WorldWideScience

Sample records for brunfelsia calycina petals

  1. Prey capture by the crab spider Misumena calycina (Araneae: Thomisidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Douglass H

    1979-01-01

    Crab spiders Misumena calycina (L.) in pasture rose Rosa carolina flowers regularly attacked bumble bees, smaller bees, and syrphid flies that visited these flowers. Attacks reached a maximum rate of over 20/h during mid morning, but only 1.6% of the most important prey item, bumble bees, were captured. The next most important food source, the most frequently taken item, syrphid flies Toxomerus marginatus (Say), were captured in 39% of the attempts. Since these flies have a biomass only 1/60th that of bumble bees, they comprised a much less important food source than did bumble bees. Spiders would obtain over 7% more food by specializing on bumble bees than by attacking all insect visitors, and as much as 20% more food at certain times of the day. However, they did not show a tendency to specialize at any time.

  2. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components

  3. 'Daisy petal' connectors for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    These daisy-petal structures are conducting connectors embedded in kapton film. This was an innovative solution to the demands of the ATLAS detector. Straws are pushed through the petals and held in contact using plugs. The flexible kapton film allows as many petals to be built in any configuration, while acting as a printed circuit carrying the high voltage between circles.

  4. Expression profiles of aquaporin homologues and petal movement during petal development in Tulipa gesneriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Hanawa, Ryosuke; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Previously, we have characterized two tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) and four plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) from the 2-day-old petals of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). In this study, we analyzed the development of tulip petals and stems, temperature-dependent petal movement, the amount of ³H₂O transported into petals and stems during petal movement, and the transcript levels of two TIP (TgTIP1;1 and TgTIP1;2) and four TgPIP genes in petals and stems, from the first day of petal opening to day 12. The development of the petals and stems was completed by days 6 and 9, respectively, after the first day of petal opening. Temperature-dependent petal movement and the amount of ³H₂O that was transported into petals could be detected at significant levels up to day 6 with petal movement reaching a peak at day 3. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that TgTIP1;1 and TgTIP1;2 were expressed ubiquitously in petals, stems, leaves, bulbs and roots. However, the expression level of TgTIP1;2 was very low in bulbs. The expression of both TgTIP1 genes was upregulated in close association with the development of petals but not with that of the stem. The four TgPIP genes were expressed at almost the same level during the development of the petals and the stem. However, the levels of the TgTIP1 and TgPIP transcripts in petals decreased during the course of petal wilting from day 9 onwards. These results suggest that TgTIP1;1 and TgTIP1;2 may contribute to petal development. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  5. Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Woltering, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Petal senescence is reviewed, with the main emphasis on gene expression in relation to physiological functions. Autophagy seems to be the major mechanism for large-scale degradation of macromolecules, but it is still unclear if it contributes to cell death. Depending on the species, petal senescence

  6. Morphological development of petals in Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The petals, or the honey-leaves, are of great divergence in morphology in Ranunculaceae, i. e., tubular, bilabial, cup-shaped, flat, concaved or scaled at the base, with or without spur or succate. The previous observations showed that although the petals differ in mature morphology, they showed great similarity in the early development stage. The petal primordia are all hemispherical, rounded and much smaller than the sepal primordia, a relatively long plastochron exists between the last sepal and the first petal and differentiate into a blade and a short stalk. Thus, we assumed that the different morphology of the mature petals might be due to the morphological repatterning of petals in the development. To prove the hypothesis, the morphological development of the petals from 22 species from 20 genera, recovering all ten petalous clades and the major morphological types, in Ranunculaceae was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The young petal undergoes the following developmental stages to the mature petal after it differentiates into blade and stalk. In the first stage, a depression appears at the base of the blade and the nectary tissue will appear in the depression in the later development. In the second stage, two bulges appear at the base of the depression that makes the petal bilabial and the bulges will be the upper lip of the petal and thus the blade will be the lower lip. In the third stage, two bulges become larger and fuse with one another at first and then fuse with the margins of the blade in each side, or each of the bulges fuses with the margin of the blade at first and then fuses with one another, or the bulges stop further growth and the depression deepened to form the succate or the spur. In the fourth stage, the lips, the two fused sides and the stalk growth in different speed. The divergence of development of different petals happens mainly in the third and the fourth stages and less divergence in the second and

  7. Chromoplast biogenesis in Chelidonium majus petals

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Ljubešić; Mercedes Wrischer

    2011-01-01

    The differentiation of chromoplasts, with special emphasis on the formation and the organisation of chromoplast fibrils, was followed in the petals of the greater celandine, Chelidonium majus L. Electron microscopic observations showed that, in the epidermis, differentiation of chromoplasts started from leucoplasts, while mesophyll chromoplasts originated from chloroplasts. During petal maturation, fibrils accumulated in the plastids, often arranging in a parallel fashion to form compact bire...

  8. Development of PETAL diagnostics: PETAPhys project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffestin, D.; Boutoux, G.; Baggio, J.; Batani, D.; Blanchot, N.; Bretheau, D.; Hulin, S.; D'Humieres, E.; Granet, F.; Longhi, Th.; Meyer, Ch.; Moreno, Q.; Nuter, R.; Rault, J.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Universite de Bordeaux/Celia Team; CEA. DAM/Cesta Team

    2017-10-01

    Beginning of autumn 2017, PETAL, a Petawatt laser beam, will be operated for experiments on the LMJ facility at the CEA/ Cesta research center. The PETAPhys project provides a support to the qualification phase of the PETAL laser operation. Within the PETAPhys project, we are developing two simple and robust diagnostics permitting both to characterize the focal spot of the PETAL beam and to measure the hard X-ray spectrum at each shot. The first diagnostic consists in optical imaging of the PETAL beam focal spot in the spectral range of the second and third harmonic radiation emitted from the target. The second diagnostic is a hard X-ray dosimeter consisting in a stack of imaging plates (IP) and filters, either placed inside a re-entrant tube or inserted close to target. Numerical simulations as well as experiments on small scale facilities have been performed to design these diagnostics. If available, preliminary results from PETAL experiments will be discussed. We acknowledge the financial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) in the framework of ``the investments for the future'' Programme IdEx Bordeaux-LAPHIA (ANR-10-IDEX-03-02).

  9. Chromoplast biogenesis in Chelidonium majus petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Ljubešić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of chromoplasts, with special emphasis on the formation and the organisation of chromoplast fibrils, was followed in the petals of the greater celandine, Chelidonium majus L. Electron microscopic observations showed that, in the epidermis, differentiation of chromoplasts started from leucoplasts, while mesophyll chromoplasts originated from chloroplasts. During petal maturation, fibrils accumulated in the plastids, often arranging in a parallel fashion to form compact birefringent bundles. Immediately before flower opening, these fibrillar bundles started to disorganise, and, at anthesis, most chromoplasts contained widely spaced fibrils which were irregularly dispersed through the plastid interior. During chromoplast differentiation, fibrils were commonly observed to protrude from plastoglobules, suggesting the possible site of their formation. Western analysis indicated that a protein antigenically related to fibrillin from pepper chromoplasts participates in the constitution of fibrils in Chelidonium petals.

  10. Spectral analysis of scattered light from flowers' petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Atsumi; Uehara, Tomomi; Sekiguchi, Fumihiko; Imai, Hajime

    2009-07-01

    A new method was developed for studying absorption characteristics of opaque samples based on the light scattering spectroscopy. Measurements were made in white, red and violet petals of Petunia hybrida, and gave the absorption spectra in a non-destructive manner without damaging the cell structures of the petal. The red petal has absorption peak at 550 nm and the violet has three absorption peaks: at 450, 670, and 550 nm. The results were discussed in correlation with the microscopic cell structures of the petal observed with optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Only the cells placed in the surface have the pigments giving the color of the petal.

  11. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circulator waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum open-quote flower-petal close-quote transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  12. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum 'flower-petal' transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  13. Pollination induces autophagy in petunia petals via ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Niki, Tomoko; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy is one of the main mechanisms of degradation and remobilization of macromolecules, and it appears to play an important role in petal senescence. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in petal senescence. Autophagic processes were observed by electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining of senescing petals of petunia (Petunia hybrida); autophagy-related gene 8 (ATG8) homologues were isolated from petunia and the regulation of expression was analysed. Nutrient remobilization was also examined during pollination-induced petal senescence. Active autophagic processes were observed in the mesophyll cells of senescing petunia petals. Pollination induced the expression of PhATG8 homologues and was accompanied by an increase in ethylene production. Ethylene inhibitor treatment in pollinated flowers delayed the induction of PhATG8 homologues, and ethylene treatment rapidly upregulated PhATG8 homologues in petunia petals. Dry weight and nitrogen content were decreased in the petals and increased in the ovaries after pollination in detached flowers. These results indicated that pollination induces autophagy and that ethylene is a key regulator of autophagy in petal senescence of petunia. The data also demonstrated the translocation of nutrients from the petals to the ovaries during pollination-induced petal senescence.

  14. Light induces petal color change in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Petal color change, a common phenomenon in angiosperms, is induced by various environmental and endogenous factors. Interestingly, this phenomenon is important for attracting pollinators and further reproductive success. Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae is a tropical Asian climber that undergoes sequential petal color change from white to pink to red. This color changing process is thought to be a good strategy to attract more pollinators. However, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms driving this petal color change phenomenon is still underexplored. In this context, we investigated whether changes in pH, pollination, light, temperature or ethylene mediate petal color change. We found that the detected changes in petal pH were not significant enough to induce color alterations. Additionally, pollination and temperatures of 20–30 °C did not alter the rate of petal color change; however, flowers did not open when exposed to constant temperatures at 15 °C or 35 °C. Moreover, the application of ethylene inhibitor, i.e., silver thiosulphate, did not prevent color change. It is worth mentioning here that in our study we found light as a strong factor influencing the whole process of petal color change, as petals remained white under dark conditions. Altogether, the present study suggests that petal color change in Q. indica is induced by light and not by changes in petal pH, pollination, ethylene, or temperature, while extremely low or high temperatures affect flower anthesis. In summary, our findings represent the probable mechanism underlying the phenomenon of petal color change, which is important for understanding flower color evolution.

  15. Upper petal lip colour polymorphism in Collinsia heterophylla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the genetics of a polymorphic trait is important to predict its likely evolution. In Collinsia heterophylla, the upper petal lip colour can be either be white or white with a purple band, while the lower petal lip colour is invariably purple. Because the corolla is only partly polymorphic, the polymorphism can not have ...

  16. Natural red dyes extraction on roselle petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inggrid, H. M.; Jaka; Santoso, H.

    2016-11-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) has a high quantity of anthocyanin pigment and is a good colorant. The anthocyanin pigment can be used as a natural colorant and antioxidant. An antioxidant is an organic compound that has the ability to inhibit free radical reactions in the human body. The objective of this research is to study the effect of pH and temperature on total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity in roselle extract, and to evaluate the effect of temperature and sunlight on the stability of the red color from roselle. Dried roselle petals were extracted with solid liquid extraction method using water as solvent. The variables in this study are temperature (5°C, 30°C, and 55°C) and pH (2, 7, and 12). Total anthocyanin was analysed using the pH differential method. The antioxidant activities were determined using the DPPH method. The highest total anthocyanin in the roselle petals was 80.4 mg/L at a temperature of 5°C and pH 2. The highest antioxidant activity and yield content in the roselle were 90.4% and 71.6 % respectively, obtained at 55°C and pH 2.

  17. Petal Integration for the CMS Tracker End Caps

    CERN Document Server

    Bergauer, Thomas; Friedl, Markus; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Pernicka, Manfred; Beaumont, Willem; De Wolf, Eddi A; Bouhali, Othmane; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Mahmoud, Tariq; Neukermans, Lionel; Van der Velde, C; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Tavernier, Stefaan; Udo, Fred; Van Lancker, Luc; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; De Callatay, Bernard; Delaere, Christophe; Florins, Benoit; Grégoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Lemaître, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Van der Donckt, M; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Estre, Nicolas; Giraud, Noël; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Mirabito, Laurent; Perriès, Stephane; Trocmé, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Hosselet, J; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Ollivetto, C; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Adolphi, Roman; Brauer, Richard; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Schael, Stefan; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flossdorf, E; Flügge, Günter; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Van Staa, Rolf; Atz, Bernd; Blüm, Peter; de Boer, Wim; Bogelsbacher, F; Barvich, Tobias; Dehm, Philip; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Gregoriev, E; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Muller, Th; Piaseki, C; Sabellek, Andreas; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Theel, Andreas; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Zhukov, Valery; Freudenreich, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This note describes the assembly and testing of the 292 petals built for the CMS Tracker End Caps from the beginning of 2005 until the summer of 2006. Due to the large number of petals to be assembled and the need to reach a throughput of 10 to 15 petals per week, a distributed integration approach was chosen. This integration was carried out by the following institutes: I. and III. Physikalisches Institut - RWTH Aachen University; IIHE, ULB \\& VUB Universities, Brussels; Hamburg University; IEKP, Karlsruhe University; FYNU, Louvain University; IPN, Lyon University; and IPHC, Strasbourg University. Despite the large number of petals which needed to be reworked to cope with a late-discovered module issue, the quality of the petals is excellent with less than 0.2\\% bad channels.

  18. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  19. Solar drying of rose (Rosa sp.) petals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The rose (Rosa sp.) petals can be dried after 2 days at about 30degC reaching an equilibrium moisture content after 16 h using the solar wire basket dryer. The initial moisture content (wet wt basis) and final moisture content (dry wt basis), determined by the Dean-Stark toluene were 65.7 and 25.2% respectively. The intensity of the rose red coloured pigment (pelargonidin) decreased by a factor of 2.5 after drying. The pelargonidin ethanoic extract as an acid-base indicator, has a K{sub 4} value of 1 x 10{sup -4} mol 1{sup -1} and pH of end point 4 and imbibed on filter paper and allowed to air dry for 5 min showed excellent properties as acid-based test tapes. (Author)

  20. Petal-specific subfunctionalization of an APETALA3 paralog in the Ranunculales and its implications for petal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bharti; Guo, Chunce; Kong, Hongzhi; Kramer, Elena M

    2011-08-01

    • The petals of the lower eudicot family Ranunculaceae are thought to have been derived many times independently from stamens. However, investigation of the genetic basis of their identity has suggested an alternative hypothesis: that they share a commonly inherited petal identity program. This theory is based on the fact that an ancient paralogous lineage of APETALA3 (AP3) in the Ranunculaceae appears to have a conserved, petal-specific expression pattern. • Here, we have used a combination of approaches, including RNAi, comparative gene expression and molecular evolutionary studies, to understand the function of this petal-specific AP3 lineage. • Functional analysis of the Aquilegia locus AqAP3-3 has demonstrated that the paralog is required for petal identity with little contribution to the identity of the other floral organs. Expanded expression studies and analyses of molecular evolutionary patterns provide further evidence that orthologs of AqAP3-3 are primarily expressed in petals and are under higher purifying selection across the family than the other AP3 paralogs. • Taken together, these findings suggest that the AqAP3-3 lineage underwent progressive subfunctionalization within the order Ranunculales, ultimately yielding a specific role in petal identity that has probably been conserved, in stark contrast with the multiple independent origins predicted by botanical theories. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  2. Profile of the Phenolic Compounds of Rosa rugosa Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cendrowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa rugosa petals are a rich source of phenolic compounds, which determined their antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the polyphenolic composition of not processed petals of Rosa rugosa collected from the commodity crops and to determine the variability of the contained therein polyphenols between harvesting seasons. Twenty polyphenols were identified by UPLC-ESI-MS. The main fraction of polyphenols was ellagitannins, which are 69 to 74% of the total polyphenols of the petals. In the petals of Rosa rugosa, four anthocyanins have been identified: cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-sophoroside, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, of which the predominant peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside represented approx. 85% of all the determined anthocyanin compounds. It was found that the petals of Rosa rugosa are a valuable source of bioactive compounds and can be considered as a healthy valuable resource.

  3. Anisotropic cell growth-regulated surface micropatterns in flower petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Flower petals have not only diverse macroscopic morphologies but are rich in microscopic surface patterns, which are crucial to their biological functions. Both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis are conducted to reveal the physical mechanisms underlying the formation of minute wrinkles on flower petals. Three representative flowers, daisy, kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Eustoma grandiflorum, are investigated as examples. A surface wrinkling model, incorporating the measured mechanical properties and growth ratio, is used to elucidate the difference in their surface morphologies. The mismatch between the anisotropic epidermal cell growth and the isotropic secretion of surficial wax is found to dictate the surface patterns.

  4. A note on stamen position and petal number in Loranthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Stamen position in Loranthaceae is summarized in both the Old and New Worlds. In the former, stamens are inserted on petals at the same height in an individual flower, with very few exceptions that appear to be in basalmost genera only. In the Americas, much diversity exists in both the position and

  5. Constructing petal modes from the coherent superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Ait-Ameur, Kamel; Brunel, Marc

    2011-03-01

    An experimental approach in generating Petal-like transverse modes, which are similar to what is seen in porro-prism resonators, has been successfully demonstrated. We hypothesize that the petal-like structures are generated from a coherent superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes of zero radial order and opposite azimuthal order. To verify this hypothesis, visually based comparisons such as petal peak to peak diameter and the angle between adjacent petals are drawn between experimental data and simulated data. The beam quality factor of the Petal-like transverse modes and an inner product interaction is also experimentally compared to numerical results.

  6. Perianth evolution in Ranunculaceae: are petals ancestral in the family?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Nadot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made recently towards the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies and tribes of the Ranunculaceae – the most recent hypothesis was published in 2016 by our team. Although relationships among the 10 tribes of the subfamily Ranunculoideae remain incompletely supported, this hypothesis provides an interesting framework to address the key issue of the ancestral vs. derived nature of a differentiated perianth within the family, and at the level of Ranunculales as a whole. Here, we present ancestral state reconstructions for several perianth characters, such as differentiation into sepals and petals, shape of petals, presence/absence of nectaries, and petaloid or sepaloid aspect of sepals. Characters were scored using the PROTEUS database and optimized on the most recent phylogeny of Ranunculaceae using parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The results are discussed with regard to recent evo-devo studies focused on identifying genes involved in floral organs identity (the so-called ABC model in Ranunculales.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of petal abscission zone and functional analysis of an Aux/IAA family gene RhIAA16 involved in petal shedding in rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuerong Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  8. Caracterização anatômica, química e antibacteriana de folhas de Brunfelsia uniflora (manacá presentes na Mata Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    Full Text Available Brunfelsia uniflora é uma espécie pertencente à família Solanaceae conhecida popularmente como manacá e empregada em medicina popular, suas folhas são empregadas contra artrite, reumatismo, sífilis, picadas de cobra, febre amarela, e ainda como diurética e antitérmica. Objetivou-se realizar um estudo anatômico foliar, através de microscopia de luz e de eletrônica de varredura, bem como análises químicas do extrato foliar através de cromatografia e testes microbiológicos com os extratos foliares para atividade antibacteriana frente a Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus. O material biológico foi coletado em área de Mata Atlântica, nas proximidades da cidade de São Vicente - SP. O estudo da anatomia foliar de Brunfelsia uniflora, evidenciou parênquima paliçádico com duas camadas celulares e o parênquima lacunoso com seis camadas de células; foi observada grande quantidade de drusas no parênquima clorofiliano e predominância de esclerênquima na região da nervura central da folha. A epiderme abaxial apresentou grande quantidade de estômatos, sendo estes quase que ausentes na epiderme adaxial. Estudos através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura permitiram evidenciar uma camada de cera epicuticular ornamental bem característica na epiderme adaxial da folha, predominância de estômatos paracíticos, presença de tricomas capitados e muitos tricomas peltados na epiderme abaxial da folha. A análise química evidenciou alguns picos nos cromatogramas que correspondem a grupos de substâncias que não puderam ser analisadas de forma qualitativa, mas que se pode inferir a ocorrência de derivados de ácido cafeico. Os testes microbiológicos obtidos apresentaram resultados negativos no controle das espécies de bactérias testadas, nas concentrações utilizadas.

  9. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-01-01

    Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture conten...

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals the regulation of brassinosteroids on petal growth in Gerbera hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hybrida is a cut-flower crop of global importance, and an understanding of the mechanisms underlying petal development is vital for the continued commercial development of this plant species. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a class of phytohormones, are known to play a major role in cell expansion, but their effect on petal growth in G. hybrida is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that the brassinolide (BL, the most active BR, promotes petal growth by lengthening cells in the middle and basal regions of petals, and that this effect on petal growth was greater than that of gibberellin (GA. The RNA-seq (high-throughput cDNA sequencing technique was employed to investigate the regulatory mechanisms by which BRs control petal growth. A global transcriptome analysis of the response to BRs in petals was conducted and target genes regulated by BR were identified. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs include various transcription factors (TFs that were activated during the early stage (0.5 h of BL treatment, as well as cell wall proteins whose expression was regulated at a late stage (10 h. BR-responsive DEGs are involved in multiple plant hormone signal pathways, hormone biosynthesis and biotic and abiotic stress responses, showing that the regulation of petal growth by BRs is a complex network of processes. Thus, our study provides new insights at the transcriptional level into the molecular mechanisms of BR regulation of petal growth in G. hybrida.

  11. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect.

  12. Current distribution between petals in PF-FSJS sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.

    2003-01-01

    6 Rogowski coils have been installed on each leg of each of the 12 petals in the PF-FSJS sample (poloidal field - full size joint sample) in order to diagnostic current. It appears that Rogowski signal seem reliable for current distribution analysis (Ampere's law is checked and reproducibility is assured) but there is some limitations for qualitative diagnostics. In the series of transparencies results are detailed for the PU1 position, for both leg and right legs and for various unique-angle shift (Δθ) configurations but only results for 0 < Δθ < -5 are consistent

  13. Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in iris and dianthus petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, van der D.A.M.; Ruys, G.; Dees, D.; Schoot, van der C.; Boer, de A.D.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gene defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) prevents programmed cell death in animal cells. We investigated the expression pattern of DAD-1 in petals of iris (Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Etarro). DAD-1 expression in Iris petals was strongly

  14. 75 FR 8051 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application February 12, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 1100 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas, 77002, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an abbreviated application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as...

  15. Petal Thicknesses and Shape Transformations in Blooming Lilies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portet, Thomas; Holmes, Peter N.; Bowden, Mark E.; Stephens, Sean A.; Varga, Tamas; Keller, Sarah L.

    2013-01-29

    During blooming, flower petals undergo significant shape changes. For lilies, various different mechanisms responsible for the change have been suggested [1,2]. One is that cell growth along the edge of a petal, or, more generally, a tepal, drives a transition from a cup shape (within a bud) to a saddle shape (within a bloom). This mechanism has been previously considered for tepals modeled as shallow elliptical shells whose thickness from the center, t, falls off at least as fast as t = t0 (1 - x2/a2 - y2/b2 ) [1]. Here t0 is the maximum thickness of the shell, a and b are the semimajor and semiminoraxes, x and y are the coordinates along the longitudinal and lateral axes. By measuring tepal thicknesses from images collected by x-ray tomography of intact buds and by photography of microtomed buds, we find that this condition is indeed met for both Lilium casablanca and Lilium lancifolium. [1] Liang and Mahadevan. Growth, geometry, and mechanics of a blooming lily.

  16. Trichomes morphology in petals of some Acanthaceae species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amirul Aiman Ahmad Juhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary taxonomic study was carried out on seven Acanthaceae species namely as Andrographis paniculata, Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum, P. carruthersii,  Asystasia gangetica ssp. micrantha, Ruellia repens, Justicia comata and J. betonica. The study was undertaken to    investigate the morphology of trichomes present on the surfaces of flower petal. The variations found in this study are in their types and density. Based on observation, two forms of trichomes are present in all species studies which are glandular and non-glandular trichomes. There are seven types of trichomes found in this study. Trichomes types are shown to have systematic significance that can be used to differentiate and identify certain Acanthaceae species studied. 

  17. Sunflower petals: Some physical properties and modeling distribution of their number, dimensions, and mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mirzabe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower petal is one of the parts of the sunflower which has drawn attention and has several applications these days. These applications justify getting information about physical properties, mechanical properties, drying trends, etc. in order to design new machines and use new methods to harvest or dry the sunflower petals. For three varieties of sunflower, picking force of petals was measured; number of petals of each head was counted; unit mass and 1000-unit mass of fresh petals were measured and length, width, and projected area of fresh petals were calculated based on image processing technique; frequency distributions of these parameters were modeled using statistical distribution models namely Gamma, Generalized Extreme Value (G. E. V, Lognormal, and Weibull. Results of picking force showed that with increasing number of days after appearing the first petal on each head from 5 to 14 and decreasing loading rate from 150 g min−1 to 50 g min−1 values of picking force were decreased for three varieties, but diameter of sunflower head had different effects on picking force for each variety. Length, width, and number of petals of Dorsefid variety ranged from 38.52 to 95.44 mm, 3.80 to 9.28 mm and 29 to 89, respectively. The corresponding values ranged from 34.19 to 88.18 mm, 4.28 to 10.60 mm and 21 to 89, respectively for Shamshiri variety and ranged from 44.47 to 114.63 mm, 7.03 to 20.31 mm and 29 to 89 for Sirena variety. Results of frequency distribution modeling indicated that in most cases, G. E. V and Weibull distributions had better performance than other distributions. Keywords: Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. petal, Picking force, Image processing, Fibonacci sequence, Lucas sequence

  18. A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Tai

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase is a key and often rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as flowers and fruits, but the relationship between CHS expression and the petal coloration level in different cultivars is still unclear. In this study, three typical crabapple cultivars were chosen based on different petal colors and coloration patterns. The two extreme color cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame', have dark red and white petals respectively, while the intermediate cultivar 'Radiant' has pink petals. We detected the flavoniods accumulation and the expression levels of McCHS during petals expansion process in different cultivars. The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'. Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines. Moreover, the expression levels of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were higher in the transgenic McCHS overexpressing tobacco lines than in the control plants. A close relationship was observed between the expression of McCHS and the transcription factors McMYB4 and McMYB5 during petals development in different crabapple cultivars, suggesting that the expression of McCHS was regulated by these transcription factors. We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

  19. Correlations Between Degree of Petal Fusion, Leaf Size and Fruit Size: A Case in Syzygium (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUDJI WIDODO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium is one of large genera of the flowering plants. In order to simplify the identification, a classification is required, e.g. based on degree of petal fusion, leaf size and fruit size. Due to variations of vegetative and generative characters, a correlation analysis was carried out. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between degree of petal fusion, leaf length and fruit diameter. The result of this research showed that there is positive correlation between those three variables. The increase of leaf size will increase fruit size and petal lobe depth.

  20. The rose petal effect and the role of advancing water contact angles for drop confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandsberg, Nikolaj Kofoed; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the role of advancing water contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibited strong pinning effects as known in nature from rose petals. Textured surfaces were engineered in silicon by lithographical techniques. The textures were comprised of hexagonal microstructures...

  1. Three dimensions thermal-mechanical model of the billet in continuous casting petal-like mould

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Wu Li; Cao Zhiqiang; Tingju, L; Wang Tongmin

    2012-01-01

    Petal-like mould is a novel mould which has been applied to the steel industry in recent years. The behavior of the petal-like billet in continuous casting mould plays an important role in designing mould. It is hard to be in situ measured during continuous casting, however, can be worked out by the way of numerical simulation. But the research about the model of the billet in petal-like mould is very little. A 3D finite-element model has been built to simulate the thermal and stress fields of the molten steel in petal-like mould in this paper. The dynamic thermal boundary condition and the effect of ferrostatic pressure have been considered in the model. The temperature and stress in the billet have been predicted by this model.

