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Sample records for brunfelsia calycina petals

  1. Active anthocyanin degradation in Brunfelsia calycina (yesterday--today--tomorrow) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin, Hila; Bar-Akiva, Ayelet; Ovadia, Rinat; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Forer, Izhak; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2005-09-01

    Anthocyanins are the largest group of plant pigments responsible for colors ranging from red to violet and blue. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins, as part of the larger phenylpropanoid pathway, has been characterized in great detail. In contrast to the detailed molecular knowledge available on anthocyanin synthesis, very little is known about the stability and catabolism of anthocyanins in plants. In this study we present a preliminary characterization of active in planta degradation of anthocyanins, requiring novel mRNA and protein synthesis, in Brunfelsia calycina flowers. Brunfelsia is a unique system for this study, since the decrease in pigment concentration in its flowers (from dark purple to white) is extreme and rapid, and occurs at a specific and well-defined stage of flower development. Treatment of detached flowers with protein and mRNA synthesis inhibitors, at specific stages of flower development, prevented degradation. In addition, treatment of detached flowers with cytokinins delayed senescence without changing the rate of anthocyanin degradation, suggesting that degradation of anthocyanins is not part of the general senescence process of the flowers but rather a distinctive and specific pathway. Based on studies on anthocyanin degradation in wine and juices, peroxidases are reasonable candidates for the in vivo degradation. A significant increase in peroxidase activity was shown to correlate in time with the rate of anthocyanin degradation. An additional indication that oxidative enzymes are involved in the process is the fact that treatment of flowers with reducing agents, such as DTT and glutathione, caused inhibition of degradation. This study represents the first step in the elucidation of the molecular mechanism behind in vivo anthocyanin degradation in plants. PMID:15918029

  2. Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration-driven 'mass-flow' of soil-water can increase nutrient flow to the root surface. Here it was investigated whether transpiration could be partially regulated by nutrient status. Seeds of Ehrharta calycina from nine sites across a rainfall gradient were supplied with slow-release fertilizer dibbled into the sand surrounding the roots and directly available through interception, mass-flow and diffusion (dubbed 'interception'), or sequestered behind a 40-microm mesh and not directly accessible by the roots, but from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (dubbed 'mass-flow'). Although mass-flow plants were significantly smaller than interception plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation, they transpired 60% faster, had 90% higher photosynthesis relative to transpiration (A/E), and 40% higher tissue P, Ca and Na concentrations than plants allowed to intercept nutrients directly. Tissue N and K concentrations were similar for interception and mass-flow plants. Transpiration was thus higher in the nutrient-constrained 'mass-flow' plants, increasing the transport of nutrients to the roots by mass-flow. Transpiration may have been regulated by N availability, resulting in similar tissue concentration between treatments. It is concluded that, although transpiration is a necessary consequence of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake in C(3) plants, plants can respond to nutrient limitation by varying transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients. PMID:18537891

  3. An antifungal naphthoquinone, xanthones and secoiridoids from Swertia calycina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, S; Wolfender, J L; Hakizamungu, E; Hostettmann, K

    1995-08-01

    A chemical and biological screening of 25 species of the Gentianaceae family has been undertaken. Both methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of Swertia calycina exhibited a strong antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans. The compound responsible for this activity has been isolated and identified as 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. It is the first naphthoquinone to be described in Gentianaceae species. LC-UV and LC-TSP-MS analysis of the crude extracts of Swertia calycina also allowed on-line identification of six known xanthones and secoiridoids. PMID:7480185

  4. Fatty acid composition of Brunfelsia uniflora (Solanaceae seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, C. A.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Brunfelsia uniflora contained 30.5% of oil. The oil was analysed and components were identified by infrared (IR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and chemical methods. Linoleic acid predominated (75.5% followed by oleic (11.8% and palmitic (7.25% acids. Ricinoleic acid was present in small quantities (0.52%.Las semillas de Brunfelsia uniflora contuvieron 30.5% de aceite. El aceite fue analizado y los componentes fueron indentificados por espectroscopia de infrarrojo (IR, cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masa (CGEM y métodos químicos. Predominó el ácido linoleico (75.5% seguido por el oleico (11.8% y el palmítico (7.25%. El ácido ricinoleico estuvo presente en pequeñas cantidades (0.52%.

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components i

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of flowers of Calycopteris floribunda (Roxb. Poiret, Humboldtia brunonis Wall and Kydia calycina Roxb

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    Pavithra GM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine antioxidant and antibacterial activity of solvent extracts of flowers of Calycopteris floribunda (Roxb. Poiret (Combretaceae, Humboldtia brunonis Wall (Caesalpinaceae and Kydia calycina Roxb (Malvaceae. The powdered flowers were extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol based on increased solvent polarity. Antibacterial activity of solvent extracts was performed against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria by Agar well diffusion method. Antioxidant efficacy of solvent extracts was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and Ferric reducing assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and Aluminium chloride colorimetric estimation method respectively. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol followed by chloroform and petroleum ether. Methanol extract of C. floribunda exhibited stronger antibacterial activity followed by H. brunonis and K. calycina. The flower extracts have shown dose dependent scavenging of DPPH free radicals. Scavenging activity was recorded highest in H. brunonis followed by C. floribunda and K. calycina. Methanol extracts have shown remarkable scavenging potential followed by chloroform and petroleum ether extracts. In ferric reducing assay also, methanol extracts exhibited stronger reducing power than other solvent extracts. Methanol extract of C. floribunda showed reducing potential greater than that of ascorbic acid. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also high in methanol extracts of flowers and these contents were high in H. brunonis. A marked antibacterial and antioxidant activity of flower extracts was observed in this study. A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of solvent extracts. However, such correlation was not observed in antibacterial activity. The presence of secondary metabolites such as

  7. 'Daisy petal' connectors for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    These daisy-petal structures are conducting connectors embedded in kapton film. This was an innovative solution to the demands of the ATLAS detector. Straws are pushed through the petals and held in contact using plugs. The flexible kapton film allows as many petals to be built in any configuration, while acting as a printed circuit carrying the high voltage between circles.

  8. Putrescine uptake in saintpaulia petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, N; Pistocchi, R

    1985-02-01

    Putrescine uptake and the kinetics of this uptake were studied in petals of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Uptake experiments of [(3)H] or [(14)C] putrescine were done on single petals at room temperature at various pH values. The results show that putrescine uptake occurs against a concentration gradient at low external putrescine concentration (0.5-100 micromolar) and follows a concentration gradient at higher external putrescine concentrations (100 micromolar to 100 millimolar). 2,4-Dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, two uncouplers, had no effect on putrescine uptake. Uptake rates were constant for 2 hours, reaching a maximum after 3 to 4 hours. Putrescine uptake depended markedly on the external pH and two maxima were observed: at low external concentrations of putrescine, the optimum was at pH 5 to 5.5; at higher concentrations the optimum was at pH 8. PMID:16664065

  9. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  10. Petal Senescence: New Concepts for Ageing Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Senescence in flower petals can be regarded as a form of programmed cell death (PCD), being a process where cells or tissues are broken down in an orderly and predictable manner, whereby nutrients are re-used by other cells, tissues or plant parts. The process of petal senescence shows many similari

  11. Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Woltering, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Petal senescence is reviewed, with the main emphasis on gene expression in relation to physiological functions. Autophagy seems to be the major mechanism for large-scale degradation of macromolecules, but it is still unclear if it contributes to cell death. Depending on the species, petal senescence

  12. Morphological development of petals in Ranunculaceae

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    Yi Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The petals, or the honey-leaves, are of great divergence in morphology in Ranunculaceae, i. e., tubular, bilabial, cup-shaped, flat, concaved or scaled at the base, with or without spur or succate. The previous observations showed that although the petals differ in mature morphology, they showed great similarity in the early development stage. The petal primordia are all hemispherical, rounded and much smaller than the sepal primordia, a relatively long plastochron exists between the last sepal and the first petal and differentiate into a blade and a short stalk. Thus, we assumed that the different morphology of the mature petals might be due to the morphological repatterning of petals in the development. To prove the hypothesis, the morphological development of the petals from 22 species from 20 genera, recovering all ten petalous clades and the major morphological types, in Ranunculaceae was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The young petal undergoes the following developmental stages to the mature petal after it differentiates into blade and stalk. In the first stage, a depression appears at the base of the blade and the nectary tissue will appear in the depression in the later development. In the second stage, two bulges appear at the base of the depression that makes the petal bilabial and the bulges will be the upper lip of the petal and thus the blade will be the lower lip. In the third stage, two bulges become larger and fuse with one another at first and then fuse with the margins of the blade in each side, or each of the bulges fuses with the margin of the blade at first and then fuses with one another, or the bulges stop further growth and the depression deepened to form the succate or the spur. In the fourth stage, the lips, the two fused sides and the stalk growth in different speed. The divergence of development of different petals happens mainly in the third and the fourth stages and less divergence in the second and

  13. Chromoplast biogenesis in Chelidonium majus petals

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    Nikola Ljubešić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of chromoplasts, with special emphasis on the formation and the organisation of chromoplast fibrils, was followed in the petals of the greater celandine, Chelidonium majus L. Electron microscopic observations showed that, in the epidermis, differentiation of chromoplasts started from leucoplasts, while mesophyll chromoplasts originated from chloroplasts. During petal maturation, fibrils accumulated in the plastids, often arranging in a parallel fashion to form compact birefringent bundles. Immediately before flower opening, these fibrillar bundles started to disorganise, and, at anthesis, most chromoplasts contained widely spaced fibrils which were irregularly dispersed through the plastid interior. During chromoplast differentiation, fibrils were commonly observed to protrude from plastoglobules, suggesting the possible site of their formation. Western analysis indicated that a protein antigenically related to fibrillin from pepper chromoplasts participates in the constitution of fibrils in Chelidonium petals.

  14. Caracterização anatômica, química e antibacteriana de folhas de Brunfelsia uniflora (manacá presentes na Mata Atlântica Anatomical, chemical and antibacterial characterization of leaves of Brunfelsia uniflora (manacá in the Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Brunfelsia uniflora é uma espécie pertencente à família Solanaceae conhecida popularmente como manacá e empregada em medicina popular, suas folhas são empregadas contra artrite, reumatismo, sífilis, picadas de cobra, febre amarela, e ainda como diurética e antitérmica. Objetivou-se realizar um estudo anatômico foliar, através de microscopia de luz e de eletrônica de varredura, bem como análises químicas do extrato foliar através de cromatografia e testes microbiológicos com os extratos foliares para atividade antibacteriana frente a Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus. O material biológico foi coletado em área de Mata Atlântica, nas proximidades da cidade de São Vicente - SP. O estudo da anatomia foliar de Brunfelsia uniflora, evidenciou parênquima paliçádico com duas camadas celulares e o parênquima lacunoso com seis camadas de células; foi observada grande quantidade de drusas no parênquima clorofiliano e predominância de esclerênquima na região da nervura central da folha. A epiderme abaxial apresentou grande quantidade de estômatos, sendo estes quase que ausentes na epiderme adaxial. Estudos através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura permitiram evidenciar uma camada de cera epicuticular ornamental bem característica na epiderme adaxial da folha, predominância de estômatos paracíticos, presença de tricomas capitados e muitos tricomas peltados na epiderme abaxial da folha. A análise química evidenciou alguns picos nos cromatogramas que correspondem a grupos de substâncias que não puderam ser analisadas de forma qualitativa, mas que se pode inferir a ocorrência de derivados de ácido cafeico. Os testes microbiológicos obtidos apresentaram resultados negativos no controle das espécies de bactérias testadas, nas concentrações utilizadas.Brunfelsia uniflora is a species that belongs to the family Solanaceae, popularly known as manacá. In popular medicine the leaves are used for arthritis

  15. LMJ & PETAL Status and first experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.-L.

    2016-05-01

    The laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility is designed to provide the experimental capabilities to study High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). The LMJ is part of the Simulation Program, which combines improvement of physics models, high performance numerical simulation, and experimental validation. Since the operational commissioning of the LMJ, in October 2014, several experimental campaigns have been achieved. They have demonstrated the good performances of LMJ and demonstrated its aptitudes to perform experiments for the Simulation Program. The PETAL project consists in the addition of one short-pulse (ps) ultra- high-power, high-energy beam (kJ) to the LMJ facility. The first high energy test shots in the compressor stage of PETAL, performed in May 2015, have reached a power of 1.2 PW. PETAL will offer a combination of a very high intensity multi-petawatt beam, synchronized with the nanosecond beams of the LMJ. This combination will expand the LMJ experimental field in HEDP. LMJ-PETAL is open to the academic communities; the first experiments are planned in 2017.

  16. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs.

  17. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  18. Fastest Distributed Consensus on Petal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarizadeh, Saber

    2010-01-01

    Providing an analytical solution for the problem of finding Fastest Distributed Consensus (FDC) is one of the challenging problems in the field of sensor networks. Here in this work we present analytical solution for the problem of fastest distributed consensus averaging algorithm by means of stratification and semi-definite programming, for two particular types of Petal networks, namely symmetric and Complete Cored Symmetric (CCS) Petal networks. Our method in this paper is based on convexity of fastest distributed consensus averaging problem, and inductive comparing of the characteristic polynomials initiated by slackness conditions in order to find the optimal weights. Also certain types of leaves are introduced along with their optimal weights which are not achievable by the method used in this work if these leaves are considered individually.

  19. Anthocyanin Pigmentation Patternings in Petals of Hibiscus syriacus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Hwa; Okubo, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Kunimitsu; Uemoto, Shunpei

    1989-01-01

    Petals of Hibiscus syriacus are characterized by the various colored main part ‘body’ and an intense red to mauve ‘eye’ in the base of each petal. The concentrations of each anthocyanin varied greatly in the body part by the colors of the petals, while the predominant pigments were the cyanidin 3-glucoside and 3-malonylglucoside in the eye regions of all examined culivars. These pigmentation patternings were further investigated in several flowering stages; the anthocyanin pathways were disti...

  20. Controlled thin graphitic petal growth on oxidized silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Guoping; Hembram, K.P.S.S.; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing the formation and structure of graphitic petals grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates are investigated through process variation and materials analysis. Unlike the spatially homogeneous growth mechanisms reported previously, some graphitic petals are found to grow at an accelerated rate, often growing similar to 20 times faster than other petals located only a fraction of a micrometer away. Using scanning electron micro...

  1. Shotcup petal abrasions in close range .410-caliber shotgun injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, G P; Dickinson, J A; Cooke, C T

    1988-01-01

    Shotcup petal abrasions centered around a shotgun wound of entrance are generally thought to occur at a range of 30 to 90 cm. A suicidal .410-caliber shotgun injury of the right eye is described in which typical petal abrasions were noted around the entrance wound. However, significant soot deposition around the wound suggested that the range of fire was less than 30 cm and perhaps closer to 15 cm. Test-firing of the weapon and ammunition used by the decedent showed some spread of the shotcup petals at a range of 7.5 cm, progressing to maximum spread at 30 to 52.5 cm. Further testing with other .410 ammunition, containing shotcups, confirmed the spread of shotcup petals at ranges less than 30 cm, irrespective of manufacturer, shotshell length, and birdshot size. When a variety of shotguns were tested, it was found that one weapon with a very short barrel and cylinder bore did not exhibit petal spread until a range of 30 cm was reached. The remaining shotguns, with longer barrels and full choke, all demonstrated definite petal spread at a range of 12.5 cm. The long, narrow configuration of .410 shotcup petals may explain their early spread and the production of petal abrasions at ranges of less than 30 cm.

  2. Petal Integration for the CMS Tracker End Caps

    CERN Document Server

    Bergauer, Thomas; Friedl, Markus; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Pernicka, Manfred; Beaumont, Willem; De Wolf, Eddi A; Bouhali, Othmane; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Mahmoud, Tariq; Neukermans, Lionel; Van der Velde, C; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Tavernier, Stefaan; Udo, Fred; Van Lancker, Luc; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; De Callatay, Bernard; Delaere, Christophe; Florins, Benoit; Grégoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Lemaître, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Van der Donckt, M; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Estre, Nicolas; Giraud, Noël; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Mirabito, Laurent; Perriès, Stephane; Trocmé, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Hosselet, J; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Ollivetto, C; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Adolphi, Roman; Brauer, Richard; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Schael, Stefan; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flossdorf, E; Flügge, Günter; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Van Staa, Rolf; Atz, Bernd; Blüm, Peter; de Boer, Wim; Bogelsbacher, F; Barvich, Tobias; Dehm, Philip; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Gregoriev, E; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Muller, Th; Piaseki, C; Sabellek, Andreas; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Theel, Andreas; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Zhukov, Valery; Freudenreich, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This note describes the assembly and testing of the 292 petals built for the CMS Tracker End Caps from the beginning of 2005 until the summer of 2006. Due to the large number of petals to be assembled and the need to reach a throughput of 10 to 15 petals per week, a distributed integration approach was chosen. This integration was carried out by the following institutes: I. and III. Physikalisches Institut - RWTH Aachen University; IIHE, ULB \\& VUB Universities, Brussels; Hamburg University; IEKP, Karlsruhe University; FYNU, Louvain University; IPN, Lyon University; and IPHC, Strasbourg University. Despite the large number of petals which needed to be reworked to cope with a late-discovered module issue, the quality of the petals is excellent with less than 0.2\\% bad channels.

  3. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Ohmiya

    Full Text Available Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white petals (very low chlorophyll content, pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content, and leaves (high chlorophyll content of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  4. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6). PMID:27322517

  5. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  6. Rose solutions with three petals for planar 4-body problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For planar Newtonian 4-body problems with equal masses, we use variational methods to prove the existence of a non-collision periodic choreography solution such that all bodies move on a rose-type curve with three petals.

  7. Optical bench elements (petals) for IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Dirk; Erhard, Markus; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wallace, Kotska; Gondoin, Philippe; Collon, Maximilien J.

    2009-08-01

    X-rays at various energies can be focussed with reflective optics at grazing incidence with a well-known reflectivity achieving a high effective area by means of various designs. On XMM the high collecting area was achieved by means of thin mirror shells which were made by nickel replication combining the parabola and hyperbola sections according to the WOLTER I design in a single element. 58 of these "elements" were combined to build a mirror assembly with an effective area of 1450 cm2 @1.5 keV per mirror assembly. In order to achieve a higher effective area for IXO the density needs to be reduced. This could be achieved by pore optics elements integrated into a set of 8 petals made of Cesic as an optical bench. This design is fitting into the fairing of Ariane with a diameter of 4.2 m and achieves an effective area of 3.36 m2. It will withstand the high launch loads of up to 60 g and provide a negligible degradation to the optical performance due to thermal loads and gravitational relaxation. The design, including the interfaces to the telescope and to the pore optics, will be presented.

  8. The PETAL+ project: X-ray and charged particle diagnostics for plasma experiments at LMJ-PETAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, J.-E., E-mail: ducret@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA UMR 5107, 33400 Talence (France); CEA/IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S. [LULI UMR 7605, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Batani, D. [Univ. Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA UMR 5107, 33400 Talence (France); Blanchot, N. [CEA-CESTA, BP 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Brambrink, E. [LULI UMR 7605, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Ceccotti, T. [CEA/IRAMIS/SPAM, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); ILIL, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, UOS Adriano Gozzini, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa (Italy); Compant La Fontaine, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); D' Humières, E. [Univ. Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA UMR 5107, 33400 Talence (France); Dobosz-Dufrénoy, S. [CEA/IRAMIS/SPAM, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Duval, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fuchs, J. [LULI UMR 7605, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Hulin, S. [Univ. Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA UMR 5107, 33400 Talence (France); Koenig, M. [LULI UMR 7605, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lantuéjoul-Thfoin, I.; Lefebvre, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Marquès, J.-R. [LULI UMR 7605, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Miquel, J.-L.; Reverdin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Serani, L. [CENBG UMR 5797, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); and others

    2013-08-21

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the US started and will be followed by the Laser MégaJoule (LMJ) in France. Such facilities will provide unique tools for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) physics and for basic science. A petawatt short pulse laser (ps) is being added to the ns pulse beams of the LMJ. This is PETAL (PETawatt Aquitaine Laser), under construction on the LMJ site near Bordeaux (France). The Petal+ project is aiming at the design and construction of diagnostics dedicated to experiments with PETAL and LMJ laser beams. Within Petal+, three types of diagnostics are under study: a proton spectrometer, an electron spectrometer and a large-band X-ray spectrometer. The first goal of these diagnostics will be to characterize the secondary radiation and particle sources produced with PETAL. They will also be used for experiments using both ns and ps beams. In the present paper emphasis is put on the charged-particle diagnostics.

  9. Malonylated flavonol glycosides from the petals of Clitoria ternatea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Three flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, and myricetin 3-O-(2",6"-di-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside were isolated from the petals of Clitoria ternatea cv. Double Blue, together with eleven known flavonol glycosides. Their structures were identified using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. They were characterized as kaempferol and quercetin 3-(2(G)- rhamnosylrutinoside)s, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin 3-neohesperidosides, 3-rutinosides, and 3-glucosides in the same tissue. In addition, the presence of myricetin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was inferred from LC/MS/MS data for crude petal extracts. The flavonol compounds identified in the petals of C. ternatea differed from those reported in previous studies. PMID:12482461

  10. Ethylene production associated with petal senescence in carnation flowers is induced irrespective of the gynoecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Kazuo; Niki, Tomoko

    2014-11-15

    To clarify whether climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of senescing petals are also induced in the absence of the gynoecium in cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Barbara) flowers, we compared ethylene production and expression of ethylene-biosynthesis genes in detached petals and in petals, which remained on flowers (attached petals). No significant difference in longevity was observed between the attached and detached petals when held in distilled water, and both showed the inward rolling typical of senescing flowers. Treatment with silver thiosulfate complex (STS), an ethylene inhibitor, similarly delayed senescence of attached and detached petals. Climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of petals and gynoecium started on the same day, with similar bursts in attached and detached petals. Transcript levels of DcACS1 and DcACO1 were very low at harvest and increased similarly during senescence in both petal groups. Removal of the gynoecium did not significantly delay wilting of attached petals. In flowers with the gynoecium removed, the petals produced most of the ethylene while production by the other floral organs was very low, suggesting that wound-induced ethylene is not the reason for the ineffectiveness of gynoecium-removal in inhibiting flower senescence. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis is induced in carnation petals irrespective of the gynoecium.

  11. Onset of Phloem Export from Senescent Petals of Daylily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1995-10-01

    During senescence, petals of attached daylily (Hemerocallis hybrid cv Cradle Song) flowers lost 95% sugar and 65% dry weight over the first 24 h, with 30% of dry weight loss coming from nonsugar components. Detaching flowers did not delay senescence, but halted loss of carbohydrate and amino acid, suggesting that loss in the intact state was due to phloem export. Petal autolysis occurred mainly in the interveinal parenchyma, causing vascular strands to begin separating from the petal mass. Such vascular strands still stained with tetrazolium and accumulated sucrose, indicating a retained viability. Their sucrose accumulation rates were high in comparison with those of other plant tissues, and the accumulated product was mainly sucrose. Sucrose synthesis took place in the senescent petal, and sucrose was the principal sugar in phloem exudate, whereas hydroxyproline and glutamine were the main transport amino acids. [14C]Sucrose applied to attached senescent flowers was rapidly translocated to other parts of the plant, particularly developing flower buds. Thus, onset of phloem export allowed most of the soluble carbohydrate and amino acid in the senescing flower to be retrieved by the plant. Additional salvaged material came from proteins and possibly from structural carbohydrate. Over a 12-h period, the flower switched from acting as a strong carbohydrate sink during expansion to become a strong source during senescence. This rapid reversal offers potential for phloem transport studies. PMID:12228612

  12. M2 factor of four-petal Gaussian beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guo-Quan; Fan Yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the second-order moments,this paper derives an analytical expression of the M2 factor of four-petal Gaussian beam.The results show that the M2 factor is only determined by the beam order n.The corresponding numerical calculations are also given.As the beam order increases,the augment of M2 factor is disciplinary.As the expression of M2 factor is expressed in series form and becomes more complicated,a new concise formula of M2 factor is also presented by using curve fitting of numerical calculations.When 3≤n≤200,the maximum error rate of fitting formula will not exceed 2.6% and the average error rate is 0.28%.This research is helpful to the applications of four-petal Gaussian beam.

  13. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Chalcone Isomerase Gene (CHI) from Brunfelsia acuminata Flowers%鸳鸯茉莉查尔酮异构酶基因(CHI)cDNA的克隆与生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉婷; 邱栋梁

    2012-01-01

    采用RT-PCR与RACE技术克隆了鸳鸯茉莉(Brunfelsia acuminata)花瓣中查尔酮异构酶基因(CHI)的全长cDNA,GenBank登录号为JN887637.该基因全长1051 bp,含有1个792 bp的开放阅读框,编码263个氨基酸,为不稳定蛋白.对保守区功能区的分析,推导CHI蛋白具有查尔酮超级家族的保守结构域,二级结构预测显示其主要以α螺旋和β折叠为主.氨基酸同源性分析表明,鸳鸯茉莉CHI蛋白与矮牵牛(Petunia hybrida)、金花茶(Camellia nitidissima)、甜樱桃(Prunus avium)、芍药(Paeonia lactiflora)、牡丹(P.suffruticosa)、菊花(Chry santhemum morifolium)等植物的同源性分别达到90%、89%、84%、85%、84%、80%.因此,CHI基因可能与鸳鸯茉莉的花色形成有关.

  14. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect. PMID:23479615

  15. Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in iris and dianthus petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, van der D.A.M.; Ruys, G.; Dees, D.; Schoot, van der C.; Boer, de A.D.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gene defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) prevents programmed cell death in animal cells. We investigated the expression pattern of DAD-1 in petals of iris (Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Etarro). DAD-1 expression in Iris petals was strongly reduce

  16. Ectopic expression of SUPERMAN suppresses development of petals and stamens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae-Young; Weigel, Detlef; Lee, Ilha

    2002-01-01

    The floral regulatory gene SUPERMAN (SUP) encodes a C2H2 type zinc finger protein that is required for maintaining boundaries between floral organs in Arabidopsis. It has been proposed that the main function of SUP is to balance cell proliferation in the third and fourth whorl of developing flowers, thereby maintaining the boundaries between the two whorls. To gain further insight into the function of SUP, we have ectopically expressed SUP using the promoter of APETALA1 (AP1), a gene that is initially expressed throughout floral meristems and later becomes restricted to the first and second whorls. Flowers of AP1::SUP plants have fewer floral organs, consistent with an effect of SUP on cell proliferation. In addition, the AP1::SUP transgene caused the conversion of petals to sepals and suppressed the development of stamens. The expression of the B function homeotic gene APETALA3 (AP3) and its regulator UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) were delayed and reduced in AP1::SUP flowers. However, SUP does not act merely through UFO, as constitutive expression of UFO did not rescue the defects in petal and stamen development in AP1::SUP flowers. Together, these results suggest that SUP has both indirect and direct effects on the expression of B function homeotic genes.

  17. Crystal structure of the petal death protein from carnation flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyakov, Alexey; Liu, Sijiu; Lu, Zhibing; Howard, Andrew; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2005-12-20

    Expression of the PSR132 protein from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation, clover pink) is induced in response to ethylene production associated with petal senescence, and thus the protein is named petal death protein (PDP). Recent work has established that despite the annotation of PDP in sequence databases as carboxyphosphoenolpyruvate mutase, the enzyme is actually a C-C bond cleaving lyase exhibiting a broad substrate profile. The crystal structure of PDP has been determined at 2.7 A resolution, revealing a dimer-of-dimers oligomeric association. Consistent with sequence homology, the overall alpha/beta barrel fold of PDP is the same as that of other isocitrate lyase/PEP mutase superfamily members, including a swapped eighth helix within a dimer. Moreover, Mg(2+) binds in the active site of PDP with a coordination pattern similar to that seen in other superfamily members. A compound, covalently bound to the catalytic residue, Cys144, was interpreted as a thiohemiacetal adduct resulting from the reaction of glutaraldehyde used to cross-link the crystals. The Cys144-carrying flexible loop that gates access to the active site is in the closed conformation. Models of bound substrates and comparison with the closed conformation of isocitrate lyase and 2-methylisocitrate lyase revealed the structural basis for the broad substrate profile of PDP.

  18. Characterization of two carnation petal prolyl 4 hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Florina; Tiainen, Päivi; Owen, Carolyn; Spano, Thodhoraq; Daher, Firas Bou; Oualid, Fatiha; Senol, Namik Ozer; Vlad, Daniela; Myllyharju, Johanna; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2010-10-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) catalyze the proline hydroxylation, a major post-translational modification, of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Two carnation petal P4H cDNAs, (Dianthus caryophyllus prolyl 4-hydroxylase) DcP4H1 and DcP4H2, were identified and characterized at the gene expression and biochemical level in order to investigate their role in flower senescence. Both mRNAs showed similar patterns of expression with stable transcript abundance during senescence progression and differential tissue-specific expression with DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 strongly expressed in ovaries and stems, respectively. Recombinant DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 proteins were produced and their catalytic properties were determined. Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate (PDCA) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the in vitro enzyme activity of both P4Hs and used to determine whether inhibition of proline hydroxylation in petals is involved in senescence progression of cut carnation flowers. PDCA suppressed the climacteric ethylene production indicating a strong correlation between the inhibition of DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 activity in vitro by PDCA and the suppression of climacteric ethylene production in cut carnation flowers.

  19. Trichomes morphology in petals of some Acanthaceae species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amirul Aiman Ahmad Juhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary taxonomic study was carried out on seven Acanthaceae species namely as Andrographis paniculata, Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum, P. carruthersii,  Asystasia gangetica ssp. micrantha, Ruellia repens, Justicia comata and J. betonica. The study was undertaken to    investigate the morphology of trichomes present on the surfaces of flower petal. The variations found in this study are in their types and density. Based on observation, two forms of trichomes are present in all species studies which are glandular and non-glandular trichomes. There are seven types of trichomes found in this study. Trichomes types are shown to have systematic significance that can be used to differentiate and identify certain Acanthaceae species studied. 

  20. A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Tai

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase is a key and often rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as flowers and fruits, but the relationship between CHS expression and the petal coloration level in different cultivars is still unclear. In this study, three typical crabapple cultivars were chosen based on different petal colors and coloration patterns. The two extreme color cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame', have dark red and white petals respectively, while the intermediate cultivar 'Radiant' has pink petals. We detected the flavoniods accumulation and the expression levels of McCHS during petals expansion process in different cultivars. The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'. Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines. Moreover, the expression levels of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were higher in the transgenic McCHS overexpressing tobacco lines than in the control plants. A close relationship was observed between the expression of McCHS and the transcription factors McMYB4 and McMYB5 during petals development in different crabapple cultivars, suggesting that the expression of McCHS was regulated by these transcription factors. We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

  1. Multi-petal cyclamen flowers produced by AGAMOUS chimeric repressor expression

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Tanaka; Yoshimi Oshima; Tomomichi Yamamura; Masao Sugiyama; Nobutaka Mitsuda; Norihiro Ohtsubo; Masaru Ohme-Takagi; Teruhiko Terakawa

    2013-01-01

    Cyclamen persicum (cyclamen) is a commercially valuable, winter-blooming perennial plant. We cloned two cyclamen orthologues of AGAMOUS (AG), CpAG1 and CpAG2, which are mainly expressed in the stamen and carpel, respectively. Cyclamen flowers have 5 petals, but expression of a chimeric repressor of CpAG1 (CpAG1-SRDX) caused stamens to convert into petals, resulting in a flower with 10 petals. By contrast, CpAG2-SRDX only caused incomplete formation of stamens and carpels. Expression in Arabid...

  2. Correlations Between Degree of Petal Fusion, Leaf Size and Fruit Size: A Case in Syzygium (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUDJI WIDODO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium is one of large genera of the flowering plants. In order to simplify the identification, a classification is required, e.g. based on degree of petal fusion, leaf size and fruit size. Due to variations of vegetative and generative characters, a correlation analysis was carried out. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between degree of petal fusion, leaf length and fruit diameter. The result of this research showed that there is positive correlation between those three variables. The increase of leaf size will increase fruit size and petal lobe depth.

  3. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  4. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled(PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  5. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Farnaz Hajifattahi; Elham Moravej-Salehi; Maryam Taheri; Arash Mahboubi; Mohammad Kamalinejad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHI...

  6. A test of phenotypic selection on petal form in the wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Balao, F

    2015-11-01

    Floral phenotypes are considered a product of pollinator-mediated selection, which also has the side effect of decreasing floral variation within species. Correlates of flower visibility and function were studied in a carnation species (Dianthus inoxianus), which has crepuscular anthesis and scent-based pollination by the hawkmoth Hyles livornica. We also assessed constancy of flower form in nature and in cultivation and, using fruit set as an estimate of plant relative fitness, tested whether the main pollinator exerted phenotypic selection on floral traits. Petal claw, which is roughly equivalent to the average depth at which an insect's proboscis must be inserted to reach nectar, was remarkably constant among wild plants (coefficient of variation 8%). In contrast, the area of the visible part of the petal, and the intensity of a coloured dot pattern on the petal was very variable (respectively CV = 34% and 102%). Cultivation in a common environment revealed significant variation among genotypes as regards petal area, degree of laciniation and extension of the dot pattern, but not petal claw length, which remained steady. Petal area, shape and colour did not affect relative fitness during the year of study, but plants with intermediate petal claws (i.e. floral tubes) set significantly more fruit. Results are compatible with low response of the main pollinator to variation in visual traits (petal area, laciniation, colour) and high responsiveness to variation in other aspects (tube length). Inconsistent phenotypic selection by pollinators may add to other causes of floral variation in the genus Dianthus, the causes of which are discussed. PMID:26152531

  7. Propagation properties of partially coherent four-petal Gaussian vortex beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dajun; Wang, Yaochuan; Yin, Hongming

    2016-04-01

    The partially coherent four-petal Gaussian vortex beam is introduced and described by analytical expressions. The analytical propagation equation for partially coherent four-petal Gaussian vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere is derived by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral formula. The influences of refraction index structure, beam order n, topological charge M and the coherence length on the average intensity distributions of beam are investigated by numerical examples.

  8. A test of phenotypic selection on petal form in the wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Balao, F

    2015-11-01

    Floral phenotypes are considered a product of pollinator-mediated selection, which also has the side effect of decreasing floral variation within species. Correlates of flower visibility and function were studied in a carnation species (Dianthus inoxianus), which has crepuscular anthesis and scent-based pollination by the hawkmoth Hyles livornica. We also assessed constancy of flower form in nature and in cultivation and, using fruit set as an estimate of plant relative fitness, tested whether the main pollinator exerted phenotypic selection on floral traits. Petal claw, which is roughly equivalent to the average depth at which an insect's proboscis must be inserted to reach nectar, was remarkably constant among wild plants (coefficient of variation 8%). In contrast, the area of the visible part of the petal, and the intensity of a coloured dot pattern on the petal was very variable (respectively CV = 34% and 102%). Cultivation in a common environment revealed significant variation among genotypes as regards petal area, degree of laciniation and extension of the dot pattern, but not petal claw length, which remained steady. Petal area, shape and colour did not affect relative fitness during the year of study, but plants with intermediate petal claws (i.e. floral tubes) set significantly more fruit. Results are compatible with low response of the main pollinator to variation in visual traits (petal area, laciniation, colour) and high responsiveness to variation in other aspects (tube length). Inconsistent phenotypic selection by pollinators may add to other causes of floral variation in the genus Dianthus, the causes of which are discussed.

  9. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, YoungJin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited b...

  10. LMJ/PETAL laser facility: Overview and opportunities for laboratory astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Darbon, S.; Duval, A.; Thfouin, I.; Jadaud, J. P.; LeBreton, J. P.; Reverdin, C.; Rosse, B.; Rosch, R.; Blanchot, N.; Villette, B.; Wrobel, R.; Miquel, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The advent of high-power lasers facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in the near future opens a new era in the field of High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics. The LMJ, keystone of the French Simulation Program, is under construction at CEA/CESTA and will deliver 1.5 MJ with 176 beamlines. The first physics experiments on LMJ will be performed at the end of 2014 with 2 quadruplets (8 beams). The operational capabilities (number of beams and plasma diagnostics) will increase gradually during the following years. We describe the current status of the LMJ facility and the first set of diagnostics to be used during the commissioning phase and the first experiments. The PETAL project (PETawatt Aquitaine Laser), part of the CEA opening policy, consists in the addition of one short-pulse (500 fs to 10 ps) ultra-high-power, high-energy beam (a few kJ compressed energy) to the LMJ facility. PETAL is focalized into the LMJ target chamber and could be used alone or in combination with LMJ beams. In the later case, PETAL will offer a combination of a very high intensity multi-petawatt beam, synchronized with the nanosecond beams of the LMJ. PETAL, which is devoted to the academic research, will also extend the LMJ diagnostic capabilities. Specific diagnostics adapted to PETAL capacities are being fabricated in order to characterize particles and radiation yields that can be created by PETAL. A first set of diagnostics will measure the particles (protons/ions/electrons) spectrum (0.1-200 MeV range) and will also provide point projection proton-radiography capability. LMJ/PETAL, like previously the LIL laser [X. Julien et al., Proc. SPIE 7916 (2011) 791610], will be open to the academic community. Laboratory astrophysics experiments have already been performed on the LIL facility, as for example radiative shock experiments and planetary interiors equation of state measurements.

  11. Is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor involved in the regulation of petal wilting in senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hiroaki; Shibuya, Kenichi; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Senescence of carnation petals is accompanied by autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting of the petals; the former is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes and the latter is related to the expression of a cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. CPase is probably responsible for the degradation of proteins, leading to the decomposition of cell components and resultant cell death during the senescence of petals. The carnation plant also has a gene for the CPase inhibitor (DC-CPIn) that is expressed abundantly in petals at the full opening stage of flowers. In the present study, DC-CPIn cDNA was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant DC-CPIn protein completely inhibited the activities of a proteinase (CPase) extracted from carnation petals and papain. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA for CPase (DC-CP1) accumulated in large amounts, whereas that for DC-CPIn disappeared, corresponding to the onset of petal wilting in flowers undergoing natural senescence and exogenous ethylene-induced senescence. Based on these findings, a role of DC-CPIn in the regulation of petal wilting is suggested; DC-CPIn acts as a suppressor of petal wilting, which probably functions to fine-tune petal wilting in contrast to coarse tuning, the up-regulation of CPase activity by gene expression.

  12. Successful Starshade Petal Deployment Tolerance Verification in Support of NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Lisman, D.; Shaklan, S.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Marks, G. W.; Lo, A.

    2014-01-01

    A Starshade is a sunflower-shaped satellite with a large inner disk structure surrounded by petals that flies in formation with a space-borne telescope, creating a deep shadow around the telescope over a broad spectral band to permit nearby exoplanets to be viewed. Removing extraneous starlight before it enters the observatory optics greatly loosens the tolerances on the telescope and instrument that comprise the optical system, but the nature of the Starshade dictates a large deployable structure capable of deploying to a very precise shape. These shape requirements break down into key mechanical requirements, which include the rigid-body position and orientation of each of the petals that ring the periphery of the Starshade. To verify our capability to meet these requirements, we modified an existing flight-like Astromesh reflector, provided by Northrup Grumman, as the base ring to which the petals attach. The integrated system, including 4 of the 30 flight-like subscale petals, truss, connecting spokes and central hub, was deployed tens of times in a flight-like manner using a gravity compensation system. After each deployment, discrete points in prescribed locations covering the petals and truss were measured using a highly-accurate laser tracker system. These measurements were then compared against the mechanical requirements, and the as-measured data shows deployment accuracy well within our milestone requirements and resulting in a contrast ratio consistent with exoplanet detection and characterization.

  13. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Petal Extracts on Lipase, Adipogenesis, Adipolysis, and Central Receptors of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N. nucifera is one among the important medicinal plants assessed for its antiobesity action in various preclinical models. The present study was aimed at investigating the antiobesity effect of methanol and successive water extracts of petals of N. nucifera by studying its effect on adipogenesis, adipolysis, lipase, serotonin (5-HT2C, cannabinoid (CNR2, melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCHR1, and melanocortin (MC4R receptors. Both methanol and successive water extracts of N. nucifera petals had an effect on inhibition of lipid storage in adipocytes and on increasing lipolysis. N. nucifera petal methanol extract exhibited the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on lipase activity with an IC50 value of 47 µg/mL. N. nucifera petal extracts showed evident agonist and antagonist activity towards 5-HT2C and CNR2 receptors, respectively, while it showed no effect towards MCHR1 and MC4R receptors. Overall, methanol extract of N. nucifera petals showed better activity than successive water extract.

  14. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horibe Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific radioactivity of sucrose and glucose in leaves, but specific radioactivity of sucrose in petals was much higher than that of glucose. These results suggested that most of the exogenously applied glucose first moved to the leaves, where it was converted into sucrose and then the synthesised sucrose was translocated to the petals. Our results showed that the leaves of cut rose flowers play an important role in the metabolism and transportation of exogenously applied soluble carbohydrates toward the petals, thus contributing to sustaining the post-harvest quality.

  15. Successful Starshade petal deployment tolerance verification in support of NASA's technology development for exoplanet missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Lisman, D.; Shaklan, S.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Marks, G. W.; Lo, A.

    2014-07-01

    A Starshade is a sunflower-shaped satellite with a large inner disk structure surrounded by petals. A Starshade flies in formation with a space-borne telescope, creating a deep shadow around the telescope over a broad spectral band to permit nearby exoplanets to be viewed. Removing extraneous starlight before it enters the observatory optics greatly loosens the tolerances on the telescope and instrument that comprise the optical system, but the nature of the Starshade dictates a large deployable structure capable of deploying to a very precise shape. These shape requirements break down into key mechanical requirements which include the rigid-body position and orientation of each of the petals that ring the periphery of the Starshade. To verify our capability to meet these requirements, we modified an existing flight-like Astromesh reflector, provided by Northrup Grumman, as the base ring to which the petals attach. The integrated system, including 4 of the 30 flight-like subscale petals, truss, connecting spokes and central hub, was deployed tens of times in a flight-like manner using a gravity compensation system. After each deployment, discrete points in prescribed locations covering the petals and truss were measured using a highly-accurate laser tracker system. These measurements were then compared against the mechanical requirements, and the as-measured data shows deployment accuracy well within our milestone requirements and resulting in a contrast ratio consistent with exoplanet detection and characterization.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of petal type CZTS by stacked layer reactive sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om Pal; Parmar, R.; Gour, K. S.; Dalai, M. K.; Tawale, Jai; Singh, S. P.; Singh, Vidya Nand

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a method to grow the petal type structure of CZTS thin film on soda lime glass substrate using the stacked layer reactive sputtering and post-depostion annealing in N2 atmosphere. Optical bandgap of the petal type structure of CZTS was determined using UV-VIS spectroscopy and the value was 1.5 eV. In XRD analysis, (112) plane having highest intensity and other supporting planes with low intensity peaks corresponding to (200), (220) and (312) revealed the presence of CZTS phase. It was further confirmed by the Raman analysis, where the Raman peaks at 288 cm-1, 335 cm-1 and 353 cm-1 revealed the presence of CZTS phase. Petal type growth was observed in the scanning electron microscopy analysis. Elemental analysis was done by the EDAX. In EDAX analysis, It is observed that sample was Sn rich which may be responsible for petal type growth. Petal type growth of CZTS may be helpful in increasing the performance of the CZTS based thin film solar cell by phenomena of light scattering and enhanced surface area.

  17. Plant regeneration from stem and petal of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, G; Wardley-Richardson, T; Lu, C Y

    1991-11-01

    Plants were regenerated via adventitious shoot initiation from petal explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars Crowley Sim, Ember Rose, Orchid Beauty, Red Sim, White Sim and from stem segments of Crowley Sim, Red Sim, White Sim. Differences in cultivar response were observed, with White Sim being the most responsive for both explant types. Plants were also regenerated from receptacles of this cultivar. The effect of different cytokinins on regeneration from petal and stem explants of cultivar White Sim was compared. Thidiazuron was more effective than 6-benzylaminopurine or kinetin. In stem explants, morphogenic capacity was determined by the developmental stage of the explant. Highest percentage of shoot formation was observed in the youngest stem segments, on all the cytokinins tested. Stem-derived plants grew faster than petal or receptacle-derived plants and produced normal, flowering plants eight to ten months after culture.

  18. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

  19. PETALS: Proteomic Evaluation and Topological Analysis of a mutated Locus' Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vishal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer is driven by mutations in a number of genes, the most notorious of which is Apc. Though much of Apc's signaling has been mechanistically identified over the years, it is not always clear which functions or interactions are operative in a particular tumor. This is confounded by the presence of mutations in a number of other putative cancer driver (CAN genes, which often synergize with mutations in Apc. Computational methods are, thus, required to predict which pathways are likely to be operative when a particular mutation in Apc is observed. Results We developed a pipeline, PETALS, to predict and test likely signaling pathways connecting Apc to other CAN-genes, where the interaction network originating at Apc is defined as a "blossom," with each Apc-CAN-gene subnetwork referred to as a "petal." Known and predicted protein interactions are used to identify an Apc blossom with 24 petals. Then, using a novel measure of bimodality, the coexpression of each petal is evaluated against proteomic (2 D differential In Gel Electrophoresis, 2D-DIGE measurements from the Apc1638N+/-mouse to test the network-based hypotheses. Conclusions The predicted pathways linking Apc and Hapln1 exhibited the highest amount of bimodal coexpression with the proteomic targets, prioritizing the Apc-Hapln1 petal over other CAN-gene pairs and suggesting that this petal may be involved in regulating the observed proteome-level effects. These results not only demonstrate how functional 'omics data can be employed to test in silico predictions of CAN-gene pathways, but also reveal an approach to integrate models of upstream genetic interference with measured, downstream effects.

  20. Endoglycanase-Catalyzed Degradation of Hemicelluloses during Development of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vetten, N C; Huber, D J; Gross, K C

    1991-03-01

    Large molecular-size hemicelluloses, including xyloglucan, decreased in quantity during development of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv White Sim) petals, along with a relative increase in polymers with an average size of 10 kilodaltons. An enzyme extract from senescing petal tissue depolymerized the large molecular-size hemicelluloses in a pattern similar to that occurring in vivo during petal development. The products generated in vitro were composed of polymeric and monomeric components, the latter consisting primarily of xylose, galactose, and glucose. The 10 kilodalton hemicelluloses were resistant to in vitro enzymic hydrolysis. Glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size polymers provided evidence for the presence of xyloglucan with smaller amounts of arabinoxylan and arabinan. The 10 kilodalton polymers were enriched in mannosyl and 4-linked glucosyl residues, presumably derived from glucomannan. During petal development or enzymic hydrolysis, no change was observed in the relative glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size hemicelluloses. The in vitro activity of carnation petal enzymes active toward native hemicelluloses increased threefold at the onset of senescence and declined slightly thereafter. Gel chromatography revealed 23 and 12 kilodalton proteins with hemicellulase activity. The enzymes hydrolyzed the large molecular-size hemicelluloses extensively and without formation of monomers. Endoxylanase activity was detected in the partially purified enzyme preparation. Xyloglucan was depolymerized in the absence of cellulase activity, suggesting the presence of a xyloglucan-specific glucanase. These data indicate that the hemicellulose molecular-size changes observed during development of carnation petals are due, in part, to the enzymic depolymerization of large molecular-size hemicelluloses.

  1. Flavonoid composition related to petal color in different lines of Clitoria ternatea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-11-01

    Flavonoids in the petals of several C. ternatea lines with different petal colors were investigated with LC/MS/MS. Delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was newly isolated from the petals of a mauve line (wm) together with three known anthocyanins. They were identified structurally using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Although ternatins, a group of 15 (poly)acylated delphinidin glucosides, were identified in all the blue petal lines (WB, BM-1, 'Double Blue' and 'Albiflora'), WM accumulated delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside instead. The white petal line (WW) did not contain anthocyanins. Quantitative data showed that the total anthocyanin contents in WB and 'Double Blue' were ca. 8- and 10-fold higher than that in BM-1, a bud mutant of 'Double Blue', respectively. The total anthocyanin content in 'Albiflora' was less than 2 x 10(-3) times those in WB or 'Double Blue'. While all the lines contained the same set of 15 flavonol glycosides in similar relative ratios, the relative ratio of myricetin glycosides in ww and 'Albiflora' was ca. 30-70 times greater than those in the other lines. The change in flower color from blue to mauve was not due to a change in the structure of an anthocyanidin from delphinidin, but to the lack of (polyacylated) glucosyl group substitutions at both the 3'- and 5'-positions of ternatins. This implies that glucosylation at the 3'- and 5'-positions of anthocyanin is a critical step in producing blue petals in C. ternatea. PMID:14568080

  2. Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi; Shibuya; Tsuruno; Iwazaki; Mochizuki; Yoshioka; Hashiba; Satoh

    2000-09-01

    Carnation petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting during senescence. The autocatalytic ethylene production is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes, whereas the wilting of petals is related to the expression of the cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. So far, it has been believed that the ethylene production and wilting are regulated in concert in senescing carnation petals, since the two events occurred closely in parallel with time. In the present study, we investigated the expression of these genes in petals of a transgenic carnation harboring a sense ACC oxidase transgene and in petals of carnation flowers treated with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS). In petals of the transgenic carnation flowers, treatment with exogenous ethylene caused accumulation of the transcript for CPase and in-rolling (wilting), whereas it caused no or little accumulation of the transcripts for ACC oxidase and ACC synthase and negligible ethylene production. In petals of the flowers treated with DPSS, the transcripts for ACC synthase and ACC oxidase were accumulated, but no significant change in the level of the transcript for CPase was observed. These results suggest that the expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase genes, which leads to ethylene production, is differentially regulated from the expression of CPase, which leads to wilting, in carnation petals.

  3. Programmed Cell Death in Relation to Petal Senescence in Ornamental Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHOU; Cai-Yun WANG; Hong GE; Frank A. HOEBERICHTS; Peter B. VISSER

    2005-01-01

    Cell death is a common event in all types of plant organisms. Understanding the phenomenon of programmed cell death (PCD) is an important area of research for plant scientists because of its role in senescence and the post-harvest quality of ornamentals, fruits, and vegetables. In the present paper, PCD in relation to petal senescence in ornamental plants is reviewed. Morphological, anatomical, physiological,and biochemical changes that are related to PCD in petals, such as water content, sink-source relationships,hormones, genes, and signal transduction pathways, are discussed. Several approaches to improving the quality of post-harvest ornamentals are reviewed and some prospects for future research are given.

  4. Reception Test of Petals for the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, R; Klein, Katja; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Adler, Volker; Adolphi, Roman; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and was inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub system of the tracker are its end caps, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted onto the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 such petals, which were built and fully qualified by several institutes across Europe. From

  5. Contact and Support Considerations in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Activity of Petaled MoS2 Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Shane T; Macdonald, Janet E

    2016-09-28

    Petaled MoS2 electrodes grown hydrothermally from Mo foils are found to have an 800 nm, intermediate, MoSxOy layer. Similar petaled MoS2 films without this intermediate layer are grown on Au. X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies and transmission electron microscopy indicate the resulting petaled multilayer MoS2 films are frayed and exhibit single-layer, 1T-MoS2 behavior at the edges. We compare the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction activity via linear sweep voltammetry with Tafel analysis as well as the impedance properties of the electrodes. We find that petaled MoS2/Au and petaled MoS2/Mo exhibit comparable overpotential to 10 mA cm(-2) at -279 vs -242 mV, respectively, and similar Tafel slopes of ∼68 mV/decade indicating a similar rate-determining step. The exchange current normalized to the geometric area of petaled MoS2/Au (0.000921 mA cm(-2)) is 3 times smaller than that of petaled MoS2/Mo (0.00290 mA cm(-2)), and is attributed to the lower petal density on the Au support. However, Au supports increase the turnover frequency per active site of petaled MoS2 to 0.48 H2 Mo(-1) s(-1) from 0.25 H2 Mo(-1) s(-1) on Mo supports. Both petaled MoS2 films have nearly ohmic contacts to their supports with uncompensated resistivity Ru of <2.5 Ω·cm(2).

