lagging behind compared to the pace of emergence of new diseases or the development of resistance to current therapies. Medicinal plants especially for people in develop

  17. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

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    Lia de Barros Leite Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I, from implantation to major organogenesis (II, and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III. We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I, pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic.

  18. Antimalarial and cytotoxic properties of Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss and Turraea vogelii Hook F. Ex. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbole, Omonike O; Saka, Yusuf A; Fasinu, Pius S; Fadare, Adenike A; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O

    2016-04-01

    Malaria, caused by plasmodium parasite, is at the moment the highest cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Recently, there is increasing efforts to develop more potent antimalarials from plant sources that will have little or no adverse effects. This study is aimed at investigating the in vivo mice antimalarial and in vitro antiplasmodial effects of two Meliaceae plants commonly used in Nigerian ethnomedicine as part of recipe for treating malaria infection: Chukrasia tabularis and Turraea vogelii. Hot water decoction and methanol extract of both plants were evaluated for their antimalarial activity in vivo using the mice model assay and in vitro using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The extracts were also assessed for toxicity with brine shrimp lethality assay and in mammalian cell lines using the neural red assay. The in vivo mice model antimalarial study showed that the methanol extract of the stem bark of C. tabularis exhibited the highest % chemosuppression (83.65 ± 0.66) at the highest dosage administered (800 mg/kg) when compared with chloroquine diphosphate, the standard reference drug which had a % suppression of 90.36 ± 0.04 (p < 0.05). The in vitro antiplasmodial study indicated that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. tabularis displayed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strain (IC50 of 10.739 μg/mL) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strain. Chloroquine and artemisinin had <0.163 and <0.0264, respectively. PMID:26911147

  19. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  20. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  1. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Nepeta graciliflora Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Shah, G C; Sharma, Rabia; Dhyani, Praveen

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Nepeta graciliflora was analysed, for the first time, by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 27 compounds were identified, constituting over 91.44% of oil composition. The oil was strongly characterised by sesquiterpenes (86.72%), with β-sesquiphellandrene (28.75%), caryophyllene oxide (12.15%), α-bisabolol (8.97%), α-bergamotene (8.51%), β-bisabolene (6.33%) and β-Caryophyllene (5.34%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil was determined against four micro-organisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. The oil exhibited good activity against all tested organisms. PMID:26140331

  2. Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in su...

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated From the Fruits of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AT Tchinda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the different flavonoids of the fruits of Xylopia parviflora used in Cameroon as spice in common traditional dishes. The fruits were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. The isolation of flavonoids was guided by the DPPH-TLC technique. The methanol crude extract and isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using DPPH radical-scavenging, β-carotene/linoleic acid and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The total phenolic content of the methanol crude extract was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method. The DPPH-TLC technique led to the isolation of (+-catechin (1, kaempferol 3-O-arabinofuranoside (2 and quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (3 identified by NMR and mass spectra analysis. In the colorimetric DPPH test, compound 1 had the same activity (EC50 8.1µg/ml as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT used as standard while compound 3 and the methanol crude extract were less active (EC50 17.2µg/ml. Compound 2 was completely inactive. The total phenolic content of the fruit extracts was 113.03 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of extract. In the carotene bleaching test at the highest concentration of 100µg/mL, the order of inhibition of β-carotene discoloration was BHT > crude extract > quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (3 > catechin (1 > kaempferol 3-O- arabinofuranoside (2. In the reducing power assay, compound 3 was more active at concentrations 40-100µg/mL. The HPLC analysis of the methanol crude extract revealed the presence of compounds 1-3 and unidentified phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract is probably due to the presence of compounds 1 and 3.

  4. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

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    Krzymińska Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of constituents from isolona cauliflora verdc and cleistochlamys krikii benth, oliv.: Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odebode A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of crude extract, Caulindole D, a mixture of Caulindole E and F, Pinocembrin and an Oxyheptanoid (Clestochlamic acid from stem bark of Isolona cauliflora and Cleistochlamys krikii on Pseudomonas phaseolicola, Fusarium solani, Botryodiploida theobromae Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus have been investigated. An in vitro bioassay test showed that the crude dichloro-methane extract from C. krikii and a very strong antimicrobial property. The pure compound had strong to moderate inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The pure compounds from Cleistochlamus krikii had more pronounced inhibitory activities than the pure compounds from Isola cauliflora. At lower concentration of 100-200 ppm, the crude extract of Caulindole, mixture of Caulindole E and F, Pinocembrion and Oxyheptanoid had effect on most of the investigated plant pathogens. Higher concentration of 500-1000 ppm had moderate to weak effect on the Aspergillus spp.

  6. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM BRILLANTAISIA VOGELIANA (NÉES BENTH. (ACANTHACEAE

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    Aimé Valère SOH OUMBE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brillantaisia vogeliana (Acanthaceae is used in folk medicine in the West region of Cameroon to manage obesity. In this study, we investigated the toxic effect of the aqueous extract of B.v. in rats. Three doses of aqueous extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg were administrated orally once per 2 days during a period of 28 days and different hematology, biochemistry and histopatology parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no mortality, no significant differences in the body and relative organ weight between control and treated animals, except for the kidney. Hematological analysis showed no significant difference in any of the parameters examined (WBC count, platelet, RBC count, hematocrit, total leucocyte count and hemoglobin estimation between control and treated groups. There were also no significant change in blood chemistry parameters, including creatinine, urea nitrogen (UN, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase (ASAT, calcium, alpha amylase, total protein and phosphorus, except alanine aminotransferase (ALAT between control and treated groups. Histopathological abnormalities changes were detected in organs of animals treated with various doses of product.

  7. Development of HPLC Protocol and Simultaneous Quantification of Four Free Flavonoids from Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth.

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    Sodik Rakhmonovich Numonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the four flavonoids, namely, luteolin, kaempferol, diosmetin, and chrysosplenetin, has been performed for the first time in 80% ethanolic extract of Dracocephalum heterophyllum B. through HPLC coupled to UV detector after optimization of extracting solvent and chromatographic conditions. Total flavonoids quantified were 0.324 mg/mL of the extract. HPLC analysis delivered contents of the luteolin, kaempferol, diosmetin, and chrysosplenetin as 0.08%, 0.14%, 0.28%, and 0.79% of the dried extract, respectively. LOD (% values calculated were 0.04, 0.03, 0.03, and 0.08 and LOQ (% values were 0.08, 0.12, 0.11, and 0.28 for luteolin, kaempferol, diosmetin, and chrysosplenetin, respectively. The recovery percentages for these flavonoids were within the acceptable range of 95% to 105%. Standard deviation and %RSD were calculated for each target analytes individually in extract for determining the reproducibility and accuracy of the method. In no case the %RSD was higher than 1 taking retention time as a factor while in the case of area under the curve maximum %RSD was noted in the case of diosmetin as 2.85. From our literature review regarding the plant species under study, it appears that these flavonoids have not been quantified before and are reported for the first time in this paper.

  8. Effect of a biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation (Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanics was developed when human energies of consciousness were found to influence observations at the scale of elementary particles, here referred as non-contact biofield treatment or biofield energies . Quantum mechanics has also proved efficacious in biological processes. The present experiments found an enhanced and significant impact of the biofield treatment on adaptive micropropagation response and callus induction of two plant species, Withania somnifera and Amaranthus dubiu...

  9. [Antihypertensive action of Parkia biglobosa+ (Jacq) Benth seeds in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assane, M; Baba Moussa, R; Bassene, E; Sere, A

    1993-01-01

    Hundred white Wistar rats have been used to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of entire seeds and decorticated, fermented seeds of a soudanian plant, Parkia biglobosa. The arterial blood pressure was measured by using bloody method in anesthizied animals. The Pham Huu Chanh method was used to determine type plant's antihypertensive activity. According to the results obtained, in both preparations, adequate doses decrease arterial blood pressure, diastolic more than systolic, but the effect of fermented seeds was more important than the entire seeds. In the two cases, the decrease in blood pressure is greated in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects, and the hypotension induced was well correlated with a bradycardia.

  10. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Puc, Juan Alberto; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Miron-Lopez, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J., E-mail: mrejon@uady.mx [Laboratorio de Quimica Farmaceutica. Facultad de Quimica. Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan (Mexico); Moo-Puc, Rosa Esther [Unidad de Investigacion Medica Yucatan, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Yucatan (Mexico); Quijano, Leovigildo [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Cyclolignan (+)-lyoniresinol (1), veratric acid (2), vanillic acid (3), lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4), the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+)-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC{sub 50} 17.57 μM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4) in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol. (author)

  11. Biological control of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. using formulated mycoherbicides under Sudan field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zahran, Eldur

    2008-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is a parasitic flowering plant belonging to the family Orobanchaceae. It is a root parasite that attacks sorghum, maize, millet and several grass weeds in the semi-arid Tropics. In Sudan, Striga is widespread in irrigated and rainfed areas and considered the main biotic constraint in production of sorghum, the main staple food for the majority of Sudanese people. More than 500,000 hectares under rainfed cultivation are heavily infested with Striga, which commonly results in...

  12. Antidiarrheal activity of 19-deoxyicetexone isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Hernández-Munive, Abigail; Mendoza-Martínez, Angel; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA)- and prostaglandin (PGE₂)-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS), as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis), infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE₂-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats' ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this. PMID:23896615

  13. In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida, benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Ohashi, Mitsuko; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Agyapong, Jeffrey; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Djameh, Georgina I; Azerigyik, Faustus A; Botchie, Senyo K; Anyan, William K; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Appiah, Alfred A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against 010 was determined by microscopy while the IC50 of compounds against L. hertigi was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Guava viacount analysis. We found two of the three compounds, molucidin and ML-F52, to have anti-Leishmania activity against both strains. The fluor-microscope observation with DAPI stain revealed that both Molucidin and ML-F52 induced abnormal parasites with two sets of nucleus and kinetoplast in a cell, suggesting that compounds might inhibit cytokinesis in Leishmania parasites. Molucidin and ML-F52 might be good lead compounds for the development of new anti-Leishmania chemotherapy. PMID:27536194

  14. Armazenamento e germinação de sementes de Tabebuia aurea (manso) Benth. & Hook. f. ex. S. Moore Storage and germination of seeds of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. f. ex. S. Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Lopes Cabral; Dilosa Carvalho de Alencar Barbosa; Eliana Akie Simabukuro

    2003-01-01

    As sementes foram acondicionadas em sacos de papel, de algodão e plástico de natureza permeável, em ambiente frio e seco (15ºC e 40% de UR) por quatro meses. Inicialmente, testou-se a influência da presença e ausência contínua de luz branca e fotoperíodo de 12 h, a fim de determinar o fotoblastismo das sementes, na temperatura de 25ºC. Verificou-se a influência das temperaturas constantes de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40ºC na germinação e determinou-se as temperaturas cardeais (mínima, ótima e ...

  15. Anatomia comparada do pulvino, pecíolo e raque de Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae - Faboideae Comparative anatomy of pulvinus, petiole and rachis of Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae - Faboideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Maria Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Em Pterodon pubescens, os pulvinos primário e secundário, órgãos responsáveis pelos movimentos foliares, apresentam peculiaridades estruturais em relação ao pecíolo e raque. Estas peculiaridades incluem cutícula mais espessa, córtex mais desenvolvido formado por células parenquimáticas de formas variáveis, sistema vascular em posição central, floema circundado por fibras septadas não lignificadas e medula parenquimática reduzida ou ausente. Pecíolo e raque apresentam córtex reduzido constituído por células parenquimáticas isodiamétricas, sistema vascular periférico, floema envolvido por calota de fibras gelatinosas e medula ampla. Compostos fenólicos foram detectados no vacúolo das células corticais dos pulvinos, enquanto que no córtex e medula do pecíolo e da raque foram observados amiloplastos em abundância e ausência de compostos fenólicos. Em geral, as características estruturais do pulvino de P. pubescens são comuns aos pulvinos das demais espécies de Fabaceae e têm sido relacionadas com a intensificação de trocas laterais de íons e água entre células do córtex e sistema vascular, além de proporcionar maior flexibilidade e capacidade de movimento desta região. Já as características do pecíolo e da raque conferem maior rigidez a estas estruturas foliares.In Pterodon pubescens the primary and secondary pulvini show structural peculiarities in relations of petiole and rachis. These peculiarities include thicker cuticule, more developed cortex with only parenchyma cells with irregular shape, central vascular tissues, presence of septate fibers around the phloem, and absent or reduced pith. Petiole and rachis show reduced cortex constituted by parenchyma isodiameters cells, peripheric vascular tissues surrounded by gelatinous fibers and pith. Phenolic compounds were detected inside vacuole of parenchyma cells of the pulvinus. Starch grains were observed in the parenchyma cells of petiole and rachis. The features of P. pubescens pulvinus are common to pulvini of others species of Fabaceae, and have been associated to the intensification of lateral changes of ion and water between cortical cells and vascular tissues, besides to provide more flexibility and movement capacity of this organ. On the other hand, the features of petiole and rachis give more rigidity to these leaves structures.

  16. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  17. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  18. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic contents of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangea DC. ex Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    M.B. Bahadori; M Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Salvia species are important because of their medicinal, traditional and economical uses. They are used traditionally for treatment of several diseases. The genus Salvia is represented in the Iranian flora by 61 species of which, 17 are endemic.  In the present study, the phytochemical and biological effects of two Iranian Salvia species have been evaluated. Methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (AB...

  19. Research and Development on Enterotoxin of Gelsemium Elegans benth%钩吻毒素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易金娥; 袁慧

    2003-01-01

    近些年来对钩吻毒素的研究愈加全面,主要表现在:中国钩吻已分离出17种单体,其中以钩吻素子含量最高,钩吻素已毒性最强.毒理作用主要抑制呼吸中枢,作用于迷走神经,还能直接作用于心肌和血管平滑肌,在临床上的应用也愈加广泛.主要用于抗肿瘤、镇痛以及促生长等方面.

  20. 胡蔓藤化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Gelsemium elegans Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华威; 郭涛; 张琳; 吴立军; 赵庆春

    2007-01-01

    目的 对胡蔓藤中的化学成分进行研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、ODS柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20及制备液相色谱进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和光谱分析进行结构鉴定.结果 分离鉴定了5个化合物,分别为滨蒿内酯(1)、二(2-乙基己基)邻苯二甲酸酯(2)、3β-羟基-27-(Z)-桂皮酰基-12-烯-28-羧基乌苏酸(3)、3β-羟基-27-(E)-桂皮酰基-12-烯-28-羧基乌苏酸(4)、钩藤酸E(5).结论 化合物1~5为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  1. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Daffalla, Hussien M.; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G.; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E.

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In ...

  2. Isolation, characterization and chemobiological quantification of alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory and free radical scavenging constituents from Derris scandens Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sridhar A; Srinivas, Pullela V; Tiwari, Ashok K; Vanka, Uma Maheswara S; Rao, Rama V Subba; Dasari, Krishna R; Rao, Madhusudana J

    2007-08-15

    The hexane and chloroform extracts of Derris scandens have displayed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and moderate free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemical investigation of the active extracts led to the isolation of three new prenylated isoflavones, isoscandinone, scandenin A and scandenin B in addition to scandenone, scandinone and 4', 5', 7-trihydroxybiprenylisoflavone as the main constituents, having alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory and free radical scavenging properties. A reversed-phase HPLC method is developed to quantify these active principles in the plant material, which can serve as an effective quality control method for standardization of D. scandens. PMID:17537687

  3. Growth of Jacaranda-da-Bahia (Dalbergia nigra((Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth under different levels of NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of well-nourished and quality seedlings is one of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of forest plantations. The present study aimed to verify, by means of morphological characteristics, the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth of jacarandá-da-bahia seedlings (Dalbergia nigra ((Vell. Fr. All. in order to establish the optimal dose of each nutrient to be added in different substrates thus aiming to ensure the production of seedlings with better quality. The seedlings were produced in three types of soils: mesotrophic Ultisol (PVAm, Alic Oxisol (LVAa and distrofic Oxisol (LVAd. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions from February to June of 2006. 11 treatments were defined according baconian matrix, in which the nutrients (N, P and K ranged in three different doses and two additional treatments (Zero and Reference. A completely randomized design with four replications was adopted. The seedlings were planted in pots with a capacity of 2.1 dm3 and 120 days after sowing the data was collected. After analyzing the data, it was concluded that for the production of jacarandá-da-bahia seedlings it is recommended an addition of dosages greater than or equal to 600 mg.dm-3 of P and 200 mg.dm-3 of N when using underground earth in the production of seedlings, from distrofic Oxisol and 300 mg.dm-3 of P and 90 mg.dm-3 of N when using mesotrophic Ultisol. As for the addition of K, since the seedlings were undemanding or the available contents in the soil were sufficient to supply their needs, it is recommended the application of the minimum tested dose of 50 mg.dm-3 of soil until further studies with lower doses is tested.

  4. Microscopic analysis and histochemical observations of the medicinal root of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth. ex Hemsl. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Sandoval; Bye, Robert A.; Griselda Ríos; María Isabel Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    The roots of Iostephane heterophylla are popular in Mexican traditional medicine and as such are a good candidate to develop herbal drug preparations to be used as phytomedicine. International criteria for validation and standardization of a herbal product as phytomedicine include, among others, the integration of microscopic and histochemical characteristics of the raw material, as in this case the herbal drug, to guarantee its authenticity. As an original contribution to the knowledge of th...