  2. Simultaneous knock-down of six β-galactosidase genes in petunia petals prevents loss of pectic galactan but decreases petal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Erin M; Somerfield, Sheryl D; Deroles, Simon C; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Erridge, Zoë A; Brummell, David A; Hunter, Donald A

    2017-04-01

    Galactose (Gal) is incorporated into cell wall polysaccharides as flowers open, but then is lost because of β-galactosidase activity as flowers mature and wilt. The significance of this for flower physiology resides in the role of galactan-containing polysaccharides in the cell wall, which is still largely unresolved. To investigate this, transcript accumulation of six cell wall-associated β-galactosidases was simultaneously knocked down in 'Mitchell' petunia (Petunia axillaris x (P. axillaris x P. hybrida)) flower petals. The multi-PhBGAL RNAi construct targeted three bud- and three senescence-associated β-galactosidase genes. The petals of the most down-regulated line (GA19) were significantly disrupted in galactose turnover during flower opening, and at the onset of senescence had retained 86% of their galactose compared with 20% in the controls. The Gal content of Na 2 CO 3 -soluble cell wall extracts and the highly insoluble polysaccharides associated with cellulose were particularly affected. Immunodetection with the antibody LM5 showed that much of the cell wall Gal in GA19 was retained as galactan, presumably the side-chains of rhamnogalacturonan-I. The flowers of GA19, despite having retained substantially more galactan, were no different from controls in their internal cell arrangement, dimensions, weight or timing of opening and senescence. However, the GA19 petals had less petal integrity (as judged by force required to cause petal fracture) after opening and showed a greater decline in this integrity with time than controls, raising the possibility that galactan loss is a mechanism for helping to maintain petal tissue cohesion after flower opening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Micromorphological studies on petals of spiraea l. species (rosaceae) from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal micromorphology of petals of 10 species of Spiraea L. of the family Rosaceae from Pakistan has been examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Micromorphological attributes observed in petals and their reliability as a taxonomic marker is discussed. The epidermal cells exhibit definite geometrical patterns, where cell wall boundaries are more or less elevated and cell surface generally marked with striae. Stomata are completely absent. (author)

  4. A test of phenotypic selection on petal form in the wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Balao, F

    2015-11-01

    Floral phenotypes are considered a product of pollinator-mediated selection, which also has the side effect of decreasing floral variation within species. Correlates of flower visibility and function were studied in a carnation species (Dianthus inoxianus), which has crepuscular anthesis and scent-based pollination by the hawkmoth Hyles livornica. We also assessed constancy of flower form in nature and in cultivation and, using fruit set as an estimate of plant relative fitness, tested whether the main pollinator exerted phenotypic selection on floral traits. Petal claw, which is roughly equivalent to the average depth at which an insect's proboscis must be inserted to reach nectar, was remarkably constant among wild plants (coefficient of variation 8%). In contrast, the area of the visible part of the petal, and the intensity of a coloured dot pattern on the petal was very variable (respectively CV = 34% and 102%). Cultivation in a common environment revealed significant variation among genotypes as regards petal area, degree of laciniation and extension of the dot pattern, but not petal claw length, which remained steady. Petal area, shape and colour did not affect relative fitness during the year of study, but plants with intermediate petal claws (i.e. floral tubes) set significantly more fruit. Results are compatible with low response of the main pollinator to variation in visual traits (petal area, laciniation, colour) and high responsiveness to variation in other aspects (tube length). Inconsistent phenotypic selection by pollinators may add to other causes of floral variation in the genus Dianthus, the causes of which are discussed. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of a petal anthocyanin polymorphism in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Butler

    Full Text Available Angiosperms are renown for their diversity of flower colors. Often considered adaptations to pollinators, the most common underlying pigments, anthocyanins, are also involved in plants' stress response. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well characterized across many angiosperms and is composed of a few candidate genes, the consequences of blocking this pathway and producing white flowers has not been investigated at the transcriptome scale. We take a transcriptome-wide approach to compare expression differences between purple and white petal buds in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis, to determine which genes' expression are consistently correlated with flower color. Using mRNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly, we assembled an average of 722 bp per gene (49.81% coding sequence based on the A. thaliana homolog for 12,795 genes from the petal buds of a pair of purple and white samples. Our results correlate strongly with qRT-PCR analysis of nine candidate genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway where chalcone synthase has the greatest difference in expression between color morphs (P/W = ∼7×. Among the most consistently differentially expressed genes between purple and white samples, we found 3× more genes with higher expression in white petals than in purple petals. These include four unknown genes, two drought-response genes (CDSP32, ERD5, a cold-response gene (GR-RBP2, and a pathogen defense gene (DND1. Gene ontology analysis of the top 2% of genes with greater expression in white relative to purple petals revealed enrichment in genes associated with stress responses including cold, drought and pathogen defense. Unlike the uniform downregulation of chalcone synthase that may be directly involved in the loss of petal anthocyanins, the variable expression of several genes with greater expression in white petals suggest that the physiological and ecological consequences of having white petals may be

  6. Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodson, W.R.; Handa, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen the day of flower opening and increased to over 9% of the total protein content of senescent petal tissue. Protein synthesis during aging was investigated by following uptake and incorporation of 3 H-leucine into TCA-insoluble fraction of petal discs. Protein synthesis, as evidenced by the percent of label incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction, was greatest (32%) the day before flower opening. Senescent petal tissue incorporated 4% of label taken up into protein. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and labelled polypeptides identified by fluorography. In presenescent petal tissue, radioactivity was distributed among several major polypeptides. In senescent tissue, much of the radioactivity was concentrated in the 41 kd polypeptide

  7. Intracellular energy depletion triggers programmed cell death during petal senescence in tulip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, A K; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Sawa, Y; Shibata, H

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in petals provides a model system to study the molecular aspects of organ senescence. In this study, the very early triggering signal for PCD during the senescence process from young green buds to 14-d-old petals of Tulipa gesneriana was determined. The opening and closing movement of petals of intact plants increased for the first 3 d and then gradually decreased. DNA degradation and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release were clearly observed in 6-d-old flowers. Oxidative stress or ethylene production can be excluded as the early signal for petal PCD. In contrast, ATP was dramatically depleted after the first day of flower opening. Sucrose supplementation to cut flowers maintained their ATP levels and the movement ability for a longer time than in those kept in water. The onset of DNA degradation, Cyt c release, and petal senescence was also delayed by sucrose supplementation to cut flowers. These results suggest that intracellular energy depletion, rather than oxidative stress or ethylene production, may be the very early signal to trigger PCD in tulip petals.

  8. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Petal Extracts on Lipase, Adipogenesis, Adipolysis, and Central Receptors of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N. nucifera is one among the important medicinal plants assessed for its antiobesity action in various preclinical models. The present study was aimed at investigating the antiobesity effect of methanol and successive water extracts of petals of N. nucifera by studying its effect on adipogenesis, adipolysis, lipase, serotonin (5-HT2C, cannabinoid (CNR2, melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCHR1, and melanocortin (MC4R receptors. Both methanol and successive water extracts of N. nucifera petals had an effect on inhibition of lipid storage in adipocytes and on increasing lipolysis. N. nucifera petal methanol extract exhibited the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on lipase activity with an IC50 value of 47 µg/mL. N. nucifera petal extracts showed evident agonist and antagonist activity towards 5-HT2C and CNR2 receptors, respectively, while it showed no effect towards MCHR1 and MC4R receptors. Overall, methanol extract of N. nucifera petals showed better activity than successive water extract.

  9. Proteomic and Biochemical Changes during Senescence of Phalaenopsis 'Red Dragon' Petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zeng, Lanting; Ye, Qingsheng

    2018-04-28

    Phalaenopsis flowers are some of the most popular ornamental flowers in the world. For most ornamental plants, petal longevity determines postharvest quality and garden performance. Therefore, it is important to have insight into the senescence mechanism of Phalaenopsis . In the present study, a proteomic approach combined with ultrastructural observation and activity analysis of antioxidant enzymes was used to profile the molecular and biochemical changes during pollination-induced petal senescence in Phalaenopsis “Red Dragon”. Petals appeared to be visibly wilting at 24 h after pollination, accompanied by the mass degradation of macromolecules and organelles during senescence. In addition, 48 protein spots with significant differences in abundance were found by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). There were 42 protein spots successfully identified and homologous to known functional protein species involved in key biological processes, including antioxidant pathways, stress response, protein metabolism, cell wall component metabolism, energy metabolism, cell structure, and signal transduction. The activity of all reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes was increased, keeping the content of ROS at a low level at the early stage of senescence. These results suggest that two processes, a counteraction against increased levels of ROS and the degradation of cellular constituents for maintaining nutrient recycling, are activated during pollination-induced petal senescence in Phalaenopsis . The information provides a basis for understanding the mechanism regulating petal senescence and prolonging the florescence of Phalaenopsis .

  10. Nutritious tissue in petals of Annonaceae and its function in pollination by scarab beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Gottsberger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The feeding of pollinating dynastid-scarab beetles on nutritious tissue of Annonaceae flowers results in macroscopically visible gnawing marks on petals. In the present paper, we present and discuss examples of such gnawing marks on Annonaceae from the Cerrado and the Amazon Forest in Brazil. The localization of gnawing marks on the petals and the histochemistry of the nutritious tissues are emphasized. In some species, nutritious tissue is apparently distributed among all petals, while in other species it is more or less diffusely localized. There are also cases in which nutritious tissue occurs only on clearly localized regions of the inner petals. Petals of selected Amazon species were stained, and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The nutritious tissue consists of cells with mucilage-rich walls, which contain starch, lipids and/or tannins. Starch and lipids are not only energy-rich food for the beetles but are apparently also “fuel” for metabolic heating of the flowers, which is a further benefit for the pollinators inside the pollination chamber.

  11. Effect of saffron petal extract on retention quality of fresh-cut watermelon cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is considered as a valuable produce by producers and traders. Unfortunately, the use of its floral by products like petal which have proven to be antioxidant, antimicrobial and nutritional value is limited. In order to investigate the application of saffron petal extracts as an ameliorative on postharvest and processing quality of fresh-cut ‘Crimson Sweet’ watermelon, a completely randomized designed investigation was done on watermelon cubes with 1cm diameter (1±0.5 gram mean weight. Prepared watermelon cubes were divided into four groups and treated with saffron petal extract (10 % V/V for 10 minutes, UV irradiation (maximum wavelength 253.4 nm and 15W for 5 minutes, 10 minutes of saffron petal extract then UV irradiation for 5 minutes and control. After the application of treatments, fresh-cut watermelon cubes were stored at 5±0.5 ºC for 14 days. Sampling and observation of the studied characteristics (physiological loss in weight, soluble solid content, lycopene, microbial load and color quality (Chroma Hue was done every two days to find the trend of changes during the retention period. The results of experiment showed that petal extract of saffron could not decrease weight loss but it was significantly effective in lowering microbial load and increasing color quality, and prevention of lycopene degradation (P≤5%. Although treatment of UV+SPE had better efficiency to suppress microbial load significantly (P≤5%.

  12. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horibe Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific radioactivity of sucrose and glucose in leaves, but specific radioactivity of sucrose in petals was much higher than that of glucose. These results suggested that most of the exogenously applied glucose first moved to the leaves, where it was converted into sucrose and then the synthesised sucrose was translocated to the petals. Our results showed that the leaves of cut rose flowers play an important role in the metabolism and transportation of exogenously applied soluble carbohydrates toward the petals, thus contributing to sustaining the post-harvest quality.

  13. RhHB1 mediates the antagonism of gibberellins to ABA and ethylene during rose (Rosa hybrida) petal senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Peitao; Zhang, Changqing; Liu, Jitao; Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Guimei; Jiang, Xinqiang; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Wang, Liangsheng; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping

    2014-05-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida) is one of the most important ornamental plants worldwide; however, senescence of its petals terminates the ornamental value of the flower, resulting in major economic loss. It is known that the hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene promote petal senescence, while gibberellins (GAs) delay the process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effects amongst plant hormones during petal senescence are still unclear. Here we isolated RhHB1, a homeodomain-leucine zipper I transcription factor gene, from rose flowers. Quantitative RT-PCR and GUS reporter analyses showed that RhHB1 was strongly expressed in senescing petals, and its expression was induced by ABA or ethylene in petals. ABA or ethylene treatment clearly accelerated rose petal senescence, while application of the gibberellin GA3 delayed the process. However, silencing of RhHB1 delayed the ABA- or ethylene-mediated senescence, and resulted in higher petal anthocyanin levels and lower expression of RhSAG12. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, repressed these delays. In addition, silencing of RhHB1 blocked the ABA- or ethylene-induced reduction in expression of the GA20 oxidase encoded by RhGA20ox1, a gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, RhHB1 directly binds to the RhGA20ox1 promoter, and silencing of RhGA20ox1 promoted petal senescence. Eight senescence-related genes showed substantial differences in expression in petals after treatment with GA3 or paclobutrazol. These results suggest that RhHB1 mediates the antagonistic effect of GAs on ABA and ethylene during rose petal senescence, and that the promotion of petal senescence by ABA or ethylene operates through an RhHB1-RhGA20ox1 regulatory checkpoint. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. ISOLATION ANTHOCYANIN FROM ROSELLE PETALS (Hibiscus sabdariffa L AND THE EFFECT OF LIGHT ON THE STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuryanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate anthocyanins from roselle petals and testing the stability toward light. Isolation of anthocyanin was accomplished by extracting roselle petals using eluents with different polarity levels. Nonpolar compounds was eliminated using n-hexane, then semipolar compounds extracted with ethyl acetate and isolated anthocyanin by solvent mixtures of methanol-HCl 0.5%. Color test to determine the presence of anthocyanin was performed with NH3 vapor, Pb-acetate 1% and Pb-nitrate 5%. The structure of anthocyanin in the roselle flower was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. Anthocyanin stability test of the influence of light carried out in a room without light conditions (dark room and light 25 Watt at 31 °C. The results showed that the roselle petals contain anthocyanin cyanidin-3-glucoside. Light has been found to affect the stability of anthocyanin cyanidin-3-glucoside.

  15. Direct imaging of plant metabolites in leaves and petals by Desorption Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Janfelt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    and demonstrated on leaves and petals of Hypericum perforatum. The direct imaging approaches are in contrast to previous DESI imaging studies where indirect analysis via imprints were used in order to overcome the morphological barrier presented by the layer of cuticular waxes covering the surface of a leaf...... of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), a significant class of metabolites located in the cuticle layer in leaves and petals, as well as other plant metabolites. In the case of the petals of H. perforatum, all common metabolites could be imaged directly using the ternary solvent, whereas in the case...... of leaves from the same plant, only some of the metabolites were accessible, even with the ternary solvent system. For these samples, the leaves could be imaged with direct DESI after chloroform had been used to remove most of the cuticle, thus exposing lower layers in the leaf structure. A number...

  16. Characterization of protein phosphatase 2A acting on phosphorylated plasma membrane aquaporin of tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    A protein phosphatase holo-type enzyme (38, 65, and 75 kDa) preparation and a free catalytic subunit (38 kDa) purified from tulip petals were characterized as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by immunological and biochemical approaches. The plasma membrane containing the putative plasma membrane aquaporin (PM-AQP) was prepared from tulip petals, phosphorylated in vitro, and used as the substrate for both of the purified PP2A preparations. Although both preparations dephosphorylated the phosphorylated PM-AQP at 20 degrees C, only the holo-type enzyme preparation acted at 5 degrees C on the phosphorylated PM-AQP with higher substrate specificity, suggesting that regulatory subunits are required for low temperature-dependent dephosphorylation of PM-AQP in tulip petals.

  17. An organ-specific role for ethylene in rose petal expansion during dehydration and rehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Meng, Yonglu; Sun, Cuihui; Tang, Hongshu; Jiang, Yudong; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Xue, Jingqi; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1–5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. β-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1–5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals. PMID:23599274

  18. PETALS: Proteomic Evaluation and Topological Analysis of a mutated Locus' Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vishal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer is driven by mutations in a number of genes, the most notorious of which is Apc. Though much of Apc's signaling has been mechanistically identified over the years, it is not always clear which functions or interactions are operative in a particular tumor. This is confounded by the presence of mutations in a number of other putative cancer driver (CAN genes, which often synergize with mutations in Apc. Computational methods are, thus, required to predict which pathways are likely to be operative when a particular mutation in Apc is observed. Results We developed a pipeline, PETALS, to predict and test likely signaling pathways connecting Apc to other CAN-genes, where the interaction network originating at Apc is defined as a "blossom," with each Apc-CAN-gene subnetwork referred to as a "petal." Known and predicted protein interactions are used to identify an Apc blossom with 24 petals. Then, using a novel measure of bimodality, the coexpression of each petal is evaluated against proteomic (2 D differential In Gel Electrophoresis, 2D-DIGE measurements from the Apc1638N+/-mouse to test the network-based hypotheses. Conclusions The predicted pathways linking Apc and Hapln1 exhibited the highest amount of bimodal coexpression with the proteomic targets, prioritizing the Apc-Hapln1 petal over other CAN-gene pairs and suggesting that this petal may be involved in regulating the observed proteome-level effects. These results not only demonstrate how functional 'omics data can be employed to test in silico predictions of CAN-gene pathways, but also reveal an approach to integrate models of upstream genetic interference with measured, downstream effects.

  19. Self-repeating properties of four-petal Gaussian vortex beams in quadratic index medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Defeng; Li, Xiaohui; Chai, Tong; Zheng, Hairong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation properties of four-petal Gaussian vortex (FPGV) beams propagating through the quadratic index medium, obtaining the analytical expression of FPGV beams. The effects of beam order n, topological charge m and beam waist ω0 are investigated. Results show that quadratic index medium support periodic distributions of FPGV beams. A hollow optical wall or an optical central principal maximum surrounded by symmetrical sidelobes will occur at the center of a period. At length, they will evolve into four petals structure, exactly same as the intensity distributions at source plane.

  20. Reception Test of Petals for the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, R; Klein, Katja; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Adler, Volker; Adolphi, Roman; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and was inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub system of the tracker are its end caps, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted onto the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 such petals, which were built and fully qualified by several institutes across Europe. From

  1. 77 FR 70434 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-464-000] Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that on November 8, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C...

  2. 77 FR 34031 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg... pursuant to sections 7(c) and 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), for authorization for Petal to acquire the...

  3. Petal abscission in rose flowers: effects of water potential, light intensity and light quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Vojinovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    Petal abscission was studied in roses (Rosa hybrida L.), cvs. Korflapei (trade name Frisco), Sweet Promise (Sonia) and Cara Mia (trade name as officially registered cultivar name). Unlike flowers on plants in greenhouses, cut flowers placed in water in the greenhouse produced visible symptoms of

  4. Brake Failure from Residual Magnetism in the Mars Exploration Rover Lander Petal Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft arrived at Mars. Each safely delivered an identical rover to the Martian surface in a tetrahedral lander encased in airbags. Upon landing, the airbags deflated and three Lander Petal Actuators opened the three deployable Lander side petals enabling the rover to exit the Lander. Approximately nine weeks prior to the scheduled launch of the first spacecraft, one of these mission-critical Lander Petal Actuators exhibited a brake stuck-open failure during its final flight stow at Kennedy Space Center. Residual magnetism was the definitive conclusion from the failure investigation. Although residual magnetism was recognized as an issue in the design, the lack of an appropriately specified lower bound on brake drop-out voltage inhibited the discovery of this problem earlier in the program. In addition, the brakes had more unit-to-unit variation in drop-out voltage than expected, likely due to a larger than expected variation in the magnetic properties of the 15-5 PH stainless steel brake plates. Failure analysis and subsequent rework of two other Lander Petal Actuators with marginal brakes was completed in three weeks, causing no impact to the launch date.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis to quantitate gossypol enantiomers in cottonseed and flower petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol occurs as a mixture of enantiomers in cotton plant tissues including seed and flower petals. The (-)-enantiomer is less toxic to non-ruminant animals. Efforts to breed cottonseed with a low percentage of (-)-gossypol requires the determination of the (+)- to (-)-gossypol ratio in seed and...

  6. Transgenic carnation plants obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of petal explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altvorst, van A.C.; Koehorst, H.; Jong, de J.; Dons, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic carnation plants were obtained after infection of petal explants with the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGLO. Southern blot techniques confirmed the transgenic nature of four transformed plants. The expression of the gus gene was verified in these plants by histochemical

  7. Phosphorylation of plasma membrane aquaporin regulates temperature-dependent opening of tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    The opening and closing of tulip petals was reproduced in the dark by changing the temperature from 5 degrees C to 20 degrees C for opening and 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C for closing. The opening process was accompanied by (3)H(2)O transport through the stem from the incubation medium to the petals. A Ca(2+)-channel blocker and a Ca(2+)-chelator inhibited petal opening and (3)H(2)O transport. Several proteins in the isolated plasma membrane fraction were phosphorylated in the presence of 25 micro M Ca(2+) at 20 degrees C. The 31-kDa protein that was phosphorylated, was suggested immunologically as the putative plasma membrane aquaporin (PM-AQP). This phosphorylated PM-AQP clearly reacted with the anti-phospho-Ser. In-gel assay revealed the presence of a 45-kDa Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase in the isolated plasma membrane. Phosphorylation of the putative PM-AQP was thought to activate the water channel composed of PM-AQP. Dephosphorylation of the phosphorylated PM-AQP was also observed during petal closing at 5 degrees C, suggesting the inactivation of the water channel.

  8. Partially Transparent Petaled Mask/Occulter for Visible-Range Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ron Shahram; Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the Poisson Spot, also known as the spot of Arago, has been known since the 18th century. This spot is the consequence of constructive interference of light diffracted by the edge of the obstacle where the central position can be determined by symmetry of the object. More recently, many NASA missions require the suppression of this spot in the visible range. For instance, the exoplanetary missions involving space telescopes require telescopes to image the planetary bodies orbiting central stars. For this purpose, the starlight needs to be suppressed by several orders of magnitude in order to image the reflected light from the orbiting planet. For the Earth-like planets, this suppression needs to be at least ten orders of magnitude. One of the common methods of suppression involves sharp binary petaled occulters envisioned to be placed many thousands of miles away from the telescope blocking the starlight. The suppression of the Poisson Spot by binary sharp petal tips can be problematic when the thickness of the tips becomes smaller than the wavelength of the incident beam. First they are difficult to manufacture and also it invalidates the laws of physical optics. The proposed partially transparent petaled masks/occulters compensate for this sharpness with transparency along the surface of the petals. Depending on the geometry of the problem, this transparency can be customized such that only a small region of the petal is transparent and the remaining of the surface is opaque. This feature allows easy fabrication of this type of occultation device either as a mask or occulter. A partially transparent petaled mask/ occulter has been designed for the visible spectrum range. The mask/occulter can suppress the intensity along the optical axis up to ten orders of magnitude. The design process can tailor the mask shape, number of petals, and transparency level to the near-field and farfield diffraction region. The mask/occulter can be used in space

  9. Direct surface analysis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals heterogeneous composition of the cuticle of Hibiscus trionum petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorio, Chiara; Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J; Skelton, Paul C; Kalberer, Markus

    2015-10-06

    Plant cuticle, which is the outermost layer covering the aerial parts of all plants including petals and leaves, can present a wide range of patterns that, combined with cell shape, can generate unique physical, mechanical, or optical properties. For example, arrays of regularly spaced nanoridges have been found on the dark (anthocyanin-rich) portion at the base of the petals of Hibiscus trionum. Those ridges act as a diffraction grating, producing an iridescent effect. Because the surface of the distal white region of the petals is smooth and noniridescent, a selective chemical characterization of the surface of the petals on different portions (i.e., ridged vs smooth) is needed to understand whether distinct cuticular patterns correlate with distinct chemical compositions of the cuticle. In the present study, a rapid screening method has been developed for the direct surface analysis of Hibiscus trionum petals using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The optimized method was used to characterize a wide range of plant metabolites and cuticle monomers on the upper (adaxial) surface of the petals on both the white/smooth and anthocyanic/ridged regions, and on the lower (abaxial) surface, which is entirely smooth. The main components detected on the surface of the petals are low-molecular-weight organic acids, sugars, and flavonoids. The ridged portion on the upper surface of the petal is enriched in long-chain fatty acids, which are constituents of the wax fraction of the cuticle. These compounds were not detected on the white/smooth region of the upper petal surface or on the smooth lower surface.

  10. Heat stability of strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions containing natural copigments extracted from rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Vasil; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Mihalev, Kiril; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-09-24

    Thermal degradation and color changes of purified strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions were studied upon heating at 85 degrees C by HPLC-DAD analyses and CIELCh measurements, respectively. The anthocyanin half-life values increased significantly due to the addition of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petal extracts enriched in natural copigments. Correspondingly, the color stability increased as the total color difference values were smaller for anthocyanins upon copigment addition, especially after extended heating. Furthermore, the stabilizing effect of rose petal polyphenols was compared with that of well-known copigments such as isolated kaempferol, quercetin, and sinapic acid. The purified rose petal extract was found to be a most effective anthocyanin-stabilizing agent at a molar pigment/copigment ratio of 1:2. The results obtained demonstrate that the addition of rose petal polyphenols slows the thermal degradation of strawberry anthocyanins, thus resulting in improved color retention without affecting the gustatory quality of the product.

  11. Evolution of spur-length diversity in Aquilegia petals is achieved solely through cell-shape anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzey, Joshua R; Gerbode, Sharon J; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Mahadevan, L

    2012-04-22

    The role of petal spurs and specialized pollinator interactions has been studied since Darwin. Aquilegia petal spurs exhibit striking size and shape diversity, correlated with specialized pollinators ranging from bees to hawkmoths in a textbook example of adaptive radiation. Despite the evolutionary significance of spur length, remarkably little is known about Aquilegia spur morphogenesis and its evolution. Using experimental measurements, both at tissue and cellular levels, combined with numerical modelling, we have investigated the relative roles of cell divisions and cell shape in determining the morphology of the Aquilegia petal spur. Contrary to decades-old hypotheses implicating a discrete meristematic zone as the driver of spur growth, we find that Aquilegia petal spurs develop via anisotropic cell expansion. Furthermore, changes in cell anisotropy account for 99 per cent of the spur-length variation in the genus, suggesting that the true evolutionary innovation underlying the rapid radiation of Aquilegia was the mechanism of tuning cell shape.

  12. Poisson-Spot Intensity Reduction with a Partially-Transparent Petal-Shaped Optical Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shahram; Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Poisson's spot, also known as the spot of Arago, formed along the optical axis in the geometrical shadow behind an obstruction, has been known since the 18th century. The presence of this spot can best be described as the consequence of constructive interference of light waves diffracted on the edge of the obstruction where its central position can··be determined by the symmetry of the object More recently, the elimination of this spot has received attention in the fields of particle physics, high-energy lasers, astronomy and lithography. In this paper, we introduce a novel, partially transparent petaled mask shape that suppresses the bright spot by up to 10 orders of magnitude in intensity, with powerful applications to many of the above fields. The optimization technique formulated in this design can identify mask shapes having partial transparency only near the petal tips.

  13. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Converting PETAL, the 25m solar collector, into an astronimcal research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribak, Erez N.; Laor, Ari; Faiman, David; Biyukov, Sergy; Brosch, Noah

    2003-02-01

    We propose to modify the solar collector PETAL (Photon Energy Transformation &Astrophysics Laboratory) for astronomy. The mirror is a segmented parabolic dish collector, which has a relatively poor imaging quality. The conversion can be done by either of two principal methods: (1) phasing the surface of the collector itself or significant sections thereof; (2) transforming the structure into an optical interferometer by mounting small telescopes around its rim, and using fiber optics to combine the light at a common focus.

  15. A Technique for Measuring Petal Gloss, with Examples from the Namaqualand Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Heather M.; Rands, Sean A.; Elton, Nick J.; Ellis, Allan G.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of floral gloss varies between species. However, little is known about this distinctive floral trait, even though it could be a key feature of floral biotic and abiotic interactions. One reason for the absence of knowledge is the lack of a simple, repeatable method of gloss measurement that can be used in the field to study floral gloss. A protocol is described for measuring gloss in petal samples collected in the field, using a glossmeter. Repeatability of the technique is assesse...