  6. Direct imaging of plant metabolites in leaves and petals by Desorption Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Janfelt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    and demonstrated on leaves and petals of Hypericum perforatum. The direct imaging approaches are in contrast to previous DESI imaging studies where indirect analysis via imprints were used in order to overcome the morphological barrier presented by the layer of cuticular waxes covering the surface of a leaf...

  7. Jasmonate controls late development stages of petal growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Florian; Joly, Caroline; Szécsi, Judit; Varaud, Emilie; Leroux, Julie; Bellvert, Floriant; Bertrand, Cédric; Bendahmane, Mohammed

    2009-12-01

    In Arabidopsis, four homeotic gene classes, A, B, C and E, are required for the patterning of floral organs. However, very little is known about how the activity of these master genes is translated into regulatory processes leading to specific growth patterns and the formation of organs with specific shapes and sizes. Previously we showed that the transcript variant BPEp encodes a bHLH transcription factor that is involved in limiting petal size by controlling post-mitotic cell expansion. Here we show that the phytohormone jasmonate is required for control of BPEp expression. Expression of BPEp was negatively regulated in opr3 mutant flowers that are deficient in jasmonate synthesis. Moreover, the expression of BPEp was restored in opr3 flowers following exogenous jasmonate treatments. Expression of the second transcript variant BPEub, which originates from the same gene as BPEp via an alternative splicing event, was not affected, indicating that BPEp accumulation triggered by jasmonate occurs at the post-transcriptional level. Consistent with these data, opr3 exhibited an increase in petal size as a result of increased cell size, as well as a modified vein pattern, phenotypes that are similar to those of the bpe-1 mutant. Furthermore, exogenous treatments with jasmonate rescued petal phenotypes associated with loss of function of OPR3. Our data demonstrate that jasmonate signaling downstream of OPR3 is involved in the control of cell expansion and in limiting petal size, and that BPEp is a downstream target that functions as a component mediating jasmonate signaling during petal growth. PMID:19765234

  8. Ethylene-regulated expression of a carnation cysteine proteinase during flower petal senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M L; Larsen, P B; Woodson, W R

    1995-06-01

    The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene and is associated with considerable catabolic activity including the loss of protein. In this paper we present the molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase and show that its expression is regulated by ethylene and associated with petal senescence. A 1600 bp cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using a 5'-specific primer and 3'-nonspecific primer designed to amplify a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from reverse-transcribed stylar RNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned product (pDCCP1) was found to share significant homology to several cysteine proteinases rather than ACC synthase. A single open reading frame of 428 amino acids was shown to share significant homology with other plant cysteine proteinases including greater than 70% identity with a cysteine proteinase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Amino acids in the active site of cysteine proteinases were conserved in the pDCCP1 peptide. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the expression of pDCCP1 increased substantially with the onset of ethylene production and senescence of petals. Increased pDCCP1 expression was also associated with ethylene production in other senescing floral organs including ovaries and styles. The pDCCP1 transcript accumulated in petals treated with exogenous ethylene within 3 h and treatment of flowers with 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, prevented the increase in pDCCP1 expression in petals. The temporal and spatial patterns of pDCCP1 expression suggests a role for cysteine proteinase in the loss of protein during floral senescence.

  9. Predictors of contraceptive use among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, N M; Tan Boon Ann; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine some socioeconomic factors that are associated with family planning practice in a metropolitan area of a developing country, namely Malaysia. Data collected during the 1977 Family and Health Survey in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya is utilized. The study population comprised currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, the 2 densely populated, rapidly expanding and adjoining metropolitan areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The study population was selected using a 2-stage systematic sampling technique from specifically defined areas in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya. These areas were selected accourding to socioeconomic criteria, namely, the squatter or slum areas, the new villages located on the periphery of the metropolitan area, other Kuala Lumpur and other Petaling Jaya. Family planning behavior, specifically, contraceptive use is also associated with socioeconomic variables. It is determined that the best predictors of contraceptive use, in order of importance are ethnicity, age and area. However, the relationship between age and contraceptive use varies across ethnic groups. In particular, among Malay and Chinese women, contraceptive use decreases as age increases, but among Indian women usage is not related to age. For the Malay women, usage decreases rapidly after age 24 years but the decline is more gradual for the Chinese women. In general, Chinese women are more likely to be current users in comparison to Malays, while the Indians occupy an intermediate position. The probability of usage is higher for women residing in Petaling Jaya and squatter areas in comparison to those residing in Kuala Lumpur and new villages.

  10. The F-box-containing protein UFO and AGAMOUS participate in antagonistic pathways governing early petal development in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Durfee, Tim; Roe, Judith L.; Sessions, R. Allen; Inouye, Carla; Serikawa, Kyle; Feldmann, Kenneth A.; Weigel, Detlef; Zambryski, Patricia C.

    2003-01-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for multiple processes in the developing Arabidopsis flower, including the proper patterning and identity of both petals and stamens. The gene encodes an F-box-containing protein, UFO, which interacts physically and genetically with the Skp1 homolog, ASK1. In this report, we describe four ufo alleles characterized by the absence of petals, which uncover another role for UFO in promoting second whorl development. This UFO...

  11. Nanostructuring Platinum Nanoparticles on Multilayered Graphene Petal Nanosheets for Electrochemical Biosensing

    OpenAIRE

    Claussen, Jonathan C.; Kumar, Anurag; Jaroch, David B.; Khawaja, M. Haseeb; Hibbard, Allison; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization of nanoscale metals and carbon nanotubes into composite nanomaterials has produced some of the best-performing sensors to date. The challenge remains to develop scalable nanofabrication methods that are amenable to the development of sensors with broad sensing ranges. A scalable nanostructured biosensor based on multilayered graphene petal nanosheets (MGPNs), Pt nanoparticles, and a biorecognition element (glucose oxidase) is presented. The combination of zero-dimensional nanopa...

  12. Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols From Rose (Rosa Damascena Mill.) Petals

    OpenAIRE

    Kalcheva-Karadzhova Krasimira; Shikov Vasil; Mihalev Kiril; Dobrev Georgi; Ludneva Danka; Penov Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    : The efficiency of enzyme-assisted extraction for the recovery of polyphenols from rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petals was evaluated performing a simplex centroid experimental design for mixture with three components (pectinolytic, cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic preparation). The ternary enzyme combinations leaded to the highest contents of total polyphenols, reaching 43% higher average value as compared to the control (without enzymatic treatment) sample. Enzymatic treatments also enhance...

  13. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine. PMID:26012879

  14. Gene expression patterns to define stages of post-harvest senescence in Alstroemeria petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Emily; Wagstaff, Carol; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bramke, Irene; Rogers, Hilary; Stead, Anthony; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky

    2004-03-01

    Petal senescence in many species is regulated by ethylene but some flowers, such as those on the monocotyledonous plant Alstroemeria, var. Rebecca are ethylene insensitive. Changes in gene expression during the post-harvest senescence of Alstroemeria flowers were investigated using several different techniques. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to obtain cDNA libraries enriched for genes expressed at selected stages of petal senescence. Sequencing of the EST clones obtained resulted in over 1000 sequences that represent approximately 500 different genes. Analysis of the potential functions of these genes provides a snapshot of the processes that are taking place during petal development. Both cell wall related genes and genes involved in metabolism were present at a higher proportion in the earlier stages. Genes encoding metal binding proteins (mostly metallothionein-like) were the major component of senescence enhanced libraries. This limited the diversity of genes identified showing differential expression at the later stages. Changes in the expression of all genes were analysed using microarray hybridization, and genes showing either up or down-regulation were identified. The expression pattern of a selection of genes was confirmed using Northern hybridization. Northern hybridization confirmed the up-regulation of metallothioneins after floral opening, however, this was not detected by the microarray analysis, indicating the importance of using a combination of methods to investigate gene expression patterns. Considerably more genes were up-regulated than down-regulated. This may reflect the need during Alstroemeria petal senescence for the expression of a whole new set of genes involved with degradation and mobilization. The potential uses of expression profiling to improve floral quality in breeding programmes or as a diagnostic tool are discussed. PMID:17147607

  15. Programmed Cell Death Progresses Differentially in Epidermal and Mesophyll Cells of Lily Petals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Mochizuki-Kawai

    Full Text Available In the petals of some species of flowers, programmed cell death (PCD begins earlier in mesophyll cells than in epidermal cells. However, PCD progression in each cell type has not been characterized in detail. We separately constructed a time course of biochemical signs and expression patterns of PCD-associated genes in epidermal and mesophyll cells in Lilium cv. Yelloween petals. Before visible signs of senescence could be observed, we found signs of PCD, including DNA degradation and decreased protein content in mesophyll cells only. In these cells, the total proteinase activity increased on the day after anthesis. Within 3 days after anthesis, the protein content decreased by 61.8%, and 22.8% of mesophyll cells was lost. A second peak of proteinase activity was observed on day 6, and the number of mesophyll cells decreased again from days 4 to 7. These biochemical and morphological results suggest that PCD progressed in steps during flower life in the mesophyll cells. PCD began in epidermal cells on day 5, in temporal synchrony with the time course of visible senescence. In the mesophyll cells, the KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase (LoCYP and S1/P1 nuclease (LoNUC genes were upregulated before petal wilting, earlier than in epidermal cells. In contrast, relative to that in the mesophyll cells, the expression of the SAG12 cysteine proteinase homolog (LoSAG12 drastically increased in epidermal cells in the final stage of senescence. These results suggest that multiple PCD-associated genes differentially contribute to the time lag of PCD progression between epidermal and mesophyll cells of lily petals.

  16. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine.

  17. Extraction of lutein from Marigold flower petals - Experimental kinetics and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hojnik, Maša; Škerget, Mojca; Knez, Željko

    2012-01-01

    The extraction kinetics behaviour of lutein from Marigold flower petals and simultaneous alkali hydrolysis has been studied. Extraction was carried out by varying following operating conditions: type of organic solvent, temperature, ratio liquid: material, concentration of alkali solution, and particle size of plant material. Experimental extraction curves were analysed with a mathematical model derived from Fick's second law. The extraction of lutein appeared to be governed by slow and fast ...

  18. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation.

  19. Pollinator shifts drive petal epidermal evolution on the Macaronesian Islands bird-flowered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Dario I; Valido, Alfredo; Fernández de Castro, Alejandro G; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier; Carvalho, José A; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    2016-04-01

    Pollinator shifts are considered to drive floral trait evolution, yet little is still known about the modifications of petal epidermal surface at a biogeographic region scale. Here we investigated how independent shifts from insects to passerine birds in the Macaronesian Islands consistently modified this floral trait (i.e. absence of papillate cells). Using current phylogenies and extensive evidence from field observations, we selected a total of 81 plant species and subspecies for petal microscopy and comparative analysis, including 19 of the 23 insular species pollinated by opportunistic passerine birds (Macaronesian bird-flowered element). Species relying on passerine birds as the most effective pollinators (bird-pollinated) independently evolved at least five times and in all instances associated with a loss of papillate cells, whereas species with a mixed pollination system (birds plus insects and/or other vertebrates) evolved at least five times in Macaronesia and papillate cells were lost in only 25% of these transitions. Our findings suggest that petal micromorphology is a labile trait during pollinator shifts and that papillate cells tend to be absent on those species where pollinators have limited mechanical interaction with flowers, including opportunistic passerine birds that forage by hovering or from the ground. PMID:27122008

  20. Natural variation in petal color in Lycoris longituba revealed by anthocyanin components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling He

    Full Text Available Lycoris longituba is one of the species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. Despite its limited distribution, endemic to central eastern China, this species displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, orange, to yellow, in nature. We study the natural variation of floral color in L. longituba by testing the components of water-soluble vacuolar pigments--anthocyanins--in its petals using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four anthocyanins were identified, cyanidin-3-sophoroside (Cy3So, cyanidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Cy3XyGlc, cyanidin-3-sambubioside (Cy3Sa, and pelargonidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Pg3XyGlc, which occur at various amounts in L. longituba petals of different colors. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. Anthocyanins have been thought to play a major role in acting as a UV screen that protects the plant's DNA from sunlight damage and attracting insects for the purpose of pollination. Thus, knowledge about the content and type of anthocyanins determining the petal coloration of Lycoris longituba will help to study the adaptive evolution of flowers and provide useful information for the ornamental breeding of this species.

  1. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries. PMID:26884763

  2. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture content of 90.84 % be dried with this dryer until the moisture content of 7.67 % takes only 2 days, although the weather was less sunny . The temperature in the drying chamber was not more than 50° C, so it was good for drying groceries, not damaging chemical ingredients. The relative humidity in the space dryeris was about 40 % and it was still relative low. Drying rate and drying performance was expressed by the efficiency and Specific Moisture Evaporation Rate ( SMER were influenced by water content of the dried material and weather. Daily efficiency at the first and the second day: 14.931 % and 5.78%, while the daily SMER on the first and the second day: 0.222 and 0.0256 ( kg / kWh .

  3. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation. PMID:26472968

  4. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  5. Upregulation of a tonoplast-localized cytochrome P450 during petal senescence in Petunia inflata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Hiroyuki

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression in Petunia inflata petals undergoes major changes following compatible pollination. Severe flower wilting occurs reproducibly within 36 hours, providing an excellent model for investigation of petal senescence and programmed cell death. Expression of a number of genes and various enzyme activities involved in the degradation and remobilization of macromolecules have been found to be upregulated during the early stages of petal senescence. Results By performing differential display of cDNAs during Petunia inflata petal senescence, a highly upregulated gene encoding a cytochrome P450 was identified. Analysis of the complete cDNA sequence revealed that the predicted protein is a member of the CYP74C family (CYP74C9 and is highly similar to a tomato CYP74C allene oxide synthase (AOS that is known to be active on 9-hydroperoxides. Cloning of the petunia genomic DNA revealed an intronless gene with a promoter region that carries signals found in stress-responsive genes and potential binding sites for Myb transcription factors. Transcripts were present at detectable levels in root and stem, but were 40 times more abundant in flowers 36 hours after pollination. Ethylene and jasmonate treatment resulted in transitory increases in expression in detached flowers. A protein fusion of the CYP74C coding region to a C-terminal GFP was found to be located in the tonoplast. Conclusion Though oxylipins, particularly jasmonates, are known to be involved in stress responses, the role of other products of CYP74 enzymes is less well understood. The identification of a CYP74C family member as a highly upregulated gene during petal senescence suggests that additional products of fatty acid metabolism may play important roles during programmed cell death. In contrast to the chloroplast localization of AOS proteins in the CYP74A subfamily, GFP fusion data indicates that the petunia CYP74C9 enzyme is in the tonoplast. This result

  6. Analysis of petal longterm test data for the CMS-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydhausen, Dirk

    2008-12-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva will start end of 2008. One of the experiments at the LHC is the multipurpose detector CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid). A key part of the CMS detector is the tracking system, that is composed of a silicon pixel detector forming the innermost part, surrounded by silicon strip sensors. Currently, it is the largest silicon detector in the world with an active area of 198 m{sup 2}. The strip tracker itself consists of four subdetectors. One of these are the tracker end caps (TEC) with an active area of 82 m{sup 2}. Besides this large aperture, their position in the forward region plays a key role for physics analysis due to the fact that many of the interesting events are expected to be boosted in the forward region (pp collider). This area splits up into 10,288 sensors with 3,988,765 channels in total. In several steps the modules constructed and tested before being mounted onto the final substructures (petals). An important longterm test has been performed which qualifies the petals to be installed into the detector. The focus of the present work is in the longterm test. The test procedure is described. A method for identification and classification of defect channels is presented. This method has been developed based on the test results of a previous test ('ARC-test'), which has examined each module before the assembly onto the petals. A cross-check has been performed to compare the results with data from a subsequent test ('sector-test'), that is performed after the petals have been integrated into the TEC. A good agreement shows the consistency of the presented results. With the help of this method a channel defect rate of approximately 0.09% can be measured. Further defects like 'dead' components became visible after integration of the petals into the TEC and raised this number up to 0.33% defect and non-recoverable channels. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of petal longterm test data for the CMS-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva will start end of 2008. One of the experiments at the LHC is the multipurpose detector CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid). A key part of the CMS detector is the tracking system, that is composed of a silicon pixel detector forming the innermost part, surrounded by silicon strip sensors. Currently, it is the largest silicon detector in the world with an active area of 198 m2. The strip tracker itself consists of four subdetectors. One of these are the tracker end caps (TEC) with an active area of 82 m2. Besides this large aperture, their position in the forward region plays a key role for physics analysis due to the fact that many of the interesting events are expected to be boosted in the forward region (pp collider). This area splits up into 10,288 sensors with 3,988,765 channels in total. In several steps the modules constructed and tested before being mounted onto the final substructures (petals). An important longterm test has been performed which qualifies the petals to be installed into the detector. The focus of the present work is in the longterm test. The test procedure is described. A method for identification and classification of defect channels is presented. This method has been developed based on the test results of a previous test ('ARC-test'), which has examined each module before the assembly onto the petals. A cross-check has been performed to compare the results with data from a subsequent test ('sector-test'), that is performed after the petals have been integrated into the TEC. A good agreement shows the consistency of the presented results. With the help of this method a channel defect rate of approximately 0.09% can be measured. Further defects like 'dead' components became visible after integration of the petals into the TEC and raised this number up to 0.33% defect and non-recoverable channels. (orig.)

  8. A novel glucosylation reaction on anthocyanins catalyzed by acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase in the petals of carnation and delphinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Tera, Masayuki; Okamura, Masachika; Abe, Yutaka; Okamoto, Emi; Nakamura, Haruka; Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2010-10-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanin in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) and delphiniums (Delphinium grandiflorum) involves novel sugar donors, aromatic acyl-glucoses, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzymes acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5(7)-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT and AA7GT). The AA5GT enzyme was purified from carnation petals, and cDNAs encoding carnation Dc AA5GT and the delphinium homolog Dg AA7GT were isolated. Recombinant Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT proteins showed AA5GT and AA7GT activities in vitro. Although expression of Dc AA5GT in developing carnation petals was highest at early stages, AA5GT activity and anthocyanin accumulation continued to increase during later stages. Neither Dc AA5GT expression nor AA5GT activity was observed in the petals of mutant carnations; these petals accumulated anthocyanin lacking the glucosyl moiety at the 5 position. Transient expression of Dc AA5GT in petal cells of mutant carnations is expected to result in the transfer of a glucose moiety to the 5 position of anthocyanin. The amino acid sequences of Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT showed high similarity to glycoside hydrolase family 1 proteins, which typically act as β-glycosidases. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferases.

  9. Effect of end-of-day irradiations on polyamine accumulation in petal cultures of Araujia sericifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysset, Luisa; Trull, Olga; Santos, M. Asunción; Simón, Esther; Torné, Josep M

    2002-01-01

    We have studied photoperiodic control and the effect of phytochrome photoconversion at the end-of-day (EOD) on polyamine (PA) accumulation in petal explants of Araujia sericifera. Petals from immature flowers were cultured under long (LD) and short (SD) days. Light was provided by Gro-lux fluorescent lamps (90-100 &mgr;mol m-2 s-1). Red (R), far red (FR), red followed by far-red (R-FR) and far-red followed by red (FR-R) light treatments were applied daily at the end of the photoperiod. The free and bound putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) fractions in petal explants were determined 40 days after the beginning of the culture. We also aimed to clarify the involvement of PA changes by using two inhibitors of PA biosynthesis: D-l-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). We found PA accumulation to be under photoperiodic control, and the inhibitory effect of DFMA on this accumulation suggests that arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is the major pathway for Put biosynthesis. Polyamine levels were higher under LD, mainly as a result of the accumulation of free and bound Put. FR-EOD treatment, which dramatically reduced the R : FR ratio after LD, increased the accumulation of PA, mainly as free Put and free and bound Spd. Sequential R-FR and FR-R-EOD treatments strongly increased bound Spd. The concentration of MGBG used increased total PA accumulation, mainly as Put. However, all EOD light treatments dramatically reduced Put accumulation in the presence of MGBG. This may be due to a dual role of FR light in PA accumulation: (1) FR per se stimulates PA production, probably via ADC, and (2) in the presence of MGBG, FR inhibits Put accumulation, probably via ethylene production.

  10. A preliminary study on antioxidant activities of saffron petal extracts in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L petals on male lambs and was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of this extract during a 15-day period. Fourteen male lambs were divided randomly into three treatment groups (n=4 each and a control group (normal saline; n=2. Saffron petal extract at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg was administered by gavage once daily on days 1 and 3 of the experiment for treatment groups. Blood samples were obtained on days 6 and 14 of the study. Serum and plasma were stored at −21°C for further analysis. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperatures and body weight of each lamb were recorded in the distinctive intervals from day 0 to the last day of the study. Total antioxidant capacity levels were increased significantly with any dose of the extract on the first day of sampling. There was no statistical difference in the levels of malondialdehyde and total thiol between the treatment and the control group son the 6th and the 14th days of the experiment. Also, no significant differences were identified in the concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, globulin, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyle transferase, total bilirubin, direct and indirect bilirubin between control and treatment groups in male lambs during this study. Recorded vital signs and body weight in control and treatment groups showed no significant differences. The present results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of saffron petals has antioxidant activity in sheep.

  11. [The element determination of six samples of petal powders by using XRF spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2012-07-01

    Elements and contents in three kinds of petal powders of white and red rose, carnation, and butterfly orchis were determined by using XRF technic, and the data for every group were compared and analysed. The results indicated that all powders contain no toxic elements determined but have lots of normal elements and trace elements, such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Si, Sr, and Rb. The same sort of powder had approximately equivalent elements but their contents are different, and the element content of the white sort. was higher than the red one. PMID:23016365

  12. Vectorial Nonparaxial Four-Petal Gaussian Beams and Their Propagation in Free Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zeng-Hui; L(U) Bai-Da

    2006-01-01

    @@ The vectorial nonparaxial four-petal Gaussian beam (FPGB) is introduced. The closed-form propagation expressions for the free-space propagation of FPGBs are derived and their more general applicable advantages are illustrated analytically and numerically. Some special interesting cases, in particular the paraxial one, are discussed. It is found that the parameter f = 1/kw0 with the k being the wave number and w0 being the waist width plays a crucial role in determining the nonparaxiallity of FPGBs. For small values of the f parameter the paraxial approximation is allowable. In the nonparaxial regime the beam order n additionally affects the vectorial and nonparaxial behaviour of FPGBs.

  13. The role of petals in development of grey mould in strawberries = Importância das pétalas no desenvolvimento do mofo-cinzento do morangueiro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, P.; Kraker, de J.; Gerlagh, de M.; Köhl, J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted in annual crops of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) (cv. Elsanta to assess the relative importance of petals as an inoculum source of grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea and to identify during which period of flower and fruit development the presence of petals has a signifi

  14. Cloning, characterization, and expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and expansin genes associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Onodera, Reiko; Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1-DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1-DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening.

  15. Crocus sativus Petals: Waste or Valuable Resource? The Answer of High-Resolution and High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2015-09-30

    Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction.

  16. Microencapsulation of saffron petal anthocyanins with cress seed gum compared with Arabic gum through freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Mahdavi-Khazaei, Katayoun; Hemmati-Kakhki, Abbas

    2016-04-20

    In this research, encapsulation efficiency of cress seed gum (CSG) as a native hydrocolloid was compared with Arabic gum (AG) and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent of 20 (M20), and 7 (M7)) for saffron (Crocus sativus) petal's extract by freeze drying method. Combinations of CSG-M20, AG-M20, and M7-M20 with ratios of 50:50 and M20 alone (100%) were used as wall materials. A mixture of 1:5 (based on dry matter) between core (concentrated anthocyanin extract of saffron petal) and wall materials were freeze dried and stability of encapsulated anthocyanins along with color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) of final powders were measured during 10 weeks of storage (at 35°C as an accelerated method). Total anthocyanins were determined through pH differential method every week. Four prepared formulations of encapsulated powders didn't show any significant differences (P>0.01) in terms of total anthocyanin content measured immediately after production and after 10 weeks storage. AG-M20 mixture and M20 alone showed the highest and lowest TCD, respectively. The mixture of CSG-M20 in comparison with AG-M20 and M20 had the same protecting effect (P<0.01) but showed a relatively high TCD (9.33). PMID:26876823

  17. The F-box-containing protein UFO and AGAMOUS participate in antagonistic pathways governing early petal development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Tim; Roe, Judith L; Sessions, R Allen; Inouye, Carla; Serikawa, Kyle; Feldmann, Kenneth A; Weigel, Detlef; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2003-07-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for multiple processes in the developing Arabidopsis flower, including the proper patterning and identity of both petals and stamens. The gene encodes an F-box-containing protein, UFO, which interacts physically and genetically with the Skp1 homolog, ASK1. In this report, we describe four ufo alleles characterized by the absence of petals, which uncover another role for UFO in promoting second whorl development. This UFO-dependent pathway is required regardless of the second whorl organ to be formed, arguing that it affects a basic process acting in parallel with those establishing organ identity. However, the pathway is dispensable in the absence of AGAMOUS (AG), a known inhibitor of petal development. In situ hybridization results argue that AG is not transcribed in the petal region, suggesting that it acts non-cell-autonomously to inhibit second whorl development in ufo mutants. These results are combined into a genetic model explaining early second whorl initiation/proliferation, in which UFO functions to inhibit an AG-dependent activity. PMID:12826617

  18. The F-box-containing protein UFO and AGAMOUS participate in antagonistic pathways governing early petal development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Tim; Roe, Judith L; Sessions, R Allen; Inouye, Carla; Serikawa, Kyle; Feldmann, Kenneth A; Weigel, Detlef; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2003-07-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for multiple processes in the developing Arabidopsis flower, including the proper patterning and identity of both petals and stamens. The gene encodes an F-box-containing protein, UFO, which interacts physically and genetically with the Skp1 homolog, ASK1. In this report, we describe four ufo alleles characterized by the absence of petals, which uncover another role for UFO in promoting second whorl development. This UFO-dependent pathway is required regardless of the second whorl organ to be formed, arguing that it affects a basic process acting in parallel with those establishing organ identity. However, the pathway is dispensable in the absence of AGAMOUS (AG), a known inhibitor of petal development. In situ hybridization results argue that AG is not transcribed in the petal region, suggesting that it acts non-cell-autonomously to inhibit second whorl development in ufo mutants. These results are combined into a genetic model explaining early second whorl initiation/proliferation, in which UFO functions to inhibit an AG-dependent activity.

  19. Separation of Saffron Stigma from Stamen and Petal in a Vertical Wind Tunnel and Evaluation by Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Alishahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the separation of saffron stigma from stamen and petal in a vertical wind tunnel has been evaluated. A wind tunnel with adjustable speed of 0.1 m s-1 intervals has been developed and used for the experiments. Floating velocities of flower components (petal, stigma and stamen were measured at one, eight, 38 and 60 hours after harvesting. Subsequently, the separation was tested by putting all flower components in the tunnel. The experimental results were also analyzed by fuzzy logic. The average floating velocities of stigma, stamen and petal at one hour after harvesting were measured as 3.21, 2.20 and 1.41 m s-1, respectively. The results showed that because of the high difference among the floating velocities of flower components, it is possible to separate the components in a vertical wind tunnel. Experimental results analysis showed that at the best condition which was one hour after harvesting and wind speed of 2.8 m s-1 in the tunnel, the system leaves 81% of the stigmas in the tunnel and blows out of the tunnel 84% of stamens and 89% of petals. The results also showed that as much as the time passes over the harvested flowers, the separation efficiency decreases.

  20. Structural identification of anthocyanins and analysis of concentrations during growth and flowering in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Mohamed, Zaidul Islam Sarker; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Naoto; Noda, Takahiro; Saito, Tatsuya

    2007-11-14

    The anthocyanin profiles and variety/breeding-line differences of anthocyanin concentrations in petals of common buckwheat flowers have been studied. Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were isolated from the petals of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), separated using high performance liquid chromatography and identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry techniques. In every variety/breeding line tested, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside was detected as the major anthocyanin and the next is cyanidin 3-O-glucoside whereas cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were trace or not detectable in white and pink flowered buckwheat. Of all the varieties/breeding lines tested, Gan-Chao, a Chinese variety, contained the highest amount of anthocyanins. The largest part of cyanidin moiety was presented as a proanthocyanidin form (PAs-Cy). Anthocyanins and PAs-Cy in petals were increased along with increase of flower development stages. Therefore, fully developed petals of red flowered buckwheat, especially Gan-Chao, are promising as a new anthocyanin-rich material for food processing.

  1. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Dick

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  2. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.

  3. Determination of Anthocyanins and Exploration of Relationship between Their Composition and Petal Coloration in Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia hybrid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhang; Liang-Sheng Wang; Jin-Ming Gao; Qing-Yan Shu; Chong-Hui Li; Juan Yao; Qing Hao; Jing-Jing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Petal coloration and pigment components in 12 American crape myrtle cultivars (Lagerstroemla indica x Lagerstroemla fauriei) and five Chinese crape myrtle cultivars (L. indica hybrids) were studied. Color was measured by ClEL'a'b" scale and anthocyanin composition of crape myrtle was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The presence of the previously reported delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside were confirmed. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was identified in crape myrtle for the first time. We explored the relationship between petal color and anthocyanin contents by multiple linear regression analyses. The results indicated that total flavones and flavonols were important variables and contributed to blue-enhancing in crape myrtle. Based on anthocyanins and co-pigments analysis, flower color breeding in crape myrtle towards true-red and blue were discussed.

  4. Cloning of plastid division gene GlFtsZ from Gentiana lutea and its expression during petal development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of GlFtsZ was isolated by screening the cDNA library of Gentiana lutea. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence encoded by GlFtsZ indicated that GlFtsZ protein possesses the typical conservative motifs existed in all FtsZ proteins. The existence of putative plastid transit peptide in its N-terminus suggested that GlFtsZ might function inside of plastids. With the deve- lopmental process of petals of Gentiana lutea, the expression of plastid division gene GlFtsZ declined gradually, whereas the expression of carotenoids biosynthesis gene Zds increased obviously; meanwhile, in contrast to the increment of carotenoids, the content of chlorophyll in petals decreased sharply. The chloroplasts turned into chromoplasts, and the color of petals also turned from green to golden. All of these results suggested that the expression of GlFtsZ is accompanied with the development and differentiation of plastids.

  5. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Petals Modulates Glycogen Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis Signalling Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Sneha S; Mini, S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is becoming more and more serious and reaches epidemic proportions worldwide. Scientific research is constantly looking for new agents that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. petals on experimental diabetes at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and it was compared with standard anti-diabetic drug metformin. The elevated levels of serum glucose (398.56 ± 35.78) and glycated haemoglobin (12.89 ± 1.89) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased (156.89 ± 14.45 and 6.12 ± 0.49, respectively) by Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) administration. Hepatotoxicity marker enzyme levels in serum were normalized. The fraction supplementation restored the glycogen content by regulating the activities of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. It significantly modulated the expressions of marker genes involved in glucose homeostasis signalling pathway. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas supported our findings. The overall effect was comparable with metformin. Hence, our study reveals the role of hibiscus petals for alleviation of diabetes complications, thus it can be propagated as a nutraceutical agent. PMID:26590603

  6. Single crystalline multi-petal Cd nanoleaves prepared by thermal reduction of CdO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Waheed S. [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Cao, Chuanbao, E-mail: cbcao@bit.edu.cn [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Aslam, Imran; Ali, Zulfiqar; Butt, Faheem K.; Mahmood, Tariq; Nabi, Ghulam [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ihsan, Ayesha [National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Usman, Zahid [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Rehman, Asma [National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Cd nanoleaves are obtained on abraded Cu substrate by thermal reduction of CdO. ► Vapour solid (VS) growth mechanism governs the formation of Cd nanoleaves (CdNLs). ► PL spectrum for CdNLs exhibits a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission band at 353 nm. ► UV band is attributed to interband radiative recombination under Xe illumination. -- Abstract: Multi-petal cadmium metal nanoleaves with 30–40 nm thickness were fabricated on abraded copper substrate by simple thermal reduction of cadmium oxide (CdO) powder at 1050 °C inside horizontal tube furnace (HTF) under nitrogen gas flow. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations of the as-prepared cadmium nanoleaves (CdNLs) were performed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Non-catalytic vapour–solid (VS) process based growth mechanism governing the formation of CdNLs has been proposed and discussed briefly. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum for CdNLs measured at room temperature exhibited a single prominent emission band at 353 nm which may either be ascribed to surface oxidation effects or interband radiative recombination under Xe light illumination.

  7. Cysteine protease gene expression and proteolytic activity during senescence of Alstroemeria petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Carol; Leverentz, Michael K; Griffiths, Gareth; Thomas, Brian; Chanasut, Usawadee; Stead, Anthony D; Rogers, Hilary J

    2002-02-01

    The functional life of the flower is terminated by senescence and/or abscission. Multiple processes contribute to produce the visible signs of petal wilting and inrolling that typify senescence, but one of the most important is that of protein degradation and remobilization. This is mediated in many species through protein ubiquitination and the action of specific protease enzymes. This paper reports the changes in protein and protease activity during development and senescence of Alstroemeria flowers, a Liliaceous species that shows very little sensitivity to ethylene during senescence and which shows perianth abscission 8-10 d after flower opening. Partial cDNAs of ubiquitin (ALSUQ1) and a putative cysteine protease (ALSCYP1) were cloned from Alstroemeria using degenerate PCR primers and the expression pattern of these genes was determined semi-quantitatively by RT-PCR. While the levels of ALSUQ1 only fluctuated slightly during floral development and senescence, there was a dramatic increase in the expression of ALSCYP1 indicating that this gene may encode an important enzyme for the proteolytic process in this species. Three papain class cysteine protease enzymes showing different patterns of activity during flower development were identified on zymograms, one of which showed a similar expression pattern to the cysteine protease cDNA. PMID:11807127

  8. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia�s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

  9. Sucrose prevents up-regulation of senescence-associated genes in carnation petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeberichts, Frank A; van Doorn, Wouter G; Vorst, Oscar; Hall, Robert D; van Wordragen, Monique F

    2007-01-01

    cDNA microarrays were used to characterize senescence-associated gene expression in petals of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers, sampled from anthesis to the first senescence symptoms. The population of PCR fragments spotted on these microarrays was enriched for flower-specific and senescence-specific genes, using subtractive hybridization. About 90% of the transcripts showed a large increase in quantity, approximately 25% transiently, and about 65% throughout the 7 d experiment. Treatment with silver thiosulphate (STS), which blocks the ethylene receptor and prevented the normal senescence symptoms, prevented the up-regulation of almost all of these genes. Sucrose treatment also considerably delayed visible senescence. Its effect on gene expression was very similar to that of STS, suggesting that soluble sugars act as a repressor of ethylene signal transduction. Two fragments that encoded a carnation EIN3-like (EIL) protein were isolated, some of which are key transcription factors that control ethylene response genes. One of these (Dc-EIL3) was up-regulated during senescence. Its up-regulation was delayed by STS and prevented by sucrose. Sucrose, therefore, seems to repress ethylene signalling, in part, by preventing up-regulation of Dc-EIL3. Some other transcription factors displayed an early increase in transcript abundance: a MYB-like DNA binding protein, a MYC protein, a MADS-box factor, and a zinc finger protein. Genes suggesting a role in senescence of hormones other than ethylene encoded an Aux/IAA protein, which regulate transcription of auxin-induced genes, and a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, which degrades cytokinin. Taken together, the results suggest a master switch during senescence, controlling the co-ordinated up-regulation of numerous ethylene response genes. Dc-EIL3 might be (part of) this master switch.

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24 were randomly assigned into four groups including: I healthy, receiving normal saline; II Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg; III pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg; IV pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg. Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats.

  11. Fabrication of petal-shaped masks for suppression of the on-axis Poisson spot in telescope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ron; Stein, Ryan; Murphy, Kaitlin; Hagopian, Kimberly; Salari, Shirin; Sankar, Shannon; Hagopian, John; Showalter, Matthew; Stevenson, Thomas; Quijada, Manuel; Threat, Felix; Friedlander, Jay; Dillon, Thomas; Livas, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    The presence of a bright (Poisson) spot in the geometrical shadow of circular/spherical shapes has been known for the past two centuries. A broad class of telescopes that involve simultaneous transmit and receive require suppression of the reflected light from the secondary mirror on the detector. For instance, the on-axis design of optical telescope for the evolved Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (eLISA), a re-scoped version of the baseline LISA mission concept, requires suppression of reflected laser light from the secondary mirror on the detector. In the past few years, the hypergaussian functions with petal-shaped realization have been shown to significantly suppress intensity along the optical axis. This work reports on fabrication of a series of petal-shaped masks using a variety of techniques such as 3D printing, photolithography, and wire Electro Discharge Machining. These masks are designed and fabricated to operate in the range of Fresnel numbers between 4 and 120. This paper discusses the challenges, successes, and failures of each fabrication technique and the optical performance of typical masks with suggestions for potential follow up work.

  12. RhVI1 is a membrane-anchored vacuolar invertase highly expressed in Rosa hybrida L. petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Domenica; Collu, Gabriella; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Esposito, Francesca; Piano, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Invertases are a widespread group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plants invertases and their substrates are essential factors that play an active role in primary metabolism and in cellular differentiation and by these activities they sustain development and growth. Being naturally present in multiple isoforms, invertases are known to be highly differentiated and tissue specific in such a way that every isoform is characteristic of a specific part of the plant. In this work, we report the identification of the invertase RhVI1 that was found to be highly expressed in rose petals. A characterization of this protein revealed that RhVI1 is a glycosylated membrane-anchored protein associated with the cytosolic side of the vacuolar membrane which occurs in vivo in a monomeric form. Purification yields have shown that the levels of expression decreased during the passage of petals from buds to mature and pre-senescent flowers. Moreover, the activity assay indicates RhVI1 to be an acidic vacuolar invertase. The physiological implications of these findings are discussed, suggesting a possible role of this protein during anthesis. PMID:27083698

  13. RhVI1 is a membrane-anchored vacuolar invertase highly expressed in Rosa hybrida L. petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Domenica; Collu, Gabriella; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Esposito, Francesca; Piano, Dario

    2016-05-01

    Invertases are a widespread group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plants invertases and their substrates are essential factors that play an active role in primary metabolism and in cellular differentiation and by these activities they sustain development and growth. Being naturally present in multiple isoforms, invertases are known to be highly differentiated and tissue specific in such a way that every isoform is characteristic of a specific part of the plant. In this work, we report the identification of the invertase RhVI1 that was found to be highly expressed in rose petals. A characterization of this protein revealed that RhVI1 is a glycosylated membrane-anchored protein associated with the cytosolic side of the vacuolar membrane which occurs in vivo in a monomeric form. Purification yields have shown that the levels of expression decreased during the passage of petals from buds to mature and pre-senescent flowers. Moreover, the activity assay indicates RhVI1 to be an acidic vacuolar invertase. The physiological implications of these findings are discussed, suggesting a possible role of this protein during anthesis.

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cell using extract from petals of male flowers Luffa cylindrica L. as a natural sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2016-02-01

    The study reports use of natural dye extracted from petals of male flowers Luffa cylindrica L. as sensitizer for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells. Optical characteristics of the dye extract and photoelectrochemical performance of the cells were studied. The extracts showed the UV-Vis absorptions in the 400-450 nm range with broad maxima at ∼430 nm. FTIR spectra of extract revealed the presence of anchoring groups and coloring constituents. DSSC was fabricated using natural dye loaded TiO2 photoelectrode, electrolyte containing I-/I3- redox mediator and Pt counter electrode by assembling them into a cell module. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished and DSSC based on petals of male flowers Luffa cylindrica L. extract exhibited an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.52 V, short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 0.44 mA cm-2, Pmax 130 μW, fill factor (FF) of 0.60, conversion efficiency of 0.13% and IPCE ∼30% (at λ = 430 nm).

  15. RhVI1 is a membrane-anchored vacuolar invertase highly expressed in Rosa hybrida L. petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Domenica; Collu, Gabriella; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Esposito, Francesca; Piano, Dario

    2016-05-01

    Invertases are a widespread group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plants invertases and their substrates are essential factors that play an active role in primary metabolism and in cellular differentiation and by these activities they sustain development and growth. Being naturally present in multiple isoforms, invertases are known to be highly differentiated and tissue specific in such a way that every isoform is characteristic of a specific part of the plant. In this work, we report the identification of the invertase RhVI1 that was found to be highly expressed in rose petals. A characterization of this protein revealed that RhVI1 is a glycosylated membrane-anchored protein associated with the cytosolic side of the vacuolar membrane which occurs in vivo in a monomeric form. Purification yields have shown that the levels of expression decreased during the passage of petals from buds to mature and pre-senescent flowers. Moreover, the activity assay indicates RhVI1 to be an acidic vacuolar invertase. The physiological implications of these findings are discussed, suggesting a possible role of this protein during anthesis. PMID:27083698

  16. The 2″-O-glucosylation of vitexin and isovitexin in petals of Silene alba is catalysed by two different enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, R.; Brederode, J. van; Nigtevecht, G. van; Maas, J.; Kamsteeg, J.; Besson, E.; Chopin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two separate genes, Fg and Vg, which govern the presence of isovitexin 2″-O-glucoside and vitexin 2″-O-glucoside respectively in the petals of Silene alba control different glucosyltransferases. In Vg/Vg,fg/fg plants no isovitexin 2″-O-glucosyltransferase was present and in vg/vg,Fg/Fg plants no vit

  17. Effects of different petal thickness on gas sensing properties of flower-like WO3·H2O hierarchical architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, we prepare four different petal thicknesses of hierarchical WO3·H2O architectures via a simple hydrothermal process, and systematically report their formation mechanisms and gas-sensing properties. - Highlights: • Flower-like WO3·H2O architectures with different petal thickness were reported. • The WO3·H2O sheet-flower sensor shows a significantly enhanced gas response. • A possible growth mechanism for the flower-like architectures is proposed. - Abstract: Hierarchical architectures consisting of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in recent year. Here, we report the successful synthesis of four hierarchical tungsten oxide flower-like architectures via a simple yet facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared WO3·H2O hierarchical architectures are in fact assembled with numerous nanosheets or nanoplates. Through a comprehensive characterization of microstructures and morphologies of the as-prepared products, we find that petal thickness is a key factor for affecting gas-sensing performances. We further propose a possible growth mechanism for the four flower-like architectures. Moreover, gas-sensing measurements showed that the well-defined sheet-flower WO3·H2O hierarchical architectures exhibited the excellent gas-sensing properties to ethanol owing to their largest amount of thin petal structures and pores

  18. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Hugo J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed. Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes. Results Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent. Conclusions Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant

  19. Determination of flavonoids in stamen, gynoecium, and petals of Magnolia grandiflora L. and their associated antioxidant and hepatoprotection activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia M. Sokkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic analysis of flavonoids in ethyl acetate fractions of the stamen, gynoecium, and petal of Magnolia grandiflora L. by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS-ESI in the negative ionization mode was performed in this study. The results revealed the presence of eight flavonoids: apigenin 8-C-glucoside, luteolin 8-C-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin, 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, and isorhamnetin. Their quantification revealed that luteolin 8-C-glucoside is the major flavonoid and that the total phenolic content is concentrated primarily in the stamen. The antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of the flower organs were evaluated against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4, compared with the effects of silymarin.

  20. 花瓣Fibonacci数的生存函数研究%Study on Generating Function of Fibonaccinumbers in Petals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宏

    2009-01-01

    Petals were closely related to the Fibonacci numbers. The generating function about Fibonacci numbers F(r,x) and S(r,n,x) were defined, some generating function about Fibonacci numbers were obtained based on Fibonacci numbers and Lucas numbers recursive relations. The inherent law of Fibonacci numbers was revealed.%花瓣与Fibonacci数有着密切关系,根据Fibonacci数与Lucas数的递归关系,给出了关于Fibonacci数的生存函数F(r,x)和S(r,n,x)的定义,得到了关于Fibonacci数的生存函数,揭示了Fibonacci数的内在联系.

  1. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus petal ethanolic extract on hematology, antibody response, and spleen histology in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Babaei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Saffron petal is a by-product that contains flavonoids and anthocyanins. In order to study the effects of saffron petal extract (SPE on blood parameters, immune system, and spleen histology, five treatments (n=6 were used in a completely randomized design. Materials and Methods: The treatments were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 mg/kg body weight of SPE. The SPE was injected intraperitoneally to 30 rats (10-week old, weighing 225±15 g for 14 days. Immunization was performed using 1×108 sheep red blood cells (SRBC on days 0 and 7 subcutaneously in all treatment groups. On day 15, blood was collected from the heart of rats after anesthesia. One part of samples were poured in heparinized tubes for counting whole blood cells (CBC and different white blood cells (WBC and the other part was used to measure IgG using ELISA technique. The spleen was stained by hematoxylin- eosin for histological study. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA program and the means evaluation was done using Tukey’s test. Results are presented as mean±SD. Results: Results showed no significant difference between treatments and control group regarding the amount of RBC, HGB, HCT, and PLT. The level of IgG at 75 mg/kg was significantly increased in comparison with other groups. No changes were observed in spleen histology. Conclusion: The results indicate that use of SPE at dose of 75 mg/kg causes an increase in antibody response without any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology.

  2. Part C notification (reference C/NL/13/01) from Suntory Holdings Limited for the import, distribution and retailing of carnation SHD-27531-4 cut flowers with modified petal colour for ornamental use

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Andrew Nicholas; Casacuberta, Josep; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gathmann, Achim; Gralak, Mikolaj Antoni; Guerche, Philippe; Jones, Huw; Manachini, Barbara; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Ebbesen Nielsen, Elsa; Fabien Nogué, Fabien; Robaglia, Christophe; Rostoks, Nils; Sweet, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) has evaluated the overall safety of genetically modified (GM) carnation SHD-27531-4 cut flowers to be imported into the European Union (EU) for ornamental use. The genetic modification results in the flowers having purple petals. The stability of the new colour trait was observed over multiple vegetative generations. The purple colour of the petals comes from the altered expression le...

  3. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  4. Upper petal lip colour polymorphism in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): genetic basis within a population and its use as a genetic marker

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asa Lankinen

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the genetics of a polymorphic trait is important to predict its likely evolution. In Collinsia heterophylla, the upper petal lip colour can be either be white or white with a purple band, while the lower petal lip colour is invariably purple. Because the corolla is only partly polymorphic, the polymorphism can not have evolved due to a mutation where a pigment was lost in the entire plant, which is common in other polymorphic species. In a previous study, high frequency of the purple band was found in populations with darker flowers, indicating possible selection for this trait. In this study, I determined inheritance of the colour polymorphism using two populations (one with only white morph and other with both morphs). I conducted experimental crosses within and between floral morphs to determine whether patterns of segregation in offspring conform to single-gene predictions. Data from F1, F2, F3 and backcross progeny are consistent with a genetic model of one major locus with presence of the band being completely dominant, as indicated in earlier studies using distantly related populations. A novel finding in this study was that the two morphs did not show a difference in seed germination frequency or seedling survival. This trait can thus be valuable as a genetic marker. Even though more thorough ecological data are needed to understand the potential selection pressures on upper petal lip colour in C. heterophylla, its simple inheritance may indicate the possibility of fast evolutionary response to selective forces acting on this trait.

  5. Inhibition by 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate of the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase obtained from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Y; Oyamada, N; Satoh, S; Yoshioka, T; Onodera, E; Yamada, Y

    1997-03-01

    We partially purified 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Nora) flowers and investigated its general characteristics, and, in particular, the inhibition of its activity by ACC analogs. The enzyme had an optimum pH at 7-7.5 and required Fe2+, ascorbate and NaHCO3 for its maximal activity. The Km for ACC was calculated as 111-125 microM in the presence of NaHCO3. Its M(r) was estimated to be 35 and 36 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography on HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively, indicating that the enzyme exists in a monomeric form. These properties were in agreement with those reported previously with ACC oxidases from different plant tissues including senescing carnation petals. Among six ACC analogs tested, 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate (ACBC) inhibited most severely the activity of ACC oxidase from carnation petals. ACBC acted as a competitive inhibitor with the Ki of 20-30 microM. The comparison between the Km for ACC and the Ki for ACBC indicated that ACBC had an affinity which was ca. 5-fold higher than that of ACC. Whereas ACC inactivated carnation ACC oxidase in a time-dependent manner during incubation, ACBC did not cause the inactivation of the enzyme. Preliminary experiments showed that ACBC and its N-substituted derivatives delayed the onset of senescence in cut carnation flowers.

  6. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using aqueous petal extract of the medicinal plant Combretum indicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Gaurav; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Neeraj K.; Kumar, Chitresh; Bahlwal, Aseema; Chaudhary, Pratibha; Singh, Rajeev

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, any type of plant extract from the medicinally important plant Combretum indicum has been used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The present investigation reports the synthesis and characterization of AgNPs using the flower petal extract of Combretum indicum. For monitoring the formation and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles, they were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy. Apart from this, the luminescence properties were also studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the formation of AgNPs and the surface morphology has been determined. The mean particle diameter using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique ranged from 50-120 nm depending upon the reaction time. The atomic percentage of Ag in synthesized NPs and the crystallinity were determined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. This green approach of synthesizing AgNPs, using a biologically important plant extract is found to be cost effective, economical, eco-friendly and convenient in synthesis.

  7. Isozymes of Superoxide Dismutase in Mitochondria and Peroxisomes Isolated from Petals of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) during Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droillard, M J; Paulin, A

    1990-11-01

    The balance between reactions involving free radicals and processes which ameliorate their effect plays an important role in the regulation of plant senescence. In this study a method was developed to isolate peroxisomes and mitochondria from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Ember) petals. Based on electron microscopy and marker enzyme levels, the proportion of peroxisomes to mitochondria increases during senescence. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of these fractions was examined. Mitochondria and peroxisomes were shown to contain two electrophoretically distinct SODs, a manganese-, and an ironcontaining SOD. The Mn- and Fe-SOD were found to have relative molecular weights of 75,000 and 48,000 and isoelectric points of 4.85 and 5.00, respectively. The presence of a Fe-SOD in mitochondria and peroxisomes is unique because this enzyme is usually located in chloroplasts. The activity of these two isoenzymes decreased during senescence in mitochondria but remained high in peroxisomes from senescent tissue. It is suggested that peroxisomes play a particular role in the process of senescence.

  8. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron petals in prevention of acetaminophen-induced renal damages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more attention has been given to herbal drugs in the treatment and prevention of drug toxicity because of the harmful effects of chemical drugs. In this study, directed for this purpose, research was conducted on the protective effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of saffron petals (SPE against acetaminophen (APAP induced acute nephrotoxicity. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups of six each. Group I, as a control group, received normal saline (0.09% orally (PO. Group II, as an intoxicated group was treated with APAP, PO (600 mg/kg. In the groups III and IV, SPE in a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg along with APAP (600 mg/kg was administered, respectively. At the end of the trial (8th day, blood was taken from the heart of rats for assessment of biochemical parameters and the right kidney was placed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological evaluations. In the APAP treatment group, higher serum creatinine and uric acid were observed. SPE in a dose of 20 mg/kg significantly reduced serum creatinine and uric acid. In pathologic evaluation, a dose of 20 mg/kg of SPE prevented the kidney injuries induced by APAP. Tissues changes were in accordance with biochemical findings. It is likely that the SPE contributed to the prevention of acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP.