  5. Armazenamento e germinação de sementes de Tabebuia aurea (manso Benth. & Hook. f. ex. S. Moore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Edna Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes foram acondicionadas em sacos de papel, de algodão e plástico de natureza permeável, em ambiente frio e seco (15ºC e 40% de UR por quatro meses. Inicialmente, testou-se a influência da presença e ausência contínua de luz branca e fotoperíodo de 12 h, a fim de determinar o fotoblastismo das sementes, na temperatura de 25ºC. Verificou-se a influência das temperaturas constantes de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40ºC na germinação e determinou-se as temperaturas cardeais (mínima, ótima e máxima. Testou-se a viabilidade das sementes aos 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, empregando-se teste de germinação, e a velocidade de embebição aos 30, 60 e 90 dias, utilizando-se amostras provenientes de cada tipo de embalagem. As embalagens utilizadas no armazenamento não afetaram significativamente as variáveis estudadas. A espécie em estudo pode ser classificada como fotoblástica neutra à 25ºC, com percentagem média de germinação alta, variando de 88 a 98%. A temperatura ótima de germinação foi de 35ºC, a mínima de 20ºC e a máxima de 40ºC, na ausência de luz. As embalagens utilizadas no armazenamento mantiveram a viabilidade das sementes por até 120 dias, com altos percentuais de germinação, variando de 88 a 97%. As sementes apresentaram velocidade de embebição rápida atingindo 100% a partir das quatro horas de embebição.

  6. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa ZE; Ahmad, Syahida

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila ...

  7. Reduced photoinhibition under low irradiance enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) secondary metabolites, phenyl alanine lyase and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  8. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  9. Inhibitory effects of a Kunitz-type inhibitor from Pithecellobium dumosum (Benth) seeds against insect-pests' digestive proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Fabiola P S; Pedroso, Vanessa M A; Araujo, Jonalson N; França, Anderson F J; Rabêlo, Luciana M A; Migliolo, Ludovico; Kiyota, Sumika; Santos, Elizeu A; Franco, Octavio L; Oliveira, Adeliana S

    2013-02-01

    Pithecellobium dumosum is a tree belonging to the Mimosoideae subfamily that presents various previously characterized Kunitz-type inhibitors. The present study provides a novel Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor isoform purified from P. dumosum seeds. Purification procedure was performed by TCA precipitation followed by a trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and a further reversed-phase HPLC. Purified inhibitor (PdKI-4) showed enhanced inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. Furthermore, PdKI-4 showed remarkable inhibitory activity against serine proteases from the coleopterans Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, and the lepidopterans Alabama argillacea and Telchin licus. However, PdKI-4 was unable to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, pineapple bromelain and Carica papaya papain. SDS-PAGE showed that PdKI-4 consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of 21 kDa. Kinetic studies demonstrated that PdKI-4 is probably a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 5.7 × 10(-10) M for bovine trypsin. PdKI-4 also showed higher stability over a wide range of temperature (37-100 °C) and pH (2-12). N-termini sequence was obtained by Edman degradation showing higher identity with other Mimosoideae subfamily Kunitz-type inhibitor members. In summary, data here reported indicate the biotechnological potential of PdKI-4 for development of products against insect-pests.

  10. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Gasparin; Maristela Machado Araujo; Cleber Witt Saldanha; Caira Viñas Tolfo

    2015-01-01

    Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate) of CRF (18-5-9 NPK) and three different container volumes...

  11. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver and respiratory diseases. Extensive use of P. kurroa needs detailed analysis and recognition of chemical diversity, is of great importance to evaluate their role as quality control markers. In the present study, comprehensive metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaves and rhizomes of P. kurroa was carried out using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS. Primary and secondary metabolites were unambiguously identified along with a new report of monoterpenic glycoside (1-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-2(E),6(E)-dienoate) in P. Kurroa. Significant qualitative differences with respect to the secondary metabolites were noticed between the leaves and rhizomes tissues. Leaves contained more cucurbitacins and flavonoids while iridoids were present more in rhizomes. The comprehensive chemical profiling is expected to give an idea of chemical diversity and quality of P. kurroa, for their ultimate utilisation in various applications. PMID:26777484

  12. Sub-chronic administration of methanolic whole fruit extract of lagenaria breviflora (Benth. roberty induces mild toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of the methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora on vital organs and antioxidant enzymes was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: L. breviflora (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t./day/rat was fed orally with the cannula to male albino rats for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the effect of the extract on histology of the liver, heart, lipid peroxidation, tissue and serum antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase activities, glutathione, myocardial marker enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alanine transaminase [ALT], and aspartate transaminase [AST] in serum, and heart homogenate were assessed. Results: The extract demonstrated mild organ doses dependent (500 and 1000 mg/kg pathological alterations in the architectural section of the liver and heart. At 250 mg/kg/b.w.t., the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the level of thiobarbituric reacting acids substance and antioxidant enzyme activities, but causes (P < 0.05 decrease in serum and tissue antioxidant capacity at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t., respectively. Also on these two doses, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in serum activity of CK, LDH, ALT, and AST and concomitantly decrease (P < 0.05 in heart homogenate were also observed. Conclusion: The results suggested that the Fruit of L. breviflora may contain phytotoxic Substances(s which may be hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution.

  13. In vitro inhibitory effects of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

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    Dnyaneshwar Madhukar Nagmoti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to asses and characterizes the inhibitory action of methanolic extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce seeds on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes as well as to characterize compounds responsible for these activities. The methanolic extract was assessed for total phenolic, flavanoid and triterpenoids content by using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent, Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 and Vaniline-perchloric acid assay, respectively. The methanolic extract was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA reagent, respectively. The IC50 values of methanolic extract of P. dulce against maltase and sucrase enzymes was found to be 10.32±1.52 and 2.84±0.96 mg/ml respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of methanolic extract of P. dulce against pancreatic α-amylase was found to be 16.75±1.81 mg/ml. The kinetics of glucosidase enzyme was determined by Lineweaver Burk plot and it was found to be non competitive in nature. Reversed phase HPLC analysis revealed oleanolic acid as the main triterpenoid constituent in the extract compared with standard oleanolic acid. Therefore, the enzyme inhibitory activity of P. dulce methanolic extract may be endorsed to the presence of oleanolic acid triterpenoid, thus justifying its traditional use in the management of diabetes.

  14. Effect of seed harvesting season and sterilization treatments on germination and in vitro propagation of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep YADAV

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objective of standardizing the protocol for the micropropagation of Albizia lebbeck (L.. Seeds were collected from three different colored pods (yellow, dark yellow and brownish yellow harvested from field grown Albizia tree from November to January and were surface sterilized using different concentration of mercuric chloride (0.05-0.15% w/v for different exposure durations (2, 5 and 8 min. Seeds collected from dark-yellow colored pod showed the highest germination (83.3 % and short germination time (4.29 days, while those collected from brownish yellow colored pod showedrelatively less germination (53.3% and longer germination time (6.0 days. Success of seed germination increased with maturity upto a certain level after which it declines significantly with increasing harvesting time. A five-minute dip of HgCl2 (0.1% was found to be the optimum duration for giving the maximum (83.3% germinated and healthy seedlings. Increasing time and concentration ofHgCl2 significantly reduced the contamination, but on the other hand it also effected the germination of seeds. Best shoot regeneration response from in vitro nodal segment was obtained on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l + NAA (0.5 mg/l. The highest percentage of callus induction (85% was also observed in the above same media from in vitro internodal segment. Proliferated micro-shoots showed 60% rooting on half strength medium supplemented with IAA (2.0 mg/l after 4 weeks of culturing. The well rooted micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (1:1 with 60% survival rate under field conditions.

  15. A New Furofuran Lignan Diglycoside and Other Secondary Metabolites from the Antidepressant Extract of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth

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    Maribel Herrera-Ruiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Castilleja tenuiflora has been used for the treatment of several Central Nervous System (CNS diseases. Herein we report the antidepressant activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of this medicinal plant. The oral administration of MeOH extract (500 mg/kg induced a significant (p < 0.05 decrement of the immobility parameter on Forced Swimming Test (FST and an increment in the latency and duration of the hypnosis, induced by administration of sodium pentobarbital (Pbi, 40 mg/kg, i.p.. Chemical analysis of this antidepressant extract allowed the isolation of (+-piperitol-4-O-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-O-glucopyranoside. This new furofuran lignan diglycoside was named tenuifloroside (1 and its complete chemical structure elucidation on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra analysis of the natural compound 1 and its peracetylated derivative 1a is described. This compound was found together with two flavones—apigenin and luteolin 5-methyl ether—a phenylethanoid—verbascoside—and three iridoids—geniposide, caryoptoside and aucubin. All these compounds were purified by successive normal and reverse phase column chromatography. Tenuifloroside, caryoptoside and luteolin 5-methyl ether were isolated from Castilleja genus for the first time. These findings demonstrate that C. tenuiflora methanol extract has beneficial effect on depressive behaviors, and the knowledge of its chemical constitution allows us to propose a new standardized treatment for future investigations of this species in depressive illness.

  16. Hepatoprotective activity of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle Ex. Benth extract against alcohol cytotoxicity in mouse liver slice culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kutki or Picrorhiza kurroa is a herbal medicinal plant belonging to Scrophulariaceae family and is found in the Himalayan region in India. This herb has been traditionally used in treating liver disorders. The antioxidant properties of P. kurroa were evaluated in vitro using different radical scavenging assays. Furthermore, liver slice culture system was used to test the antioxidant activity of this extract and ethanol was used as a hepatotoxin to generate oxidative stress. Hepatotoxicity was quantified in terms of release of intracellular marker enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase. Oxidative stress induced by ethanol and its modulation in the presence of P. kurroa extract was tested by estimating the levels of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase, and of antioxidant molecules like uric acid and reduced glutathione that were quantitated along with lipid peroxidation. Our results clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of P. kurroa with high antioxidant activity, as demonstrated using different radical scavenging assays, was effective in suppressing the deleterious effects of ethanol. Addition of P. kurroa aqueous extract along with ethanol restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and significantly reduced lipid peroxidation.

  17. Community of floral visiting insects of Ocimum selloi Benth (Lamiaceae) in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Köhler; Alexandre Somavilla; Karine Schoeninger

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to list the community of floral visitors of Ocimum selloi, indicate the potential pollinators, and their patterns of visitation. The collection of flower visitors was carried out in 2007, in an anthroposophical area, with analysis of constancy and dominance of taxa. A total of 653 insects was collected, belonging to seven orders; Hymenoptera, with 370 individuals, was the most representative group. Thirty six families were identified, being 12 of Hymenoptera and eight of Dipt...

  18. Contribución al conocimiento de Salvia sordida Benth. Historia natural y conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso José Luis; Bernal González Carlos Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Salvia sordida es una especie de labiada endémica de Colombia, que está constituida por arbustos que pueden llegar hasta los 4 m de altura, con indumentos densos en el envés de las hojas, en los ejes de la inflorescencia y en los cálices, con corolas moradas de 15 mm en promedio; presenta una variabilidad morfológica que se manifiesta en su hábito, en la forma, coloración e indumento de sus hojas y en la densidad de su inflorescencia, producida posiblemente como adaptación a di...

  19. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

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    Sanha Panichajakul

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both isoflavones consistently. The culture temperature played an important role in the growth and isoflavone production. Over twofold of growth and threefold of isoflavone production were demonstrated at 32±2ºC. The callus established from the stems in MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.46 µM kinetin produced the highest yield of daidzein (5.12 mg/g, DW and genistein (2.77 mg/g, DW, which was remarkably higher than the intact plants.

  20. Use of ORGANIC WASTE IN FORMULATION OF SUBSTRATE FOR Chamaecrista desvauxii (Collad. Killip var latistipula (Benth. PRODUCTION

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    William Macedo Delarmelina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important stages for the establishment of good stands of native species. Substrate exerts significant influence on plant growth, and there are many materials that can be used in its original composition or combined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of seedlings of Chamaecrista desvauxii using different concentrations of organic waste and soil. Treatments were established using five types of substrate (1 commercial substrate (SC, (2 bovine manure (EB, (3 chicken litter (CF, (4 quail manure (EC and (5 subsoil (TS in different proportions. When the seedlings reached 150 days the following variables were measured: stem diameter (D, plant height (H, ratio between plant height and stem diameter (RHD, shoot dry mass (MSPA, root system dry mass (MSR, total dry mass (MST, shoot/root dry mass ratio (RMSPAR, root/shoot ratio dry mass (RMSRPA, and Dickson quality index (IQD. All formulations with organic waste provided better results compares to the control treatment. For the production of Chamaecrista desvauxii it is recommended the use 25% of commercial substrate + 35% of bovine manure + 40% of subsoil.

  1. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu; Rajeswary Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobiumdulce (P. dulce) against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx.quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions.Results:The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce.Conclusions:From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  2. Efeito de 6-benzilaminopurina sobre a propagação in vitro de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Rafaela Maria de França Bezerra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, popularmente conhecida como sabiá, é uma espécie nativa da Caatinga que, em razão de suas inúmeras potencialidades, tem enfrentado um processo de exaustiva exploração, tornando iminente a necessidade de se utilizar alternativas sustentáveis que permitam a sua reposição em ambiente natural e a conservação de seu genótipo. A micropropagação tem sido considerada técnica promissora nesse sentido, pois viabiliza a produção de mudas em larga escala e com elevada sanidade. Citocininas como a 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP são importantes nesse processo, pois influenciam consideravelmente o crescimento e a morfogênese in vitro e permitem a formação de bancos de germoplasma in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de concentrações de BAP sobre a indução de brotações in vitro em M. caesalpiniifolia. Segmentos cotiledonares obtidos de plântulas germinadas in vitro foram inoculados em meio de cultura WPM suplementados com seis concentrações de BAP: 0,0; 4,44; 8,88; 17,76; 26,64; e 35,52 µmol/L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, três repetições e cada repetição composta por 10 unidades experimentais. Aos 30 dias, foram avaliados o número de explantes responsivos, o número de brotos por explante e a presença de calos, oxidação e contaminação. Os dados foram avaliados estatisticamente através da Análise de Correspondência e mediante o ajuste de Equações de Regressão. Verificou-se que a concentração de 17,76 µmol/L apresentou-se mais responsiva em relação à taxa de multiplicação e ao número de brotações, sendo, portanto, a concentração mais indicada para a propagação in vitro de M. caesalpiniifolia.

  3. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth.

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    Wathelet B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9-46.8/ of the total fatty acids, oleic (12.6-14.6/, palmitic (10.2-11.3/, stearic (10.0-13.4/, and behenic (12.6-13.4/ predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg per 100g fat. The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 a 540 g per kg and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and biological activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth

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    Monaliza M. Rebelo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of fresh and dried leaves and fine stems of Hyptis crenata furnished the following yields: 1.4% and 0.9%. The main volatile constituents were ±-pinene (22.0%; 19.5%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%; 23.2%, ²-pinene (17.0%; 13.8%, camphor (4.7%; 11.6%, limonene (5.4%; 4.4% and ³-terpinene (3.5%; 2.4%, totalizing more than 70% in the oils. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50, 16.7 + 0.4 µg/mL of the methanol extract was comparable to BHT (19.8 ± 0.5 µg/mL showing a significant antioxidant activity. The oils showed low activities. The amount of total phenolics (TP, 373.0 + 15.9 mg GAE/g and trolox equivalent (TEAC, 226.8 + 0.5 mg TE/g confirmed the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract that can be attributed to the presence of polar phenolic compounds. In the brine shrimp bioassay the lethal concentrations (LC50 for the oil and methanol extract were 6.7 + 0.2 µg/mL and 13.0 + 3.7 µg/mL, respectively, providing important evidence of their biological activities.

  5. Contribución al conocimiento de Salvia sordida. Benth. Historia natural y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia sordida es una especie de labiada endémica de Colombia, que está constituida por arbustos que pueden llegar hasta los 4 m de altura, con indumentos densos en el envés de las hojas, en los ejes de la inflorescencia y en los cálices, con corolas moradas de 15 mm en promedio; presenta una variabilidad morfológica que se manifiesta en su hábito, en la forma, coloración e indumento de sus hojas y en la densidad de su inflorescencia, producida posiblemente como adaptación a diferentes condiciones de luz. Existen tres poblaciones de esta especie que indican que S. sordida se distribuye en el altiplano cundiboyacense en un rango altitudinal entre los 2.600 y los 2.800 msnm. De acuerdo con observaciones hechas en la población tipo, ubicada en la vereda Torca en jurisdicción de Bogotá, el hábitat de la salvia se caracteriza por presentar
    un clima con una temperatura promedio de 13º C, una humedad relativa media de 74% y una precipitación de 1.200 mm anuales; en áreas de piedemonte, con suelos originados de cenizas volcánicas poco evolucionados, con textura franco-arenosa en la superficie, muy fuertemente ácidos y con una baja fertilidad; el hábitat de S. sordida hace parte del bosque de Cordia-Oreopanax, se caracteriza por un estrato arbustivo predominante y un estrato herbáceo bien representado, compuesto por 101 especies tanto del bosque climácico como de ambientes alterados o cultivadas, lo que indicaría que la comunidad de S. sordida hace parte de las etapas de sucesión secundaria del bosque; por lo tanto el hábitat se caracteriza por ser inestable y está delimitado por las condiciones de alteración de la vegetación y la variación de los factores de humedad y luz en un rango altitudinal estrecho. Salvia sordida presenta una floración y fructificación constantes y en ella se han reconocido 14 visitantes florales tanto en campo como en cultivo, que incluyen especies de Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera y Aves. De acuerdo con su morfología se plantea que Salvia sordida es una planta melitofila que permite la psicofilia y la ornitofilia. Las núculas de S. sordida presentan una viabilidad máxima del 90% y esta puede llegar
    hasta los 58 meses; una germinación máxima de un 90% que llega hasta los 25 meses; presentan un mucílago lechoso que puede llegar a un espesor de 1 mm y aumentar su peso 13 veces. La etapa de plántula en la especie se puede considerar hasta los seis meses y su desarrollo
    depende de las condiciones de humedad. De acuerdo con su morfología la dispersión de la salvia es dada por barocoria y por boleocoria, las cuales se consideran estrategias poco eficientes por las condiciones del ambiente y las características del fruto. El grado de rareza de S. sordida corresponde a la categoría de persistencia larga y distribución estrecha y su vulnerabilidad está dada por su rango geográfico pequeño, las pocas poblaciones representadas en relictos, el tamaño pequeño de las poblaciones, la poca capacidad de dispersión, el efecto de especies
    exóticas, el uso del suelo y la deforestación. De acuerdo con los criterios de la UICN (2001 se propone que S. sordida se incluya dentro de la categoría CR (en peligro crítico.