  16. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, K.A.; Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  17. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture content of 90.84 % be dried with this dryer until the moisture content of 7.67 % takes only 2 days, although the weather was less sunny . The temperature in the drying chamber was not more than 50° C, so it was good for drying groceries, not damaging chemical ingredients. The relative humidity in the space dryeris was about 40 % and it was still relative low. Drying rate and drying performance was expressed by the efficiency and Specific Moisture Evaporation Rate ( SMER were influenced by water content of the dried material and weather. Daily efficiency at the first and the second day: 14.931 % and 5.78%, while the daily SMER on the first and the second day: 0.222 and 0.0256 ( kg / kWh .

  18. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  20. Analysis of petal longterm test data for the CMS-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydhausen, Dirk

    2008-12-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva will start end of 2008. One of the experiments at the LHC is the multipurpose detector CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid). A key part of the CMS detector is the tracking system, that is composed of a silicon pixel detector forming the innermost part, surrounded by silicon strip sensors. Currently, it is the largest silicon detector in the world with an active area of 198 m{sup 2}. The strip tracker itself consists of four subdetectors. One of these are the tracker end caps (TEC) with an active area of 82 m{sup 2}. Besides this large aperture, their position in the forward region plays a key role for physics analysis due to the fact that many of the interesting events are expected to be boosted in the forward region (pp collider). This area splits up into 10,288 sensors with 3,988,765 channels in total. In several steps the modules constructed and tested before being mounted onto the final substructures (petals). An important longterm test has been performed which qualifies the petals to be installed into the detector. The focus of the present work is in the longterm test. The test procedure is described. A method for identification and classification of defect channels is presented. This method has been developed based on the test results of a previous test ('ARC-test'), which has examined each module before the assembly onto the petals. A cross-check has been performed to compare the results with data from a subsequent test ('sector-test'), that is performed after the petals have been integrated into the TEC. A good agreement shows the consistency of the presented results. With the help of this method a channel defect rate of approximately 0.09% can be measured. Further defects like 'dead' components became visible after integration of the petals into the TEC and raised this number up to 0.33% defect and non-recoverable channels. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of petal longterm test data for the CMS-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydhausen, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva will start end of 2008. One of the experiments at the LHC is the multipurpose detector CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid). A key part of the CMS detector is the tracking system, that is composed of a silicon pixel detector forming the innermost part, surrounded by silicon strip sensors. Currently, it is the largest silicon detector in the world with an active area of 198 m 2 . The strip tracker itself consists of four subdetectors. One of these are the tracker end caps (TEC) with an active area of 82 m 2 . Besides this large aperture, their position in the forward region plays a key role for physics analysis due to the fact that many of the interesting events are expected to be boosted in the forward region (pp collider). This area splits up into 10,288 sensors with 3,988,765 channels in total. In several steps the modules constructed and tested before being mounted onto the final substructures (petals). An important longterm test has been performed which qualifies the petals to be installed into the detector. The focus of the present work is in the longterm test. The test procedure is described. A method for identification and classification of defect channels is presented. This method has been developed based on the test results of a previous test ('ARC-test'), which has examined each module before the assembly onto the petals. A cross-check has been performed to compare the results with data from a subsequent test ('sector-test'), that is performed after the petals have been integrated into the TEC. A good agreement shows the consistency of the presented results. With the help of this method a channel defect rate of approximately 0.09% can be measured. Further defects like 'dead' components became visible after integration of the petals into the TEC and raised this number up to 0.33% defect and non-recoverable channels. (orig.)

  2. Upregulation of a tonoplast-localized cytochrome P450 during petal senescence in Petunia inflata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Hiroyuki

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression in Petunia inflata petals undergoes major changes following compatible pollination. Severe flower wilting occurs reproducibly within 36 hours, providing an excellent model for investigation of petal senescence and programmed cell death. Expression of a number of genes and various enzyme activities involved in the degradation and remobilization of macromolecules have been found to be upregulated during the early stages of petal senescence. Results By performing differential display of cDNAs during Petunia inflata petal senescence, a highly upregulated gene encoding a cytochrome P450 was identified. Analysis of the complete cDNA sequence revealed that the predicted protein is a member of the CYP74C family (CYP74C9 and is highly similar to a tomato CYP74C allene oxide synthase (AOS that is known to be active on 9-hydroperoxides. Cloning of the petunia genomic DNA revealed an intronless gene with a promoter region that carries signals found in stress-responsive genes and potential binding sites for Myb transcription factors. Transcripts were present at detectable levels in root and stem, but were 40 times more abundant in flowers 36 hours after pollination. Ethylene and jasmonate treatment resulted in transitory increases in expression in detached flowers. A protein fusion of the CYP74C coding region to a C-terminal GFP was found to be located in the tonoplast. Conclusion Though oxylipins, particularly jasmonates, are known to be involved in stress responses, the role of other products of CYP74 enzymes is less well understood. The identification of a CYP74C family member as a highly upregulated gene during petal senescence suggests that additional products of fatty acid metabolism may play important roles during programmed cell death. In contrast to the chloroplast localization of AOS proteins in the CYP74A subfamily, GFP fusion data indicates that the petunia CYP74C9 enzyme is in the tonoplast. This result

  3. RNAi suppression of Arogenate Dehydratase1 reveals that phenylalanine is synthesized predominantly via the arogenate pathway in petunia petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Shasany, Ajit K; Schnepp, Jennifer; Orlova, Irina; Taguchi, Goro; Cooper, Bruce R; Rhodes, David; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2010-03-01

    l-Phe, a protein building block and precursor of numerous phenolic compounds, is synthesized from prephenate via an arogenate and/or phenylpyruvate route in which arogenate dehydratase (ADT) or prephenate dehydratase, respectively, plays a key role. Here, we used Petunia hybrida flowers, which are rich in Phe-derived volatiles, to determine the biosynthetic routes involved in Phe formation in planta. Of the three identified petunia ADTs, expression of ADT1 was the highest in petunia petals and positively correlated with endogenous Phe levels throughout flower development. ADT1 showed strict substrate specificity toward arogenate, although with the lowest catalytic efficiency among the three ADTs. ADT1 suppression via RNA interference in petunia petals significantly reduced ADT activity, levels of Phe, and downstream phenylpropanoid/benzenoid volatiles. Unexpectedly, arogenate levels were unaltered, while shikimate and Trp levels were decreased in transgenic petals. Stable isotope labeling experiments showed that ADT1 suppression led to downregulation of carbon flux toward shikimic acid. However, an exogenous supply of shikimate bypassed this negative regulation and resulted in elevated arogenate accumulation. Feeding with shikimate also led to prephenate and phenylpyruvate accumulation and a partial recovery of the reduced Phe level in transgenic petals, suggesting that the phenylpyruvate route can also operate in planta. These results provide genetic evidence that Phe is synthesized predominantly via arogenate in petunia petals and uncover a novel posttranscriptional regulation of the shikimate pathway.

  4. Identification of antimutagenic properties of anthocyanins and other polyphenols from rose (Rosa centifolia) petals and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-06-01

    Petals from different rose (Rosa centifolia) cultivars ("passion," "pink noblesse," and "sphinx") were assessed for antimutagenicity using Escherichia coli RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based Rif (S) →Rif (R) (rifampicin sensitive to resistant) forward mutation assay against ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutagenesis. The aqueous extracts of rose petals from different cultivars exhibited a wide variation in their antimutagenicity. Among these, cv. "passion" was found to display maximum antimutagenicity. Upon further fractionation, the anthocyanin extract of cv. "passion" displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than its phenolic extract. During thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, the anthocyanin extract got resolved into 3 spots: yellow (Rf : 0.14), blue (Rf : 0.30), and pink (Rf : 0.49). Among these spots, the blue one displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than the other 2. Upon high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, this blue spot further got resolved into 2 peaks (Rt : 2.7 and 3.8 min). The 2nd peak (Rt : 3.8 min) displaying high antimutagenicity was identified by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis as peonidin 3-glucoside, whereas less antimutagenic peak 1 (Rt : 2.7) was identified as cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. The other TLC bands were also characterized by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis. The least antimutagenic pink band (Rf : 0.49) was identified as malvidin 3-acetylglucoside-4-vinylcatechol, whereas non-antimutagenic yellow band (Rf : 0.14) was identified as luteolinidin anthocyanin derivative. Interestingly, the anthocyanin extracted from rose tea of cv. "passion" exhibited a similar antimutagenicity as that of the raw rose petal indicating the thermal stability of the contributing bioactive(s). The findings thus indicated the health protective property of differently colored rose cultivars and the nature of their active bioingredients. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Biomimetic electroactive polyimide with rose petal-like surface structure for anticorrosive coating application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Ji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an electroactive polyimide (EPI coating with biomimetic surface structure of rose petal used in anticorrosion application was first presented. First of all, amino-capped aniline trimer (ACAT was synthesized by oxidative coupling reaction, followed by characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscooy (FTIR, liquid chromatography – mass spcerometry (LC-MS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy. Subsequently, as-prepared ACAT was reacted with isopropylidenediphenoxy-bis(phthalic anhydride (BPADA to give electroactive poly(amic acid (EPAA. Moreover, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS was used to be the soft negative template for pattern transfer from the surface of rose petal to the surface of polymer coating. The EPI coating with biomimetic structure was obtained by programmed heating the EPAA slurry casting onto the negative PDMS template. The anticorrosive performance of as-prepared biomimetic EPI coating was demonstrated by performing a series of electrochemical measurements (Tafel, Nyquist, and Bode plots upon cold-rolled steel (CRS electrode in a NaCl aqueous solution. It should be noted that the biomimetic EPI coating with rose petal-like structure was found to exhibit better anticorrosion than that of EPI without biomimetic structure. Moreover, the surface contact angle of water droplets for biomimetic EPI coating was found to be ~150°, which is significantly higher than that of EPI coating with smooth structure (~87°, indicating that the EPI coating with biomimetic structure reveals better hydrophobicity. The apparent mechanism for improved anticorrosive properties is twofold: (1 the biomimetic structure of EPI coating can repel water droplets. (2 electroactivity of EPI coating promotes the formation of densely passive layer of metal oxide on metallic surface.

  6. Visible-light driven nitrogen-doped petal-morphological ceria nanosheets for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junchao; Zhang, Wenya; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Zhigang; Chen, Feng; Liu, Chengbao; Lu, Xiaowang; Li, Ping; Wang, Kaiyuan; Chen, Ailian

    2018-06-01

    Water splitting is a promising sustainable technology for solar-to-chemical energy conversion. Herein, we successfully fabricated nitrogen-doped ultrathin CeO2 nanosheets by using field poppy petals as templates, which exhibit an efficiently catalytic activity for water splitting. Abundant oxygen vacancies and substitutional N atoms were experimentally observed in the film due to its unique biomorphic texture. In view of high efficiency and long durability of the as-prepared photocatalyst, this biotemplate method may provide an alternative technique for using biomolecules to assemble 2D nanomaterials.

  7. Cloning, characterization, and expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and expansin genes associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Onodera, Reiko; Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1–DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1–DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening. PMID:20959626

  8. An APETALA2 Homolog, RcAP2, Regulates the Number of Rose Petals Derived From Stamens and Response to Temperature Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rosa chinensis, which is a famous traditional flower in China, is a major ornamental plant worldwide. Long-term cultivation and breeding have resulted in considerable changes in the number of rose petals, while most wild Rosaceae plants have only one whorl consisting of five petals. The petals of double flowers reportedly originate from stamens, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully characterized. In this study, we observed that the number of petals of R. chinensis ‘Old Blush’ flowers increased and decreased in response to low- and high-temperature treatments, respectively, similar to previous reports. We characterized these variations in further detail and found that the number of stamens exhibited the opposite trend. We cloned an APETALA2 homolog, RcAP2. A detailed analysis of gene structure and promoter cis-acting elements as well as RcAP2 temporospatial expression patterns and responses to temperature changes suggested that RcAP2 expression may be related to the number of petals from stamen origin. The overexpression of RcAP2 in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic plants may induce the transformation of stamens to petals, thereby increasing the number of petals. Moreover, silencing RcAP2 in ‘Old Blush’ plants decreased the number of petals. Our results may be useful for clarifying the temperature-responsive mechanism involved in petaloid stamen production, which may be relevant for the breeding of new rose varieties with enhanced flower traits.

  9. Determination of subcellular concentrations of soluble carbohydrates in rose petals during opening by nonaqueous fractionation method combined with infiltration-centrifugation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kunio; Norikoshi, Ryo; Suzuki, Katsumi; Imanishi, Hideo; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2009-11-01

    Petal growth associated with flower opening depends on cell expansion. To understand the role of soluble carbohydrates in petal cell expansion during flower opening, changes in soluble carbohydrate concentrations in vacuole, cytoplasm and apoplast of petal cells during flower opening in rose (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. We determined the subcellular distribution of soluble carbohydrates by combining nonaqueous fractionation method and infiltration-centrifugation method. During petal growth, fructose and glucose rapidly accumulated in the vacuole, reaching a maximum when petals almost reflected. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the volume of vacuole and air space drastically increased with petal growth. Carbohydrate concentration was calculated for each compartment of the petal cells and in petals that almost reflected, glucose and fructose concentrations increased to higher than 100 mM in the vacuole. Osmotic pressure increased in apoplast and symplast during flower opening, and this increase was mainly attributed to increases in fructose and glucose concentrations. No large difference in osmotic pressure due to soluble carbohydrates was observed between the apoplast and symplast before flower opening, but total osmotic pressure was much higher in the symplast than in the apoplast, a difference that was partially attributed to inorganic ions. An increase in osmotic pressure due to the continued accumulation of glucose and fructose in the symplast may facilitate water influx into cells, contributing to cell expansion associated with flower opening under conditions where osmotic pressure is higher in the symplast than in the apoplast.

  10. The role of petals in development of grey mould in strawberries = Importância das pétalas no desenvolvimento do mofo-cinzento do morangueiro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, P.; Kraker, de J.; Gerlagh, de M.; Köhl, J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted in annual crops of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) (cv. Elsanta to assess the relative importance of petals as an inoculum source of grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea and to identify during which period of flower and fruit development the presence of petals has a

  11. Immunomodulating pectic polysaccharides from waste rose petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Anton; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2013-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (RP-1) was obtained from distilled rose petals of Rosa damascena Mill. as an attempt for valorization of the waste. RP-1 showed in vitro intestinal immune system modulating activity through Peyer's patch cells and IL-6 producing activity from macrophages. RP-1 lost most of its immunomodulating activity by degradation of the carbohydrate moiety with periodate. RP-1 was fractionated by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography and some of the fractions showed significant intestinal immune system modulating activity. The active fractions were suggested to be pectic polysaccharides and type II arabino-3,6-galactan from the component sugar analyses and the reactivity with Yariv antigen. When some active fractions were digested with endo α-d-(1→4)-polygalacturonase, highest molecular weight fragments which were considered as rhamnogalacturonan I, showed potent immunomodulating activities. To our knowledge, this is a first report which explores the possibility for utilization of waste rose petals as a source of immunomodulating pectic polysaccharides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Light-induced, dark-reversible colour shifts in petals of Phlox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjön, G.S.; Braune, W.; Bjön, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Flowers of some Phlox (Phlox x paniculata L.) varieties undergo daily colour shifts, being blue in the early morning, turning red during the day, and returning to blue in the evening. The colour shift, which occurs only in the upper (adaxial) petal surfaces, is due to the daily changes in ambient light. In the laboratory, colour shifts could be induced by 2.5 h of ultraviolet, visible or far-red light and recorded by reflectance spectrophotometry. There are indications that irradiations with different kinds of light cause qualitatively different colour shifts, and that thus more than one photoreceptor pigment and more than one primary light reaction may be involved. The presence of phytochrome was demonstrated in petals of white Phlox flowers by in vivo transmission spectrophotometry. It is therefore possible that colour shifts in coloured Phlox flowers are mediated by phytochrome. Possibly the movement of ions (e.g. hydrogen ions) into or out of the vacuole (where the visible pigments are located) is affected by light absorption in a pigment in the tonoplast

  13. Buckling as an origin of ordered cuticular patterns in flower petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou Kourounioti, Rea L.; Band, Leah R.; Fozard, John A.; Hampstead, Anthony; Lovrics, Anna; Moyroud, Edwige; Vignolini, Silvia; King, John R.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Glover, Beverley J.

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of plant surfaces are strongly determined by the shape of epidermal cells and by the patterning of the cuticle on top of the cells. Combinations of particular cell shapes with particular nanoscale structures can generate a wide range of optical effects. Perhaps most notably, the development of ordered ridges of cuticle on top of flat petal cells can produce diffraction-grating-like structures. A diffraction grating is one of a number of mechanisms known to produce ‘structural colours’, which are more intense and pure than chemical colours and can appear iridescent. We explore the concept that mechanical buckling of the cuticle on the petal epidermis might explain the formation of cuticular ridges, using a theoretical model that accounts for the development of compressive stresses in the cuticle arising from competition between anisotropic expansion of epidermal cells and isotropic cuticle production. Model predictions rationalize cuticle patterns, including those with long-range order having the potential to generate iridescence, for a range of different flower species. PMID:23269848

  14. Staves and Petals: Multi-module Local Support Structures of the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) is an all-silicon tracker that will replace the existing inner detector at the Phase-II Upgrade of ATLAS. The outermost part of the tracker consists of the strips tracker, in which the sensor elements consist of silicon micro-strip sensors with strip lengths varying from 1.7 to up to 10 cm. The current design is part of the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR) and envisions a four-layer barrel and two six-disk end-cap regions. The sensor and readout units (``modules'') are directly glued onto multi-module, low-mass, high thermal performance carbon fibre structures, called “staves” for the barrel and ``petals'' for the end-cap. They provide cooling, power, data and control lines to the modules with a minimal amount of external services. An extensive prototyping program was put in place over the last years to fully characterise these structures mechanically, thermally, and electrically. Thermo-mechanical stave and petal prototypes have recently been built and ...

  15. The Petal Project: An innovation in sexual healthcare and education for Kenyan schoolgirl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen M

    2018-01-01

    In the western province of Nyanza in Kenya, girls and women face an issue all too common in the developing world-little or no access to affordable means to effectively managing their menstrual flow. As a result, many stay at home or drop out of school because they are teased and embarrassed. Some approach men for money to buy pads and are forced, in return, to engage in transactional sex. The girls may not be able to return to school at all due to pregnancy. The story literally and figuratively continues to cycle, keeping girls in positions of dependency and poverty. In May 2011, two visiting nursing faculty conducting health clinics with students, were approached by a young male school volunteer who shared his observations and unease with what he saw happening. Concerns shared that day spawned an initiative known as the Petal Project, which has yielded thousands of starter kits hand-sewn and delivered to girls in Kenya. The Petal Project has grown in popularity and participation on their college campus and in neighboring communities. Since its inception, this initiative has expanded to include over six countries and has positively impacted the lives of hundreds of givers and receivers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Crocus sativus Petals: Waste or Valuable Resource? The Answer of High-Resolution and High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2015-09-30

    Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction.

  17. UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS Profile of Polyphenolic Compounds of Liqueurs from Rose Petals (Rosa rugosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrowski, Andrzej; Ścibisz, Iwona; Kieliszek, Marek; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Mitek, Marta

    2017-10-27

    Polyphenolic compounds, as a secondary metabolite of plants, possess great nutritional and pharmacological potential. Herein, we applied the green analytical method to study the nutrient profile of Rosa rugosa petals and liqueurs manufactured from them. Using the fast and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode detector-quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS) method, we confirm the presence of the following compounds: phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols and hydrolisable tannins (gallotannins and ellagitannins). R. rugosa petals contains up to 2175.43 mg polyphenols per 100 g fresh weight, therein 1517.01 mg ellagitannins per 100 g fresh weight. Liqueurs, traditionally manufactured from said petals using a conventional extraction method (maceration), also contain polyphenols in significant amounts (from 72% to 96% corresponding to percentage of theoretical polyphenol content in the used petals), therein ellagitannins amount to 69.7% on average. We confirmed that traditional maceration, most common for the isolation of polyphenols, is still suitable for the food industry due to its using aqueous ethanol, a common bio-solvent, easily available in high purity and completely biodegradable. Therefore R. rugosa used as a food may be considered as an ellagitannin-rich plant of economic importance. Manufactured rose liqueurs were stable and kept all their properties during the whole period of aging.

  18. The F-box-containing protein UFO and AGAMOUS participate in antagonistic pathways governing early petal development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Tim; Roe, Judith L; Sessions, R Allen; Inouye, Carla; Serikawa, Kyle; Feldmann, Kenneth A; Weigel, Detlef; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2003-07-08

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for multiple processes in the developing Arabidopsis flower, including the proper patterning and identity of both petals and stamens. The gene encodes an F-box-containing protein, UFO, which interacts physically and genetically with the Skp1 homolog, ASK1. In this report, we describe four ufo alleles characterized by the absence of petals, which uncover another role for UFO in promoting second whorl development. This UFO-dependent pathway is required regardless of the second whorl organ to be formed, arguing that it affects a basic process acting in parallel with those establishing organ identity. However, the pathway is dispensable in the absence of AGAMOUS (AG), a known inhibitor of petal development. In situ hybridization results argue that AG is not transcribed in the petal region, suggesting that it acts non-cell-autonomously to inhibit second whorl development in ufo mutants. These results are combined into a genetic model explaining early second whorl initiation/proliferation, in which UFO functions to inhibit an AG-dependent activity.

  19. Characterization of four plasma membrane aquaporins in tulip petals: a putative homolog is regulated by phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Katsuhara, Maki; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2008-08-01

    We suggested previously that temperature-dependent tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) petal movement that is concomitant with water transport is regulated by reversible phosphorylation of an unidentified plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP). In this study, four full-length cDNAs of PIPs from tulip petals were identified and cloned. Two PIPs, namely TgPIP1;1 and TgPIP1;2, are members of the PIP1 subfamily, and the remaining two PIPs, namely TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2, belong to the PIP2 subfamily of aquaporins and were named according to the nomenclature of PIP genes in plants. Of these four homologs, only TgPIP2;2 displayed significant water channel activity in the heterologous expression assay using Xenopus laevis oocytes. The water channel activity of this functional isoform was abolished by mercury and was affected by inhibitors of protein kinase and protein phosphatase. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach to substitute several serine residues with alanine, and assessing water channel activity using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris expression assay, we showed that Ser35, Ser116 and Ser274 are the putative phosphorylation sites of TgPIP2;2. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of TgPIP1;1 and TgPIP1;2 in tulip petals, stems, leaves, bulbs and roots are very low when compared with those of TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2. The transcript level of TgPIP2;1 is negligible in roots, and TgPIP2;2 is ubiquitously expressed in all organs with significant transcript levels. From the data reported herein, we suggest that TgPIP2;2 might be modulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation for regulating water channel activity, and may play a role in transcellular water transport in all tulip organs.

  20. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

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    Cynthia A Dick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  1. Anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation of DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 in Dendrobium hybrids petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghui; Qiu, Jian; Ding, Ling; Huang, Mingzhong; Huang, Surong; Yang, Guangsui; Yin, Junmei

    2017-03-01

    Dendrobium hybrids orchid are popular throughout the world. They have various floral color and pigmentation patterns that are mainly caused by anthocyanins. It is well established that anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by the interplay between MYB and bHLH transcription factors (TF) in most plants. In this study, we identified one R2R3-MYB gene, DhMYB2, and one bHLH gene, DhbHLH1, from a Dendrobium hybrid. Their expression profiles were related to anthocyanin pigmentation in Dendrobium petals. Transient over-expression of these two TF genes showed that both DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 resulted in anthocyanin production in white petals. The interaction between the two TFs was observed in vitro. In different Dendrobium hybrids petals with various pigmentations, DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 were co-expressed with DhDFR and DhANS, which are regarded as potential regulatory targets of the two TFs. In flowers with distinct purple lips but white or yellow petals/sepals, the expression of DhbHLH1 was only related to anthocyanin accumulation in the lips. Taken together, DhMYB2 interacted with DhbHLH1 to regulate anthocyanin production in Dendrobium hybrid petals. DhbHLH1 was also responsible for the distinct anthocyanin pigmentation in lip tissues. The functional characterization of DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 will improve understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis modulation in Dendrobium orchids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A Mini Zinc-Finger Protein (MIF from Gerbera hybrida Activates the GASA Protein Family Gene, GEG, to Inhibit Ray Petal Elongation

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    Meixiang Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petal appearance is an important horticultural trail that is generally used to evaluate the ornamental value of plants. However, knowledge of the molecular regulation of petal growth is mostly derived from analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana, and relatively little is known about this process in ornamental plants. Previously, GEG (Gerbera hybrida homolog of the gibberellin [GA]–stimulated transcript 1 [GAST1] from tomato, a gene from the GA stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA family, was reported to be an inhibitor of ray petal growth in the ornamental species, G. hybrida. To explore the molecular regulatory mechanism of GEG in petal growth inhibition, a mini zinc-finger protein (MIF was identified using yeast one-hybrid (Y1H screen. The direct binding of GhMIF to the GEG promoter was verified by using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a dual-luciferase assay. A yeast two-hybrid (Y2H revealed that GhMIF acts as a transcriptional activator. Transient transformation assay indicated that GhMIF is involved in inhibiting ray petal elongation by activating the expression of GEG. Spatiotemporal expression analyses and hormone treatment assay showed that the expression of GhMIF and GEG is coordinated during petal development. Taken together, these results suggest that GhMIF acts as a direct transcriptional activator of GEG, a gene from the GASA protein family to regulate the petal elongation.

  3. Biosynthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis petals extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-10-01

    Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has lured the world from the chemical and physical approaches owing to its rapid, non-hazardous and economic aspect of production mechanism. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesised using petal extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. The AgNPs displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 421 nm having a mean particle size of 76.25±0.17 nm and carried a charge of -41±0.2 mV. The X-ray diffraction patterns displayed typical peaks of face centred cubic crystalline silver. The surface morphology was characterised by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the surface modifications of the functional groups for the synthesis of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised AgNPs displayed proficient antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. A technique for measuring petal gloss, with examples from the Namaqualand flora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Whitney

    Full Text Available The degree of floral gloss varies between species. However, little is known about this distinctive floral trait, even though it could be a key feature of floral biotic and abiotic interactions. One reason for the absence of knowledge is the lack of a simple, repeatable method of gloss measurement that can be used in the field to study floral gloss. A protocol is described for measuring gloss in petal samples collected in the field, using a glossmeter. Repeatability of the technique is assessed. We demonstrate a simple yet highly accurate and repeatable method that can easily be implemented in the field. We also highlight the huge variety of glossiness found within flowers and between species in a sample of spring-blooming flowers collected in Namaqualand, South Africa. We discuss the potential uses of this method and its applications for furthering studies in plant-pollinator interactions. We also discuss the potential functions of gloss in flowers.

  5. A technique for measuring petal gloss, with examples from the Namaqualand flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Heather M; Rands, Sean A; Elton, Nick J; Ellis, Allan G

    2012-01-01

    The degree of floral gloss varies between species. However, little is known about this distinctive floral trait, even though it could be a key feature of floral biotic and abiotic interactions. One reason for the absence of knowledge is the lack of a simple, repeatable method of gloss measurement that can be used in the field to study floral gloss. A protocol is described for measuring gloss in petal samples collected in the field, using a glossmeter. Repeatability of the technique is assessed. We demonstrate a simple yet highly accurate and repeatable method that can easily be implemented in the field. We also highlight the huge variety of glossiness found within flowers and between species in a sample of spring-blooming flowers collected in Namaqualand, South Africa. We discuss the potential uses of this method and its applications for furthering studies in plant-pollinator interactions. We also discuss the potential functions of gloss in flowers.