  9. Protection of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrueksanan, Wathuwan; Yibchok-anun, Sirinthorn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2014-10-01

    The present study assessed the antioxidant activity and protective ability of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract (CTE) against in vitro 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage of canine erythrocytes. From the phytochemical analysis, CTE contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. In addition, CTE showed antioxidant activity as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. CTE (400 µg/ml) remarkably protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis at 4 h of incubation. Moreover, CTE (400 µg/ml) reduced membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl group formation and prevented the reduction of glutathione concentration in AAPH-induced oxidation of erythrocytes. The AAPH-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes from a smooth discoid to an echinocytic form was effectively protected by CTE. The present results contribute important insights that CTE may have the potential to act as a natural antioxidant to prevent free radical-induced hemolysis, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes. PMID:25241390

  10. 莲属植物叶片及花瓣的比较解剖学研究%Comparative Anatomy Studies on Leaves and Petals of Nelumbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁英; 胡蓉; 游永宁; 郑兴飞; 郑兴汶; 谢克强; 周明全; 胡中立

    2013-01-01

    The comparative anatomy of the leaves and petals of Nelumbo species was studied.The results were as follows,the leaves of Nelumbo species all have the palisade tissues and the spongy tissues,but the thickness and percentage of palisade tissues and spongy tissues were different.The crystals of calcium oxalate were often found in mesophyll cells.The minute projections were found on both sides of epidermal cells of petals.There were only very loose spongy tissues and not palisade tissues existing in Nelumbo petals.There were few differentiations in anatomy of leaves and petals not only between N.nucifera and N.lutea,but also between the tropic origins and the temperate origins.The results suggested that lotus showed the adaptation to the aquatic environment in its anatomic characters of leaves and petals,and the interspecific and intraspecific differentiations were not obvious.%对莲属(Nelumbo)植物的叶片及花瓣进行了比较解剖学研究.结果表明,莲属植物的叶片均有明显的栅栏组织和海绵组织之分,但二者的厚度及它们在叶肉中所占的比例有一定的差别;叶肉细胞内经常可以观察到草酸钙晶体;莲花瓣上下表皮均有乳状突起,无栅栏组织,仅有极为疏松的海绵组织,气室发达.同时,从研究结果来看,美国莲与中国莲在叶片和花瓣的解剖结构上没有明显差异;热带来源的莲与温带来源的莲之间并没有明显分化.莲叶片与花瓣解剖特征均表现出莲对水生生活的适应性,而其种间及种内的分化均不明显.

  11. Functional characterization of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase involved in 2-phenylethanol biosynthesis in isolated rose petal protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Haruka; Tomida, Kensuke; Sakai, Miwa; Hara, Masakazu; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2012-03-15

    In rose flowers, 2-phenylethanol (2PE) is biosynthesized from l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) via phenylacetaldehyde (PAld) by the actions of two enzymes, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR). We here report that Rosa 'Yves Piaget' aromatic amino acid aminotransferase produced phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) from l-Phe in isolated petal protoplasts. We have cloned three full length cDNAs (RyAAAT1-3) of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase families based on rose EST database and homology regions. The RyAAATs enzymes were heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized biochemically. The recombinant RyAAAT3 showed the highest activity toward l-Phe in comparison with l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, d-Phe, glycine, and l-alanine, and showed 9.7-fold higher activity with l-Phe rather than PPA as a substrate. RyAAAT3 had an optimal activity at pH 9 and at 45-55°C with α-ketoglutaric acid, and was found to be a PLP dependent enzyme based on the inhibition test using Carbidopa, an inhibitor of PLP-dependent enzymes. The transcript of RyAAAT3 was expressed in flowers as well as other organs of R. 'Yves Piaget'. RNAi suppression of RyAAAT3 decreased 2PE production, revealing the involvement of RyAAAT3 in 2PE biosynthesis in rose protoplasts and indicating that rose protoplasts have potentially two different 2PE biosynthetic pathways, the AADC route and the new route via PPA from l-Phe.

  12. Discovery and Study on Mutation Owned Orange Petal of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%橘红色花菜薹突变体的发现和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 汪维红; 徐家炳; 卢桂香

    2013-01-01

    以橘红色花菜薹突变体11 A-47与黄色花菜薹联记特选34号甜菜心杂交获得的F1,F2及BC1、BC1’群体为试材.将6个世代的种子经4℃低温春化处理15d后调查子叶颜色,研究菜薹橘红色花的遗传规律;同时,采用与大白菜橘红心球色基因紧密连锁的分子标记对控制菜薹橘红色花的基因进行分析,鉴定菜薹橘红色花与大白菜橘红心球色基因or之间的关系.结果表明,橘红色花菜薹11 A-47与黄色花菜薹杂交F2群体中,橘红色子叶与绿色子叶的分离比例符合1∶3,x2=1.938 9<x20.05=3.841;BC1’群体中,橘红色子叶与绿色子叶的分离比例符合1∶1,x2=1.369 7<x20.05=3.841.说明菜薹的橘红色花为质量性状,由1对隐性等位基因控制.分子标记结果表明,控制菜薹橘红色花的基因与控制大白菜橘红心球色的基因可能不同.%A F1 hybrid was obtained by crossing mutant 11A-47 with orange petal and a wild type of flowering Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis ( L. ) Makino var. utilis Tsen et Lee ] with yellow petal. After the population of F1, F2, BC1, BC1'were taken as experiment materials. Seeds of 6 generations were vernalized at 4 ℃ for 15 days, and cotyledon colors were investigated to study the hereditary law of orange petal. Meanwhile, molecular markers linked to or gene in Chinese cabbage were applied to determine the characteristics of orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage. Results showed that the ratio of orange with green cotyledons was 1 : 3 in F2 progeny, x2= 1.938 9 < x2 0.05=3.841. The ratio of orange with green cotyledons was 1 : 1 in BC1' progeny, x2= 1.369 1 < x2 0.05=3.841. Therefore, orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage is qualitative trait, and is controlled by a pair of recessive gene. Orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage was probably different from gene in Chinese cabbage by molecular markers.

  13. Novel microwave assisted sol–gel synthesis (MW-SGS) and electrochromic performance of petal like h-WO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic intercalation and deintercalation of Li+ ions and electrons is facilitated by providing hexagonal tunnel, trigonal cavity and square window which allows easy and fast insertion and extraction of ions. Highlights: ► Novel two step MW-SGS is first time employed to prepare WO3 thin films. ► MW-SGS is simple and cost effective technique for preparation of nanostructures. ► Petal-like hexagonal WO3 nanodisks were successfully deposited. ► O/W ratio calculated by XPS studies is 2.89. ► Good electrochromic performance suggests practical usability of proposed technique. -- Abstract: Use of domestic microwave oven is first time employed for chemical deposition of nanocrystalline hexagonal WO3 (h-WO3) thin films. Low cost precursors like sodium tungstate, hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid and potassium sulfate signifies cost effectiveness of this thin film fabrication route. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal formation of petal like nanodisks. A number of analytical techniques were used to characterize the WO3 petal like nanodisks, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies revealed 2.89 O/W atomic ratio. The electrical transport studies on WO3 thin films show semiconducting behavior with n-type semiconductivity. The value of determined coloration efficiency is 57.90 cm2/C. The mechanism of Li+ intercalation and deinercalation in h-WO3 matrix is proposed for enhanced electrochromism.

  14. Novel microwave assisted sol–gel synthesis (MW-SGS) and electrochromic performance of petal like h-WO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharade, Rohini R., E-mail: k_rohini@in.com [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Patil, K.R. [Centre for Materials Characterization, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, MH (India); Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Bhosale, P.N., E-mail: p_n_bhosale@rediffmail.com [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic intercalation and deintercalation of Li{sup +} ions and electrons is facilitated by providing hexagonal tunnel, trigonal cavity and square window which allows easy and fast insertion and extraction of ions. Highlights: ► Novel two step MW-SGS is first time employed to prepare WO{sub 3} thin films. ► MW-SGS is simple and cost effective technique for preparation of nanostructures. ► Petal-like hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanodisks were successfully deposited. ► O/W ratio calculated by XPS studies is 2.89. ► Good electrochromic performance suggests practical usability of proposed technique. -- Abstract: Use of domestic microwave oven is first time employed for chemical deposition of nanocrystalline hexagonal WO{sub 3} (h-WO{sub 3}) thin films. Low cost precursors like sodium tungstate, hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid and potassium sulfate signifies cost effectiveness of this thin film fabrication route. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal formation of petal like nanodisks. A number of analytical techniques were used to characterize the WO{sub 3} petal like nanodisks, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies revealed 2.89 O/W atomic ratio. The electrical transport studies on WO{sub 3} thin films show semiconducting behavior with n-type semiconductivity. The value of determined coloration efficiency is 57.90 cm{sup 2}/C. The mechanism of Li{sup +} intercalation and deinercalation in h-WO{sub 3} matrix is proposed for enhanced electrochromism.

  15. Diversity of function in the isocitrate lyase enzyme superfamily: the Dianthus caryophyllus petal death protein cleaves alpha-keto and alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhibing; Feng, Xiaohua; Song, Ling; Han, Ying; Kim, Alexander; Herzberg, Osnat; Woodson, William R; Martin, Brian M; Mariano, Patrick S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2005-12-20

    The work described in this paper was carried out to define the chemical function a new member of the isocitrate lyase enzyme family derived from the flowering plant Dianthus caryophyllus. This protein (Swiss-Prot entry Q05957) is synthesized in the senescent flower petals and is named the "petal death protein" or "PDP". On the basis of an analysis of the structural contexts of sequence markers common to the C-C bond lyases of the isocitrate lyase/phosphoenolpyruvate mutase superfamily, a substrate screen that employed a (2R)-malate core structure was designed. Accordingly, stereochemically defined C(2)- and C(3)-substituted malates were synthesized and tested as substrates for PDP-catalyzed cleavage of the C(2)-C(3) bond. The screen identified (2R)-ethyl, (3S)-methylmalate, and oxaloacetate [likely to bind as the hydrate, C(2)(OH)(2) gem-diol] as the most active substrates (for each, k(cat)/K(m) = 2 x 10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). In contrast to the stringent substrate specificities previously observed for the Escherichia coli isocitrate and 2-methylisocitrate lyases, the PDP tolerated hydrogen, methyl, and to a much lesser extent acetate substituents at the C(3) position (S configuration only) and hydoxyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, and to a much lesser extent isobutyl substituents at C(2) (R configuration only). It is hypothesized that PDP functions in oxalate production in Ca(2+) sequestering and/or in carbon scavenging from alpha-hydroxycarboxylate catabolites during the biochemical transition accompanying petal senescence.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. PMID:22789794

  17. Biosynthesis of malonylated flavonoid glycosides on the basis of malonyltransferase activity in the petals of Clitoria ternatea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Koichiro; Kazuma, Kohei; Kato, Naoki; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2007-07-01

    The crude malonyltransferase from the petals of Clitoria ternatea was characterized enzymatically to investigate its role on the biosynthetic pathways of anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides. In C. ternatea, a blue flower cultivars (DB) and mauve flower variety (WM) accumulate polyacylated anthocyanins (ternatins) and delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside which is one of the precursors of ternatins, respectively. Moreover, WM accumulates minor delphinidin glycosides - 3-O-beta-glucoside, 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside, 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside of delphinidin. These glycosidic patterns for minor anthocyanins in WM are also found among the minor flavonol glycosides in all the varieties including a white flower variety (WW) although the major flavonol glycosides are 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside, 3-O-(6''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside, 3-O-(2'',6''-di-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside of kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. How do the enzymatic characteristics affect the variety of glycosidic patterns in the flavonoid glycoside biosynthesis among these varieties? While the enzyme from DB highly preferred delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside in the presence of malonyl-CoA, it also has a preference for other anthocyanidin 3-O-beta-glucosides. It could use flavonol 3-O-beta-glucosides in much lower specific activities than anthocyanins; however, it could not utilize 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucosides of anthocyanins and flavonols, and 3,3'-di- and 3,3',5'-tri-O-beta-glucoside of delphinidin - other possible precursors in ternatins biosynthesis. It highly preferred malonyl-CoA as an acyl donor in the presence of delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside. The crude enzymes prepared from WM and WW had the same enzymatic characteristics. These results suggested that 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucosides of flavonoids were synthesized via 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucosides rather than via 3-O

  18. Very-long-chain 1,2- and 1,3-bifunctional compounds from the cuticular wax of Cosmos bipinnatus petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Peng, Chen; Jetter, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Four uncommon classes of very-long-chain compounds were identified and quantified in the petal wax of Cosmos bipinnatus (Asteraceae). The first two were homologous series of alkane 1,2-diols and 1,3-diols, both ranging from C20 to C26. The upper and lower petal surfaces contained 0.11 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) of 1,2-diols, respectively. 1,3-Diols were present at quantities one order of magnitude less than the 1,2-diols. Both series had similar chain length distributions, with 6-20%, 59-73% and 20-31% of the C20, C22 and C24 diols, respectively. The other two compound classes were primary and secondary monoacetates of C20-C24 1,2-diols. The monoacetates had chain length profiles similar to the free 1,2-diols, and amounted to 0.04 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) on the adaxial and abaxial sides, respectively. Methods were developed to minimize acyl migration during monoacetate isomer analyses. The ratios of diol 1-acetates to diol 2-acetates averaged close to 3:5, and thus opposite to the chemical equilibrium ratio of 7:3.

  19. Identification of delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-O-beta-glucoside, a postulated intermediate in the biosynthesis of ternatin C5 in the blue petals of Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuma, Kohei; Kogawa, Koichiro; Noda, Naonobu; Kato, Naoki; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2004-11-01

    Ternatins are blue anthocyanins found in the petals of Clitoria ternata (butterfly pea). Among them, ternatin C5 (delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3',5'-di-O-beta-glucoside; 2) has the structure common to all the ternatins, which is characterized by its glucosylation pattern: a 3,3',5'-triglucosylated anthocyanidin. In the course of studying biosynthetic pathways of ternatins, the key enzymatic activities to produce ternatin C5 were discovered in a crude enzyme preparation from the petals of a blue petal line of C. ternatea. When this preparation was tested for activity against several delphinidin glycosides, delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-O-beta-glucoside (6), a postulated intermediate, was found in the reaction mixture, together with three known anthocyanins, which were spectroscopically structurally identified. As a result of structural identification, the following enzymatic activities were identified: UDP-glucose :delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-O-beta-glucoside 5'-O-glucosyltransferase (5'GT), UDP-glucose :delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside 3'-O-glucosyltransferase (3'GT), UDP-glucose :delphinidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase, and malonyl-CoA :delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside 6''-malonyltransferase. In a mauve petal line, which did not accumulate ternatins but delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside in its petal, there were neither 5'GT nor 3'GT activities. Thus, the early biosynthetic pathway of ternatins may be characterized by the stepwise transfer of two glucose residues to 3'- and 5'-position of delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside (1; Scheme) from UDP-glucose. PMID:17191814

  20. A low-cost filler-dissolved process for fabricating super-hydrophobic poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces with either lotus or petal effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-cost filler (salt) water-dissolved method is developed to produce large-area and flexible super-hydrophobic surfaces by using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) material. Five levels of salt grain sizes are used to examine the filler size effect on fabricating the super-hydrophobic surfaces and on the hydrophobic mechanism involved. The results show that the surfaces fabricated using grain sizes of 53–74 and 74–104 µm exhibit the lotus effect (cell adhesion (CA) > 150° and self-adhesion (SA) < 10°); whereas those using grain sizes of 0–25 µm and above 104 µm reveal the petal effect (CA > 150° and high adhesion even upside-down). The super-hydrophobic characteristic is achieved mainly by the large micro rib-like structures, small micro rock-like bumps, and textures on the bump due to the fillers. (paper)

  1. Radical Scavenging Activity of Polysaccharides from Petals of Crocus sativus%西红花花瓣粗多糖清除自由基的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵成刚; 黄一泓; 刘雅莉

    2014-01-01

    以研究西红花(Crocus sativus)花瓣粗多糖的体外抗氧化作用为目的,采用化学模拟体系,测定西红花花瓣粗多糖(Polysaccharides from petals of Crocus sativus,PPC)对小鼠血清羟自由基、丙二醛(MDA)、NO和超氧阴离子等的清除能力.结果表明,PPC能抑制l脂质过氧化,有效清除血清羟自由基和NO,其IC50分别为0.949、0.079、1.027 mg/mL.PPC能清除一定量的超氧阴离子,并具较强的还原力,且清除能力具有量效关系.

  2. Study Regarding the Production and Characterization of Rose Petal Jam Enriched with Saint John`s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinita Bors

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The  purpose of this study was to extract the volatile oil from St. John's wort and use it to obtain a new product with improved qualities and real health benefits. In order to characterize the innovative product, several physicochemical analyses were conducted (dry matter, ash content, total sugar, total acidity, vitamin C, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Also the consumer perception was followed by conducting a sensory analysis. The study revealed that the adition of H. perforatum essential oil in the rose petal jam imporved the vitamin C and flavoinoid content and also the antioxidant capacity of the product, meanwhile the  dry matter, ash content and total sugar determinations were normal for the free pectin jam category.

  3. LATHYROIDES, Encoding a WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox1 Transcription Factor, Controls Organ Lateral Growth, and Regulates Tendril and Dorsal Petal Identities in Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Zhuang; Mike Ambrose; Catherine Rameau; Lin Weng; Jun Yang; Xiao-He Hu; Da Luo; Xin Li

    2012-01-01

    During organ development,many key regulators have been identified in plant genomes,which play a conserved role among plant species to control the organ identities and/or determine the organ size and shape.It is intriguing whether these key regulators can acquire diverse function and be integrated into different molecular pathways among different species,giving rise to the immense diversity of organ forms in nature.In this study,we have characterized and cloned LATHYROIDES (LATH),a classical locus in pea,whose mutation displays pleiotropic alteration of lateral growth of organs and predominant effects on tendril and dorsal petal development.LATH encodes a WUSCHEL-related homeobox1 (WOX1) transcription factor,which has a conserved function in determining organ lateral growth among different plant species.Furthermore,we showed that LATH regulated the expression level of TENDRIL-LESS (TL),a key factor in the control of tendril development in compound leaf,and LATH genetically interacted with LOBED STANDARD (LST),a floral dorsal factor,to affect the dorsal petal identity.Thus,LATH plays multiple roles during organ development in pea:it maintains a conserved function controlling organ lateral outgrowth,and modulates organ identities in compound leaf and zygomorphic flower development,respectively.Our data indicated that a key regulator can play important roles in different aspects of organ development and dedicate to the complexity of the molecular mechanism in the control of organ development so as to create distinct organ forms in different species.

  4. Synthesis, kinetics and photocatalytic study of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs obtained by a green chemistry method using an extract of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the effect of different concentrations of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals aqueous extract (PERA) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. Its kinetics study and photocatalytic activity were also evaluated. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) with 9.66% w/v, 7.25% w/v, and 4.20% w/v PERA as both reducing-stabilizing agent. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ∼0.5 and 1.4nm. A comparative study was done to determine which concentration was the best reducing-stabilizing agent, and we found out that "ultra-small" nanoparticles (0.5-1.1nm) were obtained with 9.66% w/v of PERA. The size of the Ag-NPs depends on the concentration of PERA and Ag(I). The reaction of formation of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs, proved to be first order for metallic precursor (silver) and second order for reducing-stabilizing agent (PERA). The Ag-NPs showed photocatalytic activity, in degradation of commercial dye with an efficiency of 95%.

  5. Graded index profiles and loss-induced single-mode characteristics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with petal-shape holey structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu An-Jin; Qu Hong-Wei; Chen Wei; Jiang Bin; Zhou Wen-Jun; Xing Ming-Xin; Zheng Wan-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The 850-nm oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with petal-shape holey structures are presented. An area-weighted average refractive index model is given to analyse their effective index profiles, and the graded index distribution in the holey region is demonstrated. The index step between the optical aperture and the holey region is obtained which is related merely to the etching depth. Four types of holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with different parameters are fabricated as well as the conventional oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser. Compared with the conventional oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser without etched holes, the holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser possesses an improved beam quality due to its graded index distribution, but has a lower output power, higher threshold current and lower slope efficiency. With the hole number increased, the holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser can realize the single-mode operation throughout the entire current range, and reduces the beam divergence further. The loss mechanism is used to explain the single-mode characteristic, and the reduced beam divergence is attributed to the shallow etching. High coupling efficiency of 86% to a multi-mode fibre is achieved for the single-mode device in the experiment.

  6. Synthesis, kinetics and photocatalytic study of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs obtained by a green chemistry method using an extract of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the effect of different concentrations of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals aqueous extract (PERA) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. Its kinetics study and photocatalytic activity were also evaluated. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) with 9.66% w/v, 7.25% w/v, and 4.20% w/v PERA as both reducing-stabilizing agent. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ∼0.5 and 1.4nm. A comparative study was done to determine which concentration was the best reducing-stabilizing agent, and we found out that "ultra-small" nanoparticles (0.5-1.1nm) were obtained with 9.66% w/v of PERA. The size of the Ag-NPs depends on the concentration of PERA and Ag(I). The reaction of formation of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs, proved to be first order for metallic precursor (silver) and second order for reducing-stabilizing agent (PERA). The Ag-NPs showed photocatalytic activity, in degradation of commercial dye with an efficiency of 95%. PMID:26218196

  7. Homeotic-like modification of stamens to petals is associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression in cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura Brassica juncea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gargi Meur; K. Gaikwad; S. R. Bhat; S. Prakash; P. B. Kirti

    2006-08-01

    We have previously reported correction of severe leaf chlorosis in the cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura (also called Ogu) Brassica juncea line carrying Ogura cytoplasm by plastid substitution via protoplast fusion. Two cybrids obtained from the fusion experiment, Og1 and Og2, were green and carried the plastid genome of B. juncea cv. RLM198. While Og1 displayed normal flower morphology comparable to that of its euplasmic B. juncea counterpart except for sterile anthers, Og2 retained homeotic-like floral modification of stamens to petal-like structures and several other floral deformities observed in the chlorotic (Ogu) B. juncea cv. RLM198 (or OgRLM). With respect to the mitochondrial genome, Og1 showed 81% genetic similarity to the fertile cultivar RLM while Og2 showed 93% similarity to OgRLM. In spite of recombination and rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes in the cybrids, expression patterns of 10 out of 11 mitochondrial genes were similar in all the three CMS lines; the only exception was atp6, whose expression was altered. While Og1 showed normal atp6 transcript similar to that in RLM, in Og2 and OgRLM weak expression of a longer transcript was detected. These results suggest that the homeotic-like changes in floral patterning leading to petaloid stamens in Og2 and OgRLM may be associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Ramar; Manikandan, Beulaja; Raman, Thiagarajan; Arunagirinathan, Koodalingam; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Jothi Basu, Muthuramalingam; Perumal, Muthulakshmi; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ethanolic extract of rose (Rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HCT 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The biologically synthesized AgNPs were also characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterized AgNPs showed an effective antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) than Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria. MTT assay, analysis of nuclear morphology, mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and protein expression of caspase 3 as well as 9, indicated potential anticancer activity. In addition, green synthesized AgNPs also attenuated cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and free radical generation (O2- and NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results of our study show the potential green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in mitigating their toxicity while retaining their antibacterial activities.

  9. Protective Role of Ternatin Anthocyanins and Quercetin Glycosides from Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea Leguminosae) Blue Flower Petals against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation in Macrophage Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vimal; Bang, Woo Young; Schreckinger, Elisa; Andarwulan, Nuri; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-07-22

    Twelve phenolic metabolites (nine ternatin anthocyanins and three glycosylated quercetins) were identified from the blue flowers of Clitoria ternatea by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)). Three anthocyanins not reported in this species before show fragmentation pattern of the ternatin class. Extracts were fractionated in fractions containing flavonols (F3) and ternatin anthocyanins (F4). In general, C. ternatea polyphenols showed anti-inflammatory properties in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with distinct molecular targets. Flavonols (F3) showed strong inhibition of COX-2 activity and partial ROS suppression. On the other hand, the ternatin anthocyanins (F4) inhibited nuclear NF-κB translocation, iNOS protein expression, and NO production through a non-ROS suppression mechanism. Accordingly, quercetin glycosides and ternatin anthocyanins from the blue flower petals of C. ternatea may be useful in developing drugs or nutraceuticals for protection against chronic inflammatory diseases by suppressing the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophage cells. PMID:26120869

  10. Petal-shaped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/sodium dodecyl sulfate-graphene oxide intercalation composites for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Fu, Dongying; Chang, Yunzhen; Xiao, Yaoming; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-12-01

    A facile and one-step electrochemical codeposition method is introduced for incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The as-prepared PEDOT/SDS-GO composites are characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that PEDOT/SDS-GO composites possessing a unique petal-shaped morphology have been prepared successfully and exhibit an intercalated microstructure. With the purpose of electrochemical energy storage, the properties of electrochemical capacitance for composites have also been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The electrochemical test results manifest the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites have superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability, and a high areal capacitance of 79.6 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 cyclic voltammetry scan. Furthermore, the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites exhibit more superior capacitive performance than that of PEDOT/SDS, indicating the incorporation of GO into the composites effectively boosts the capacitive performance of PEDOT-based supercapacitor electrodes. We consider that this research further extends the application of GO and the composites prepared can be developed as the candidate for the fabrication of low-cost, high-performance supercapacitors for energy storage.

  11. 巩膜花瓣状包裹羟基磷灰石义眼台植入的疗效%The efficacy of petal shape sclera forming hydroxyapatite(HA) orbital implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜小芬

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨巩膜花瓣状包裹义眼台植入的手术的效果.方法 对28例(28眼)巩膜花瓣状包裹HA义眼台植入,随访6~24个月,观察其效果.结果 28例中有1例球结膜薄.巩膜缝线外露,1个月后重新缝合筋膜结膜后愈合.1例结膜囊稍狭窄.未发现义眼台暴露、脱出或感染等并发症.结论 巩膜花辨状包裹HA义眼台植入术.术后并发症少,疗效较好.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of petal shape sclera forming hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implantation.Methods Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients received petal shape sclera forming HA orbital implantation.The follow-up time was 6 to 24 months.The operative effects were observed.Results Thin bulbar conjunctiva occurred in 1 case of 28 cases and the scleral suture exposed.The fascia and conjunctiva were sutured again 1 month later.Conjunctival sac was narrow slightly in one case.No orbital implant exposure,extrusion,infection or other complication was found.Conclusion The petal shape sclera forming HA orbital implantation has good effects and less complication.

  12. 花瓣式巩膜成形包裹义眼台的临床应用%Clinical application of petal type scleroplasty package of orbital socket implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡卫华; 周小红; 陈诗雅; 章梦娴

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨花瓣式巩膜成形包裹国产羟基磷灰石(HA)义眼台在眼内容摘除术中的应用体会.方法 对48例眼内容摘除者行花瓣式巩膜成形包裹国产HA义眼台植入术,术后随访6 ~24个月,观察手术效果.结果 48例中仅有2例出现轻度结膜囊狭窄,所有病例均未发现义眼台暴露、脱出或感染等严重并发症.结论 巩膜花瓣式成形包裹国产HA义眼台植入术方便易行,术后并发症少,义眼台活动佳,疗效好.%Objective To investigate the application of petal type scleroplasty package of domestic HA orbital socket implant during eyeball evisceration surgery.Methods Petal type scleroplasty package of domestic HA was implanted in 48 cases of eyeball evisceration.Patients were followed up for 6-24 months,and the postoperative effect was observed.Results Of 48 patients,mild conjunctival sac stenosis occurred in 2 patients.Severe complications,such as implant exposure,extrusion or infection,were not found in all patients.Conclusion Scleral petal type molded package of domestic HA implant is convenient and effective with few postoperative complications.

  13. Analysis of genomic DNA of DcACS1, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, expressed in senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and its orthologous genes in D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Murakoshi, Yuino; Torii, Yuka; Tanase, Koji; Onozaki, Takashi; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers exhibit climacteric ethylene production followed by petal wilting, a senescence symptom. DcACS1, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), is a gene involved in this phenomenon. We determined the genomic DNA structure of DcACS1 by genomic PCR. In the genome of 'Light Pink Barbara', we found two distinct nucleotide sequences: one corresponding to the gene previously shown as DcACS1, designated here as DcACS1a, and the other novel one designated as DcACS1b. It was revealed that both DcACS1a and DcACS1b have five exons and four introns. These two genes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in exons, but not in some introns and 3'-UTR. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed that DcACS1b is expressed in senescing petals as well as DcACS1a. Genomic PCR analysis of 32 carnation cultivars showed that most cultivars have only DcACS1a and some have both DcACS1a and DcACS1b. Moreover, we found two DcACS1 orthologous genes with different nucleotide sequences from D. superbus var. longicalycinus, and designated them as DsuACS1a and DsuACS1b. Petals of D. superbus var. longicalycinus produced ethylene in response to exogenous ethylene, accompanying accumulation of DsuACS1 transcripts. These data suggest that climacteric ethylene production in flowers was genetically established before the cultivation of carnation.

  14. High-energy asymmetric supercapacitor based on petal-shaped MnO2 nanosheet and carbon nanotube-embedded polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofiber working at 2 V in aqueous neutral electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Hao; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Hu, Jin-Hao

    2014-03-01

    An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) uses very thin petal-shaped MnO2 nanosheets as the positive electrode and a network of carbon nanotube-embedded polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers (CNT-CNF electrodes) as the negative electrode. It has a high specific capacitance and a high specific energy density in 0.5 M Na2SO4. An assembled MnO2//CNT-CNF ASC is operated reversibly at a high cell voltage of 2.0 V and exhibits a high specific capacitance of 93.99 F g-1 and an excellent energy density of 52.22 Wh kg-1, which is better than those of ASCs that are based on MnO2//carbon, which can be found in the literature. The MnO2//CNT-CNF ASC has superior cycling stability with 92% retention of initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles.

  15. 红花酢浆草花色素的稳定性及抑菌性研究%The stability and antibacterial activity of the pigment from the petals of Oxalis crassipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金耀; 杨晓玲; 黄玲

    2011-01-01

    The experiment study mainly on the stability and bacteriostasis of the pigment from petals of Oxalis crassipes by spectrophotometry.The results demonstrated that the stability of the pigment is greatly impacted by the pH,it is in a very stable red color when pH is 2~3,the color of the pigment become gradually purple to black,when pH augment.The stability of the pigment is highest in the hidden place,next under the natural light,and the lowe under the daylight lamp.The thermostability of the pigment is good below 50 ℃,but it decreases above 50 ℃.The sucrose,the sodium chloride,the malic acid,the citric acid and the lactic acid had function obviously adding color and protecting to the pigment from the petals of Oxalis crassipes,and can significantly improved or increase the stability.The pigment in Petals of the Oxalis crassipes had bacteriostasis on the Escherichia coli,Bacillus snbtilis and Staphyloccus aureus.Along with pigment concentration increases,the bacteriostasis effect is also more obvious.Therefore the pigment is as savageness pigment and antiseptic in a certain condition.%实验对红花酢浆草花瓣中所含色素的稳定性和抑菌性进行了研究。结果表明:pH对红花酢浆草色素的稳定性影响较大,在pH2~3时呈稳定的红色,pH增大时颜色变紫变黑。红花酢浆草色素在暗处稳定性最高,自然光下次之,日光灯下低。红花酢浆草色素在50℃以下热稳定性较好,50℃以上热稳定性降低。蔗糖、氯化钠、苹果酸、柠檬酸和乳酸对红花酢浆草色素均有明显的增色、护色作用,可明显改善或提高其稳定性。红花酢浆草色素对大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌均有抑制效果,并且随着色素溶液浓度的增加,抑菌效果也越明显。因此红花酢浆草色素在一定条件下可作食品色素兼天然防腐剂使用。

  16. 菊花花瓣XTH基因cDNA序列的克隆与分析%Cloning and Analysis of the cDNA Sequence of XTH Gene in Chrysanthemum × morifolium Petal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙悦; 苏媚; 王蕾; 姬筱雅; 郑必平; 谈建中

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the structural characteristics of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/ hydrolase ( XTH) gene in eth-ylene-insensitive feverfew. [ Method] The total RNA was extracted from Chrysanthemum x morifolium petal using Trizol reagent, and the cD-NA fragment of XTH gene was cloned by RT-PCR and T/A cloning, and then analyzed by agarose gel eleetrophresis and sequencing. [ Result] The cloned cDNA sequence was 911 bp. It was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 293 amino acids and had seven active sites of XTH family, and then named as CmXTH (gene accession number HM752243). In addition, the BLAST analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of CmXTH showed high homology with other 19 chosen plant XTHs. Among these, CmXTH had closer genetic relationship with Ger-bera hybrid cuhivar XET, Solatium lycopersicum XTH7, whereas had relatively distant relationship with Populus euparatica XET, Fragaria ananassa XET1, Actinidia deliciosa XET, etc. [Conclusion] The cloned fragment was certainly cUNA sequence of XTH gene, which was associated with the petal, growth and senescence in Chrysanthemum x morifolium. The study lays foundation for further studying the structure and biological functions of XTH genes as well as the growth of Chrysanthemum X morifolium petals.%[目的]研究非乙烯敏感型菊科植物的木葡聚糖内糖基转移酶/水解酶(xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase,XTH)基因的结构特征.[方法]采用Trizol方法从菊花花瓣中提取总RNA,利用RT-PCR技术和T/A载体克隆XTH基因的cDNA序列,并对目的序列进行琼脂糖凝胶电泳和测序分析.[结果]克隆的cDNA片段大小为911 bp,编码293个氨基酸残基,具有XTH蛋白家族的7个活性位点,命名该基因序列为CmXTH(基因登录号为HM752243);其推导的氨基酸序列与其他19种植物的XTH具有较高的同源性,其中与非洲菊、蕃茄的亲缘关系最近,而与猕猴桃、草莓、胡杨等的亲缘关系较远.[结论

  17. Multilayer aminiotic membrane transplantation plugging comblined with conjunctiva petal with pedicel for corneal ulceration perforation%多层羊膜填塞联合带蒂结膜瓣移植治疗角膜溃疡穿孔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱红; 王炳亮; 裴森

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of multilayer amniotic membrane transplantation plugging combined with conjunctiva petal with pedicel for corneal ulceration perforation. Methods Thirty eyes of 30 patients were performed an operation on: including 12 eyes of herpes simplex keratitis of repeated outbreak; 9 eyes of bacterial corneal ulcer perforation; 4 eyes of fungal ulcer perforation;3 eyes of dissolved transplantation graft after keratoplasty;2 eyes of burned corneal perforation.The follow-up conducted for 3 months2years.Results Twenty-eight eyes of patients were healed up but the section of ulceration left behind corneal macula or leucoma.The vision of patients was improved in varying degrees.Two eyes of fungal kemtitis were failed to be operated on penetrating keratoplasty.The efficiency was 93.33%.Conclusions Multilayer amniotic membrane transplantation plugging associated with conjunctival petal with pedicel can preferably cure corneal ulcer perforation caused by various reasons and provide an opportunity for later operation.%目的 探讨多层羊膜填塞联合带蒂结膜瓣移植,在治疗难治性角膜溃疡穿孔中的临床治疗效果.方法 采用多层羊膜填塞联合带蒂结膜瓣移植治疗难治性角膜溃疡穿孔30例(30只眼),包括单疱病毒性角膜炎反复发作致穿孔12例;细菌性角膜溃疡穿孔9例;真菌性角膜溃疡穿孔4例;角膜移植术后植片溶解穿孔3例;角膜热烧伤致溃疡穿孔2例.术后随访3月至2年.结果 28例角膜溃疡穿孔愈合,溃疡区遗留下不同程度的瘢痕,视力有不同程度的提高.2例曲霉菌感染的角膜溃疡穿孔术后感染不能控制,行治疗性角膜移植.总有效率93.33%.结论 多层羊膜填塞联合带蒂结膜瓣移植能够较好地治疗各种原因所致角膜溃疡穿孔,为后期的角膜复明性手术提供机会.

  18. ldentification of Senescence-associated Protein DpXTH1 and its Gene Cloning in Dahlia Petals%大丽花花瓣衰老相关蛋白DpXTH1及其编码基因的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍萍; 阚雪芹; 李坚; 陈驰; 罗成洋; 谈建中

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of senescence in ethylene-insensitive flowers. [Method] The dahlia petals were used as material, and the senescence-associated proteins were isolated and identified using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and an encoding gene was cloned using molecular biology techniques. [Result] ln the two-dimensional elec-trophorogram of proteins from dahlia petals at building color, ful flowering and flow-er senescence periods, a total of 44 protein spots with differences in expression level more than two times were detected. From the 44 protein spots, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs), a senescence-associated protein, was iso-lated and identified and its expression level was increased continuously with the senescence process of dahlia petals. By using the total RNA of dahlia petals as material and a pair of degenerate primers, the cDNA sequence of XTH gene was cloned by RT-PCR. The encoding region of XTH gene has a ful length of 882 bp, encoding 293 amino acid residues, and is named as DpXTH1 (Accession number:HM053613.1). The cluster analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of DpXTH1 has high homology with those of XTHs in other plants. [Conclusion] The isolated and identified DpXTH1 from dahlia petals belonged to the XTH family in plants, and its biological function was associated with the senescence process and regulation of dahlia petals.%[目的]为了探讨乙烯非敏感型花卉衰老相关的分子机理。[方法]以大丽花花瓣为材料,利用双向电泳、质谱分析及分子生物学技术,分离、鉴定花瓣衰老相关蛋白质及其编码基因。[结果]从大丽花透色期、盛花期和衰败期花瓣蛋白质的双向电泳图谱中,检测到44个表达量差异在2倍以上的蛋白质斑点,从中分离、鉴定了木葡聚糖内糖基转移酶/水解酶(xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase, XTH),其表达量随花瓣的衰老进

  19. 10种提取液对菊花花瓣中类胡萝卜素提取效率的影响%Analysis on Efficiency of Ten Extracts for Carotenoid Content in Petals of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 王普; 孙卫; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    类胡萝卜素是菊花中一类重要的呈色物质,高效提取类胡萝卜素对于分离和鉴定色素组成以及研究菊花的呈色机理十分重要.分别采用丙酮、甲醇、无水乙醇、无水乙醚、石油醚、丙酮∶石油醚不同体积比(1∶1、1∶2、1∶4、2∶1、4∶1 )10种提取液,提取菊花品种光辉及Reagan Orange舌状花中的的类胡萝卜素,用紫外-可见光分光光度计测定提取液中类胡萝卜素的相对含量.结果发现,不同提取液中菊花类胡萝卜素的提取量不同;醇类为菊花中类胡萝卜素较适合的提取液.结果还表明,菊花中含氧类胡萝卜素含量较高.%Carotenoid is an important kind of coloring material in chrysanthemum, and extracting this component efficiently is very important for the isolation and identification of pigment composition and the coloring mechanism of chrysanthemum. 10 different extraction solutions were used, including petroleum ether, methanol, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ether, acetone, acetone : petroleum ether in different ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 2:1; 4:1) to extract carotenoids in the petals of chrysanthemum 'Brilliant' and 'Reagan Orange'. The relative content of total carotenoids was calculated from UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that the quantity of extracts varied in 10 extracts of chrysanthemum; Alcohol was more suitable for extracting the carotenoids of chrysanthemum; It also indicated that most of the carotenoids in chrysanthemum was oxygenated compounds and it could lay the foundation for the study of compounds and content of carotenoid in chrysanthemum.

  20. Petal Brake Hypersonic Entry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA exploration plans will realize significant performance advantages with aerocapture and aerobraking of large, heavy payloads for Mars, Titan, and the gas...

  1. 不同酸度保鲜剂对红花碧桃离体枝条花瓣生理特性的影响%Effect of Preservative with Different Acidities on Physiological Characteristics of Isolated Petal of "Honghuabitao" Peach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪林箭; 张斌斌; 蔡志翔; 马瑞娟

    2012-01-01

    以蒸馏水为对照,研究了不同酸度保鲜剂对观赏桃红花碧桃切枝花瓣生理特性的影响,结果表明:随着水培插枝时间的延长,花瓣的相对含水量、可溶性蛋白含量逐渐降低,而丙二醛、花色苷、类黄酮和多酚含量则总体上呈现逐渐升高的趋势.其中pH 2处理虽花色苷、类黄酮和多酚含量较高,但丙二醛含量也较高,导致花瓣细胞膜受害严重;而pH 5.5处理的花色苷含量虽较pH 2处理低,但花色保持较好,且较其他处理相对含水量高,其观赏期延长,是保鲜剂适宜的酸度.%Using distilled water treatment as the control, the effects of preservative with different acidities (pH 2, pH 3.5, pH 5.5) on the physiological characteristics of isolated petal of ornamental "Honghuabitao" peach were studied through water culture tests. The results showed that the relative water content and soluble protein content in the petal were gradually decreased, while malon-dialdehyde, anthocyanin, flavonoids and polyphenol contents generally showed an increasing trend as the water culture time prolonged. Although anthocyanin, flavonoids and polyphenol contents in pH 2 treatment were higher than those in the other treatments, its malon-dialdehyde content was also at higher level, which was seriously harmful to cell membrane. In addition, the petal in pH 5.5 treatment had lower anthocyanin content than that in pH 2 treatment, but it had better flower color, higher relative water content and longer viewing lime. Thus, pH 5.5 was the appropriate acidity for preservative.

  2. Chlorogenic Acid from Helianthus Annuus L Petals via Extraction Method and Its Scavenging Action of Ultra-Oxygen Anion%醇提法提取向日葵花瓣中绿原酸及其超氧阴离子清除作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟姣姣; 李万林; 刘军海

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid was obtained from helianthus annuus L petals via extraction method using al-cohol as the solvent. The extraction parameters were optimized through orthogonal experimental method af-ter a single-factor test. The results showed that a maximum chlorogenic acid yield of 1.801%was obtained under the optimum conditions, i.e. temperature of 50 ℃, ethanol volume fraction of 70%, pH value of 6, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL) and extraction time for 30 min. Antioxidant activity test showed that chlorogenic acid from helianthus annuus L petals possessed better scavenging capability of ultra-oxygen anion O2-·than Vc.%以向日葵花瓣为原料,选用醇提法提取向日葵花瓣中绿原酸,在单因素实验的基础上,通过正交试验对工艺条件进行优化,结果表明,向日葵花瓣中绿原酸最佳提取条件:温度50℃,乙醇体积分数70%,pH值6,料液比1:20,回流时间30 min,此时,提取率可达1.801%。抗氧化性研究表明:向日葵花瓣中绿原酸提取液对超氧阴离子具有一定的清除作用,且效果比Vc好。

  3. New opacity measurement principle for LMJ-PETAL laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pennec, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Ducret, J.-E.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2015-12-01

    Stellar seismology reveals some interior properties of thousands of solar-type stars but the solar seismic sound speed stays puzzling since a decade as it disagrees with the Standard Solar Model (SSM) prediction. One of the explanations of this disagreement may be found in the treatment of the transport of radiation from the solar core to the surface. As the same framework is used for other stars, it is important to check precisely the reliability of the interacting cross sections of photons with each species in order to ensure the energy transport for temperature T > 2-106 K and density ρ > 0.2 g/cm3. In this paper, we propose a new technique to reach the domain of temperature and density found in the solar radiative interior. This technique called the Double Ablation Front (DAF) is based on a high conversion of the laser energy into X-rays thanks to moderated Z material irradiated by laser intensity between 1.5 × 1015 W/cm2 and 4 × 1015 W/cm2. This high conversion creates, in addition to the electronic front a second ablation front in the moderated Z material. Between the two fronts there is a plateau of density and temperature that we exploit to heat a sample of iron or of oxide. The first simulations realized with the hydrodynamic code CHIC show that this technique allows to reach conditions equivalent to half the radiative zone of the Sun with high stability both in time and space. We examine the possibility to measure both iron and oxygen absorption spectra.

  4. Temporal rhythm of petal programmed cell death in Ipomoea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, M-Y; Ni, X-L; Wang, H-B; Liu, W-Z

    2016-09-01

    Flowers are the main sexual reproductive organs in plants. The shapes, colours and scents of corolla of plant flowers are involved in attracting insect pollinators and increasing reproductive success. The process of corolla senescence was investigated in Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae) in this study. In the research methods of plant anatomy, cytology, cell chemistry and molecular biology were used. The results showed that at the flowering stage cells already began to show distortion, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane degradation and tonoplast dissolution and rupture. At this stage genomic DNA underwent massive but gradual random degradation. However, judging from the shape and structure, aging characteristics did not appear until the early flower senescence stage. The senescence process was slow, and it was completed at the late stage of flower senescence with a withering corolla. We may safely arrive at the conclusion that corolla senescence of I. purpurea was mediated by programmed cell death (PCD) that occurred at the flowering stage. The corolla senescence exhibited an obvious temporal rhythm, which demonstrated a high degree of coordination with pollination and fertilization. PMID:27259176

  5. New opacity measurement principle for LMJ-PETAL laser facility

    CERN Document Server

    Pennec, M Le; Ducret, J -E; Turck-Chièze, S

    2015-01-01

    Stellar seismology reveals some interior properties of thousands of solar-type stars but the solar seismic sound speed stays puzzling since a decade as it disagrees with the Standard Solar Model (SSM) prediction. One of the explanations of this disagreement may be found in the treatment of the transport of radiation from the solar core to the surface. As the same framework is used for other stars, it is important to check precisely the reliability of the interacting cross sections of photons with each species in order to ensure the energy transport for temperature T > 2 - 10$^6$ K and density $\\rho$ > 0.2 g/cm$^3$. In this paper, we propose a new technique to reach the domain of temperature and density found in the solar radiative interior. This technique called the Double Ablation Front (DAF) is based on a high conversion of the laser energy into X-rays thanks to moderated Z material irradiated by laser intensity between 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{15}$ W/cm$^2$ and 4 $\\times$ 10$^{15}$ W/cm$^2$. This high conversion ...

  6. Folhas voláteis, papéis manuscritos: o pelotão de saúde no jornal infantil Pétalas (Colégio Coração de Jesus - Florianópolis/SC, 1945-1952 - Volatile sheets, manuscript papers: the platoon of health in petals childish journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Santos Cunha, Brasil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O jornal Pétalas Infantil era uma produção manuscrita, feita em folhas avulsas, realizada pelas alunas do curso primário do Colégio Coração de Jesus, uma instituição religiosa e feminina de Florianópolis/SC e cujos exemplares, entre 1945 e 1952, foram conservados em um acervo pessoal. Considerado material ordinário, o texto deste estudo centra-se na análise dos artigos e comentários que expressavam preceitos veiculados pelo Pelotão de Saúde, uma associação complementar da escola, legitimada por lei e cujo propósito era auxiliar na criação e manutenção de princípios higiênicos como integrantes da cultura escolar do período. O artigo vincula-se ao campo de pesquisa da História da Educação e da cultura escrita entendidas, ambas, como produções discursivas e escolares de um determinado tempo e lugar que, tanto pelos suportes em que se apresentam à leitura, como pelos preceitos higienistas e cívicos que punham em circulação, permitem pensar a importância desse material na construção de uma memória para o reconhecimento de diferentes práticas, costumes, rituais, ações que integravam o ambiente escolar do período em pauta.Palavras-chave: jornal infantil, pelotão de saúde, higiene e cultura escolar. VOLATILE SHEETS, MANUSCRIPT PAPERS: THE PLATOON OF HEALTH IN PETALS CHILDISH JOURNAL (COLÉGIO CORAÇÃO DE JESUS - FLORIANÓPOLIS/SC, 1945-1952  AbstractPetals Childish journal was a handwritten production, made in single sheets of paper, held by the students of the primary school Coração de Jesus, a religious institution for girls in Florianópolis/SC and whose exemplary, between 1946 and 1952, were kept in a personal collection. Considered ordinary material this study focused on the analysis of the articles and comments that expressed precepts conveyed by the Pelotão de Saúde (Platoon of Health, a complementary association of the school, legitimized by law, and whose purpose was to assist in the

  7. On the Development of the Cultural Ecology of the Folk Art in the Hehuang Region of Qinghai Province in the Course of the Region Heading for Urbanization——The "Eight-petal Lotus",Essence of the Folk Art of Huangzhong County Taken for Example%青海省河湟地区城镇化进程中民间艺术文化生态发展——以青海省湟中县民间艺术荟萃“八瓣莲花”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉金; 邹晓飞; 燕思彤

    2011-01-01

    每个地区民间艺术文化的原生态在城镇化进程中,伴随着现代文明的时代诉求而发生变化。以青海省湟中县"八瓣莲花"为例,探索"八瓣莲花"的荟萃在湟中县城镇化进程中建构该地区文化品牌的重要意义。在河湟地区城镇化过程中,文化方向选择都是民族间文化的"他者"与"我者"双重因素交互作用的一种融合。民间艺术文化作为某一地区人们文化生活的重要载体和创造的生产力之一,往往使得河湟地区的文化发展呈现出鲜明的古老与现代的二重性特征。在河湟地区城镇化进程中,民间艺术文化走向现代市场产业化发展,在发展中明显地镌刻了地方性、民族性和文化自觉性因素。%In the course of urbanization the original ecology of the folk culture and art in every region is changing with the epochal petition of modern civilization.The "Eight-petal Lotus" that was originally created in Huangzhong,a county of Qinghai province is used as example to explore the important meaning the "Eight-petal Lotus" is possessed of in the county's construction of local cultural brand in the course of its urbanization.In the course of the urbanization of the Hehuang region the regional culture is orientated towards the combination of the external factors with the internal ones.Falk art and culture,as one of the important carriers of the local people's cultural life and one of the productivities created by the local people,tends to lead the local cultural development to take on both the distinctive ancient and modern feature.In the course of the Hehuang region's urbanization,its folk art and culture is heading for modern market and industrialization,in which such elements as locality,nationalization and cultural self-awareness exist very obliviously.

  8. Hypoglycemic Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Carthamus Tinctorius Petal on Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Parivash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays no-drug treatments (medicinal plants are novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (Compositae extract on the blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. Methods: In this study 18 male Wistar rats with body weights of 180 – 220 g were randomly assigned to three groups with six rats per group: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg/kg BW; Injections were done intraperitoneally. Rats were fasting for 16h and then blood samples were collected in heparinated tubes for estimation of blood glucose insulin cholesterol and triglyceride. Results: Diabetic rats treated with extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level (P

  9. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh; Siti Nur Afiqah Mohamed Musthafa; Noralizawati Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation) and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant). Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. T...

  10. Quantitate gossypol enantiomers in cotton flower petals and seed using capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a compound that occurs in the cotton plant and in leaves it protects the plant from insect herbivory. The compound also occurs in the seed. In this tissue it renders the seed toxic to non-ruminant animals. However, gossypol exists as a mixture of enantiomers referred to as (+)-gossypo...

  11. Cotton flowers: Pollen and petal humidity sensitivities determine reproductive competitiveness in diverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen and identified genetic variability among the six cotton lines studied. Genetic diversity in pollen viability was observed following a 6.5 h exposure to 25% relative humidity (RH). NM67, DP565, and...

  12. The antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extracts and eye gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkaen, N; Wilkinson, J M

    2009-11-01

    Extracts of Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) flowers are used in Thailand as a component of cosmetics and the chemical composition of the flowers suggest that they may have antioxidant activity. In this study the potential antioxidant activity of C. ternatea extracts and an extract containing eye gel formulation was investigated. Aqueous extracts were shown to have stronger antioxidant activity (as measured by DPPH scavenging activity) than ethanol extracts (IC(50) values were 1 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively). Aqueous extracts incorporated in to an eye gel formulation were also shown to retain this activity, however, it was significantly less than a commercial antiwrinkle cream included for comparison. The total phenolic content was 1.9 mg/g extract as gallic acid equivalents. The data from this study support the use of C. ternatea extracts as antioxidant inclusions in cosmetic products. PMID:19367668

  13. Polymorphism in flower colour and petal type in Aparajita (Clitoria ternatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bishoyi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Clitoria ternatea L., belonging to Fabaceae family is a very well known Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for different ailments. It is commonly called Butterfly pea or Conch flower or ‘Aparajita’. The species is believed to be a native of the Caribbean, Central America and Mexico, but is now naturalised all over the tropical parts of India. The plant bears solitary, axillary, papilionaceous flowers. The fresh root is slightly bitter and acrid in taste. In the Indian systems of medicines particularly in Ayurveda, roots, seeds and leaves of the species have long been used as brain tonic and is believed to promote memory and intelligence (Mukherjee et al., 2008. The leaves and roots are used in the treatment of a number of ailments including body aches, especially infections, urinogenital disorders, and as an anthelmintic and antidote to animal stings (Nirmal et al., 2008. The major phyto-constituents found in Clitoria ternatea are the pentacyclic triterpenoids such as taraxerol and taraxerone (Banerjee & Chakravarti 1963, 1964; Uma et al., 2009.

  14. Do plastids in Dendrobium cv. Lucky Duan petals function similar to autophagosomes and autolysosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.J.; Kirasak, K.; Sonong, A.; Srihiran, Y.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Ketsa, S.