  6. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun state of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Facully of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by enhanced chemiluminescence detection for the standardization of estrogenic miroestrol in Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-08-01

    Miroestrol (ME) is a potent phytoestrogen from the P. candollei tuberous root. It has been approved for use in clinical trials due to its beneficial effect on disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. To ensure medical efficacy and safety, high performance analytical methods for ME analysis are required to standardize products from the P. candollei root. An enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ECL-ELISA) was developed and validated using a polyclonal antibody against ME and a chemiluminescent system of luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase-4-(1-imidazolyl) phenol. The ECL-ELISA system exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 0.31-10.00 ng mL(-1) , for which the relative standard variation (%RSD) was less than 10% for both intra- and interplate determinations. The ECL-ELISA is reliable for the determination of ME as reflected by the high recovery percentage (101.22-103.06%). As a comparative analysis, the ME content in each sample determined by ECL-ELISA was correlated with high coefficients of determination with colorimetric ELISA (R(2)  = 0.998) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (R(2)  = 0.998) methods. The ECL-ELISA method could be applied to all of the commercial products containing P. candollei root, when the products contain between 0.706 ± 0.046 and 13.123 ± 0.794 µg g(-1) dry wt. of ME. This method is useful as a high performance analytical method for the quantity control of ME in raw materials and end products at both the research and industrial levels.

  8. Nutrição de mudas de angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan submetidas a doses de N, P, K, Ca E Mg

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    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o teor e conteúdo de N, P, K, Ca e Mg, bem como determinar o nível crítico desses nutrientes no solo e na planta. As mudas foram cultivadas, no período de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2005, em vasos com capacidade para 2,1 dm-3 contendo amostras de solo de três classes (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo AVA, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Álico LVA e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico - LVD. Os tratamentos foram delimitados segundo uma matriz baconiana, onde se variaram os macronutrientes, em três doses, e dois tratamentos adicionais (zero e referência, com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que, em geral, as mudas da espécie absorveram maior quantidade de N, P, K, Ca e Mg, à medida que a disponibilidade destes aumentava no solo. Tal fato refletiu em maior concentração dos nutrientes aplicados em todas as partes da planta. Entretanto, em alguns casos não houve resposta em crescimento correspondente a esse aumento. Os nutrientes que mais proporcionaram efeitos foram o P, o N e o S; poucas respostas foram observadas nos demais nutrientes (Ca, Mg e K. A espécie tem baixo requerimento nutricional, sendo o nível crítico dos nutrientes, no solo e na planta, menores do que os observados em outras espécies florestais. Para o K e o Ca, sugerem-se estudos com doses dentro das faixas de valores encontrados, para melhor definição dos níveis críticos.

  9. Status of industrial pollution and their effect on seed germination and growth performance of albizia lebbek (benth.) and leucaena leucocephala (LAM) de wit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution status of the effluents from three different industries viz. tanneries, fisheries and textiles, grown in the vicinity of the Karnafully River, Chittagong, Bangladesh and their influence on soil, seed germination and plant growth have been studied. The effluents pollute the adjacent water bodies and soils. The effluents from the tanneries are much more polluted than that of effluents from textiles and fisheries. This is due to the accumulation more total solids (1779 mg/l) as compared to that of 539 mg/l and 466 mg/l in textiles and fisheries effluents respectively and thus Chloride (3962 mg/i), Sulfate (450 mg/l) and Nitrate (7.03 mg/l), eventually showed similar trend. In addition to that, some of the pollution related parameters were dominant in the effluents of both textiles ( Turbidity- 177.9 NTU, SS- 23.27 ml/l, D.O.- 3.0 mg/l, COD- 8480 mg/l, BOD- 1860 mg/l Phosphate- 9.38 mg/l) and fisheries (D.O. -2.5 mg/l) than that of the tanneries (Turbidity- 57.6 NTU, SS- 18. 9 ml/l, D.O.- 1.2 mg/l, COD- 7529 mg/i, BOD- 1653 mg/l , Phosphate- 7.28 mg/l). Irrespective of physical or chemical composition most of the effluents were simply unusable. From the analysis of soil it was detected that the pH of soil samples contaminated with effluents was almost similar (6.7, 6.6 and 6.3, respectively) to that of control (6.2), but the concentration of organic matter, N, P, K and S in soil samples contaminated with the industrial effluents of tanneries (OM-4.5%, N- 0.227%, P- 108.21 micro gram/gram and K - 0.22 m eq/100 g), Fisheries (OM-4.0%, N- 0.4%, P-74.71 micro gram/gram, and K- 0.23 meq/100 g) and Textile (OM- 3.4%, N- 0.167%, P- 120 micro g/gram and K- 0.5 meq/100 g) were significantly higher than that of control samples (OM- 2.0%, N-0.24%, P- 50 micro g/g and k-0.15 meq/100g). Adverse effect of contamination, height growth, collar diameter, total biomass and nodule production of Albizia lebbek were 67% , 18.62 cm, 4 cm, 10.2 gm and 59 in soil without any contamination than in soil contaminated with effluents of tanneries (57%, 11.91 cm, 2.97 cm, 7.5 gm and 25, respectively) textiles (53%, 13.99 cm, 3.2 cm, 6.5 gm and 28, respectively) and fisheries (60%, 13.35 cm, 3.66 cm, 5 gm and 31, respectively). The soils contaminated by the effluents of textiles and fisheries has positive influence on the seed germination and growth performance of leaucaena leucocephala. In this case, seed germination, height growth, collar diameter. Total biomass and nodule numbers were 97%. 24.33 cm, 2.8 mm, 8.8 gm and 67 respectively in soils contaminated with effluents of textiles and fisheries (96%, 23.42 cm, 23.42 cm, 2.6 mm, 9.13 gm and 62 respectively) as compared to that of control soils (95%, 19.3 cm, 2.0 mm, 8.23 gm and 54, respectively) and contaminated soils of tanneries effluents (95%, 19.7 cm, 1.7 mm, 6.8 gm and 39, respectively). These indicate that the response of different tree species to similar pollution prone area could be different. (author)

  10. Morphology, ultrastructure and mineral uptake is affected by copper toxicity in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana (Benth.) T.D. Penn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Tielle Abreu; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Oliveira, Sérgio José Ribeiro; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Souza, Vânia Lima; Dos Santos Silva, José Victor; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Toxic effects of copper (Cu) were analyzed in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana, a species that is highly tolerant to flooding and found in Brazil in wetlands contaminated with Cu. Plants were cultivated in fully nutritive solution, containing different concentrations of Cu (from 0.08 μmol to 0.47 mmol L(-1)). Symptoms of Cu toxicity were observed in both leaves and roots of plants cultivated from 0.16 mmol Cu L(-1). In the leaves, Cu clearly induced alterations in the thickness of the epidermis, mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, and intercellular space of the lacunose parenchyma. Also, this metal induced disorganization in thylakoid membranes, internal and external membrane rupture in chloroplasts, mitochondrial alterations, and electrodense material deposition in vacuoles of the parenchyma and cell walls. The starch grains disappeared; however, an increase of plastoglobule numbers was observed according to Cu toxicity. In the roots, destruction of the epidermis, reduction of the intercellular space, and modifications in the format of initial cells of the external cortex were evident. Cell walls and endoderm had been broken, invaginations of tonoplast and vacuole retractions were found, and, again, electrodense material was observed in these sites. Mineral nutrient analysis revealed higher Cu accumulation in the roots and greater macro- and micronutrients accumulation into shoots. Thus, root morphological and ultrastructural changes induced differential nutrients uptake and their translocations from root toward shoots, and this was related to membrane and endoderm ruptures caused by Cu toxicity.

  11. FISIOLOGIA DA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth. SOB DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS E TEMPOS DE EXPOSIÇÃO

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    Antônio César Batista Matos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de sementes é dependente de fatores abióticos, sendo a temperatura um dos principais, cuja influência, em condições extremas, causa danos às sementes. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar o efeito das diferentes temperaturas durante a germinação de Dalbergia nigra e suas implicações na fisiologia das sementes. Avaliaram-se o percentual de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a integridade de membranas celulares pelo teste de condutividade elétrica de sementes em diferentes tempos de exposição às temperaturas de 5, 15, 25 (controle, 35 e 45 ºC. A temperatura de 25 ºC correspondeu à temperatura ideal de germinação. Em temperaturas de 5 e 45 ºC, a germinação foi nula. Houve redução da germinação de sementes de D. nigra com o aumento do tempo de exposição das sementes às temperaturas de 5, 15, 35 e 45 ºC. Diferentemente das demais temperaturas, a semipermeabilidade da membrana não é recuperada nas temperaturas de 5 e 45 ºC. A condutividade elétrica é uma técnica eficiente para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes em diferentes temperaturas.

  12. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE ALBÍZIA (ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L. BENTH EM FUNÇÃO DA LUZ E DO REGIME DE TEMPERATURA

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    Alek Sandro Dutra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The albizia is a species arbores of the Leguminosae - Mimosoideae family (Momosaceas, native of Tropical Asia and characterized for presenting a speed growth, ability to fix nitrogen and to improve the structure of earth, especially in areas degraded, having uses multiples and facility to co associate with cultures agricultural. The research was lead in two experiments with the objective of to identify methods to superation of dormancy in seeds of albizia and to verify the effect of light and temperatures in germination of this species. In first the seeds were submitted the twelve methods to superation of dormancy: humid heat, immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid, and escarification mechanic, beyond of the witness, being determined the percentage of germination of seeds seard and deceased. In second experiment, after treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes, the seeds were sowed in tabledoch paper type Germitest and put to germinate under nine combinations: continue light and constant temperature of 25oC; continue light and constant temperature of 35oC; continue light and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; dark continue and constant temperature of 25oC; dark continue and constant temperature of 35oC; dark continue and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 25oC; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 35oC and alternance of light and temperature (light/35oC/8h and dark/20oC/16h. Conclusion the specie Albizia lebbeck presents seeds dormancy, detach-itself the escarification mechanic and the sulfuric acid as efficient methods to the superation of dormancy; the seeds of albizia are insensitive to the light and your germination was not influenced by the temperatures useds.

  13. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were detected in only one isolate. The emetic-specific gene fragment was not detected in any of the isolates studied. None of the toxin genes screened was detected in isolates belonging to other Bacillus species. Using RPLA, haemolysin production was detected in one isolate of B. cereus, which showed positive amplicons for Hbl genes, both during cultivation in broth and during fermentation of oil bean seeds.

  14. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s) for...

  15. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH, and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μmol/mol and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μmol/m2/s over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μmol/mol + light intensity at 225 μmol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μmol/mol CO2 + 900 μmol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μmol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II, and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH, thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  16. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200  μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900  μ mol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary m...

  17. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  18. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  19. Formulation of microbes inoculum: AMF, PSB and Rhizobium isolated of ex-coal mining site for Acacia crassicarpa Cunn. Ex-benth seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoddier succeed land revegetation particularly caused by least adaptability of the seedlings planted on this site. To encourage their growth and survival rate it can be achieved by means do inoculation with the compatible functional microbes such as rhizobium, Psolubilizing bacteria (PSB and/or arbuscular-mycorrhiza fungy (AMF. This reserach is aimed to formulate the most compatible inoculant to support the growth of A. crassicarpa seedlings. Compatibility study is carried out in RCB design with 3 replications, each contain 5 seedlings. Height and biomass are accessed to measure the growth responses of the seedlings. The result showed that the best reponse is given by consortia that consist of the three kinds of these microbes. This increase the shoot biomass (137% compare to the control. The consortia also improved N 164%, P 335% and K 167% in the plant tissues. While pure AMF improved absorption of N plants 80%, P 383% and K 51% compare to the control. It is suggested that to prepare the A. crassicarpa seedlings is better inoculated by consortium of microbes or AMF as a sole inoculant.

  20. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Penna Coutinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.

  1. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

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    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  2. Propagación in vitro de materiales seleccionados de Rubus glaucus Benth (mora de Castilla en la provincia de Pamplona, región nororiental de Colombia

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    Giovanni Orlando Cancino-Escalante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study plant materials were selected in 53 farms belonging to four growers associations of blackberry in the municipalities of Pamplona and Chitagá (North of de Santander, Colombia. Nodal segments were used as initial explants of R. glaucus. For the establishment stage Murashige and Skoog, 1962 (MS media was used and, supplemented with of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0.0 -0.1 mg/L and 6-aminopurine (BAP (0.0 -2.0 mg/L; for the multiplication stage MS was supplemented with GA3 (0.0 -0.03 mg/L and BAP, (0.0 -2.5 mg/L and for the rooting stage MS was supplemented with acid indolbutirico (0.0 -1.0 mg/L. From the data generated during the three stages, an experimental design of incomplete blocks was randomly applied and the treatments averages were statistically analyzed using the Tukey Test. The results indicated average rates of contamination (16.5-49.7 %, multiplication (3.8-4.3 shoots/explant and in vitro rooting (3.3-4.3 roots/plant for the different evaluated materials. These results, achieved first in the Northeastern region of Colombia, are important in that they will feature selected materials available for blackberry growers in the region.

  3. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi. PMID:26220851

  4. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

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    Mary B. Slabaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS, Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS, lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT, and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT. Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG, and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM. The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop.

  5. Acides gras et insaponifiables d’extraits obtenus à partir des sommités fleuries et des rhizomes de Vetiveria nigritana (Benth. Stapf, Poaceae

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    Champagnat Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Vetiveria nigritana flowering tops and rhizomes were analyzed by mean of GC/MS for their fatty acids and unsaponifiable components. In flowering tops extract, the acid fraction is characterized by the presence of palmitic acid and other long chain fatty acids (until C34. Unsaponifiable contains a high percentage of sterols (43.89%, mainly b-sitosterol. In rhizomes extract, acid fraction is composed by a high amount of typical organic acids of the genus Vetiveria and by a low quantity of fatty acids. Unsaponifiable fraction is characterized by the presence of a great percentage of sesquiterpenic derivatives (54.8%, and of sterols in low amount (13.7%.

  6. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra all. ex. benth and Eucalyptus grandis w.hill ex. maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende Juliana L. P.; Garcia Queila S.; Scotti Maria Rita M. M. L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the decomposition of D. nigra and E. grandis leaves under laboratory conditions when incubated in soils from Atlantic Forest and from a 40-year-old eucalypt plantation for a year. The obtained values of pH in forest and eucalypt plantation soils were 5.61 and 4.47 and for aluminum 0.32 and 1.89mEqx100, respectively. A great number of microorganisms (total fungi, phosphate solubilising and cellulolytic organisms) were found in forest soil. Litterbag study revealed...

  7. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  8. A New Polyoxypregnane Glycoside from the Roots of Dregea volubilis (L.f Benth. ex Hook. f and its Chondroprotective Effect

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    Saksri Sanyacharernkul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dregea genus (Asclepiadaceae is well known for the rich of steroid pregnane contents and these plants are famous for the potential to be applied as alternative biological activities. Dregea volubilis is the only species of Dregea genus in Thailand. The chemical and biological investigations of this plant are interesting to bioassay-guided fractionation, particularly chondroprotective effect. Approach: The research was carried out to extract, isolate, purify and elucidate structure of the active compound from the roots Dregea volubilis. Both of the solvent extracts and isolated compound were evaluated with kinds of chondroprotection. i.e., S-GAG, HA, UA and production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2. Results: Polyoxypregnane glycoside (PGG or 12-0-benzoyl-8, 11-ditigloyl-3β, 8β, 11β, 12β, 14β-pentahydroxy-pregn-14-ol, 20-one,-3-0-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl (1→4-β-D-thevetopyranoside was isolated from the active ethyl acetate extract of the roots Dregea volubilis. The spectroscopic techniques were provided for success in structure determination. In addition, a new compound was the most powerful to biological activities. Chondroprotective effect of PPG on the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG, hyaluronan (HA, uronic acid (UA and production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in interleukin-1β (IL-1β-stimulated porcine articular cartilage were also assessed. PGG was interestingly effective in reducing IL-1β induced S-GAG, HA release from cartilage explant and MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, PPG can reverse effect of IL-1β-reduced the levels of uronic acid remaining in cartilage tissue. Conclusion: The PGG was possessed a potent chondroprotective activity using the IL-1β stimulated cartilage explant model. Therefore, it is possible to use this compound as a new pharmacological agent for the management of degenerative joint diseases.