  6. Pavement condition assessment to forecast maintenance program on JKR state roads in Petaling district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsan, R.; Hafiz, H.; Azlan, A.; Keprawi, M. F.; Malik, A. K. A.; Adamuddin, A.; Abdullah, A. H.; Shafie, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    This research allows local authorities to project road maintenance in term of activities and financial expenditure through pavement condition assessment and then Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) analysis. Current form of road maintenance carried out by local authority is on reactive manner where corrective actions were taken based on reports recorded. Some went unrecorded hence causing prolonged damages. This causes the local authority unable to project the required cost to maintain the roads. This affects the socio-economy of the surrounding routes. Hence, it is seen, as preventive maintenance of the roads will provide more feasible option in term of work force and finance to the local authority. To overcome this issue, a preventive model was introduced. This was done through pavement condition assessment (PCA) where analysis was done through HDM-4. Nondestructive test and destructive test were conducted in order to provide an indicator to the road's health. This were then analyzed in HDM-4 where the result was benchmarked with maintenance standard. The scope of this research is set to PCA where DT and NDT were performed on the routes of Petaling and the output is analyzed in HDM-4. The result of this research provides a 10 years forecast maintenance budget in maintaining the roads in Petaling. This allows the local authority to perform good practice in term of maintaining the roads while at the same time helps them in forecasting their budget for the upcoming years. This research will have a strong impact on the local socio-economy as well as local road user confidence towards the authority over good practices. This research can be further expanded to other type of roads as well as highway bridges.

  7. A RhABF2/Ferritin module affects rose (Rosa hybrida) petal dehydration tolerance and senescence by modulating iron levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jitao; Fan, Youwei; Zou, Jing; Fang, Yiqun; Wang, Linghao; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Xinqiang; Liu, Yiqing; Gao, Junping; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-12-01

    Plants often develop the capacity to tolerate moderate and reversible environmental stresses, such as drought, and to re-establish normal development once the stress has been removed. An example of this phenomenon is provided by cut rose (Rosa hybrida) flowers, which experience typical reversible dehydration stresses during post-harvest handling after harvesting at the bud stages. The molecular mechanisms involved in rose flower dehydration tolerance are not known, however. Here, we characterized a dehydration- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced ferritin gene (RhFer1). Dehydration-induced free ferrous iron (Fe 2+ ) is preferentially sequestered by RhFer1 and not transported outside of the petal cells, to restrict oxidative stresses during dehydration. Free Fe 2+ accumulation resulted in more serious oxidative stresses and the induction of genes encoding antioxidant enzyme in RhFer1-silenced petals, and poorer dehydration tolerance was observed compared with tobacco rattle virus (TRV) controls. We also determined that RhABF2, an AREB/ABF transcription factor involved in the ABA signaling pathway, can activate RhFer1 expression by directly binding to its promoter. The silencing of RhABF2 decreased dehydration tolerance and disrupted Fe homeostasis in rose petals during dehydration, as did the silencing of RhFer1. Although both RhFer1 and Fe transporter genes are induced during flower natural senescence in plants, the silencing of RhABF2 or RhFer1 accelerates the petal senescence processes. These results suggest that the regulatory module RhABF2/RhFer1 contributes to the maintenance of Fe levels and enhances dehydration tolerance through the action of RhFer1 locally sequestering free Fe 2+ under dehydration conditions, and plays synergistic roles with transporter genes during flower senescence. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Study of volatile oil component of petal and herbal and extraction of seed oil in Borage by Cold Press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esfandiar Hassani Moghadam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a few reported about the volatile oil component of petal, herbal and component of seed oil of borage. This research worked carried out for analysis and identification the volatile oil in herbals, petals, and seed oil compositions of Borago officinalis L. in Lorestan province. Material and methods: Extraction of essential oil from petals carried out using steam distillation by Clevenger apparatus. The new SPME-GC/MS method is used for extraction and identification of volatile oil compounds in the herbal of borage. The oil of the seeds was extracted using a Cold-press method. The identification of chemical composition of extracted oil was carried out by GC/MS apparatus. Results: In petals of Borage only Carvacerol component, and in the herbal of Borage three components Carvacrol, Bisabolone oxide and 2-Phenylethyl benzoate, extracted and identified respectively. In the seed oil of borage 16 different components were separated and identified. The following components had the highest amount in seed oil: Hexadecane, N, N-dimethylethanolamine, Beta-d-glycoside, 3, 6-glucurono-methyl, Benzaldehde, 4-methyl 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran, Hexadecanoic acid, Heptanoic acid, Gamma butyrolactone and Ethyl octadec-9-enoate are the major components respectively. These components contain 63.4% of all components in borage seed oil and the 7 residual components only 9.5% all of the components in borage seed oil. Also one unknown (27.1% component identified. Conclusion: Using result obtained from this research the volatile oil a few amounts of the borage chemical composition. The results show that the seed oil of this species can be used for medicinal preparation. Cold Press method was found to be rapid and simple for identification of seeds oil components.

  9. Flavonols and Carotenoids in Yellow Petals of Rose Cultivar ( Rosa 'Sun City'): A Possible Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Huihua; Yu, Chao; Han, Yu; Guo, Xuelian; Ahmad, Sagheer; Tang, Aoying; Wang, Jia; Cheng, Tangren; Pan, Huitang; Zhang, Qixiang

    2018-04-25

    Rose flowers have received increasing interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. The composition of flavonols and carotenoids in yellow petals of Rosa 'Sun City' was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detectors (HPLC-PDA-MS). In total, 19 flavonols and 16 carotenoids were identified, some of which were first discovered in rose petals. Significant changes were observed in their profiles during seven blooming stages. Total flavonol contents showed the highest levels at stage 2 (S2; 1152.29 μg/g, FW). Kaempferol 7- O-glucoside and kaempferol 3- O-rhamnoside were the predominant individual flavonols. Total carotenoid concentration was highest at S4 (142.71 μg/g, FW). Violaxanthins with different geometrical configurations appeared as the major carotenoids across all blooming stages. These results indicated that 'Sun City' petals are rich sources of flavonols and carotenoids. Moreover, it is important to choose the appropriate harvest time on the basis of the targeted compounds.

  10. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Petals Modulates Glycogen Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis Signalling Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Sneha S; Mini, S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is becoming more and more serious and reaches epidemic proportions worldwide. Scientific research is constantly looking for new agents that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. petals on experimental diabetes at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and it was compared with standard anti-diabetic drug metformin. The elevated levels of serum glucose (398.56 ± 35.78) and glycated haemoglobin (12.89 ± 1.89) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased (156.89 ± 14.45 and 6.12 ± 0.49, respectively) by Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) administration. Hepatotoxicity marker enzyme levels in serum were normalized. The fraction supplementation restored the glycogen content by regulating the activities of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. It significantly modulated the expressions of marker genes involved in glucose homeostasis signalling pathway. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas supported our findings. The overall effect was comparable with metformin. Hence, our study reveals the role of hibiscus petals for alleviation of diabetes complications, thus it can be propagated as a nutraceutical agent.

  11. Synthesis of MoS₂ nano-petal forest supported on carbon nanotubes for enhanced field emission performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawala, Aditya P.; Loh, Tamie A. J.; Chua, Daniel H. C., E-mail: msechcd@nus.edu.sg [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-09-21

    We report the fabrication of a three-dimensional forest of highly crystalline two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) nano-petals encapsulating vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) in a core-shell configuration. Growth was conducted via magnetron sputtering at room temperature and it was found that the nano-petal morphology was formed only when a critical threshold in sputter deposition time was reached. Below this threshold, an amorphous tubular structure composed of mainly molybdenum oxides dominates instead. The presence of the MoS₂ nano-petals was shown to impart photoluminescence to the CNTs, in addition to significantly enhancing their electron emission properties, where the turn-on field was lowered from 2.50 Vμm⁻¹ for pristine CNTs to 0.80 Vμm⁻¹ for MoS₂-CNT heterostructures fabricated at 30 min sputter deposition time. Photoluminescence was detected at wavelengths of approximately 684 nm and 615 nm, with the band at 684 nm gradually blue-shifting as sputter time was increased. These results demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize 2D MoS₂ layers without the need for chemical routes and high growth temperatures.

  12. Potential Applications and Antifungal Activities of Engineered Nanomaterials against Gray Mold Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea on Rose Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have great potential for use in the fields of biomedicine, building materials, and environmental protection because of their antibacterial properties. However, there are few reports regarding the antifungal activities of NPs on plants. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal roles of NPs against Botrytis cinerea, which is a notorious worldwide fungal pathogen. Three common carbon nanomaterials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and reduced graphene oxide, and three commercial metal oxidant NPs, copper oxide (CuO NPs, ferric oxide (Fe2O3 NPs, and titanium oxides (TiO2 NPs, were independently added to water-agar plates at 50 and 200-mg/L concentrations. Detached rose petals were inoculated with spores of B. cinerea and co-cultured with each of the six nanomaterials. The sizes of the lesions on infected rose petals were measured at 72 h after inoculation, and the growth of fungi on the rose petals was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The six NPs inhibited the growth of B. cinerea, but different concentrations had different effects: 50 mg/L of fullerene and CuO NPs showed the strongest antifungal properties among the treatments, while 200 mg/L of CuO and Fe2O3 showed no significant antifungal activities. Thus, NPs may have antifungal activities that prevent B. cinerea infections in plants, and they could be used as antifungal agents during the growth and post-harvesting of roses and other flowers.

  13. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos.

  14. Single crystalline multi-petal Cd nanoleaves prepared by thermal reduction of CdO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Waheed S. [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Cao, Chuanbao, E-mail: cbcao@bit.edu.cn [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Aslam, Imran; Ali, Zulfiqar; Butt, Faheem K.; Mahmood, Tariq; Nabi, Ghulam [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ihsan, Ayesha [National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Usman, Zahid [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Rehman, Asma [National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Cd nanoleaves are obtained on abraded Cu substrate by thermal reduction of CdO. ► Vapour solid (VS) growth mechanism governs the formation of Cd nanoleaves (CdNLs). ► PL spectrum for CdNLs exhibits a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission band at 353 nm. ► UV band is attributed to interband radiative recombination under Xe illumination. -- Abstract: Multi-petal cadmium metal nanoleaves with 30–40 nm thickness were fabricated on abraded copper substrate by simple thermal reduction of cadmium oxide (CdO) powder at 1050 °C inside horizontal tube furnace (HTF) under nitrogen gas flow. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations of the as-prepared cadmium nanoleaves (CdNLs) were performed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Non-catalytic vapour–solid (VS) process based growth mechanism governing the formation of CdNLs has been proposed and discussed briefly. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum for CdNLs measured at room temperature exhibited a single prominent emission band at 353 nm which may either be ascribed to surface oxidation effects or interband radiative recombination under Xe light illumination.

  15. Single crystalline multi-petal Cd nanoleaves prepared by thermal reduction of CdO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Waheed S.; Cao, Chuanbao; Aslam, Imran; Ali, Zulfiqar; Butt, Faheem K.; Mahmood, Tariq; Nabi, Ghulam; Ihsan, Ayesha; Usman, Zahid; Rehman, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd nanoleaves are obtained on abraded Cu substrate by thermal reduction of CdO. ► Vapour solid (VS) growth mechanism governs the formation of Cd nanoleaves (CdNLs). ► PL spectrum for CdNLs exhibits a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission band at 353 nm. ► UV band is attributed to interband radiative recombination under Xe illumination. -- Abstract: Multi-petal cadmium metal nanoleaves with 30–40 nm thickness were fabricated on abraded copper substrate by simple thermal reduction of cadmium oxide (CdO) powder at 1050 °C inside horizontal tube furnace (HTF) under nitrogen gas flow. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations of the as-prepared cadmium nanoleaves (CdNLs) were performed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Non-catalytic vapour–solid (VS) process based growth mechanism governing the formation of CdNLs has been proposed and discussed briefly. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum for CdNLs measured at room temperature exhibited a single prominent emission band at 353 nm which may either be ascribed to surface oxidation effects or interband radiative recombination under Xe light illumination.

  16. Staves and Petals: Multi-module Local Support Structures of the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) is an all-silicon tracker that will replace the existing inner detector at the Phase-II Upgrade of ATLAS. The outermost part of the tracker consists of the strips tracker, in which the sensors elements consist of silicon micro-strip sensors with strip lengths varying from 1.7 to up to 10 cm. The current design, at the moment under internal review in the Strips part of the Technical Design Report (TDR), envisions a four-layer barrel and two six-disk endcap regions. The sensor and readout units (“modules”) are directly glued onto multi-module, low-mass, high thermal performance carbon fiber structures, called “staves” for the barrel and “petals” for the endcap. They provide cooling, power, data and control lines to the modules with a minimal amount of external services. An extensive prototyping program was put in place over the last years to fully characterize these structures mechanically, thermally, and electrically. Thermo-mechanical stave and petal prototypes have r...

  17. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterologous Expression of Tulip Petal Plasma Membrane Aquaporins in Pichia pastoris for Water Channel Analysis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Water channels formed by aquaporins (AQPs) play an important role in the control of water homeostasis in individual cells and in multicellular organisms. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) constitute a subclass of plant AQPs. TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 from tulip petals are members of the PIP family. In this study, we overexpressed TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 in Pichia pastoris and monitored their water channel activity (WCA) either by an in vivo spheroplast-bursting assay performed after hypo-osmotic shock or by growth assay. Osmolarity, pH, and inhibitors of AQPs, protein kinases (PKs), and protein phosphatases (PPs) affect the WCA of heterologous AQPs in this expression system. The WCA of TgPIP2;2-expressing spheroplasts was affected by inhibitors of PKs and PPs, which indicates that the water channel of this homologue is regulated by phosphorylation in P. pastoris. From the results reported herein, we suggest that P. pastoris can be employed as a heterologous expression system to assay the WCA of PIPs and to monitor the AQP-mediated channel gating mechanism, and it can be developed to screen inhibitors/effectors of PIPs. PMID:19251885

  19. Heterologous expression of tulip petal plasma membrane aquaporins in Pichia pastoris for water channel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Water channels formed by aquaporins (AQPs) play an important role in the control of water homeostasis in individual cells and in multicellular organisms. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) constitute a subclass of plant AQPs. TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 from tulip petals are members of the PIP family. In this study, we overexpressed TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 in Pichia pastoris and monitored their water channel activity (WCA) either by an in vivo spheroplast-bursting assay performed after hypo-osmotic shock or by growth assay. Osmolarity, pH, and inhibitors of AQPs, protein kinases (PKs), and protein phosphatases (PPs) affect the WCA of heterologous AQPs in this expression system. The WCA of TgPIP2;2-expressing spheroplasts was affected by inhibitors of PKs and PPs, which indicates that the water channel of this homologue is regulated by phosphorylation in P. pastoris. From the results reported herein, we suggest that P. pastoris can be employed as a heterologous expression system to assay the WCA of PIPs and to monitor the AQP-mediated channel gating mechanism, and it can be developed to screen inhibitors/effectors of PIPs.

  20. Purification and characterization of protein phosphatase 2A from petals of the tulip Tulipa gesnerina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2006-11-30

    The holoenzyme of protein phosphatase (PP) from tulip petals was purified by using hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange and microcystin affinity chromatography to analyze activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP). The catalytic subunit of PP was released from its endogenous regulatory subunits by ethanol precipitation and further purified. Both preparations were characterized by immunological and biochemical approaches to be PP2A. On SDS-PAGE, the final purified holoenzyme preparation showed three protein bands estimated at 38, 65, and 75 kDa while the free catalytic subunit preparation showed only the 38 kDa protein. In both preparations, the 38 kDa protein was identified immunologically as the catalytic subunit of PP2A by using a monoclonal antibody against the PP2A catalytic subunit. The final 623- and 748- fold purified holoenzyme and the free catalytic preparations, respectively, exhibited high sensitivity to inhibition by 1 nM okadaic acid when activity was measured with p-NPP. The holoenzyme displayed higher stimulation in the presence of ammonium sulfate than the free catalytic subunit did by protamine, thereby suggesting different enzymatic behaviors.

  1. Assessment of effects of phenolic fractions from leaves and petals of dandelion in selected components of hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Bernadetta; Jędrejek, Dariusz; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata

    2018-05-01

    Aerial parts and roots of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) have been found to be rich sources of polyphenols, including cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and triterpenoids, which exert different biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimicrobial. Additionally, the whole plant is recognized as safe and well tolerated by humans, with no reported adverse effects. Nowadays, dandelion is a commonly available dietary supplement and a component of pharmaceutical preparations used for the treatment of bladder, liver, and spleen. Nevertheless, the effect of dandelion on blood platelets and plasma - components of hemostasis involved in the functioning of a cardiovascular system and linked with various cardiovascular diseases, has not been studied yet. Thus, the main objective of our in vitro experiments was to examine the anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of four standardized dandelion phenolic fractions, i.e. leaves 50% and 85% methanol fractions, and petals 50% and 85% methanol fractions, in blood platelets. Additionally, aforementioned plant preparations were investigated for hemostatic activity in plasma, using three selected hemostatic parameters: the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). None of the studied dandelion fractions, caused the damage of human blood platelets, at the whole tested range. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation in platelets treated with H 2 O 2 /Fe (the donor of OH) was observed for two fractions: leaves and petals 50% fractions, both at the dose 50 μg/mL. Analysis of the effect on the coagulation activity of human plasma demonstrated that three fractions: petals 50% fraction, and leaves and petals 85% fractions, significantly prolonged the thrombin time, at the whole tested range. On the contrary, none of the fractions changed the APTT and the PT. The obtained results demonstrate that dandelion preparations, based on aerial parts, especially rich in

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24 were randomly assigned into four groups including: I healthy, receiving normal saline; II Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg; III pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg; IV pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg. Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats.

  3. The protective role of saffron petal extracts on gentamicininduced nephrotoxicity in rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Different potentially therapeutic approaches to prevent or attenuate gentamicin sulfate (GM induced nephrotoxicity have been proposed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the saffron petals extracts (Crocus sativus (SPE on male Wistar rats with kidney failure. Rats (40 were randomly assigned into five groups of 8 animals each: i the control group, that received normal saline (0.5 mL/kg; ii the GM group, that received GM (80 mg/kg by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection on a daily basis; iii the GM+SPE group that received the same dose of GM and SPE (40 mg/kg by i.p. injection on a daily basis; iv the GM+2SPE group, that received the same dose of GM and twofold of SPE (80 mg/kg by i.p. injection on a daily basis; whereas v 2SPE+GM group, that received 80 mg/kg of SPE a week before initiating the treatment with GM (prevention group. Significant differences were seen in the concentration of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine between treatment groups and control in the male Wistar rats. GM was observed to cause nephrotoxicity, which was evidenced by an elevation of serum BUN and creatinine levels. The biochemical findings of the current study are concordant with those of histopathologic findings. The results of this study indicate that SPE especially in dose of 40 mg/kg can ameliorate harmful effects of GM on the kidney. The present results may suggest that the SPE have ameliorative effects on kidney failures induced by GM.

  4. Work Function Characterization of Potassium-Intercalated, Boron Nitride Doped Graphitic Petals

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    Patrick T. McCarthy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on characterization techniques for electron emission from potassium-intercalated boron nitride-modified graphitic petals (GPs. Carbon-based materials offer potentially good performance in electron emission applications owing to high thermal stability and a wide range of nanostructures that increase emission current via field enhancement. Furthermore, potassium adsorption and intercalation of carbon-based nanoscale emitters decreases work functions from approximately 4.6 eV to as low as 2.0 eV. In this study, boron nitride modifications of GPs were performed. Hexagonal boron nitride is a planar structure akin to graphene and has demonstrated useful chemical and electrical properties when embedded in graphitic layers. Photoemission induced by simulated solar excitation was employed to characterize the emitter electron energy distributions, and changes in the electron emission characteristics with respect to temperature identified annealing temperature limits. After several heating cycles, a single stable emission peak with work function of 2.8 eV was present for the intercalated GP sample up to 1,000 K. Up to 600 K, the potassium-intercalated boron nitride modified sample exhibited improved retention of potassium in the form of multiple emission peaks (1.8, 2.5, and 3.3 eV resulting in a large net electron emission relative to the unmodified graphitic sample. However, upon further heating to 1,000 K, the unmodified GP sample demonstrated better stability and higher emission current than the boron nitride modified sample. Both samples deintercalated above 1,000 K.

  5. A Novel Glucosylation Reaction on Anthocyanins Catalyzed by Acyl-Glucose–Dependent Glucosyltransferase in the Petals of Carnation and Delphinium[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Tera, Masayuki; Okamura, Masachika; Abe, Yutaka; Okamoto, Emi; Nakamura, Haruka; Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanin in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) and delphiniums (Delphinium grandiflorum) involves novel sugar donors, aromatic acyl-glucoses, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzymes acyl-glucose–dependent anthocyanin 5(7)-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT and AA7GT). The AA5GT enzyme was purified from carnation petals, and cDNAs encoding carnation Dc AA5GT and the delphinium homolog Dg AA7GT were isolated. Recombinant Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT proteins showed AA5GT and AA7GT activities in vitro. Although expression of Dc AA5GT in developing carnation petals was highest at early stages, AA5GT activity and anthocyanin accumulation continued to increase during later stages. Neither Dc AA5GT expression nor AA5GT activity was observed in the petals of mutant carnations; these petals accumulated anthocyanin lacking the glucosyl moiety at the 5 position. Transient expression of Dc AA5GT in petal cells of mutant carnations is expected to result in the transfer of a glucose moiety to the 5 position of anthocyanin. The amino acid sequences of Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT showed high similarity to glycoside hydrolase family 1 proteins, which typically act as β-glycosidases. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose–dependent glucosyltransferases. PMID:20971893

  6. Low temperature-induced DNA hypermethylation attenuates expression of RhAG, an AGAMOUS homolog, and increases petal number in rose (Rosa hybrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Chen, Wen; Fan, Tiangang; Tian, Yaran; Zhang, Shuai; Zeng, Daxing; Li, Yonghong

    2015-10-05

    Flower development is central to angiosperm reproduction and is regulated by a broad range of endogenous and exogenous stimuli. It has been well documented that ambient temperature plays a key role in controlling flowering time; however, the mechanisms by which temperature regulates floral organ differentiation remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that low temperature treatment significantly increases petal number in rose (Rosa hybrida) through the promotion of stamen petaloidy. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression pattern of RhAG, a rose homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana AGAMOUS C-function gene, is associated with low temperature regulated flower development. Silencing of RhAG mimicked the impact of low temperature treatments on petal development by significantly increasing petal number through an increased production of petaloid stamens. In situ hybridization studies further revealed that low temperature restricts its spatial expression area. Analysis of DNA methylation level showed that low temperature treatment enhances the methylation level of the RhAG promoter, and a specific promoter region that was hypermethylated at CHH loci under low temperature conditions, was identified by bisulfite sequencing. This suggests that epigenetic DNA methylation contributes to the ambient temperature modulation of RhAG expression. Our results provide highlights in the role of RhAG gene in petal number determination and add a new layer of complexity in the regulation of floral organ development. We propose that RhAG plays an essential role in rose flower patterning by regulating petal development, and that low temperatures increase petal number, at least in part, by suppressing RhAG expression via enhancing DNA CHH hypermethylation of the RhAG promoter.

  7. The difference of inhibitory zone between Katuk (Sauropus androgynous L. Merr. leaf infusion and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petals towards oral Candida albicans

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    Kadek Seruni Kusumanegara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr. leaf and roselle (Hibiscussabdariffa L. are part of plants that have antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory zone of katuk leaf’s infusion compared to roselle petals towards the growth of oral Candida albicans. Methods: The research methods was experimental laboratory. Each of katuk leaf and roselle’s infusion were respectively made in four concentration, i.e 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. The positive control was 2% ketoconazole, while negative control was sterile aquadest. Results: The result of the study showed that the mean of inhibitory zones of katuk leaf  5%, was 17,90±0,8 mm, katuk leaf of 10% was  19,67±1,78 mm, katuk leaf of 20% was 19,67±1,78 mm, and katuk leaf of 40% was 22,93±1,00 mm, meanwhile the mean of inhibitions zones of  roselle petals infusion of 5% shows its mean of 18,53±0,67 mm, roselle  petals of 10% was 22,40±1,28 mm, roselle petals of 20% was 26,20±0,87 mm, and roselle petals of  40%  was 29,47±2,87 mm. Conclusion: It can be  concluded that the mean of inhibitions zones  of katuk leaf’s infusion was smaller than roselle petals toward the growth of oral Candida albicans.

  8. RhNAC2 and RhEXPA4 Are Involved in the Regulation of Dehydration Tolerance during the Expansion of Rose Petals1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fanwei; Zhang, Changqing; Jiang, Xinqiang; Kang, Mei; Yin, Xia; Lü, Peitao; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Junping

    2012-01-01

    Dehydration inhibits petal expansion resulting in abnormal flower opening and results in quality loss during the marketing of cut flowers. We constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library from rose (Rosa hybrida) flowers containing 3,513 unique expressed sequence tags and analyzed their expression profiles during cycles of dehydration. We found that 54 genes were up-regulated by the first dehydration, restored or even down-regulated by rehydration, and once again up-regulated by the second dehydration. Among them, we identified a putative NAC family transcription factor (RhNAC2). With transactivation activity of its carboxyl-terminal domain in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplast, RhNAC2 belongs to the NAC transcription factor clade related to plant development in Arabidopsis. A putative expansin gene named RhEXPA4 was also dramatically up-regulated by dehydration. Silencing RhNAC2 or RhEXPA4 in rose petals by virus-induced gene silencing significantly decreased the recovery of intact petals and petal discs during rehydration. Overexpression of RhNAC2 or RhEXPA4 in Arabidopsis conferred strong drought tolerance in the transgenic plants. RhEXPA4 expression was repressed in RhNAC2-silenced rose petals, and the amino-terminal binding domain of RhNAC2 bound to the RhEXPA4 promoter. Twenty cell wall-related genes, including seven expansin family members, were up-regulated in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing RhNAC2. These data indicate that RhNAC2 and RhEXPA4 are involved in the regulation of dehydration tolerance during the expansion of rose petals and that RhEXPA4 expression may be regulated by RhNAC2. PMID:23093360

  9. The 2″-O-glucosylation of vitexin and isovitexin in petals of Silene alba is catalysed by two different enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, R.; Brederode, J. van; Nigtevecht, G. van; Maas, J.; Kamsteeg, J.; Besson, E.; Chopin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two separate genes, Fg and Vg, which govern the presence of isovitexin 2″-O-glucoside and vitexin 2″-O-glucoside respectively in the petals of Silene alba control different glucosyltransferases. In Vg/Vg,fg/fg plants no isovitexin 2″-O-glucosyltransferase was present and in vg/vg,Fg/Fg plants no

  10. Effects of different petal thickness on gas sensing properties of flower-like WO3·H2O hierarchical architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Wen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhongchang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, we prepare four different petal thicknesses of hierarchical WO 3 ·H 2 O architectures via a simple hydrothermal process, and systematically report their formation mechanisms and gas-sensing properties. - Highlights: • Flower-like WO 3 ·H 2 O architectures with different petal thickness were reported. • The WO 3 ·H 2 O sheet-flower sensor shows a significantly enhanced gas response. • A possible growth mechanism for the flower-like architectures is proposed. - Abstract: Hierarchical architectures consisting of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in recent year. Here, we report the successful synthesis of four hierarchical tungsten oxide flower-like architectures via a simple yet facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared WO 3 ·H 2 O hierarchical architectures are in fact assembled with numerous nanosheets or nanoplates. Through a comprehensive characterization of microstructures and morphologies of the as-prepared products, we find that petal thickness is a key factor for affecting gas-sensing performances. We further propose a possible growth mechanism for the four flower-like architectures. Moreover, gas-sensing measurements showed that the well-defined sheet-flower WO 3 ·H 2 O hierarchical architectures exhibited the excellent gas-sensing properties to ethanol owing to their largest amount of thin petal structures and pores

  11. Regulators of floral fragrance production and their target genes in petunia are not exclusively active in the epidermal cells of petals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Moerkercke, A.; Galván-Ampudia, C.S.; Verdonk, J.C.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    In which cells of the flower volatile biosynthesis takes place is unclear. In rose and snapdragon, some enzymes of the volatile phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway have been shown to be present in the epidermal cells of petals. It is therefore generally believed that the production of these compounds

  12. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae

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    de Boer Hugo J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed. Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes. Results Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent. Conclusions Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant

  13. Integrative Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Profiles in Response to Ethylene in Rose Petals during Flower Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Haixia; Ma, Nan; Chen, Jiwei; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Ji; Li, Jing; Zhang, Shuai; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in plant development and plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stimuli. As one of the most important ornamental crops, rose (Rosa hybrida) possesses several specific morphological and physiological features, including recurrent flowering, highly divergent flower shapes, colors and volatiles. Ethylene plays an important role in regulating petal cell expansion during rose flower opening. Here, we report the population and expression profiles of miRNAs in rose petals during flower opening and in response to ethylene based on high throughput sequencing. We identified a total of 33 conserved miRNAs, as well as 47 putative novel miRNAs were identified from rose petals. The conserved and novel targets to those miRNAs were predicted using the rose floral transcriptome database. Expression profiling revealed that expression of 28 known (84.8% of known miRNAs) and 39 novel (83.0% of novel miRNAs) miRNAs was substantially changed in rose petals during the earlier opening period. We also found that 28 known and 22 novel miRNAs showed expression changes in response to ethylene treatment. Furthermore, we performed integrative analysis of expression profiles of miRNAs and their targets. We found that ethylene-caused expression changes of five miRNAs (miR156, miR164, miR166, miR5139 and rhy-miRC1) were inversely correlated to those of their seven target genes. These results indicate that these miRNA/target modules might be regulated by ethylene and were involved in ethylene-regulated petal growth. PMID:23696879

  14. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of oxidised sulfur and nitrogen species at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, G.P.; Gillett, R.W.; Manins, P.C. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Peng Leong Chow; Fook Lim Sze [Malaysian Meteorological Service, Petaling Jaya (Malaysia); Kong Cheah Wai [Tenaga Nasional R and D Berhad, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-02-01

    Wet-only rainwater composition, acid-precursor gas mixing ratios and aerosol loading were determined from weekly-averaged samples at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, over the five year period from March 1993 to March 1998. Annual deposition fluxes of acidic sulfur and nitrogen species estimated from these data show this site to be heavily impacted by acidic deposition, with total oxidised sulfur plus nitrogen deposition in the range 277-480 meq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Average contributions were 56% as sulfur species, 44% as nitrogen species, with wet deposition in this region of high rainfall accounting for 67% of total deposition. Thus total acid deposition fluxes were equivalent to levels that provided motivation for emissions reduction programs in both Europe and North America. The possibility of adverse environmental effects in Malaysia caused by acid deposition therefore merits serious consideration and assessment.