    2011-01-01

    In animal cells a double-membrane-bound structure, the autophagosome, encloses a portion of the cytoplasm. The encapsulated material becomes digested after fusion of the autophagosome with a vesicle containing lytic enzymes. The autophagosome is then termed autolysosome. In intact plants, structures

  15. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K(+) induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  16. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Majid Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester, santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa petal extracts in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abba P. Obouayeba; Lydie Boyvin; Gervais M. M'Boh; Sekou Diabat and eacute;; Tanoh H. Kouakou; Allico J. Djaman; Jean D. N'Guessan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant rich in phytochemical compounds, which is the source of its biological properties. This study on the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa (AEHS) was conducted to assess its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Methods: It was carried out with 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups. Two groups were treated with a solution of NaCl 0.9%. One group was treated with silymarin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (BW). Two other groups were ...

  18. 甘蓝型油菜DH缺瓣变异株的无性繁殖及缺瓣特性%Asexual Reproduction and Petal-Lacking Character of a Lacking Petal Variant of DH Plants in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彦涛; 张文学; 李殿荣; 田建华

    2002-01-01

    经游离小孢子培养并加倍获得的甘蓝型油菜95Z192的DH植株群体中的1株缺瓣变异株,于盛花期取其幼嫩花序轴进行无性繁殖后,得到10个株系的122个植株.移栽于大田,于初花期逐株统计主花序上每朵花缺瓣的结果显示,此种变异株的缺瓣性状可稳定遗传,但单株之间缺瓣比率有明显差异.

  19. Developing an Invisible Message about Relative Acidities of Alcohols in the Natural Products Henna, Turmeric, Rose Petals, and Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Hadir, Latifa

    2010-01-01

    An engaging and colorful demonstration was developed that illustrates the utility of resonance theory in predicting the relative acidities of alcohols. The demonstration can be used as an introduction to exercises that provide students with practice in writing resonance structures and in predicting relative acidities. The demonstration exploits…

  20. Antioxidative and Anticanceric Activities of Magnolia (Magnolia denudata Flower Petal Extract Fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of magnolia (Magnolia (M. denudata extract fermentation in increasing the extract’s antioxidative and anticancer activities were investigated. Magnolia was fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and the antioxidative effects by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay. Anticancer activity against cancer and normal cells was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT. Total phenolic content during fermentation increased from 38.1 to 47.0 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g of solid matter. The radical scavenging activity was 91.4% after 72 h fermentation. Fermented magnolia’s antioxidative effect was threefold higher than that of the (non-fermented control. Fermentation (48 h increased anticanceric activity against AGS, LoVo, and MCF-7 cancer cells 1.29- to 1.36-fold compared with that of the control, but did not affect MRC-5 (normal cells, suggesting that fermented magnolia could be used as a natural antioxidative and anticancer agent.

  1. RhVI1 is a membrane-anchored vacuolar invertase highly expressed in Rosa hybrida L. petals

    OpenAIRE

    Farci, Domenica; Collu, Gabriella; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Esposito, Francesca; Piano, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Invertases are a widespread group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plants invertases and their substrates are essential factors that play an active role in primary metabolism and in cellular differentiation and by these activities they sustain development and growth. Being naturally present in multiple isoforms, invertases are known to be highly differentiated and tissue specific in such a way that every isoform is characteristic of a specific part...

  2. Screening of Amazonian plants from the Adolpho Ducke forest reserve, Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil, for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Basílio Carneiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are species-rich reserves for the discovery and development of antimicrobial drugs. The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Amazon plants found within the National Institute on Amazon Research's Adolpho Ducke forest reserve, located in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. 75 methanol, chloroform and water extracts representing 12 plant species were tested for antimicrobial activity towards strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans using the gel-diffusion method. Active extracts were further evaluated to establish minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and antimicrobial profiles using bioautography on normal-phase thin-layer chromatography plates. Diclinanona calycina presented extracts with good antimicrobial activity and S. oralis and M. smegmatis were the most sensitive bacteria. D. calycina and Lacmellea gracilis presented extracts with the lowest MIC (48.8 µg/ml. D. calycina methanol and chloroform leaf extracts presented the best overall antimicrobial activity. All test organisms were sensitive to D. calycina branch chloroform extract in the bioautography assay. This is the first evaluation of the biological activity of these plant species and significant in vitro antimicrobial activity was detected in extracts and components from two species, D. calycina and L. gracilis.

  3. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  4. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including e...

  5. Mutation in Torenia fournieri Lind. UFO homolog confers loss of TfLFY interaction and results in a petal to sepal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Aida, Ryutaro; Shikata, Masahito; Abe, Tomoko; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    We identified a Torenia fournieri Lind. mutant (no. 252) that exhibited a sepaloid phenotype in which the second whorls were changed to sepal-like organs. This mutant had no stamens, and the floral organs consisted of sepals and carpels. Although the expression of a torenia class B MADS-box gene, GLOBOSA (TfGLO), was abolished in the 252 mutant, no mutation of TfGLO was found. Among torenia homologs such as APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which regulate expression of class B genes in Arabidopsis, only accumulation of the TfUFO transcript was diminished in the 252 mutant. Furthermore, a missense mutation was found in the coding region of the mutant TfUFO. Intact TfUFO complemented the mutant phenotype whereas mutated TfUFO did not; in addition, the transgenic phenotype of TfUFO-knockdown torenias coincided with the mutant phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the mutated TfUFO lost its ability to interact with TfLFY protein. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that the transcripts of TfUFO and TfLFY were partially accumulated in the same region. These results clearly demonstrate that the defect in TfUFO caused the sepaloid phenotype in the 252 mutant due to the loss of interaction with TfLFY. PMID:22577962

  6. Mutation in Torenia fournieri Lind. UFO homolog confers loss of TfLFY interaction and results in a petal to sepal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Aida, Ryutaro; Shikata, Masahito; Abe, Tomoko; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    We identified a Torenia fournieri Lind. mutant (no. 252) that exhibited a sepaloid phenotype in which the second whorls were changed to sepal-like organs. This mutant had no stamens, and the floral organs consisted of sepals and carpels. Although the expression of a torenia class B MADS-box gene, GLOBOSA (TfGLO), was abolished in the 252 mutant, no mutation of TfGLO was found. Among torenia homologs such as APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which regulate expression of class B genes in Arabidopsis, only accumulation of the TfUFO transcript was diminished in the 252 mutant. Furthermore, a missense mutation was found in the coding region of the mutant TfUFO. Intact TfUFO complemented the mutant phenotype whereas mutated TfUFO did not; in addition, the transgenic phenotype of TfUFO-knockdown torenias coincided with the mutant phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the mutated TfUFO lost its ability to interact with TfLFY protein. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that the transcripts of TfUFO and TfLFY were partially accumulated in the same region. These results clearly demonstrate that the defect in TfUFO caused the sepaloid phenotype in the 252 mutant due to the loss of interaction with TfLFY.

  7. Anthocyanin Profiles in Petals of Different Hyacinthus orientalis%风信子花瓣花色苷组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶秀花; 袁媛; 徐怡倩; 史益敏; 唐东芹

    2015-01-01

    以12个风信子(H,acinthus orientalisL.)品种为研究材料,采用英国皇家园艺学会比色卡进行花色描述,利用特征颜色反应确定色素类型,利用UPLC-PAD结合UPLC-Q-TOF-MS技术分析花色苷种类及含量.结果表明,12个品种花瓣中均不含有色的类胡萝卜素,除‘City of Haarlem’和‘Aiolos’以外,均含花色苷.10个含花色苷的品种中,‘Woodstock’花瓣中花色苷含量最高,‘Jan Bos’、‘上农早粉,、‘上农紫红’次之.在这些品种花瓣中共检测到9种花色苷成分,通过与已有文献比对,推定其成分为:天竺葵素3-O-葡萄糖苷、天竺葵素3-O-葡萄糖苷5-O-丙二酰葡萄糖苷、矢车菊素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-葡萄糖苷、天竺葵素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-葡萄糖苷、天竺葵素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-乙酰葡萄糖苷、矢车菊素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-丙二酰葡萄糖苷、天竺葵素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-丙二酰葡萄糖苷、天竺葵素3-O-阿魏酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-丙二酰葡萄糖苷和天竺葵素3-O-咖啡酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-丙二酰葡萄糖苷.‘上农早粉’、‘上农中粉’、‘Gipsy Queen’、‘Marconi’等品种花瓣中仅含天竺葵素花色苷衍生物,其它6个品种则含天竺葵素和矢车菊素的花色苷衍生物,以天竺葵素为主.‘上农早粉’、‘上农中粉’、‘Gipsy Queen’、‘Jan Bos’、‘Marconi’和‘Lady Derby’花瓣花色苷以天竺葵素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-丙二酰葡萄糖苷为主;‘AnnaLisa,、‘Woodstock,花瓣花色苷以天竺葵素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-乙酰葡萄糖苷为主:‘上农紫红’和‘Sky Line’花瓣花色苷分别以矢车菊素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-丙二酰葡萄糖苷以及天竺葵素3-O-香豆酰葡萄糖苷-5-O-葡萄糖苷为主.

  8. A plastid DNA phylogeny of Dasymaschalon (Annonaceae) and allied genera: Evidence for generic non-monophyly and the parallel evolutionary loss of inner petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Thomas, D.C.; Su, Y.; Meinke, S.; Chatrou, L.W.; Saunders, R.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Dasymaschalon and the closely related genera Desmos, Friesodielsia and Monanthotaxis together comprise ca. 170 species of trees, shrubs and woody climbers distributed in tropical Africa and tropical Asia. These genera form the desmoid clade, which, because of the presence of diverse flower and fruit

  9. Nests, petal usage, floral preferences, and immatures of Osmia (Ozbekosmia) avosetta (Megachilidae, Megachilinae, Osmiini), including biological comparisons with other osmiine bees

    OpenAIRE

    Rozen, Jerome George; ÖZBEK, Hikmet; Ascher, John S.; Sedivy, Claudio; Praz, Christophe J.; Monfared, Alireza; Müller, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    To trace the evolution of host-plant choice in bees of the genus Chelostoma (Megachilidae), we assessed the host plants of 35 Palearctic, North American and Indomalayan species by microscopically analyzing the pollen loads of 634 females and reconstructed their phylogenetic history based on four genes and a morphological dataset, applying both parsimony and Bayesian methods. All species except two were found to be strict pollen specialists at the level of plant family or genus. These oligolec...

  10. Flavonoid compounds in the petals of Hosta%玉簪属植物花瓣中类黄酮化合物价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘妮娜; 李晓东; 张金政; 王亮生; 孙国峰; 林秦文; 徐彦军

    2013-01-01

    The flavonoid composition of five Hosta species and 85 Hosta cultivars was investigated by HPLC-DAD for the first time to expand the applications of Hosta. Qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for total flavonoids in flowers of Hosta were used as a basis for the quality control of Hosta. A combination of powerful tools (HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MSn), were used to characterize seventeen kinds of flavonoid including kaempferol 3, 7-di-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-7-O-rutinose, isorhamnetin 3, 4-di-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-quinoylglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sinapoylglucoside, kaempferol 3-O- ascorbicoylglucoside, kaempferol 7-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3, 7-di-O-hexoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-7-O-rhamnoside, luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-O-robinobio-side, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-O-pentose, and kaempferol 7-O-glucoside. The flavonoid contents of 90 kinds of Hosta flowers were compared and the high-value species were selected.%为拓宽玉簪属植物除园林方面的应用,本研究以玉簪属5个野生种和85个栽培品种的花瓣为材料,利用高效液相色谱(HPLC-DAD)技术,建立了定性定量分析玉簪花中类黄酮化合物的HPLC方法,可作为玉簪花药材的质量控制方法.同时结合质谱(MSn)技术,鉴定了玉簪花瓣中17种类黄酮化合物的化学结构,分别为:山奈酚3,7-二葡萄糖苷、山奈酚3-葡萄糖-7-芸香糖苷、异鼠李素3,4-二葡萄糖苷、山奈酚3-奎尼酰葡萄糖苷、山奈酚3-芥子酰葡萄糖苷、山奈酚3-抗坏血酰葡萄糖苷、山奈酚7-新橙皮糖苷、山奈酚3,7-二己糖苷、山奈酚3-葡萄糖-7-鼠李糖苷、木犀草素7-新橙皮糖苷、槲皮素3-葡萄糖苷、槲皮素3-葡糖苷酸、槲皮素3-刺槐二糖苷、山奈酚3-葡萄糖苷、山奈酚3-葡糖苷酸、山奈酚3-戊糖苷和山奈酚7-葡萄糖苷.并比较了90种玉簪花中类黄酮化合物成分与含量的差异性,筛选出类黄酮化合物含量较高的种类.

  11. Extracting Methods of the Total RNA in the Petals of Lilium Flowers%百合花瓣总RNA提取方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝福玲; 刘雅莉; 王跃进

    2005-01-01

    以亚洲百合品种Pollyanna和东方百合品种Sorbonne为试材,在比较异硫氰酸胍法、SDS/酚法与CTAB-LiCl法提取总RNA效果的基础上,针对百合组织中富含多糖的特点,在Sorbonne提取RNA中加入特殊除多糖步骤,改进了CTAB-LiCl法.结果表明,改进CTAB-LiCl法能有效去除多糖,提取到的RNA 28S rRNA亮度约为18S rRNA的2倍,A260/280介于1.8~2.0之间,A260/230为2.0,Pollyanna RNA产率为36.3 μL·g-1,Sorbonne RNA产率为10.2 μL·g-1,经RT-PCR获得了特异性条带,说明用改进CTAB-LiCl法从百合花瓣中提取到的RNA质量好、产率高、完整性强,完全适合于进一步的分子生物学研究.

  12. A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Wagstaff, Carol; Bramke, I.; Breeze, E.; Thornber, S.; Harrison, E; Thomas, B.; Buchanan-Wollaston, V.; Stead, T.; Rogers, H.

    2010-01-01

    Petal development and senescence entails a normally irreversible process. It starts with petal expansion and pigment production, and ends with nutrient remobilization and ultimately cell death. In many species this is accompanied by petal abscission. Post-harvest stress is an important factor in limiting petal longevity in cut flowers and accelerates some of the processes of senescence such as petal wilting and abscission. However, some of the effects of moderate stress in young flowers are r...

  13. A new genus and species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    OpenAIRE

    Kreiter, Serge; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The phytoseiid mite Ragusaseius ferraguti n. gen., n. sp. is described from the primary Atlantic Forest Mata Atlantica in Brazil, based on specimens collected on Cyphomandra calycina Sendth (Solanaceae). This mite is unique in the following combination of characters: setae J3 and J4 present; dorsal setae medium to long, except for J5, and serrated; ventrianal shield anteriorly eroded, containing only JV2 and occasionally ZV2 in addition to circumanal setae.

  14. Analysis of Enzyme Activity of Protective System in Dahlia pinnata Cav Petals During Senescence%大丽菊花瓣衰老过程中保护酶活性变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚雪芹; 孙悦; 苏媚; 周丽丽; 徐文斐; 谈建中

    2010-01-01

    为探讨观赏植物大丽菊衰老相关的生理生化指标,对不同开花时期花瓣的蛋白质表达量及保护酶活性进行了研究.结果表明:随着大丽菊花朵的开放与衰老,花瓣的可溶性蛋白质含量持续减少,而过氧化氢酶(CAT)的表达量呈先增后减的变化倾向.同时,过氧化氢酶与超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性都表现为先升后降的变化趋势,但二者在变化时序上存在差异,而过氧化物酶(POD)活性则表现为前期下降后期上升的倾向.由此推测SOD、CAT及POD可能依次是大丽菊花瓣衰老的不同阶段清除活性氧的关键酶.

  15. Study on Diversity of Cultivable Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Petals of Edible Roses%食用玫瑰花瓣可培养内生细菌的分离及多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽斌; 陈兴位; 夏体渊; 林丽; 任禛; 靳松; 华金珠; 李健文

    2016-01-01

    采用稀释涂布平板法,从食用玫瑰花瓣中分离到219株内生细菌.利用细菌菌落表征性状和16S rDNA序列对这些内生细菌进行了多样性分析.通过数值分析比较了8个菌落形态表征性状,以类平均连锁聚类法的方式进行聚类分析,在3.60的水平上可分成6个表观群.16S rDNA序列分析表明219株内生细菌可分为10个类群.经测序比对分析表明,这219株内生细菌分别与G enBank中3类细菌中的10个已知种相似性达到98.51% ~100%.其中约氏不动杆菌(Acinetobacter johnsonii)、嗜麦寡养食单胞菌(Stenotrophomonas maltophilia)、Enhydrobacter aerosaccus是食用玫瑰花瓣可培养内生细菌的优势种群.

  16. 中西医结合疗法预防跟骨骨折术后皮瓣坏死%After cooperation of Chinese and Western medicine therapy prevention calcaneum bone fracture technique, skin petal necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐才伟; 陈伟; 白久泉

    2010-01-01

    跟骨骨折为跗骨骨折中最常见者,约占全部跗骨骨折的60%,多由高处跌伤,足跟部着地,跟骨遭受垂直撞击所致.其中跟骨关节面粉碎、塌陷骨折治疗困难,目前多以跟骨外侧入露切开复位内固定治疗为主,但上种方法易出现切口转角处皮瓣坏死,有人统计约30%左右.切口转角处皮瓣坏死后住院时间长,易出现手术切口及骨的低度感染,长期困惑着患者的身心健康.我院采用中药汤剂内服观察它在预防切口转角处皮瓣坏死的疗效,自2006年8月至2010年5月,我们收治需手术治疗的跟骨关节面粉碎、塌陷骨折病人32例.分别于术后内服复元活血汤加味方、和营止痛汤加味方及十全大补汤,进行了临床观察,现将观察结果总结报告如下.

  17. 剑麻花瓣和花蕊挥发油化学成分的GC-MS分析%Analyzing of Volatile Oil from Petals and Flower Bud of Agave Sinalana with GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方洁; 沈朝升; 汪孝亮; 张国强; 戴志; 毕淑峰

    2014-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取剑麻(Agave sinalana)花瓣和花蕊挥发油,利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)分析挥发油化学成分.从剑麻花瓣和花蕊挥发油中分别鉴定出25和17个化合物,分别占挥发油总量的84.94%和73.16%.剑麻花瓣和花蕊挥发油均以烯烃和烷烃成分为主,两者化学成分相似.

  18. Petals of Crocus sativus were Treatment by Stages and High Frequency Differentiation of Style-Stigma-like Structures%番红花花瓣分步处理与花柱-柱头状物的高频分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 李毅; 董相军; 徐文华; 张宝琛

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 植物名称番红花(Crocus sativus),又称藏红花、西红花,藏药中称为苟日苟木. 2 材料类别番红花的花瓣. 3 培养条件第一步诱导瓣状体,诱导培养基为1/2MS+NAA 4 mg*L-1(单位下同)+ KT 4~8+CH 300+肌醇 200.第二步花柱-柱头状物的定向分化培养,分化培养基的配方是1/2MS+NAA 4+KT 4+CH 300+肌醇 200.上述培养基均加入0.5%琼脂粉,3%蔗糖,pH为5.8.培养温度为(20±1)℃,暗中培养.

  19. 不同花色品种非洲紫罗兰花色素成分初步分析%Study on Components of Flower Pigments in Petals of Different Color Saintpaulia ionantha Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴仁济; 陈小强; 孙宁; 张乃楠; 刘阳; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    通过对不同花色花瓣色素组成的分析,可以为花色显色机理研究提供依据.本文通过对14种不同花色非洲紫罗兰的特征显色反应和紫外-可见光谱扫描进行分析,结果表明:所选非洲紫罗兰花色品种中的色素由类黄酮组成,白色非洲紫罗兰仅含黄酮类化合物,其它花色品种主要由花色素苷和黄酮类化合物组成.本试验为非洲紫罗兰花色素成分的进一步分离和鉴定以及其作为花色模式植物的研究奠定了基础,同时对花色分子育种和改良提供了信息.

  20. 云南野生黄牡丹花色素成分的鉴定%Identification of Components of Flower Pigments in Petals of Paeonia lutea Wild Population in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琳; 王雁; 律春燕; 彭镇华

    2011-01-01

    以云南野生黄牡丹为材料,通过特征显色反应、紫外—可见光谱扫描及高效液相色谱—质谱技术(HPLC-MS)对其花瓣中的色素成分进行了初步分析和鉴定.结果表明,黄牡丹花色素的组成包括类黄酮和叶绿素两大类,其中类黄酮类色素主要为查耳酮和黄酮、黄酮醇的混合物,包括2’,4’,6’,4-四羟基查耳酮(2’,4’,6’,4-tetrapydroxychalcone,THC)的2’-葡萄糖苷即异杞柳苷(isosalipurposide,ISP)及山奈酚、槲皮素、异鼠李素、金圣草黄素、芹菜素葡糖苷等.同时,基于花色素的组成信息,探讨了牡丹黄色花育种的策略,为黄牡丹花色素成分的进一步分离和鉴定奠定了基础,并为牡丹黄色花形成机理及黄色花育种的研究提供了理论参考.

  1. Heterochromatin patterns and ribosomal DNA loci distribution in diploid and polyploid Crotalaria species (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae), and inferences on karyotype evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Mateus; Aguiar-Perecin, Margarida L R

    2011-09-01

    Most Crotalaria species display a symmetric karyotype with 2n = 16, but 2n = 14 is found in Chrysocalycinae subsection Incanae and 2n = 32 in American species of the section Calycinae. Seven species of the sections Chrysocalycinae, Calycinae, and Crotalaria were analyzed for the identification of heterochromatin types with GC- and AT-specific fluorochromes and chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA loci using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). A major 45S rDNA locus was observed on chromosome 1 in all the species, and a variable number of minor ones were revealed. Only one 5S rDNA locus was observed in the species investigated. Chromomycin A(3) (CMA) revealed CMA(+) bands colocalized with most rDNA loci, small bands unrelated to ribosomal DNA on two chromosome pairs in Crotalaria incana, and CMA(+) centromeric bands that were quenched by distamycin A were detected in species of Calycinae and Crotalaria sections. DAPI(+) bands were detected in C. incana. The results support the species relationships based on flower specialization and were useful for providing insight into mechanisms of karyotype evolution. The heterochromatin types revealed by fluorochromes suggest the occurrence of rearrangements in repetitive DNA families in these heterochromatic blocks during species diversification. This DNA sequence turnover and the variability in number/position of rDNA sites could be interpreted as resulting from unequal crossing over and (or) transposition events. The occurrence of only one 5S rDNA locus and the smaller chromosome size in the polyploids suggest that DNA sequence losses took place following polyploidization events.

  2. Heterochromatin patterns and ribosomal DNA loci distribution in diploid and polyploid Crotalaria species (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae), and inferences on karyotype evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Mateus; Aguiar-Perecin, Margarida L R

    2011-09-01

    Most Crotalaria species display a symmetric karyotype with 2n = 16, but 2n = 14 is found in Chrysocalycinae subsection Incanae and 2n = 32 in American species of the section Calycinae. Seven species of the sections Chrysocalycinae, Calycinae, and Crotalaria were analyzed for the identification of heterochromatin types with GC- and AT-specific fluorochromes and chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA loci using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). A major 45S rDNA locus was observed on chromosome 1 in all the species, and a variable number of minor ones were revealed. Only one 5S rDNA locus was observed in the species investigated. Chromomycin A(3) (CMA) revealed CMA(+) bands colocalized with most rDNA loci, small bands unrelated to ribosomal DNA on two chromosome pairs in Crotalaria incana, and CMA(+) centromeric bands that were quenched by distamycin A were detected in species of Calycinae and Crotalaria sections. DAPI(+) bands were detected in C. incana. The results support the species relationships based on flower specialization and were useful for providing insight into mechanisms of karyotype evolution. The heterochromatin types revealed by fluorochromes suggest the occurrence of rearrangements in repetitive DNA families in these heterochromatic blocks during species diversification. This DNA sequence turnover and the variability in number/position of rDNA sites could be interpreted as resulting from unequal crossing over and (or) transposition events. The occurrence of only one 5S rDNA locus and the smaller chromosome size in the polyploids suggest that DNA sequence losses took place following polyploidization events. PMID:21864195

  3. メマツヨイグサとアレチマツヨイグサの形質

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 昌友 / 安嶋, 隆 / 内山, 治男; スズキ, マサトモ / アジマ, タカシ / ウチヤマ, ハルオ; SUZUKI, Masatomo / AJIMA, Takashi / UCHIYAMA, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    The variability in gross morphology of two species of Oenothera, O. this study with particular emphasis on the variations in quantitative characters. Measured characters were as follows: size of flowers, length and width of petals, ratio of width/length of petals, overlap petals, hair on the ovary and the calyx-tube, length of capsules, number of serrations and number of branches. Observed characters were flowering season, leaf forms, mode of leaves and mode of branching. The results of a com...

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFA466 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 2. 36 2.7 3 BQ104153 |BQ104153.1 fc2126.e Rose Petals (Fragrant Cloud) Lambda ...1 fc2334.e Rose Petals (Fragrant Cloud) Lambda Zap Express Library Rosa hybrid cultivar cDNA clone fc2334.e ...|CF349561.1 fc2713.e Rose Petals (Fragrant Cloud) Lambda Zap Express Library Rosa hybrid cultivar cDNA clone

  5. Production of the CMS Tracker End Cap sub-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Fontaine, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    The production and qualification of the 288 petals needed to build both CMS Tracker End Caps (TECs) is summarized. There will be first a description of a petal, integrating many components, the most important ones being the silicon modules. The organization of the production, involving 7 Institutes all over Europe, will then be explained. The petal assembly and testing procedure will be quickly described. The quality assurance put in place at each production step has resulted in a very high petal quality, as some overall plots will attest. Finally some details about part failures will be given.

  6. Sites of ethylene production in the pollinated and unpollinated senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1977-01-01

    Production of endogenous ethylene from the styles, ovary and petals of pollinated and unpollinated flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. was measured. The rate of ethylene production of cut, unpollinated flowers aged in water at 18°C was low until the onset of petal wilting, when a rapid surge of ethylene occurred in all tissues. The flower ethylene production was evolved mostly from the styles and petals. The bases of petals from unpollinated, senescing flowers evolved ethylene faster and sometimes earlier than the upper parts. Treatment of cut flowers with propylene, an ethylene analogue, accelerated wilting of flower petals and promoted endogenous ethylene production in all flower tissues. Pollination of intact flowers also promoted endogenous ethylene production and caused accelerated petal wilting within 2-3 days from pollination. Although the data are consistent with the hypothesis that ethylene forms a link between pollination of the style and petal wilting, in the unpollinated flower the style and petals can evolve a surge of ethylene independently of each other, about the time when the petals irreversibly wilt. The results are discussed in relation to the role of ethylene in flower senescence.

  7. Novos registros de espécies da subtribo Ecliptinae (Heliantheae - Asteraceae para a Amazônia brasileira New records of species of the Ecliptinae subtribe (Heliantheae - Asteraceae to the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Alves dos Reis e Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da subtribo Ecliptinae encontradas nos estados do Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará e Rondônia, são apresentadas como novos registros para a Amazônia brasileira: Acmella uliginosa, Aspilia camporum, Aspilia ulei, Melanthera latifolia, Melanthera nivea, Spilanthes nervosa e Wedelia calycina. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações para as espécies, dados sobre a distribuição geográfica, hábitat, época de floração e frutificação. Os novos registros evidenciam a importância de estudos sobre a flora amazônica e demonstram a necessidade de coletas mais intensas na região.The following seven species of the subtribe Ecliptinae found in the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia have been recorded at the Brazilian Amazonia, for the first time: Acmella uliginosa, Aspilia camporum, Aspilia ulei, Melanthera latifolia, Melanthera nivea, Spilanthes nervosa and Wedelia calycina. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as information about geographic distribution, habitats and phenology. These new records highlight the importance of the floristic studies in Amazonia, and the need to carry out intensive fieldwork to improve the sampling in this region.

  8. Revision of Poa L. (Poaceae, Pooideae, Poeae, Poinae in Mexico: new records, re-evaluation of P. ruprechtii, and two new species, P. palmeri and P. wendtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Soreng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A revision and key to the 23 species and eight subspecies of Poa (including Dissanthelium known to occur in Mexico is provided. All voucher specimens seen are cited for accepted taxa, except P. annua for which one voucher per state is provided. Taxa not previously known from, or poorly understood in, Mexico are discussed. Poa palmeri sp. nov. is endemic to forested slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental, and we distinguished it from P. ruprechtii s.s., a species of central Mexico that is here emended to include P. sharpii (syn. nov.. Poa wendtii sp. nov. is described from the Sierra Santa Rosa in northern Coahuila. Poa tacanae is placed in synonymy in P. seleri. Poa gymnantha and P. occidentalis are newly reported for Mexico, and material historically identified as P. villaroelii are placed in P. chamaeclinos. The genus Dissanthelium is considered to belong within Poa, and the Mexican taxa, D. calycina subsp. mathewsii and D. californicum, are treated as P. calycina var. mathewsii and P. thomasii, respectively. Poa subsect. Papillopoa subsect. nov. is erected for P. mulleri. Lectotypes are designated for P. conglomerata and P. seleri.

  9. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Lourdes; Veiga, Tania; Ni, Xiuzhen; Farré, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, Pablo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea). We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1) and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in petals of

  10. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judit; Sheng, Yanmin; Gómez Gómez, Lourdes; Veiga, Tania; Ni, Xiuzhen; Farré, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, Pablo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea). We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1) and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in petals of

  11. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  12. Caracterização química e atividade biológica de extratos aquosos de Brunfelsiacuneifolia J.A. Schmidt (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. SCHNEIDER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O gênero Brunfelsia possui ainda poucas informações a respeito de sua composição química ou confirmações científicas de suas propriedades medicinais, apesar do uso na medicina tradicional pelos povos amazônicos. Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a espécie Brunfelsia cuneifolia, cultivada no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto a sua composição química e atividade biológica. Foram obtidos extratos aquosos a quente, a frio, e por ultrassom, a partir de folhas frescas. A caracterização química realizada por CLAE determinou a presença dos compostos fenólicos: ácido ferúlico e rutina, em todos os extratos, sendo as maiores quantidades apresentadas pela extração a frio. A análise por EMAR identificou a fórmula molecular de nove substâncias nos diferentes extratos, incluindo a presença do alcaloide brunfelsamidina em todos os extratos obtidos. Para a atividade biológica, devido à similaridade de resposta e teor nas diferentes formas de extração, foi possível correlacionar a atividade antioxidante, avaliada através da redução do radical DPPH*, com o teor de compostos fenólicos totais obtidos pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteu. A toxicidade dos extratos avaliada pela utilização de Artemia salina revelou ausência de toxidez. Os resultados obtidos são os primeiros apresentados para a caracterização desta espécie, colaborando também para a pesquisa científica acerca dos usos popularmente atribuídos ao gênero.

  13. The Utilization of HB-red Flower in Hybrid Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liu-ming; WANG Jia-bao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The HB-red flower trait came from the filial generation of the interspecific cross of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and G.bickii.It exhibits pink petals and filaments,with a large purplish red spot in the petal base,and it showed single dominant gene inheritance.Backcrossing since 2000 was used to produce HB near-isogenic lines.

  14. Nieuwe bramen uit het Drentse district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van de A.; Meijer, K.

    1990-01-01

    Four new species of the genus Rubus are described, all growing in the NE. of the Netherlands. Rubus contritidens resembles R. egrerius Focke, but is a stronger plant with 5-nate leaves and wide petals. Rubus drenthicus resembles R. ferocior Weber but has mostly white petals and yellowish to brownish

  15. A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Carol; Bramke, Irene; Breeze, Emily; Thornber, Sarah; Harrison, Elizabeth; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Stead, Tony; Rogers, Hilary

    2010-06-01

    Petal development and senescence entails a normally irreversible process. It starts with petal expansion and pigment production, and ends with nutrient remobilization and ultimately cell death. In many species this is accompanied by petal abscission. Post-harvest stress is an important factor in limiting petal longevity in cut flowers and accelerates some of the processes of senescence such as petal wilting and abscission. However, some of the effects of moderate stress in young flowers are reversible with appropriate treatments. Transcriptomic studies have shown that distinct gene sets are expressed during petal development and senescence. Despite this, the overlap in gene expression between developmental and stress-induced senescence in petals has not been fully investigated in any species. Here a custom-made cDNA microarray from Alstroemeria petals was used to investigate the overlap in gene expression between developmental changes (bud to first sign of senescence) and typical post-harvest stress treatments. Young flowers were stressed by cold or ambient temperatures without water followed by a recovery and rehydration period. Stressed flowers were still at the bud stage after stress treatments. Microarray analysis showed that ambient dehydration stress accelerates many of the changes in gene expression patterns that would normally occur during developmental senescence. However, a higher proportion of gene expression changes in response to cold stress were specific to this stimulus and not senescence related. The expression of 21 transcription factors was characterized, showing that overlapping sets of regulatory genes are activated during developmental senescence and by different stresses. PMID:20457576

  16. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  17. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Chacón

    Full Text Available Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSA637 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 02 5', DNA sequence. 48 0.092 1 BI977733 |BI977733.1 lC02 Old Blush petal SMART library Rosa chinensis cDNA ...0.36 1 BI978917 |BI978917.1 yF10 Old Blush petal SMART library Rosa chinensis cDNA 5' similar to calmodulin,

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06292-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2-58F17a.g1 GMW2 Glycine max genomic, genomic ... 46 1.0 1 ( BI978917 ) yF10 Old Blush petal SMART library R...osa chinensis... 46 1.0 1 ( BI977733 ) lC02 Old Blush petal SMART library Rosa ch

  20. Mass spectrometric imaging as a high-spatial resolution tool for functional genomics: Tissue-specific gene expression of TT7 inferred from heterogeneous distribution of metabolites in Arabidopsis flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-12-23

    Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was used to acquire chemical images of flavonoid metabolites on the surface of wild-type and mutant (tt7) Arabidopsis thaliana flowers. Flavonoids were localized to the petals and carpels of flowers, with tissue heterogeneity in the petals. Specifically, kaempferol and/or its glycosides were abundant in the distal region of petals and quercetin and its downstream flavonoids were highly enriched in the more proximal region of petals. As a result of a mutation in the TT7 gene which blocks the conversion of dihydrokaempferol to dihydroquercetin, the downstream metabolites, quercetin, isohamnetin, and their glycosides, were not observed in the mutant flowers. Instead, the metabolites in an alternative pathway, kaempferol and/or its glycosides, were as highly abundant on the proximal region of the petals as in the distal region. In addition, the combined flavonoid amounts on the proximal region of petals in the wild-type are almost equivalent to the amounts of kaempferol and/or its glycosides in the mutant. This strongly suggests that the expression of the TT7 gene is localized on the proximal part of the petal while the other genes in the upper stream pathway are evenly expressed throughout the petal. Most importantly, this work demonstrates MSI of metabolites can be utilized for the localization of gene expression.

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-AC10 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLING. 42 3e-05 3 BQ104476 |BQ104476.1 fc0497.e Rose Petals (Fragrant Cloud) Lambda Zap Express Library Rosa... hybrid cultivar cDNA clone fc0497.e 5', mRNA sequence. 46 3e-05 2 CF349401 |CF349401.1 fc3079.e Rose Petals (Fragrant Cloud

  2. N-月桂酰乙醇胺对香石竹开放和衰老进程中花瓣微粒体膜组分和功能的调节%Regulatory Role of N-lauroylethanolamine on Microsomal Membrane Composition and Function in Petals of Carnation During the Blossoming and Senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 郭维明; 陈发棣; 韩亮; 李正名

    2007-01-01

    [目的]探讨N-月桂酰乙醇胺[N-lauroylethanolamine, NAE(12:0)]延缓香石竹切花衰老的作用机理.[方法]以5 μmol·L-1 NAE(12:0)对香石竹切花(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)'Red Barbara'进行瓶插处理,研究瓶插试验进程中NAE(12:0)对花瓣微粒体膜组分和功能的影响.[结果]香石竹切花开放和衰老进程伴随着花瓣微粒体膜磷脂含量、膜脂流动性、膜脂脂肪酸不饱和指数以及膜结合酶比活力的下降,外源NAE(12:0)处理能在切花盛开后期至初萎发生前明显滞缓香石竹花瓣微粒体膜上述指标的下降速率,同时降低作为膜衰老可靠指标的电导率的上升幅度.[结论]NAE(12:0)延缓香石竹切花衰老的作用机理与NAE(12:0)对花瓣微粒体膜磷脂降解以及膜脂脂肪酸组分的调节有关,由此延缓了花瓣微粒体膜脂流动性的下降速率,降低了膜渗漏的上升幅度,并维持了膜结合酶较高的比活力,从而推迟了切花初萎的发生.

  3. 9个糯玉米自.交系主要品质性状的配合力效应及遗传参数分析%Study on Components of Flower Pigments in Petals of Different Color Saintpaulia ionantha Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆虎华; 程玉静; 胡加如; 薛林; 陈国清; 石明亮; 黄小兰; 孙权星; 彭长俊; 陈小晖

    2011-01-01

    以9个糯质自交系为试材,以田间试验和实验室测定相结合,采用不完全双列杂交,对糯玉米6个鲜食品质性状的一般配合力(GCA)、特殊配合力(SCA)和遗传参数进行了研究。结果表明:各性状GCA、SCA差异均达到极显著水平;感官品质主要由显性基因决定,其余性状受基因的加性效应影响大,但在程度上存在差异。在鲜食品质性状方面,多数性状上一般配合力表现较高的自交系有通366、通系5、通361、衡白522;特殊配合力在多数性状上表现较高的组合有(通366×通系5)、(衡白522×通系5)、(通366×通361)、(通366×新红361)、(T2×通361)。%Nine inbred lines of waxy corn were used as test materials in NC II mating design to study the general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and genetic parameters of 6 table quality traits of waxy com. The results show that the differences between GCA and SCA of all traits were very significant. The sense quality was controlled mainly by non-additive gene while there were both additive gene and non-additive gene actions on the other traits. Tong 366, Tong 5, Tong 361 and Hengbai 522, these inbred lines were comparatively high in GCA of most traits, while Tong 366 ×Tong 5, Hengbai 522×Tong 5, Tong 366×Tong 361, Tong 366×Xianghong 361 and T2×Tong 361, these combinations were rather high in SCA of most traits.

  4. Chemical composition and larvicidal evaluation of Mentha, Salvia, and Melissa essential oils against the West Nile virus mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, George; Pitarokili, Danae; Kioulos, Elias; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-07-01

    The volatile metabolites of wild-growing Mentha spicata, M. longifolia, M. suaveolens, Melissa officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, S. pomifera subsp. calycina, and S. pomifera subsp. pomifera from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal properties of the analyzed essential oils were screened on Culex pipiens larvae. Additionally two of the main components of the essential oils, piperitenone oxide and 1,8-cineole were assayed against C. pipiens in order to define the affiliation between them and the larvicidal properties of the oils. The most effective oils were M. suaveolens (major constituent piperitenone oxide, 62.4%), M. spicata (piperitenone oxide, 35.7% and 1,8-cineole, 14.5%) and M. longifolia--Central Greece (piperitenone oxide, 33.4%; 1,8-cineole, 24.5% and trans-piperitone epoxide, 17.4%), which exhibited LC(50) values ranging from 47.88 to 59.33 mg l(-1). Medium activity revealed the oils of M. officinalis (terpin-4-ol, 15.8%; caryophyllene oxide, 13.2%; sabinene, 12.9%; beta-pinene, 12.1%; and trans-caryophyllene, 10.2%), M. longifolia--Southern Greece (carvone, 54.7% and limonene 20.0%), S. pomifera subsp. pomifera (trans-caryophyllene, 22.5% and trans-thujone, 21.0%), S. pomifera subsp. calycina--West Southern Greece (trans-thujone, 56.1% and 1,8-cineole, 10.4%), and S. fruticosa--population 2 (camphor, 23.1%; alpha-pinene, 12.7%; and borneol, 12.6%), with LC(50) values ranging from 78.28 to 91.45 mg l(-1). S. pomifera subsp. calycina (Central Greece) essential oil (trans-thujone, 26.5% and cis-thujone, 12.0%) presented rather low activity (LC(50) values 140.42 mg l(-1)), while S. fruticosa--population 1 (1,8-cineole, 31.4% and camphor, 22.6%) was the only inactive oil. Additionally, the constituent piperitenone oxide was found to be highly active (LC(50) values 9.95 mg l(-1)), whereas 1,8-cineole revealed no toxicity. PMID:20405142

  5. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic flowers with low hysteresis of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor – new design principles for biomimetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Schulte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchically structured flower leaves (petals of many plants are superhydrophobic, but water droplets do not roll-off when the surfaces are tilted. On such surfaces water droplets are in the “Cassie impregnating wetting state”, which is also known as the “petal effect”. By analyzing the petal surfaces of different species, we discovered interesting new wetting characteristics of the surface of the flower of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor. This surface is superhydrophobic with a static contact angle of 169° and very low hysteresis, i.e., the petal effect does not exist and water droplets roll-off as from a lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaf. However, the surface of the wild pansy petal does not possess the wax crystals of the lotus leaf. Its petals exhibit high cone-shaped cells (average size 40 µm with a high aspect ratio (2.1 and a very fine cuticular folding (width 260 nm on top. The applied water droplets are in the Cassie–Baxter wetting state and roll-off at inclination angles below 5°. Fabricated hydrophobic polymer replicas of the wild pansy were prepared in an easy two-step moulding process and possess the same wetting characteristics as the original flowers. In this work we present a technical surface with a new superhydrophobic, low adhesive surface design, which combines the hierarchical structuring of petals with a wetting behavior similar to that of the lotus leaf.

  6. Relationship between Major Mineral Nutrient Elements Contents and Flower Colors of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhong Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a famous ornamental plant with bright flowers and lush leaves. The flower petal can be used as a fragrant food additive. Understanding the mineral nutrient contents in P. lactiflora is necessary for guiding its cultivation practices as well as its use as a food additive. In this study, we investigated the mineral contents including Calcium (Ca, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Copper (Cu, iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn in petals and leaves of 20 selected herbaceous peony cultivars in four groups according to their flower colors and the relationship between major mineral nutrient elements contents and flower colors was assessed. In petals, the contents of minerals were in this order K>Ca>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu; while in leaves were: Ca>K>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu. Major element contents in petals and leaves among 4 cultivar groups were different at statistically significant levels. Petals in red or purple have higher amount of most major minerals than those in white or pink colors. The wide range of mineral element contents among cultivars is attributed to genotypic variations. The correlations of major mineral elements in the petals and leaves of herbaceous peony cultivars indicate that mineral ions compete for the same absorption sites. The results provided some scientific support for petal nutrition of herbaceous peony and selecting herbaceous peony flowers with dark colors for edible is feasible.

  7. An Arabidopsis tissue-specific RNAi method for studying genes essential to mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunilís Burgos-Rivera

    Full Text Available A large fraction of the genes in plants can be considered essential in the sense that when absent the plant fails to develop past the first few cell divisions. The fact that angiosperms pass through a haploid gametophyte stage can make it challenging to propagate such mutants even in the heterozygous condition. Here we describe a tissue-specific RNAi method that allows us to visualize cell division phenotypes in petals, which are large dispensable organs. Portions of the APETALA (AP3 and PISTILLATA (PI promoters confer early petal-specific expression. We show that when either promoter is used to drive the expression of a beta-glucuronidase (GUS RNAi transgene in plants uniformly expressing GUS, GUS expression is knocked down specifically in petals. We further tested the system by targeting the essential kinetochore protein CENPC and two different components of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (MAD2 and BUBR1. Plant lines expressing petal-specific RNAi hairpins targeting these genes exhibited an array of petal phenotypes. Cytological analyses of the affected flower buds confirmed that CENPC knockdown causes cell cycle arrest but provided no evidence that either MAD2 or BUBR1 are required for mitosis (although both genes are required for petal growth by this assay. A key benefit of the petal-specific RNAi method is that the phenotypes are not expressed in the lineages leading to germ cells, and the phenotypes are faithfully transmitted for at least four generations despite their pronounced effects on growth.

  8. Daisy antenna for the emission and reception of linearly and circularly polarized electromagnetic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Llabrés Foyo, Juan; Vassallo Sanz, Juan; Caravantes Tortajada, Jorge; Mediavilla Sánchez, Ángel; Tazón Puente, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The invention relates to an antenna formed by the coplanar grouping of an even number of radiating wires which together form a shape similar to the petal distribution of a daisy. The radiating wires or petals of the daisy antenna work by resonance and have a flat geometry, as well as all having the same structure and being in the same plane, referred to as the antenna plane. The only difference between the petals is in the relative distribution of the current flow directions, which d...

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSG560 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N BI978723 |BI978723.1 wE05 Old Blush petal SMART libr...ary Rosa chinensis cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 48 3e-12 4 BI978178 |BI978178.1 qD10 Old Blush...BI978179 |BI978179.1 qD11 Old Blush petal SMART library Rosa chinensis cDNA 5' similar to guanine nucleotide...ce. 58 2e-09 4 BI978378 |BI978378.1 sF09 Old Blush petal SMART library Rosa chinensis cDNA 5' similar to gua

  10. Towards a semilocal study of parabolic invariant curves for fibred holomorphic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the study of the local dynamics around a parabolic indifferent invariant curve for fibred holomorphic maps. As in the classical non-fibred case, we show that petals are the main ingredient. Nevertheless, one expects the properties of the base rotation number should play an important role in the arrangement of the petals. We exhibit examples where the existence and the number of petals depend not just on the complex coordinate of the map, but on the base rotation number. Furthermore, under additional hypothesis on the arithmetics and smoothness of the map, we present a theorem that allows to characterize the local dynamics around a parabolic invariant curve.

  11. 76 FR 31354 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Transit Connect Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... vacuum pump, a Swiss charger, a Japanese AC compressor, and a Japanese DC-DC converter. Station 3... heater blend door, a data link control wiring harness, and a brake sensor to the brake petal,...

  12. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  13. Dicty_cDB: SLJ733 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 020722 |AR020722.1 Sequence 11 from patent US 5789194. 44 0.77 1 BI978255 |BI978255.1 rC04 Old Blush petal S...ein (PPFRU16), mRNA sequence. 38 2.8 2 BI978067 |BI978067.1 pC05 Old Blush petal ...tein, mRNA sequence. 38 2.8 2 BI977377 |BI977377.1 gA12 Old Blush petal SMART lib...98 |BI978298.1 rG04 Old Blush petal SMART library Rosa chinensis cDNA 5' similar to metallothionein-like pro...MART library Rosa chinensis cDNA 5' similar to metallothionein-like protein, mRNA sequence. 38 2.7 2 BI97879

  14. Quantitative trait loci for floral morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    OpenAIRE

    Juenger, T; Purugganan, M.; Mackay, T F

    2000-01-01

    A central question in biology is how genes control the expression of quantitative variation. We used statistical methods to estimate genetic variation in eight Arabidopsis thaliana floral characters (fresh flower mass, petal length, petal width, sepal length, sepal width, long stamen length, short stamen length, and pistil length) in a cosmopolitan sample of 15 ecotypes. In addition, we used genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate the genetic basis of variation in these...

  15. The Interference Effect of a Bose—Einstein Condensate in a Ring-Shaped Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the interference effect of a Bose—Einstein condensate expanding in a ring-shaped trap. The dynamic process of the condensate is analyzed based on the Gross—Pitaevskii equation. Our numerical results show that a petal-like interference pattern is formed during expansion within the ring-shaped trap. The petal number depends on the evolution time, which can be well explained by the interference of two flows of the condensate. (general)

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSK426 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 3 BQ104476 |BQ104476.1 fc0497.e Rose Petals (Fragrant Cloud) Lambda Zap Express...e Rose Petals (Fragrant Cloud) Lambda Zap Express Library Rosa hybrid cultivar cDNA clone fc3079.e 5', mRNA ... Library Rosa hybrid cultivar cDNA clone fc0497.e 5', mRNA sequence. 46 3e-05 2 CF349401 |CF349401.1 fc3079.

  17. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis uncovers the molecular basis underlying early flowering and apetalous characteristic in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kunjiang; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Feng; Chen, Song; Peng, Qi; Li, Hongge; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Maolong; Chu, Pu; Zhang, Jiefu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2016-01-01

    Floral transition and petal onset, as two main aspects of flower development, are crucial to rapeseed evolutionary success and yield formation. Currently, very little is known regarding the genetic architecture that regulates flowering time and petal morphogenesis in Brassica napus. In the present study, a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis was performed with an absolutely apetalous and early flowering line, APL01, and a normally petalled line, PL01, using high-throughput RNA sequencing. In total, 13,205 differential expressed genes were detected, of which 6111 genes were significantly down-regulated, while 7094 genes were significantly up-regulated in the young inflorescences of APL01 compared with PL01. The expression levels of a vast number of genes involved in protein biosynthesis were altered in response to the early flowering and apetalous character. Based on the putative rapeseed flowering genes, an early flowering network, mainly comprised of vernalization and photoperiod pathways, was built. Additionally, 36 putative upstream genes possibly governing the apetalous character of line APL01 were identified, and six genes potentially regulating petal origination were obtained by combining with three petal-related quantitative trait loci. These findings will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying floral transition and petal initiation in B. napus. PMID:27460760

  18. Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, K; Yoshioka, T; Hashiba, T; Satoh, S

    2000-12-01

    Although the role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of the carnation flower has long been suggested, it has remained a matter of dispute because petal senescence in the cut carnation flower was not delayed by the removal of gynoecium. In this study, the gynoecium was snapped off by hand, in contrast to previous investigations where removal was achieved by forceps or scissors. The removal of the gynoecium by hand prevented the onset of ethylene production and prolonged the vase life of the flower, demonstrating a decisive role of the gynoecium in controlling natural senescence of the carnation flower. Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which induced ethylene production and accelerated petal senescence in carnation flowers, did not stimulate ethylene production in the flowers with gynoecia removed (-Gyn flowers). Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), the ethylene precursor, induced substantial ethylene production and petal wilting in the flowers with gynoecia left intact, but was less effective at stimulating ethylene production in the -Gyn flowers and negligible petal in-rolling was observed. Exogenous ethylene induced autocatalytic production of the gas and petal wilting in the -Gyn flowers. These results indicated that ethylene generated in the gynoecium triggers the onset of ethylene production in the petals of carnation during natural senescence.

  19. Taxonomic synopsis and analytical key for the genera of Solanaceae from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Sinopse taxonômica e chave ilustrada dos gêneros de Solanaceae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luís de Carvalho Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work consists of a taxonomic synopsis of the genera of Solanaceae in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Solanaceae is represented by 28 genera in this state: Acnistus Schott, Athenaea Sendtn., Aureliana Sendtn., Bouchetia Dunal, Browalia L., Brugmansia Pers., Brunfelsia L., Calibrachoa La Llave & Lex., Capsicum L., Cestrum L., Datura L., Dyssochroma Miers, Grabowskia Schltdl., Jaborosa Juss., Lycianthes (Dunal Hassl., Melananthus Walp., Nicandra Adans., Nicotiana L., Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav., Petunia Juss., Physalis L., Salpichroa Miers, Schwenckia L., Sessea Ruiz & Pav., Solandra Sw., Solanum L. (including Cyphomandra Sendtn. and Lycopersicon Mill., Streptosolen Miers and Vassobia Rusby. Of these, 23 consist of native species , while five are represented exclusively by introduced species. The total number of species is 149, of which 118 are native and 31 are introduced (adventitious or cultivated. An identification key for genera, and also comments on the most relevant taxonomic characters of each one are presented, plus comments on the species that occur in Rio Grande do Sul state.Este trabalho consiste em uma sinopse taxonômica dos gêneros de Solanaceae no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Constatou-se a ocorrência de 28 gêneros: Acnistus Schott, Athenaea Sendtn., Aureliana Sendtn., Bouchetia Dunal, Browalia L., Brugmansia Pers., Brunfelsia L., Calibrachoa La Llave & Lex., Capsicum L., Cestrum L., Datura L., Dyssochroma Miers, Grabowskia Schltdl., Jaborosa Juss., Lycianthes (Dunal Hassl., Melananthus Walp., Nicandra Adans., Nicotiana L., Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav., Petunia Juss., Physalis L., Salpichroa Miers, Schwenckia L., Sessea Ruiz & Pav., Solandra Sw., Solanum L. (incluindo Cyphomandra Sendtn. e Lycopersicon Mill., Streptosolen Miers e Vassobia Rusby. Destes, 23 apresentam espécies nativas, enquanto cinco estão representados exclusivamente por espécies introduzidas. O número total de espécies é de 149, sendo que 118 s

  20. Morphology of Some Species in the Subfamily Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Adeola OWOLABI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological study of ten species in the subfamily Papilionoideae was carried out with the view to documenting diagnostic characters that would distinguish or group the species. The species studied belong to four tribes, namely: tribe Desmodieae – Desmodium tortuosum (Sw. DC., Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw. Desv., Desmodium adscendens (Sw. DC., tribe Phaseoleae – Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Calopogonium mucunoides Desv., Centrosema molle (Mart. ex. Benth., Mucuna pruriens (Linn. Walp., Vigna unguiculata (Linn. Walp., tribe Crotalarieae – Crotalaria retusa Linn., tribe Robinieae – Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. Qualitative and quantitative traits which had not been documented in previous works, especially in Nigeria, were studied. These include plant life span; leaf/leaflet apex, base, margin and pubescence; stem type, colour, shape and pubescence; sepal colour and pubescence; nature of margin of petal standard and presence or absence of pedicel; fruit colour, pubescence, tip and shape; seed colour, shape, surface and presence or absence of prominent hilum on the seed; number of seeds per fruit; pedicel length; length and width of petal standard, keel and wing. Characters of taxonomic value documented in this study were leaf type, leaf shape, leaf base, petiole type, stem type, seed shape, petal standard length, petal keel length and petal wing width. Data were subjected to one - way analysis of variance using Duncan’s multiple range test. It was noted that the important characters that can be used in establishing taxonomic relationship in the sub-family Papilionoideae were leaf type, leaf shape, leaf base, petiole type, stem shape, petal colour, petal margin and seed shape.