  9. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells.

  10. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

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    Tomoe Nakashima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%, dried leaves—Spring (85.32%, flowers—Winter (78.76% and fruits—Winter (80.97%. Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%, limonene (1.46% to 4.43%, α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%, and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus—Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL.

  11. Potent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of standardized 50% ethanolic extracts and sinensetin from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth as anti-diabetic mechanism

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    Mohamed Elsnoussi Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, we tested a 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus plants and its isolated bioactive compound with respect to their α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Methods Bioactive flavonoid sinensetin was isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus. The structure of this pure compound was determined on the NMR data and the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of isolated sinensetin and 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus were evaluated. Results In vitro studies of a 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus and the isolated sinensetin compound showed inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase (IC50: 4.63 and 0.66 mg/ml, respectively and α-amylase (IC50: 36.70 mg/ml and 1.13 mg/ml, respectively. Inhibition of these enzymes provides a strong biochemical basis for the management of type 2 diabetes via the control of glucose absorption. Conclusion Alpha-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition could the mechanisms through which the 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus and sinensetin exert their antidiabetic activity, indicating that it could have potential use in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

  12. 白花枝子花挥发油成分研究%GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oil from Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳会兰; 赵晓辉; 梅丽娟; 邵赟; 陶燕铎

    2008-01-01

    目的 提取并鉴定白花枝子花中的挥发油成分.方法 采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取白花枝子花中挥发油成分,利用气相色谱-质谱联用分析并人工谱图解析挥发油的化学成分.结果 鉴定出45个化合物,主要为单萜,倍半萜及其氧化衍生物,相对含量高达97.1%.白花枝子花挥发油的主要成分D-苧烯(24.93%),香茅醇(18.71%),反式-柠檬醛(3.90%),顺式-柠檬醛(3.67%),β-石竹烯(2.00%),α-非兰烯(3.42%),β-蒎烯(3.22%),香叶烯(2.07%),顺式-罗勒烯(12.65%),反式-罗勒烯(10.25%),乙酸香茅酯(2.10%),乙酸橙花酯(1.66%)等.结论 该研究为挖掘其药用及食品香料工业的应用价值提供了科学依据.

  13. STUDIES ON THE ESSENTIAL CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT OF DRACOCEPHALUM HETEROPHYLLUM BENTH%异叶青兰挥发性化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦波; 鲁润华; 汪汉卿; 高海翔; 王敏

    2000-01-01

    采用毛细管气相色谱-质谱联用法对异叶青兰挥发性化学成分进行了研究,经毛细管色谱分离出184多个峰,共确认了其中154种成分,所鉴定化合物的含量占全油的83.52%.用气相色谱面积归一化法测定了各成分的相对百分含量,其主要化学成分为4-甲基噻唑、6,6-二甲基-二环[3,3,1]-庚-2-烯-2-甲醇,4-(1-甲基乙基)-苯甲醇、十六酸乙酯等.

  14. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  15. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos

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    Sigarroa Rieche Alina Katil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.

  16. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  17. Effect of processing on proximate composition, anti-nutrient status and amino acid content in three accessions of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (jacq.) benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urua, Ikootobong Sunday; Uyoh, Edak Aniedi; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Okpako, Elza Cletus

    2013-02-01

    Proximate composition, amino acid levels and anti-nutrient factors (polyphenols, phytic acid and oxalate) in the seeds of Parkia biglobosa were determined at three stages: raw, boiled and fermented. The highest anti-nutrient factor present in the raw state was oxalate, while phytic acid was the least. The amino acid of the raw seeds matched favourably to the World Health Organization reference standard. After processing, boiling increased fat, crude fibre and protein, while it reduced moisture, ash and the anti-nutrient content in 64% of the cases examined. Fermentation reduced ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate in all the accessions. It increased the moisture, fat and protein, while reducing the anti-nutrient factors in 78% of the cases. The high levels of protein, fat and amino acids coupled with the low levels of the anti-nutrients in the boiled and fermented seeds make Parkia a good source of nutrients for humans and livestock.

  18. Experiment of Cutting Seeding-raising of Millettia reticuiata Benth%鸡血藤的扦插育苗试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣广天; 何钢; 倪尚格; 张世良

    2016-01-01

    以密花豆(Spatholobus suberectus)、喙果鸡血藤(Millettia tsui Metc)、常春油麻藤(Mucuna sempervirens)、小血藤(Dchisandra propingua var.sinensis)、香花崖豆藤(Millettia dielsiana Harms)枝条为试材,采用对照试验以及正交实验的方法,研究了几种鸡血藤扦插繁殖的成活难易情况,并对影响密花豆成活率的条件:生根剂种类、浓度、浸根时间、枝条木质化程度进行优化.结果表明:不同种鸡血藤的成活情况存在较大差异,密花豆最易成活,常春油麻藤次之,小血藤最不易成活.并且不同的生根剂以及不同木质化程度对于扦插成活率存在影响,在对密花豆扦插育苗时,选择木质化程度高的枝条,并用浓度为300 mg/L的NAA处理30 min,能够较大程度的提高成活率.

  19. a-galactosidase activity and carbohydrate mobilization in seeds of Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth. - Fabaceae (Brazilian rosewood during germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna Clicia Carrijo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex substances are converted by enzyme action into soluble molecules during the germination process, and theseare in turn translocated to the growing plant embryo, serving as an energy source or physical structure. With the objective ofquantifying -galactosidase enzyme activity as well as mono- and oligosaccharide mobilization during germination, this study wasconducted using Brazilian rosewood seeds. Seeds were kept in a germinator at 25ºC under continuous light for evaluation of radicleemergence (protrusion over a period of 10 days. Mono- and oligosaccharide contents and also the specific activity of -galactosidaseenzyme were quantified on days zero, one, three and five. There was mobilization of glucose and mannose stored in cotyledons, andalso of xylose in cotyledons and in the embryo in the first three days of germination. Rhamnose contents increased in cotyledons andin the embryonic axis. Raffinose was the initially used oligosaccharide, both in the embryonic axis and in cotyledons, while sucroseaccumulated in both. Enzyme activity varied throughout, with greater specific activity on day one of imbibition, both in cotyledonsand in the embryonic axis.

  20. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

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    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  1. Antibacterial Screening of Crude Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Four Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Eze, E A.; Oruche, N E; Onuora, V. C.; Eze, C N.

    2013-01-01

    Agar well diffusion techniques and macrobroth dilution methods were used to screen the ethanolic leaf extracts of four medicinal plants (Picralima nitida, Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana and Hyptis suaveolens) for antibacterial activity against the following bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. nitida ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 6.25 mg/ml and that of C. o...

  2. Efeito alelopático de Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic effect of Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Periotto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de caules e folhas de Andira humilis na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plântulas de rabanete e alface. Para os experimentos de germinação foram preparados extratos aquosos de caules e folhas de A. humilis nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (p/v. Foram realizadas quatro réplicas de trinta sementes de alface ou de rabanete, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel-filtro umedecido com 5mL dos extratos, mantidas a 27 ºC e na ausência de luz. As contagens das sementes germinadas foram realizadas a cada 12h, calculando-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação. Extratos de caules e folhas reduziram significativamente a velocidade e a percentagem de germinação, em relação ao grupo controle. Os experimentos de crescimento foram realizados com quatro réplicas de oito sementes germinadas de alface ou de rabanete, a 27 ºC, na ausência de luz e em papel-filtro como substrato, sendo avaliadas as concentrações 0, 4 e 12% (p/v. Plântulas de alface e rabanete sofreram inibição significativa em seus comprimentos, pelos extratos de folhas. Extratos de caules a 4 e 12% (p/v não causaram inibição do crescimento em rabanete. A interferência dos extratos na germinação e no crescimento em alface e rabanete foi desassociada de qualquer efeito do potencial osmótico e do pH, indicando, portanto, atividade alelopática.The objective of this study was to evaluate allelopathic effects of stems and leaves of Andira humilis in the germination and growth of radish and lettuce. For the germination's experiments, aqueous extracts of stems and leaves of A. humilis in the concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (w/v were done. Were employed four replicates of thirty seeds of lettuce and radish. The seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts. The experiments were conducted at 27 ºC in light absence. The counting of germinated seeds was done each 12h, calculating the percentage and germination rate. The extracts at 8, 12 and 16% (w/v reduced lettuce and radish germination rate, extracts of stems at 100% reduced the percentage of germination. Four replicates of eight germinated seeds of lettuce or radish were employed in the growth experiments conducted at 27 ºC in the absence of light and having filter paper as substracts moistened with concentrations of 0, 4 e 12% (w/v.Lettuce and radish seedlings suffered significant inhibition in length, when using leaves extracts. Only 4 e 12% (w/v stems extracts didn't caused growth inhibition in radish. The interference of extracts in germination and growth of lettuce and radish was disassociated of any pH and osmotic potential, indicating allelopathic activity.

  3. Efeito do espaçamento no desenvolvimento de Poecilanthe parviflora Benth (coração-de-negro aos 42 anos, em Bauru, SP. Effect of the spacing in the development of Poecilanthe parviflora Benth. (coração-de-negro of 42 year-old grown, in Bauru, SP.

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    Israel Luiz de LIMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, plantios de espécies nativas visando à exploração comercial são raros, devido ao crescimento lento e à falta de informações silviculturais e oferta de sementes e mudas de boa qualidade. Dessa forma, no ano de 1964 foi implantado umexperimento visando avaliar os efeitos do espaçamento no desenvolvimento de Poecilanthae parviflora, que é uma espécie de crescimento lento, na Estação Ecológica de Bauru, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, comcinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos seguintes espaçamentos: 1,0 m x 1,0 m; 1,5 m x 1,5 m; 2,0 m x 2,0 m; 2,5 m x 2,5 m e 3,0 m x 3,0 m, tendo sido avaliados o diâmetro à altura do peito, altura total, volume individual, volume por hectare e a sobrevivência. Os resultados demonstraram que os espaçamentos não influenciaram asobrevivência, mas produziram efeitos no diâmetro à altura do peito, altura total, volume individual e volume por hectare. Com o aumento do espaçamento, houvemaior incremento nos valores das três primeiras variáveis, ocorrendo o inverso na última. Possivelmente, o uso de espaçamentos iniciais mais adensados e o emprego de desbastes seletivos e sucessivos resultariamemmaior proporção de madeira e melhor qualidade.In Brazil, planting of native species aiming at the commercial exploration is rare, due to the slow growth, the lack of silvicultural information and supply of seeds and seedling of superior quality. On account of this, in 1964 an experiment aiming to evaluate the effects of planting spacings on growing of Poecilanthae parviflora, which is a species of slow growth, was implanted in the Ecological Station of Bauru, SP. The trial was established in a complete-randomized block-design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of the following spacings: 1.0 m x 1.0 m; 1.5 m x 1.5 m; 2.0 m x 2.0 m; 2.5 m x 2.5 m and 3.0 m x 3.0 m, which were evaluated at the breast height diameter, total height, individual volume, volume for hectare and the survival. The results demonstrated that the diameter at breast height, individual volume and volume for hectare has been influenced by the spacing. With the increase of the spacing, it had greater increment in the values of the three first variables, the opposite occurred in the last one. The survival however was not influenced by the spacing. Possibly, the use of more dense initial spacing and the use of selective and successive thinning can produce higher proportion of wood and better quality.

  4. Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus cinerea F. Mull. ex Benth., Myrtaceae, extraído em diferentes intervalos de tempo Chemical composition and antimicrobial in vitro activity of the essential oil Eucalyptus cinerea F. Mull. ex Benth., Myrtaceae, extracted in different time intervals

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    J. Franco

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea é uma espécie aromática da família Myrtaceae, sendo utilizada como ornamental e que apresenta rendimento em óleo essencial considerável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi à avaliação da composição química e da atividade antimicrobiana deste óleo, e das frações coletadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo. A metodologia empregada para a extração do óleo essencial foi a hidrodestilação com arraste de vapor d'água, em aparelho de Clevenger. A análise da composição química foi procedida por CG/EM e para a determinação da atividade antimicrobiana foi utilizado o método de difusão em ágar frente aos microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6.538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8.739, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12.228 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9.027 e Candida albicans ATCC 10.231. O rendimento do óleo essencial foi de 6,07 % (v/m, do qual grande parte foi extraída na primeira hora de hidrodestilação. Também foi observada maior concentração de 1,8-cineol nas frações coletadas em quinze minutos e uma hora. Os principais componentes identificados no óleo essencial de E. cinerea por CG/EM foram: 1,8-cineol, a-pineno, limoneno e a-terpineol. A avaliação de atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de difusão em disco indicou qualitativamente o potencial antimicrobiano do óleo essencial da espécie em questão frente a bactérias Gram-positivas, bactérias Gram-negativas e levedura.Eucalyptus cinerea is used as an ornamental plant and shows good concentration of essential oil. The aim of this work is a chemical investigation and analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Eucalyptus cinerea collected at different time's interval. This oil was obtained by hydrodestilation in a Clevenger apparatus, the chemical ivestigation was perfoomed by GC/MS and the antimicrobial activity was assayed in vitro using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8.739, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12.228, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9.027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10.231. The yield of the essential oil was 6.07 % (v/w collected in the first hour of hidrodestilation. It was also observed a higher concentration of 1,8-cineole in the fraction collected in a quarter of hour and and one hour. The main components investigated in the essential oils by GC/MS were: 1,8-cineole, a-pineno, limoneno and a-terpineol. The antimicrobial study using agar diffusion method showed antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast.

  5. Variação sazonal na alelopatia de extratos aquosos de Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de Lactuca sativa L. Seasonal variation in the allelopathy of aqueous extracts from Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. on the germination and development of Lactuca sativa L.

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    L.L. Pelegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos de Coleus barbatus sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, em diferentes concentrações de extratos obtidos de folhas de falso-boldo (0; 7,5; 15; 22,5; 30%, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano, obtidos por trituração, maceração, infusão e decocção. As sementes de alface foram distribuídas sobre placas de petri umidecidas com 10 mL de solução. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de folhas afetaram a germinabilidade de sementes de alface apenas na concentração de 30% do extrato preparado por decocção de folhas coletadas no inverno. O índice de velocidade de germinação apresentou redução significativa nos extratos triturados preparados no outono e inverno; na maceração de folhas coletadas no verão e outono e no extrato de decocção preparado no inverno. Os extratos estimularam o crescimento da parte aérea das plântulas de alface, ao passo que, o comprimento das raízes foi afetado pelos extratos, ora inibindo, ora estimulando o crescimento das mesmas. Os extratos de folhas de falso-boldo coletadas nas quatro estações do ano apresentaram efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da alface, sendo que estes variaram em função da sazonalidade da coleta, da forma de obtenção dos extratos e das concentrações testadas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of extracts from Coleus barbatus on germination and seedling growth of lettuce. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory using different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30% of aqueous extracts from "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons; extracts were obtained by grinding, maceration, infusion and decoction. Seeds were distributed on Petri dishes moistened with 10 mL solution. Results showed that the leaf extracts affected the germination of lettuce seeds only at the concentration of 30% extract prepared by decoction of leaves harvested in the winter. Germination speed index showed significant reduction for ground extracts prepared in the fall and winter, as well as for macerated leaves harvested in the summer and fall and for extracts prepared through decoction in the winter. The extracts stimulated the growth of shoots of lettuce seedlings, whereas root length was affected by the extracts, which either stimulated or inhibited its growth. Extracts of "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons had allelopathic effect on germination and development of lettuce, and the latter varied depending on the harvest season, the form of preparing the extracts and the tested concentrations.

  6. Germinação e maturidade fisiológica de sementes de Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth relacionadas a estádios de frutificação e conservação pós-colheita Germination and physiological maturity in seeds of Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth related to fruiting times and forms of post-harvest conservation

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    Ronaldo Cesário Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos estádios de frutificação e formas de conservação na germinação e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de surucucu. Em 25 árvores na região de Vitória da Conquista, BA, foram realizadas coletas de frutos no período de 17/05 a 9/07 de 2007, em intervalos de sete dias a partir do início da frutificação, caracterizando oito estádios de desenvolvimento das vagens. Cada período de coleta foi definido por lotes diferenciados de sementes, sendo realizadas avaliações de massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água. As sementes de cada uma das oito coletas foram mantidas em condições ambientais de laboratório, sendo subdivididas em dois lotes: em um lote, as sementes permaneceram no interior das vagens e, no outro, as vagens foram eliminadas. Após o período de 49 dias a partir do início da frutificação, massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água foram determinados. Posteriormente, as sementes foram submetidas a testes de germinação em câmara tipo BOD, com temperatura de 25 ºC, em regime de fotoperíodo de 8 h de luz. Depois de cinco dias foi realizada a primeira contagem de germinação e aos 10 dias, avaliadas as seguintes características: porcentagem de germinação, plântulas anormais e classificação do vigor das plântulas (vigor alto, médio e baixo. A presença das vagens durante o período de conservação das sementes foi fator determinante para a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. A germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca determinados por ocasião do teste de germinação aumentaram com o período de frutificação, atingindo o máximo aos 37 dias.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different fruiting stages and conservation techniques on the germination and physiological quality of surucucu seeds. Fruits were collected on eight occasions from 25 trees in the region of Vitória da Conquista - BA, in the period from 05/17 to 07/09 2007, at sevenday intervals from the beginning of the fruiting stage. Each collection period was characterized by distinct seed lots. Evaluations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds in each of the eight collections were maintained under room conditions in the laboratory, and were subdivided into two lots: in the first, the seeds remained inside their pods, while in the other the pods were eliminated. After a 49-day period from the beginning of fruiting, determinations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds were then submitted to germination tests in a BOD incubator adjusted to 25ºC, with an 8:16 hr (light:dark photoperiod. The first germination count was made after five days. At ten days, evaluations were made for germination percentage and abnormal seedlings, and plantlets were classified as to their vigor (high, medium, and low. Germination increased as the fruiting period progressed, and was directly related to dry matter accumulation in the seeds, as determined during the germination test.