  15. cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their regulation during flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Nishihara, Masashiro; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2003-02-20

    cDNAs encoding lycopene epsilon -cyclase, lycopene beta-cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase and zeaxanthin epoxidase were isolated from a Gentiana lutea petal cDNA library. The function of all cDNAs was analyzed by complementation in Escherichia coli. Transcript levels during different stages of flower development of G. lutea were determined and compared to the carotenoid composition. Expression of all genes increased by a factor of up to 2, with the exception of the lycopene epsilon -cyclase gene. The transcript amount of the latter was strongly decreased. These results indicate that during flower development, carotenoid formation is enhanced. Moreover, metabolites are shifted away from the biosynthetic branch to lutein and are channeled into beta-carotene and derivatives.

  16. Interaction of plant growth regulators and reactive oxygen species to regulate petal senescence in wallflowers (Erysimum linifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Faezah Mohd; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Spadafora, Natasha D; Price, Anna M; Picciarelli, Piero; Wagstaff, Carol; Lombardi, Lara; Rogers, Hilary

    2016-04-02

    In many species floral senescence is coordinated by ethylene. Endogenous levels rise, and exogenous application accelerates senescence. Furthermore, floral senescence is often associated with increased reactive oxygen species, and is delayed by exogenously applied cytokinin. However, how these processes are linked remains largely unresolved. Erysimum linifolium (wallflower) provides an excellent model for understanding these interactions due to its easily staged flowers and close taxonomic relationship to Arabidopsis. This has facilitated microarray analysis of gene expression during petal senescence and provided gene markers for following the effects of treatments on different regulatory pathways. In detached Erysimum linifolium (wallflower) flowers ethylene production peaks in open flowers. Furthermore senescence is delayed by treatments with the ethylene signalling inhibitor silver thiosulphate, and accelerated with ethylene released by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. Both treatments with exogenous cytokinin, or 6-methyl purine (which is an inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase), delay petal senescence. However, treatment with cytokinin also increases ethylene biosynthesis. Despite the similar effects on senescence, transcript abundance of gene markers is affected differentially by the treatments. A significant rise in transcript abundance of WLS73 (a putative aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase) was abolished by cytokinin or 6-methyl purine treatments. In contrast, WFSAG12 transcript (a senescence marker) continued to accumulate significantly, albeit at a reduced rate. Silver thiosulphate suppressed the increase in transcript abundance both of WFSAG12 and WLS73. Activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes changed during senescence. Treatments that increased cytokinin levels, or inhibited ethylene action, reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, although auxin levels rose with senescence, treatments that delayed early senescence did not affect

  17. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  18. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth.

  19. A Tonoplast P3B-ATPase Mediates Fusion of Two Types of Vacuoles in Petal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Faraco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant cells can contain multiple distinct vacuoles; however, the abundance of multivacuolar cells and the mechanisms underlying vacuolar differentiation and communication among different types of vacuoles remain unknown. PH1 and PH5 are tonoplast P-ATPases that form a heteromeric pump that hyper-acidifies the central vacuole (CV of epidermal cells in petunia petals. Here, we show that the sorting of this pump and other vacuolar proteins to the CV involves transit through small vacuoles: vacuolinos. Vacuolino formation is controlled by transcription factors regulating pigment synthesis and transcription of PH1 and PH5. Trafficking of proteins from vacuolinos to the central vacuole is impaired by misexpression of vacuolar SNAREs as well as mutants for the PH1 component of the PH1-PH5 pump. The finding that PH1-PH5 and these SNAREs interact strongly suggests that structural tonoplast proteins can act as tethering factors in the recognition of different vacuolar types.

  20. Chemical study, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective activities of Centaurea cyanus L. petals aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Graziela Bragueto; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali; Marques, Mariza Boscacci; Azevedo, Luciana; do Carmo, Mariana Araújo Vieira; Daguer, Heitor; Molognoni, Luciano; Prado-Silva, Leonardo do; Sant'Ana, Anderson Souza; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Granato, Daniel

    2018-05-19

    This study aimed to optimise the experimental conditions of extraction of the phytochemical compounds and functional properties of Centaurea cyanus petals. The following parameters were determined: the chemical composition (LC-ESI-MS/MS), the effects of pH on the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, anti-hemolytic activity, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective effect, and the measurements of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Results showed that the temperature and time influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the content of flavonoids, anthocyanins, and FRAP. Only the temperature influenced the total phenolic content, non-anthocyanin flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The statistical approach made it possible to obtain the optimised experimental extraction conditions to increase the level of bioactive compounds. Chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, isoquercitrin, and coumarin were identified as the major compounds in the optimised extract. The optimised extract presented anti-hemolytic and anti-hypertensive activity in vitro, in addition to showing stability and reversibility of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity with pH variation. The C. cyanus extract exhibited high IC 50 and GI 50 (>900 μg/mL) values for all cell lines, meaning low cytotoxicity. Based on the stress oxidative assay, the extract exhibited pro-oxidant action (10-100 μg/mL) but did not cause damage or cell death. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Sonochemical fabrication of petal array-like copper/nickel oxide composite foam as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, Namachivayam; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: mgsethu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute – Deemed University, Gandhigram, 624 302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A composite Ni foam textured with Cu particles was fabricated by a sonication method. • The foam can be used as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage applications. • The foam has a high specific capacitance of 1773 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: Copper/nickel oxide composite foam (Cu/Ni) with petal array-like textures were successfully fabricated via a facile sonochemical approach, and its applications as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage were examined. The nickel foam was immersed into a mixture of copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) and subsequently sonicated for 30 min at 60 °C. As a result of galvanic replacement, nickel was oxidized while copper was reduced, and the walls of the nickel foam were coated with copper particles. Studies using field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses confirmed the morphology and chemical structure of the as-obtained Cu/Ni oxide composite foam. The supercapacitive performance of the as-fabricated Cu/Ni oxide composite foam was evaluated in 2 M KOH by employing cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses. Cyclic voltammograms revealed that the Cu/Ni oxide composite foam exhibited pseudocapacitive behavior and delivered a high specific capacitance of 1773 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1}. This improvement may be attributed to the morphology, surface functionalization with heteroatoms, hydrogen evolution, and high conductivity, along with the low resistance due to short path lengths for electron transportation.

  2. Diversity of function in the isocitrate lyase enzyme superfamily: the Dianthus caryophyllus petal death protein cleaves alpha-keto and alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhibing; Feng, Xiaohua; Song, Ling; Han, Ying; Kim, Alexander; Herzberg, Osnat; Woodson, William R; Martin, Brian M; Mariano, Patrick S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2005-12-20

    The work described in this paper was carried out to define the chemical function a new member of the isocitrate lyase enzyme family derived from the flowering plant Dianthus caryophyllus. This protein (Swiss-Prot entry Q05957) is synthesized in the senescent flower petals and is named the "petal death protein" or "PDP". On the basis of an analysis of the structural contexts of sequence markers common to the C-C bond lyases of the isocitrate lyase/phosphoenolpyruvate mutase superfamily, a substrate screen that employed a (2R)-malate core structure was designed. Accordingly, stereochemically defined C(2)- and C(3)-substituted malates were synthesized and tested as substrates for PDP-catalyzed cleavage of the C(2)-C(3) bond. The screen identified (2R)-ethyl, (3S)-methylmalate, and oxaloacetate [likely to bind as the hydrate, C(2)(OH)(2) gem-diol] as the most active substrates (for each, k(cat)/K(m) = 2 x 10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). In contrast to the stringent substrate specificities previously observed for the Escherichia coli isocitrate and 2-methylisocitrate lyases, the PDP tolerated hydrogen, methyl, and to a much lesser extent acetate substituents at the C(3) position (S configuration only) and hydoxyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, and to a much lesser extent isobutyl substituents at C(2) (R configuration only). It is hypothesized that PDP functions in oxalate production in Ca(2+) sequestering and/or in carbon scavenging from alpha-hydroxycarboxylate catabolites during the biochemical transition accompanying petal senescence.

  3. Preparative isolation and purification of four flavonoids from the petals of Nelumbo nucifera by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingfeng, Guo; Daijie, Wang; Wenjuan, Duan; Jinhua, Du; Xiao, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids, the primary constituents of the petals of Nelumbo nucifera, are known to have antioxidant properties and antibacterial bioactivities. However, efficient methods for the preparative isolation and purification of flavonoids from this plant are not currently available. To develop an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of flavonoids from the petals of N. nucifera by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Following an initial clean-up step on a polyamide column, HSCCC was utilised to separate and purify flavonoids. Purities and identities of the isolated compounds were established by HPLC-PAD, ESI-MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. The separation was performed using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (4 : 1 : 5 : 0.1, by volume), in which the upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min in the head-to-tail elution mode. Ultimately, 5.0 mg syringetin-3-O-beta-d-glucoside, 6.5 mg quercetin-3-O-beta-d-glucoside, 12.8 mg isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-d-glucoside and 32.5 mg kaempferol-3-O-beta-d-glucoside were obtained from 125 mg crude sample. The combination of HSCCC with a polyamide column is an efficient method for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from the petals of N. nucifera. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Regulators of floral fragrance production and their target genes in petunia are not exclusively active in the epidermal cells of petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moerkercke, Alex; Galván-Ampudia, Carlos S; Verdonk, Julian C; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2012-05-01

    In which cells of the flower volatile biosynthesis takes place is unclear. In rose and snapdragon, some enzymes of the volatile phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway have been shown to be present in the epidermal cells of petals. It is therefore generally believed that the production of these compounds occurs in these cells. However, whether the entire pathway is active in these cells and whether it is exclusively active in these cells remains to be proven. Cell-specific transcription factors activating these genes will determine in which cells they are expressed. In petunia, the transcription factor EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II (EOBII) activates the ODORANT1 (ODO1) promoter and the promoter of the biosynthetic gene isoeugenol synthase (IGS). The regulator ODO1 in turn activates the promoter of the shikimate gene 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Here the identification of a new target gene of ODO1, encoding an ABC transporter localized on the plasma membrane, PhABCG1, which is co-expressed with ODO1, is described. PhABCG1 expression is up-regulated in petals overexpressing ODO1 through activation of the PhABCG1 promoter. Interestingly, the ODO1, PhABCG1, and IGS promoters were active in petunia protoplasts originating from both epidermal and mesophyll cell layers of the petal, suggesting that the volatile phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway in petunia is active in these different cell types. Since volatile release occurs from epidermal cells, trafficking of (volatile) compounds between cell layers must be involved, but the exact function of PhABCG1 remains to be resolved.

  5. A vacuolar iron transporter in tulip, TgVit1, is responsible for blue coloration in petal cells through iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kumi; Mano, Shoji; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Nakamori, Chihiro; Shoji, Kazuaki; Nitta, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2009-08-01

    Blue color in flowers is due mainly to anthocyanins, and a considerable part of blue coloration can be attributed to metal-complexed anthocyanins. However, the mechanism of metal ion transport into vacuoles and subsequent flower color development has yet to be fully explored. Previously, we studied the mechanism of blue color development specifically at the bottom of the inner perianth in purple tulip petals of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho. We found that differences in iron content were associated with the development of blue- and purple-colored cells. Here, we identify a vacuolar iron transporter in T. gesneriana (TgVit1), and characterize the localization and function of this transporter protein in tulip petals. The amino acid sequence of TgVit1 is 85% similar that of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar iron transporter AtVIT1, and also showed similarity to the AtVIT1 homolog in yeast, Ca(2+)-sensitive cross-complementer 1 (CCC1). The gene TgVit1 was expressed exclusively in blue-colored epidermal cells, and protein levels increased with increasing mRNA expression and blue coloration. Transient expression experiments revealed that TgVit1 localizes to the vacuolar membrane, and is responsible for the development of the blue color in purple cells. Expression of TgVit1 in yeast rescued the growth defect of ccc1 mutant cells in the presence of high concentrations of FeSO(4). Our results indicate that TgVit1 plays an essential role in blue coloration as a vacuolar iron transporter in tulip petals. These results suggest a new role for involvement of a vacuolar iron transporter in blue flower color development.

  6. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-12-01

    Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including extract of Rosa centifolia petals and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and sebum secretion inhibitory effects, and antifungal agents for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. Seventy-five patients were randomized into three treatment groups; new-formula shampoo, 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and 1% zinc- pyrithione shampoo. The clinical severity scores and sebum levels were assessed by the same dermatologists at baseline (week 0), and at 2 and 4 weeks after using the shampoo. User satisfaction and irritation were also assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. The efficacy of the new-formula shampoo was comparable to that of both the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo and the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Furthermore, it was found to provide a more rapid response than the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo for mild erythema lesions and was associated with greater user satisfaction compared with the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. However, the new-formula shampoo did not exhibit the previously reported sebum inhibitory effect. Extract of R. centifolia petals or EGCG could be useful ingredients in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  7. The use of bead beating to prepare suspensions of nuclei for flow cytometry from fresh leaves, herbarium leaves, petals and pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andy V

    2007-12-01

    "Bead beating" is commonly used to release DNA from cells for genomic studies but it was used here to prepare suspensions of plant nuclei for measurement of DNA amounts by flow cytometry. Plant material was placed in 2-ml screw-capped tubes containing beads of zirconia/silica (2.5 mm diameter) or glass (2.5 or 1.0 mm diameter) and 1 ml of lysis buffer. The tubes were mechanically shaken with an FP120 FastPrep Cell Disrupter to release intact nuclei from plant tissue by the impact of the beads. The nuclei were then stained with propidium iodide (PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry. The method was tested using fresh leaves, fresh petals and herbarium leaves of Rosa canina, leaves and pollen of R. rugosa, and fresh leaves of Petroselinum crispum, Nicotiana tabacum, and Allium cepa. Batches of 12 samples of fresh leaves were prepared, simultaneously, in 45 s by bead beating in the Cell Disrupter. In flow cytometry histograms, nuclei of fresh leaves gave G(1)/G(0) peaks with CVs of less than 3.0% and nuclei from fresh petals and herbarium leaves of R. canina, and pollen of the generative nuclei of R. rugosa gave peaks with coefficients of variation (CVs) of less than 4.0%. DNA amounts estimated from 24-month-old herbarium leaves, using P. crispum as an internal standard, were less than those of fresh leaves by a small but significant amount. Suspensions of nuclei can be prepared rapidly and conveniently from a diversity of tissues by bead beating. Exposure of laboratory workers to harmful substances in the lysis buffer is minimized. (c) 2007 International Society for Analytical Cytology

  8. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. One novel material with high visible-light activity: hexagonal Cu flakelets embedded in the petals of BiOBr flower-nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuling; Wu, Qingsheng, E-mail: qswu@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    The novel BiOBr flower-nanospheres embedded by hexagonal Cu have been synthesized successfully through an ingenious design, by one-step solvothermal process with two kinds of bifunctional reagents, namely, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C{sub 16}min]Br and ethylene glycol (EG). Pure BiOBr flower-sphere has been synthesized by solvothermal process. In the result of Cu-embedded BiOBr flower-nanospheres, the diameter of the flower-sphere is about 1.5 μm (±0.1) with hexagon copper about 10-nm side length in the petals of BiOBr flower-nanospheres. The Cu-embedded BiOBr composites exhibit high photocatalytic activity than pure BiOBr, which was investigated by the degradation of rhodamine B solution (RhB) and methyl orange solution (MO) under simulative visible-light irradiation. Nearly 100 and 80% of conversion can be achieved from the degradation of RhB and MO after 1.5 h, respectively. The high ability of photocatalysis may be attributed to the narrow-band-gap semiconductor BiOBr, high electron transportation of copper, and the coupling of Cu and BiOBr. It can lead to the strong absorption in the visible region and improve the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs.

  10. Electrowetting of liquid polymer on petal-mimetic microbowl-array surfaces for formation of microlens array with varying focus on a single substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmeng; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, microlens array with varying focal lengths were fabricated on a single microbowl-array textured substrate. The solid microbowl-arrayed NOA61 (kind of polyurethane-based polymer with UV curablity) surface was resulted from nanoimprinting by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. The PDMS mold was replicated from an SU-8 master which was generated by electron beam lithography. Such microbowl-arrayed surfaces demonstrate petal-mimetic highly adhesive hydrophobic wetting properties, which can promote an irreversible electrowetting (EW) effect and a dereased contact angle of water droplets as well as other liquid droplets by applying direct current (DC) voltage. To fabricate a microlens array with varying focal-lengths, liquid NOA61 was supplied from a syringe on the solid NOA61 microtextured film and DC voltage was applied succesively. After removing the DC voltage, these liquid NOA61 microdrops deposited on the solid microtextured NOA61 surface on tin-indium-oxide coated substrate could be solidified via UV irradiation, thus leading to microlens array with uneven numerical apertures on a single substrate. Numerical simulation was also done to verify the EW effect. Finally, optical imaging characterization was performed to confirm the varied focus of the NOA61 microdrops.

  11. Analysis of genomic DNA of DcACS1, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, expressed in senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and its orthologous genes in D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Murakoshi, Yuino; Torii, Yuka; Tanase, Koji; Onozaki, Takashi; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers exhibit climacteric ethylene production followed by petal wilting, a senescence symptom. DcACS1, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), is a gene involved in this phenomenon. We determined the genomic DNA structure of DcACS1 by genomic PCR. In the genome of 'Light Pink Barbara', we found two distinct nucleotide sequences: one corresponding to the gene previously shown as DcACS1, designated here as DcACS1a, and the other novel one designated as DcACS1b. It was revealed that both DcACS1a and DcACS1b have five exons and four introns. These two genes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in exons, but not in some introns and 3'-UTR. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed that DcACS1b is expressed in senescing petals as well as DcACS1a. Genomic PCR analysis of 32 carnation cultivars showed that most cultivars have only DcACS1a and some have both DcACS1a and DcACS1b. Moreover, we found two DcACS1 orthologous genes with different nucleotide sequences from D. superbus var. longicalycinus, and designated them as DsuACS1a and DsuACS1b. Petals of D. superbus var. longicalycinus produced ethylene in response to exogenous ethylene, accompanying accumulation of DsuACS1 transcripts. These data suggest that climacteric ethylene production in flowers was genetically established before the cultivation of carnation.

  12. Morfologia dos tricomas das pétalas de espécies de Pseudobombax Dugand (Malvaceae, Bombacoideae e seu significado taxonômico Morphology of trichomes in petals of Pseudobombax Dugand (Malvaceae, Bombacoideae species and its taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Guedes de Carvalho-Sobrinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Pseudobombax Dugand apresenta cerca de 30 espécies, é restrito à região Neotropical e apresenta taxonomia complexa, com muitas de suas espécies mal circunscritas. Parte de seus problemas taxonômicos é conseqüência do fato de que suas espécies perdem as folhas na floração e, portanto, a maioria delas é representada apenas por flores nas coleções de herbário. Neste trabalho, investigou-se a morfologia dos tricomas presentes nas pétalas de oito espécies de Pseudobombax. O estudo utilizou microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura a partir de amostras obtidas de material de herbário e flores fixadas em etanol a 70%. Em todas as espécies de Pseudobombax analisadas, foram encontrados dois tipos principais de tricomas: (a tricomas 2-4-armados, sésseis, longos, flexíveis e com paredes finas, situados na face adaxial de todas as espécies; (b tricomas tufosos, sésseis, curtos, rígidos, com paredes espessas e lignificadas, situados na face abaxial. Os dados qualitativos e quantitativos obtidos mostraram-se de valor taxonômico para a resolução de problemas de identificação específica em Pseudobombax.Trichome morphology of the petals of Pseudobombax Dugand species was investigated. The eight species selected of Pseudobombax were analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The study detected the existence of variation, both qualitative and quantitative, in morphology of trichomes in petals of species analyzed. In Pseudobombax petals, two kinds of trichomes were found: (a trichomes 2-4-armed, sessile, long, flexible and with thin walls, situated on the adaxial surface; (b tufted trichomes, sessile, short, rigid, with thick, lignified walls, on the abaxial surface of the petals. The qualitative and quantitative data were of taxonomic value for the resolution of problems of specific identification in the genus.

  13. Hierarchical magnetic petal-like Fe3O4-ZnO@g-C3N4 for removal of sulfamethoxazole, suppression of photocorrosion, by-products identification and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Amir; Chen, Zhi; Haghighat, Fariborz; Yerushalmi, Laleh

    2018-08-01

    Herein, a petal-like photocatalyst, Fe 3 O 4 -ZnO@g-C 3 N 4 (FZG) with different g-C 3 N 4 to ZnO ratios was synthesized with hierarchical structure. The FZG1 photocatalyst, having the weight ratio of 1:1 for the initial urea and Fe 3 O 4 -ZnO (Fe-ZnO), presented the highest sulfamethoxazole (SMX) degradation rate of 0.0351 (min -1 ), which was 2.6 times higher than that of pristine ZnO. Besides the facile separation, the performance of photocatalyst was improved due to the function of iron oxide as an electron acceptor that reduced the electron/hole recombination rate. The coating of g-C 3 N 4 on the Fe-ZnO surface not only acted as a protective layer for ZnO against photocorrosion, but it also enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the catalyst for SMX degradation through the heterojunction mechanism. By using the FZG1 photocatalyst, 95% SMX removal was obtained after 90 min reaction, while 47% COD and 30% TOC removal were achieved after 60 min treatment under a low energy-consuming UV lamp (10 W). Moreover, a substantial reduction in the solution toxicity was shown after the treatment, as compared with the SMX solution before treatment. The LC-HR-MS/MS analysis results showed that the concentration of most detected by-products produced after 90 min reaction by FZG1 was considerably lower than those obtained using other synthesized photocatalysts. By performing radical scavenging experiments, OH ° radical was found to be the major reactive species. The FZG1 photocatalyst also displayed excellent reusability in five cycles and the leaching of zinc and iron ions was reduced by 54% and ∼100%, respectively, after coating Fe-ZnO with g-C 3 N 4 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Petal Brake Hypersonic Entry System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA exploration plans will realize significant performance advantages with aerocapture and aerobraking of large, heavy payloads for Mars, Titan, and the gas...

  15. Propagation of Porro "petal" beams through a turbulent atmosphere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available . Construct a series of pseudo–random phase screens from the basis. 3. Implement optical wavefront changes from the pseudo–random phase screens. 4. Propagate the resulting beam to the far field and measure …. Page 11 Phase screen construction 20 40 60 80... constant h is height asl k is the wave number Atmospheric propagation Kolmogorov Turbulence Model Page 10 Atmospheric propagation How to measure turbulence 1. Decompose the turbulence model into a series of orthogonal functions (basis set). 2...

  16. Upper petal lip colour polymorphism in Collinsia heterophylla ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    logically important traits i.e., traits that influence fitness within a natural .... Collinsia heterophylla is a self-compatible diploid (2n = ... During this period the stigma becomes receptive and the style ... imately from 50 maternal plants (1–20 plants per maternal .... lar parent) to be able to perform the G-test. ...... assessment.

  17. Angular self-reconstruction of petal-like beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available equation for predicting the self-reconstruction distance of superpositions of LG beams, which we confirm by numerical propagation as well as by experiment. We explain that the self-reconstruction process is not guaranteed and predict its dependence...

  18. Folhas voláteis, papéis manuscritos: o pelotão de saúde no jornal infantil Pétalas (Colégio Coração de Jesus - Florianópolis/SC, 1945-1952 - Volatile sheets, manuscript papers: the platoon of health in petals childish journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Santos Cunha, Brasil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O jornal Pétalas Infantil era uma produção manuscrita, feita em folhas avulsas, realizada pelas alunas do curso primário do Colégio Coração de Jesus, uma instituição religiosa e feminina de Florianópolis/SC e cujos exemplares, entre 1945 e 1952, foram conservados em um acervo pessoal. Considerado material ordinário, o texto deste estudo centra-se na análise dos artigos e comentários que expressavam preceitos veiculados pelo Pelotão de Saúde, uma associação complementar da escola, legitimada por lei e cujo propósito era auxiliar na criação e manutenção de princípios higiênicos como integrantes da cultura escolar do período. O artigo vincula-se ao campo de pesquisa da História da Educação e da cultura escrita entendidas, ambas, como produções discursivas e escolares de um determinado tempo e lugar que, tanto pelos suportes em que se apresentam à leitura, como pelos preceitos higienistas e cívicos que punham em circulação, permitem pensar a importância desse material na construção de uma memória para o reconhecimento de diferentes práticas, costumes, rituais, ações que integravam o ambiente escolar do período em pauta.Palavras-chave: jornal infantil, pelotão de saúde, higiene e cultura escolar. VOLATILE SHEETS, MANUSCRIPT PAPERS: THE PLATOON OF HEALTH IN PETALS CHILDISH JOURNAL (COLÉGIO CORAÇÃO DE JESUS - FLORIANÓPOLIS/SC, 1945-1952  AbstractPetals Childish journal was a handwritten production, made in single sheets of paper, held by the students of the primary school Coração de Jesus, a religious institution for girls in Florianópolis/SC and whose exemplary, between 1946 and 1952, were kept in a personal collection. Considered ordinary material this study focused on the analysis of the articles and comments that expressed precepts conveyed by the Pelotão de Saúde (Platoon of Health, a complementary association of the school, legitimized by law, and whose purpose was to assist in the

  19. Doughnut laser beam as an incoherent superposition of two petal beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguerre–Gaussian beams with a nonzero azimuthal index are known to carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), and are routinely created external to laser cavities. The few reports of obtaining such beams from laser cavities suffer from inconclusive...