  1. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  2. New challenges for the design of high value plant products: stabilization of anthocyanins in plant vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina ePasseri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the synthesizing enzymes. We present here an overview of economically interesting plant species, both food crops and ornamentals, in which anthocyanin content was improved by traditional breeding or transgenesis. Old genetic studies in petunia and more recent biochemical work in brunfelsia, have shown that after synthesis and compartmentalization in the vacuole, anthocyanins need to be stabilized to preserve the color of the plant tissue over time. The final yield of antioxidant molecules is the result of the balance between synthesis and degradation. Therefore the understanding of the mechanism that determine molecule stabilization in the vacuolar lumen is the next step that needs to be taken to further improve the anthocyanin content in food.In several species a phenomenon known as fading is responsible for the disappearance of pigmentation which in some case can be nearly complete. We discuss the present knowledge about the genetic and biochemical factors involved in pigment preservation/destabilization in plant cells.The improvement of our understanding of the fading process will supply new tools for both biotechnological approaches and marker-assisted breeding.

  3. FLORISTIC AND PHYTOSSOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN CAPÃO DE TUPANCIRETÃ RESERVATION, TUPANCIRETÃ, RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Ferreira da Luiz Rosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was accomplished in Capão de Tupanciretã Reservation, in the city of Tupanciretã, Rio Grande do Sul, in an area with 8 hectares, belonging to the Fundation of Agropecuary Research of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of the paper was to evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure of the forest. Ten samplings of 10 x 20 m were distributed systematically in the area. In the sampling module, every individual with DAP major or equal to 5 cm was measured and identified. In the sampling, a split sample of 5 x 5 m was marked to evaluate the bush component (DAP between 1 and 5 cm and one of 2 x 2 was used to evaluate the regeneration (DAP smaller than 1 cm and higher than 30 cm. The results were analyzed considering the FITOANALISE program, it was calculated the traditional phytosociological parameters like density, dominancy, frequency, importance of the value, coverage of the value and index of the diversity. The most present species in the tree component of the forest were Cupania vernalis Cambess. and Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L. B. Sm. & Downs. The biggest number of species in the bush component and in regeneration were Cupania vernalis Cambess., Brunfelsia australis Benth., Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil. Cambess. & A. Juss. Radlk. and Nectandra lanceolata Nees.

  4. Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Smit, Mart; Verbeek, Jeffrey; Ågren, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Δβpoll = 0.42) and contrast (Δβpoll = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Δγpoll = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species. PMID:26878831

  5. The First Comprehensive Phylogeny of Coptis (Ranunculaceae and Its Implications for Character Evolution and Classification.

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    Kun-Li Xiang

    Full Text Available Coptis (Ranunculaceae contains 15 species and is one of the pharmaceutically most important plant genera in eastern Asia. Understanding of the evolution of morphological characters and phylogenetic relationships within the genus is very limited. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. The phylogeny was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, as well as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis and Bayesian tests were used to assess the strength of the conflicts between traditional taxonomic units and those suggested by the phylogenetic inferences. Evolution of morphological characters was inferred using Bayesian method to identify synapomorphies for the infrageneric lineages. Our data recognize two strongly supported clades within Coptis. The first clade contains subgenus Coptis and section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis, supported by morphological characters, such as traits of the central leaflet base, petal color, and petal shape. The second clade consists of section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis. Coptis morii is not united with C. quinquefolia, in contrast with the view that C. morii is a synonym of C. quinquefolia. Two varieties of C. chinensis do not cluster together. Coptis groenlandica and C. lutescens are reduced to C. trifolia and C. japonica, respectively. Central leaflet base, sepal shape, and petal blade carry a strong phylogenetic signal in Coptis, while leaf type, sepal and petal color, and petal shape exhibit relatively higher levels of evolutionary flexibility.

  6. The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Bettina; Warskulat, Anne-Christin; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids play an important role in the pigmentation of flowers; in addition, they protect petals and other flower parts from UV irradiation and oxidative stress. Nudicaulins, flavonoid-derived indole alkaloids, along with pelargonidin, kaempferol, and gossypetin glycosides, are responsible for the color of white, red, orange, and yellow petals of different Papaver nudicaule cultivars. The color of the petals is essential to attract pollinators. We investigated the occurrence of flavonoids in basal and apical petal areas, stamens, and capsules of four differently colored P. nudicaule cultivars by means of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The results reveal the specific occurrence of gossypetin glycosides in the basal spot of all cultivars and demonstrate that kaempferol glycosides are the major secondary metabolites in the capsules. Unlike previous reports, the yellow-colored stamens of all four P. nudicaule cultivars are shown to contain not nudicaulins but carotenoids. In addition, the presence of nudicaulins, pelargonidin, and kaempferol glycosides in the apical petal area was confirmed. The flavonoids and related compounds in the investigated flower parts and cultivars of P. nudicaule are profiled, and their potential ecological role is discussed. PMID:27338493

  7. Global identification of target genes regulated by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA floral homeotic gene action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zik, Moriyah; Irish, Vivian F

    2003-01-01

    Identifying the genes regulated by the floral homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to petal and stamen formation. We have used microarray analysis to conduct a broad survey of genes whose expression is affected by AP3 and PI activity. DNA microarrays consisting of 9216 Arabidopsis ESTs were screened with probes corresponding to mRNAs from different mutant and transgenic lines that misexpress AP3 and/or PI. The microarray results were further confirmed by RNA gel blot analyses. Our results suggest that AP3 and PI regulate a relatively small number of genes, implying that many genes used in petal and stamen development are not tissue specific and likely have roles in other processes as well. We recovered genes similar to previously identified petal- and stamen-expressed genes as well as genes that were not implicated previously in petal and stamen development. A very low percentage of the genes recovered encoded transcription factors. This finding suggests that AP3 and PI act relatively directly to regulate the genes required for the basic cellular processes responsible for petal and stamen morphogenesis.

  8. Development of green tea scented with organic roses "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/11/03 - Accepted: 2014/12/15The aim of this study was to obtain a flavored green tea with organic rose petals "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador. Green tea, purchased from a private company, it was subjected to analysis to verify compliance with the requirements of standard INEN 2381: 2005. The Characterization of fresh rose petals was to made and for the dehydration was used two temperatures and two geometries. Analysis of total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant capacity (TEACmethod were performed. The dried petals, with a higher content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, were used in the preparation to flavored tea. Three formulations with different amounts of dried rose petals (10, 17.5 and 25% were tested sensorially by 100 judges to determine the aroma rose in the tea. The final product was analyzed to determine compliance of the requirements of the standard INEN of the tea. Finally acceptability and purchase intention of the product is evaluated. The values of content total polyphenol in the extracts of rose petals were superior to fruits such as blackberries, and strawberries.

  9. Different morphological characters of Spathoglottis plicata induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spathoglottis plicata of purple color available as pot plant in the market was used in this study. The in vitro seedlings of 3-month olds were radiated with gamma rays (Cs-137 source) at the doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 krad. Only seedlings treated with 2 krad survived and showed morphological variations of 5 different clones namely clone 13, 19, 22, 23 and 25, whereas the control plants were divided into three (3) groups. Clone 19, 22, 23 and 25 showed flower structures that were significantly different from those of the control groups. Clone 25 gave flowers of different size from the control, more intense fragrance with incomplete blooming petals. Clone 23 showed long spots on sepals and petals, undulate petal margin, malformation of petal and malformation of essential organs. Clone 19 gave flowers of brighter color with no petal and essential organs clinging to sepals. Clone 22 gave flower of darker color with no essential organs. All clones were found significantly different from the control plants in terms of plant height, leaf length, leaf width and inflorescence length except clone 13. As to the morphological characters, mutant clone 23 is potentially to be released as a new variety of pot plant in the market

  10. Activation of the Arabidopsis B class homeotic genes by APETALA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, M; Yanofsky, M F

    2001-04-01

    Proper development of petals and stamens in Arabidopsis flowers requires the activities of APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), whose transcripts can be detected in the petal and stamen primordia. Localized expression of AP3 and PI requires the activities of at least three genes: APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO). It has been proposed that UFO provides spatial cues and that LFY specifies competence for AP3 and PI expression in the developing flower. To understand the epistatic relationship among AP1, LFY, and UFO in regulating AP3 and PI expression, we generated two versions of AP1 that have strong transcriptional activation potential. Genetic and molecular analyses of transgenic plants expressing these activated AP1 proteins show that the endogenous AP1 protein acts largely as a transcriptional activator in vivo and that AP1 specifies petals by regulating the spatial domains of AP3 and PI expression through UFO.

  11. Floral organogenesis of Delavaya toxocarpa (Sapindaceae; Sapindales)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Min CAO; Nian-He XIA

    2009-01-01

    The floral organogenesis and development of Delavaya toxocarpa Franch. (Sapindaceae) were studied under scanning electron microscope and light microscope to determine its systematic position within Sapindaceae. Flowers arise in terminal thyrses. The sepal primordia initiate in a spiral (2/5) sequence, which are not synchronous. The five petal primordia initiate almost synchronously and alternate with sepal primordia. Eight stamens initiate almost simultaneously and their differentiation precedes that of the petals. The last formed petal and one stamen initiate from a common primordium. Mature stamens curve inwards and cover the ovary in bud. The gynoecium begins as a hemispheric primordium on which two carpellary lobes arise simultaneously. Later in development a single gynocium is formed with two locules and two ovules per locule. Floral morphology suggests a closer affinity with Sapindaceae, although certain features of floral ontogenesis are similar to those observed in certain members of the former Hippocastanaceae, such as Handeliodendron.

  12. Triphase interface synthesis of plasmonic gold bellflowers as near-infrared light mediated acoustic and thermal theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Rong, Pengfei; Lin, Jing; Li, Wanwan; Yan, Xuefeng; Zhang, Molly Gu; Nie, Liming; Niu, Gang; Lu, Jie; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-06-11

    We present a novel gold bellflower (GBF) platform with multiple-branched petals, prepared by a liquid-liquid-gas triphase interface system, for photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). Upon near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, the GBFs, with strong NIR absorption, showed very strong PA response and an ultrahigh photothermal conversion efficiency (η, ∼74%) among the reported photothermal conversion agents. The excellent performance in PAI and PTT is mainly attributed to the unique features of the GBFs: (i) multiple-branched petals with an enhanced local electromagnetic field, (ii) long narrow gaps between adjacent petals that induce a strong plasmonic coupling effect, and (iii) a bell-shaped nanostructure that can effectively amplify the acoustic signals during the acoustic propagation. Besides the notable PTT and an excellent PAI effect, the NIR-absorbing GBFs may also find applications in NIR light-triggered drug delivery, catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering, stealth, antireflection, IR sensors, telecommunications, and the like.

  13. Integration of the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Volker; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Bremer, R; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Feld, Lutz; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub-system of the tracker is its end cap system, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted into the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 petals, and the insertion of these petals into the end cap structure is referred to as TEC integration. The two end caps were integrated independently in Aachen (TEC+) and at CERN (TEC--). This note deals with the integration of TEC+, describing procedures for end cap integration and for quality control during testing of integrated sections of the end cap and presenting results from the testing.

  14. MoS2 nanoflowers and their field-emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. B.; Bando, Y.; Golberg, D.

    2003-03-01

    Elegant three-dimensional MoS2 nanoflowers were uniformly formed via heating a MoO2 thin film in a vapor sulfur atmosphere. Tens to hundreds of petals were self-assembled within a single nanoflower. Each petal, 100-300 nm wide and only several nanometers thick, exhibited a hexagonal structure. The number of petal layers gradually decreased towards the edges, resulting in uniquely thin edges, typically less than 3 nm. The MoS2 nanoflowers appeared to be excellent field emitters displaying a current density of 0.01 and 10 mA/cm2 at macroscopic fields of 4.5-5.5 and 7.6-8.6 V/μm, respectively; the electron field emission was consistent with the Fowler-Nordheim theory.

  15. Contributions of iridescence to floral patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Heather M; Kolle, Mathias; Alvarez-Fernandez, Ruben; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-05-01

    The Hibiscus trionum flower is distinctly patterned, with white petals each with a patch of red pigment at the base, producing a 'bulls-eye' pattern on the whole flower. The red pigmented patches are also iridescent, due to the presence of a series of overlying cuticular striations that act as a diffraction grating. We have previously reported that scanning electron microscopy revealed a sharply defined difference between the surface structure overlying the pigmented patch and that over the rest of the petal, with the diffraction grating only present over the pigmented region. Here we show that differences in petal surface structure overlie differences in pigment color in three other species, in a range of different patterns. Floral patterns have previously been shown to be advantageous in pollinator attraction, and we discuss whether emphasis of pigment patterns by structural color may increase floral recognition by pollinators. PMID:19641739

  16. Control of Floret Symmetry by RAY3, SvDIV1B, and SvRAD in the Capitulum of Senecio vulgaris1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    All members of Asteraceae, the largest flowering family, have a unique compressed inflorescence known as a capitulum, which resembles a solitary flower. The capitulum often consists of bilateral (zygomorphic) ray florets and radial (actinomorphic) disc florets. In Antirrhinum majus, floral zygomorphy is established by the interplay between dorsal petal identity genes, CYCLOIDEA (CYC) and RADIALIS (RAD), and a ventral gene DIVARICATA (DIV). To investigate the role of CYC, RAD, and DIV in the development of ray and disc florets within a capitulum, we isolated homologs of these genes from an Asteraceae species, Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel). After initial uniform expression of RAY3 (CYC), SvRAD, and SvDIV1B in ray florets only, RAY3 and SvRAD were exclusively expressed in the ventral petals of the ray florets. Our functional analysis further showed that RAY3 promotes and SvDIV1B represses petal growth, confirming their roles in floral zygomorphy. Our results highlight that while floral symmetry genes such as RAY3 and SvDIV1B appear to have a conserved role in petal growth in both Senecio and Antirrhinum, the regulatory relationships and expression domains are divergent, allowing ventral petal elongation in Senecio versus dorsal petal elongation in Antirrhinum. In S. vulgaris, diversification of CYC genes has led to novel interactions; SvDIV1B inhibits RAY3 and SvRAD, and may activate RAY2. This highlights how recruitment of floral symmetry regulators into dynamic networks was crucial for creating a complex and elaborate structure such as the capitulum. PMID:27208229

  17. Methods for transient assay of gene function in floral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirana Nilangani N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in rapid assays or screening systems for assigning gene function. However, analysis of gene function in the flowers of some species is restricted due to the difficulty of producing stably transformed transgenic plants. As a result, experimental approaches based on transient gene expression assays are frequently used. Biolistics has long been used for transient over-expression of genes of interest, but has not been exploited for gene silencing studies. Agrobacterium-infiltration has also been used, but the focus primarily has been on the transient transformation of leaf tissue. Results Two constructs, one expressing an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum majus (Antirrhinum chalcone synthase gene (CHS and the other an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum transcription factor gene Rosea1, were shown to effectively induce CHS and Rosea1 gene silencing, respectively, when introduced biolistically into petal tissue of Antirrhinum flowers developing in vitro. A high-throughput vector expressing the Antirrhinum CHS gene attached to an inverted repeat of the nos terminator was also shown to be effective. Silencing spread systemically to create large zones of petal tissue lacking pigmentation, with transmission of the silenced state spreading both laterally within the affected epidermal cell layer and into lower cell layers, including the epidermis of the other petal surface. Transient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of petal tissue of tobacco and petunia flowers in situ or detached was also achieved, using expression of the reporter genes GUS and GFP to visualise transgene expression. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of using biolistics-based transient RNAi, and transient transformation of petal tissue via Agrobacterium infiltration to study gene function in petals. We have also produced a vector for high throughput gene silencing studies, incorporating the option of using T-A cloning to

  18. Methanol wetting enthalpy on few-layer graphene decorated hierarchical carbon foam for cooling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, R., E-mail: paul24@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Zemlyanov, D. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Voevodin, A.A.; Roy, A.K. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Fisher, T.S. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Vertical few-layer thick graphene petals are grown on macro-porous carbon foam surfaces having an intrinsic open porosity of 75%. This provides a hierarchical porous structure with a potential for surface adsorption/desorption or wetting/dewetting based thermal energy storage applications. Carbon foams have a combined advantage of large surface area and high thermal conductivity critical for thermal energy storage, but they are prone to oxidation and exhibit low adsorption enthalpies for lightweight hydrocarbons. Here we report graphene petal decoration of carbon foam surfaces and subsequent chemical modification through boron nitride incorporation in hexagonal carbon planes of both carbon foams and graphene petals. This chemically reactive hierarchical structure is characterized with FESEM, Raman, XRD, and XPS measurements. Methanol wetting enthalpy of this three-dimensional hierarchical material was measured with a solution calorimeter, and had shown a six fold increase (from 78 to 522 J/g of foam) as compared to the carbon foam prior to the surface modification. Influences of petal decoration on the surface morphology of carbon foam, BN chemical modification, structure and stoichiometry of the hierarchical material surface, and methanol wetting enthalpy improvement are discussed in detail. The applicability of this hierarchical porous material for thermal energy applications is established. - Highlights: • 500 nm thick few layer graphene petals decoration vertically on macroporous carbon foam surface. • Microwave heating assisted chemical treatment for boron-nitride modification. • Defective petals edges due to boron nitride domain formation. • 20 at. % boron and nitrogen incorporation. • Six fold increase in methanol wetting enthalpy on boron-nitride modification.

  19. Transcriptome and biochemical analysis of a flower color polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés eCasimiro-Soriguer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogues for the 15 candidate genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogues, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x. This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin. The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused

  20. Flowering biology and pollen production of four species of the genus Rosa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Żuraw; Aneta Sulborska; Ernest Stawiarz; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2015-01-01

    Wild growing rose species are of great importance as a source of pollen for insects. Oil extracted from the petals of various Rosa species is used in perfumery, cosmetic industry, and therapeutics. In our study, we compared the flowering duration and flower lifespan, the number of stamens and pistils, the mass and size of pollen grains as well as the anatomical features of the petals of four Rosa species: R. canina, R. ×damascena, R. gallica, and R. rugosa. Moreover, we examined the pollen lo...

  1. Safran (Crocus Sativus) Yapaklarınıin Kimyasal Bileşimi ve Hayvan Yemi Olarak Değerlendirilmesi (İngilizce)

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Niloofar Khoshbakht; Janati, Somayeh Sadat Fakoor; Feizy, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition and mineral concentration of Saffron petals were investigated using standard analytical methods. Saffron petal samples were obtained from the flowers of Torbateheydariyeh farms and were evaluated for metals, protein, phosphorus, fiber, fat and ash content. The levels of protein (10.20 %), fat (5.3%), Ash (7.00 %), fiber (8.80%), sodium (25.75 mg/100g), potassium (542.13 mg/100g), calcium (486.25 mg/100g), copper (0.87 mg/100g), iron (17.99 mg/100g), magnesium (2.93 mg/10...

  2. キンギョソウの花色素に関する研究 : アントシアニン蓄積におよぼす各種被覆資材による光制限の影響

    OpenAIRE

    土岐, 健次郎; 上本, 俊平; 井田, 美紀子; 土岐, 淳子

    1987-01-01

    In order to clarify the effect of restriction of solar rays on the anthocyanin accumulation in flower petals of snapdragon, whole or a part of plants was covered with various covering materials. Removal of ultraviolet light by covering the whole plant with some kind of UV-cut plastic film or FIRON did not affect on the anthocyanin content in flower petals. In covering the whole plant with various colored plastic films, the anthocyanin content was lowest under the green film and relatively hig...

  3. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancheva, Nikoleta; Markova, Daniela; Murdzheva, Dilyana; Vasileva, Ivelina; Slavov, Anton

    2016-03-01

    The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase) with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  4. Evolutionary steps in the reproductive biology of Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Gottsberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of Annonaceae are characterized by fleshy petals, many stamens with hard connective shields and numerous carpels with sessile stigmas often covered by sticky secretions. The petals of many representatives during anthesis form a closed pollination chamber. Protogynous dichogamy with strong scent emissions especially during the pistillate stage is a character of nearly all species. Scent emissions can be enhanced by thermogenesis. The prevailing reproductive system in the family seems to be self-compatibility. The basal genus Anaxagorea besides exhibiting several ancestral morphological characters has also many characters which reappear in other genera. Strong fruit-like scents consisting of fruit-esters and alcohols mainly attract small fruit-beetles (genus Colopterus, Nitidulidae as pollinators, as well as several other beetles (Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae and fruit-flies (Drosophilidae, which themselves gnaw on the thick petals or their larvae are petal or ovule predators. The flowers and the thick petals are thus a floral brood substrate for the visitors and the thick petals of Anaxagorea have to be interpreted as an antipredator structure. Another function of the closed thick petals is the production of heat by accumulated starch, which enhances scent emission and provides a warm shelter for the attracted beetles. Insight into floral characters and floral ecology of Anaxagorea, the sister group of the rest of the Annonaceae, is particularly important for understanding functional evolution and diversification of the family as a whole. As beetle pollination (cantharophily is plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea and in Annonaceae, characters associated with beetle pollination appear imprinted in members of the whole family. Pollination by beetles (cantharophily is the predominant mode of the majority of species worldwide. Examples are given of diurnal representatives (e.g., Guatteria, Duguetia, Annona which function on the basis of fruit

  5. Growth morphology and evolution of quasicrystal in as-solidified Y-rich Mg-Zn-Y ternary alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A petal-like icosahedral quasicrystal with five branches, which is considered to be the representative morphology of the icosahedral quasicrystal, has been observed in the Y-rich Mg-Zn-Y ternary alloys. Moreover, the polygon-like morphology, another pattern of the icosahedral quasicrystal, has also been found in the Y-rich Mg-Zn-Y ternary alloys. The latter morphology results from the evolution of the former one. The growth mechanism of the petal-like morphology of the icosahedral quasicrystal was also discussed. Alloying composition, i.e., Y element content, is a major factor inducing the morphology evolution of the icosahedral quasicrystal.

  6. Ecological Distribution Of The Genus Crotalaria In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odewo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geographical distribution and morphological features of the genus Crotalaria were studied. Methods follow conventional practice as reported by previous studies. Thirty six species of the genus Crotalaria were shown to be distributed in Nigeria. The genera were allopathic in nature. The species such as C. bongensis C. atrorubens C. cleomifolia C. anthyllopsis C. cuspidata C. bamendul C. calycina C. hyssopifolia C. incana C. graminicola and C. macrocalyx were prominent in savannah zones while C. acervata C. cylindrical C. cephalotes C. comosa C. retusa C.doniana C. glauca C. falcata C. goreensis among others were common in cultivated areas in forest zone of Nigeria. Qualitative leaf morphological features of selected crotalaria species in Nigeria were also revealed. It shows that the leaf margin leaf surface and leaf base are similar in features except in leaf shape that vary from lanceolate C. comosa and C. bongensis oblanceolate C. retusa C. goreensis C. ononoidea and C. lachnosema to obovate C. mucronata and C. naragutensis. This implies that most of the genus Crotalaria displays similar characteristic and the features among them shows overlap.

  7. Tree assemblages and diversity patterns in Tropical Juri Forest, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapan Kumar Sarker; Muhammad Nur-Un-Nabi; Md. Mohasinul Haque; Mahmuda Sharmin; Sanjay Saha Sonet; Sourav Das; Niamjit Das

    2015-01-01

    Juri is a biodiversity-rich primary forest in Bangladesh, which remains ecologically unexplored. We identified tree species and examined the richness, alpha (α) diversity and floristic similarity patterns within the identi-fied communities. Vegetation and environmental data were sampled in 120 (0.04 ha) study plots. Tree communities were delimited by two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). In total, 78 tree species of 35 families and 58 genera were identified. TWINSPAN identified six tree communities: A—Tricalysia singularis; B—Kydia calyci-na-Castanopsis tribuloides;C—Polyalthia simiarum-Dua-banga grandiflora; D—Ficus roxburghii; E—Artocarpus lacucha;F—Artocarpus lacucha. Mean richness, Shannon and Gini-Simpson indices were highest for the Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora community, while Ficus roxburghii showed lowest diversity. Significant differences (p=0.05) in three diversity indices were recorded between Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora and Ficus roxburghii. Tree compositional similarity was greatest between Kydia calycina-Castanopsis tribuloides and Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora (0.712).

  8. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

  9. Flowering biology and pollen production of four species of the genus Rosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Żuraw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild growing rose species are of great importance as a source of pollen for insects. Oil extracted from the petals of various Rosa species is used in perfumery, cosmetic industry, and therapeutics. In our study, we compared the flowering duration and flower lifespan, the number of stamens and pistils, the mass and size of pollen grains as well as the anatomical features of the petals of four Rosa species: R. canina, R. ×damascena, R. gallica, and R. rugosa. Moreover, we examined the pollen loads collected by bumblebees foraging on rose flowers in order to determine the attractiveness of pollen of this genus to insects. We showed the flower lifespan to vary (3.5–8 days in the roses studied and revealed high variation in the number of stamens (82–260 and pistils (17–65 as well as in the mass of pollen produced. The flowers of R. rugosa produced the highest amount of pollen (26.7 mg per flower, while the flowers of R. canina the least (3.3 mg per flower, which is associated with differences in the number of stamens developed in the flowers between these species. The largest pollen grains were found in R. ×damascena and R. gallica. We demonstrated that R. ×damascena produces the thickest petals and that scent-emitting papillae found on the adaxial surface of the petals differ in size and shape in the rose species investigated.

  10. High biological productivity in the central Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon driven by Ekman pumping and lateral advection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Madhupratap, M.; DileepKumar, M.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; DeSouza, S.N.; Gauns, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    COMMUNICATIONS CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 81, NO. 12, 25 DECEMBER 2001 1633 *For correspondence. (e - mail: prasanna@csnio.ren.nic.in) or the style 26 . The stochasticity in such a process can also bring out variations in petal - drop r e sponse...

  11. Stackhousiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.I.

    1948-01-01

    Annual, or perennial herbs with a rhizome. Leaves scattered, entire. Stipules 0 or very small. Racemes terminal. Flowers bisexual, regular, 5-merous, in groups in the axils of bracts. Sepals usually more or less connate, rarely free. Corolla perigynous or almost hypogynous, petals long-clawed, rarel

  12. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia. PMID:12506008

  13. Senescence and programmed cell death : substance or semantics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Woltering, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The terms senescence and programmed cell death (PCD) have led to some confusion. Senescence as visibly observed in, for example, leaf yellowing and petal wilting, has often been taken to be synonymous with the programmed death of the constituent cells. PCD also obviously refers to cells, which show

  14. Nature's Palette

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  15. A revision of the genus Dysolobium (Papilionaceae) and the transfer of subgenus Dolichovigna to Vigna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.; Hengst, den S.

    1985-01-01

    Dysolobium is a small legume genus, consisting of 4 species. It is closely related to Vigna, from which it differs by the shape of the wing petals and by the velvety, almost woody pods. Recently the genus has been divided into 2 subgenera, but in this paper the subgenus Dolichovigna is transferred b

  16. Begoniaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1966-01-01

    Herbs or undershrubs, somewhat succulent or woody near the base, often provided with tubers. Leaves alternate, usually unequal-sided, entire, lobed or digitately parted. Stipules caducous or deciduous. Inflorescence consisting of unisexual or bisexual, axillary cymes. Male flowers: sepals 2; petals

  17. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia.

  18. Modelling an actively-cooled CPV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonomano, A.; Mittelman, G.; Faiman, D.; Biryukov, S.; Melnichak, V.; Bukobza, D.; Kabalo, S.

    2012-10-01

    We have constructed a 7-node, 1-dimensional model of the heat flow in a water-cooled CPV receiver. The model is validated against data from a module exposed to solar irradiance at various concentrations up to 1,000X at the PETAL solar dish facility at Sede Boqer.

  19. [The protective action of a natural preparation of anthocyan (pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadieva, A Kh; Zaichkina, S I; Ruzieva, R Kh; Ganassi, E E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of an anthocyan preparation isolated from flower petals of Pelargonium roseum and Rosa canina was studied in the Chinese hamster fibroblasts and Vicia faba seedlings in respect of cytogenetic damage and mouse survival. The pronounced radioprotective effect and the absence of the toxic effect were observed. PMID:8332723

  20. How to colour a flower: on the optical principles of flower coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Staal, Marten; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2016-05-11

    The coloration of flowers is due to the wavelength-selective absorption by pigments of light backscattered by structures inside the petals. We investigated the optical properties of flowers using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. To assess the contribution of different structures to the overall visual signal of flowers, we used an optical model, where a petal is considered as a stack of differently pigmented and structured layers and we interpreted the visual signals of the model petals with insect vision models. We show that the reflectance depends, in addition to the pigmentation, on the petal's thickness and the inhomogeneity of its interior. We find large between-species differences in floral pigments, pigment concentration and localization, as well as floral interior structure. The fractions of reflected and transmitted light are remarkably similar between the studied species, suggesting common selective pressures of pollinator visual systems. Our optical model highlights that pigment localization crucially determines the efficiency of pigmentary filtering and thereby the chromatic contrast and saturation of the visual signal. The strongest visual signal occurs with deposition of pigments only on the side of viewing. Our systematic approach and optical modelling open new perspectives on the virtues of flower colour. PMID:27170723

  1. Household Hazardous Waste. Management and stakeholder Involvement in Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    Arleth, Karen Anne King Nash; Knudsen, May Ling Choong; Krogstrup, Ea

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses stakeholder involvement in waste management planning in Malaysia through a discussion and analysis of obstacles and possibilities for establishing a household hazardous waste management system in Kuala Lumpur, with exemplification in Petaling Jaya. The primary theoretical inspiration is the integrated waste management approach and the concept of participation, operationalised through the Integrated Sustainable Solid Waste Management approach - the main methodological too...

  2. Developmental changes in the metabolic network of snapdragon flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle K Muhlemann

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and reproductive success of angiosperms, the most diverse group of land plants, relies on visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. Previous work has focused on elucidating the developmental regulation of pathways leading to the formation of pollinator-attracting secondary metabolites such as scent compounds and flower pigments. However, to date little is known about how flowers control their entire metabolic network to achieve the highly regulated production of metabolites attracting pollinators. Integrative analysis of transcripts and metabolites in snapdragon sepals and petals over flower development performed in this study revealed a profound developmental remodeling of gene expression and metabolite profiles in petals, but not in sepals. Genes up-regulated during petal development were enriched in functions related to secondary metabolism, fatty acid catabolism, and amino acid transport, whereas down-regulated genes were enriched in processes involved in cell growth, cell wall formation, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The levels of transcripts and metabolites in pathways leading to scent formation were coordinately up-regulated during petal development, implying transcriptional induction of metabolic pathways preceding scent formation. Developmental gene expression patterns in the pathways involved in scent production were different from those of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, highlighting distinct developmental regulation of secondary metabolism and primary metabolic pathways feeding into it.

  3. Procedures for expressing natural or induced variability in carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenesis (gamma rays) and in vitro organogenesis are used separately or both to diversify carnation varieties by revealing and creating variability. As regards to in vivo mutagenesis, an important diversification of the flower colour is obtained by applying a 60 Gray dose to two hundred rooted cuttings. The organogenesis ability has been tested among different types of explants. The petal of young floral bud shows the best caulogenesis capacities. The organogenesis region is located at the petal base. Histological studies reveal that neoformations are originated from epidermic and sub-epidermic cellular layers. The morphogenetic evolution of neoformations depends on growth factors imbalance. Isolated neoformations can grow in a vegetative way (vitrous plantlets) or in a reproductive one (petaloid structures). Modifications of the petal and neoformations culture conditions induce a normal development by preventing and suppressing vitrification. Histological studies show strong anatomic differences between vitrous and petaloid forms when compared to the normal ones. A method combining in vitro organogenesis and mutagenesis has been investigated. To avoid chimera, petals are irradiated the second day of culture (differentiated cells). A 20 or 40 Gray dose can be applied

  4. Genetical and biochemical evidence that the hydroxylation pattern of the anthocyanin B-ring in Silene dioica is determined at the p-coumaroyl-coenzyme a stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamsteeg, J.; Brederode, J. van; Nigtevecht, G. van

    1980-01-01

    In petals of Silene dioica, gene P controls the 3′-hydroxylation of the anthocyanin B-ring and the hydroxylation pattern of the hydroxycinnamoyl acyl group bound to the 4″'-hydroxyl group of rhamnose of anthocyanidin 3-rhamnosyl(1→6)glucoside-5-glucoside. In this paper, experiments are presented whi

  5. First white-flowered species of Sertifera (Orchidaceae discovered in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlachetko Dariusz L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Sertifera is described and illustrated based on Colombian material. The novelty resembles Sertifera colombiana, but it is characterized by glandular leaf sheaths, larger, white flowers, ovate to oblong-ovate sepals, ligulatelanceolate petals and apically triangular lip. This is the first report of a white-flowered representative of the genus.

  6. Split-resonator integrated-post MEMS gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A split-resonator integrated-post vibratory microgyroscope may be fabricated using micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques. The microgyroscope may include two gyroscope sections bonded together, each gyroscope section including resonator petals, electrodes, and an integrated half post. The half posts are aligned and bonded to act as a single post.

  7. Imaging of plant materials using indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging is a method for imaging distributions of metabolites in plant materials, in particular leaves and petals. The challenge in direct imaging of such plant materials with DESI-MS is particularly the protective layer of cu...

  8. A Rare Excitatory Amino Acid from Flowers of Zonal Geranium responsible for Paralyzing the Japanese Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...

  9. Cyclic malyl anthocyanins in Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, M; Koshioka, M; Yoshida, H; Kan, Y; Fukui, Y; Koike, A; Yamaguchi, M

    2000-12-01

    3,5-Di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) pelargonidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate and a previously reported cyanidin equivalent, 3,5-di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) cyanidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate were identified from petals of deep pink and red-purple flower cultivars of Dianthus caryophyllus, respectively.

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of an anthocyanin synthase gene from Magnolia sprengeri Pamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shou-Guo; Li, Shan-Ju; Kang, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin synthase (ANS), which catalyzes the conversion of colorless leucoanthocyanins into colored anthocyanins, is a key enzyme in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. It plays important roles in plant development and defense. An ANS gene designated as MsANS was cloned from Magnolia sprengeri using rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends technology. The full-length MsANS is 1171-bp long and contains a 1080-bp open reading frame encoding a 360 amino acid polypeptide. In a sequence alignment analysis, the deduced MsANS protein showed high identity to ANS proteins from other plants: Prunus salicina var. cordata (74 % identity), Ampelopsis grossedentata (74 % identity), Pyrus communis (73 % identity), and Prunus avium (73 % identity). A structural analysis showed that MsANS belongs to 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygenase family because it contains three binding sites for 2OG. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the transcript level of MsANS was 26-fold higher in red petals than in white petals. The accumulation of anthocyanins in petals of white, pink, and red M. sprengeri flowers was analyzed by HPLC. The main anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-o-glucoside chloride, and the red petals contained the highest concentration of this pigment. PMID:25315387

  11. Efficacy of ProPhyt mixed with a low rate of Captec for control of peach scab in South Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in a mid-ripening experimental nectarine block (‘Redgold’) located at the Clemson University Research Station in Seneca, SC. Chemical formulations were applied with a handgun sprayer (200 gal/A spray volume) on 1 Apr (petal fall), 9 Apr (shuck split) and...

  12. Efficacy of Prophyt when combined with Captec for control of peach scab in Alabama, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in a mid-ripening peach experimental block (‘Ruston Red’) located at the Chilton Area Research and Extension Center located in Clanton, AL. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) at the petal fall and shuck s...

  13. Programmed Cell Death and Postharvest Deterioration of Horticultural Produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Iakimova, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process where cells or tissues are broken down in an orderly and predictable manner, whereby nutrients are re-used by other cells, tissues or plant parts. The process of (petal) senescence shows many similarities to autophagic PCD in animal cells including a massive

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSG339 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 | ribosomal protein L29 - Rattus norvegicus, mRNA sequence. 48 0.13 1 BI978642 |BI978642.1 vF04 Old Blu...sh petal SMART library Rosa chinensis cDNA 5' similar to ribosomal protein L29 (RPL

  15. Florae Malesianae Precursores VIII. The genus Cnestis (Connaraceae) in Indo-Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas, Che.H.; Prop, N.

    1954-01-01

    A study has been made of the Indo-Malaysian species of Cnestis. The mutual length ratio of sepals and petals, — brevi- and aequipetaly —, is the main differentiating character for the species; there are no transitions. The areas of distribution overlap in the Malay Peninsula (fig. 1); brevipetalous

  16. Efficacy of Prophyt and Captan as a tank mix when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘O’Henry’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 31 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 9 Apr (shuck split to 10% shuck...

  17. Efficacy of Prophyt and Captan when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014 (Flameprince)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘Flameprince’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 27 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 3 Apr (shuck split to 10% s...

  18. Efficacy of Prophyt plus Captan when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘Julyprince’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 27 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 2 Apr (shuck split to 10% sh...

  19. Peter & Jane: A Program Showcase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article features the early childhood programs at Peter & Jane Kindergarten located in Petaling Java, Malaysia. The primary purpose of the programs is to lay a strong foundation for a lifelong love of learning in each child. According to principal Patricia Teh, the activities are funded by parent fees and serve children two to six years of…

  20. Ethnic Differences in the Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Man and Draw-a-Woman Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A. E.; Chen, S. T.

    1979-01-01

    The draw-a-man (DAM) and draw-a-woman (DAW) tests were given to 307 school children in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. The children were ethnically Malay, Chinese, or Indian (Tamil), and all came from lower socioeconomic groups. Journal availability: British Medical Journal, 1172 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02134. (Author)

  1. The biology of flowering and structure of selected elements of Cornus alba L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of flowering and the micromorphology of Cornus alba flowers were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The flowering of white dogwood in 2008 lasted 35 days, and the lifespan of a single flower was 3 days. The number of flowers per inflorescence was variable (on the average, it was 89. The largest group of insects visiting the flowers of C. alba comprised Hymenoptera (mainly bees and andrenids, then ants, dipterans and beetles. They foraged the dogwood flowers most intensively between 11.00 and 15.00. The inconspicuous four-petalled flowers of C. alba were characterised by the occurrence of T-shaped, two-armed non-glandular trichomes covering the receptacle as well as observed on the petals of the corolla, the style of the pistil and the anthers in a smaller number. The trichomes were covered by a thick cuticle with characteristic outgrowths. They contained a living protoplast, and plastids were observed in the cytoplasm of the trichome cells. In addition, anomocytic stomata were found in the epidermis of the receptacle and in the epidermis of the corolla petals. The stigma of the pistil and the adaxial epidermis of the petals were composed of very numerous conical papillae.

  2. Functional analysis of PI-like gene in relation to flower development from bamboo (Bambusa oldhamii)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Longfei Zhu; Yan Shi; Qiaolu Zang; Quan Shi; Shinan Liu; Yingwu Xu; Xinchun Lin

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo flowering owns many unique characteristics and remains a mystery. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying flower development in bamboo, a petal-identity gene was identified as a PISTILLATA homologue named BoPI from Bambusa oldhamii (bamboo family). Expression analysis showed that BoPI was highly expressed in flower organs and gradually increased during flower development stage, suggesting that BoPI played an important role in flower development. Ectopic expression of BoPI in Arabidopsis caused conversion of sepals to petals. 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal formation in the pi-1 mutant. BoPI could interact with BoAP3 protein in vitro. These results suggested that BoPI regulated flower development of bamboo in a similar way with PI. Besides flower organs, BoPI was also expressed in leaf and branch, which revealed that BoPI may involve in leaf and branch development. Similar to other MIKC-type gene, BoPI contained the Cterminal sequence but its function was controversial. Ectopic expression of the C-terminal deletion construct (BoPI-C) in Arabidopsis converted sepals to petals; BoPI-C interacted with BoAP3 on yeast two-hybrid assay, just like the full-length construct. The result implied that the C-terminal sequence may not be absolutely required for organ identity function in the context of BoPI.

  3. Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.

  4. Tinkering with the C-function: a molecular frame for the selection of double flowers in cultivated roses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Dubois

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Roses have been cultivated for centuries and a number of varieties have been selected based on flower traits such as petal form, color, and number. Wild-type roses have five petals (simple flowers, whereas high numbers of petals (double flowers are typical attributes of most of the cultivated roses. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that could have been selected to control petal number in roses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have analyzed the expression of several candidate genes known to be involved in floral organ identity determination in roses from similar genetic backgrounds but exhibiting contrasting petal numbers per flower. We show that the rose ortholog of AGAMOUS (RhAG is differentially expressed in double flowers as compared to simple flowers. In situ hybridization experiments confirm the differential expression of RhAG and demonstrate that in the double-flower roses, the expression domain of RhAG is restricted toward the center of the flower. Conversely, in simple-flower roses, RhAG expression domain is wider. We further show that the border of RhAG expression domain is labile, which allows the selection of rose flowers with increased petal number. Double-flower roses were selected independently in the two major regions for domestication, China and the peri-Mediterranean areas. Comparison of RhAG expression in the wild-type ancestors of cultivated roses and their descendants both in the European and Chinese lineages corroborates the correlation between the degree of restriction of RhAG expression domain and the number of petals. Our data suggests that a restriction of RhAG expression domain is the basis for selection of double flowers in both the Chinese and peri-Mediterranean centers of domestication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that a shift in RhAG expression domain boundary occurred in rose hybrids, causing double-flower phenotype. This molecular event was selected independently during

  5. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development. PMID:27630648

  6. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of two RTE-like genes of carnation during flower senescence and upon ethylene exposure, wounding treatment and sucrose supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wang, H; Liu, J; Fu, Z; Wang, J; Liu, J

    2011-09-01

    RTE1 (REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1) was identified as a positive regulator of ETR1 (ethylene resistant1) function in Arabidopsis; RTEs are a small gene family. Ethylene plays a crucial role in the senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers. Two cDNA clones encoding putative RTE-like protein (DCRTE1 and DCRTH1) were obtained from total RNA isolated from senescing carnation petals using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The predicted proteins of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 consist of 228 and 233 amino acids, respectively. Interestingly, the deduced DCRTE1 protein, like most other RTEs, includes two putative transmembrane domains, while the deduced DCRTH1 protein includes five putative transmembrane domains, according to the TMHMM database. Northern blots showed that the level of DCRTE1 mRNA in petals first decreased then increased remarkably after ethylene production started, and DCRTE1 expression showed an increasing trend in ovaries during natural flower senescence. The amount of DCRTH1 transcripts increased gradually in both petals and ovaries during natural senescence. Exogenous ethylene increased transcript abundance of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 to various degrees in both petals and ovaries. STS treatment decreased the level of DCRTH1 mRNA in petals and ovaries compared with the control. DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 showed a rapid increase and then a decrease in mRNA accumulation in leaves after wounding. These results suggest that both DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 could play important roles in flower senescence-related signalling. Sucrose treatment did not remarkably affect the amount of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 mRNAs.

  8. Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, A; Woltering, E J

    1997-05-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and after treatment of fresh flowers with ethylene, production of ethylene and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes first started in the ovary followed by the styles and the petals. ACC oxidase was expressed in all the floral organs whereas, during the vase life, tissue-specific expression of the two ACC synthase genes was observed. After treatment with a high ethylene concentration, tissue specificity of the two ACC synthase genes was lost and only a temporal difference in expression remained. In styles, poor correlation between ethylene production and ACC synthase (CARAS1) gene expression was observed suggesting that either activity is regulated at the translational level or that the CARAS1 gene product requires an additional factor for activity. Isolated petals showed no increase in ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes when excised from the flower before the increase in petal ethylene production (before day 7); showed rapid cessation of ethylene production and gene expression when excised during the early phase of petal ethylene production (day 7) and showed a pattern of ethylene production and gene expression similar to the pattern observed in the attached petals when isolated at day 8. The interorgan regulation of gene expression and ethylene as a signal molecule in flower senescence are discussed.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development. PMID:27630648

  10. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae) is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str.) is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies), including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes. We furthermore

  11. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Sze Li

    Full Text Available Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str. is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies, including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes

  12. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion, methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one freeze-dried extracts for evaluation. These extracts were evaluated initially at concentrations of 500 and 100 µg/mL for in vitro hemolytic activity and in vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood, respectively. Sixteen extracts (23 % of all extracts tested, 42 % of all plant species, representing the following plants: Chaunochiton kappleri (Olacaceae, Diclinanona calycina (Annonaceae, Paypayrola grandiflora (Violaceae, Pleurisanthes parviflora (Icacinaceae, Sarcaulus brasiliensis (Sapotaceae, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards human platelet aggregation. A group of extracts with antiplatelet aggregation activity having no in vitro hemolytic activity has therefore been identified. Three extracts (4 %, all derived from Elaeoluma nuda (Sapotaceae, exhibited hemolytic activity. None of the plant species in this study has known use in traditional medicine. So, these data serve as a baseline or minimum of antiplatelet and hemolytic activities (and potential usefulness of non-medicinal plants from the Amazon forest. Finally, in general, these are the first data on hemolytic and inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation for the genera which these plant species represent.No presente estudo, partes aéreas obtidas de doze (12 espécies vegetais da Amazônia encontradas na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (localizada na cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia foram coletadas, secadas e mo

  13. Investigation and Analysis of Large -Flowered Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Shandong Province%山东省大菊品种资源调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒新艳; 张俊丽; 卢洁

    2015-01-01

    本研究对山东省大菊主栽城市进行了连续3年的调查和整理,共鉴定统计到195个品种,其中日本品种81个,中国品种114个;平瓣类(52%)和管瓣类(28%)品种多,畸瓣类(5%)和桂瓣类(1%)品种少;叠球型、翻卷型和钩环型3个花型的品种数量多,缺少平盘型、蜂窝型和单管型等7个花型的品种;黄色和白色品种多,两者之和超过了一半,绿色、红色和橙色品种少,不足10个;各花色在瓣型和花型中的分布极不均匀,黄色叠球型品种最多。该调查结果有利于正确认识大菊品种资源,保护珍稀资源,合理开展引种、育种和产业开发等工作。%One hundred and ninety -five Chrysanthemum cultivars were identified through the investiga-tion in the major cultivation cities of Shandong Province in 3 consecutive years,which included 81 Japanese cultivars and 114 native cultivars.The flat -petal group (52%)and quilled -petal group (28%)took the most part of cultivars,whereas the filiform -petal group (5%)and anemone -petal group (1%)had even less cultivars.These quantity of globular,reflexed and open bead types were the most,while that of 7 types, such as plate -petal types,honeycomb types and single quill type was lack.The cultivars yellow and white flowers were the most with their,sum was more than half of the total.There were less than ten cultivars with green,red and orange flowers.The distribution of each color in the petal groups and flower types was very un-even,and the yellow globular type was the most one.These results were propitious to cognize the cultivars of Chrysanthemum,protect valuable resources and develop the introduction,breeding and industry exploiting.

  14. 四瓣高斯光束的Gyrator变换性质和矩形空心光束的产生%Gyrator transform of four-p etal Gaussian b eam and generation of rectangular hollow b eam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚宁; 朱开成; 夏辉

    2016-01-01

    Four-petal Gaussian beam is a special type of Gaussian beam, and its propagation properties are widely used in micro optics, optical communication and splitting technology. Recently, the generations and the properties of different types of hollow beams have become a hot research topic, such as research on hollow optical vortex beams. The Gyrator transform can be used to fulfill the mode conversion of laser beam. In this paper, based on the Gyrator transform, the analytical expression of four-petal Gaussian beam passing through such a transform system is derived, and the intensity distribution and the corresponding phase distribution associated with the transforming four-petal Gaussian beam are analyzed by numerical simulations. It is found that the four-petal Gaussian beam can be transformed into rectangular hollow beam by Gyrator transform, under the appropriate conditions of the beam order, the beam parameter, the transform angle of Gyrator transform, and the waist width. For the beam order n = m = 3, the transform angle of Gyrator transform α = 0.4133π, the beam parameter K = 30, and the waist width ω = 0.9, the rectangular hollow optical vortex beams can be obtained. Under such conditions, the maximum intensities appear in the four corners, and they are almost uniform on the four sides. The effects of the beam parameters, the transform angle, and the beam order on the distributions of intensity and phase of the rectangular hollow beam are analyzed in detail. The numerical results show that for the beam parameter K >10, the rectangular hollow beam always is obtained, and for a lager beam parameter, the intensity distribution of the rectangular hollow beam is more uniform. Different beam order generates different type of hollow beam. For example, for n=m=2, ω=1.2, K =30, and α=0.5409π, a new strange circular hollow beam with solid circular nucleus can be obtained. The transform angle of Gyrator transform has a significant effect on the energy distribution

  15. Conclusive discrimination among N equidistant pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis; Hermann-Avigliano, Carla; Salazar, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A. B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    We find the allowed complex overlaps for N equidistant pure quantum states. The accessible overlaps define a petal-shaped area on the Argand plane. Each point inside the petal represents a set of N linearly independent pure states and each point on its contour represents a set of N linearly dependent pure states. We find the optimal probabilities of success of discriminating unambiguously in which of the N equidistant states the system is. We show that the phase of the involved overlap plays an important role in the probability of success. For a fixed overlap modulus, the success probability is highest for the set of states with an overlap with phase equal to zero. In this case, if the process fails, then the information about the prepared state is lost. For states with a phase different from zero, the information could be obtained with an error-minimizing measurement protocol.

  16. Design and construction of the structure of the DEMONSTRATOR of the CALIFA detector for R3B-FAIR using carbon-fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casarejos E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the DEMONSTRATOR structures and active units (PETALs developed for the detector CALIFA of the experiment R3B - FAIR. The design is based in the CALIFA BARREL mechanical solutions, but adapted to the characteristics of the PETALs, namely in what concerns the load distribution during setup and service. The R&D program defined the materials and procedures for both producing the pieces of carbon fiber (CF composites as well as the mounting of the bundles to make an alveolar structure. The procedures also include a quality control program to ensure the dimensional properties of the CF assemblies. We are also developing the use of tomographic imaging analysis for this quality program, that will be of mayor interest in the construction of the future CALIFA CF-structure.

  17. Social organization in deer: Implications for localized management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William F.; Mathews, Nancy E.; Underwood, H. Brian; Sage, Richard W.; Behrend, Donald F.

    1991-11-01

    Populations of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting many state and national parks and suburban areas have grown to the point that they conflict with human activities. Conflicts range from destruction of vegetation through browsing to public perception that diseases carried by deer pose threats to human health. Traditional modes of hunting to control populations are inappropriate in many of these areas because of intense human development and activity. This article explores an alternative approach for population reduction based on deer social organization. Female white-tailed deer are highly philopatric and female offspring remain near their dams for life. This suggests that a population expands slowly as a series of overlapping home ranges in a form analogous to the petals on a rose. Incorporating the rose petal concept into a model of population growth shows that removal of deer by family unit can potentially alleviate conflicts in localized areas for as many as 10 15 yr.