  7. Potencial germinativo de sementes de fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae sob diferentes procedências, datas de coleta e tratamentos de escarificação Germinative potential of fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae seeds from different locations and collection dates under distinct scarification treatments

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    Dario Alves de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais que possuem sementes duras e impermeáveis à água freqüentemente apresentam problemas para germinar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar tratamentos pré-germinativos em laboratório que permitam abreviar, aumentar e uniformizar a germinação das sementes de Dimorphandra mollis, além de avaliar essa germinação em diferentes épocas e locais de coleta. Foram coletadas sementes de D. mollis em quatro municípios do norte de Minas Gerais: Montes Claros, Lontra, Mirabela e Jequitaí, em duas datas distintas: agosto e setembro de 2004. As sementes foram submetidas a cinco tratamentos de escarificação: lixamento, imersão em ácido sulfúrico por 10 e por 20 min, imersão em água quente a 70 ºC e controle (sementes intactas. Nos testes de germinação, um delineamento experimental casualizado foi utilizado, com 10 repetições de 10 sementes de cada tratamento, localidade e data de coleta. Os efeitos dos diferentes tratamentos na germinação das sementes foram avaliados através da análise de variância e teste t. Após a análise, constatou-se que as sementes coletadas em agosto (X= 47,8 ± 6,8%, na localidade de Montes Claros (X= 41,7 ± 9,7%, e escarificadas mecanicamente (X= 83,0 ± 8,2% denotaram maior potencial germinativo. Nesse sentido, sementes de fava-d'anta apresentam dormência imposta pelo tegumento, com potencial germinativo maior no tratamento com lixa. Além disso, o grau de maturação das sementes e fatores ecológicos locais parecem interferir na germinação das sementes da espécie estudada.Forest species with hard and impermeable seeds often have problems to germinate. The present work aimed to select pre-germinative treatments in laboratory to homogenize the germination of Dimorphandra mollis seeds and to compare the germination rates of seeds collected from different periods and locations. D. mollis seeds were collected at four different regions in northern Minas Gerais: Montes Claros, Lontra, Mirabela and Jequitaí, in two distinct periods: August and September/2004. The seeds were submitted to five scarification treatments: sanding (mechanical scarification, immersion in sulfuric acid to 10 and 20 minutes, immersion in hot water (70 ºC and control (intact seeds. For the germination tests, a randomized experimental design was used, with ten replicates of ten seeds for each treatment, site and period of collection. The effects of the different treatments on seed germination were tested through an analysis of variance and t test. The germinative potential was significantly higher for seeds collected in August (X= 47.8 ± 6.8%, at the Montes Claros site (X= 41.7 ± 9.7%, and submitted to mechanical scarification (X= 83.0 ± 8.2%. Our results indicate that fava-d'anta seeds present dormancy imposed by the tegument, with the highest germinative potential under the sanding treatment. In addition, the degree of seed maturation and local ecological factors seem to interfere with seed germination in D. mollis.

  8. Germinação de sementes de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (sansão-do-campo sob diferentes condições de temperatura, luz e umidade. Seed germination of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. Under different conditions of temperature, light and moisture.

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    Márcia Balistiero FIGLIOLIA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Fabaceae éuma espécie arbórea característica da caatinga,nativa da região Nordeste brasileira. Neste trabalhoforam realizados dois experimentos. No primeiroexperimento foi estudado o efeito da coloração dassementes (verde e marrom e da temperatura para agerminação (25, 30 e 20-30 ºC. No segundoexperimento foi estudado o efeito do volume deágua destilada adicionado ao substrato (45, 60 e75 mL e da qualidade de luz (ausência de luz e luzdos espectros branco, vermelho e vermelho-extremo,na germinação das sementes de coloração verdesubmetidas a 30 ºC. Os testes de germinação foramconduzidos sob fotoperíodo de 8 h, utilizando 30 gde vermiculita como substrato, e tiveram a duraçãode 14 dias. Foram avaliados a porcentagem final eo índice de velocidade de germinação dassementes. Os resultados obtidos no primeiroexperimento mostraram que as sementes decoloração verde são de melhor qualidade fisiológicae que a temperatura de 30 ºC foi a mais adequadapara a germinação. Os resultados obtidos no segundoexperimento mostraram que: (a as sementes decoloração verde são fotoblásticas positivaspreferenciais; (b o teste de germinação pode serconduzido sob luz branca, em substrato umedecidocom 75 mL de água, e (c os resultados obtidospermitem supor que, em condições naturais, assementes sejam capazes de germinar tanto a plenosol (luz do espectro vermelho como sob luzfiltrada pela vegetação (espectro vermelho-extremo.Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Fabaceae is animportant arboreal species native from the caatingavegetation of the northeastern of Brazil. In thiswork two experiments were carried out. In the firstexperiment, the effect of seed color (green andbrown and temperature for germination (25, 30,and 20-30 ºC was studied. In the second experiment,the effect of distilled water added to substrate(45, 60, and 75 mL and light quality (darkness andwhite, red, and far-red light on germination at30 ºC of green color seeds was studied. Germinationtests were performed for 14 days under an 8 hphotoperiod, using 30 g of vermiculite as substrate.Both final percentage and speed of germinationindex of seeds were evaluated. The results obtainedin the first experiment showed that seeds of greencolor have better physiological quality and that theconstant temperature of 30 ºC favoured the seedgermination. The results obtained in the secondexperiment showed that (a seeds of green color arepreferential positive photoblastic; (b germination testcan be performed under white light with substratemoistened with 75 mL of water and (c the resultsobtained in laboratory suggest that under naturalconditions seeds are able to germinate either inlight gap (red light or under canopy (far-red light.

  9. Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic performance of two evergreen Nothofagus species in south central Chile Cambios estacionales en el desempeño fotosintético de dos especies siempreverdes de Nothofagus en el centro sur de Chile

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    RAFAEL ZÚÑIGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The evergreen Nothofagus dombeyi and Nothofagus nitida are important members of the temperate Chilean rainforest. They seldom grow together in nature. Nothofagus nitida is more susceptible to excess light and drought than N. dombeyi. We postulate that the different properties of the photosynthetic apparatus under common garden conditions of these species could explain their contrasting habitat preferences. The two species growing in a common garden in south central Chile were studied. The optimal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm of both species remained within normal values (»0.8 with the exception of a decrease in N. dombeyi at midday in summer, suggesting reversible reduction in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII. During summer the effective photochemical efficiency (F PSII, photochemical quenching (qP, photosynthesis (Amax, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration rates (E in N. dombeyi were higher than in N. nitida. The highest increments in photoprotective pigments (zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin and lutein contents between predawn and midday were obtained in summer in N. dombeyi. In N. nitida a nocturnal retention of dissipative pigments, without a decrease in Fv/Fm, was found in winter. The results suggest that N. dombeyi showed a better photosynthetic performance than N. nitida under high light, high temperature, and drier conditions. These data support are consistent with the pioneer character of N. dombeyi and the semi-tolerant shade properties and more restricted distribution of N. nitida. These photosynthetic characteristics, along with their freezing and flooding resistance differences, may result from their habitat separationLas siempreverdes, Nothofagus dombeyi y Nothofagus nitida, representantes importantes de los bosques lluviosos templados de Chile, raramente crecen juntos en forma natural. Nothofagus nitida es más sensible al exceso de luz y déficit de agua que N. dombeyi. Se postula que diferentes propiedades

  10. Chemical aspects of santalin as a histological stain.

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    Banerjee, A; Mukherjee, A K

    1981-03-01

    Recent research on the chemical nature of the red dyes isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus and certain West African plants, viz., Baphia nitida, Pterocarpus osun and Pterocarpus soyauxii, have been reviewed. P. santalinus contains santalins A, B and C, but no santarubin. Santalins and santarubins have been found in P. osun, P. soyauxii and B. nitida. The structural formulae of the santalins are presented and their differences from santarubins indicated. Santalins A and B have some similarities in structure with hematein. This is probably responsible for their staining properties; the possible mechanism of staining is discussed. PMID:6166100

  11. Purification and characterization of a highly active chromate reductase from endophytic Bacillus sp. DGV19 of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. actively involved in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated sites.

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    Manikandan, Muthu; Gopal, Judy; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation using timber-yielding tree species is considered to be the most efficient method for chromium/tannery effluent-contaminated sites. In this study, we have chosen Albizzia lebbeck, a chromium hyperaccumulator plant, and studied one of its chromium detoxification processes operated by its endophytic bacterial assemblage. Out of the four different groups of endophytic bacteria comprising Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus, and Salinicoccus identified from A. lebbeck employed in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil, Bacillus predominated with three species, which exhibited not only remarkable chromium accumulation ability but also high chromium reductase activity. A chromate reductase was purified to homogeneity from the most efficient chromium accumulator, Bacillus sp. DGV 019, and the purified 34.2-kD enzyme was observed to be stable at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH values (4.0-9.0). Furthermore, the enzyme activity was enhanced with the electron donors NADH, followed by NADPH, not affected by glutathione and ascorbic acid. Cu(2+) enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme but was inhibited by Zn(2+) and etheylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In conclusion, due to its versatile adaptability the chromate reductase can be used for chromium remediation.

  12. Efeito analgésico e anti-inflamatório do extrato aquoso das folhas de trevo-roxo (Scutellaria agrestis A. St.-Hil. ex Benth. - Lamiaceae em roedores

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    A.B. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria agrestis é utilizada por comunidades ribeirinhas do Amazonas principalmente para o tratamento de otites por via tópica utilizando-se o extrato bruto obtido por maceração. O presente trabalho visou investigar preliminarmente o perfil fitoquímico, a segurança toxicológica e as ações analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiedematogência do extrato aquoso das folhas de S. agrestis. Foram coletados 80 indivíduos da espécie no horto medicinal da Universidade Nilton Lins, Manaus, Brasil. O perfil fitoquímico foi obtido por meio de prospecção da droga vegetal para heterosídeos cianogênicos, terpenos, compostos fenólicos e alcaloides. A toxicologia foi avaliada pelo teste de toxicidade aguda. As atividades analgésicas/ anti-inflamatórias foram analisadas por meio dos testes de formalina em camundongos e a atividade antiedematogência, pelo teste de edema de pata em ratos. Os metabólitos detectados foram fenóis (taninos hidrolisáveis, cumarinas e várias classes de flavonoides e terpenos (esteroides livres, saponinas. Não foi possível estabelecer DL50, haja visto que o extrato não provocou a morte de nenhum animal durante o teste de toxicidade aguda, provavelmente devido à ausência de heterosídeos cianogênicos na sua composição. Apesar de não provocar morte, considerou-se que o extrato apresenta uma discreta toxicidade, uma vez que foi observada a ocorrência de espasmos na primeira hora de observação dos animais. O extrato apresentou ainda efeito analgésico e anti-inflamatório significativo nas doses de 30, 100 e 300 mg/kg pelo teste da formalina, sendo o resultado na maior dose equivalente ao obtido com a droga padrão (fentanil. No entanto, não observamos efeito antiedematogênico nas doses testadas durante as 5 horas de registro do edema de pata. Os resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa conferem base científica preliminar quanto à segurança e ao efeito analgésico e antiinflamatório da droga vegetal, o que indica que tal espécie é promissora e expressamente recomendada para maiores estudos farmacológicos in vitro e in vivo.

  13. High Frequency Pulsatile Electromagnetic Fields and Ultrasound Pulsatile Fields Impact on Germination Dynamic at Ocimum basilicum L. and O. basilicum var. purpurascens Benth., Observed with Open Source Software’s

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    Ioan ONAC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basil (Ocimum sp., generally knowned as “king of herbs” due to its pharmaceutical and culinary properties, is considered to be a native plant derived from Africa and Asia. Ocimum sp. grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions with more than 50 species knowned till present time. Germination percent of Ocimum sp. is considered to be between 85-95%. Even though Ocimum sp. are considered to have fast germination velocity index (GVI, short mean germination time (MGT and increased seedling vigor index (SVI values, their experimental monitoring is done with specialized software’s that are expensive. Low cost scientific solutions are keen on open source software germination protocols. For observing the accuracy of open source C.A.D. software’s Ocimum sp. seeds where submitted to high frequency pulsatile electromagnetic fields (300 impulses/3 peak penetrance - 293 W and ultrasound pulsatile fields (1/2 pulses by 0.5 W/cm2. All sequence images where taken using a positive/negative photo filter enhancing differences in seed development. At the end of the experiment all images where transformed into vector formats (dwg. On the dwg extension, selective free plug-ins such as Face Centroid and Area Properties help to collect data like seed development on X/Y scale, area, perimeter, no. of germinated seeds, length of seedling root, hypocotyl length.

  14. 牛耳枫果实中抑菌活性成分的初步分离%Isolation of antifungal components from the fruit of Daphniphyllum calycinum Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 曾东强

    2013-01-01

    为探索牛耳枫Daphniphyllum calycinum在农业病害防治方面的应用前景,采用柱层析和重结晶等分离技术,从牛耳枫果实甲醇提取物的乙酸乙酯萃取物中分离得到10个已知化合物,并以水稻纹枯病菌Rhizoctonia solani、番茄白绢病菌Sclerotium rolfsii和香蕉枯萎病菌Fusariumoxysporum f.sp.cubense3种植物病原菌为指示菌种,对化合物的抑菌活性成分进行了测定.经核磁共振氢谱和碳谱解析,10个化合物分别鉴定为:对甲氧基苯甲酸(1)、对羟基苯甲醛(2)、5,7-二羟基色原酮(3)、对羟基苯甲酸(4)、反式对羟基肉桂酸(5)、5,7,4’-三羟基-3’-甲基黄酮(6)、山奈酚(7)、β-胡萝卜苷(8)、木犀草素(9)和3,4-二羟基苯甲酸(10).菌丝生长速率法测定结果表明:在100 mg/L下,化合物3、6、7和10对水稻纹枯病菌的抑制率分别为58.1%、74.3%、85.0%和79.5%;化合物6和7对番茄白绢病菌的抑制率分别为66.2%和72.5%;化合物6对香蕉枯萎病菌的抑制率为54.5%.化合物1~7和9~10为首次从该植物的果实中分离得到.%In order to explore the application prospects of Daphniphyllum calycinum in controlling agricultural disease,ten compounds were isolated from acetic ether-soluble fraction of D.calycinum by column chromatography and recrystallization,and three plant pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani,Sclerotium rolfsii,Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense) were used to screen antifungal activity of the compounds.The structure of ten compounds were identified as p-methoxybenzoic acid (1),p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2),5,7-dihydroxychromone (3),p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4),trans-p-hydroxylcinnamic acid (5),5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3 '-methoxyflavone (6),kaempferol (7),β-daucosterol (8),luteolin (9) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10) by NMR.The antifungal activities of nine compounds against the three plant pathogens were tested.At the concentration of 100 mg/L,compound 3,6,7 and 10 exhibited antifungal activity against R.solani,with inhibitory rates of 58.1%,74.3%,85.0% and 79.5%,respectively;compound 6 and 7 showed potential antifungal activity against S.rolfsii,with inhibitory rates of 66.2% and 72.5%,respectively; compound 6 had weak antifungal activity against F.oxysporum,with inhibitory rate of 54.5%.Compound 1-7,9-10 were obtained from the fruit of D.calycinum for the first time.

  15. 高效液相色谱法鉴别及测定中药吴茱萸中的生物胺%Identification and Determination of Biogenic amines in Evodia Rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳妮; 张宁; 王翠玲; 刘竹兰; 王征; 刘建利

    2014-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定中药吴茱萸中生物胺的方法.以丹磺酰氯为柱前衍生试剂,采用岛津高效液相色谱仪(LC-10A),色谱柱SHIMADZU-C18(150 mm×4.6 mm×5 μm)进行测定,确定了最佳色谱条件:乙腈和水为流动相,梯度洗脱,DAD检测器,检测波长为334 nm,流速为0.8 mL/min,柱温30℃,进样量20μL.10种常见生物胺在45 min内得到良好的分离,在给定的浓度范围内,各生物胺呈现良好的线性相关(R2>0.999),精密度RSD<2%,回收率在91.87%~ 101.35%之间,重现性RSD<8%.结果表明,吴茱萸叶中含有7种生物胺,枝中含有4种,果中含有5种.这是首次发现在中药吴茱萸中存在生物胺类成分.