  20. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Majid Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester, santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Origin choice and petal loss in the flower garden of spiral wave tip trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Richard A.; Wikswo, John P.; Otani, Niels F.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating spiral waves have been observed in numerous biological and physical systems. These spiral waves can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves. The spatiotemporal behavior of spiral waves has been extensively quantified by tracking spiral wave tip trajectories. However, the precise methodology of identifying the spiral wave tip and its influence on the specific patterns of behavior remains a largely unexplored topic of research. Here we use a two...

  2. Origin choice and petal loss in the flower garden of spiral wave tip trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard A; Wikswo, John P; Otani, Niels F

    2009-09-01

    Rotating spiral waves have been observed in numerous biological and physical systems. These spiral waves can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves. The spatiotemporal behavior of spiral waves has been extensively quantified by tracking spiral wave tip trajectories. However, the precise methodology of identifying the spiral wave tip and its influence on the specific patterns of behavior remains a largely unexplored topic of research. Here we use a two-state variable FitzHugh-Nagumo model to simulate stationary and meandering spiral waves and examine the spatiotemporal representation of the system's state variables in both the real (i.e., physical) and state spaces. We show that mapping between these two spaces provides a method to demarcate the spiral wave tip as the center of rotation of the solution to the underlying nonlinear partial differential equations. This approach leads to the simplest tip trajectories by eliminating portions resulting from the rotational component of the spiral wave.

  3. Preliminary Studies Regarding the Production of Jam from Organic Rose Petal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cornelia BUTCARU

    2017-11-01

    The final products, seventeen variants of rose jam, were analyzed and tasted. Sensorial analysis was made by consumers of different ages and gender. Jam appearance, general taste, aroma, and the overall impression were noticed. V4 variant - Brother Cadfael with sea buckthorn was the most appreciated variant. For each of these top variants, target group by gender and age was analyzed. The results showed that the customers’ preferences are influenced by age and gender and the organic rose jam is a highly appreciated product.

  4. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  5. Cotton Flowers: Pollen and Petal Humidity Sensitivities Determine Reproductive Competitiveness in Diverse Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been reported for cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] based upon the percentage of anther dehiscence of mature pollen in adverse environments. This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature pollen and identified genetic vari...

  6. Quantitate gossypol enantiomers in cotton flower petals and seed using capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a compound that occurs in the cotton plant and in leaves it protects the plant from insect herbivory. The compound also occurs in the seed. In this tissue it renders the seed toxic to non-ruminant animals. However, gossypol exists as a mixture of enantiomers referred to as (+)-gossypo...

  7. Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by femtosecond laser with tunable water adhesion: from lotus leaf to rose petal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiangyou; Fan, Peixun; Gong, Dingwei; Jiang, Dafa; Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Lin; Zhong, Minlin

    2015-05-13

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion have attracted much interest in fundamental research and practical applications. In this paper, we used a simple method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion. Periodic microstructures with different topographies were fabricated on copper surface via femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation. The topography of these microstructures can be controlled by simply changing the scanning speed of the laser beam. After surface chemical modification, these as-prepared surfaces showed superhydrophobicity combined with different adhesion to water. Surfaces with deep microstructures showed self-cleaning properties with extremely low water adhesion, and the water adhesion increased when the surface microstructures became flat. The changes in surface water adhesion are attributed to the transition from Cassie state to Wenzel state. We also demonstrated that these superhydrophobic surfaces with different adhesion can be used for transferring small water droplets without any loss. We demonstrate that our approach provides a novel but simple way to tune the surface adhesion of superhydrophobic metallic surfaces for good potential applications in related areas.

  8. Perianth evolution in Ranunculaceae: are petals ancestral in the family?

    OpenAIRE

    Nadot S.; Sauquet H.; Damerval C.; Jabbour F.; Domenech B.

    2016-01-01

    Progress has been made recently towards the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies and tribes of the Ranunculaceae – the most recent hypothesis was published in 2016 by our team. Although relationships among the 10 tribes of the subfamily Ranunculoideae remain incompletely supported, this hypothesis provides an interesting framework to address the key issue of the ancestral vs. derived nature of a differentiated perianth within the family, and at the level of Ranunculales...

  9. Do plastids in Dendrobium cv. Lucky Duan petals function similar to autophagosomes and autolysosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.J.; Kirasak, K.; Sonong, A.; Srihiran, Y.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Ketsa, S.

    2011-01-01

    In animal cells a double-membrane-bound structure, the autophagosome, encloses a portion of the cytoplasm. The encapsulated material becomes digested after fusion of the autophagosome with a vesicle containing lytic enzymes. The autophagosome is then termed autolysosome. In intact plants, structures

  10. A PETAL OF THE SUNFLOWER: PHOTOMETRY OF THE STELLAR TIDAL STREAM IN THE HALO OF MESSIER 63 (NGC 5055)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Gabany, R. Jay; Majewski, Steven R.; Hill, Gary J.; Gralak, Ray; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    We present deep surface photometry of a very faint, giant arc-loop feature in the halo of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055 (M63) that is consistent with being a part of a stellar stream resulting from the disruption of a dwarf satellite galaxy. This faint feature was first detected in early photographic studies by van der Kruit; more recently, in the study of Martínez-Delgado and as presented in this work, from the loop has been realized to be the result of a recent minor merger through evidence obtained by wide-field, deep images taken with a telescope of only 0.16 m aperture. The stellar stream is clearly confirmed in additional deep images taken with the 0.5 m telescope of the BlackBird Remote Observatory and the 0.8 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory. This low surface brightness (μ R ≈ 26 mag arcsec –2 ) arc-like structure around the disk of the galaxy extends 14.'0 (∼29 kpc projected) from its center, with a projected width of 1.'6 (∼3.3 kpc). The stream's morphology is consistent with that of the visible part of a giant, 'great-circle' type stellar stream originating from the recent accretion of a ∼10 8 M ☉ dwarf satellite in the last few Gyr. The progenitor satellite's current position and final fate are not conclusive from our data. The color of the stream's stars is consistent with dwarfs in the Local Group and is similar to the outer faint regions of M63's disk and stellar halo. From our photometric study, we detect other low surface brightness 'plumes'; some of these may be extended spiral features related to the galaxy's complex spiral structure, and others may be tidal debris associated with the disruption of the galaxy's outer stellar disk as a result of the accretion event. We are able to differentiate between features related to the tidal stream and faint, blue extended features in the outskirts of the galaxy's disk previously detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite. With its highly warped H I gaseous disk (∼20°), M63 represents one of the several examples of an isolated spiral galaxy with a warped disk showing recently discovered strong evidence of an ongoing minor merger.

  11. Developing an Invisible Message about Relative Acidities of Alcohols in the Natural Products Henna, Turmeric, Rose Petals, and Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Hadir, Latifa

    2010-01-01

    An engaging and colorful demonstration was developed that illustrates the utility of resonance theory in predicting the relative acidities of alcohols. The demonstration can be used as an introduction to exercises that provide students with practice in writing resonance structures and in predicting relative acidities. The demonstration exploits…

  12. Synergistic effect of sodium and yeast in improving the efficiency of DSSC sensitized with extract from petals of Kigelia Africana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, S.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.; Satish Kumar, T.; Sivakumaran, K.; Kannan, M. D.

    2018-05-01

    TiO2 nanostructures with two different dopants, sodium and yeast have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. Doping sodium is found to extend the absorbance of TiO2 into the visible region as well as it acts as mordant in fixing and improving the absorption of dye. Yeast, as a dopant, can help in absorption of more anthocyanins from the natural dye extract by TiO2 and also aids in retaining the colour of the dye and increases the stability of the dye at varying pH. Anthocyanins are the major class of pigment present in the newly addressed maroon, velvety and trumpet shaped flower "Kigelia Africana". X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of rutile phase for all the samples. Field Emission Scanning Electron microscopy images revealed the formation of nanorods and nanoflowers with change in dopant as well as their concentration. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC with undoped TiO2 photoelectrode is 0.87% and DSSC with 6% Na doped TiO2 photoelectrode is 1.56%. The efficiency of DSSC with 6% Na+6% yeast doped TiO2 photoelectrode is found to increase from 2.09% (DSSC with 6% Na+4% yeast doped TiO2 photoelectrode) to 2.31% on varying the dopant concentration. Doping is also found to increase the dye absorption and superior charge transport efficiency which in turn helps to improve the performance of DSSC.

  13. 78 FR 53749 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP, Petal Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Transmission Company, LLC's existing pipeline; and \\1\\ A ``pig'' is a tool that is inserted into and moves..., the EA is available for public viewing on the FERC's Web site ( www.ferc.gov ) using the eLibrary link... Commission's [[Page 53750

  14. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  15. Inventory of Rare of Endangered Vascular Plants Occurring in the Floodplain of the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Floodplain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    counties). ramily Cyperaceae Cyperus iria L. Illinois (Alexander). Family Ranunculaceae Ranunculus sardous Crantz. Illinois (Jackson, Union). Family ...adventive floodplain species is appended. P1 r 4 Sagittaria calycina Engelm. Arrowhead Family Alismataceae Status: Not rare nor endangered. This usually...spongia (Bosc) Steud. Frogbit Family Hydrocharitaceae Status: Rare (Illinois). This is a Coastal Plain species which ranges from Texas to Florida and

  16. 78 FR 75313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Reclassify...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... the removal or reduction of the Act's protections. A species is an ``endangered species'' for purposes... invasive, nonnative plant species was not identified as a specific threat to E. altissimum in the 1994... and its habitat. The primary invasive, nonnative species of concern is Ehrharta calycina, a perennial...

  17. Petunia AGAMOUS enhancer-derived chimeric promoters specify a carpel-, stamen- and petal-specific expression pattern sufficient for engineering male and female sterility in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that the AtAGIP promoter derived from the Arabidopsis AGAMOUS (AG) second intron/enhancer specifies a carpel- and stamen-specific pattern of expression in its native host species but not in heterologous species, such as tobacco which restricts its application in the engin...

  18. Inhibitory effect of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract on fructose-induced protein glycation and oxidation-dependent damages to albumin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayaratanasin, Poramin; Barbieri, Manuel Alejandro; Suanpairintr, Nipattra; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-02-18

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in body tissue has been implicated in the progression of age-related diseases. Inhibition of AGE formation is the imperative approach for alleviating diabetic complications. Clitoria ternatea extract (CTE) has been demonstrated to possess anti-diabetic activity. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting its anti-glycation activity. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of CTE on fructose-induced formation of AGEs and protein oxidation. Antioxidant activity of CTE was also assessed by various methods. The aqueous extract of CTE (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) was measured for the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoid, and anthocyanin by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, AlCl3 colorimetric method, and pH differential method, respectively. The various concentrations of CTE were incubated with BSA and fructose at 37°C for 28 days. The formation of fluorescent AGEs, the level of fructosamine, protein carbonyl content, and thiol group were measured. The in vitro antioxidant activity was measured by the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SRSA), and ferrous ion chelating power (FICP). The results demonstrated that the content of total phenolics, flavonoids and total anthocyanins in CTE was 53 ± 0.34 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract, 11.2 ± 0.33 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, and 1.46 ± 0.04 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. Moreover, CTE (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs in a concentration-dependent manner. CTE also markedly reduced the levels of fructosamine and the oxidation of protein by decreasing protein carbonyl content and preventing free thiol depletion. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity and SRSA, CTE had the IC50 values of 0.47 ± 0.01 mg/ml and 0.58 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Furthermore, the FRAP and TEAC values of CTE were 0.38 ± 0.01 mmol FeSO4 equivalents/mg dried extract and 0.17 ± 0.01 mg trolox equivalents/mg dried extract. However, CTE showed weak scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical and a weak antioxidant iron chelator. The results showed that CTE has strong antiglycation and antioxidant properties and might have therapeutic potentials in the prevention of AGE-mediated diabetic complications.

  19. An anther- and petal-specific gene SlMF1 is a multicopy gene with homologous sequences on sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matsunaga, S.; Lebel-Hardenack, S.; Kejnovský, Eduard; Vyskot, Boris; Grant, Sarah R.; Kawano, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, - (2005), s. 395-401 ISSN 1341-7568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/2097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : dioecious plant * male flower * sex chromosomes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.081, year: 2005

  20. THE COMBINATION OF MANGOSTEEN PEEL EXTRACT WITH ROSELLA FLOWER PETALS EXTRACT AND ANTHILL PLANT EXTRACT AS CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES REDUCER ON MALE WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Mahardian Kusuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a disease associated with high levels of cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood. Utilization of the commercial drugs can be given; however apart from the expensive price, adverse side effects might occur. It makes people choose alternative medication with herbal medicine through the use of natural materials. This study aimed to determine the effect of the combination of mangosteen peel extract-extract of roselle calyx and mangosteen peel extract-extract the ant nest plant as lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels in male rats. The method used in this study was a laboratory experimental method using device posttest only control group design (simple experimental design. This study used 25 male rats of Wistar strain, divided into 5 groups; Group I: group without treatment, group II: control group solvent (NaCMC 1%, group III: positive control group (Simvastatin, Group IV: combination group mangosteen peel extract (200 mg / kg - extract of roselle calyx (250 mg / kg, group V: group combination of mangosteen peel extract 200 mg / kg - extract anthill (270 mg / kg. Induction of cholesterol in rats using quail egg yolk (10 ml / kg. The results showed that there was no significant difference in cholesterol and triglycerides between the combination of both extracts of mangosteen peel with a positive control (p<0,05.

  1. Fasciocutaneous Lotus Petal Flap for Perineal Wound Reconstruction after Extralevator Abdominoperineal Excision : Application for Reconstruction of the Pelvic Floor and Creation of a Neovagina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellinga, Joke; Khoe, Patrick C. K. H.; van Etten, Boudewijn; Hemmer, Patrick H. J.; Havenga, Klaas; Stenekes, Martin W.; Eltahir, Yassir

    2016-01-01

    The extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) procedure creates an extensive soft tissue defect of the pelvic floor. It has been suggested that primary reconstruction reduces the risk of wound infection and delayed wound healing in this high-risk area. Use of myocutaneous flaps or omentoplasty

  2. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including e...

  3. Mutation in Torenia fournieri Lind. UFO homolog confers loss of TfLFY interaction and results in a petal to sepal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Aida, Ryutaro; Shikata, Masahito; Abe, Tomoko; Ohtsubo, Norihiro

    2012-09-01

    We identified a Torenia fournieri Lind. mutant (no. 252) that exhibited a sepaloid phenotype in which the second whorls were changed to sepal-like organs. This mutant had no stamens, and the floral organs consisted of sepals and carpels. Although the expression of a torenia class B MADS-box gene, GLOBOSA (TfGLO), was abolished in the 252 mutant, no mutation of TfGLO was found. Among torenia homologs such as APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which regulate expression of class B genes in Arabidopsis, only accumulation of the TfUFO transcript was diminished in the 252 mutant. Furthermore, a missense mutation was found in the coding region of the mutant TfUFO. Intact TfUFO complemented the mutant phenotype whereas mutated TfUFO did not; in addition, the transgenic phenotype of TfUFO-knockdown torenias coincided with the mutant phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the mutated TfUFO lost its ability to interact with TfLFY protein. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that the transcripts of TfUFO and TfLFY were partially accumulated in the same region. These results clearly demonstrate that the defect in TfUFO caused the sepaloid phenotype in the 252 mutant due to the loss of interaction with TfLFY. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Facile fabrication of flower like self-assembled mesoporous hierarchical microarchitectures of In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}: In(OH){sub 3} micro flowers with electron beam sensitive thin petals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arul Prakasam, Balasubramaniam, E-mail: arul7777@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130, Mikkeli (Finland); Lahtinen, Manu; Peuronen, Anssi [Department of Chemistry, Laboratories of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Muruganandham, Manickavachagam [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19122 (United States); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2016-12-01

    A template and capping-reagent free facile fabrication method for mesoporous hierarchical microarchitectures of flower-like In(OH){sub 3} particles under benign hydrothermal conditions is reported. Calcination of In(OH){sub 3} to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the retention of morphology is also described. Both In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures were analyzed with SEM, EDX, TEM and powder X-ray diffraction. The crystal sizes for In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were calculated using the Scherrer equation. In In(OH){sub 3} the thin flakes at the periphery of micro flowers were electron beam sensitive. The mechanism of self-assembly process was analyzed as well. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal fabrication In(OH){sub 3} self-assembled porous hierarchical architectures. • Induced dehydration in beam sensitive In(OH){sub 3} micro flowers. • Calcination of In(OH){sub 3} to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the retention of flower like morphology. • Phase pure synthesis of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the average crystal size of ∼37 nm.

  5. Functional analysis of PI-like gene in relation to flower development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lying flower development in bamboo, a petal-identity gene was identified as a ... 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal forma- tion in the ... Arabidopsis converted sepals to petals; BoPI-C interacted with BoAP3 on yeast two-hybrid assay, just like the full-length ... PI homologue function in regulating perianth organ forma-.

  6. Differential recruitment of WOX transcription factors for lateral development and organ fusion in Petunia and Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbussche, M.; Horstman, A.; Zethof, J.; Koes, R.E.; Rijpkema, A.S.; Gerats, T.

    2009-01-01

    Petal fusion in petunia (Petunia × hybrida) results from lateral expansion of the five initially separate petal primordia, forming a ring-like primordium that determines further development. Here, we show that MAEWEST (MAW) and CHORIPETALA SUZANNE (CHSU) are required for petal and carpel fusion, as

  7. Transcriptome profiling reveals regulatory mechanisms underlying Corolla Senescence in Petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic regulatory mechanisms that govern petal natural senescence in petunia is complicated and unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that regulate the process, we initiated a transcriptome analysis in petunia petals at four developmental time points, including petal opening without anthesis ...

  8. Notes i contribucions al coneixement de la flora de Menorca (X). Notes florístiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga-Arguimbau, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Es donen a conèixer noves dades corològiques i observacions taxonòmiques per a la flora de Menorca referents a 50 tàxons. D'aquests 13 són novetat per a la flora de les Balears: Agrostis stolonifera subsp. gaditana (Boiss. & Reut.) Valdés & H. Scholz, Asteriscus pygmaeus (DC.) Coss. & Durieu, Callitriche obtnsangula Le Gall, Dactylis glomerata subsp. hackelii (Asch. & Graebn.) Cif. & Giacom., Daucus muricatus (L.) L., Ehrharta calycina J.E. Sm., Eleocharis palustris subsp. waltersii Bures & D...

  9. Novos registros de espécies da subtribo Ecliptinae (Heliantheae - Asteraceae para a Amazônia brasileira New records of species of the Ecliptinae subtribe (Heliantheae - Asteraceae to the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Alves dos Reis e Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da subtribo Ecliptinae encontradas nos estados do Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará e Rondônia, são apresentadas como novos registros para a Amazônia brasileira: Acmella uliginosa, Aspilia camporum, Aspilia ulei, Melanthera latifolia, Melanthera nivea, Spilanthes nervosa e Wedelia calycina. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações para as espécies, dados sobre a distribuição geográfica, hábitat, época de floração e frutificação. Os novos registros evidenciam a importância de estudos sobre a flora amazônica e demonstram a necessidade de coletas mais intensas na região.The following seven species of the subtribe Ecliptinae found in the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia have been recorded at the Brazilian Amazonia, for the first time: Acmella uliginosa, Aspilia camporum, Aspilia ulei, Melanthera latifolia, Melanthera nivea, Spilanthes nervosa and Wedelia calycina. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as information about geographic distribution, habitats and phenology. These new records highlight the importance of the floristic studies in Amazonia, and the need to carry out intensive fieldwork to improve the sampling in this region.

  10. A model of the transverse modes of stable and unstable porro-prism resonators using symmetry considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    A simple model of a Porro prism laser resonator has been found to correctly predict the formation of the "petal" mode patterns typical of these resonators. A geometrical analysis of the petals suggests that these petals are the lowest-order modes of this type of resonator. Further use of the model reveals the formation of more complex beam patterns, and the nature of these patterns is investigated. Also, the output of stable and unstable resonator modes is presented.

  11. Effect of silver thiosulphate preservative on the physiology of cut carnations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducasse, P.B.; Van Staden, J.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation attempted to determine the effect of silver thiosulphate on the carbohydrate status of cut carnation flowers. Labelled [ 14 C] sucrose was applied by microsyringe to two of the outer petals of each flower. At fixed intervals flowers were withdrawn from the different solutions and separated into labelled petals, untreated petals, gynoecia, and shoots. Paper chromatographic techniques were used to determine whether any detected radioactivity was associated with sucrose or its breakdown products. The vase life of flowers was extended by silver thiosulphate treatment and decreased by Ethrel application. Ethrel application enhanced carbohydrate utilization and also accelerated transport of labelled compounds from the treated petals to the rest of the flower

  12. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Lourdes; Veiga, Tania; Ni, Xiuzhen; Farré, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, Pablo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea). We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1) and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in petals of

  13. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Berman

    Full Text Available Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea. We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1 and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in

  14. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judit; Sheng, Yanmin; Gómez Gómez, Lourdes; Veiga, Tania; Ni, Xiuzhen; Farré, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, Pablo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea). We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1) and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in petals of

  15. Inheritance of pigmentation patterns in Talinum triangulare (Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The backcross segregated into ratio of 1 light pink: 1 white for petal and filament colours; and a ratio 1 deep pink: 1light pink for stigma colour. The segregation patterns for petal and filament colour in all the generations indicate incomplete dominance of deep pink colour over white colour showing that the same gene ...

  16. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  17. Constructing “petal” modes from the coherent superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental approach in generating Petal-like transverse modes, which are similar to what is seen in porro-prism resonators, has been successfully demonstrated. We hypothesize that the petal-like structures are generated from a coherent...

  18. Mass spectrometric imaging as a high-spatial resolution tool for functional genomics: Tissue-specific gene expression of TT7 inferred from heterogeneous distribution of metabolites in Arabidopsis flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-12-23

    Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was used to acquire chemical images of flavonoid metabolites on the surface of wild-type and mutant (tt7) Arabidopsis thaliana flowers. Flavonoids were localized to the petals and carpels of flowers, with tissue heterogeneity in the petals. Specifically, kaempferol and/or its glycosides were abundant in the distal region of petals and quercetin and its downstream flavonoids were highly enriched in the more proximal region of petals. As a result of a mutation in the TT7 gene which blocks the conversion of dihydrokaempferol to dihydroquercetin, the downstream metabolites, quercetin, isohamnetin, and their glycosides, were not observed in the mutant flowers. Instead, the metabolites in an alternative pathway, kaempferol and/or its glycosides, were as highly abundant on the proximal region of the petals as in the distal region. In addition, the combined flavonoid amounts on the proximal region of petals in the wild-type are almost equivalent to the amounts of kaempferol and/or its glycosides in the mutant. This strongly suggests that the expression of the TT7 gene is localized on the proximal part of the petal while the other genes in the upper stream pathway are evenly expressed throughout the petal. Most importantly, this work demonstrates MSI of metabolites can be utilized for the localization of gene expression.

  19. The efficacy of endogenous gibberellic acid for parthenocarpy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... Huge bud stage (petals are closed and colours are changed in petals). IV. Flower stage (flowers are at .... dedicate this article to her memory. REFERENCES ... Abscisic, Phaseic and 3-Indolylacetıc Acids by High-Performance.

  20. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  1. Species of Euglossa of the analis group in the Atlantic forest (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The species of Euglossa Latreille, 1802 of the analis group inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic forest are revised and identification keys for males and females are provided. Five species are recognized in the Atlantic forest: Euglossa cognata Moure, 1970, Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, Euglossa roderici Nemésio, 2009 and two new species described here, Euglossa botocuda sp. nov. and Euglossa calycina sp. nov. These two new species have been misidentified by previous authors as Atlantic forest populations of, respectively, Euglossa iopyrrha Dressler, 1982 and Euglossa mixta Friese, 1899. Relevant morphological features are illustrated and distribution maps are also provided. Notes on the analis group are included and an additional available name, Euglossa aureiventris Friese, 1899, is placed in this species group.

  2. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  3. Caracterização química e atividade biológica de extratos aquosos de Brunfelsiacuneifolia J.A. Schmidt (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. SCHNEIDER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O gênero Brunfelsia possui ainda poucas informações a respeito de sua composição química ou confirmações científicas de suas propriedades medicinais, apesar do uso na medicina tradicional pelos povos amazônicos. Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a espécie Brunfelsia cuneifolia, cultivada no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto a sua composição química e atividade biológica. Foram obtidos extratos aquosos a quente, a frio, e por ultrassom, a partir de folhas frescas. A caracterização química realizada por CLAE determinou a presença dos compostos fenólicos: ácido ferúlico e rutina, em todos os extratos, sendo as maiores quantidades apresentadas pela extração a frio. A análise por EMAR identificou a fórmula molecular de nove substâncias nos diferentes extratos, incluindo a presença do alcaloide brunfelsamidina em todos os extratos obtidos. Para a atividade biológica, devido à similaridade de resposta e teor nas diferentes formas de extração, foi possível correlacionar a atividade antioxidante, avaliada através da redução do radical DPPH*, com o teor de compostos fenólicos totais obtidos pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteu. A toxicidade dos extratos avaliada pela utilização de Artemia salina revelou ausência de toxidez. Os resultados obtidos são os primeiros apresentados para a caracterização desta espécie, colaborando também para a pesquisa científica acerca dos usos popularmente atribuídos ao gênero.

  4. Plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e eqüídeos no Norte Piauiense Toxic plants for ruminants and equidae in Northern Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo W.S. Mello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar um levantamento sobre as plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e equídeos na Mesorregião Norte do Piauí. Foram feitas 71 entrevistas a médicos veterinários, engenheiros agrônomos, técnicos agrícolas e produtores de 16 municípios, entrevistando pelo menos quatro pessoas por município. As plantas comprovadamente tóxicas que foram apontadas com maior frequência na região estudada foram Ipomoea asarifolia, que causa intoxicações em pequenos ruminantes em todas as áreas visitadas. Stryphnodendron coriaceum pelas mortes que ocasiona é, aparentemente, a planta que causa maiores perdas econômicas na mesorregião estudada. Enterolobium contortisiliquum também foi citada como causa importante de sinais digestivos, abortamentos e fotossensibilização em bovinos da região. Os entrevistados confirmaram a ocorrência de surtos de intoxicação em bovinos por Thiloa glaucocarpa no inicio do período chuvoso. Manihot spp. e Piptadenia macrocarpa são plantas cianogênicas apontadas como causa de mortes superagudas em bovinos. Outras plantas relatadas como tóxicas pelos entrevistados, mas sem que haja comprovação de sua toxicidade, foram Buchenavia tomentosa, Caesalpinia sp., Brunfelsia sp., Luetzelburgia sp., Hybantus ipecaconha, Phisalys angulata e Spondias luta. De acordo com os entrevistados os frutos de Buchenavia tomentosa causam sinais digestivos e abortos em caprinos, ovinos e bovinos. Produtores relatam surtos de intoxicação em caprinos que apresentam sinais digestivos e morte após a ingestão de favas de Luetzelburgia sp. Brunfelsia sp. é relatada como causa de alterações nervosas, no começo das chuvas, quando os animais ingerem as folhas e flores e os asininos são aparentemente mais afetados. Os frutos de Spondias luta foram mencionados como causa de diarréia em caprinos. Experimentos não publicados demonstraram a toxicidade de Brunfelsia sp. em ovinos e de Luetzelburgia sp. como

  5. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic flowers with low hysteresis of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor – new design principles for biomimetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Schulte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchically structured flower leaves (petals of many plants are superhydrophobic, but water droplets do not roll-off when the surfaces are tilted. On such surfaces water droplets are in the “Cassie impregnating wetting state”, which is also known as the “petal effect”. By analyzing the petal surfaces of different species, we discovered interesting new wetting characteristics of the surface of the flower of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor. This surface is superhydrophobic with a static contact angle of 169° and very low hysteresis, i.e., the petal effect does not exist and water droplets roll-off as from a lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaf. However, the surface of the wild pansy petal does not possess the wax crystals of the lotus leaf. Its petals exhibit high cone-shaped cells (average size 40 µm with a high aspect ratio (2.1 and a very fine cuticular folding (width 260 nm on top. The applied water droplets are in the Cassie–Baxter wetting state and roll-off at inclination angles below 5°. Fabricated hydrophobic polymer replicas of the wild pansy were prepared in an easy two-step moulding process and possess the same wetting characteristics as the original flowers. In this work we present a technical surface with a new superhydrophobic, low adhesive surface design, which combines the hierarchical structuring of petals with a wetting behavior similar to that of the lotus leaf.