  18. "Volatile Constituents of Amedicinal Plant of Iran , Echium Amoenim Fisch. and C.A. Mey "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolah Ghassemi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Boraginaceae is an endemic Iranian plant, that its dry violet–blue petals has long been used in traditional medicine of Iran. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the dried petals of this plant which was isolated by steam distillation extraction with pentane (in yield of 0.05% was examined by GC-MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra and Kovats’ indices. The major components except aliphatic alkanes which belong to sesquiterpenes were: δ-cadinene (24.25%, viridiflorol (4.9%, α-muurolene (4.52%, ledene (3.8%, α-calacorene (3.04%, and γ-cadinene (2.9%.

  19. Conclusive discrimination among N equidistant pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find the allowed complex overlaps for N equidistant pure quantum states. The accessible overlaps define a petal-shaped area on the Argand plane. Each point inside the petal represents a set of N linearly independent pure states and each point on its contour represents a set of N linearly dependent pure states. We find the optimal probabilities of success of discriminating unambiguously in which of the N equidistant states the system is. We show that the phase of the involved overlap plays an important role in the probability of success. For a fixed overlap modulus, the success probability is highest for the set of states with an overlap with phase equal to zero. In this case, if the process fails, then the information about the prepared state is lost. For states with a phase different from zero, the information could be obtained with an error-minimizing measurement protocol.

  20. Genetic control of chalcone isomerase activity in flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, G; Dangelmayr, B

    1980-06-01

    In flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation), the gene I is concerned with a discrete step in flavonoid biosynthesis, Genotypes with recessive (ii) alleles produce yellow flowers, which contain the chalcone isosalipurposide (naringenin-chalcone-2'-glucoside) as the major petal pigment, but in genotypes with wild-type alleles flavonols and anthocyanins can be formed and the flowers are white or red. Enzymatic measurements on petal extracts of four strains with different flower coloration revealed a clear correlation between accumulation of chalcone in recessive genotypes and deficiency of chalcone isomerase (E.C. 5.5.1.6) activity. From the chemogenetic and enzymological evidence it can be concluded that naringenin-chalcone is the first product of the synthesis of the flavonoid skeleton and that only the conversion of naringenin-chalcone to naringenin furnishes the substrate for the further reactions to flavonol and anthocyanin.

  1. Cell enlargement and sugar accumulation in the gynaecium of the glasshouse carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) induced by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1976-01-01

    Histological examination of the ovary walls from ethylene-treated cut flowering stems of the carnation showed that the cells had enlarged and this appeared to account for the increased growth of the ovary which follows ethylene treatment of this flower. Sugar analyses of the flower parts indicated that growth of the ovary was accompanied by an increase in the ratio of sucrose to reducing sugars in the petals and ovary, and a net increase in sugars in the ovary. A sugar, tentatively identified as xylose, increased in the petals after ethylene treatment. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of the ovary also increased after the ethylene treatment. The results, consistent with the hypothesis that sucrose is translocated in response to ethylene, are discussed in relation to previous work relating to the involvement of ethylene in flower senescence.

  2. Detection of 1-O-malylglucose: pelargonidin 3-O-glucose-6''-O-malyltransferase activity in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Tera, Masayuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Okamura, Masachika; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Momose, Masaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Carnations have anthocyanins acylated with malate. Although anthocyanin acyltransferases have been reported in several plant species, anthocyanin malyltransferase (AMalT) activity in carnation has not been identified. Here, an acyl donor substance of AMalT, 1-O-beta-D-malylglucose, was extracted and partially purified from the petals of carnation. This was synthesized chemically to analyze AMalT activity in a crude extract from carnation. Changes in the AMalT activity showed close correlation to the accumulation of pelargonidin 3-malylglucoside (Pel 3-malGlc) during the development of red petals of carnation, but neither AMalT activity nor Pel 3-malGlc accumulation was detectable in roots, stems and leaves.

  3. The harmfulness of Aphis fabae Scop. feeding on the flowers of park rose (Rosa sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Jaśkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999 - 2001 in the green area of the Lublin city in the street (A and park (B sites. The purpose of the studies was to determine the dynamics of the bean aphid population (Aphis fabae Scop. and the effect of its feeding on the blooming of park roses (Rosa sp.. The presence of dwarf specimens of A. fabae was observed only on the crown petals and the sepals. Their feeding significantly affected the decorative character of roses, since the crown petals inhabited by them were faster to dry out and fall down. The presence of aphids on the shrubs was found throughout the period of about two months, and the aphids were more numerous in the street site.

  4. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  5. Synthesis of Micron-sized Hexagonal and Flower-like Nanostructures of Lead Oxide (PbO2) by Ano dic Oxidation of Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Pratap Singh; Onkar Nath Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Micron sized hexagon- and flower-like nanostructures of lead oxide (α-PbO2) have been synthe-sized by very simple and cost effective route of anodic oxidation of lead sheet. These structures were easily obtained by the simple variation of applied voltage from 2-6 V between the electrodes. Lead sheet was used as an anode and platinum sheet served as a cathode. Anodic oxidation at 2 V resulted in the variable edge sized (1-2 µm) hexagon-like structures in the electrolyte. When the applied potential was increased to 4 V a structure of distorted hexagons consisting of some flower-like structures were obtained. Further increment of potential up to 6 V resulted in flower like structures ofα-PbO2 having six petals. The diameter of the flower-like structures was ∼200-500 nm and the size of a petal was ∼100-200 nm.

  6. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thfoin, I; Reverdin, C; Hulin, S; Szabo, C I; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Batani, D; Brambrink, E; Koenig, M; Duval, A; Leboeuf, X; Lecherbourg, L; Rossé, B; Morace, A; Santos, J J; Vaisseau, X; Fourment, C; Giuffrida, L; Nakatsutsumi, M

    2014-11-01

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromètre PETAL à Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding. PMID:25430191

  7. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thfoin, I., E-mail: isabelle.lantuejoul@cea.fr; Reverdin, C.; Duval, A.; Leboeuf, X.; Lecherbourg, L.; Rossé, B. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hulin, S.; Batani, D.; Santos, J. J.; Vaisseau, X.; Fourment, C.; Giuffrida, L. [CELIA, Université de Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, F-33405 Talence (France); Szabo, C. I. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, CNRS, UPMC, 75005 Paris Cedex (France); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Brambrink, E.; Koenig, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M. [LULI Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Morace, A. [University of Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromètre PETAL à Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding.

  8. Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutoux, G., E-mail: boutoux@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr; Rabhi, N.; Batani, D.; Ducret, J.-E. [Univ. de Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Binet, A.; Nègre, J.-P.; Reverdin, C.; Thfoin, I. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Jakubowska, K. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery Street 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. We calibrated at the ELSA electron beam facility (CEA DIF) the five different available types of IPs (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) to electrons from 5 to 18 MeV. In the context of diagnostic development for the PETawatt Aquitaine Laser (PETAL), we investigated the use of stacks of IP in order to increase the detection efficiency and get detection response independent from the neighboring materials such as X-ray shielding and detector supports. We also measured fading functions in the time range from a few minutes up to a few days. Finally, our results are systematically compared to GEANT4 simulations in order to provide a complete study of the IP response to electrons over the energy range relevant for PETAL experiments.

  9. A new species of Aeschynomene (Papilionoideae: Dalbergieae) from Oaxaca, Mexico Una especie nueva de Aeschynomene (Papilionoideae: Dalbergieae) de Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Delgado-Salinas; Solange Sotuyo

    2012-01-01

    Aeschynomene sousae Rudd ex A. Delgado et Sotuyo is described from southern Oaxaca, Mexico, where it is likely endemic to the northeast mountains of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. It is a member of series Scopariae of subgenus Ochopodium, and morphologically similar to A. nicaraguensis from which it differs mainly in having ovate to lanceolate, larger bracteoles, bright yellow flowers with a reddish arched, insect guide-mark on the interior face of the standard petal, in the fusion of the 2 wing...

  10. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by Rosa damascena associated with an increased sensitivity to heat

    OpenAIRE

    Schriner, Samuel E.; Katoozi, Niki S.; Pham, Kevin Q.; Gazarian, Maral; Zarban, Asghar; Jafari, Mahtab

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena, or Damask rose, is a rose hybrid commonly harvested for rose oil used in perfumery and for rose water used to flavor food. The petal extract of R. damascena was recently found to decrease Drosophila melanogaster mortality without impairing reproductive fitness or metabolic rate. Here, we report that R. damascena extended both mean and maximum lifespan of the fly. The extract also protected against oxidative stress in flies, predominantly in females. However, it did not alter m...

  11. Simultaneous Analysis of Anthocyanin and Non-Anthocyanin Flavonoid in Various Tissues of Different Lotus (Nelumbo) Cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Chen; Yue Xiang; Jiao Deng; Yanling Liu; Shaohua Li

    2013-01-01

    A validated HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) method for the analysis of non-anthocyanin flavonoids was applied to nine different tissues of twelve lotus genotypes of Nelumbo nucifera and N. lutea, together with an optimized anthocyanin extraction and separation protocol for lotus petals. A total of five anthocyanins and twenty non-anthocyanin flavonoids was identified and quantified. Flavonoid contents and compositions varied with cultivar and tissue and were used as a basis to divide tissues into three gr...

  12. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor DvIVS determines flower color intensity in cyanic dahlia cultivars.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, Sho; Deguchi, Ayumi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to identify the factors that regulate the intensity of flower color in cyanic dahlia (Dahlia variabilis), using fifteen cultivars with different color intensities in their petals. The cultivars were classified into three groups based on their flavonoid composition: ivory white cultivars with flavones; purple and pink cultivars with flavones and anthocyanins; and red cultivars with flavones, anthocyanins, and chalcones. Among the purple, pink, and ivory white cultivars, an ...

  13. Functional analysis of the Antirrhinum floral homeotic DEFICIENS gene in vivo and in vitro by using a temperature-sensitive mutant.

    OpenAIRE

    Zachgo, S.; Silva, E. A.; Motte, Patrick; Trobner, W.; Saedler, H; Schwarz-Sommer, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Flowers of the temperature-sensitive DEFICIENS (DEF) mutant, def-101, display sepaloid petals and carpelloid stamens when grown at 26 degrees C, the non-permissive temperature. In contrast, when cultivated under permissive conditions at 15 degrees C, the morphology of def-101 flowers resembles that of the wild type. Temperature shift experiments during early and late phases of flower development revealed that second and third whorl organ development is differentially sensitive to changes in D...

  14. Experiments and modeling of ballistic penetration using an energy failure criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Dolinski M.; Rittel D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most intricate problems in terminal ballistics is the physics underlying penetration and perforation. Several penetration modes are well identified, such as petalling, plugging, spall failure and fragmentation (Sedgwick, 1968). In most cases, the final target failure will combine those modes. Some of the failure modes can be due to brittle material behavior, but penetration of ductile targets by blunt projectiles, involving plugging in particular, is caused by excessive localized p...

  15. Simultaneous post-transcriptional gene silencing of two different chalcone synthase genes resulting in pure white flowers in the octoploid dahlia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kojima, Misa; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Hoshino, Atsushi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

    2011-11-01

    Garden dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) are autoallooctoploids with redundant genes producing wide color variations in flowers. There are no pure white dahlia cultivars, despite its long breeding history. However, the white areas of bicolor flower petals appear to be pure white. The objective of this experiment was to elucidate the mechanism by which the pure white color is expressed in the petals of some bicolor cultivars. A pigment analysis showed that no flavonoid derivatives were detected in the white areas of petals in a star-type cultivar 'Yuino' and the two seedling cultivars 'OriW1' and 'OriW2' borne from a red-white bicolor cultivar, 'Orihime', indicating that their white areas are pure white. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that in the pure white areas, transcripts of two chalcone synthases (CHS), DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 which share 69% nucleotide similarity with each other, were barely detected. Premature mRNA of DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 were detected, indicating that these two CHS genes are silenced post-transcriptionally. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from CHSs were produced in these pure white areas. By high-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in the pure white areas with no mismatch acceptance, small RNAs were mapped to two alleles of DvCHS1 and two alleles of DvCHS2 expressed in 'Yuino' petals. Therefore, we concluded that simultaneous siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing of redundant CHS genes results in the appearance of pure white color in dahlias.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15102-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 2 ( CF349401 ) fc3079.e Rose Petals (Fragrant Cloud) Lambda Zap ... 46 9e-05 2 ( EC589469 ) W_W4_A01_01 W Rosa lucia...Mdfrt3096j09.y2 Mdfrt Malus x domestica cDNA clon... 40 0.005 2 ( EC588147 ) W_W10_O12_16 W Rosa luciae cDNA

  17. The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yang, M; Solava, J; Ma, H

    1999-09-01

    Normal flower development likely requires both specific and general regulators. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant ask1-1 (for -Arabidopsis skp1-like1-1), which exhibits defects in both vegetative and reproductive development. In the ask1-1mutant, rosette leaf growth is reduced, resulting in smaller than normal rosette leaves, and internodes in the floral stem are shorter than normal. Examination of cell sizes in these organs indicates that cell expansion is normal in the mutant, but cell number is reduced. In the mutant, the numbers of petals and stamens are reduced, and many flowers have one or more petals with a reduced size. In addition, all mutant flowers have short stamen filaments. Furthermore, petal/stamen chimeric organs are found in many flowers. These results indicate that the ASK1 gene affects the size of vegetative and floral organs. The ask1 floral phenotype resembles somewhat that of the Arabidopsis ufo mutants in that both genes affect whorls 2 and 3. We therefore tested for possible interactions between ASK1 and UFO by analyzing the phenotypes of ufo-2 ask1-1 double mutant plants. In these plants, vegetative development is similar to that of the ask1-1 single mutant, whereas the floral defects are more severe than those in either single mutant. Interior to the first whorl, the double mutant flowers have more sepals or sepal-like organs than are found in ufo-2, and less petals than ask1-1. Our results suggest that ASK1 interacts with UFO to control floral organ identity in whorls 2 and 3. This is very intriguing because ASK1 is very similar in sequence to the yeast SKP1 protein and UFO contains an F-box, a motif known to interact with SKP1 in yeast. Although the precise mechanism of ASK1 and UFO action is unknown, our results support the hypothesis that these two proteins physically interact in vivo.

  18. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Jiang; Liang Cao; Yuan Yuan; Min Chen; Yan Jin; Luqi Huang

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapi...

  19. The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Heather M; Milne, Georgina; Rands, Sean A; Vignolini, Silvia; Martin, Cathie; Glover, Beverley J

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of pigmentation overlying the petal vasculature are common in flowering plants,and have been postulated to play a role in pollinator attraction. Previous studies report that such venation patterning is significantly more attractiveto bee foragers in the field than ivory or white flowers without veins. To dissect the ways in which venation patterning of pigment can influence bumblebee behaviour we investigated the response of flower-naïve individuals of Bombus terrestris to veined, iv...

  20. Expression of B-class MADS-box genes in response to variations in photoperiod is associated with chasmogamous and cleistogamous flower development in Viola philippica

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiaoxia; Huo, Qingdi; WANG, Juan; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Kun; He, Chaoying

    2016-01-01

    Background Some plants develop a breeding system that produces both chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Results In the present study, we observed that Viola philippica develops CH flowers with short daylight, whereas an extended photoperiod induces the formation of intermediate CL and CL flowers. In response to long daylight, the respective number and size of petals and stamens was lower and smaller than those of norma...

  1. Antimicrobial Activities of Three Medicinal Plants and Investigation of Flavonoids of Tripleurospermum disciforme

    OpenAIRE

    Tofighi, Zahra; Molazem, Maryam; Doostdar, Behnaz; Taban, Parisa; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Yassa, Narguess

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena, Tripleurospermum disciforme and Securigera securidaca were used as disinfectant agents and for treatment of some disease in folk medicine of Iran. The antimicrobial effects of different fractions of seeds extract of S. securidaca, petals extract of R. damascena and aerial parts extract of T. disciforme were examined against some gram positive, gram negative and fungi by cup plate diffusion method. The petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of S. securidaca showed antibacteri...

  2. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P. S.; A.J.S. Raju

    2014-01-01

    Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag p...

  3. Morphofunctional Traits and Pollination Mechanisms of Coronilla emerus L. Flowers (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Aronne; Manuela Giovanetti; Veronica De Micco

    2012-01-01

    It is accepted that the papilionaceous corolla of the Fabaceae evolved under the selective pressure of bee pollinators. Morphology and function of different parts of Coronilla emerus L. flowers were related to their role in the pollination mechanism. The corolla has a vexillum with red nectar lines, a keel hiding stamens and pistil, and two wing petals fasten to the keel with two notched folds. Pollinators land on the complex of keel and wings, trigger the protrusion of pollen and finally of ...

  4. Simultaneous post-transcriptional gene silencing of two different chalcone synthase genes resulting in pure white flowers in the octoploid dahlia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kojima, Misa; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Hoshino, Atsushi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

    2011-11-01

    Garden dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) are autoallooctoploids with redundant genes producing wide color variations in flowers. There are no pure white dahlia cultivars, despite its long breeding history. However, the white areas of bicolor flower petals appear to be pure white. The objective of this experiment was to elucidate the mechanism by which the pure white color is expressed in the petals of some bicolor cultivars. A pigment analysis showed that no flavonoid derivatives were detected in the white areas of petals in a star-type cultivar 'Yuino' and the two seedling cultivars 'OriW1' and 'OriW2' borne from a red-white bicolor cultivar, 'Orihime', indicating that their white areas are pure white. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that in the pure white areas, transcripts of two chalcone synthases (CHS), DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 which share 69% nucleotide similarity with each other, were barely detected. Premature mRNA of DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 were detected, indicating that these two CHS genes are silenced post-transcriptionally. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from CHSs were produced in these pure white areas. By high-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in the pure white areas with no mismatch acceptance, small RNAs were mapped to two alleles of DvCHS1 and two alleles of DvCHS2 expressed in 'Yuino' petals. Therefore, we concluded that simultaneous siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing of redundant CHS genes results in the appearance of pure white color in dahlias. PMID:21688014

  5. A new species in the tree genus Polyceratocarpus (Annonaceae) from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Andrew R.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Summers, Abigail L.; Deere, Nicolas J.; Luke, W.R. Quentin; Ndangalasi, Henry J.; Sparrow, Sue; Johnson, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Polyceratocarpus askhambryan-iringae, an endemic tree species of Annonaceae from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, is described and illustrated. The new species is identified as a member of the genus Polyceratocarpus by the combination of staminate and bisexual flowers, axillary inflorescences, subequal outer and inner petals, and multi-seeded monocarps with pitted seeds. From P. scheffleri, with which it has previously been confused, it differs in the longer pedicels, smaller and thinner p...

  6. ヤマツツジ(Rhododendron kaempferi Planch.)における花弁内アントシアニン構成の地域変異

    OpenAIRE

    宮島, 郁夫; 高橋, 龍; 嬉野, 健次; 松田, 鹿徳

    2000-01-01

    Although there were few differences of flower colors among these groups, large number of individuals of Rhododendron kaempferi in southern Kyushu showed vivid red color whereas the almost all individuals in Tohoku district showed relatively somber red. It was unable to distinguish the individuals of northern Kyushu from those of southern Kyushu by anthocyanin constitutions of the petals. However, the latter individuals showed wider variations in the anthocyanin constitutions than the former. ...

  7. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided.

  8. Comparison of mRNA levels of three ethylene receptors in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Nagata, Masayasu; Tanikawa, Natsu; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Three ethylene receptor genes, DC-ERS1, DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1, were previously identified in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Here, the presence of mRNAs for respective genes in flower tissues and their changes during flower senescence are investigated by Northern blot analysis. DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs were present in considerable amounts in petals, ovaries and styles of the flower at the full-opening stage. In the petals the level of DC-ERS2 mRNA showed a decreasing trend toward the late stage of flower senescence, whereas it increased slightly in ovaries and was unchanged in styles throughout the senescence period. However, DC-ETR1 mRNA showed no or little changes in any of the tissues during senescence. Exogenously applied ethylene did not affect the levels of DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs in petals. Ethylene production in the flowers was blocked by treatment with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulphonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS), but the mRNA levels for DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 decreased in the petals. DC-ERS1 mRNA was not detected in any cases. These results indicate that DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 are ethylene receptor genes responsible for ethylene perception and that their expression is regulated in a tissue-specific manner and independently of ethylene in carnation flowers during senescence.

  9. A new species of Zonana DeLong & Freytag (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae: Gyponini) from Peru with a key to species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Magalhães, Raysa Brito; Gonçalves, Clayton Corrêa; Takiya, Daniela Maeda

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Zonana DeLong & Freytag, 1963 from Peru is described and illustrated: Z. petalacea sp. nov. This species is easily distinguished from other species of the genus by its peculiar aedeagus with a pair of slender ventral processes and a unique flattened petal-shaped dorsal process. A taxonomic key to the now four known species of Zonana is provided. 

  10. Transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes relevant to variegation in peach flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingnan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on ornamental peaches (Prunus persica f. versicolor [Sieb.] Voss. Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market. To gain a global perspective on genes differentially expressed in variegated peach flowers, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of white and red petals separately collected from a variegated peach tree. RESULTS: A total of 1,556,597 high-quality reads were obtained, with an average read length of 445 bp. The ESTs were assembled into 16,530 contigs and 42,050 singletons. The resulting unigenes covered about 60% of total predicted genes in the peach genome. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 514 genes differentially expressed between red and white flower petals. Since peach flower coloration is determined by the expression and regulation of structural genes relevant to flavonoid biosynthesis, a detailed examination detected four key structural genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI and F3H, expressed at a significantly higher level in red than in white petal. Except for the structural genes, we also detected 11 differentially expressed regulatory genes relating to flavonoid biosynthesis. Using the differentially expressed structural genes as the test objects, we validated the digital expression results by using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differential expression of C4H, CHS and F3H were confirmed. CONCLUSION: In this study, we generated a large EST collection from flower petals of a variegated peach. By digital expression analysis, we identified an informative list of candidate genes associated with variegation in peach flowers, which offered a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation.

  11. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1–2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays.

  12. Biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols, derivatives and conjugates in plants : roles in resistance to western flower thrips

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, T.

    2013-01-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, is one of the most serious pests in several vegetable and flower crops worldwide. It is a highly polyphagous insect and a vector of several plant viruses of which the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and the Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus are the most important. Feeding by WFT causes light coloured patches on leaves, petals and fruits, stunted plant growth, and flower and fruit deformation. Synthetic pesticides has been widely used to control&n...

  13. Poppy APETALA1/FRUITFULL orthologs control flowering time, branching, perianth identity, and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Ambrose, Barbara A; Litt, Amy

    2012-04-01

    Several MADS box gene lineages involved in flower development have undergone duplications that correlate with the diversification of large groups of flowering plants. In the APETALA1 gene lineage, a major duplication coincides with the origin of the core eudicots, resulting in the euFUL and the euAP1 clades. Arabidopsis FRUITFULL (FUL) and APETALA1 (AP1) function redundantly in specifying floral meristem identity but function independently in sepal and petal identity (AP1) and in proper fruit development and determinacy (FUL). Many of these functions are largely conserved in other core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, but notably, the role of APETALA1 as an "A-function" (sepal and petal identity) gene is thought to be Brassicaceae specific. Understanding how functional divergence of the core eudicot duplicates occurred requires a careful examination of the function of preduplication (FUL-like) genes. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we show that FUL-like genes in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) function in axillary meristem growth and in floral meristem and sepal identity and that they also play a key role in fruit development. Interestingly, in opium poppy, these genes also control flowering time and petal identity, suggesting that AP1/FUL homologs might have been independently recruited in petal identity. Because the FUL-like gene functional repertoire encompasses all roles previously described for the core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, we postulate subfunctionalization as the functional outcome after the major AP1/FUL gene lineage duplication event.

  14. An Activated Form of UFO Alters Leaf Development and Produces Ectopic Floral and Inflorescence Meristems

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy Risseeuw; Prakash Venglat; Daoquan Xiang; Kristina Komendant; Tim Daskalchuk; Vivijan Babic; William Crosby; Raju Datla

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower ...

  15. Risk mapping of dengue in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz Hassan; Shamarina Shohaimi; Hashim, Nor R.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever is a recurring public health problem afflicting thousands of Malaysians annually. In this paper, the risk map for dengue fever in the peninsular Malaysian states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was modelled based on co-kriging and geographical information systems. Using population density and rainfall as the model’s only input factors, the area with the highest risk for dengue infection was given as Gombak and Petaling, two districts located on opposite sides of Kuala Lumpur city th...

  16. A new species of Aeschynomene (Papilionoideae: Dalbergieae) from Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Delgado-Salinas; Solange Sotuyo

    2012-01-01

    Aeschynomene sousae Rudd ex A. Delgado et Sotuyo is described from southern Oaxaca, Mexico, where it is likely endemic to the northeast mountains of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. It is a member of series Scopariae of subgenus Ochopodium, and morphologically similar to A. nicaraguensis from which it differs mainly in having ovate to lanceolate, larger bracteoles, bright yellow flowers with a reddish arched, insect guide-mark on the interior face of the standard petal, in the fusion of the 2 wing...

  17. Diversity of morphology and oil content of rosa damascena land races and related rosa species from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the perfume industry, Rosa damascena is the most important species used in the production of rose attar which is made by distilling volatile oils from the petals of flowers. It is also used widely in the production of rose water, a flavoring agent. Other species like R. gallica L., R. centifolia L., R. bourboniana and Gruss an Teplitz also exhibit the fragrance that is sought by perfumeries in the world. Eight land races of Damask rose along with related Rosa species were collected from Punjab province and evaluated to determine the diversity on the basis of morphology and oil yield. The investigated characters were flower weight, flower diameter, peduncle length, number of petals, number of stamens and oil content. Pearson's coefficients showed a negative association of flower weight with peduncle length (r = -0.3348) and a positive and strong correlation was observed for flower weight with the all other morphological characters. Flower diameter showed a positive but weak correlation with peduncle length, number of petals and number of stamens with the values of r = 0.0733, r 0.5302 and r = 0.1241, respectively. Oil content (%) was measured from the Rosa species by using Soxhlet extractor with N-hexane. R. damascena land race from Choha Syedan Shah produced the highest oil content of absolute oil (0.147%) on petal basis while the lowest value for absolute oil content was 0.36% from R. indica. Dendrogram created by cluster analysis for morphological characters, indicated no relationship of genetic variation with their collection sites. This study has revealed that the selection of land races for their specific characteristic could be possible for future breeding program. It also provides practical information for the future collection of Damask rose germplasm and breeding program. (author)

  18. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/02) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-26407-2 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Lieve, Herman; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-26407-2 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption of known en...

  19. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/01) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-25958-3 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; Jardin, Patrick du; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, Józef; Gijs, Kleter; Lovik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kåre Magne

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-25958-3 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption of known en...

  20. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/02) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-26407-2 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Nicholas; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messean, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kåre Magne

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-26407-2 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption...

  1. Contributions of iridescence to floral patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Heather M; Kolle, Mathias; Alvarez-Fernandez, Ruben; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-01-01

    The Hibiscus trionum flower is distinctly patterned, with white petals each with a patch of red pigment at the base, producing a ‘bulls-eye’ pattern on the whole flower. The red pigmented patches are also iridescent, due to the presence of a series of overlying cuticular striations that act as a diffraction grating. We have previously reported that scanning electron microscopy revealed a sharply defined difference between the surface structure overlying the pigmented patch and that over the r...

  2. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1-2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays. PMID:27147927

  3. Origine génétique et moléculaire, et rôle adaptatif d’un dimorphisme floral chez Nigella damascena L

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Beatriz,

    2013-01-01

    Understanding flower diversity requires on one hand the study of the molecular and developmental origin of floral architecture, and on the other the study of the functional and ecological consequences of flower morphology. A great deal of that diversity can be found at the perianth level which comprises the sepals and petals, sterile and versatile organs that play a major role in the reproductive success of animal pollinated flowering plants through their attractive characteristics.This thesi...

  4. The adaptedness of the floral phenotype in a relict endemic, hawkmoth-pollinated violet. 1. Reproductive correlates of floral variation

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between quantitative variation in floral morphology (sizes of petals, spur and peduncle) and maternal reproductive success (seed production) in Viola cazorlensic (Violaceae), a narrowly endemic violet of south-eastern Spain pollinated by day-flying hawkmoths (Sphingidae). This plant is characterized by broad intraspecific variation in size and proportions of floral parts. Floral morphology does not influence significantly the probability of fruit set. Amon...

  5. Scientific Opinion on objections of a Member State to a notification (Reference C/NL/13/01) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation SHD-27531-4 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Suntory Holdings Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Lieve, Herman; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission asked the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) to address the objections of Cyprus to the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM) carnation SHD-27531-4. The GM carnation cut flowers, with a modified petal colour, are intended to be imported and distributed in the European Union for ornamental use only. The EFSA GMO Panel responded to the objections of Cyprus, taking into account the lim...

  6. Genetic architecture, biochemical underpinnings and ecological impact of floral UV patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Marcus T; Lucas, Lauren K; Anderson, Nickolas A; Rubin, Matthew J; Markelz, R J Cody; Covington, Michael F; Devisetty, Upendra K; Chapple, Clint; Maloof, Julin N; Weinig, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    Floral attraction traits can significantly affect pollinator visitation patterns, but adaptive evolution of these traits may be constrained by correlations with other traits. In some cases, molecular pathways contributing to floral attraction are well characterized, offering the opportunity to explore loci potentially underlying variation among individuals. Here, we quantify the range of variation in floral UV patterning (i.e. UV 'bulls-eye nectar guides) among crop and wild accessions of Brassica rapa. We then use experimental crosses to examine the genetic architecture, candidate loci and biochemical underpinnings of this patterning as well as phenotypic manipulations to test the ecological impact. We find qualitative variation in UV patterning between wild (commonly lacking UV patterns) and crop (commonly exhibiting UV patterns) accessions. Similar to the majority of crops, recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an oilseed crop × WI fast-plant® cross exhibit UV patterns, the size of which varies extensively among genotypes. In RILs, we further observe strong statistical-genetic and QTL correlations within petal morphological traits and within measurements of petal UV patterning; however, correlations between morphology and UV patterning are weak or nonsignificant, suggesting that UV patterning is regulated and may evolve independently of overall petal size. HPLC analyses reveal a high concentration of sinapoyl glucose in UV-absorbing petal regions, which, in concert with physical locations of UV-trait QTLs, suggest a regulatory and structural gene as candidates underlying observed quantitative variation. Finally, insects prefer flowers with UV bulls-eye patterns over those that lack patterns, validating the importance of UV patterning in pollen-limited populations of B. rapa. PMID:26800256

  7. Somaclonal Variation Is Induced De Novo via the Tissue Culture Process: A Study Quantifying Mutated Cells in Saintpaulia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuru Sato; Munetaka Hosokawa; Motoaki Doi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The origin of somaclonal variation has not been questioned previously, i.e., "pre-existing mutations" in explants and "newly induced mutations" arising from the tissue culture process have not been distinguished. This is primarily because there has been no reliable molecular method for estimating or quantifying variation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adopted a petal-variegated cultivar of Saintpaulia 'Thamires' (Saintpaulia sp.) as the model plant. Based on the difference be...

  8. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Garg Nitika; Meena Ajay; Nain Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glyco...

  9. National Drug Formulary review of statin therapeutic group using the multiattribute scoring tool

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli A; Aljunid SM; Sulong S; Md Yusof FA

    2013-01-01

    Azuana Ramli,1,3 Syed Mohamed Aljunid,1,2 Saperi Sulong,2 Faridah Aryani Md Yusof31United Nations University International Institute for Global Health (UNU-IIGH), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding (ITCC), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Pharmaceutical Services Division, Ministry of Health, Petaling Jaya, MalaysiaPurpose: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are extensively used in treating hypercholesterolem...

  10. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa

    2015-02-20

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens.

  11. Analysis on Gentic Characteristics of Long Chapiters of Petunia Hybrida Vilm.%矮牵牛长柱头性状遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙功; 沈向群; 杨宜忱; 郭春

    2011-01-01

    This experiments took closed-type petals of Petunia hybrida Vilm. as female parents, meanwhile long chapiters of Normal Petunia hybrida Vilm. as male parents to hybrids, selling, back crossing hybrids, and investigated and analysed situations about the length of the chapiters of different generations. The result showed that long chapiter of Petunia hybrida Vilm. was an inheritance characters controlled by two pairs of dominant genes. This study proposed genetic model of transformation long chapiters type in closed-type petals of Petunia hybrida Vilm. , and made a foundation for gaining the final target materials-closed petals of Petunia hybrida Vilm. with long chapiters.%以闭花瓣型短柱头矮牵牛为母本,正常开放纯合型长柱头的矮牵牛作为父本,采用杂交、自交、回交方法,对不同世代的植株进行柱头长短调查统计分析,初步探讨了矮牵牛长柱头是由两对显性核基因控制的遗传,提出了转育长柱头闭花瓣型矮牵牛的遗传模式,以期获得长柱头闭花瓣型矮牵牛材料.

  12. Production and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Redox Signaling during Leaf and Flower Senescence: Similar But Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hilary; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the regulation of many developmental processes, including senescence, and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several mechanisms of ROS generation and scavenging are similar, but others differ between senescing leaves and petals, despite these organs sharing a common evolutionary origin. Photosynthesis-derived ROS, nutrient remobilization, and reversibility of senescence are necessarily distinct features of the progression of senescence in the two organs. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed specific redox signaling processes that act in concert with phytohormones and transcription factors to regulate senescence-associated genes in leaves and petals. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the production and elimination of ROS in these two organs. We focus on unveiling common and differential aspects of redox signaling in leaf and petal senescence, with the aim of linking physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes. We conclude that the spatiotemporal impact of ROS in senescing tissues differs between leaves and flowers, mainly due to the specific functionalities of these organs. PMID:27208233

  13. Correlation Between Endogenous Hormones of Stem Apices and Fruit Locule Numbers in Tomatoes During Floral Bud Differentiation Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; LI Tian-lai; WANG Dan

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to elucidate the changes in the endogenous hormones of stem apices in tomatoes and the function of correlative endogenous hormones in tomatoes during floral bud differentiation stages. The tomato parents were crossed and reverse crossed by using two inbred lines of multi-locule (MLK1) and few-locule (FL1) with significant difference, and the relationship between endogenous hormones GA3, IAA, and ABA levels and ovary locule numbers of parents and progeny during floral bud differentiation initial stage, floral bud differentiation stage, sepal petal formation stage, carpel formation initial stage, and ovary locule complete formation stage was studied. GA3 levels in P1, P2, F3, and RF1 were consistent with locule numbers, and IAA and ABA levels were reverse to ovary locule numbers during the key stage. The correlation showed that, during sepal petal formation stage, the ovary locule numbers were positively correlated with GA3, GA3/IAA, and GA/ABA, and were negatively correlated with IAA and ABA. It was speculated that increasing GA3 levels or decreasing IAA and ABA levels of stem apices in tomato might be able to enhance ovary locule numbers. The sepal petal formation stage was an important stage which regulated endogenous hormones in the ovary locule formation.

  14. Construction of the CMS Tracker End-Caps and an Impact Study on Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Linn, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at the research center CERN close to Geneva will study proton proton collisions at up to now unprecedented centre of mass energies from the year 2008 on. To discover theoretically predicted elementary particles, CMS was equipped with the largest silicon tracker so far with a sensitive area of 198m2. Partitioned into more than 15.000 silicon strip modules, the construction and test of the tracker was a huge challenge for the involved institutes. The III. Physikalisches Institut B of the RWTH Aachen had a leading role in the construction and test of substructures, so called petals, for the end caps of the tracker. The petals were assembled in a clean room and underwent first basic tests to ensure the general operationability of each component. Failures detected during the assembly are described and improvements of the silicon strip modules are discussed. After the assembly the petals underwent a cold test for several days. For the first time all readout components of th...

  15. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. Three types of trichomes were found on the sepals and the surface of the ovary, whereas the corolla petals exhibited two types of hairs and papillae. The hairs differ in terms of their length and number of cells. The perianth and pistil had no capitate hairs, whereas the ovary exhibited the presence of colleters. Histochemical assays revealed that all the types of trichomes and papillae contained lipids or essential oils; hence, they can be classified as glandular structures. The “nectar guides” were characterised by higher density of secretory hairs than that on the rest of the petal surface, which implies that these petal fragments may emit stronger fragrance.

  16. Production and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Redox Signaling during Leaf and Flower Senescence: Similar But Different1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the regulation of many developmental processes, including senescence, and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several mechanisms of ROS generation and scavenging are similar, but others differ between senescing leaves and petals, despite these organs sharing a common evolutionary origin. Photosynthesis-derived ROS, nutrient remobilization, and reversibility of senescence are necessarily distinct features of the progression of senescence in the two organs. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed specific redox signaling processes that act in concert with phytohormones and transcription factors to regulate senescence-associated genes in leaves and petals. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the production and elimination of ROS in these two organs. We focus on unveiling common and differential aspects of redox signaling in leaf and petal senescence, with the aim of linking physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes. We conclude that the spatiotemporal impact of ROS in senescing tissues differs between leaves and flowers, mainly due to the specific functionalities of these organs. PMID:27208233

  17. Will fusion be ready to meet the energy challenge for the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchet, Yves; Massard, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Finite amount of fossil fuel, global warming, increasing demand of energies in emerging countries tend to promote new sources of energies to meet the needs of the coming centuries. Despite their attractiveness, renewable energies will not be sufficient both because of intermittency but also because of the pressure they would put on conventional materials. Thus nuclear energy with both fission and fusion reactors remain the main potential source of clean energy for the coming centuries. France has made a strong commitment to fusion reactor through ITER program. But following and sharing Euratom vision on fusion, France supports the academic program on Inertial Fusion Confinement with direct drive and especially the shock ignition scheme which is heavily studied among the French academic community. LMJ a defense facility for nuclear deterrence is also open to academic community along with a unique PW class laser PETAL. Research on fusion at LMJ-PETAL is one of the designated topics for experiments on the facility. Pairing with other smaller European facilities such as Orion, PALS or LULI2000, LMJ-PETAL will bring new and exciting results and contribution in fusion science in the coming years.

  18. Floral development in Tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Amherstia, Brownea, and Tamarindus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S C

    2000-10-01

    Floral development was compared among three taxa in caesalpinioid tribe Detarieae sensu lato: Amherstia nobilis and Tamarindus indica have racemose, helically arranged inflorescences, while Brownea latifolia has cauliflorous capitate flower clusters that arise as racemes. All have acropetal flower order; initiation and development are sequential in all except Brownea, which is synchronous. All have paired persistent showy bracteoles. Floral symmetry is dorsiventral (zygomorphic) in all except Brownea, with radial symmetry at anthesis. Sepals initiate helically on a circular floral apex, starting with a median abaxial sepal, in all. Petals are initiated helically in Brownea, and unidirectionally in Amherstia and Tamarindus. Stamens are initiated unidirectionally in each stamen whorl in all except Amherstia, in which the outer whorl is bidirectional. The carpel initiates concurrently with the petals in Brownea, and with the outer stamens in the other taxa. The two upper (adaxial) sepal primordia become fused during development in all, so that the calyx appears tetramerous. Some reduced petals occur in Amherstia and Tamarindus, and some reduced stamens occur in all. All produce a hypanthium by zonal growth, and all except Tamarindus have the gynoecium attached adaxially to the hypanthial rim. PMID:11034916

  19. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  20. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  1. Functional analysis of the two Brassica AP3 genes involved in apetalous and stamen carpelloid phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3 and PISTILLATA (PI are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation.

  2. LjCYC Genes Constitute Floral Dorsoventral Asymmetry in Lotus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiechen Wang; Yumei Wang; Da Luo

    2010-01-01

    Previous study shows that LjCYC2, a CYC-like TCP (TB1, CYC and PCFs) gene in the model legume, Lotus japonicus, is involved in dorsal petal development, which together with the other two homologous genes,LjCYC1 and LjCYC3, belongs to an LjCYC gene cluster. In this report, we modified the transformation system in L. japonicus, and constructed different RNAi transgenes to target different LjCYC genes. The expression of three endogenous LjCYC genes was specifically suppressed by different specific RNAi transgenes, and a chimerical RNAi transgene that contains the specific sequences from LjCYC1 and LjCYC2 was found to downregulate the expression of both endogenous genes simultaneously. Effects of silencing three LjCYC genes were mainly restricted on either dorsal or lateral petals, demonstrating their dorsalizing and lateralizing activities during the development of zygomorphic flower. Furthermore,abolishing the expression of three LjCYC genes could give rise to complete loss of dorsoventral (DV) differentiation in the flower whose petals all resembled the ventral one in the wild type and displayed intact organ internal (IN) asymmetry. Our data demonstrate that during zygomorphic flower development, the DV asymmetry is constituted by the LjCYC genes, while the floral organ IN asymmetry is independently determined by other genetic factors.

  3. Growth of nano hexagon-like flake arrays cerium carbonate created with PAH as the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: limei@imust.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Engineering, Department of Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Department of Inorganic and Metalloid Materials, Key Laboratory of New Technologies of Modern Metallurgy and Application of Rare Materials, Baotou 014010 (China); Hu, Y.H., E-mail: bthyh@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Engineering, Department of Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Department of Inorganic and Metalloid Materials, Key Laboratory of New Technologies of Modern Metallurgy and Application of Rare Materials, Baotou 014010 (China); Liu, Z.G.; Wang, X.F.; Wang, M.T. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Department of Inorganic and Metalloid Materials, Key Laboratory of New Technologies of Modern Metallurgy and Application of Rare Materials, Baotou 014010 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Petals-like Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} on Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} nano hexagon-like flake arrays have been precipitatingly fabricated using PAH substrates. By changing the way of feeding, PAH concentration and aging time, petals-like Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} was created best when adding PAH into the Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution, joined (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution along with mixing, PAH concentration is 0.9 g/L, aging time is 4 h. A growth mechanism was proposed to account for the growth of the petals-like Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} with PAH as the substrate. Poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) is as template agent which forms π-allyl complex with Ce{sup 3+} and controls the morphology of Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} particle. PAH and Ce{sup 3+} form π-allyl complex, and then induce the formation of Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} crystal nucleus. And infrared spectrum analysis verified. XRD show that after adding PAH which is adsorbed on the crystal plane, the growth of Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} crystal is inhibited on (2 4 2), the growth is promoted on (2 0 2) which is differentiated into the new (1 5 1), (2 2 2) is unchanged, Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} crystal is accumulated petals shape by hexagon-like flake. UV absorption spectra show that CeO{sub 2} as prepared precursor Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} after calcinations in air at high temperatures, the petal-like CeO{sub 2} has strong UV absorption and reflection effects, and absorption interval changed significantly by the move to UVA from UVB. - Graphical abstract: Each Ce-atom connects three Cl-atoms and three allyls in three dimensional spaces. To take the plane as a reference plane which is arrayed with three Ce-atom as equilateral triangle. The triangular each vertex is Ce-atom, the triangular center place is Cl-atom, the equilateral triangle which is mutually perpendicular with Ce-triangle surface and the inclined angle is 60° is made up with three Cl-atoms. - Highlights: • Petals

  4. Expression characteristics of the flower colors of Prunus mume'Nanjing Hongxu'and Prunus mume'Nanjing Hong'%梅花'南京红须'、'南京红'花色的呈现特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昶灵; 郭维明; 陈俊愉

    2005-01-01

    The flower colors of Prunus mume'Nanjing Hongxu'and P.mume'Nanjing Hong'exist mainly temporal changes caused by different flower developing stages,reflecting that the flower colors are under the control of flower development. The flower colors of these two cultivars are all the strongest in Alabastrum period,thin in some sort in Initial flower period,thicken appreciably in Profuse flower period and thin furthest in Final flower period even if the petals senesce as soon as they begin to splay. At different flower developing stage,the chroma differences of petal colors of different layers are:outer layer>middle layer>inner layer,namely,the concrete collocating site of petal in the corolla decides the specific color chroma of this petal. But the change trends of the petal colors of different layers are not completely similar. In the mean time,the content changes of total flavonoids of the outer layers of two cultivars are positively correlated with the petal color changes of outer layers. On the other hand,the flower color difference induced by the inserting site of the flower in canopy is not remarkable at all,showing that the spatial variations of the flower colors are very petit. This paper could be a reference or a premise for the exploration on the flower color mechanism of red Mei flowers and the flower-selecting in the cDNA cloning of the key enzyme genes determining the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in Mei flower.%梅花'南京红须'、'南京红'的花色主要存在着花发育阶段导致的时间变化,反映其花色受花发育控制.二者的花色都在蕾期最浓艳,在初花期略淡,在盛花期又稍浓,在末花期最淡,尽管花瓣在花开放时便开始衰老;在整个花发育时期,同一朵花不同层次花瓣的颜色浓淡均为:外层花瓣>中层花瓣>内层花瓣,即花瓣在花冠中的具体排列位置决定着该片花瓣的特定颜色深浅;但不同层次花瓣颜色的变化趋势不完全一致.同时,两个品种外

  5. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles.

  6. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  7. Characterizing Floral Symmetry in the Core Goodeniaceae with Geometric Morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew G.; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan N.; Menz, John; Shepherd, Kelly A.; Howarth, Dianella G.; Jabaily, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Core Goodeniaceae is a clade of ~330 species primarily distributed in Australia. Considerable variation in flower morphology exists within this group and we aim to use geometric morphometrics to characterize this variation across the two major subclades: Scaevola sensu lato (s.l.) and Goodenia s.l., the latter of which was hypothesized to exhibit greater variability in floral symmetry form. We test the hypothesis that floral morphological variation can be adequately characterized by our morphometric approach, and that discrete groups of floral symmetry morphologies exist, which broadly correlate with subjectively determined groups. From 335 images of 44 species in the Core Goodeniaceae, two principal components were computed that describe >98% of variation in all datasets. Increasing values of PC1 ventralize the dorsal petals (increasing the angle between them), whereas increasing values of PC2 primarily ventralize the lateral petals (decreasing the angle between them). Manipulation of these two morphological “axes” alone was sufficient to recreate any of the general floral symmetry patterns in the Core Goodeniaceae. Goodenia s.l. exhibits greater variance than Scaevola s.l. in PC1 and PC2, and has a significantly lower mean value for PC1. Clustering clearly separates fan-flowers (with dorsal petals at least 120° separated) from the others, whereas the distinction between pseudo-radial and bilabiate clusters is less clear and may form a continuum rather than two distinct groups. Transitioning from the average fan-flower to the average non-fan-flower is described almost exclusively by PC1, whereas PC2 partially describes the transition between bilabiate and pseudo-radial morphologies. Our geometric morphometric method accurately models Core Goodeniaceae floral symmetry diversity. PMID:27148960

  8. Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation 'White Candle': role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukui, Hideki; Kudo, Sakiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes was investigated in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 'White Candle (WC)' and 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)', with long and short vase-lives, respectively. Ethylene production from the gynoecium and petals of senescing 'WC' flowers was below the limit of detection, in agreement with the repressed ethylene production from the whole flowers. However, exogenous ethylene treatment caused the accumulation of transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 genes in both the gynoecium and petals, resulting in ethylene production from the flowers. Moreover, application of ABA or IAA, which are known to exhibit their action through the induction of ethylene synthesis in the gynoecium, to 'WC' flowers from their cut stem-end induced ethylene production and wilting in the flowers. These findings suggested that, in 'WC' flowers the mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis, i.e. the induction of expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis and the action of resulting enzymes, was not defective, but that its function was repressed during natural senescence. Transcripts of DC-ACO1, DC-ACS3, and DC-ACS1 were present in the gynoecium of senescing 'LPB' flowers. In the gynoecium of senescing 'WC' flowers, however, the DC-ACO1 transcript was present, but the DC-ACS1 transcript was absent and the DC-ACS3 transcript was detected only in a small amount; the latter two were associated with the low rate of ethylene production in the gynoecium of 'WC' flowers. These findings indicated that the repressed ethylene production in 'WC' flowers during natural senescence is caused by the repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium, giving further support for the role of the gynoecium in regulating petal senescence in carnation flowers.

  9. Floral ontogeny of Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae),with an emphasis on the corolla upper lip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin YU; Jie CAI; De-Zhu LI; Robert R.MILL; Hong WANG

    2013-01-01

    Pedicularis shows high diversity in its corolla form,however,its floral ontogeny has been rarely investigated.In particular,the development of the highly variable upper lip (galea),three broad morphological types of which (beakless and toothless,beakless and toothed,beaked) can be discriminated,remains unknown.We used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the early stages of floral ontogeny in two beaked species,Pedicularis gruina and P.siphonantha.To compare the developmental processes of the three galea types,three species for each type were investigated.Initiations of floral organs in Pedicularis are consistent.Sepal initiations are successive from the lateral-adaxial primordia,followed by the lateral-abaxial ones (these sometimes missing),then the mid-adaxial one (again sometimes missing).The stamens are initiated prior to the petals,or development of petal primordia may be retarded at the early stages in comparison with that of stamen primordia.Four stamen primordia are initiated simultaneously.The five petal primordia are initiated almost simultaneously.Development processes of the upper lip among the three galea types differ in the expansion rates and directions of the cells of the two lobes and these differences govem whether or not a beak and/or teeth are formed on the upper lip.The floral ontogeny of Pedicularis is close to that of Agalinis,which supports the molecular assignment.Floral monosymmetry of Pedicularis is established at the beginning of sepal initiation and is maintained until flowering.The development of the upper lip provides some clues to the evolution of beaked and/or toothed galeas in Pedicularis.

  10. Achievements and perspectives in biochemistry concerning anthocyanin modification for blue flower coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of roses and other plants of floricultural importance to give them a truly blue petal color is arguably one of the holy grails of plant biotechnology. Toward this goal, bluish carnations and roses were previously engineered by establishing an exclusive accumulation of delphinidin (Dp)-type anthocyanins in their petals via the heterologous expression of a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene. Very recently, purple-blue varieties of chrysanthemums were also genetically engineered via a similar biochemical strategy. Although the floral colors of these transgenic plants still lack a true blue color, the basis for the future molecular breeding of truly blue flowers is via the engineering of anthocyanin pathways. Anthocyanins with multiple aromatic acyl groups (often referred to as polyacylated anthocyanins) in the 3'- or 7-position tend to display a more stable blue color than non-acylated anthocyanins. The 7-polyacylation process during the biosynthesis of purple-blue anthocyanins in delphinium (Delphinium grandiflorum) was found to occur in vacuoles using acyl-glucose as both the glucosyl and acyl donor. Glucosyltransferases and acyltransferases involved in anthocyanin 7-polyacylation in delphinium are vacuolar acyl-glucose-dependent enzymes belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and serine carboxypeptidae-like protein family, respectively. The 7-polyacylation proceeds through the alternate glucosylation and p-hydroxybenzoylation catalyzed by these enzymes. p-Hydroxybenzoyl-glucose serves as the p-hydroxybenzoyl and glucosyl donor to produce anthocyanins modified with a p-hydroxybenzoyl-glucose concatemer at the 7-position. This novel finding has provided a potential breakthrough for the genetic engineering of truly blue flowers, where polyacylated Dp-type anthocyanins are accumulated exclusively in the petals.

  11. Forward ramp in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. Oldest fossil flowers of hamamelidaceous affinity, from the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepet, W L; Nixon, K C; Friis, E M; Freudenstein, J V

    1992-10-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved staminate inflorescences, pistillate inflorescences, and detached stamens with important phylogenetic and paleoecological implications have been discovered from the Turonian (ca. 88.5-90.4 million years B.P.) Raritan Formation of New Jersey. The fossils have a combination of floral and pollen characters found in various genera of modern entomophilous and anemophilous Hamamelidaceae and anemophilous Platanus (Platanaceae). The floral characters of the fossils, including a sepal cup, staminal tube, and apparently nectariferous staminodes, indicate that this taxon was probably insect pollinated. The juxtaposition of character complexes in an extinct taxon from disparate modern taxa provides an interesting phylogenetic perspective on the origins of Hamamelidaceae and is a striking example of a fossil that is a mosaic of familial level characters relative to modern taxa. Of even broader interest, however, is the occurrence of staminodal nectaries that have structural characters intermediate between the fossil's functional stamens and modern hamamelidaceous petals. This transitional staminode morphology in the context of the other fossil characters suggests a staminodal origin of petals in the hamamelid-rosid lineage. This hypothesis is supported by the apparent staminode position within the fossil flowers where petals are found in modern genera. The character complex of morphologically transitional staminodes, a staminal tube, and sepal cup can be viewed as prehypanthial, lacking only fusion of the staminal tube to the sepal cup. The appearance of the character complex embodied in these flowers during the late mid-Cretaceous may signal the early stages of the relationship between specialized pollinators, such as bees, and the hamamelid-rosid-asterid lineage of angiosperms, arguably one of the most important events in angiosperm radiation.