  16. Teor e composição do óleo essencial de patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.) após diferentes tempos de secagem em estufa e temperatura ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. STORCK; C. Deschamps

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOPatchouli é uma espécie aromática pertencente à família Lamiaceae que possui óleo essencial com alto valor comercial devido à aplicação nas indústrias de higiene, cosméticos e perfumarias. Considerando as características voláteis e estruturas de armazenamento em diferentes órgãos das plantas aromáticas, a determinação de métodos de secagem é de extrema importância e pode afetar tanto o rendimento como a composição do óleo essencial. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o t...

  17. Hidrocondicionamento de Parkia pendula [Benth ex Walp]: sementes com dormência física de árvore da Amazônia Hydropriming of Parkia pendula [Penth. ex Walp.]: seeds with physical dormancy from Amazon tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Janet Vargas Pinedo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O visgueiro é uma árvore neotropical de importâncias econômica e ecológica. Este estudo objetivou determinar o tempo de embebição e o teor de água de sementes de Parkia pendula necessários para ativar o metabolismo e aumentar o desempenho pelo condicionamento. Sementes armazenadas (2 anos e não armazenadas (7 dias foram comparadas. Após o desponte as sementes foram submersas em água a 15 ºC, por períodos de 4 a 28 h, para atingir o grau de embebição desejado (20, 40, 60, 80 e 90%. Em seguida, foram diretamente semeadas em areia lavada no viveiro (4 x 25 sementes/tratamento ou dessecadas durante sete dias (24±2 °C e 68±3% UR antes da semeadura. Sementes não armazenadas e sem condicionamento (controle apresentaram 59±8,9% de emergência, valor inferior ao daquelas armazenadas e sem condicionamento (76±11,3%. Períodos de submersão superiores a 13 h reduziram o desempenho da germinação em relação às sementes não condicionadas. Porém, após 4 h (26-31% de teor de água das sementes ambas as sementes não armazenadas e armazenadas aumentaram o desempenho, sendo, ainda, maior quando houve dessecamento após a submersão. Portanto, os efeitos positivos do condicionamento ocorreram na fase I da curva de embebição. O hidrocondicionamento de 4 h a 15 ºC mostrou ser uma opção econômica e de fácil aplicação em sementes de P. pendula: aumentou a velocidade do desenvolvimento das plântulas, a porcentagem de germinação das sementes não armazenadas em níveis similares aos das armazenadas e a sincronização da germinação em sementes armazenadas.Visgueiro is a neo-tropical tree species with economic and ecologic importance. This work aimed to determine the imbibition time and moisture content of P. pendula seeds necessary to activate metabolism and improve their performance by priming. Stored seeds (2 years and unstored seeds (7 days were compared. After clipping, the seeds were kept in water at 15 ºC for periods of 4 to 28 hours to reach the desired imbibition degrees (20, 40, 60, 80 and 90%. Seeds were then sown immediately in washed sand in the nursery (4 x 25 seeds / treatment or dried for 7 days (24±2°C and 68±3% R.H.. Unstored and unprimed (control seeds showed 59±8.9% germination, which was less than that of stored unprimed seeds (76±11.3 %. Submersion periods exceeding 13 hours reduced germination relative to unprimed seeds. After 4 hours of submersion (seed moisture 26-31%, both unstored and stored seeds increased their performance. Even higher improvement was verified when drying followed submersion. Thus, the positive effects of priming occurred in phase I of the imbibition curve. Hydropriming of 4 hours at 15 ºC was found to be a simple and inexpensive method for P. pendula seeds since it increased seedling development velocity, brought the germination percentage of unstored seeds to a level similar to that of stored seeds and increased germination synchronization of stored seeds.

  18. High Frequency Pulsatile Electromagnetic Fields and Ultrasound Pulsatile Fields Impact on Germination Dynamic at Ocimum basilicum L. and O. basilicum var. purpurascens Benth., Observed with Open Source Software’s

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan ONAC; Valentin SINGUREANU; Gelu MOLDOVAN; Rodica UNGUR

    2016-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum sp.), generally knowned as “king of herbs” due to its pharmaceutical and culinary properties, is considered to be a native plant derived from Africa and Asia. Ocimum sp. grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions with more than 50 species knowned till present time. Germination percent of Ocimum sp. is considered to be between 85-95%. Even though Ocimum sp. are considered to have fast germination velocity index (GVI), short mean germination time (MGT) and increased seedling vigor...

  19. Efeito do extrato etanólico bruto e das frações da Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley em brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. FIUZA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alguns problemas relacionados à criação intensiva de peixes estão mais evidentes devido ao aumento da aquicultura em todo o mundo, destacando-se os distúrbios nutricionais e o aumento de doenças nos sistemas de produção. Com isso as pesquisas envolvendo produtos derivados de plantas vem ganhando espaço nessa área. A Hyptidendron canum é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular como antimalárica, anti-inflamatória, antiulcerativa e anti-hepatotóxica. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos celulares e teciduais do extrato etanólico bruto e das frações hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila da H. canum nas brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. Para isso, o extrato etanólico e as frações foram administrados no peixe através da ração. Após 24 horas da ingestão da ração, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada um foi processado histologicamente e corado com tricômico de Masson e Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE. Pela análise qualitativa das brânquias ao microscópio de luz, observou-se que o extrato bruto e as três frações promoveram, em diferentes intensidades nas lamelas, descamação e destacamento do epitélio respiratório, alteração da curvatura, desorganização do eixo, hiperplasia celular do tecido epitelial interlamelar e vasodilatação nas lamelas e no vaso central do filamento. Os resultados deste experimento mostraram que o extrato etanólico bruto e as três frações de H. canum promoveram processos inflamatórios e/ou lesões sistêmicas, dose dependente para O. niloticus.

  20. Name changes for Malesian species of Chionanthus (Oleaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    New combinations under Chionanthus L. are made for Linociera beccarii, L. brassii, L. gigas, L. clementis, L. hahlii, L. kajewskii, L. nitida, L. remotinervia, L. riparia, L. rupicola, L. sessiliflora L. salicifolia, and L. stenura. Linociera cumingiana is synonymous with C. ramiflorus, L. novoguine

  1. Description de cinq espèces nouvelles de la famille des Cantharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1887-01-01

    Long. 25 à 27 mill. — Oblonga, subparallela, rufa, nitida, antennis, pedibus, mandibulisque fusco-brunneis, his femoribusque basi rufo-piceis; capite inflato, prothorace latiore, basi utrinque angulato-rotundato, lateribus punctulato, antice transversim impresso, margine antice late leviter sinuato,

  2. Description d’une espèce nouvelle du genre Casnonidea, Fairm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1887-01-01

    Long. 11 mill. — Oblonga, testaceo-rufa, valde nitida, capite elytrisque (tertia basali parte excepta) nigris, antennis fuscis, pedibus nigris, femoribus basi excepta; capite lævi, antice cum ore piceo, inter oculos puncto impresso, inter antennas biimpresso; antennis medium corporis fere attingenti

  3. Variabilidade genética de acessos de maracujá-suspiro com base em marcadores moleculares Genetic variability of wild passion fruit determined by molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keize Pereira Junqueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora nitida é uma espécie silvestre amplamente distribuída pelo território brasileiro, constituindo-se em fonte de resistência a doenças foliares e de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética entre acessos de P. nitida procedentes de diferentes tipos fitofisionômicos de Cerrado e estados brasileiros (Goiás, Distrito Federal, Tocantins, Mato Grosso e Amazonas, usando marcadores moleculares RAPD. O DNA genômico de cada acesso foi extraído, e doze iniciadores decâmeros foram utilizados para a obtenção de marcadores moleculares RAPD, que foram convertidos em matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Foram obtidos 196 marcadores para P. nitida, dos quais 63,81% foram polimórficos. As distâncias genéticas entre os acessos de maracujá variaram de 0,031 a 0,614 e, considerando apenas P. nitida, de 0,031 a 0,417. Os marcadores moleculares demonstraram alta variabilidade genética dos acessos de P. nitida. Menores distâncias genéticas foram verificadas entre os acessos originados do mesmo estado. Considerando-se os acessos de um mesmo estado, menores distâncias genéticas foram verificadas entre os acessos provenientes de tipos fitofisionômicos próximos. O acesso "Manaus 2" apresentou o maior distanciamento genético em relação aos demais acessos.Passiflora nitida is a wild species widely distributed in Brazilian territory. It is a source of resistance to foliar and soil borne diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability among accessions of P. nitida proceeding from different types of Cerrado (Brazilian savannah vegetation and brazilian states (Goiás, Distrito Federal, Tocantins, Mato Grosso and Amazonas using RAPD molecular markers. The genomic DNA of each origin was extracted and amplified using 12 decamer primers to obtain RAPD

  4. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1962-01-01

    This first part of a series of acquisitions to the Netherlands adventitious flora contains descriptions of 1. Chenopodium nitrariaceum (F. v. Muell.) F. v. Muell. ex Benth., 2. Amaranthus bouchonii Thell., and 3. Brassica carinata A. Braun.

  5. 药用植物广藿香的品种分类探讨%THE CLASSIFICATION OF CULTIVAS OF POGOSTEMON CABLIN CULTIVATED IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颂军; 王晓峰; 徐祥浩; 徐鸿华; 李薇; 徐良; 邓辅唐; 赵婷

    2003-01-01

    根据栽培在广东省3个地区的广藿香Pogostemon cablin(Blanco)Benth.的形态特征,药材特性和采用超薄等电聚焦电泳技术得出的蛋白质电泳图谱,把广东省栽培的广藿香分为3个栽培品种( cultivas),即(1)石牌广藿香 (P.cablin (Blanco) Benth. cv. shipaiensis),(2)高要广藿香(P.cablin (Blanco) Benth. cv. gaoyaoensis),(3) 湛江广藿香 (P. cablin (Blanco) Benth. cv. zhanjiangensis).

  6. Biosynthesis of Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloid Ajmaline Catalyzed by Novel Reductases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction One of the major root alkaloids of the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpenlina Benth. Ex Kurz is named ajmaline. The enzymatic biosynthesisof this alkaloid has been studied for a long time by our group[1].

  7. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  8. Understanding the diverse roles of soil organic matter in the cereal - Striga hermontica interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayongwa, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: Striga hermonthica, Sorghum bicolor, soil fertility, organic matter, N-mineralisation, farmers’ priority, production constraints, intensification.  The problem of the parasitic weed striga (Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.) has worsened for African farmers, in conjunction with degrading

  9. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  10. Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana and Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae), three new species from Jalisco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos; José Antonio Vázquez-García; Miguel de Jesús Cházaro-Basáñez

    2013-01-01

    Three new species from Jalisco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. These species grow in tropical or in tropical and temperate transitional forests. The 3 species belong to Salvia L. subgenus Calosphace (Benth.) Benth. Salvia carreyesii J. G. González is morphologically similar with section Briquetia Epling. It is characterized by the contrasting vegetative morphology between mature and immature individuals, its relatively large and sessile or sub-sessile leaves (the uppermost amplexicaul...

  11. Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana and Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae), three new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana y Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae), tres nuevas especies de Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos; José Antonio Vázquez-García; Miguel de Jesús Cházaro-Basáñez

    2013-01-01

    Three new species from Jalisco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. These species grow in tropical or in tropical and temperate transitional forests. The 3 species belong to Salvia L. subgenus Calosphace (Benth.) Benth. Salvia carreyesii J. G. González is morphologically similar with section Briquetia Epling. It is characterized by the contrasting vegetative morphology between mature and immature individuals, its relatively large and sessile or sub-sessile leaves (the uppermost amplexicaul...

  12. Phenology of native species with landscaping potential /
    Fenologia de espécies nativas com potencial paisagístico

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Maria Natal; Antonio Carlos Batista; Daniela Biondi; Angeline Martini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the phenology of ten species that occur in the “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. They are: Borreria suaveolens G. Mey. ; Hilariana Crotalaria Benth. ; Cuphea calophylla Cham. & Schltdl.; Desmodium adscendens (Sw) DC.; Desmodium incanum DC.; Hypericum connatum Lam. ; Peltodon rugosus Tolmachev; Salvia lachnostachys Benth. ; Been macrodon DC.; Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl.) Cogn. The monitoring, by qualitative character, realized each fifteen days, had beginni...

  13. The genus Syncolostemon (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Syncolostemon E. Mey. ex Benth. is revised and its relationship with  Hemizygia (Benth. Briq.f is discussed. A new species,  S. comptonii Codd is described and the following new combinations are made: S. parviflorus var. lanceolatus (Guerke Codd  (= S . lanceolatus Guerke and  S. latidens (N.E. Br. Codd ( = Orthosiphon latidens N.E. Br..

  14. Preliminary antimycobacterial study on selected Turkish plants (Lamiaceae) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and search for some phenolic constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Askun, Tülin; Tekwu, Emmanuel Mouafo; Satil, Fatih; Modanlioglu, Seyma; Aydeniz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    Background The global resurgence of tuberculosis is a significant threat. Lamiaceae members have been used in folk remedies for centuries. This study was designed to assess the in-vitro antimycobacterial activity of eighteen crude extracts from six plants (Lamiaceae) and to characterize their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Methods Six Turkish medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae (Stachys tmolea Boiss., Stachys thirkei C. Koch, Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth., Thymus sipthorpii Benth., ...

  15. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  16. Caracterização química e atividade biológica de extratos aquosos de Brunfelsiacuneifolia J.A. Schmidt (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. SCHNEIDER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O gênero Brunfelsia possui ainda poucas informações a respeito de sua composição química ou confirmações científicas de suas propriedades medicinais, apesar do uso na medicina tradicional pelos povos amazônicos. Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a espécie Brunfelsia cuneifolia, cultivada no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto a sua composição química e atividade biológica. Foram obtidos extratos aquosos a quente, a frio, e por ultrassom, a partir de folhas frescas. A caracterização química realizada por CLAE determinou a presença dos compostos fenólicos: ácido ferúlico e rutina, em todos os extratos, sendo as maiores quantidades apresentadas pela extração a frio. A análise por EMAR identificou a fórmula molecular de nove substâncias nos diferentes extratos, incluindo a presença do alcaloide brunfelsamidina em todos os extratos obtidos. Para a atividade biológica, devido à similaridade de resposta e teor nas diferentes formas de extração, foi possível correlacionar a atividade antioxidante, avaliada através da redução do radical DPPH*, com o teor de compostos fenólicos totais obtidos pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteu. A toxicidade dos extratos avaliada pela utilização de Artemia salina revelou ausência de toxidez. Os resultados obtidos são os primeiros apresentados para a caracterização desta espécie, colaborando também para a pesquisa científica acerca dos usos popularmente atribuídos ao gênero.

  17. NUEVAS ESPECIES PARA LA UREDOBIOTA NEOTROPICAL NEW SPECIES FOR THE NEOTROPICAL UREDOBIOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Salazar Yepes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen seis especies teliomórficas y dos anamórficas nuevas para la ciencia; una nueva combinación anamórfica es propuesta; los Uredinales fueron colectados sobre los hospedantes: Thumbergia sp., Baccharis nitida, Baccharis decussata, Bidens sp., Tabebuia rosea, Euphorbia laurifolia, Crotalaria nitens, Artocarpus communis y Polypodium adnatum. Esta investigación permite inferir una alta diversidad de Uredinales en la zona cafetera colombiana.Six teliomorphic and two anamorphic new rust species are described on: Thumbergia sp., Baccharis nitida, Baccharis decussata, Bidens sp., Tabebuia rosea, Euphorbia laurifolia, Crotalaria nitens, and Polypodium adnatum in the Colombian coffee area. A new anamorphic combination is proposed on: Artocarpus communis. This study allows to infer a high diversity of rust fungi in this area.

  18. Elaboración de un paquete tecnológico para productores, en manejo cosecha y poscosecha de mora (Rubus Glaucus Benth) aplicando ingeniería de calidad y determinación de las características nutracéuticas de la fruta en precosecha, en el municipio de Silvania – Cundinamarca / Development of a technological package for producers, in harvest and postharvest handling of blackberry (rubus glaucus benth) applying quality engineering and nutraceutical determining characteristics of the fruit in preharvest in the municipality of Silvania - Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    García Pulido, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    La mora es un producto altamente perecedero por lo que se generan altas pérdidas poscosecha (60-70%). Por esta razón el objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación fue elaborar un paquete tecnológico de manejo cosecha y poscosecha que permitiera disminuir las pérdidas en estas etapas y adicionalmente y como valor agregado, determinar las características nutracéuticas de la mora en la fase precosecha (desde floración a madurez fisiológica). La investigación se desarrolló en el municipio de ...

  19. Firewood properties of some Indian mountain tree and shrub species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, B.P.; Tomar, J.M.S. [ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Agroforestry Div., Meghalaya (India)

    2002-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of 26 indigenous mountain fuelwood species of North-Eastern Himalayan region was carried out to identify trees with potential for fuelwood production. A fuelwood value index (FYI) was defined as calorific value x density/ash content. Betula nitida, Machilus bombycina, Itea macrophylla, Cryptomeria japonica, Gmelina arborea, Simingtonia populnea, Macaranga denticulata and Schima wallichii were shown to have promising firewood production. (Author)

  20. Floral variability in selected species of the genus Coelogyne Lindl., Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of the lip characters in the Coelogyne flower proved a synchronised development of this organ. The lip is a very interspecifically variable organ. A numerical taxonomy approach permitted to select in an ordination space some extreme species, based on a description of lip morphology, Coelogyne salmonicolor versus C. fuliginosa and C. quinquelamellata versus C. nitida. A hybrid C. lawrenceana × mooreana appeared to be close to its paternal species.