  6. The developmental and genetic bases of apetaly in Bocconia frutescens (Chelidonieae: Papaveraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Arango-Ocampo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bocconia and Macleaya are the only genera of the poppy family (Papaveraceae lacking petals; however, the developmental and genetic processes underlying such evolutionary shift have not yet been studied. Results We studied floral development in two species of petal-less poppies Bocconia frutescens and Macleaya cordata as well as in the closely related petal-bearing Stylophorum diphyllum. We generated a floral transcriptome of B. frutescens to identify MADS-box ABCE floral organ identity genes expressed during early floral development. We performed phylogenetic analyses of these genes across Ranunculales as well as RT-PCR and qRT-PCR to assess loci-specific expression patterns. We found that petal-to-stamen homeosis in petal-less poppies occurs through distinct developmental pathways. Transcriptomic analyses of B. frutescens floral buds showed that homologs of all MADS-box genes are expressed except for the APETALA3-3 ortholog. Species-specific duplications of other ABCE genes in B. frutescens have resulted in functional copies with expanded expression patterns than those predicted by the model. Conclusions Petal loss in B. frutescens is likely associated with the lack of expression of AP3-3 and an expanded expression of AGAMOUS. The genetic basis of petal identity is conserved in Ranunculaceae and Papaveraceae although they have different number of AP3 paralogs and exhibit dissimilar floral groundplans.

  7. Improved SNR of phased-array PERES coils via simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, Alfredo O; Medina, LucIa

    2005-01-01

    A computational comparison of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was performed between a conventional phased array of two circular-shaped coils and a petal resonator surface array. The quasi-static model and phased-array optimum SNR were combined to derive an SNR formula for each array. Analysis of mutual inductance between coil petals was carried out to compute the optimal coil separation and optimum number of petal coils. Mutual interaction between coil arrays was not included in the model because this does not drastically affect coil performance. Phased arrays of PERES coils show a 114% improvement in SNR over that of the simplest circular configuration. (note)

  8. Optimization of RAPD-PCR reaction system for genetic relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Camellia features beautiful tree shape, various petal color, .... (Huzhuabai (C. japonica)) was randomly selected for optimization of .... Afr. J. Biotechnol. Figure 1. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis by primer S256 (left-up), ...

  9. utilization of tortoise (chelonoides nigra, quoy and gaimard, 1824)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    were sampled and the data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Chi square. The study ..... A big tortoise costs between 1,500 and ..... Publishing Network Journal of Agriculture ... Malaysia, Traffic soughteast Asia, Petaling.

  10. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa; Dawe, Adam; Pasqualini, Stefania; Quaglia, Mara; Xiong, Liming; Gehring, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves

  11. Zygophyllaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1948-01-01

    Prostrate hairy herbs. Leaves opposite, paripinnate, mostly anisophyllous; stipules present. Flowers actinomorphic, 5-merous, bisexual, solitary on pseudo-axillary peduncles, white or yellow. Sepals 5, free, imbricate, persistent or caducous. Petals 5, free, patent, imbricate, fugacious. Disk

  12. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plant Virology Lab, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176 061, India ... to detect possible heterogeneity and evolution. 2. Materials and ..... of flower petals and buds. .... Recently, classification for ACLSV-CP based on.

  13. 1 Morphometric studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    From the numerical character analysis, morphological characters like peduncle length ... diameter, filament length, style length, plant height, petiole diameter, sepal length and petal length were identified ..... variation and speciation in plants.

  14. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ectopic expression of BoPI in Arabidopsis caused conversion of sepals to petals. 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal formation in the pi-1 mutant. BoPI could interact with BoAP3 protein in vitro. These results suggested that BoPI regulated flower development of bamboo in a similar way with PI. Besides flower organs ...

  15. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes in rose floral tissues during ethylene-enhanced flower opening

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Tan, Hui; Yang, Feng; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene production, as well as the expression of ethylene biosynthetic (Rh-ACS1?4 and Rh-ACO1) and receptor (Rh-ETR1?5) genes, was determined in five different floral tissues (sepals, petals, stamens, gynoecia, and receptacles) of cut rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Samantha upon treatment with ethylene or the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Ethylene-enhanced ethylene production occurred only in gynoecia, petals, and receptacles, with gynoecia showing the greatest enhancement in the ...

  16. High-energy capacitance electrostatic micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, E. G.

    2003-03-01

    The design and parameters of a new electrostatic micromotor with high energy output are described. The motor is created by means of microelectronic technology. Its operation is based on the electromechanic energy conversion during the electrostatic rolling of the metallic films (petals) on the ferroelectric film surface. The mathematical simulation of the main characteristics of the rolling process is carried out. The experimentally measured parameters of the petal step micromotors are shown. The motor operation and its efficiency are investigated.

  17. Disruption of a CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 4 gene converts flower colour from white to yellow in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yaqin; Yao, Xuan; Wang, Fang; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Liu, Kede

    2015-06-01

    In Brassica napus, yellow petals had a much higher content of carotenoids than white petals present in a small number of lines, with violaxanthin identified as the major carotenoid compound in yellow petals of rapeseed lines. Using positional cloning we identified a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 gene, BnaC3.CCD4, responsible for the formation of flower colour, with preferential expression in petals of white-flowered B. napus lines. Insertion of a CACTA-like transposable element 1 (TE1) into the coding region of BnaC3.CCD4 had disrupted its expression in yellow-flowered rapeseed lines. α-Ionone was identified as the major volatile apocarotenoid released from white petals but not from yellow petals. We speculate that BnaC3.CCD4 may use δ- and/or α-carotene as substrates. Four variations, including two CACTA-like TEs (alleles M1 and M4) and two insertion/deletions (INDELs, alleles M2 and M3), were identified in yellow-flowered Brassica oleracea lines. The two CACTA-like TEs were also identified in the coding region of BcaC3.CCD4 in Brassica carinata. However, the two INDELs were not detected in B. napus and B. carinata. We demonstrate that the insertions of TEs in BolC3.CCD4 predated the formation of the two allotetraploids. © 2015 The Authors New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Low-temperature synthesis of rose-like ZnO nanostructures using surfactin and their photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Satyanarayana; Kuo, Yi-Hao; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Shih, Ruey-Chyuan; Chang, Young-Fo; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Chen, How-Ji

    2011-06-01

    Rose-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by the precipitation method using a biosurfactant (surfactin) as a templating-agent stabilizer. The concentration of surfactin in the precursor solution significantly influenced the thickness and density of the petals in the rose-like structures, and all samples were of a wurtzite phase. The thickness of the petal was found to decrease with increasing surfactin concentration. The average thickness of the petals was found to be between 10 and 13 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using rose-like ZnO nanostuctures was investigated, and the morphology, density and thickness of the ZnO petals were found to influence the photodegradation activity. The samples with loosely-spread petals, or plate-like ZnO structures, brought about the strongest photodegradation in comparison with the dense rose-like structures. The greater activity of the loose-petal structures was correlated with their higher absorption in the UV region in comparison with the other samples. The ZnO samples prepared using low surfactin concentrations had higher rate constant values, i.e., 9.1 x 10(-3) min(-1), which revealed that the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation progressed by a pseudo first-order kinetic reaction.

  19. Assesment of spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, L.) mutant lines for seed oil content and fatty acid profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Kassem, M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the new spineless mutants that previously induced through gamma radiation and hybridization techniques in the advanced generation for seed oil content and fatty acid profiles The obtained results cleared that oil percentages of all seven safflower mutants were increased than local variety Giza (1) and the new mutant hybrid 2 line (white petals) had the highest increase value of oil percentage (10%) but the mutant line M14 (dark red petals) had the lowest increase value of oil percentage (3.1 %) The mutant line M7 (yellow petals) had the highest value of total saturated fatty acid (40.38%), because it had the highest value of palmitic fatty acid (25.16%), comparing to 10.01% value for local variety Giza (1), followed by mutant line hybrid 2 (white petals) which had (39.88%) because it had the highest value of caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic and stearic fatty acids. All safflower mutant lines had higher value of oleic fatty acid than that of the local variety Giza (1) the two new safflower mutant lines M7 (yellow petals) and hybrid 2 (white petal) had the highest value of oleic fatty acid 41.22% and 39.88% respectively in comparison with 13.5% for local variety Giza (1), the obtained results are indicating to seed oil content negative correlation between oleic and linoleic acids

  20. Taxonomic synopsis and analytical key for the genera of Solanaceae from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Sinopse taxonômica e chave ilustrada dos gêneros de Solanaceae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luís de Carvalho Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work consists of a taxonomic synopsis of the genera of Solanaceae in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Solanaceae is represented by 28 genera in this state: Acnistus Schott, Athenaea Sendtn., Aureliana Sendtn., Bouchetia Dunal, Browalia L., Brugmansia Pers., Brunfelsia L., Calibrachoa La Llave & Lex., Capsicum L., Cestrum L., Datura L., Dyssochroma Miers, Grabowskia Schltdl., Jaborosa Juss., Lycianthes (Dunal Hassl., Melananthus Walp., Nicandra Adans., Nicotiana L., Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav., Petunia Juss., Physalis L., Salpichroa Miers, Schwenckia L., Sessea Ruiz & Pav., Solandra Sw., Solanum L. (including Cyphomandra Sendtn. and Lycopersicon Mill., Streptosolen Miers and Vassobia Rusby. Of these, 23 consist of native species , while five are represented exclusively by introduced species. The total number of species is 149, of which 118 are native and 31 are introduced (adventitious or cultivated. An identification key for genera, and also comments on the most relevant taxonomic characters of each one are presented, plus comments on the species that occur in Rio Grande do Sul state.Este trabalho consiste em uma sinopse taxonômica dos gêneros de Solanaceae no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Constatou-se a ocorrência de 28 gêneros: Acnistus Schott, Athenaea Sendtn., Aureliana Sendtn., Bouchetia Dunal, Browalia L., Brugmansia Pers., Brunfelsia L., Calibrachoa La Llave & Lex., Capsicum L., Cestrum L., Datura L., Dyssochroma Miers, Grabowskia Schltdl., Jaborosa Juss., Lycianthes (Dunal Hassl., Melananthus Walp., Nicandra Adans., Nicotiana L., Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav., Petunia Juss., Physalis L., Salpichroa Miers, Schwenckia L., Sessea Ruiz & Pav., Solandra Sw., Solanum L. (incluindo Cyphomandra Sendtn. e Lycopersicon Mill., Streptosolen Miers e Vassobia Rusby. Destes, 23 apresentam espécies nativas, enquanto cinco estão representados exclusivamente por espécies introduzidas. O número total de espécies é de 149, sendo que 118 s

  1. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  2. The flower of Hibiscus trionum is both visibly and measurably iridescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Hingant, Thomas; Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms can use minute structures to manipulate the reflection of light and display colours based on interference. There has been debate in recent literature over whether the diffractive optical effects produced by epoxy replicas of petals with folded cuticles persist and induce iridescence in the original flowers when the effects of petal pigment and illumination are taken into account. We explored the optical properties of the petal of Hibiscus trionum by macro-imaging, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and visible and ultraviolet (UV) angle-resolved spectroscopy of the petal. The flower of Hibiscus trionum is visibly iridescent, and the iridescence can be captured photographically. The iridescence derives from a diffraction grating generated by folds of the cuticle. The iridescence of the petal can be quantitatively characterized by spectrometric measurements with several square-millimetres of sample area illuminated. The flower of Hibiscus trionum has the potential to interact with its pollinators (honeybees, other bees, butterflies and flies) through iridescent signals produced by its cuticular diffraction grating. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Washable antimicrobial polyester/aluminum air filter with a high capture efficiency and low pressure drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Yun; Heo, Ki Joon; Kang, Juhee; An, Eun Jeong; Jung, Soo-Ho; Lee, Byung Uk; Lee, Hye Moon; Jung, Jae Hee

    2018-06-05

    Here, we introduce a reusable bifunctional polyester/aluminum (PET/Al) air filter for the high efficiency simultaneous capture and inactivation of airborne microorganisms. Both bacteria of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis were collected on the PET/Al filter with a high efficiency rate (∼99.99%) via the electrostatic interactions between the charged bacteria and fibers without sacrificing pressure drop. The PET/Al filter experienced a pressure drop approximately 10 times lower per thickness compared with a commercial high-efficiency particulate air filter. As the Al nanograins grew on the fibers, the antimicrobial activity against airborne E. coli and S. epidermidis improved to ∼94.8% and ∼96.9%, respectively, due to the reinforced hydrophobicity and surface roughness of the filter. Moreover, the capture and antimicrobial performances were stably maintained during a cyclic washing test of the PET/Al filter, indicative of its reusability. The PET/Al filter shows great potential for use in energy-efficient bioaerosol control systems suitable for indoor environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Dudek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids play an important role in the pigmentation of flowers; in addition, they protect petals and other flower parts from UV irradiation and oxidative stress. Nudicaulins, flavonoid-derived indole alkaloids, along with pelargonidin, kaempferol, and gossypetin glycosides, are responsible for the color of white, red, orange, and yellow petals of different Papaver nudicaule cultivars. The color of the petals is essential to attract pollinators. We investigated the occurrence of flavonoids in basal and apical petal areas, stamens, and capsules of four differently colored P. nudicaule cultivars by means of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The results reveal the specific occurrence of gossypetin glycosides in the basal spot of all cultivars and demonstrate that kaempferol glycosides are the major secondary metabolites in the capsules. Unlike previous reports, the yellow-colored stamens of all four P. nudicaule cultivars are shown to contain not nudicaulins but carotenoids. In addition, the presence of nudicaulins, pelargonidin, and kaempferol glycosides in the apical petal area was confirmed. The flavonoids and related compounds in the investigated flower parts and cultivars of P. nudicaule are profiled, and their potential ecological role is discussed.

  5. Design of an x-ray telescope optics for XEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Roland; Kampf, Dirk; Wallace, Kotska; Lumb, David; Bavdaz, Marcos; Freyberg, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The X-ray telescope concept for XEUS is based on an innovative high performance and light weight Silicon Pore Optics technology. The XEUS telescope is segmented into 16 radial, thermostable petals providing the rigid optical bench structure of the stand alone XRay High Precision Tandem Optics. A fully representative Form Fit Function (FFF) Model of one petal is currently under development to demonstrate the outstanding lightweight telescope capabilities with high optically effective area. Starting from the envisaged system performance the related tolerance budgets were derived. These petals are made from ceramics, i.e. CeSiC. The structural and thermal performance of the petal shall be reported. The stepwise alignment and integration procedure on petal level shall be described. The functional performance and environmental test verification plan of the Form Fit Function Model and the test set ups are described in this paper. In parallel to the running development activities the programmatic and technical issues wrt. the FM telescope MAIT with currently 1488 Tandem Optics are under investigation. Remote controlled robot supported assembly, simultaneous active alignment and verification testing and decentralised time effective integration procedures shall be illustrated.

  6. Verify Occulter Deployment Tolerances as Part of NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Webb, D.; Cady, E.; Marks, G. W.; Lo, A.

    2013-01-01

    In support of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program and the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM), we recently completed a 2 year study of the manufacturability and metrology of starshade petals. An external occult is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade, that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light before entering the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. This poster presents the results of our successful first TDEM that demonstrated an occulter petal could be built and measured to an accuracy consistent with close to 10^-10 contrast. We also present the progress in our second TDEM to demonstrate the next critical technology milestone: precision deployment of the central truss and petals to the necessary accuracy. We have completed manufacture of four sub-scale petals and a central hub to fit with an existing deployable truss. We show the plans for repeated stow and deploy tests of the assembly and the metrology to confirm that each deploy repeatably meets the absolute positioning requirements of the petals (better than 1.0 mm).

  7. Testing Starshade Manufacturing and Deployment Through NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Lo, A.; Macintosh, B.

    2014-01-01

    An external occulter is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade, that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light before entering the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. In this poster we report on the results of our two Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) studies. In the first we examined the manufacturability and metrology of starshade petals, successfully constructing a full size petal from flight like materials and showing through precise edge shape measurements that an occulter made with petals consistent with the measured accuracy would achieve close to 10^-10 contrast. Our second TDEM tested the deployment precision of a roughly half-scale starshade. We demonstrated the deployment of an existing deployable truss outfitted with four sub-scale petals and a custom designed central hub. We showed that the system can be deployed multiple times with a repeatable positioning accuracy of the petals better than the requirement of 1.0 mm. The combined results of these two TDEM projects has significantly advanced the readiness level of occulter technology and moved the community closer to a realizable mission.

  8. Development of green tea scented with organic roses "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/11/03 - Accepted: 2014/12/15The aim of this study was to obtain a flavored green tea with organic rose petals "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador. Green tea, purchased from a private company, it was subjected to analysis to verify compliance with the requirements of standard INEN 2381: 2005. The Characterization of fresh rose petals was to made and for the dehydration was used two temperatures and two geometries. Analysis of total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant capacity (TEACmethod were performed. The dried petals, with a higher content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, were used in the preparation to flavored tea. Three formulations with different amounts of dried rose petals (10, 17.5 and 25% were tested sensorially by 100 judges to determine the aroma rose in the tea. The final product was analyzed to determine compliance of the requirements of the standard INEN of the tea. Finally acceptability and purchase intention of the product is evaluated. The values of content total polyphenol in the extracts of rose petals were superior to fruits such as blackberries, and strawberries.

  9. Different morphological characters of Spathoglottis plicata induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimonrat, P.; Suraninpong, P.; Wuthisuthimethavee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Spathoglottis plicata of purple color available as pot plant in the market was used in this study. The in vitro seedlings of 3-month olds were radiated with gamma rays (Cs-137 source) at the doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 krad. Only seedlings treated with 2 krad survived and showed morphological variations of 5 different clones namely clone 13, 19, 22, 23 and 25, whereas the control plants were divided into three (3) groups. Clone 19, 22, 23 and 25 showed flower structures that were significantly different from those of the control groups. Clone 25 gave flowers of different size from the control, more intense fragrance with incomplete blooming petals. Clone 23 showed long spots on sepals and petals, undulate petal margin, malformation of petal and malformation of essential organs. Clone 19 gave flowers of brighter color with no petal and essential organs clinging to sepals. Clone 22 gave flower of darker color with no essential organs. All clones were found significantly different from the control plants in terms of plant height, leaf length, leaf width and inflorescence length except clone 13. As to the morphological characters, mutant clone 23 is potentially to be released as a new variety of pot plant in the market

  10. The First Comprehensive Phylogeny of Coptis (Ranunculaceae) and Its Implications for Character Evolution and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Li; Wu, Sheng-Dan; Yu, Sheng-Xian; Liu, Yang; Jabbour, Florian; Erst, Andrey S.; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    Coptis (Ranunculaceae) contains 15 species and is one of the pharmaceutically most important plant genera in eastern Asia. Understanding of the evolution of morphological characters and phylogenetic relationships within the genus is very limited. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. The phylogeny was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, as well as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis and Bayesian tests were used to assess the strength of the conflicts between traditional taxonomic units and those suggested by the phylogenetic inferences. Evolution of morphological characters was inferred using Bayesian method to identify synapomorphies for the infrageneric lineages. Our data recognize two strongly supported clades within Coptis. The first clade contains subgenus Coptis and section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis, supported by morphological characters, such as traits of the central leaflet base, petal color, and petal shape. The second clade consists of section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis. Coptis morii is not united with C. quinquefolia, in contrast with the view that C. morii is a synonym of C. quinquefolia. Two varieties of C. chinensis do not cluster together. Coptis groenlandica and C. lutescens are reduced to C. trifolia and C. japonica, respectively. Central leaflet base, sepal shape, and petal blade carry a strong phylogenetic signal in Coptis, while leaf type, sepal and petal color, and petal shape exhibit relatively higher levels of evolutionary flexibility. PMID:27044035

  11. Floral ontogeny in legume genera Petalostylis, Labichea, and Dialium (Caesalpinioideae: Cassieae), a series in floral reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S

    1998-02-01

    Floral ontogeny of taxa of two subtribes (Labicheinae, Dialiinae) of caesalpinioid tribe Cassieae, characterized by reduced number of floral organs, was compared. All three taxa studied are distichous; Petalostylis labicheoides flowers are solitary in leaf axils, Labichea lanceolata has few-flowered racemes, and Dialium guineense has numerous-flowered cymes. The first sepal primordium in each is initiated abaxially and nonmedianly. Order of organogenesis in Petalostylis is: five sepals bidirectionally, five petals and carpel simultaneously, then five stamens bidirectionally, starting abaxially. The order in Labichea is: five sepals helically (one lagging in time), five petals unidirectionally starting abaxially, the carpel and petals concurrently, then two stamens successively, starting laterally. Order in Dialium is: five sepals bidirectionally, the single petal adaxially, and lastly the carpel and two stamens concurrently. Specializations include (1) reduction of the five sepals to four by fusion in Petalostylis and Labichea; (2) reduction of petal number to one in Dialium; (3) reduction of stamen number to two in Labichea and Dialium, and reduction of functional stamens to three in Petalostylis; and (4) an elaborate, late-developing style in Petalostylis. Floral asymmetry, another specialization, characterizes Labichea, expressed by dissimilar stamens, while the other genera have zygomorphic flowers. Floral ontogenies are compared with other taxa of Cassieae.

  12. Ecological Distribution Of The Genus Crotalaria In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odewo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geographical distribution and morphological features of the genus Crotalaria were studied. Methods follow conventional practice as reported by previous studies. Thirty six species of the genus Crotalaria were shown to be distributed in Nigeria. The genera were allopathic in nature. The species such as C. bongensis C. atrorubens C. cleomifolia C. anthyllopsis C. cuspidata C. bamendul C. calycina C. hyssopifolia C. incana C. graminicola and C. macrocalyx were prominent in savannah zones while C. acervata C. cylindrical C. cephalotes C. comosa C. retusa C.doniana C. glauca C. falcata C. goreensis among others were common in cultivated areas in forest zone of Nigeria. Qualitative leaf morphological features of selected crotalaria species in Nigeria were also revealed. It shows that the leaf margin leaf surface and leaf base are similar in features except in leaf shape that vary from lanceolate C. comosa and C. bongensis oblanceolate C. retusa C. goreensis C. ononoidea and C. lachnosema to obovate C. mucronata and C. naragutensis. This implies that most of the genus Crotalaria displays similar characteristic and the features among them shows overlap.

  13. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  14. New challenges for the design of high value plant products: stabilization of anthocyanins in plant vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina ePasseri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the synthesizing enzymes. We present here an overview of economically interesting plant species, both food crops and ornamentals, in which anthocyanin content was improved by traditional breeding or transgenesis. Old genetic studies in petunia and more recent biochemical work in brunfelsia, have shown that after synthesis and compartmentalization in the vacuole, anthocyanins need to be stabilized to preserve the color of the plant tissue over time. The final yield of antioxidant molecules is the result of the balance between synthesis and degradation. Therefore the understanding of the mechanism that determine molecule stabilization in the vacuolar lumen is the next step that needs to be taken to further improve the anthocyanin content in food.In several species a phenomenon known as fading is responsible for the disappearance of pigmentation which in some case can be nearly complete. We discuss the present knowledge about the genetic and biochemical factors involved in pigment preservation/destabilization in plant cells.The improvement of our understanding of the fading process will supply new tools for both biotechnological approaches and marker-assisted breeding.

  15. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area.

  16. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A

    2005-07-01

    To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products.

  17. Manufacturing and material properties of ultralarge size forgings for advanced BWRPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Komei; Sato, Ikuo; Tsukada, Hisashi

    1994-01-01

    Ultralarge size forgings for the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) pressure vessel as represented by the bottom petal made from a 600ton ingot have been developed. The bottom petal is a larger wall thickness ring with 10 integrated nozzles inside and outside the ring. The outer diameter is 7.8m, the height is 1.8m and the wall thickness if 1.1m in the as-forged condition. A very high purity level of P≤qslant0.003% and S≤qslant0.003% can be obtained by the application of double-refining processes to all the molten steel. The forging shows a homogeneous chemical distribution, sound internal qualities and adequate impact properties.This paper summarizes the manufacturing technique and material properties of large size forgings such as the bottom petal, the shell with integrated skirt and the bottom dome. ((orig.))

  18. Flower color changes in three Japanese hibiscus species: further quantitative variation of anthocyanin and flavonols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Satoshi; Iwashina, Tsukasa; Murakami, Noriaki

    2015-03-01

    One anthocyanin and four flavonols were detected from the petals of Hibiscus hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. They were identified as cyanidin 3-0- sambubioside, gossypetin 3-O-glucuronide-8-O-glucoside, quercetin 7-O-rutinoside, gossypetin 3-O-glucoside and gossypetin 8-O-glucuronide by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC. The flavonoid composition was essentially the same among the petals ofH. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber, and there was little quantitative variation, except for cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, the content of which in the petals ofH. tiliaceus and H. glaber was much higher than in that of H. hamabo. Flower colors of H. tiliaceus and H. glaber change from yellow to red, and that of H. hamabo changes from yellow to orange. These changes were caused by contents of anthocyanin and flavonols, which increased after flowering of H. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber.

  19. Ethylene-induced senescence-related gene expression requires protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, K.A.; Raghothama, K.G.; Woodson, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of inhibiting protein synthesis on the ethylene-induced expression of 3 carnation senescence-related genes, pSR5, pSR8, and pSR12. Treatment of preclimacteric carnation petal discs with 1μg/ml of cycloheximide, a cytoplasmic protein synthesis inhibitor, for 3h inhibited protein synthesis by >80% as quantitated by the incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Pre-treatment of petal discs with cycloheximide prevented ethylene-induced SR transcript accumulation. Cycloheximide treatment of petal discs held in air did not result in increased levels of SR mRNA. These results indicate that ethylene does not interact with pre-formed factors but rather that the activation of SR gene expression by ethylene is mediated by labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Experiments are currently underway to determine if cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level

  20. Integration of the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Volker; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Bremer, R; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Feld, Lutz; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub-system of the tracker is its end cap system, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted into the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 petals, and the insertion of these petals into the end cap structure is referred to as TEC integration. The two end caps were integrated independently in Aachen (TEC+) and at CERN (TEC--). This note deals with the integration of TEC+, describing procedures for end cap integration and for quality control during testing of integrated sections of the end cap and presenting results from the testing.