  13. Effects of Exogenous Calcium on Some Postharvest Characteristics of Cut Gladiolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Ji-gang; XU Pei-lei; ZONG Cheng-shun; WANG Cai-yun

    2009-01-01

    In order to apply calcium to the vase solutions of cut gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus), the vase life and some physiological characteristics were studied in this article. A gladiolus cultivar, Mascagni, was chosen for experiments, and its cut flowers were held into solutions, which contained calcium acetate, ethylene glycol bis-amino tetmacetate (EGTA), and water,respectively. The effects of calcium were probed by measuring the ornamental quality of cut gladiolus and the physiological characteristics such as ealmodulin (CAM), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellins (GA), zeatin (ZRs), endogenous calcium,malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble sugar in florets. In a solution of 2 mmol L-1 calcium acetate, the opening rate of cut gladiolus was higher than that of control, and the vase life and ornamental value of flowers were better than that in control and other treatments of calcium acetate. Thus, the solution of 2 mmol L-1 calcium acetate has the best effect on the fresh keeping of cut gladiolus. In petals and bracts of cut gladiolus, the contents of CaM and GA and the ratios of GA/ABA and ZRs/ABA were higher in treatment of 2 mmol L-1 calcium acetate than that in control, while the contents of ABA and MDA were lower. Compared with the control, the solution of 2 mmol L-1 calcium acetate increased the endogenous calcium contents, and decreased the MDA contents, and alleviated the effects of EGTA on CaM, GA, GA/ABA, and ZRs/ABA. It made the soluble sugar content higher in petals than the control, but lower in bracts. Thus, the solution of 2 mmol L-1calcium acetate not only stabilizes the membrane structure of cut gladiolus, but also activates CaM. It thereby controls the endogenous hormone levels, and transports soluble sugar into petals, and increases the vase life of the flower.

  14. Within and between whorls: comparative transcriptional profiling of Aquilegia and Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Voelckel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Aquilegia is an emerging model system in plant evolutionary biology predominantly because of its wide variation in floral traits and associated floral ecology. The anatomy of the Aquilegia flower is also very distinct. There are two whorls of petaloid organs, the outer whorl of sepals and the second whorl of petals that form nectar spurs, as well as a recently evolved fifth whorl of staminodia inserted between stamens and carpels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an oligonucleotide microarray based on EST sequences from a mixed tissue, normalized cDNA library of an A. formosa x A. pubescens F2 population representing 17,246 unigenes. We then used this array to analyze floral gene expression in late pre-anthesis stage floral organs from a natural A. formosa population. In particular, we tested for gene expression patterns specific to each floral whorl and to combinations of whorls that correspond to traditional and modified ABC model groupings. Similar analyses were performed on gene expression data of Arabidopsis thaliana whorls previously obtained using the Ath1 gene chips (data available through The Arabidopsis Information Resource. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative gene expression analyses suggest that 1 petaloid sepals and petals of A. formosa share gene expression patterns more than either have organ-specific patterns, 2 petals of A. formosa and A. thaliana may be independently derived, 3 staminodia express B and C genes similar to stamens but the staminodium genetic program has also converged on aspects of the carpel program and 4 staminodia have unique up-regulation of regulatory genes and genes that have been implicated with defense against microbial infection and herbivory. Our study also highlights the value of comparative gene expression profiling and the Aquilegia microarray in particular for the study of floral evolution and ecology.

  15. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  16. Exploitation of Diversity for Morphological Traits in Lilium tsingtauense under Different Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KiByung LIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study naturally growing morphological variation of Lilium tsingtauense (Korean wheel lily, from southern Chung San Island to northern Mount Seorak, was investigated in 16 habitats around the country. Morphological analysis revealed that this species had its own unique characteristics in different habitats. Flowers with luster are in actinomorphic form, with shades of orange, each plant having an average of 2.4 flowers that blossom upward. The shape of flower petals was from oval to oblong. The width of the petals, which determines the shape of the flower, significantly varied among regions. Flower petals showed purple spots and its occurrence greatly varied among plants from almost none to 300 spots per flower. In addition, when the number of spots increased, the flower color was more vivid. Leaves were typically one-tiered verticillate and most of the leaves were long, oval and some were lanceolate. Young leaves showed definitive patterns that faded during growth. Starting from the verticillate leaves, stems below the leaves were smooth, although 81% of all stems, above the verticillate leaves, showed rough micro-protrusions. Bulb shapes were long and vertically elliptical. The ramentum was light yellow in color and the base was darker, with the color fading toward the upper region of the plant. The shape of the ramentum was long, with a pointy end, and its adhesiveness was weak. This study offers basic fundamental information for the effective exploitation and recognition of L. tsingtauense resources as a potential cut flower and potting plant in floral trade worldwide.

  17. Tissue culture-induced flower-color changes in Saintpaulia caused by excision of the transposon inserted in the flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mitsuru; Kawabe, Takashi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2011-05-01

    The variegated Saintpaulia cultivar Thamires (Saintpaulia sp.), which has pink petals with blue splotches, is generally maintained by leaf cuttings. In contrast, tissue culture-derived progeny of the cultivar showed not only a high percentage of mutants with solid-blue petals but also other solid-color variants, which have not been observed from leaf cuttings. Solid-color phenotypes were inherited stably by their progeny from tissue culture. Petals from each solid-color variant were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and shown to contain different proportions of three main anthocyanin derivatives: malvidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin. Analysis of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) sequences showed no differences in the coding region among the variants and variegated individuals. However, a transposon belonging to the hAT superfamily was found in the promoter region of variegated individuals, and the presence of transposon-related insertions or deletions correlated with the observed flower-color phenotypes. Solid-blue flower mutants contained 8-base pair (bp) insertions (transposon excision footprints), while solid-pink mutants had 58- to 70-bp insertions, and purple- and deep-purple mutants had 21- and 24-bp deletions, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that F3'5'H expression levels correlated with insertions and deletions (indels) caused by hAT excision, resulting in flower-color differences. Our results showed that tissue culture of Saintpaulia 'Thamires' elicits transposon excision, which in turn alters F3'5'H expression levels and flower colors. PMID:21293860

  18. Comparative transcript profiling of a male sterile cybrid pummelo and its fertile type revealed altered gene expression related to flower development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Bei Zheng

    Full Text Available Male sterile and seedless characters are highly desired for citrus cultivar improvement. In our breeding program, a male sterile cybrid pummelo, which could be considered as a variant of male fertile pummelo, was produced by protoplast fusion. Herein, ecotopic stamen primordia initiation and development were detected in this male sterile cybrid pummelo. Histological studies revealed that the cybrid showed reduced petal development in size and width, and retarded stamen primordia development. Additionally, disorganized cell proliferation was also detected in stamen-like structures (fused to petals and/or carpel. To gain new insight into the underlying mechanism, we compared, by RNA-Seq analysis, the nuclear gene expression profiles of floral buds of the cybrid with that of fertile pummelo. Gene expression profiles which identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the two lines were captured at both petal primordia and stamen primordia distinguishable stages. For example, nuclear genes involved in nucleic acid binding and response to hormone synthesis and metabolism, genes required for floral bud identification and expressed in particular floral whorls. Furthermore, in accordance with flower morphology of the cybrid, expression of PISTILLATA (PI was reduced in stamen-like structures, even though it was restricted to correct floral whorls. Down-regulated expression of APETALA3 (AP3 coincided with that of PI. These finding indicated that, due to their whorl specific effects in flower development, citrus class-B MADS-box genes likely constituted 'perfect targets' for CMS retrograde signaling, and that dysfunctional mitochondria seemed to cause male sterile phenotype in the cybrid pummelo.

  19. The Myths behind Flower Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杰

    2014-01-01

    The Greek term for flower is Chloris. It is derived from the name of the Chloris, the goddess of vegetation, in Greek mythology, reasonably so, if we consider the great number of mythological tales linked to flowers of the Greek flowers. The use of flowers was widespread in Greece from time immemorial, since flowers are so important to us from the moment we are born. Flowers play an important role in mythology. As they morph from bud to bloom to faded and wilted petals, they assume various meanings linked to youth, life and death. They are associated with goddesses and legends, and are often attributed with certain powers and symbolism.

  20. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  1. Unfurlable, continuous-surface reflector concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumm, J. E.; Kulick, S.

    1989-07-01

    Various concepts for large, deployable reflectors were developed and some have flown. In each case the surface material was either a continuous mesh of some sort or an assembly of rigid, continuous-surface facets or petals. Performance issues arise in each case. For mesh, reflectance diminishes with increasing frequency. For rigid sections, seams and relative positioning of the segments have to be dealt with. These two issues prompted the evolution of the concept of an unfurlable, continuous-surface reflector. The concept is described and what is learnt is presented, what is suspected will be learned, and also questions raised yet to be addressed.

  2. Light Absorption and Carotenoid Synthesis of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) in Response to Phosphorous and Potassium Varying Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SEDGHI; Alireza PIRZAD; Bahman AMANPOUR-BALANEJI

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide additional information on the effects of elemental deficiency on factors that affect plant production in medicinal plants, a factorial field experiment as randomized complete block design was conducted on Calendula officinalis. Treatments were four phosphorus levels (P2O5) including 0, 40, 80 and 120 Kg ha-1 and four potassium levels (K2O) as 0, 50, 100 and 150 Kg ha-1. Results showed that applied treatments had significant effects on petal carotenoids and the highest amou...

  3. Cyclostrophic vortices in polar regions of rotating planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Goncharov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-petal, rotating vortices can form in two-dimensional flows consisting of an inviscid incompressible fluid under certain conditions. Such vortices are principally nonlinear thermo-hydrodynamical structures. The proper rotation of these structures which leads to time-dependent variations of the associated temperature field can be enregistred by a stationary observer. The problem is analyzed in the framework of the contour dynamics method (CDM. An analytical solution of the reduced equation for a contour curvature is found. We give a classification of the solutions and compare the obtained results with observational data.

  4. Illustrations and studies in Neotropical Orchidaceae. 6. The Lepanthes guatemalensis group (Pleurothallidinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupulin, Franco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We revise and characterize the group of species close to Lepanthes guatemalensis. The group comprises eight species in Costa Rica. Three new species are described and illustrated. Lepanthes durikäensis is distinguished by the non resupinate flowers, the lateral sepals ovate with the apical tails diverging, the lower lobe of petals lanceolate-subfalcate, up-curved and the pinkish column. Lepanthes leporina is recognized by the resupinate flowers with yellow sepals, faintly suffused with red, the petals violet, the lip orange, the bifid synsepal with the apices of the lateral sepals not forming tails, the lateral sepals subequal to the dorsal sepal, the petals markedly convex with the upper lobe elliptic-lanceolate and the lobes of the lip connivent at apex. Lepanthes sanctiorum is characterized by the small plants less than 1.1 cm tall, the short peduncle less than 10 mm long, the petals as wide as the lip length and the blades of the lip distinctly diverging at apex. All the species are described and illustrated on the basis of Costa Rican material. A key to the species of the group is provided.Revisamos y caracterizamos el grupo de especies cercanas a Lepanthes guatemalensis. El grupo está compuesto por ocho especies en Costa Rica. Se describen e ilustran tres especies nuevas. Lepanthes durikäensis se caracteriza por las flores no resupinadas, los sépalos laterales ovados, con las colas apicales divergentes, el lóbulo inferior de los pétalos lanceolado-subfalcado, con curvatura hacia arriba y la columna rosada. Lepanthes leporina es reconocida por las flores resupinadas, los sépalos amarillos y ligeramente teñidos de rojo, los pétalos violeta, el labelo naranja, el sinsépalo bífido con los ápices de los sépalos laterales que no forman colas, los sépalos laterales subiguales al sépalo dorsal, los pétalos marcadamente convexo con el lóbulo superior elíptico-lanceolado y los lóbulos del labelo conniventes en el ápice. Lepanthes

  5. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  6. Floral homeotic C function genes repress specific B function genes in the carpel whorl of the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellina Aravinda L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG confers stamen and carpel identity and is involved in the regulation of floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis ag mutants show complete homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and carpels into sepals as well as indeterminacy of the floral meristem. Gene function analysis in model core eudicots and the monocots rice and maize suggest a conserved function for AG homologs in angiosperms. At the same time gene phylogenies reveal a complex history of gene duplications and repeated subfunctionalization of paralogs. Results EScaAG1 and EScaAG2, duplicate AG homologs in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica show a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression, although EScaAG2 expression is lower than EScaAG1 expression. Functional studies employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS demonstrate that knock down of EScaAG1 and 2 function leads to homeotic conversion of stamens into petaloid structures and defects in floral meristem termination. However, carpels are transformed into petaloid organs rather than sepaloid structures. We also show that a reduction of EScaAG1 and EScaAG2 expression leads to significantly increased expression of a subset of floral homeotic B genes. Conclusions This work presents expression and functional analysis of the two basal eudicot AG homologs. The reduction of EScaAG1 and 2 functions results in the change of stamen to petal identity and a transformation of the central whorl organ identity from carpel into petal identity. Petal identity requires the presence of the floral homeotic B function and our results show that the expression of a subset of B function genes extends into the central whorl when the C function is reduced. We propose a model for the evolution of B function regulation by C function suggesting that the mode of B function gene regulation found in Eschscholzia is ancestral and the C-independent regulation as

  7. Chemical composition of Tipuana tipu, a source for tropical honey bee products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Pereira, Alberto; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2003-01-01

    Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is a tree from the leguminosae family (Papilionoideae) indigenous in Argentina and extensively used in urbanism, mainly in Southern Brazil. The epicuticular waxes of leaves and branch, and flower surface were studied by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography. Several compounds were characterized, among which the aliphatic alcohols were predominant in branch, leaves and receptacle. Alkanes were predominant only in the petals and the aliphatic acids were predominant in stamen. In branches and leaf epicuticular surfaces, six long chain wax esters series were characterized, as well as lupeol and b-amyrin hexadecanoates.

  8. Expression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity hexose transporter STP13 correlates with programmed cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten Helge Hauberg; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Brodersen, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    GFP expression only in the vascular tissue in emerging petals under non-stressed conditions. Quantitative PCR and the pSTP13-GFP plants show induction of STP13 in programmed cell death (PCD) obtained by treatments with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. A role for STP......13 in PCD is supported by microarray data from e.g. plants undergoing senescence and a strong correlation between STP13 transcripts and the PCD phenotype in different accelerated cell death (acd11) mutants....

  9. The status of Semeiocardium Zoll. (Balsaminaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Utami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comparison with other characters of two subgenera of the genus Impatiens, Semeiocardium Zoll. is proposed to be best treated as a subgenus of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae. Subgenus Semeiocardium (Zoll. N. Utami is distinguished from the other two subgenera in the number of locular ovary and its connate wing petals. Subgenus Semeiocardium has 20 species in four sections of Impatiens in the sense of Warburg & Reiche (1896. There are 14 species of Impatiens in section Microcentron Warb., 3 species of section Macrocentron Warb, 2 species of section Brachycentron Warb., and 1 species of section Brevicalcaratae Warb.

  10. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl glucoside (C3mg and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  11. Phylogenetic utility of the AP3/DEF K-domain and its molecular evolution in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, S.; Geuten, K.; Viaene, T.; Yong-Ming, Y.; Yi, S; Smets, E.

    2007-01-01

    APETALA3 (AP3)/DEFICIENS (DEF) is a MADS-box transcription factor that is involved in establishing the identity of petal and stamen floral organs. The AP3/DEF gene lineage has been extensively examined throughout the angiosperms in order to better understand its role in floral diversity and evolution. As a result, a large number of cloned AP3/DEF orthologues are available, which can be used for the design of taxon specific primers for phylogeny reconstruction of close relatives of the group o...

  12. A proposed design and fabrication of lenses and mirrors from a set of spherical rings that produce desired energy distributions for solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Jorge [Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca UTM, Km 2.5 Carretera a Acatlima, Huajuapan de Leon Oaxaca, C. P. 69000 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla BUAP, Apartado Postal 1152, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Vazquez-Montiel, Sergio [Instituto de Optica, Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica INAOE, Santa Maria, Tonantzintla Puebla, Apartado Postal 51 y 216 (Mexico); Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin [Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca UTM, Km 2.5 Carretera a Acatlima, Huajuapan de Leon Oaxaca, C. P. 69000 (Mexico); Instituto de Optica, Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica INAOE, Santa Maria, Tonantzintla Puebla, Apartado Postal 51 y 216 (Mexico); Cordero-Davila, Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla BUAP, Apartado Postal 1152, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Castro-Gonzalez, Graciela [Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca UTM, Km 2.5 Carretera a Acatlima, Huajuapan de Leon Oaxaca, C. P. 69000 (Mexico)

    2009-12-15

    The amount of energy contained in the solar aureole affects the performance of solar systems. Solar optical systems are, therefore, dependent on the characteristics of the shape of the sun in a specific geographical location. For this reason, the present study proposes the design of solid lenses and mirrors modelled from a set of concentric spherical rings that give a desired distribution of energy in the focal plane. One hundred spherical rings, whose optimum curvature radius values were calculated by Genetic Algorithms, were employed in the modelling process. The study also proposes a design of a petal tool to polish lens and mirror surfaces. (author)

  13. Pollination biology of an invasive weed Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae) in Guangdong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaocheng Jia; Xinliang Li; Yang Dan; Guohui Lu; Yingqiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    During May to July, 2006 and April to May, 2007, we studied pollination biology in Ipomoea cairica, an invasive weed in Guangdong Province, China. Ipomoea cairica is a perennial creeping or climbing herbaceous vine, blooming all year round in Guangdong. The flowers gathered in cymes, with a purple or bluish purple bell-formed corolla. The petals unfolded at about 4:30–5:20 and closed at 17:40, lasting for about 12 hours. The proximity of the stigma and anthers during flowering period facilita...

  14. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanoflowers and their photocatalyst application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jincheng Fan; Tengfei Li; Hang Heng

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanoflowers were prepared by the hydrothermal method and studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and photoluminescence. ZnO nanoflowers with star-like morphology were of pure wurtzite phase. The edges of the petals were composed of assemblies of smaller nanocrystallites. Green and orange emissions in photoluminescence were attributed to O vacancies and O interstitials, respectively. Furthermore, ZnO nanoflowers demonstrated the effective photocatalytic activities, and O vacancies and O interstitials were considered to be the active sites of the ZnO photocatalyst.

  15. Functional Analysis of the Two Brassica AP3 Genes Involved in Apetalous and Stamen Carpelloid Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuefang; Zhang, Wenxue; Yu, Fei; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Dianrong; Guo, Aiguang

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8...

  16. Dynamics of anthocyanin in aging of ipomea purpurea flowers treated by uv-b radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Анастасія Миколаївна Берестяна

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the anthocyanin content reduction in the course of aging of the Ipomoea purpureа petals, which characterizes the rate of the degradation processes in a cell, has been studied. The analysis included the impact of various UV-B radiation doses on the rate of anthocyanin age-related decomposition. The experiment proved that but one dose – 12.6 kJ/m2 contributed to the deceleration of the anthocyanin decomposition rate, within the range studied. The probable mechanisms that connect...

  17. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: Variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Del Valle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes and vegetative organs (leaves from 18 populations representing the species’ geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of

  18. Detection and Quantification of Rotenoids from Clitoria fairchildiana and its Lipids Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rauldenis A F; David, Jorge M; David, Juceni P

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the isolation and quantification of rotenoids from crude organic extracts of different parts of Clitoria fairchildiana R. A. Howard (Leguminosae) by HPLC-DAD. The lipid composition and the Artemia salina cytotoxic activities of the isolates were also conducted. Clitoriacetal (1), 6-deoxyclitoriacetal (2), stemonal and stemonone were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by usual spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. Clitoriacetal and 6-deoxyclitoriacetal were not found in all parts of the plant, such as leaves and petals, but in the roots they occur in higher concentration. The activity against brine shrimp revealed that the root extract (LD50 = 158 ppm) was the more active. PMID:27319136

  19. Dynamics of anthocyanin in aging of ipomea purpurea flowers treated by uv-b radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анастасія Миколаївна Берестяна

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the anthocyanin content reduction in the course of aging of the Ipomoea purpureа petals, which characterizes the rate of the degradation processes in a cell, has been studied. The analysis included the impact of various UV-B radiation doses on the rate of anthocyanin age-related decomposition. The experiment proved that but one dose – 12.6 kJ/m2 contributed to the deceleration of the anthocyanin decomposition rate, within the range studied. The probable mechanisms that connect ageing and pigment degradation are being discussed. 

  20. Quality assurance experience in the manufacture of PFBR reactor vessel during technology development work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient and proper implementation of quality assurance in the technology development works of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) main vessel was undertaken to achieve the desired quality and dimensional accuracy of main vessel. In this paper an attempt has been made to bring out the methods and procedures adopted to implement the quality assurance programme on important activities including approval of documents, material, general requirements for manufacture of SS components, inspection procedures, forming and welding of petals, non-destructive testing etc. (author)

  1. Modeling of Nonlinear Propagation in Multi-layer Biological Tissues for Strong Focused Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ting-Bo; LIU Zhen-Bo; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG DONG; GONG Xiu-Fen

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nonlinear propagation in multi-layered tissues for strong focused ultrasound is proposed. In this model, the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation in each layer tissue, and generalized oblique incidence theory is used to deal with the sound transmission between two layer tissues. Computer simulation is performed on a fat-muscle-liver tissue model under the irradiation of a 1 MHz focused transducer with a large aperture angle of 35°. The results demonstrate that the tissue layer would change the amplitude of sound pressure at the focal region and cause the increase of side petals.

  2. Excision of transposable elements from the chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes may contribute to the variegation of the yellow-flowered carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshio; Higeta, Daisuke; Suzuki, Akane; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2002-05-01

    In the "Rhapsody" cultivar of the carnation, which bears white flowers variegated with red flecks and sectors, a transposable element, dTdic1, belonging to the Ac/Ds superfamily, was found within the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene. The red flecks and sectors of "Rhapsody" may be attributable to a reversion to DFR activity after the excision of dTdic1. The yellow color of the carnation petals is attributed to the synthesis and accumulation of chalcone 2'-glucoside. In several of the carnation cultivars that bear yellow flowers variegated with white flecks and sectors, both the chalcone isomerase (CHI) and DFR genes are disrupted by dTdic1.

  3. Recovering vitrified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) shoots using Bacto-Peptone and its subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Hagimori, M; Iwai, S

    1993-05-01

    Vitrified shoots regenerated from carnation petals (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Scania) were recovered by culturing them in a medium containing 3.0 g/l Bacto-Peptone. Wax structures not found on vitrified shoots developed on the abaxial surface of leaves of recovered shoots and on those of normal leaves. Recovered shoots were rooted and successfully acclimatized while vitrified shoots could not survive the acclimatization process. The Bacto-Peptone solution was fractionated and the efficiency of each fraction for the recovery of vitrification was examined. Only basic, non high molecular fractions whose molecular weight was less than 10,000 were effective.

  4. Ambient Molecular Analysis of Biological Tissue Using Low-Energy, Femtosecond Laser Vaporization and Nanospray Postionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fengjian; Flanigan, Paul M.; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Direct analysis of plant and animal tissue samples by laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) was investigated using low-energy, femtosecond duration laser vaporization at wavelengths of 800 and 1042 nm followed by nanospray postionization. Low-energy (profile for the petal and leaf samples. Phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine, were identified from a fresh mouse brain section sample using Ti:Sapphire-LEMS without the application of matrix. These lipid features were suppressed in both the fiber-based and Ti:Sapphire-based LEMS measurements when the brain sample was prepared using the optimal cutting temperature compounds that are commonly used in animal tissue cryosections.

  5. Several New Aspects of the Foraging Behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an Apple Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutomu Maejima; Shogo Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski, which is a useful pollinator in apple orchards consisting of only one kind of commercial cultivars such as “Fuji”, and of different types of pollinizers, such as the red petal type, “Maypole” or “Makamik”. It was confirmed that, in terms of the number of foraging flowers per day, visiting flowers during low temperatures, strong wind, and reduced sunshine in an apple orchard, O. cornifrons were superior to honeybees. We in...

  6. Polyvinylpyrrolidone adsorption effects on the morphologies of synthesized platinum particles and its catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, Mahayatun Dayana Johan [Nano - Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Aziz, Azlan Abdul [Nano - Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Nanobiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), INFORMM, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Flower-like Platinum micro-structures were synthesized from different concentration of the PVP using solvothermal method. At 5.0×10{sup −3} mmol of PVP, well-defined flower-like pattern consists of triangular petals radiating from the centre were produced whereas larger flower network developed at higher PVP concentration. High degree of crystallinity was obtained upon each increment of PVP. The well defined flower like pattern synthesized using 5.0×10{sup −3} mmol PVP exhibit the highest catalytic activity and stability towards electro-oxidation of formic acid.

  7. Polyvinylpyrrolidone adsorption effects on the morphologies of synthesized platinum particles and its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Mahayatun Dayana Johan; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Flower-like Platinum micro-structures were synthesized from different concentration of the PVP using solvothermal method. At 5.0×10-3 mmol of PVP, well-defined flower-like pattern consists of triangular petals radiating from the centre were produced whereas larger flower network developed at higher PVP concentration. High degree of crystallinity was obtained upon each increment of PVP. The well defined flower like pattern synthesized using 5.0×10-3 mmol PVP exhibit the highest catalytic activity and stability towards electro-oxidation of formic acid.

  8. CERN is awarded environmental label

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Ophrys apifera, or bee orchid: the most widespread variety at our site. Anacamptis pyramidalis or pyramidal orchid: another common variety, with close to 2500 plants counted in 2005. This year, a Himantoglossum robertianum or giant orchid was spotted for the first time, an extremely rare specimen to find in our region. The monkey orchid, Orchis simia, gets its name from the bizarre shape of its labellum (this is actually the third petal, hanging down from the flower), which may remind you of a monkey. Himantoglossum hircinum, the lizard orchid, occurs periodically on the site. It has a rather strong odour, which is why in French it is called orchis bouc (goat orchid).

  9. A new species of Goniothalamus (Annonaceae from Palawan, and a new nomenclatural combination in the genus from Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Cheung Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Goniothalamus palawanensis C.C.Tang & R.M.K.Saunders, sp. nov. (Annonaceae, is described from Palawan, Philippines. Goniothalamus palawanensis is most closely related to G. amuyon (Blanco Merr., but differs in its shorter inner petals, hairy ovaries, and funnel-shaped stigmas. A new nomenclatural combination, G.angustifolius (A.C.Sm. B.Xue & R.M.K.Saunders, comb. nov., is furthermore validated to reflect the phylogenetic affinities of a Fijian species previously assigned to Polyalthia.

  10. Pollinator-mediated selection on nectary depth in Urophysa (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been considered to be one of major factors that shapes the evolution of flowers by matching flowers to their pollinators on traits associated with attraction of pollinators or mechanical fit. The match between nectary depth, which means the length of the tubular structure formed in many plant species to hide the nectary and store nectar, and the mouthparts length of its major nectar-foraging pollinators has been repeatedly demonstrated as an example, because this trait have shown a positive relationship with pollen removal and deposition in experimental manipulations in many synpetalous plants and orchid family. However, it remains unclear how pollinator-mediated selection affects the evolution of nectary depth in choripetalous and actinomorphic flowers, such as most flowers in Ranunculaceae. Here we investigated floral characteristics and pollinators in Urophysa rockii Ulbr. and U. henryi (Oliv. Ulbr., as they are quite the same in habitat, anthesis and morphological characteristics except for nectary depth. Both of these species have flat white sepals and yellow petals each has a spatial structure at the base that contains nectar, but the nectary depth of U. rockii is deeper than that of U. henryi, for the former petals are shortly spurred about 3-4mm in length while the latter are saccate. Meanwhile, the flowers of both species are most frequently visited by Apis cerana, the Chinese honey bee, and one or two species of hover fly, Syrphidae, but only A. cerana was able to forage nectar in U. rockii while all visitors can forage nectar in U. henryi. A. cerana always lands on the center of a flower and projects its proboscis into each petal when its thorax touches anthers and stigmas. The difference between two species is that U. rockii was visited by A. cerana with a higher frequency, longer visiting time per flower and more activities on flowers than U. henryi. Besides, the petal width and its nectary depth of

  11. 'Who's who' in two different flower types of Calluna vulgaris (Ericaceae: morphological and molecular analyses of flower organ identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Katja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ornamental crop Calluna vulgaris is of increasing importance to the horticultural industry in the northern hemisphere due to a flower organ mutation: the flowers of the 'bud-flowering' phenotype remain closed i.e. as buds throughout the total flowering period and thereby maintain more colorful flowers for a longer period of time than the wild-type. This feature is accompanied and presumably caused by the complete lack of stamens. Descriptions of this botanical particularity are inconsistent and partially conflicting. In order to clarify basic questions of flower organ identity in general and stamen loss in detail, a study of the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' flower type of C. vulgaris was initiated. Results Flowers were examined by macro- and microscopic techniques. Organ development was investigated comparatively in both the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' type by histological analyses. Analysis of epidermal cell surface structure of vegetative tissues and perianth organs using scanning electron microscopy revealed that in wild-type flowers the outer whorls of colored organs may be identified as sepals, while the inner ones may be identified as petals. In the 'bud-flowering' type, two whorls of sepals are directly followed by the gynoecium. Both, petals and stamens, are completely missing in this flower type. The uppermost whorl of green leaves represents bracts in both flower types. In addition, two MADS-box genes (homologs of AP3/DEF and SEP1/2 were identified in C. vulgaris using RACE-PCR. Expression analysis by qRT-PCR was conducted for both genes in leaves, bracts, sepals and petals. These experiments revealed an expression pattern supporting the organ classification based on morphological characteristics. Conclusions Organ identity in both wild-type and 'bud-flowering' C. vulgaris was clarified using a combination of microscopic and molecular methods. Our results for bract, sepal and petal organ identity are

  12. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  13. Two steps in situ structure fabrication of Ni-Al layered double hydroxide on Ni foam and its electrochemical performance for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Qi; Qian, Zhongyu; Zhang, Xiaofei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhanshuang; Yan, Huijun; Gao, Zan; Zhao, Fangbo; Liu, Lianhe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two steps in situ growth method has been used to solve the accumulation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) in oriented growth. Moreover, the petal-like Ni-Al LDH displays excellent pseudocapacitance performance: a specific capacitance of 795 F g-1, a long cycle life with 80% performance remains after 1000 cycles and good charge/discharge stability, owing to the improvement of pseudocapacitive reaction by the large sheet structure of Ni-Al LDH on Ni foam. And the comparison results of different electrode preparation process and different growth process reflect the great advantages of our synthesis method.

  14. 基于 SMA 驱动结构的花型机器人设计%Design of SMA actuator of stem structure for flower robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 舒鸫鹏; 罗应娜

    2015-01-01

    The flower robot,a household service robot,has been main focus of our research.Generally,the flow-er robot has the appearance of a common flower which consists of the petal,the stem,and the leafage.Besides having the appearance of a flower,the flower robot has the following functions,such as a moving mechanism,a sensing ability,and a home appliance function.Especially,the moving function is very important function among the various functions.The moving function of flower robot consists of the bending of stem,the blooming of petal and the stirring of the leafage.This paper,focuses on the movement of the flower robot structure.As an actuator for flower structure,coil type Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)is adopted and silicone stem,petal and leafage struc-tures with 6 coil type SMA are proposed.Firstly,using SMA actuator,the flower structure are designed and fabri-cated.Secondly,the kinematic equation such as stem,petal and leafage are derived.Then,through the kinemat-ic equation the control system can be designed to drive the flower robot by Dspace.Finally,through the experi-ment,the feasibility of the system is proven,and its performances are evaluated.%以一种花型的家用服务性机器人的结构运动为研究对象,用硅胶作为花的根部材料,并在其中采用弹簧式的记忆合金作为驱动器,以线圈式 SMA 作为花瓣和叶子的驱动。采用SMA 驱动器,设计并制造了花型机器人构造;通过得到根部、花瓣和叶子的运动方程,由dSPACE 系统设计和控制驱动了花型机器人。通过实验证明了该系统具有可行性。

  15. Silicon strip prototypes for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS tracker for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Diez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector proposed for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In this proposed detector Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper presents performance results from the latest prototype stave built at Berkeley. This new, double-sided prototype is composed of a specialized core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. A detailed description of the prototype and its electrical performance are discussed in detail.

  16. [Differentiation of haploid and diploid rape plants at the cytological and morphological levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, A I

    2013-01-01

    Some cytological and morphological characteristics of haploid and dihaploid plants of winter rape obtained via anther culture were studied. It was shown that in haploid plants the number of chloroplasts in stomata guard cells and the size of the stomata guard cells themselves were much smaller, and the number of stomata per unit area was greater than in doubled haploids and diploids. Haploids were also characterized by a smaller size of petals and anthers, and in general, a smaller flower compared to dihaploids and diploids. PMID:23745361

  17. Form Some Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hey! The flowerpot (花盆) is a puzzle. You can see some English capital letters on the petals (花瓣) and on the flowerpot. Er! If you count, there are ten English capital letters. Some are the same. They are A, I, U, Rs, Es, Ts and L. After enjoying the pic- ture, finish a task. Please form words as many as you can. The rules are: Letters can only be used once for each time. Plurals, proper names (专有名词) do not count. OK! Start your work at once, please. Have fun!

  18. Paepalanthus rectifolius, a new name in Eriocaulaceae (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Echternacht

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Syngonanthus weddellii var. gracilis Moldenke (1973 was described very briefly based on a single collection. A careful analysis reveals that this variety has dimerous flowers, free petals of the pistillate flower and bifid stigmatic branches. It is therefore misplaced in Syngonanthus Ruhland (1900. We transfer it to Paepalanthus Mart. (1834 at the species level, as it is distinct from morphologically similar species: Paepalanthus flaccidus (Bong. Koern. (1863, Paepalanthus trichophyllus (Bong. Koern. (1863, and Paepalanthus strictus Koern. (1863. The epithet gracilis is no longer available, hence, we have coined the name Paepalanthus rectifolius. We also provide a full description, illustrations, a distribution map, and pertinent comments.

  19. Phaeohelotium undulatum comb. nov. and Phaeoh. succineoguttulatum sp.nov., two segregates of the Discinella terrestris aggregate found under Eucalyptus in Spain:taxonomy, molecular biology, ecology and distribution%西班牙桉树林下土小平盘菌复合群中两个独立的种——暗柔膜菌属一新组合及一新种:分类、分子生物学、生态与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans-Otto BARAL; Ricardo GAL(A)N; Gonzalo PLATAS; Raúl TENA

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinodiscus is a synonym of Chloroscypha,and some species currently placed in Bisporella are better assigned to Calycina.Hence,we propose the following new combinations:Calycina claroflava,C drosodes,C.lactea,C.languida,C.scolochloae,and C subcitrina,Cyathicula amenti,Chloroscypha flavida,Phaeohelotium fulvidulum and Phaeoh.tamaricis.A restudy of type material of the D.terrestris aggregate,comprising the five Australasian taxa Helotium terrestre,Phaeopezia ochracea,Aleurina readeri,Pseudohelotium undulatum,and Discinella confusa,shows that four of them differ from those two species recorded from Spain in possessing croziers at the ascus base,besides showing a certain tendency to narrower asci and ascospores.Only Ps.undulatum from Tasmania was found to have simple-septate asci and is here tentatively considered conspecific with that Spanish species having a yellow disc.Aleurina readeri from Victoria deviates by consistently inamyloid asci.For the latter two taxa new combinations in Phaeohelotium are here proposed.The earlier asserted synonymy of Phaeopezia ochracea from Tasmania with the older H.terrestre from Queensland is confirmed,though the spores of the former are slightly longer and narrower.In order to avoid a homonym,a new name Phaeohelotium baileyanum is here proposed for H.terrestre.Discinella confusa from New Zealand differs only insignificantly from Phaeoh.baileyanum in a pale bluing around the strongly amyloid apical ring and in slightly narrower asci and slightly smaller spores.However,specimens here assigned to Phaeoh.baileyanum partly also showed such pale bluing.Although the two taxa are not clearly separable,the combination Phaeohelotium confusum is here proposed,based mainly on a different host and geographical distribution,also because of the consistent absence of brown spores.The D.terrestris aggregate shows a rather dense distribution in the forests along the southeast and southwest coast of Australia,and throughout Tasmania and New Zealand.A connection

  20. A new species of Aeschynomene (Papilionoideae: Dalbergieae from Oaxaca, Mexico Una especie nueva de Aeschynomene (Papilionoideae: Dalbergieae de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Delgado-Salinas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeschynomene sousae Rudd ex A. Delgado et Sotuyo is described from southern Oaxaca, Mexico, where it is likely endemic to the northeast mountains of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. It is a member of series Scopariae of subgenus Ochopodium, and morphologically similar to A. nicaraguensis from which it differs mainly in having ovate to lanceolate, larger bracteoles, bright yellow flowers with a reddish arched, insect guide-mark on the interior face of the standard petal, in the fusion of the 2 wing petals along part of their upper margins and also fruits bearing 1 to 2 seeds.Se describe la especie Aeschynomene sousae Rudd ex A. Delgado et Sotuyo del sur de Oaxaca, México, que parece ser endémica de las montañas al noreste del Istmo de Tehuantepec. Es miembro de la serie Scopariae del subgénero Ochopodium y morfológicamente similar a A. nicaraguensis, de la cual principalmente se diferencia por tener bractéolas ovado-lanceoladas y más largas, flores amarillo brillantes, con un arco rojizo en la cara interior del estandarte, en la fusión parcial de las alas por el margen superior y también por contar con frutos de 1 a 2 semillas.

  1. A comparison study of mass-area ratio for large size x-ray telescope optics in pore and very thin glass sheets configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, S.

    2006-06-01

    Dealing with very large size optics for the next generation of X-ray telescopes, like XEUS or ConX/SXT, it's necessary to build segmented mirrors which are assembled in petals because it's impossible to realize them in a monolithic form. The shape of these petals can be square or circular. The main problem is that such optics must have a very low weight compared to past X-ray telescopes, but assuring optimal imaging capabilities. In this paper I compare two different techniques that can achieve this so low weight. One is known as High Precision pore Optics (HPO) and the other one is based on a more classical shaped segments, assembled together, but built with very thin (in the 100-300 μm range) glass sheets that are stiffened with ribs. In this study, the main geometrical differences between the two approaches assumed, is that the first one has a pore size that doesn't change along the optics radius while the second one is based on a constant length. The main purpose of this study is to understand when one concept can be better than the other, depending on a given set of parameters, such as the focal length of the telescope, the filling factor of optic, the thickness of the walls, the radius of the segment, etc. The final goal is to achieve the best optimization of the mass to area ratio.

  2. CMS tracker observes muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A computer image of a cosmic ray traversing the many layers of the TEC+ silicon sensors. The first cosmic muon tracks have been observed in one of the CMS tracker endcaps. On 14 March, a sector on one of the two large tracker endcaps underwent a cosmic muon run. Since then, thousands of tracks have been recorded. These data will be used not only to study the tracking, but also to exercise various track alignment algorithms The endcap tested, called the TEC+, is under construction at RWTH Aachen in Germany. The endcaps have a modular design, with silicon strip modules mounted onto wedge-shaped carbon fibre support plates, so-called petals. Up to 28 modules are arranged in radial rings on both sides of these plates. One eighth of an endcap is populated with 18 petals and called a sector. The next major step is a test of the first sector at CMS operating conditions, with the silicon modules at a temperature below -10°C. Afterwards, the remaining seven sectors have to be integrated. In autumn 2006, TEC+ wil...

  3. Hybrid inflorescences derived from gamma-fusion of Arabidopsis thaliana with Bupleurum scorzonerifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minqin; Peng, Zhenying; Hong, Sheng; Zhi, Daying; Xia, Guangmin

    2012-01-01

    In our early experiments, a variety of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium-like somatic hybrid plants were obtained from protoplast fusion between Arabidopsis thaliana and UV-treated/untreated B. scorzonerifolium. To compare the effects of UV and γ-ray irradiation on the B. scorzonerifolium partner and obtain Arabidopsis-like hybrids, we designed a novel combination of somatic hybridization between A. thaliana and B. scorzonerifolium. Before protoplast isolation and fusion, the suspension cells of B. scorzonerifolium were irradiated by gamma ray ((60)Co, 50 Gy with 1.3 Gy min(-1)). Both parental protoplasts lost regeneration capacity, but over 100 somatic hybrids restored the capacity and developed to Arabidopsis-like inflorescences and flowers with some characteristics of B. scorzonerifolium. Some hybrid flowers showed yellow sepal, petal, or carpel, whose color was similar to the petal of B. scorzonerifolium; the others had silique of Arabidopsis with angularity of B. scorzonerifolium, and their parts possessed five stamens, the same as B. scorzonerifolium. Cytological analysis showed that three hybrids had Arabidopsis-like karyotypes. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) profiles revealed that both parental fragments were amplified from these hybrids. These results indicated chromatin introgression from B. scorzonerifolium to A. thaliana, which may be related to the complementation of hybrid inflorescence and flower generation. PMID:21484475

  4. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Yield and Phytoremediation Performance of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) Under Heavy Metals Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Leila; Mohammadi, Siavash; Delshad, Mojtaba; Moteshare Zadeh, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of mycorrhizal fungi (inoculated and non-inoculated) and heavy metals stress [0, Pb (150 and 300 mg/kg) and Cd (40 and 80 mg/kg)] on pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in Research Greenhouse of Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran, during 2012-2013. Plant height, herbal and flower fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root volume, colonization percentage, total petal extract, total petal flavonoids, root and shoot P and K uptakes, and Pb and Cd accumulations in root and shoot were measured. Results indicated that with increasing soil Pb and Cd concentration, growth and yield of pot marigold was reduced significantly; Cd had greater negative impacts than Pb. However, mycorrhizal fungi alleviated these impacts by improving plant growth and yield. Pot marigold concentrated high amounts of Pb and especially Cd in its roots and shoots; mycorrhizal plants had a greater accumulation of these metals, so that those under 80 mg/kg Cd soil(-1) accumulated 833.3 and 1585.8 mg Cd in their shoots and roots, respectively. In conclusion, mycorrhizal fungi can improve not only growth and yield of pot marigold in heavy metal stressed condition, but also phytoremediation performance by increasing heavy metals accumulation in the plant organs. PMID:26237494

  5. Hose in Hose, an S locus-linked mutant of Primula vulgaris, is caused by an unstable mutation at the Globosa locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhong; Dudas, Brigitta; Webster, Margaret A; Cook, Holly E; Davies, Brendan H; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2010-03-23

    Hose in Hose mutants of primrose and cowslip have been cultivated since the early 17th century and show dominant homeotic conversion of sepals to petals. The phenotype shows variable penetrance and expressivity and is linked to the S locus, which controls floral heteromorphy in Primula species. Here we demonstrate that the homeotic conversion of sepals to petals in Hose in Hose is associated with up-regulation of both Primula B-function MADS box genes PvDef and PvGlo in the first floral whorl. We have defined a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with PvGlo that cosegregates with the Hose in Hose phenotype and have also identified and characterized a retrotransposon insertion in the PvGlo promoter which is associated with the up-regulated expression of PvGlo. Excision of this retrotransposon, associated with epigenetic changes at the locus, causes reversion toward normal calyces and restores wild-type flower development. These data define the molecular basis of the Hose in Hose mutation and provide an explanation for its long-documented phenotypic instability.

  6. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien-Ming; Yu, Fang-Yi; Yu, Pei-Ling; Ho, Jia-Fang; Bostock, Richard M; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lee, Miin-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS). The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus-M. fructicola interactions. PMID:26120831

  7. Error Budgeting and Tolerancing of Starshades for Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Noecker, M. Charley; Glassman, Tiffany; Lo, Amy S.; Dumont, Philip J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cady, Eric J.; Vanderbei, Robert; Lawson, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    A flower-like starshade positioned between a star and a space telescope is an attractive option for blocking the starlight to reveal the faint reflected light of an orbiting Earth-like planet. Planet light passes around the petals and directly enters the telescope where it is seen along with a background of scattered light due to starshade imperfections. We list the major perturbations that are expected to impact the performance of a starshade system and show that independent models at NGAS and JPL yield nearly identical optical sensitivities. We give the major sensitivities in the image plane for a design consisting of a 34-m diameter starshade, and a 2-m diameter telescope separated by 39,000 km, operating between 0.25 and 0.55 um. These sensitivities include individual petal and global shape terms evaluated at the inner working angle. Following a discussion of the combination of individual perturbation terms, we then present an error budget that is consistent with detection of an Earth-like planet 26 magnitudes fainter than its host star.

  8. Starshade Design for Occulter Based Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark W.; Lisman, P. Douglas; Helms, Richard; Walkemeyer, Phil; Kissil, Andrew; Polanco, Otto; Lee, Siu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    We present a lightweight starshade design that delivers the requisite profile figure accuracy with a compact stowed volume that permits launching both the occulter system (starshade and spacecraft) and a 1 to 2m-class telescope system on a single existing launch vehicle. Optimal figure stability is achieved with a very stiff and mass-efficient deployable structure design that has a novel configuration. The reference design is matched to a 1.1m telescope and consists of a 15m diameter inner disc and 24 flower-like petals with 7.5m length. The total tip-to-tip diameter of 30m provides an inner working angle of 75 mas. The design is scalable to accommodate larger telescopes and several options have been assessed. A proof of concept petal is now in production at JPL for deployment demonstrations and as a testbed for developing additional elements of the design. Future plans include developing breadboard and prototype hardware of increasing fidelity for use in demonstrating critical performance capabilities such as deployed optical edge profile figure tolerances and stability thereof.

  9. Cloning and analysis of expression patterns and transcriptional regulation of RghBNG in response to plant growth regulators and abiotic stresses in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqing; Zhang, Yonghua; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jingyun; Wang, Wanshen; Duan, Hongying; Chen, Juanjuan

    2015-01-01

    RghBNG, a gene of unknown function, was cloned from Rehmannia glutinosa by reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of RghBNG was 548 bp with a282-bp open reading frame. It encoded a polypeptide of 93 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 10.5 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 9.25. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that RghBNG had no homology to any known plant genes, whereas the RghBNG polypeptide was highly similar to other plant proteins and possessed one conserved B12D protein family functional domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RghBNG encoded for a dicot protein. RghBNG spatial and temporal expression patterns and responses to abiotic stresses and plant growth regulators were investigated by qRT-PCR. RghBNG transcripts were detected in roots, stems, leaves, petals, receptacles, stamens and pistils with the highest and lowest levels respectively observed in petals and leaves of mature plants. Additionally, RghBNG transcripts were detected at three developmental stages of roots, stems and leaves; the highest levels were observed in roots at seedling stage; Transcript levels changed to varying degrees in different tissues and stages; We also studied the effects of abiotic stress and plant growth regulators in roots and leaves. RghBNG expression was significantly increased (p plant growth regulators and abiotic stresses.

  10. Several New Aspects of the Foraging Behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an Apple Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski, which is a useful pollinator in apple orchards consisting of only one kind of commercial cultivars such as “Fuji”, and of different types of pollinizers, such as the red petal type, “Maypole” or “Makamik”. It was confirmed that, in terms of the number of foraging flowers per day, visiting flowers during low temperatures, strong wind, and reduced sunshine in an apple orchard, O. cornifrons were superior to honeybees. We indicated that O. cornifrons seemed to use both petals and anthers as foraging indicator, and that not only female, but also males contributed to apple pollination and fertilization by the pollen grains attached to them from visiting flowers, including those at the balloon stage. It was confirmed that O. cornifrons acts as a useful pollinator in an apple orchard consisting of one kind of cultivar with pollinizers planted not more than 10 m from commercial cultivars.

  11. Floral anatomy of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae: comparing flower organization and vascular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the tribe Delphinieae have dorsoventralized flowers; their pentamerous calyx and reduced corolla are dorsally spurred and inner spurs are nectariferous. Based on this common floral scheme, Delphinieae species exhibit a wide diversity of floral structures and morphologies. We present here the first investigation of the floral anatomy in Delphinieae. The organization of the floral vascular system has been studied in species representative of the floral morphological diversity of Delphinieae: Aconitum lasiocarpum, Delphinium elatum, and Consolida regalis. The three species show a similar vascularization of the calyx and of the reproductive organs, but exhibit distinct anatomical features in the corolla where the nectaries are borne. The sepals and the stamens have a trilacunar three-traced and a unilacunar one-traced vascularization, respectively. Three free carpels in D. elatum and A. lasiocarpum are basically supplied by six vascular bundles – three independent dorsal bundles and three fused lateral bundles. In C. regalis the single carpel is supplied by three independent vascular bundles (one dorsal and two ventral. Staminodes are not vascularized. The basic type of petal vascularization is unilacunar one-traced, but in the case of C. regalis the derived bilacunar two-traced type has been observed. This latter state arose as a result of the fusion of the two dorsal petal primordia. The results of this first comparative study of the floral anatomy of Delphinieae are discussed with the recent phylogenetic, morphological, and evo-devo findings concerning the tribe.