  1. Pollination and protection against herbivory of Nepalese Coelogyninae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, A.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Achterberg, van, C.; Heijerman, T.; LENS, F.; Dooren, van, H.J.C.; Gravendeel, B.

    2011-01-01

    • Premise of the Study: Although many species in the orchid genus Coelogyne are horticulturally popular, hardly anything is known about their pollination. Pollinators of three species were observed in the fi eld in Nepal. This information is urgently needed because many orchid species in Nepal are endangered. Whether the exudates produced by extrafl oral nectaries played a role in protection against herbivory was also investigated. • Methods: Pollinators of C. fl accida , C. nitida , and Otoc...

  2. Floral variability in selected species of the genus Coelogyne Lindl., Orchidaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Kosina; Marta Szkudlarek

    2015-01-01

    Correlations of the lip characters in the Coelogyne flower proved a synchronised development of this organ. The lip is a very interspecifically variable organ. A numerical taxonomy approach permitted to select in an ordination space some extreme species, based on a description of lip morphology, Coelogyne salmonicolor versus C. fuliginosa and C. quinquelamellata versus C. nitida. A hybrid C. lawrenceana × mooreana appeared to be close to its paternal species.

  3. Name changes for Malesian species of Chionanthus (Oleaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiew, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    New combinations under Chionanthus L. are made for Linociera beccarii, L. brassii, L. gigas, L. clementis, L. hahlii, L. kajewskii, L. nitida, L. remotinervia, L. riparia, L. rupicola, L. sessiliflora L. salicifolia, and L. stenura. Linociera cumingiana is synonymous with C. ramiflorus, L. novoguineensis and L. ovalis with C. rupicolus, L. papuasica with C. sessiliflorus and L. pubipaniculata with C. mala-elengi subsp. terniflorus. Linociera macrophylla sensu Whitmore proves to be C. hahlii.

  4. Gap locations influence the release of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in two shrub foliar litter in an alpine fir forest

    OpenAIRE

    Wei He; Fuzhong Wu; Wanqin Yang; Danju Zhang; Zhenfeng Xu; Bo Tan; Yeyi Zhao; Meta Francis Justine

    2016-01-01

    Gap formation favors the growth of understory plants and affects the decomposition process of plant debris inside and outside of gaps. Little information is available regarding how bioelement release from shrub litter is affected by gap formation during critical periods. The release of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in the foliar litter of Fargesia nitida and Salix paraplesia in response to gap locations was determined in an alpine forest of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau via...

  5. Sediment reworking by marine benthic species from the Gullmar Fjord (Western Sweden): Importance of faunal biovolume

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Franck; Hulth, Stefan; Grossi, Vincent; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Desrosiers, Gaston; Rosenberg, Rutger; Gérino, Magali; François-Carcaillet, Frédérique; Michaud, Emma; Stora, Georges

    2007-01-01

    In order to compare and quantify sediment reworking activities by different species/functional groups of macrofauna, a laboratory experiment was carried out with species from the Gullmarsfjord (Western Sweden). Monospecific communities of Amphiura filiformis, Echinocardium cordatum, Scalibregma inflatum and Abra nitida were introduced in experimental mesocosms, with identical densities (795 ind. m−2), for 10 days. Sediment reworking was studied by quantifying downward and upward movements of ...

  6. Antibacterial Activities of Selected Cameroonian Plants and Their Synergistic Effects with Antibiotics against Bacteria Expressing MDR Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Lacmata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to assess the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of some Cameroonian medicinal plants and the effect of their associations with currently used antibiotics on multidrug resistant (MDR Gram-negative bacteria overexpressing active efflux pumps. The antibacterial activities of twelve methanol extracts of medicinal plants were evaluated using broth microdilution. The results of this test showed that three extracts Garcinia lucida with the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC varying from 128 to 512 μg/mL, Garcinia kola (MIC of 256 to 1024 μg/mL, and Picralima nitida (MIC of 128 to 1024 μg/mL were active on all the twenty-nine studied bacteria including MDR phenotypes. The association of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN or efflux pumps inhibitor to different extracts did not modify their activities. At the concentration of MIC/2 and MIC/5, the extracts of P. nitida and G. kola improved the antibacterial activities of some commonly used antibiotics suggesting their synergistic effects with the tested antibiotics. The results of this study suggest that the tested plant extracts and mostly those from P. nitida, G. lucida and G. kola could be used alone or in association with common antibiotics in the fight of bacterial infections involving MDR strains.

  7. Genetic diversity in section Rhizomatosae of the genus Arachis (Fabaceae based on microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M.L.C.D. Angelici

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arachis (Fabaceae native to South America, contains 80 species divided into nine sections, three of which contain species of special economic importance such as the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, belonging to the section Arachis, and some perennial forage species from sections Caulorrhizae and Rhizomatosae. We used microsatellite markers to assay genetic variability among 77 accessions of four species from section Rhizomatosae, the diploid Arachis burkartii (2n = 2x = 20 and the tetraploid Arachis glabrata, Arachis pseudovillosa and Arachis nitida (2n = 4x = 40. A total of 249 alleles were found in the fifteen loci analyzed and a high degree of intra and interspecific polymorphism was detected. The lowest intraspecific variation occurred in Arachis burkartii, while the smallest estimated interspecific value was between A. nitida and A. pseudovillosa and the largest was between A. burkartii and A. nitida. High observed heterozygosity was detected in A. glabrata. The diploid accessions grouped in one cluster and the tetraploid accessions in another. It was possible to distinguish all 77 accessions and the genetic distance between accessions could not be correlated with geographic origin.

  8. 海南广藿香等四种南药的有机氯农药残留含量现状研究%Study on the Content of Organochlorine Pesticide Residue of Pogostemon cablin Benth.、 Piper nigrum L.、 Aloe barbadensis Miller.、 and Dalbergia odorifera T.Chen.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符乃光; 张俊清; 赖伟勇; 刘红雨; 刘明生

    2005-01-01

    目的:利用气相色谱法调查海南主产区广藿香等4种南药10种有机氯农药的含量.方法:采用SE-54弹性石英毛细管(30 m×0.32 mm×25 μm)色谱柱,进样口温度为230℃;检测器温度为300℃.不分流进样,程序升温,检测器为63Ni-ECD电子捕获检测器,高纯氮气为载气.结果:海南万宁、东方及琼海产区广藿香总六六六、总DDT、五氯硝基苯及艾氏剂的现状含量水平分别为6.175,139.900,0.599及4.841 ng/g;52.940,18.710,未检出及5.376 ng/g;13.550,89.070,1.768及4.063 ng/g.海南文昌、万宁及琼海产区胡椒相应有机氯农药含量分别为2.533,10.22,未检出及3.174 ng/g;2.494,0.173,未检出及1.180 ng/g;3.944,3.167,0.063及1.793 ng/g.海南东方、万宁及琼海产区芦荟相应有机氯农药含量分别为3.362,8.772,0.381 3及1.197 ng/g;2.597,6.002,未检出及0.637 9 ng/g;2.491,2.611,未检出及0.608 9 ng/g.海南文昌、东方产区降香相应有机氯农药含量分别为2.743,5.607,未检出及1.991 ng/g;2.403,8.674,1.556及1.012 ng/g.结论:海南东方、琼海产区广藿香和海南所有采集产区胡椒、芦荟及降香等4种南药的总DDT、总六六六、五氯硝基苯及艾氏剂的含量符合绿色行业标准,海南万宁产区广藿香总六六六、五氯硝基苯及艾氏剂的含量符合绿色行业标准,但其总DDT含量超标;不同产区药材农残含量差异较大;将海南槟榔、益智、丁香及肉豆蔻四种中药材中总六六六、总DDT、五氯硝基苯及艾氏剂限量标准定为0.1,0.1,0.1及0.02 μg/g是合理可行的.

  9. Influence of the Content of Evodiamine and Evodia Rutaecarpine in Different Combinations of the "'drug couples" Evodia rutae-carpa (Juss) Benth and Angelica sinensis(Oliv.)%吴茱英当归药对不同配伍比例对吴茱英碱和吴茱英次碱含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    訾慧; 朱会; 张振秋

    2009-01-01

    目的:考察吴茱萸当归药对中主要成分随吴茱萸当归配比变化的溶出规律.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定吴茱萸当归药对不同配伍比例对吴茱萸中活性成分吴茱萸碱和昊茱萸次碱含量的影响.色谱柱:Diamomil C18(4.6mm×150 mm,5μm)流动相:乙腈-0.04%辛烷磺酸钠溶液(45:55);检测波长:225nm;流速:1.0mL·min-1.结果:在所观察的吴茱萸与当归的9个配伍比例中,随着当归比例的降低,吴茱萸碱和吴茱萸次碱溶出率逐渐增高,以6:4配伍组含量较高,且其后含量增加趋于平稳,与温经汤配伍比例相符合.结论:以现代研究方法证实吴茱萸当归药对的最佳配伍比例与温经汤中的两药配伍比例相符合.

  10. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra all. ex. benth and Eucalyptus grandis w.hill ex. maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils Decomposição em laboratório de folhas de Dalbergia nigra e de Eucalyptus grandis em terra de mata e de eucaliptal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. P. Rezende

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the decomposition of D. nigra and E. grandis leaves under laboratory conditions when incubated in soils from Atlantic Forest and from a 40-year-old eucalypt plantation for a year. The obtained values of pH in forest and eucalypt plantation soils were 5.61 and 4.47 and for aluminum 0.32 and 1.89mEqx100, respectively. A great number of microorganisms (total fungi, phosphate solubilising and cellulolytic organisms were found in forest soil. Litterbag study revealed a higher mass loss of the leaves in forest soil in the first four months (c. 30%. In the eucalypt plantation soils loss was observed only after eight months (c. 40%. The initial contents of N and P were greater in D. nigra than in E. grandis leaves, although lignin and cellulose contents were similar. The C/N ratio was higher in E. grandis indicating that its degradation could be slower. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the decay rates (k among the treatments. Phosphorus, lignina and cellulose were lost at the end of the experiment in all treatments. The results show the differences between decomposition of both species and the influence of forest and eucalypt plantation soils in the decomposition process.O objetivo foi acompanhar a decomposição de folhas de D. nigra e de E. grandis em laboratório, enterradas por 12 meses, em solo de Mata Atlântica e de eucaliptal com 40 anos de plantio. Os valores de pH obtidos para os solos de mata e de eucaliptal foram 5,61 e 4,47 e de alumínio 0,32 e 1,89mEqx100, respectivamente. Um grande número de microrganismos (fungos totais, solubilizadores de fosfato e de celulolíticos foram encontrados no solo de mata. Uma perda de massa significativa foi observada após 4 meses de decomposição nas folhas de ambas espécies no solo de mata (30%, enquanto em solo de eucaliptal esta perda foi observada somente após 8 meses (40%. O conteúdo inicial de N e P em folhas de D. nigra é maior do que nas de E. grandis, embora os conteúdos de lignina e celulose sejam semelhantes. A razão C/N é maior nas folhas do eucalipto, indicando que sua degradação deve ser lenta. Apesar disto, não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas taxas de decomposição entre os tratamentos. Ocorreu uma perda significativa de P, lignina e celulose nos tratamentos. Estes resultados mostraram diferenças entre a decomposição de ambas as espécies e a influência do solo de mata e de eucaliptal no processo de decomposição.

  11. The Feret's diameter study on the effect of dracocephalum meterophylium benth for the various stages erythroblasts of expersmental Rabbits bone marrow at high altitude%白花夏枯草对高原家兔骨髓各级幼红细胞Feret直径的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王索安; 李晓滨; 赵霞; 王晋青; 王可

    2000-01-01

    本文应用透射电镜技术对平原移居高原(海拔3900米)实验家兔骨髓内各级红系细胞电镜照片的费莱特直径(Feret)进行了研究,实验分平原对照组,高原给药及高原对照三个组,实验结果:高原给药组骨髓原红,早、中,晚幼红细胞Feret直径均低于高原对照组,差别有显著性,结果提示白花夏枯草可降低由低氧引起的各级幼红细胞胞体增大,从而降低血液的粘滞性,改善血循环.

  12. 广西唇形科植物新记录%New Records of Lamiaceae from Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严克俭; 农云开; 杨平; 屈信成

    2015-01-01

    该文首次报道了唇形科5种植物在广西的新记录——簇序属(Craniotome Reichenb.)及簇序草[Craniotome furcata (Link) Kuntze]、西南水苏[Stachys kouyangensis (Vaniot) Dunn]、海南深红鸡脚参[Orthosiphon rubicundus (D.Don) Benth.var.hainanensis Sun ex C.Y.Wu]、黄花香薷[Elsholtzia flava(Benth.)Benth.]、滨海白绒草[Leucas chinensis (Retz.)R.Br.].引证标本均存放于广西中医药研究院标本馆(GXMI).

  13. Especies nuevas y una lectotipificación en Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae) para Mesoamérica New species and one lectotypification in Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae) from Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Sousa S.

    2011-01-01

    Se describen e ilustran 7 especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae): Lonchocarpus bracteolatus endémica de Honduras, L. hydrophilus endémica de Guatemala, L. nebularis endémica de Panamá, L. sericocarpus endémica de Nicaragua, L. barbatus y L. multifoliolatus, ambas endémicas de la cuenca del golfo de México, y L. congestiflorus que se ubica en las montañas de Chiapas hasta Honduras. Estas especies pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., sect. Obtusifolii (Benth.) M. Sous...

  14. Taxonomic synopsis and analytical key for the genera of Solanaceae from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Sinopse taxonômica e chave ilustrada dos gêneros de Solanaceae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luís de Carvalho Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work consists of a taxonomic synopsis of the genera of Solanaceae in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Solanaceae is represented by 28 genera in this state: Acnistus Schott, Athenaea Sendtn., Aureliana Sendtn., Bouchetia Dunal, Browalia L., Brugmansia Pers., Brunfelsia L., Calibrachoa La Llave & Lex., Capsicum L., Cestrum L., Datura L., Dyssochroma Miers, Grabowskia Schltdl., Jaborosa Juss., Lycianthes (Dunal Hassl., Melananthus Walp., Nicandra Adans., Nicotiana L., Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav., Petunia Juss., Physalis L., Salpichroa Miers, Schwenckia L., Sessea Ruiz & Pav., Solandra Sw., Solanum L. (including Cyphomandra Sendtn. and Lycopersicon Mill., Streptosolen Miers and Vassobia Rusby. Of these, 23 consist of native species , while five are represented exclusively by introduced species. The total number of species is 149, of which 118 are native and 31 are introduced (adventitious or cultivated. An identification key for genera, and also comments on the most relevant taxonomic characters of each one are presented, plus comments on the species that occur in Rio Grande do Sul state.Este trabalho consiste em uma sinopse taxonômica dos gêneros de Solanaceae no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Constatou-se a ocorrência de 28 gêneros: Acnistus Schott, Athenaea Sendtn., Aureliana Sendtn., Bouchetia Dunal, Browalia L., Brugmansia Pers., Brunfelsia L., Calibrachoa La Llave & Lex., Capsicum L., Cestrum L., Datura L., Dyssochroma Miers, Grabowskia Schltdl., Jaborosa Juss., Lycianthes (Dunal Hassl., Melananthus Walp., Nicandra Adans., Nicotiana L., Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav., Petunia Juss., Physalis L., Salpichroa Miers, Schwenckia L., Sessea Ruiz & Pav., Solandra Sw., Solanum L. (incluindo Cyphomandra Sendtn. e Lycopersicon Mill., Streptosolen Miers e Vassobia Rusby. Destes, 23 apresentam espécies nativas, enquanto cinco estão representados exclusivamente por espécies introduzidas. O número total de espécies é de 149, sendo que 118 s

  15. Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, R.; Rafidah, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Daphniphyllum occur in Peninsular Malaysia: D. glaucescens Blume var. lancifolium (Hook.f.) T.C.Huang, D. laurinum (Benth.) Baill. and D. scortechinii Hook.f. Daphniphyllum glaucescens var. glaucescens and var. blumeanum (Baill. ex Müll.Arg.) J.J.Sm. do not occur in Peninsular Malay

  16. 蓝花鼠尾草组织培养试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 康慧

    2003-01-01

    @@ 蓝花鼠尾草(Salvia farinacea.Benth)属唇形科(Labiatae)鼠尾草属(salvia),又名一串蓝,粉萼鼠尾草,原产北美(3).Salvia frinacea有二变种,一种是蓝花(Royal Blue),一种是白花(White)(6).

  17. Nutrient disorders of 'Evolution' mealy-cup sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    To produce popular floriculture crops like mealy-cup sage (Salvia farinacea (Benth.)), growers must be equipped with cultural information including the ability to recognize and characterize disorders. Diagnostic criteria of nutrient disorders of mealy-cup sage are absent from the literature. Theref...

  18. Two new benzofuran lignan glycosides from Gelsemium elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hua; Qing Chun Zhao; Jia Yang; Guo Bing Shi; Li Jun Wu; Tao Guo

    2008-01-01

    Two new benzofuran lignan glycosides,gelsemiunoside A and B,were isolated from the whole plant of Gelsemium elegans Benth.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.Furthermore,gelsemiunoside A and B were shown a potent cytotoxic activity by suppressing the proliferation of A375-S2 cells.

  19. Quantification and characterization of alkaloids from roots of Rauwolfia serpentina using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz has been used in native Indian medicine for treatment of various illnesses and has been mainly used to treat hypertension. Reserpine is potent substance which shared both central nervous system depressant and hypotensive actions. An UHPLC-UV meth...

  20. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40%

  1. Lectotypification of three endemic taxa of Ammi L. (Apiaceae from the archipelago of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno, Esther

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes are designated here for taxa of the genus Ammi L. described by H.C. Watson from the Azores islands. The names Ammi huntii H.C. Watson, A. seubertianum (H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. and A. trifoliatum (H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. still remain untypified from their description. Those typifications constitute the starting point to further taxonomical studies on that aggregate.Se tipifican los táxones del género Ammi L. endémicos del archipiélago de las Azores, que fueron descritos por H.C. Watson. Los nombres de Ammi huntii H.C. Watson, A. seubertianum H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. y A. trifoliatum H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel., permanecían sin tipificar desde su descripción original. Dichas tipificaciones se consideran el punto de partida para futuros estudios taxonómicos sobre este agregado.

  2. A Comparative Study of Three Cryopreservation Protocols for Effective Storage of In Vitro-Grown Mint (Mentha Spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the response of diverse mint genotypes to three commonly used cryopreservation techniques. Four mints [Mentha x piperita nothosubsp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.; M. canadensis L.; M. australis R. Br, and M. cunninghamii Benth] were cryopreserved using the three standa...

  3. First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on Mesona chinensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellywort (Mesona chinensis Benth) is a herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae Family. The plant is referred to as ‘Xiancao’ (Weed from Angels) in Chinese and is primarily used to make grass jelly, a popular refreshing drink. Currently, Xiancao cultivation is a fast growing industry with a high profit ma...

  4. Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae, a new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae, una nueva especie de Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species from a botanically little known region of Jalisco, Mexico, is described and illustrated. The morphology of Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez is related to that of the species of sections Briquetia Epling and Tubiflorae (Epling Epling of subgenus Calosphace (Benth. Benth. The new taxon is distinguished by the combination of its essentially glabrous surface, the 2-flowered verticillasters, the pink to magenta corollas, and the particular dimensions of the floral bract, the calyx and the corolla.Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva procedente de una región botánicamente poco conocida de Jalisco, México. La morfología de Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez está relacionada con aquella de las especies de las secciones Briquetia Epling y Tubiflorae (Epling Epling del subgénero Calosphace (Benth. Benth. El nuevo taxón se distingue por la combinación de su superficie esencialmente glabra, sus verticilastros bifloros, el color rosa o magenta de sus corolas y las dimensiones particulares de la bráctea floral, el cáliz y la corola.

  5. Estudo comparativo do perfil de ácidos graxos em semente de Passifloras nativas do cerrado brasileiro A comparative study of fatty acids profile of Passiflora seed from Brazilian savana

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    Renata Miranda Lopes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available No mundo, existem mais de 580 espécies de maracujazeiros, grande parte nativa da América Tropical e Subtropical, principalmente no Brasil. Os programas de melhoramento utilizam uma parte pequena dos recursos genéticos disponíveis, já que o potencial deste material geralmente não está suficientemente caracterizado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização do teor de lipídios e do perfil de ácidos graxos presentes nas sementes de 03 espécies nativas silvestres de maracujás (Passiflora cincinnata, P. setacea e P. nitida, empregando o maracujá comercial (P.edulis como referência. Os lipídios totais foram extraídos com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O perfil dos ésteres metílicos foi caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A espécie P. setacea apresentou o maior teor de óleo (31,2-33,5%, seguida por P. nitida (29,5-32,3% e P. cincinnata (16,7-19,2%. O óleo de P. setacea apresentou 64,7% de ácido linoleico, 19,7% de oleico e 10,2% de ácido palmítico; o óleo de P. nitida apresentou os ácidos mirístico (0,6%, palmítico (15,3%, palmitoleico (2,0%, oleico (24,8%, linoleico (51,7% e um ácido graxo incomum às outras espécies de Passiflora, o láurico (0.4%; já o óleo de P. cincinnata apresentou os ácidos oleico (11,0%, palmítico (10,2% e linoleico (74,3%. O ácido linoleico foi predominante nas três espécies estudadas. Todas as espécies apresentaram ácido vacênico (0,3-0,6%, descrito pela primeira vez no gênero Passiflora.There are more 580 species of passion fruit in world, majority native from America Tropical and Subtropical, especially Brazil. Breeding programs use small part of genetic resources available, because potential of this material is not sufficiently characterized. The objective of this work was the characterization of lipids content and fatty acids profile present in the seeds of 03 species of wild native passion fruit (Passiflora

  6. Comportamento de maracujazeiros (Passiflora spp. quanto à morte prematura Behavior of passionfruit (Passiflora spp.in relation to premature death of plants

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    Givanildo Roncatto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Universidade Estadual Paulista, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, estudou-se o comportamento de Passifloráceas quanto à morte prematura de plantas, cultivadas em local com histórico da doença. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de diversos "acessos" de populações e espécies de maracujazeiros em relação a esta doença, sendo que as plantas resistentes deverão ser utilizadas como porta-enxertos de formas comerciais de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa e em programas de melhoramento genético. As espécies utilizadas foram P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida e P. capsularis. Em local com histórico da doença, plantaram-se mudas em número variável e em épocas distintas. A condução das plantas e os tratos culturais foram os recomendados para o maracujá-amarelo. A morte prematura das plantas ocorreu entre dois meses e dois anos da cultura no campo. P. giberti e P. nitida mostraram-se resistente à doença, independentemente do local de origem. Entre os demais "acessos", não se encontraram fontes promissoras de resistência. Entretanto, novos "acessos" e novas espécies deverão ser estudadas na busca da resistência.The behavior of passionfruit, cultivated in sites with disease history, as to premature death, was researched at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus of Jaboticabal, SP. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the behavior of acesses and passionfruit species related to this disease, whereas resistant plants are to be used as yellow passionfruit rootstocks, as well as in breeding programs. The species P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida, P. capsularis were used. In a site with a known record of the disease, the plants were planted in a variable number and at distinct times. Plant

  7. Uncommon, undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenroye, M I; Osukoya, A T

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of unusual and undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies. A small double-rounded calabash or bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria, stuffed with traditional medicine designed to acquire spiritual power. A whole tricotyledonous kola nut Cola nitida also designed to make medicine to gain love from a woman after passing it out in stool. Each case presented with a sudden onset of total dysphagia and history of ingestion of foreign bodies was not volunteered by any despite direct questioning. Plain radiograph of the neck and chest in either case did not reveal presence of foreign body. Both were successfully removed through rigid oesophagoscopy. PMID:22718184

  8. A checklist of malacofauna of the Vellar Estuarine Mangroves, India

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    K. Kesavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted to know the diversity of malacofauna in Vellar estuarine mangroves (southeast coast of India. In this study, 13 species of molluscs (10 species of gastropods - Melampus ceylonicus, Cerithidea cingulata, Cassidula nucleus, Pythia plicata, Neritina (Dostia violacea, Littorina scabra, Littorina melanostoma, Ellobium aurisjudae, C. obtusa T. telescopium and Assiminea nitida and 3 species of bivalves - Perna viridis, Crassostrea madrasensis and Modiolus metcalfei were recorded. M. pulchella, C. obtusa, L. scabra and N. violacea were found arboreal. T. telescopium, C. cingulata and E. aurisjudae were found crawling on the intertidal mud.

  9. Estimação da área foliar por método não destrutivo, utilizando medidas lineares das folhas de espécies de Passiflora

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antonio Dell'Orto Morgado; Claudio Horst Bruckner; Luciana Domiciano Silva Rosado; Welberth Assunção; Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, desenvolver uma equação confiável, que possibilite calcular a área foliar de forma rápida e não destrutiva, utilizando medidas lineares da folha, para as diferentes espécies de Passiflora (P. alata, P. coccinea, P. gibertii, P. ligularis, P. misera, P. mucronata, P. nitida, P. setacea). Foram coletadas trezentas folhas, de diferentes tamanhos, de cada espécie. Realizaram-se análises de regressão da área foliar versus comprimento da nervura principal, maior lar...

  10. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

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    Eduard Petitpierre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864 show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864 has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of H. porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily.

  11. Composição de carotenoides em passifloras do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Cristina Wondracek; Fábio Gelape Faleiro; Sueli Matiko Sano; Roberto Fontes Vieira; Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo foi avaliar, por HPLC, a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de carotenoides em maracujás do cerrado. Frutos procedentes de acessos nativos de quatro espécies (Passiflora cincinnata, P. nitida, P. setacea e P. edulis) foram analisados, utilizando, como referência, o maracujá-amarelo comercial (P. edulis). As polpas de maracujá apresentaram neoxantina, violaxantina, cis-violaxantina, anteraxantina, luteína, zeaxantina, β-criptoxantina, poli-cis-caroteno, prolicopeno, cis-ζ-caroten...

  12. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

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    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  13. New challenges for the design of high value plant products: stabilization of anthocyanins in plant vacuoles

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    Valentina ePasseri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the synthesizing enzymes. We present here an overview of economically interesting plant species, both food crops and ornamentals, in which anthocyanin content was improved by traditional breeding or transgenesis. Old genetic studies in petunia and more recent biochemical work in brunfelsia, have shown that after synthesis and compartmentalization in the vacuole, anthocyanins need to be stabilized to preserve the color of the plant tissue over time. The final yield of antioxidant molecules is the result of the balance between synthesis and degradation. Therefore the understanding of the mechanism that determine molecule stabilization in the vacuolar lumen is the next step that needs to be taken to further improve the anthocyanin content in food.In several species a phenomenon known as fading is responsible for the disappearance of pigmentation which in some case can be nearly complete. We discuss the present knowledge about the genetic and biochemical factors involved in pigment preservation/destabilization in plant cells.The improvement of our understanding of the fading process will supply new tools for both biotechnological approaches and marker-assisted breeding.

  14. Notas e descrições em Hesperophanini, Eburiini, Piezocerini e Trachyderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae do Brasil e da Bolívia

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos - Hesperophanini: Paraliostola nigramacula sp. nov., do Brasil (Rondônia; Eburiini: Simplexeburia gen. nov., e sua espécie-tipo, S. divisa sp. nov. do Brasil (Amazonas; Piezocerini: Gorybia amazonensis sp. nov. and G. sulcata sp. nov., ambas do Brasil (Amazonas; Trachyderini: Galissus rubiventris sp. nov., da Bolívia (Santa Cruz. Notas e novos registros são apresentados para Liostola nitida Zajciw, 1962 e Ochrus chapadense Napp & Martins, 1982 (Hesperophanini; Uncieburia rogersi (Bates, 1870 e Quiacaua taguaiba Martins, 1970 (Eburiini.Notes and descriptions on Hesperophanini, Eburiini, Piezocerini and Trachyderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae from Brazil and Bolivia. New taxa described - Hesperophanini: Paraliostola nigramacula sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia; Eburiini: Simplexeburia gen. nov., and its type species, S. divisa sp. nov. from Brazil (Amazonas; Piezocerini: Gorybia amazonensis sp. nov. and G. sulcata sp. nov. both from Brazil (Amazonas; Trachyderini: Galissus rubiventris sp. nov. from Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Notes and records are presented for Liostola nitida Zajciw, 1962 and Ochrus chapadense Napp & Martins, 1982 (Hesperophanini; Uncieburia rogersi (Bates, 1870 and Quiacaua taguaiba Martins, 1997 (Eburiini.

  15. Rust fungi on Annonaceae II: the genus Dasyspora Berk. & M.A. Curtis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Zoller, Stefan; Berndt, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Dasyspora gregaria, the single species of the allegedly monotypic rust genus Dasyspora (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales), was investigated by light microscopy and DNA sequencing (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, partial LSU and SSU of the nuclear rDNA, mt cytochrome oxidase subunit 3). Both methods indicated that D. gregaria is not a single species but can be split in 11 distinct taxa, each of which appear confined to a single Xylopia species (Annonaceae) host. Herein nine of these are described as new. Both the phylogenetic analyses and morphology show that the species are grouped into two main clades designated Dasyspora gregaria and D. winteri. The first comprises D. gregaria, the type species of the genus, which is restricted to X. cayennensis, two new species on X. aromatica, D. segregaria from northern South America and D. echinata from Brazil. The second clade is formed by D. winteri, recombined from Puccinia winteri on X. sericea, and the new species D. amazonica on X. amazonica, D. emarginatae on X. emarginata, D. frutescentis on X. frutescens, D. ferrugineae on X. frutescens var. ferruginea, D. guianensis on X. benthamii, D. mesoamericana on X. frutescens, and D. nitidae on X. nitida. Dasyspora frutescentis and D. mesoamericana were not clearly distinguishable by their morphology and host associations but differed from another in their sequences and geographic distributions. They are considered cryptic species. An identification key and the distributions are given for all recognized species. Along with molecular data we discuss the systematic position of Dasyspora in the Pucciniales.

  16. Diversity in growth and expression pattern of PoHKT1 and PoVHA transporter genes under NaCl stress in Portulaca oleracea taxa

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    El-Bakatoushi R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and the expression of two transporter genes; PoHKT1 and PoVHA transcripts in root and shoot tissues were studied under salt stress of three Portulaca oleracea s.l. taxa. The study showed no significant differences in ratios between root lengths in saline and non-saline treatments of the three taxa, which was correlated with a clear down-regulation of the PoHKT1 transcripts in the root after 150mM NaCl. All measured growth parameters except root length increased in P. oleraceae, decreased in P. granulatostellulata and remain unchanged after 100mM NaCl in P. nitida compared to control under saline conditions. The result was consistent with the type of taxon which had significant effect on the shoot length, number of leaves and dry weight (P< 0.05. All measured growth parameters except root length showed a significant negative correlation with the shoot fold change of PoHKT1 transcripts (r = -0.607, -0.693 and -0.657 respectively. The regulation of PoVHA in root and shoot tissues in the three taxa are significantly different. Under salt stress, both decreased uptake of Na+ into the cytosol by decreasing the expression of PoHKT1 and increased vascular compartmentalization ability of Na+ by inducing the expression of PoVHA seem to work more efficiently in P. oleraceae and P. nitida than in P. granulato-stellulata.

  17. Plectranthus (Labiatae and allied genera in Southern Africa

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    L. E. Codd

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision is presented of the 40 species of Plectranthus, 1 species of Rabdosia and 3 species of Solenostemon which are indigenous, semi-naturalized or widely cultivated in Southern Africa. Descriptions, illustrations, keys and distribution data are provided. The following new names are published:  P. mutabilis Codd,  P. psammophilus Codd,  P. rubropunctatus Codd,  P. unguentarius Codd,  P. ornatus Codd (nom. nov. for Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Guerke, P. zatarhendi (Forsk. E. A. Bruce var.  tomentosus (Benth. Codd, —var.  woodii  (Guerke Codd,  P. madagascariensis (Pers. Benth. var.  aliciae  Codd,  Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd and  S. shirensis (Guerke Codd.

  18. 棒花羊蹄甲和薯叶藤的学名订正%The identity of Bauhinia claviflora and of B. dioscoreifolia (Leguminosae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奠湘; 朱光华

    2006-01-01

    The taxonomic status of two long recognized endemic Chinese species of the genus Bauhinia is clarified as part of our endeavor to prepare the manuscript of Caesalpinioideae for Flora of China. Bauhinia claviflora L. Chen and B. dioscoreifolia L. Chen are reduced to synonymy of B. nervosa (Wall. ex Benth.) Baker and B. khasiana Baker respectively.%分布于云南西双版纳的棒花羊蹄甲Bauhinia claviflora L. Chen和海南的薯叶藤B. dioscoreifolia L. Chen长期被认为是国产特有种植物,实际上分别是广泛分布的缅甸羊蹄甲B. nervosa (Wall. ex Benth.) Baker和牛蹄麻B. khasiana Baker.作者依命名法予以归并.

  19. Vegetation structure and small-scale pattern in Miombo Woodland, Marondera, Zimbabwe

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    B. M. Campbell

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim ol this paper is to describe woodland structure and small-scale patterning of woody plants at a miombo site, and to relate these to past disturbance and soil properties. Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. and Julbemardia globiflora (Benth. Troupin were the most frequent woody plants at the five hectare site, with size-class distributions which were markedly skewed towards the smaller size classes. The vegetation structure at the site and the increase in basal area over the past thirty years point to considerable disturbance prior to the present protected status. Six woodland subtypes were identified, grouped into two structural types: open and closed woodland. The distribution of woodland subtypes related closely to certain soil properties. It was hypothesized that the distribution of open and closed woodland is stable and a positive feedback mechanism by which this occurs is postulated.

  20. 青海豆科3种新记录植物%Three Newly Recorded Species of the Leguminosae from Qinghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文权; 赵龙飞; 邓振山; 韦革宏

    2009-01-01

    Three newly recorded species of Leguminosae from Qinghai,China are reported.Oxytropis ningxiaensis C.W.Chang,Oxytropis xinglongshanica C.W.Chang and Astragalus tibetanus Benth.ex Bunge.All the specimens examined are preserved in Herbarium of Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University(WUK).%报道了青海豆科3种新记录植物,六盘山棘豆(Oxytropis ningxiaensis C.W.Chang)、兴隆山棘豆(Oxytropis xinglongshanica C.W.Chang)和藏新黄耆(Astragalus tibetanus Benth.exBunge).凭证标本均保存于西北农林科技大学植物标本馆(原西北植物研究所标本馆)(WUK).