  12. A Novel Single-Excitation Capacitive Angular Position Sensor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Zhou, Bin; Song, Mingliang; Lin, Zhihui; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high-precision capacitive angular position sensor (CAPS). The CAPS is designed to be excited by a single voltage to eliminate the matching errors of multi-excitations, and it is mainly composed of excitation electrodes, coupling electrodes, petal-form sensitive electrodes and a set of collection electrodes. A sinusoidal voltage is applied on the excitation electrodes, then the voltage couples to the coupling electrodes and sensitive electrodes without contact. The sensitive electrodes together with the set of collection electrodes encode the angular position to amplitude-modulated signals, and in order to increase the scale factor, the sensitive electrodes are patterned in the shape of petal-form sinusoidal circles. By utilizing a resolver demodulation method, the amplitude-modulated signals are digitally decoded to get the angular position. A prototype of the CAPS is fabricated and tested. The measurement results show that the accuracy of the sensor is 0.0036°, the resolution is 0.0009° and the nonlinearity over the full range is 0.008° (after compensation), indicating that the CAPS has great potential to be applied in high-precision applications with a low cost. PMID:27483278

  13. Cloning of two individual cDNAS encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase from Gentiana lutea, their tissue-specific expression and physiological effect in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Kauder, Friedrich; Römer, Susanne; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) cDNAs have been cloned from a petal library of Gentiana lutea. Both cDNAs carry a putative transit sequence for chloroplast import and differ mainly in their length and the 5'-flanking regions. GlNCED1 was evolutionary closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana NCED6 whereas GlNCED2 showed highest homology to tomato NCED1 and A. thaliana NCED3. The amounts of GlNCED2 transcript were below Northern detection in G. lutea. In contrast, GlNCED1 was specifically expressed at higher levels in developing flowers when petals start appearing. By genetic engineering of tobacco with coding regions of either gene under a constitutive promoter, their function was further analyzed. Although mRNA of both genes was detectable in the corresponding transgenic plants, a physiological effect was only found for GlNCED1 but not for GlNCED2. In germination experiments of GlNCED1 transgenic lines, delayed radicle formation and cotyledon appearance were observed. However, the transformants exhibited no improved tolerance against desiccation stress. In contrast to other plants with over-expressed NCEDs, prolonged delay of seed germination is the only abscisic-acid-related phenotypic effect in the GlNCED1 transgenic lines. PMID:16618520

  14. Antimicrobial Activities of Three Medicinal Plants and Investigation of Flavonoids of Tripleurospermum disciforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Zahra; Molazem, Maryam; Doostdar, Behnaz; Taban, Parisa; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Yassa, Narguess

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena, Tripleurospermum disciforme and Securigera securidaca were used as disinfectant agents and for treatment of some disease in folk medicine of Iran. The antimicrobial effects of different fractions of seeds extract of S. securidaca, petals extract of R. damascena and aerial parts extract of T. disciforme were examined against some gram positive, gram negative and fungi by cup plate diffusion method. The petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of S. securidaca showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while its methanol fraction had no antibacterial effects. R. damascena petals extract demonstrated antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. T. disciforme aerial parts extract exhibited antimicrobial effects only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. None of the fractions had any antifungal activities. Therefore, present study confirmed utility of these plants as disinfectant agents. Six flavonoids were isolated from T. disciforme: Luteolin, Quercetin-7-O-glucoside, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, Apigenin and Apigenin-7-O-glucoside. The flavonoids and the antimicrobial activity of T. disciforme are reported for the first time. PMID:25561928

  15. RNAi-induced silencing in floral tissues of Petunia hybrida by agroinfiltration: a rapid assay for chalcone isomerase gene function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keykha, F; Bagheri, A; Moshtaghi, N; Bahrami, A R; Sharifi, A

    2016-01-01

    Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on Petunia (Petunia hybrida) as an ornamental plant. Variegated plants are of highly valuable in the floricultural market. Agroinfiltration is an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay for the analysis of gene function and genetic modification in leaves, flowers and fruit tissues of various plants. Transient RNAi-induced silencing by agroinfiltration has been developed in leaves and fruits of several plant species. Here we report the establishment of a transient hairpin RNAi-induced silencing system for color modification assay in floral tissues of Petunia with different colors. chiRNAi construct was cloned into the pBI121 vector under the control of 35S promoter. Transient RNA silencing of chi in the floral tissues of Petunia was induced by delivering 530 bp chi hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs) into the petals of flowers using agroinfiltration. Impaired anthocyanin accumulation and reduction of endogenous mRNAs of the corresponding targets were observed in the infiltrated areas of the petals of four colors of Petunia. Silencing of the endogenous chi mRNAs was highly effective in reduction of chi gene and anthocyanin accumulation. This transient silencing system is a prototype for modification of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Petunia through chi gene suppression. PMID:27609470

  16. Endogenous post-transcriptional gene silencing of flavone synthase resulting in high accumulation of anthocyanins in black dahlia cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Ayumi; Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2013-05-01

    Black color in flowers is a highly attractive trait in the floricultural industry, but its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study was performed to identify the bases of the high accumulation of anthocyanidins in black cultivars and to determine whether the high accumulation of total anthocyanidins alone leads to the black appearance. Our approach was to compare black dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) cultivars with purple cultivars and a purple flowering mutant of a black cultivar, using pigment and molecular analyses. Black cultivars characteristically exhibited low lightness, high petal accumulation of cyanidin and total anthocyanidins without flavones, and marked suppression of flavone synthase (DvFNS) expression. A comparative study using black and purple cultivars revealed that neither the absence of flavones nor high accumulation of total anthocyanidins is solely sufficient for black appearance, but that cyanidin content in petals is also an important factor in the phenotype. A study comparing the black cultivar 'Kokucho' and its purple mutant showed that suppression of DvFNS abolishes the competition between anthocyanidin and flavone synthesis and leads to accumulation of cyanidin and total anthocyanidins that produce a black appearance. Surprisingly, in black cultivars the suppression of DvFNS occurred in a post-transcriptional manner, as determined by small RNA mapping. PMID:23389674

  17. Fabrication of a flower-like Pd/CeO2 material with improved three-way catalytic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展宗城; 刘晓军; 何洪; 宋丽云; 李金洲; 马东祝

    2013-01-01

    Pd/CeO2 catalysts with flower-like morphology were fabricated via an ultrasonic-assisted membrane reduction (UAMR) and hydrothermal methods. The catalysts were physically characterized and evaluated for three-way catalytic activities versus tradi-tional Pd/CeO2 catalysts. Flower-like Pd/CeO2 catalysts exhibited a higher catalytic performance and better thermal stability than the Pd/CeO2 prepared by conventional impregnation. The flower-like Pd/CeO2 catalysts were constructed from 20-50 nm thick nanosheet petals. These petals were in turn constructed from 10 nm CeO2 nanoparticles that self-assembled into the flower-like morphology re-sulting in abundant pores in all directions. The Pd nanoparticles were anchored and dispersed on both the interior and surface of the pores and had minimal sintering. When these catalysts were aged, the structure and morphology of the catalysts remained unchanged with important industrial implications for this new type of material including improved catalytic performance and high thermal stabil-ity. Regardless of the Pd loading, both the fresh and aged Pd/CeO2 catalysts prepared by the UAMR-hydrothermal method exhibited better performance than the corresponding samples prepared by conventional impregnation means.

  18. Tuning 3D topography on biomimetic surface for efficient self-cleaning and microfluidic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, micro-/nanotopography on polymeric replica is generally limited to 2D when a mechanical demolding approach is applied. In this work, one-step replication of bio-inspired 3D topography is achieved using microinjection compression molding with novel dual-layer molds. Using a proposed flexible template, the replica topography and wettability are highly tunable during molding. Moreover, dual-scale topography on the mold is developed by coating the micropatterned insert with submicron silica particles. Contact angle and roll-off angle measurements indicate the lotus leaf, rose petal and rice leaf effects on biomimetic surfaces. Among the three kinds of surfaces, the petal-inspired surface possesses the superior performance in self-cleaning submicron contaminants and mechanical robustness, which is highly correlated to the low roughness-induced adhesive superhydrophobicity and the absence of fragile submicron-/nanostructure, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-layer mold structure is proposed for fabricating the open microfluidic devices. The embedment of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica particles in the microstructured open channel and the hydrophobic silica particles in the background area during replication renders the wettability contrast sharp, realizing the self-driven flow of microfluid confined within the open microchannel. (paper)

  19. First cosmic rays seen in the CMS Tracker Endcap

    CERN Multimedia

    Lutz Feld, RWTH Aachen

    2006-01-01

    On March 14, 2006, first cosmic muon tracks have been measured in the Tracker EndCap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker. The end caps have silicon strip modules mounted onto wedge-shaped carbon fiber support plates called petals. Up to 28 modules are arranged in radial rings on both sides of these plates. One eighth of an end cap (called sector) is populated with 18 petals. The TEC+ endcap is currently being integrated at RWTH Aachen. 400 silicon modules with a total of 241664 channels, corresponding to one eighth of the endcap, are read-out simultaneously by final power supply and DAQ components. On the left is the TEC+ in Aachen, whilst on the right is a computer image of a cosmic ray traversing the many layers of silicon sensors. To understand the response to real particles, basic functionality testing was followed by a cosmic muon run. A total of 400 silicon strip modules are read out with a channel inefficiency of below 1% and a common mode noise of only 25% of the intrinsic noise.

  20. Flower color alteration in Lotus japonicus by modification of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sakae; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Misawa, Norihiko; Ogiwara, Isao; Yamamura, Saburo

    2007-07-01

    To establish a model system for alteration of flower color by carotenoid pigments, we modified the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of Lotus japonicus using overexpression of the crtW gene isolated from marine bacteria Agrobacterium aurantiacum and encoding beta-carotene ketolase (4,4'-beta-oxygenase) for the production of pink to red color ketocarotenoids. The crtW gene with the transit peptide sequence of the pea Rubisco small subunit under the regulation of the CaMV35S promoter was introduced to L. japonicus. In most of the resulting transgenic plants, the color of flower petals changed from original light yellow to deep yellow or orange while otherwise exhibiting normal phenotype. HPLC and TLC analyses revealed that leaves and flower petals of these plants accumulated novel carotenoids, believed to be ketocarotenoids consisting of including astaxanthin, adonixanthin, canthaxanthin and echinenone. Results indicated that modification of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is a means of altering flower color in ornamental crops. PMID:17265153

  1. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chou

    Full Text Available Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS. The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus-M. fructicola interactions.

  2. Development of blue rose; Aoi bara wa sakuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshida, K.

    1998-06-01

    Precise crystalline structures of pigments in petals have been elucidated by structural analysis of the blue pigment in Commelinaceae petals using X-ray analysis. It is found that the Mg ion is coordinated with the oxygen atom on the B-nucleus in the base nucleus of delphinidin (belonging to anthocyanidine, a pigment obtained by separating sugar from anthocyanin by hydrolysis) to develop a blue color, and that the complex is a stable supermolecule in which 6 pigment molecules are associated regularly with 6 flavone molecules. The similar mechanisms are responsible for development of blue color for flowers, and widely occurring in nature. Biosynthesis of anthocyanin, beginning with phenylalanine, undergoes virtually common processes; cyclization of the flavonoide skeleton, reduction to the anthocyanidine nucleus, hydroxylation of the B-nucleus in the base nucleus and glycoside formation at the 3-site. It will be possible to shift rose color to blue, if anthocyanin belonging to anthocyanidine could be bio-synthesized by introducing the gene of enzyme for 3`, 5`-hydroxylation on the base nucleus, which the rose lacks. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  3. cDNA cloning and expression analyses of phytoene synthase 1, phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes from Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaya Supathaweewat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the cloning of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs encoding the enzymes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis,namely phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS and -carotene desaturase (ZDS, respectively, from high-lycopene tomato cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003. DNA sequence analyses showed that the complete openreading frames of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs were 1,239, 1,752 and 1,767 base pairs in length and encoded proteins of 412,583 and 588 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and the conserved domain analyses suggest that PSY1, PDS and ZDSfrom S. lycopersicum KKU-T34003 potentially have similar structures and biological functions to the corresponding proteinsfrom other plants. Gene expression studies showed that Psy1 was expressed only in the petal and the breaker fruit, whereasthe expressions of Pds and Zds were observed in the petal, the breaker fruit and the leaf. The highest expression level for allgenes was detected in the breaker-stage fruit, suggesting that carotenoid accumulation was developmentally regulated inthe chromoplast-containing tissues.

  4. Reproductive resource partitioning in two sympatric Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) from Borneo: floral biology, pollinator trapping and plant breeding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun-Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23–25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families. Analysis of floral scents revealed three volatiles (3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 2-phenylethanol) that are known to be nitidulid attractants in the floral scent of G. suaveolens, but absent from that of G. tapisoides. An effective pollinator trapping mechanism is demonstrated for both species, representing the first such report for the family. Trapping is achieved by the compression of the outer petals against the apertures between the inner petals. This trapping mechanism is likely to be a key evolutionary innovation for Goniothalamus, increasing pollination efficiency by increasing pollen loading on beetles during the staminate phase, promoting effective interfloral pollinator movements, and increasing seed-set by enabling rapid turn-over of flowers. PMID:27767040

  5. Characterization of a novel lipoxygenase-independent senescence mechanism in Alstroemeria peruviana floral tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverentz, Michael K; Wagstaff, Carol; Rogers, Hilary J; Stead, Anthony D; Chanasut, Usawadee; Silkowski, Helena; Thomas, Brian; Weichert, Heiko; Feussner, Ivo; Griffiths, Gareth

    2002-09-01

    The role of lipoxygenase (lox) in senescence of Alstroemeria peruviana flowers was investigated using a combination of in vitro assays and chemical profiling of the lipid oxidation products generated. Phospholipids and galactolipids were extensively degraded during senescence in both sepals and petals and the ratio of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids increased. Lox protein levels and enzymatic activity declined markedly after flower opening. Stereochemical analysis of lox products showed that 13-lox was the major activity present in both floral tissues and high levels of 13-keto fatty acids were also synthesized. Lipid hydroperoxides accumulated in sepals, but not in petals, and sepals also had a higher chlorophyll to carotenoid ratio that favors photooxidation of lipids. Loss of membrane semipermeability was coincident for both tissue types and was chronologically separated from lox activity that had declined by over 80% at the onset of electrolyte leakage. Thus, loss of membrane function was not related to lox activity or accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides per se and differs in these respects from other ethylene-insensitive floral tissues representing a novel pattern of flower senescence. PMID:12226507

  6. Extraordinarily High Conductivity of Stretchable Fibers of Polyurethane and Silver Nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rujun; Kang, Byeongguk; Cho, Suik; Choi, Minjun; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-11-24

    Stretchable conductive composites have received considerable attention recently, and they should have high conductivity and mechanical strength. Here we report highly conductive stretchable fibers synthesized by the scalable wet spinning process using flower-shaped silver nanoparticles with nanodisc-shaped petals (Ag nanoflowers) and polyurethane. An extraordinarily high conductivity (41,245 S cm(-1)) was obtained by Ag nanoflowers, which is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of fibers synthesized using spherical Ag nanoparticles. This was due to the enhanced surface area and vigorous coalescence of nanodisc-shaped petals during the curing process. There was a trade-off relationship between conductivity and stretchability, and the maximum rupture strain was 776%. An analytical model revealed that the enhanced adhesion between Ag nanoflowers and polyurethane provided a high Young's modulus (731.5 MPa) and ultimate strength (39.6 MPa) of the fibers. The fibers exhibited an elastic property after prestretching, and the resistance change of weft-knitted fabric was negligible up to 200% strain. The fibers with extraordinarily high conductivity, stretchability, and mechanical strength may be useful for wearable electronics applications.

  7. A new long-tubed subspecies of Pelargonium dipetalum (section Hoarea (Geraniaceae from the Albertinia-Swellendam area in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marianne le Roux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field studies confirmed that unusually long-tubed populations of Pelargonium dipetalum from between Swellendam and Albertinia, Western Cape Province, South Africa, are a distinct ecotype adapted to pollination by the long-proboscid fly, Prosoeca longipennis. The geographical and morphological isolation of these populations suggests that they are reproductively isolated from short-tubed populations, which are pollinated by bees.Objectives: To determine and describe the floral variation in P. dipetalum, with a view to recognising the long-tubed populations at some taxonomic level.Method: All available collections were measured and compared.Results: Populations of P. dipetalum were segregated into a short-tubed form with hypanthium 3 mm – 24 mm long and mostly pink petals that occurs from Betty’s Bay to Knysna, and a long-tubed form with the hypanthium 34 mm – 54 mm long and consistently white petals that is restricted to a small area east of Swellendam between Suurbraak and Albertinia. We described the long-tubed form as the new subspecies P. dipetalum subsp. stenosiphon.Conclusion: The new subspecies increases our understanding of the diversity in P. dipetalum and represents a new taxon of conservation concern.

  8. Evaluation of ploidy level and endoreduplication in carnation (Dianthus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Olmos, Enrique; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the fifth most important ornamental species worldwide. Many desirable plant characteristics, such as big size, adaptation under stress, and intra or interspecific hybridization capability, are dependent on plant ploidy level. We optimized a quick flow cytometry method for DNA content determination in wild and cultivated carnation samples that allowed a systematic evaluation of ploidy levels in Dianthus species. The DNA content of different carnation cultivars and wild Dianthus species was determined using internal reference standards. The precise characterization of ploidy, endoreduplication and C-value of D. caryophyllus 'Master' makes it a suitable standard cultivar for ploidy level determination in other carnation cultivars. Mixoploidy was rigorously characterized in different regions of several organs from D. caryophyllus 'Master', which combined with a detailed morphological description suggested some distinctive developmental traits of this species. Both the number of endoreduplication cycles and the proportion of endopolyploid cells were highly variable in the petals among the cultivars studied, differently to the values found in leaves. Our results suggest a positive correlation between ploidy, cell size and petal size in cultivated carnation, which should be considered in breeding programs aimed to obtain new varieties with large flowers.

  9. Cloning of a DNA-binding protein that interacts with the ethylene-responsive enhancer element of the carnation GST1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, J M; Woodson, W R

    1996-07-01

    Ethylene transcriptionally activates a glutathione S-transferase gene (GST1) at the onset of the senescence program in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals. A 126 bp region of the GST1 promoter sequence has been identified as an ethylene-responsive enhancer element (ERE). In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of nuclear proteins from senescing petals to recognize a 22 bp sequence within the ERE (ERE oligonucleotide). Mutation of the ERE oligonucleotide sequence significantly alters the strength of this nuclear protein-DNA association. The wild-type ERE oligonucleotide sequence was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Nucleotide sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence analysis of this cDNA predicted a 32 kDa protein which we have designated carnation ethylene-responsive element-binding protein-1 (CEBP-1). The mRNA expression pattern of CEBP-1 suggests that it is not transcriptionally regulated by ethylene. The amino acid sequence homology of CEBP-1 with other plant nucleic acid binding proteins indicates a conserved nucleic acid binding domain. Within this domain are two highly conserved RNA-binding motifs, RNP-1 and RNP-2. An acidic region and a putative nuclear localization signal are also identified.

  10. Characterization of an ethylene-regulated flower senescence-related gene from carnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghothama, K G; Lawton, K A; Goldsbrough, P B; Woodson, W R

    1991-07-01

    The programmed senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals requires active gene expression and is associated with the expression of several senescence-related mRNAs. Expression of the mRNA represented by the cDNA clone pSR12 has previously been shown to be transcriptionally activated by ethylene specifically in senescing flowers. We report in this paper the structural analysis of this cDNA and its corresponding gene. One cloned genomic DNA fragment, SR12-B, contained the entire transcription unit in 17 exons, interrupted by 16 introns. A second gene, SR12-A, was highly homologous to SR12-B with several nucleotide substitutions and a 489 bp deletion in the 5' flanking DNA sequence. The SR12 transcript has an open reading frame of 2193 bp sufficient to encode a protein of 82.8 kDa. No significant homology at the DNA or protein levels was found with other known genes. We have identified a DNA-binding factor which specifically interacts with two upstream fragments (-149 to -337 and -688 to -1055) of SR12-B. Both fragments apparently compete for the same binding factor. The DNA-binding activity was present in nuclear extracts from both presenescent and senescing carnation petals. The upstream DNA fragments that bind this factor have sequence homology with promoter sequences of other ethylene-regulated genes.

  11. Simultaneous qualitative assessment and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in various tissues of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quad mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Fang, Linchuan; Xi, Huifen; Guan, Le; Fang, Jinbao; Liu, Yanling; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua

    2012-04-29

    Flavonoid composition and concentration were investigated in 12 different tissues of 'Ti-1' lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) by high performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detection tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)). A total of 20 flavonoids belonging to six groups (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, isohamnetin, diosmetin derivatives) were separated and identified. Myricetin 3-O-galactoside, myricetin 3-O-glucuronide, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucuronide and free aglycone diometin (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone) were first reported in lotus. Flavonoid composition varied largely with tissue type, and diverse compounds (5-15) were found in leaf and flower stalks, flower pistils, seed coats and embryos. Flower tissues including flower petals, stamens, pistils, and, especially, reproductive tissue fruit coats had more flavonoid compounds (15-17) than leaves (12), while no flavonoids were detectable in seed kernels. The flavonoid content of seed embryos was high, 730.95 mg 100g(-1) DW (dry weight). As regards the other tissues, mature leaf pulp (771.79 mg 100 g(-1) FW (fresh weight)) and young leaves (650.67 mg 100 g(-1) FW) had higher total flavonoid amount than flower stamens (359.45 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and flower petals (342.97 mg 100g(-1) FW), while leaf stalks, flower stalks and seed coats had much less total flavonoid (less than 40 mg 100 g(-1) FW).

  12. Sensors for the End-cap prototype of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS Detector Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, V.; Ullán, M.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Sperlich, D.; Hauser, M.; Wonsak, S.; Parzefall, U.; Mahboubi, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Jakobs, K.; Bernabeu, J.; García, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marco, R.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Diez, S.; Gregor, I. M.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Peschke, R.; Poley, L.; Brenner, R.; Affolder, A.

    2016-10-01

    The new silicon microstrip sensors of the End-cap part of the HL-LHC ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) present a number of challenges due to their complex design features such as the multiple different sensor shapes, the varying strip pitch, or the built-in stereo angle. In order to investigate these specific problems, the "petalet" prototype was defined as a small End-cap prototype. The sensors for the petalet prototype include several new layout and technological solutions to investigate the issues, they have been tested in detail by the collaboration. The sensor description and detailed test results are presented in this paper. New software tools have been developed for the automatic layout generation of the complex designs. The sensors have been fabricated, characterized and delivered to the institutes in the collaboration for their assembly on petalet prototypes. This paper describes the lessons learnt from the design and tests of the new solutions implemented on these sensors, which are being used for the full petal sensor development. This has resulted in the ITk strip community acquiring the necessary expertise to develop the full End-cap structure, the petal.

  13. The corona of the daffodil Narcissus bulbocodium shares stamen-like identity and is distinct from the orthodox floral whorls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Mark T; Tiley, Anna M M; Kramer, Elena M; Meerow, Alan W; Langdale, Jane A; Scotland, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    The structural homology of the daffodil corona has remained a source of debate throughout the history of botany. Over the years it has been separately referred to as a modified petal stipule, stamen and tepal. Here we provide insights from anatomy and molecular studies to clarify the early developmental stages and position of corona initiation in Narcissus bulbocodium. We demonstrate that the corona initiates as six separate anlagen from hypanthial tissue between the stamens and perianth. Scanning electron microscope images and serial sections demonstrate that corona initiation occurs late in development, after the other floral whorls are fully developed. To define more precisely the identity of the floral structures, daffodil orthologues of the ABC floral organ identity genes were isolated and expression patterns were examined in perianth, stamens, carpel, hypanthial tube and corona tissue. Coupled with in situ hybridisation experiments, these analyses showed that the expression pattern of the C-class gene NbAGAMOUS in the corona is more similar to that of the stamens than that of the tepals. In combination, our results demonstrate that the corona of the daffodil N. bulbocodium exhibits stamen-like identity, develops independently from the orthodox floral whorls and is best interpreted as a late elaboration of the region between the petals and stamens associated with epigyny and the hypanthium.

  14. Species of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on the Apricot and the Relationship Between Their Activity and Flower Frost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fu-Zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; YANG Jian-min; CAO Xiao-yu; TANG Chao-rong; MENG Qing-rui

    2001-01-01

    During 1996- 1997, sixty samples were collected from apricot in Hebei Province, from which nineteen ice nucleation active bacterial strains were isolated. Nine stains were identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae by bacteriological determination, while the others were Erwinia uredovora. Assay of ice nucleation activity (INA) showed the activity of the Pseudomonas strains was higher than that of the Erwinia.According to the number of bacterial cells required to produce one ice nucleus active at - 3℃, four stains was classified as strong ones, three as medium-strong, the remainder as weak. In general, the INA of these strains were regarded as medium-strong. Under stress of Iow temperatures, treatment of INA bacteria can greatly raised relative electric conductivity of petals and permeability of cell membrane. The treated petals showed symptoms of serious frost at - 3 - - 4℃ and had supercooling points of 2 - 3℃ higher than controls. Our results demon strated that INA bacteria are one major factor to incite frost damage to apricot flowers. We may reduce frost injury to apricot during flowering phage through control of INA bacteria.

  15. A Forward Silicon Strip System for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wonsak, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is successfully accumulating luminosity at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV this year. At the same time, plans are rapidly progressing for a series of upgrades, culminating roughly eight years from now in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. The HL-LHC is expected to deliver approximately five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity, resulting in a total integrated luminosity of around 3000 fb-1 by 2030. The ATLAS experiment has a rather well advanced plan to build and install a completely new Inner Tracker (IT) system entirely based on silicon detectors by 2020. This new IT will be made from several pixel and strip layers. The silicon strip detector system will consist of single-sided p-type detectors with five barrel layers and six endcap (EC) disks on each forward side. Each disk will consist of 32 trapezoidal objects dubbed “petals”, with all services (cooling, read-out, command lines, LV and HV power) integrated into the petal. Each petal will contain 18 silicon sensors grouped in...

  16. Spiral instabilities in media supporting complex oscillations under periodic forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingyu; Li, Jun; Zhang, Kailong; Epstein, Irving R

    2009-09-01

    The periodically forced Brusselator model displays temporal mixed-mode and quasiperiodic oscillations, period doubling, and chaos. We explore the behavior of such media as reaction-diffusion systems for investigating spiral instabilities. Besides near-core breakup and far-field breakup resulting from unstable modes in the radial direction or Doppler-induced instability (destabilization of the core's location), the observed complex phenomena include backfiring, spiral regeneration, and amplitude modulation from line defects. Amplitude modulation of spirals can evolve to chambered spirals resembling those found in nature, such as pine cones and sunflowers. When the forcing amplitude is increased, the spiral-tip meander evolves from simple rotation to complex petals, corresponding to transformation of the local dynamics from simple oscillations to mixed-mode, period-2, and quasiperiodic oscillations. The number of petals is related to the complexity of the mixed-mode oscillations. Spiral turbulence, standing waves, and homogeneous synchronization permeate the entire system when the forcing amplitude is further increased. PMID:19792014

  17. Hyperacidification of Vacuoles by the Combined Action of Two Different P-ATPases in the Tonoplast Determines Flower Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Faraco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acidification of endomembrane compartments is essential for enzyme activities, sorting, trafficking, and trans-membrane transport of various compounds. Vacuoles are mildly acidic in most plant cells because of the action of V-ATPase and/or pyrophosphatase proton pumps but are hyperacidified in specific cells by mechanisms that remained unclear. Here, we show that the blue petal color of petunia ph mutants is due to a failure to hyperacidify vacuoles. We report that PH1 encodes a P3B-ATPase, hitherto known as Mg2+ transporters in bacteria only, that resides in the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and genetic data show that PH1 is required and, together with the tonoplast H+ P3A-ATPase PH5, sufficient to hyperacidify vacuoles. PH1 has no H+ transport activity on its own but can physically interact with PH5 and boost PH5 H+ transport activity. Hence, the hyperacidification of vacuoles in petals, and possibly other tissues, relies on a heteromeric P-ATPase pump.

  18. Perfume-collecting male euglossine bees as pollinators of a basal angiosperm: the case of Unonopsis stipitata (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, H; Dötterl, S; Zimma, B; Ayasse, M; Gottsberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Pollination of Unonopsis stipitata (Annonaceae) by males of two perfume-collecting bees, Euglossa imperialis and Eulaema bombiformis (Euglossini) is described. This is the first detailed account of this pollination mode in a member of a basal angiosperm family. Pollinator behaviour, identification of the odour bouquet and electrophysiological reaction of one of the two pollinators to the odour bouquet were determined. The collected odour is produced by 'osmophores' located adaxially on the petals. Starch and polysaccharides accumulated in petals are metabolized during odour emission. Mainly monoterpenes were detected in the scent samples, among them trans-carvone oxide. This molecule is thought by several authors to be the key attractant for male Eulaema bees and may be pivotal for convergent evolution of the perfume-collecting syndrome among dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. It is speculated that Unonopsis, which on the basis of molecular age dating is considered a relatively recent genus of the Annonaceae (being 15-30 million years old), has diversified in relation to male euglossine bee pollinators.

  19. Phylogeny of the basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) inferred from five chloroplast DNA regions, with interpretation of morphological character evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yvonne C F; Smith, Gavin J D; Saunders, Richard M K

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the magnoliid basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) are investigated using chloroplast DNA sequences from five regions: psbA-trnH spacer, trnL-F, matK, rbcL, and atpB-rbcL spacer. Over 4000 nucleotides from 51 species (of the total 53) were sequenced. The five cpDNA datasets were analyzed separately and in combination using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian methods. The phylogenetic trees constructed using all three phylogenetic methods, based on the combined data, strongly support the monophyly of Pseuduvaria following the inclusion of Craibella phuyensis. The trees generated using MP were less well resolved, but relationships are similar to those obtained using the other methods. ML and Bayesian analyses recovered trees with short branch lengths, showing five main clades. This study highlights the evolutionary changes in seven selected morphological characters (floral sex, stamen and carpel numbers, inner petal color, presence of inner petal glands, flowering peduncle length, and monocarp size). Although floral unisexuality is ancestral within the genus, several evolutionary lineages reveal reversal to bisexuality. Other phylogenetic transitions include the evolution of sapromyophily, and fruit-bat frugivory and seed dispersal, thus allowing a wide range of adaptations for species survival.

  20. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimiter (MOLA) Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The color shaded relief image used as the base for this globe has a resolution of 32 pixels per degree (approximately 1850 m/pixel), and was produced and supplied by the MOLA Science Team (http://ltpwww.gsfc.nasa.gov/tharsis/mola.html). The image is shaded as if illuminated everywhere from the west. The elevations represented in color are with respect to a gravitational equipotential surface whose mean equatorial radius is that of the topography. The Astrogeology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey reprojected the image into the format displayed above.The images are presented in a projection that portrays the entire surface of Mars in a manner suitable for the production of a globe; the number, size, and placement of text annotations were chosen for a 12-inch globe. Prominent features are labeled with names approved by the International Astronomical Union. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The northern hemisphere of Mars is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere on the right.

  1. Connecting proline metabolism and signaling pathways in plant senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid proline has a unique biological role in stress adaptation. Proline metabolism is manipulated under stress by multiple and complex regulatory pathways and can profoundly influence cell death and survival in microorganisms, plants, and animals. Though the effects of proline are mediated by diverse signaling pathways, a common theme appears to be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to proline oxidation being coupled to the respiratory electron transport chain. Considerable research has been devoted to understand how plants exploit proline metabolism in response to abiotic and biotic stress. Here, we review potential mechanisms by which proline metabolism influences plant senescence, namely in the petal and leaf. Recent studies of petal senescence suggest proline content is manipulated to meet energy demands of senescing cells. In the flower and leaf, proline metabolism may influence ROS signaling pathways that delay senescence progression. Future studies focusing on the mechanisms by which proline metabolic shifts occur during senescence may lead to novel methods to rescue crops under stress and to preserve post-harvest agricultural products.

  2. Evidence for a Lifshitz transition in electron-doped iron arsenic superconductors at the onset of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Kondo, T.; Fernandes, R.M.; Palczewski, Ari D.; Mun, Eun Deok; Ni, Ni; Thaler, Alexander N.; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Schmalian, Jorg; Bud-ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; and Kaminski, A.

    2010-05-02

    The iron arsenic high-temperature superconductors exhibit particularly rich phase diagrams. In the AE(Fe{sub 1-x}T{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} family (known as '122', with AE being Ca, Sr or Ba and T being a transition metal), the simultaneous structural/magnetic phase transition that occurs at elevated temperature in the undoped material splits and is suppressed by carrier doping. A superconducting region appears as likely in the orthorhombic/antiferromagnetic (AFM) state as in the tetragonal/paramagnetic state. An important question then is what determines the critical doping at which superconductivity emerges, as the AFM order is fully suppressed only close to optimal doping. Here we report evidence from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that marked changes in the Fermi surface coincide with the onset of superconductivity in electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}. The presence of the AFM order leads to a reconstruction of the electronic structure, most significantly the appearance of the petal-like hole pockets at the Fermi level. These hole pockets vanish - that is, undergo a Lifshitz transition - as the cobalt concentration is increased sufficiently to support superconductivity. Superconductivity and magnetism are competing states in this system: when petal-like hole pockets are present, superconductivity is fully suppressed, whereas in their absence the two states can coexist.

  3. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  4. Aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform with simplified medium exchange process for facilitating cell-surface interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeonjun; Park, Sung Jea; Han, Seon Jin; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-02-01

    Establishing fundamentals for regulating cell behavior with engineered physical environments, such as topography and stiffness, requires a large number of cell culture experiments. However, cell culture experiments in cell-surface interaction studies are generally labor-intensive and time-consuming due to many experimental tasks, such as multiple fabrication processes in sample preparation and repetitive medium exchange in cell culture. In this work, a novel aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform (AFIP) is presented. AFIP aims to facilitate the experiments on the cell-surface interaction studies, especially the medium exchange process. AFIP was devised to capture and dispense cell culture medium based on interactions between an elastic polymer substrate and a liquid medium. Thus, the medium exchange can be performed easily and without the need of other instruments, such as a vacuum suction and pipette. An appropriate design window of AFIP, based on scaling analysis, was identified to provide a criterion for achieving stability in medium exchange as well as various surface characteristics of the petal substrates. The developed AFIP, with physically engineered petal substrates, was also verified to exchange medium reliably and repeatedly. A closed structure capturing the medium was sustained stably during cell culture experiments. NIH3T3 proliferation results also demonstrated that AFIP can be applied to the cell-surface interaction studies as an alternative to the conventional method. PMID:26683462

  5. Sex allocation and functional bias of quaternary and quinary flowers on same inflorescence in the hermaphrodite Ruta graveolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Yu; Ren, Ming-Xun

    2011-09-01

    Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits is important to understand the pollination function of an inflorescence and the real reproductive outputs of a plant. Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) produce both quaternary (four petals and eight stamens) and quinary (five petals and ten stamens) flowers on the same cymes, while their pollination roles and the effects on the reproductive success remained unexplored. We experimentally examined the biomass of female versus male organs and pollen viability and stigma receptivity to explore the sex allocation patterns between the flowers. The breeding systems and reproductive outputs through either female function (seed set) or male function (pollen dispersal) were also studied for quinary and quaternary flowers to determine whether there was functional bias. The results showed that R. graveolens was protandrous, with a mixed mating system. Its stamens could slowly move one by one and only dehisce when positioning at the flower center, which could greatly enhance pollen dispersal. The first-opened quinary flower allocated significantly higher resources (dry biomass) in female organs while quaternary flowers allocated more resource in male organs. The quaternary flowers experienced higher pollen limitation in seed production but were more successful in pollen dispersal and the quinary flowers reproduced both through female and male functions. Our data suggested that quinary and quaternary flower on same inflorescence in R. graveolens functioned mainly as the sex role that most resources were allocated, which probably reflect an adaptation for floral phenology and pollination process in this plant.

  6. STUDY ON CROSSING ABILITY OF ANNUAL CHRYSANTHEMUM GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kattera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment comprised of six genotypes viz., NAC-01-10, NAC-02-10, NAC-03-10, NAC-04-10, NAC-05-10, NAC-06-10 selected for petal colour and number of layers of petals to estimate pollen viability, in-vitro pollen germination, stigma receptivity and crossed seed set percentage to find out the crossing ability of genotypes. The present experiment was laid out at the experimental field of Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, during 2010-11. Pollen viability of six genotypes of annual chrysanthemum showed a range of 69.69% to 86.66% viability, Percentage of germination on the day of anthesis ranged from 22.72% (NAC-06-10 to 66.66% (NAC-01-10. First day pollen pollinated on first day stigma showed 100% stigma receptivity in all six genotypes and the crossed seed set ranged from 61.60% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-05-10 to 92.00% (NAC-01-10 × NAC-04-10 among direct crosses whereas, the percentage ranged from 42.00% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-02-10 to 90.00% (NAC-05-10 × NAC-01-10 among the reciprocal crosses. All the six genotypes are highly suitable for their use as parents in crossing program.

  7. Postharvest quality of cut roses following electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut Rosa x hybrida L. 'Royalty' flowers were used to determine the efficacy of electron-beam irradiation for increasing postharvest quality and decreasing petal infection by Botrytis cinerea Pers. In an experiment for determining the injury threshold, roses received electron-beam irradiation of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy. Irradiation dosages greater than or equal to 4 kGy caused necrosis on petal tissue and decreased postharvest life at 20 degrees C. In a second experiment to evaluate postharvest quality, roses were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy. Dosages of 0.25 and 0.5 kGy slowed the rate of flower bud opening for 2 days but did not decrease postharvest quality when compared with nonirradiated roses. Roses that received irradiation dosages of 0.75 and 1 kGy showed unacceptable quality. In a third experiment, roses that had or had not been inoculated with B. cinerea were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 kGy. Irradiation did not control B. cinerea populations, and rose quality decreased as dosage increased. In a fourth experiment to determine the effect of irradiation on B. cinerea, conidia on water-agar plates exposed to dosages less than or equal to 1, 2, and 4 kGy germinated at rates of approximately 90%, 33%, and 2%, respectively, within 24 h

  8. A Novel Single-Excitation Capacitive Angular Position Sensor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Zhou, Bin; Song, Mingliang; Lin, Zhihui; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high-precision capacitive angular position sensor (CAPS). The CAPS is designed to be excited by a single voltage to eliminate the matching errors of multi-excitations, and it is mainly composed of excitation electrodes, coupling electrodes, petal-form sensitive electrodes and a set of collection electrodes. A sinusoidal voltage is applied on the excitation electrodes, then the voltage couples to the coupling electrodes and sensitive electrodes without contact. The sensitive electrodes together with the set of collection electrodes encode the angular position to amplitude-modulated signals, and in order to increase the scale factor, the sensitive electrodes are patterned in the shape of petal-form sinusoidal circles. By utilizing a resolver demodulation method, the amplitude-modulated signals are digitally decoded to get the angular position. A prototype of the CAPS is fabricated and tested. The measurement results show that the accuracy of the sensor is 0.0036°, the resolution is 0.0009° and the nonlinearity over the full range is 0.008° (after compensation), indicating that the CAPS has great potential to be applied in high-precision applications with a low cost.

  9. Polyamine Uptake, Kinetics, and Competition among Polyamines and between Polyamines and Inorganic Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistocchi, R; Bagni, N; Creus, J A

    1986-02-01

    Polyamine uptake, the kinetics of this uptake, and the competition among polyamines and between polyamines and inorganic cations were studied in petals of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Uptake experiments using (14)C-labeled polyamines were carried out on single petals, at room temperaure (20 degrees C) and in the light. The results show that putrescine, spermidine, and spermine uptake was dependent on the external pH and occurred up to high external polyamine concentrations with K(m) values of 8.6, 1.2, and 2.1 millimolar, respectively, with spermidine being the most absorbed at low concentration (17 micromolar). Putrescine and spermidine did not seem to compete for the same site of absorption. Furthermore, putrescine and spermidine uptake was not inhibited by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) at the same concentrations (17 micromolar), whereas 1.7 millimolar Ca(2+) inhibited and K(+) enhanced spermidine uptake. The intracellular localization of the absorbed putrescine was determined using two different methods. Very little label was found in the apoplast, while most of it was localized in the 98,500g supernatant. According to our data the vacuole, which represents a substantial part of Saintpaulia parenchyma cells, could be a site of putrescine accumulation. 2,4-Dinitrophenol and diethylstilbestrol did not inhibit uptake; however, at 0 degrees C there was a 35% inhibition of spermidine uptake, compared with the controls kept at 20 degrees C as well as a 68% inhibition with 20 millimolar NaSCN. PMID:16664661

  10. Thermo capillary and buoyancy convection in a fluid locally heated on its free surface; Convection thermocapillaire et thermogravitaire dans un fluide chauffe localement sur sa surface libre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, E.

    1997-09-26

    coupled buoyancy and thermo-capillary convection lead to a convective motion of the interface liquid/gas which drastically changes the heat and mass transfer across the liquid layer. Two experiments were considered, depending on the fluid: oil or mercury. The liquid is set in a cooled cylindrical vessel, and heated by a heat flux across the center of the free surface. The basic flow, in the case of oil, is a torus. When the heat parameter increases, a stationary flow appears as petals or rays when the aspect ratio. The lateral confinement selects the azimuthal wavelength. In the case of petals-like flow, a sub-critical Hopf bifurcation is underlined. The turbulence is found to be `weak`, even for the largest values of the Marangoni number (Ma = 1.3 10{sup 5}). In the case of mercury, the thermo-capillary effect is reduced to zero to impurities at the surface which have special trajectories we describe and compare to a simpler experiment. Only the buoyancy forces induce a unstationary, weakly turbulent flow as soon as the heating power exceeds 4W (Ra = 4.5 10{sup 3}, calculated with h = 1 mm). The past part concerns the analysis of the effect on the flow of the boundary conditions, the geometry, the Prandtl number and the buoyancy force with the help of the literature. Results concerning heat transfer, in particular the exponent of the law Nusselt number vs. heating power, were compared with available data. (author) 115 refs.

  11. Optimum harvesting time of herbaceous peony buds for cutting flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-nan; GUO Peng-peng; LU Guang-pei; ZHANG Qi-xiang

    2011-01-01

    The herbaceous peony is one of the cut flowers that has become increasingly popular in the international market in recent years. In the study,11 cultivars of herbaceous peonies suitable for cutting flowers were selected;different harvesting stages (three or four stages) were identified according to bud development observation (bud firmness, bud diameter, sepal angle, petal angle, and color showing). Moreover, flower development and vase life were also recorded in the experiment of vase. Bud development observation shows that there are great differences in optimum harvesting stage between the cultivars, especially between the hybrid peony group and lactiflora group. This implies that bud diameter could not be the only indicator for optimum harvesting stagc. Bud description, including sepal opening angle, sepal color, petal color showing, and degree of firmness, is necessary for the determination of the harvesting stage. Among the 11 cultivars, Pink Hawaiian Coral', ‘Red Charm', ‘Edulis Superba', ‘Red Magic', and ‘Sarah Bernhardt' should be harvested at stage 1. 'Duchesse de Nemours', Taff, ‘Sorbet' and ‘Monsieur Jules Elie' should be harvested at stage 2. ‘Kansas' should be at stage 3 and ‘Karl Rosenfield' at stage 4. The determination of optimum harvesting stage for each cultivar is an important element in cut flower production.

  12. Polyaniline nanostructures tuning with oxidants in interfacial polymerization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxin Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of nanostructured polyanilines (PANIs were prepared through interfacial polymerization by using ammonium persulfate (APS as a single oxidant, and APS/FeCl3, APS/K2Cr2O7 as composite oxidants, respectively. It is observed that faster formation process and higher yield of nanostructured PANIs could be achieved in the presence of FeCl3 and K2Cr2O7. The as-prepared PANIs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurement. The influence of composite oxidants on the morphology, microstructure, and electrical and electrochemical properties of PANIs was discussed. Interestingly, when APS/K2Cr2O7 was used as the composite oxidants, PANI exhibited petal-like structure with high yield of 57.35% instead of general nanofibrous morphology formed in interfacial polymerization. Compared with those nanofibrous PANIs obtained by using APS as a single oxidant or APS/FeCl3 as composite oxidants, petal-like PANIs exhibited the largest specific capacitance (692.4 F/g at scan rate of 5 mV/s and highest cycle stability among them. It provides a new insight into the control of PANI nanostructures with high yield and energy storage ability by simply selecting suitable composite oxidants in interfacial polymerization.

  13. Caracterização farmacobotânica das espécies de Sambucus (Caprifoliaceae utilizadas como medicinais no Brasil. Parte I. Sambucus nigra L. Pharmacobotany characterization of Sambucus species (Caprifoliaceae, used in traditional medicine in Brazil. Part I. Sambucus nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Scopel

    2007-06-01

    . Aiming at elaborating an updated pharmacopeial monograph, the macro and microscopic botanic characters were established, with the classic methodology used in plant morpho-anatomy. The macroscopic characters are: monoclin and equal flowers; corolla with three to five millimeters of diameter; petals with three to four parallel veins; equal stamens; ovary often with three locules. The main microscopic characters are: thickened and striated cuticle; anomocytic stomatas; bracts, sepals and petals with sandy crystals of calcium oxalate idioblasts; hypostomatic bracts; amphystomatic sepals; amphi-hypostomatic petals; strongly wavy epidermal cells in the lower surface of sepals and petals; filaments epidermal cells with narrow and straight walls; glandular and non-glandular trichomes of different types in all pieces; homogeneous mesophyll in bracts, sepals and petals; vascular system represented by both collateral bundles and xylematic elements; volatile and non-volatile oil globules in all structures.

  14. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase in Strelitzia reginae%鹤望兰二氢黄酮醇-4-还原酶基因SrDFR的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊荣辉; 黄敏玲; 钟淮钦; 吴建设

    2014-01-01

    The SrDFR gene cDNA sequence involved in flavonoids synthesis was cloned from the blue petals of strelitzia reginae using RT-PCR techniques .The cDNA sequence consists of 246 bp ,encoding a polypeptide of 82 amino acids .Homology analysis showed that the deduced SrDFR protein was highly homologous to other DFR proteins from different plants . Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SrDFR was clustered together with DFR of Curcuma alismatifolia firstly and had close genetic relationship .The semi-quantitative PCR analysis indicated that SrDFR showed the highest transcript abundance in e and SrDFR was highly expressed in blue petals ,but lowly expressed in leaves and yellow sepals .The results indicated that SrDFR played an important role in the growth of blue petals .%采用RT-PCR方法从鹤望兰蓝色花瓣中克隆到类黄酮合成途径关键基因 S rD FR ,该片段长246 bp ,编码82个氨基酸。氨基酸同源性分析表明, SrDFR推导的氨基酸序列与已报道的其他植物的DFR蛋白具有很高的同源性。系统进化树分析显示,鹤望兰 S rD FR与姜荷花聚为一类,亲缘关系较近。应用半定量 PCR分析表明, S rD FR在蓝色花瓣中高表达,在黄色花萼和叶片中低表达,且在花发育的始花期表达量最高,表明该基因在蓝色花瓣发育过程中起着重要作用。

  15. Transcriptional regulation of three EIN3-like genes of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Improved White Sim) during flower development and upon wounding, pollination, and ethylene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Verlinden, Sven

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of approaches, three EIN3-like (EIL) genes DC-EIL1/2 (AY728191), DC-EIL3 (AY728192), and DC-EIL4 (AY728193) were isolated from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) petals. DC-EIL1/2 deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% identity with the previously cloned and characterized carnation DC-EIL1 (AF261654), 62% identity with DC-EIL3, and 60% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL3 deduced amino acid sequence shares 100% identity with a previously cloned carnation gene fragment, Dc106 (CF259543), 61% identity with Dianthus caryophyllus DC-EIL1 (AF261654), and 59% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL4 shared 60% identity with DC-EIL1 (AF261654). Expression analyses performed on vegetative and flower tissues (petals, ovaries, and styles) during growth and development and senescence (natural and ethylene-induced) indicated that the mRNA accumulation of the DC-EIL family of genes in carnation is regulated developmentally and by ethylene. DC-EIL3 mRNA showed significant accumulation upon ethylene exposure, during flower development, and upon pollination in petals and styles. Interestingly, decreasing levels of DC-EIL3 mRNA were found in wounded leaves and ovaries of senescing flowers whenever ethylene levels increased. Flowers treated with sucrose showed a 2 d delay in the accumulation of DC-EIL3 transcripts when compared with control flowers. These observations suggest an important role for DC-EIL3 during growth and development. Changes in DC-EIL1/2 and DC-EIL4 mRNA levels during flower development, and upon ethylene exposure and pollination were very similar. mRNA levels of the DC-EILs in styles of pollinated flowers showed a positive correlation with ethylene production after pollination. The cloning and characterization of the EIN3-like genes in the present study showed their transcriptional regulation not previously observed for EILs.

  16. 白鼬和黄鼬直针毛的扫描电镜分析%A morphological analysis of guard hairs of Mustela erminea and M.sibirica by scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯森林; 薛晓明; 宋庆双

    2012-01-01

    应用扫描电镜对白鼬(Mustela erminea)和黄鼬(M.sibirica)背部和腹部直针毛的鳞片花纹类型进行了研究.结果表明,白鼬和黄鼬同一部位直针毛鳞片花纹的排列顺序、主要鳞片类型、鳞片高度、密度以及同种类型鳞片的外部形态均存在一定差异,即种间均存在差异,而在种内则表现出较高的相似性和一致性.白鼬背毛和腹毛主要鳞片类型均为长瓣型,杂波型次之;黄鼬背毛和腹毛的主要鳞片类型均为杂波型,长瓣型次之.背毛和腹毛杂波型鳞片的密度在2种动物间差异均极显著(P<0.01),背毛长瓣型鳞片的密度和高度在2种动物间差异均显著(P<0.05).据此,笔者分析了利用鼬科动物毛鳞片花纹进行物种鉴定的可行性及需要注意的问题.%We analyzed the morphology of guard hairs sampled from the back and abdomen of the white weasel ( Mustela erminea) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica) by using the scanning electron microscope technique. Statistics analysis indicated significant differences were found between the two species in morphological parameters such as the order of scale types along the hair, dominant scale types, scale height, density and shapes. The results showed that the order of dominant scale type of guard hairs from both the back and the abdomen of the white weasel was the elongated petal followed by irregular wave, while the dominance of scale types in the Siberian weasel was irregular wave followed by elongated petal. The differences of density of the back and abdomen irregular wave were very significant(p < 0. 01) between the two species, while the density and the height of the back elongated petal were significant different between the two species. Some noteworthy questions for such application were also discussed based on this study.

  17. MYB and bHLH transcription factor transgenes increase anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia and lisianthus plants, and the petunia phenotypes are strongly enhanced under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy E Schwinn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Petunia line Mitchell [MP, Petunia axillaris × (P. axillaris × P. hybrida] and Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus plants were produced containing a transgene for over-expression of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (ROSEA1 that up-regulates flavonoid biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus. The petunia lines were also crossed with previously produced MP lines containing a Zea mays flavonoid-related bHLH transcription factor transgene (LEAF COLOR, LC, which induces strong vegetative pigmentation when these 35S:LC plants are exposed to high light levels. 35S:ROS1 lisianthus transgenics had limited changes in anthocyanin pigmentation, specifically, precocious pigmentation of flower petals and increased pigmentation of sepals. RNA transcript levels for two anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were increased in the 35S:ROS1 lisianthus petals compared to those of control lines. With MP, the 35S:ROS1 calli showed novel red pigmentation in culture, but this was generally not seen in tissue culture plantlets regenerated from the calli or young plants transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Anthocyanin pigmentation was enhanced in the stems of mature 35S:ROS1 MP plants, but the MP white-flower phenotype was not complemented. Progeny from a 35S:ROS1×35S:LC cross had novel pigmentation phenotypes that were not present in either parental line or MP. In particular, there was increased pigment accumulation in the petal throat region, and the anthers changed from yellow to purple colour. An outdoor field trial was conducted with the 35S:ROS1, 35S:LC, 35S:ROS1×35S:LC and control MP lines. Field conditions rapidly induced intense foliage pigmentation in 35S:LC plants, a phenotype not observed in control MP or equivalent 35S:LC plants maintained in a greenhouse. No difference in plant stature, seed germination, or plant survival was observed between transgenic and control plants.

  18. A comparative study on the restrictions of dynamic test methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, GH.; Lahmi, S.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic behavior of materials is investigated using different devices. Each of the devices has some restrictions. For instance, the stress-strain curve of the materials can be captured at high strain rates only with Hopkinson bar. However, by using a new approach some of the other techniques could be used to obtain the constants of material models such as Johnson-Cook model too. In this work, the restrictions of some devices such as drop hammer, Taylor test, Flying wedge, Shot impact test, dynamic tensile extrusion and Hopkinson bars which are used to characterize the material properties at high strain rates are described. The level of strain and strain rate and their restrictions are very important in examining the efficiency of each of the devices. For instance, necking or bulging in tensile and compressive Hopkinson bars, fragmentation in dynamic tensile extrusion and petaling in Taylor test are restricting issues in the level of strain rate attainable in the devices.

  19. A comparative study on the restrictions of dynamic test methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majzoobi GH.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of materials is investigated using different devices. Each of the devices has some restrictions. For instance, the stress-strain curve of the materials can be captured at high strain rates only with Hopkinson bar. However, by using a new approach some of the other techniques could be used to obtain the constants of material models such as Johnson-Cook model too. In this work, the restrictions of some devices such as drop hammer, Taylor test, Flying wedge, Shot impact test, dynamic tensile extrusion and Hopkinson bars which are used to characterize the material properties at high strain rates are described. The level of strain and strain rate and their restrictions are very important in examining the efficiency of each of the devices. For instance, necking or bulging in tensile and compressive Hopkinson bars, fragmentation in dynamic tensile extrusion and petaling in Taylor test are restricting issues in the level of strain rate attainable in the devices.

  20. Caracterização farmacobotânica das espécies de Sambucus (Caprifoliaceae utilizadas como medicinais no Brasil: Parte II. Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. Pharmacobotany of Sambucus species (Caprifoliaceae, used in traditional medicine in Brazil: Part II. Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Nunes

    2007-09-01

    pharmacopoeical monograph and comparing it with the monograph of Sambucus nigra L., from Europe, it was established the macro and microscopic botanical characters, through the classic methodology used in plant morpho-anatomy. The macroscopic characters are: morphologic monoclin flowers; corolla with seven to ten millimeters of diameter; petals with five, rarely four parallel veins; shorter and longer stamens; ovary oftenly with five locules. The main microscopic characters are: thickned and striated cuticule; absense of idioblasts with calcium oxalate sandy cristals; anomocytic stomatas; amphystomatic bracts; hypostomatic sepals; amphi-hypostomatic petals; wavy and straight epidermal cells in the lower surface of sepals and petals; filaments epidermal cells with narrow and straight walls; glandular and non-glandular trichomes of different types; homogeneous mesophyll in bracts, sepals and petals; vascular system represented by both collateral bundles and xylematic elements; volatile and non volatile oil globules in all structures.