  1. Simultaneous Analysis of Anthocyanin and Non-Anthocyanin Flavonoid in Various Tissues of Different Lotus (Nelumbo) Cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Xiang, Yue; Deng, Jiao; Liu, Yanling; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    A validated HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn method for the analysis of non-anthocyanin flavonoids was applied to nine different tissues of twelve lotus genotypes of Nelumbo nucifera and N. lutea, together with an optimized anthocyanin extraction and separation protocol for lotus petals. A total of five anthocyanins and twenty non-anthocyanin flavonoids was identified and quantified. Flavonoid contents and compositions varied with cultivar and tissue and were used as a basis to divide tissues into three groups characterized by kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Influences on flower petal coloration were investigated by principal components analyses. High contents of kaempferol glycosides were detected in the petals of N. nucifera while high quercetin glycoside concentrations occurred in N. lutea. Based on these results, biosynthetic pathways leading to specific compounds in lotus tissues are deduced through metabolomic analysis of different genotypes and tissues and correlations among flavonoid compounds. PMID:23646125

  2. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The design and development of a 7 meter diameter parabolic dish solar collector are discussed. Each of the four main subsystems of the collector: (1) reflector, (2) mount and drives, (3) receiver and (4) the controls, is discussed briefly with the major emphasis on the receiver design. To minimize development risks and production costs, a dish design based on use of stamped aluminum petals (sectors) was chosen. This design is similar to the design of a communication antenna already commercially produced. The reflective surface of the petals has a total reflectance of .86 and a specularity (dispersion) of 8 mrd. This performance is obtained by mechanical polishing and chemical brightening of the petal surface, followed by application of a clear RTV silicone protective coating. Selection of the material and weather proofing coated are discussed. Results from performance tests on an engineering development dish collector are presented and compared with pretest predictions.

  3. Methanol wetting enthalpy on few-layer graphene decorated hierarchical carbon foam for cooling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, R., E-mail: paul24@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Zemlyanov, D. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Voevodin, A.A.; Roy, A.K. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Fisher, T.S. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Vertical few-layer thick graphene petals are grown on macro-porous carbon foam surfaces having an intrinsic open porosity of 75%. This provides a hierarchical porous structure with a potential for surface adsorption/desorption or wetting/dewetting based thermal energy storage applications. Carbon foams have a combined advantage of large surface area and high thermal conductivity critical for thermal energy storage, but they are prone to oxidation and exhibit low adsorption enthalpies for lightweight hydrocarbons. Here we report graphene petal decoration of carbon foam surfaces and subsequent chemical modification through boron nitride incorporation in hexagonal carbon planes of both carbon foams and graphene petals. This chemically reactive hierarchical structure is characterized with FESEM, Raman, XRD, and XPS measurements. Methanol wetting enthalpy of this three-dimensional hierarchical material was measured with a solution calorimeter, and had shown a six fold increase (from 78 to 522 J/g of foam) as compared to the carbon foam prior to the surface modification. Influences of petal decoration on the surface morphology of carbon foam, BN chemical modification, structure and stoichiometry of the hierarchical material surface, and methanol wetting enthalpy improvement are discussed in detail. The applicability of this hierarchical porous material for thermal energy applications is established. - Highlights: • 500 nm thick few layer graphene petals decoration vertically on macroporous carbon foam surface. • Microwave heating assisted chemical treatment for boron-nitride modification. • Defective petals edges due to boron nitride domain formation. • 20 at. % boron and nitrogen incorporation. • Six fold increase in methanol wetting enthalpy on boron-nitride modification.

  4. Transcriptome and biochemical analysis of a flower color polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés eCasimiro-Soriguer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogues for the 15 candidate genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogues, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x. This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin. The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused

  5. Methods for transient assay of gene function in floral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirana Nilangani N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in rapid assays or screening systems for assigning gene function. However, analysis of gene function in the flowers of some species is restricted due to the difficulty of producing stably transformed transgenic plants. As a result, experimental approaches based on transient gene expression assays are frequently used. Biolistics has long been used for transient over-expression of genes of interest, but has not been exploited for gene silencing studies. Agrobacterium-infiltration has also been used, but the focus primarily has been on the transient transformation of leaf tissue. Results Two constructs, one expressing an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum majus (Antirrhinum chalcone synthase gene (CHS and the other an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum transcription factor gene Rosea1, were shown to effectively induce CHS and Rosea1 gene silencing, respectively, when introduced biolistically into petal tissue of Antirrhinum flowers developing in vitro. A high-throughput vector expressing the Antirrhinum CHS gene attached to an inverted repeat of the nos terminator was also shown to be effective. Silencing spread systemically to create large zones of petal tissue lacking pigmentation, with transmission of the silenced state spreading both laterally within the affected epidermal cell layer and into lower cell layers, including the epidermis of the other petal surface. Transient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of petal tissue of tobacco and petunia flowers in situ or detached was also achieved, using expression of the reporter genes GUS and GFP to visualise transgene expression. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of using biolistics-based transient RNAi, and transient transformation of petal tissue via Agrobacterium infiltration to study gene function in petals. We have also produced a vector for high throughput gene silencing studies, incorporating the option of using T-A cloning to

  6. Methanol wetting enthalpy on few-layer graphene decorated hierarchical carbon foam for cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.; Zemlyanov, D.; Voevodin, A.A.; Roy, A.K.; Fisher, T.S.

    2014-01-01

    Vertical few-layer thick graphene petals are grown on macro-porous carbon foam surfaces having an intrinsic open porosity of 75%. This provides a hierarchical porous structure with a potential for surface adsorption/desorption or wetting/dewetting based thermal energy storage applications. Carbon foams have a combined advantage of large surface area and high thermal conductivity critical for thermal energy storage, but they are prone to oxidation and exhibit low adsorption enthalpies for lightweight hydrocarbons. Here we report graphene petal decoration of carbon foam surfaces and subsequent chemical modification through boron nitride incorporation in hexagonal carbon planes of both carbon foams and graphene petals. This chemically reactive hierarchical structure is characterized with FESEM, Raman, XRD, and XPS measurements. Methanol wetting enthalpy of this three-dimensional hierarchical material was measured with a solution calorimeter, and had shown a six fold increase (from 78 to 522 J/g of foam) as compared to the carbon foam prior to the surface modification. Influences of petal decoration on the surface morphology of carbon foam, BN chemical modification, structure and stoichiometry of the hierarchical material surface, and methanol wetting enthalpy improvement are discussed in detail. The applicability of this hierarchical porous material for thermal energy applications is established. - Highlights: • 500 nm thick few layer graphene petals decoration vertically on macroporous carbon foam surface. • Microwave heating assisted chemical treatment for boron-nitride modification. • Defective petals edges due to boron nitride domain formation. • 20 at. % boron and nitrogen incorporation. • Six fold increase in methanol wetting enthalpy on boron-nitride modification

  7. Intracavity vortex beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Aït-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we explore vortex beams and in particular the generation of single LG0l modes and superpositions thereof. Vortex beams carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and this intrinsic property makes them prevalent in transferring this OAM to matter and to be used in quantum information processing. We explore an extra-cavity and intra-cavity approach in LG0l mode generation respectively. The outputs of a Porro-prism resonator are represented by "petals" and we show that through a full modal decomposition, the "petal" fields are a superposition of two LG0l modes.

  8. Tamarix duezenlii (Tamaricaceae - a species new to science from southern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Çakan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarix duezenlii, belonging to Tamarix L. ser. Leptostachyae (Bunge Baum, is described as a species new to science. It is related to T. hispida Willd. and T. arborea (Sieber ex Ehrenb. Bunge. From the former species it differs by its dense inflorescences, white petals and paralophic disc; from the latter by a shrubby habit, elliptic petals and calyx abruptly narrowed at the base. The species occurs in saline areas of the Cukurova Deltas at the mouths of the Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers in southern Turkey.

  9. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancheva, Nikoleta; Markova, Daniela; Murdzheva, Dilyana; Vasileva, Ivelina; Slavov, Anton

    2016-03-01

    The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase) with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  10. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancheva Nikoleta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  11. Alphonsea glandulosa (Annonaceae, a New Species from Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bine Xue

    Full Text Available Alphonsea glandulosa sp. nov. is described from Yunnan Province in south-west China. It is easily distinguished from all previously described Alphonsea species by the possession of glandular tissue at the base of the adaxial surface of the inner petals. Nectar was observed throughout the flowering period, including the pistillate phase and subsequent staminate phase. Small curculionid beetles were observed as floral visitors and are inferred to be effective pollinators since they carry pollen grains. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to confirm the placement of this new species within Alphonsea and the evolution of the inner petal glands and specialized pollinator reward tissues throughout the family.

  12. Genetical variability of Gladioli as the result of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakota, L.I.; Murin, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    In the starting material of Gladioli, got in the result of Y-radiation, the forms with white spots on the petals were observed. The Gladioli form 165-81 is distinguished by low growth and middle early flowering. The flower form is triangular. Basic pigmentation is red. White spots of different size on the petals were observed. The investigation was made in 1992 in the field of genetical variability of Gladioli. The Gladioli form 165-81 was irradiated with gamma-radiation dose 30 Gr. As a result the depression of biometric indicators was observed. Consequently, 30 Gr is a mutant dose for Gladioli

  13. The potential role of B-function gene involved in floral development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camellia changii Ye, a rare and endangered species, has a phenotype that sepals frequently transform into petals. We assumed that this change would cause single C. changii Ye turned double flowers and this was confirmed by the double flowers we found in grafted C. changii Ye. The microstructure of floral organs ...

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  15. Nature's Palette

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  16. Haematological effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa petals on some haematological parameters. The extract was administered orally in doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg/kg body weight to normal Wistar rats for 21 days. The results showed that the extract decreased significantly (p ...

  17. Free radical scavenging activities of pigment extract from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The macroporous resin adsorption method was used to purify the pigment from Hibiscus syriacus L. petals. Through the comparison of the adsorption and desorption rates of six types of macroporous resins including AB-8, S-8, NKA-9, DM-130, D101 and 860021 to the pigment, 860021 resin was selected as the most ...

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    It is a tall buttressed tree. Bark is smooth with reddish blaze. Branchlets are cylindrical. Leaves are simple, entire, usually opposite and sometimes alternate. Flowers are in panicles with showy petals, yellowish with a maroon-red central disc. Fruit is a capsule with many winged seeds. Tree yields timber of commercial value.

  19. Hepatoprotective Effect Of Sephadex G50 Red Fraction Of H ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective effects of the two sephadex G50 fractions of the anthocyanin obtained from the petals of H. rosainensis were studied. Treatment of rats with 8.40 g of the red fraction (G50 RF) in 5% aqueous ethanol/kg body weight 5 days/week for 4 weeks before carbon tetrachloride resulted in significantly (P<0.05) ...

  20. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, W.; Spelt, C.E.; Bliek, M.; de Vries, M.; Wit, N.; Faraco, M.; Koes, R.; Quattrocchio, F.

    2016-01-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) fromArabidopsis thalianaand associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein

  1. Crassulaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1973-01-01

    Herbs or undershrubs, mostly fleshy or succulent. Leaves alternate, opposite or in whorls, simple or compound. Stipules wanting. Inflorescence cymose. Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite. Sepals free or connate, persistent. Petals as many as the sepals, free or more or less united. Stamens as many

  2. Begoniaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1966-01-01

    Herbs or undershrubs, somewhat succulent or woody near the base, often provided with tubers. Leaves alternate, usually unequal-sided, entire, lobed or digitately parted. Stipules caducous or deciduous. Inflorescence consisting of unisexual or bisexual, axillary cymes. Male flowers: sepals 2; petals

  3. Effects of curcumin on sperm parameters abnormalities induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphine, which is commonly used for the treatment of severe pain, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. Curcumin petals consist of, glycosides, flavonoids, and anthocyanin. The study aims at evaluating curcumin effect and morphine on sperm parameters, testis tissue and serum testosterone level in rat. In this experimental ...

  4. Postharvest aspects of roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate respiratory activity, color changes and fresh weight variation of ‘Carola’ (red, ‘Avalanche’ (white and ‘Avalanche Chá’ (tea roses for seven days after harvest. Respiratory activity, coloration of petals and fresh weight loss were evaluated. Treatments were composed of three rose cultivars and seven days of evaluation, in a 3 x 7 factorial and a completely randomized design with four replicates of two flowers per plot. To determine the respiratory activity, in addition to the four replicates, an “experimental control” was used as a fifth replicate without roses. ‘Avalanche’ and ‘Avalanche Chá’ roses with petals of similar luminosity showed no browning during days after harvest, but are distinct in terms of chromaticity. ‘Carola’ rose has less shiny petals. On harvest day, the respiratory activity is elevated and reduces later until the fourth day, in which there is elevation of this parameter again coinciding with high fresh weight loss. During days after harvest, small changes in the color of petals were observed; however, the main changes were observed in respiratory activity and fresh weight loss.

  5. A New Species of Murdannia Royle (Commelinaceae from Northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Nandikar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Murdannia Royle (Commelinaceae, Murdannia brownii Nandikar & Gurav, is described and illustrated from northern Western Ghats of India. It differs from allied M. versicolor (Dalzell Bruckn. in having obovate, rose-red to flesh coloured petals, elliptic capsule and falsifoveate-glebulate seed surface.

  6. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-01-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and

  7. A dominant negative mutant of an Arabidopsis R2R3 Myb (AtMyb90) blocks flower pigment production in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    A spontaneous mutation converted a hyper-pigmented (anthocyanins), CaMV-35S-pro::AtMYB90 containing, transgenic tobacco line into one displaying wild-type pigmentation in all tissues except for flower petals, which, counter-intuitively, showed anthocyanin levels dramatically below wild-type in the p...

  8. Developmental changes in the metabolic network of snapdragon flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle K Muhlemann

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and reproductive success of angiosperms, the most diverse group of land plants, relies on visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. Previous work has focused on elucidating the developmental regulation of pathways leading to the formation of pollinator-attracting secondary metabolites such as scent compounds and flower pigments. However, to date little is known about how flowers control their entire metabolic network to achieve the highly regulated production of metabolites attracting pollinators. Integrative analysis of transcripts and metabolites in snapdragon sepals and petals over flower development performed in this study revealed a profound developmental remodeling of gene expression and metabolite profiles in petals, but not in sepals. Genes up-regulated during petal development were enriched in functions related to secondary metabolism, fatty acid catabolism, and amino acid transport, whereas down-regulated genes were enriched in processes involved in cell growth, cell wall formation, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The levels of transcripts and metabolites in pathways leading to scent formation were coordinately up-regulated during petal development, implying transcriptional induction of metabolic pathways preceding scent formation. Developmental gene expression patterns in the pathways involved in scent production were different from those of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, highlighting distinct developmental regulation of secondary metabolism and primary metabolic pathways feeding into it.

  9. Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.

  10. Ontogeny of floral organs in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Lauren C; Sawhney, Vipen K; Davis, Arthur R

    2011-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an important crop worldwide; however, a detailed study on flower development of this species is lacking. Here we describe the pattern of initiation and a program of key developmental events in flax flower ontogeny. This study provides important fundamental information for future research in various aspects of flax biology and biotechnology. Floral buds and organs were measured throughout development and examined using scanning electron microscopy. Floral organs were initiated in the following sequence: sepals, stamens and petals, gynoecium, and nectaries. The five sepals originated in a helical pattern, followed evidently by simultaneous initiation of five stamens and five petals, the former opposite of the sepals and the latter alternate to them. The gynoecium, with five carpels, was produced from the remaining, central region of the floral apex. Stamens at early stages were dominated by anther growth but filaments elongated rapidly shortly before anthesis. Early gynoecium development occurred predominantly in the ovary, and ovule initiation began prior to enclosure of carpels. A characteristic feature was the twisted growth of styles, accompanied by the differentiation of papillate stigmas. Petal growth lagged behind that of other floral organs, but petals eventually grew rapidly to enclose the inner whorls after style elongation. Flask-shaped nectaries bearing stomata developed on the external surface of the filament bases. This is the first detailed study on flax floral organ development and has established a key of 12 developmental stages, which should be useful to flax researchers.

  11. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    Petals 5, dissected into many hair-like structures towards the free end and with glands at the base. Anthertips are hairy. Fruits are ellipsoidal with afleshy rind and astony stucture inside (2.5 cm long, 2.5 cm in diam.). Flowers and fruits generally appear between May and. October. NOTE: Flowering Tree, October 2016 name ...

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with somewhat drooping branches and simple oblong dark green glossy leaves. Flowers are fragrant and are borne in fascicles in leafaxi/s. Petals are six in number, leafy, narrow and greenish-yellow. Both stamens and pistils are many. Pistils from each flower mature into a clllster of several stalked greenish flesh y fruits.

  13. Drypetes roxburghii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    ... with long drooping branches. Leaves are elliptic, dark-green and glossy on the upper surface. Flowers are tiny without petals, male and female flowers being borne on separate trees. Male flowers are yellowish-green and are crowded in dense clusters whereas the female flowers are greenish, solitary on long stalks. Fruit.

  14. What do we learn?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. What do we learn? Floral opening is radial. Diameter of the flower decided by the length of the petal/sepal/corona hair. Floral opening is “mechanical”. Stress is radial. Opening and closing is not exactly reversible. Material is visco-plastic. To a biologist, closing has no ...

  15. Inflorescence and floral traits of the Colombian species of Tristerix (Loranthaceae related to hummingbird pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floral diversification in Loranthaceae reaches its highest peak in the Andes. The flowers of the exclusively Andean genus Tristerix exhibit tubular and vividly coloured flowers pollinated by hummingbirds. We studied inflorescence and flower morphoanatomy of the two Colombian species, T. longebracteatus and the highly endangered T. secundus. Both species have terminal racemes with up to 26 ebracteolate flowers, of which the proximal one opens and sets fruits first. The slightly irregular calyx initiation is followed by the simultaneous initiation of petals and the successive initiation of stamens. Anthesis is fenestrate, explosive, and triggered by the tension of the style against the abaxial petals, a mode so far not reported in Loranthaceae. Anthetic petals spread symmetrically in T. longebracteatus and asymmetrically in T. secundus. Nectar is produced by a supraovarial disk and by the petal mesophyll. Floral lifespan lasts up to 20 days. The hummingbirds Eriocnemis vestita and Pterophanes cyanopterus are the likely pollinators of T. secundus. Morphological traits are inconclusive to support one of the two competing sister group relationships that involve Tristerix, as the lack of cataphylls in renewal shoots links Ligaria and Tristerix, whereas the terminal inflorescences support its relationship with Desmaria and Tupeia.

  16. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... The studied qualitative characteristics relate to the color of the leaves (CF) ; color of the petals (CP) color carpel (CCR); color of stamens (EC); the mode of arrangement of leaves on the stem (DF.R); the mod of disposal of the leaflets on the sheet (CFLF) the distribution of leaflets on the sheet (RLF.F); the ...

  17. Morphometric Studies of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex. Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sepal length and petal length were identified as diagnostic morphological characters. Even though the phenetic groups identified within C. anisata could not be classified as morphological varieties, they could still be described and documented for general purposes such as communication, management and conservation ...

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    Flowers are solitary, leaf-opposed and sometimes in fascicles. Petals are greenish, 3-6, and often appear like sepals. Fruit is green, resembling that of a custard apple. Seeds are enveloped by fleshy pulp which is sweet when ripe and is edible. The tree is often cultivated. Fruit is rich in annonaceous acetogenins which have ...

  19. Annona glabra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Annona glabra L. (MONKEY-APPLE) of Annonaceae is a medium-sized tree with spreading branches. Leaves are simple, ovate to oblong in shape, 10 x 5 cm with an acute apex. Flowers are solitary and large. Sepals and petals are fleshy whereas stamens and pistils are small and numerous. Fruit is of apple's size and is ...

  20. Author template for journal articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... and Ac-ubiquitin were cloned from pineapple in this study. The four genes .... 15, 30 and 60 days of flower bloom; and 3) stem, calyx, petal, stylus and ovary ... The first-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized by.

  1. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the current research, fragments of CHS genes were amplified ... transcript level in petals in the early flowering stage and in the stem of five upper leaves, followed by five upper leaves in the ..... First strand cDNA was amplified by 1 μg of.

  2. Expression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity hexose transporter STP13 correlates with programmed cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten Helge Hauberg; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Brodersen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GFP expression only in the vascular tissue in emerging petals under non-stressed conditions. Quantitative PCR and the pSTP13-GFP plants show induction of STP13 in programmed cell death (PCD) obtained by treatments with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. A role for STP...

  3. Quality management of cut carnation 'Tempo' with 1- MCP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... carnation 'Tempo' which is an ethylene-sensitive flower, were evaluated. The effects of 1-MCP .... rolling of the petals. Water uptake rate (ml g-1 .... The studies of Chamani (2006) on Rosa 'First red' cut flowers revealed that ...

  4. Efektivitas Penggunaan Jenis Pelarut dan Asam dalam Proses Ekstraksi Pigmen Antosianin Kelopak Bunga Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Moulana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin is pigments are red, purple and blue that commonly found in plants and can be used as a natural dye. One kind of plant that can be extracted as a source of natural dyes and contain anthocyanin is rosella petals flower. The use of solvents and acids are the factors that determine the quality and quantity of anthocyanin that extracted from rosella petals flower. Therefore in this study will be assessed the influence of the use of appropriate solvents and acids in the process of extraction of anthocyanin from rosella petals flower. Types used are varieties rosella sabdariffa. This research was conducted using Randomized Block Design Factorial consisting of 2 factors that is the type of solvent (J consisting of ethanol and methanol, as well as the second factor which is the type of acid (P consisting of tartaric acid, citric acid, and acid acetate. Based on the analysis it was found that the anthocyanin pigment (in red in rosella petals flower is more stable in the acidic conditions (low pH. Type of acid (P gives a very significant influence (P ≤ 0.01 toward pH values and significant influence (P ≤ 0.05 toward the intensity of the color. Type of solvent (J that used gives a very significant influence (P ≤ 0.01 toward the intensity of the color, as well as a significant influence (P ≤ 0.05 on yield and levels of anthocyanin

  5. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    covered with dense orange-red tomentum i.e. growth of tufts of short hairs. Inflorescences mostly appear on old woody twigs. Flowers are unisexual and without petals. Sepals are fused into a tubular structure, which is toothed distally. This, the calyx tube as well as the flower stalk are orange-red to scarlet-red in colour.

  6. The End-Of-Substructure Card for the ATLAS ITk Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Goettlicher, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The End-Of-Substructure Card (EoS) is the interface between the building block of the ITk Strip Tracker (staves and petals) and the outside world. In the ITk the modules consisting of the silicon sensor itself and the hybrids with the readout ASICS are placed on a common structure called a stave (in the barrel) and petal (in the end-cap). All module use a common bus-tape co-cured to carbon-fiber based structure to distribute power and signals. The data lines and command lines are then connected from the bus-tape to EoS. The power, both low and high voltage, are also distributed via the bus tape and coonected to the EoS. All these connections will be made using wire-bonds. The card concept is build around using the lpGBT chip set and the VTRx optical link, both common developments for the LHC Upgrades. The command signals will be coming in on a 10 Gbit/s link and will be de-multiplexed by the lpGBt and send to the stave/petal. The incoming data from the sensor, which depending on the type of stave or petal wil...

  7. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus induction from Cananga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cananga odorata callus was initiated from petals of the C. odorata flowers on MS medium and B5 vitamins containing 30 g/L sugar and 3 g/L agar. The medium was also supplemented with different concentrations of 1-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), and combinations of NAA with 6-benzylaminpurine (BAP) as the plant ...

  8. Cloning of the chrysanthemum UEP1 promoter and comparative expression in leaves and ray and disc florets of Dendranthema grandiflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Kuipers, G.; Visser, P.B.; Outchkourov, N.; Pereira, A.; Udayakumar, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    To attain high transgene expression in petal tissue of ray florets of chrysanthemum an endogenous ubiquitin extension protein (UEP1) promoter was cloned and tested with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression levels were compared with four heterologous promoters: chalcone synthase

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annona reticulata L. (English: Bullock's heart; Hindi: Ramphal) of Annonaceae is a medium-size tree that is often cultivated, but generally grows wild and yields an edible fruit. The leaves are shiny and dark-green. The branches are dark-brown. Flowers are unimpressive, both sepals and petals being sepal-like. The.

  10. Nyssaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasscher, J.

    1948-01-01

    Dioecious trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, scattered. Stipules O. Flowers unisexual, often in heads, in the axils of a bract and with 2 bracteoles. ♂: in axillary heads or short racemes; calyx entire or 5-toothed; petals 5, imbricate, often small, alternate with the calyx; stamens 8-16 in 2

  11. 77 FR 52293 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Mimulus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ....) long, with spreading petals and an open throat (Beatty et al. 2003, p. 14); they bloom in mid-July... decades along the Colorado Front Range Urban Corridor, and are projected to increase another 26.5 percent... from direct fire impacts, ecology of the site was reportedly altered in its hydrology and vegetation...

  12. Novitates Taxonomicae III. ex. Herbario Academiae Rheno-Traiectinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulle, A.

    1942-01-01

    In my revision of the Turneraceae for PULLE’s Flora of Suriname, I have accepted the genera Piriqueta and Turnera in the delimitation given to them by URBAN. The distinction rests on the presence in Piriqueta of a “corona” at the insertion of the petals. This corona, however, is often so weakly

  13. Demonstrating Starshade Performance as Part of NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Spergel, D. N.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Lisman, D.; Shaklan, S.; Thomson, M. W.; Walkemeyer, P. E.; Bach, V. M.; Oakes, E.; Cady, E. J.; Martin, S. R.; Marchen, L. F.; Macintosh, B.; Rudd, R.; Mikula, J. A.; Lynch, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    In this poster we describe the results of our project to design, manufacture, and measure a prototype starshade petal as part of the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions program. An external occult is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade,that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light for the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. In this first two-year phase we focused on the key requirement of manufacturing a precision petal with the precise tolerances needed to meet the overall error budget. These tolerances are established by modeling the effect that various mechanical and thermal errors have on scatter in the telescope image plane and by suballocating the allowable contrast degradation between these error sources. We show the results of this analysis and a representative error budget. We also present the final manufactured occulter petal and the metrology on its shape that demonstrates it meets requirements. We show that a space occulter built of petals with the same measured shape would achieve better than 1e-9 contrast. We also show our progress in building and testing sample edges with the sharp radius of curvature needed for limiting solar glint. Finally, we describe our plans for the second TDEM phase.

  14. Verifying occulter deployment tolerances as part of NASA's technology development for exoplanet missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Lisman, D.; Shaklan, S.; Thomson, M.; Webb, D.; Cady, E.; Marks, G. W.; Lo, A.

    2013-09-01

    An external occulter is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade, that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light before entering the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. In support of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program and the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM), we recently completed a 2 year study of the manufacturability and metrology of starshade petals. In this paper we review the results of that successful first TDEM which demonstrated an occulter petal could be built and measured to an accuracy consistent with close to 10-10 contrast. We then present the results of our second TDEM to demonstrate the next critical technology milestone: precision deployment of the central truss and petals to the necessary accuracy. We show the deployment of an existing deployable truss outfitted with four sub-scale petals and a custom designed central hub.

  15. Stigma development and receptivity in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weiguang; Law, S Edward; McCoy, Dennis; Wetzstein, Hazel Y

    2006-01-01

    Fertilization is essential in almond production, and pollination can be limiting in production areas. This study investigated stigma receptivity under defined developmental stages to clarify the relationship between stigma morphology, pollen germination, tube growth and fruit set. Light and scanning electron microscopy were employed to examine stigma development at seven stages of flower development ranging from buds that were swollen to flowers in which petals were abscising. Flowers at different stages were hand pollinated and pollen germination and tube growth assessed. Artificial pollinations in the field were conducted to determine the effect of flower age on fruit set. Later stages of flower development exhibited greater stigma receptivity, i.e. higher percentages of pollen germination and more extensive tube growth occurred in older (those opened to the flat petal stage or exhibiting petal fall) than younger flowers. Enhanced stigma receptivity was associated with elongation of stigmatic papillae and increased amounts of stigmatic exudate that inundated papillae at later developmental stages. Field pollinations indicated that the stigma was still receptive and nut set was maintained in older flowers. Stigma receptivity in almond does not become optimal until flowers are past the fully open stage. The stigma is still receptive and fruit set is maintained in flowers even at the stage when petals are abscising. Strategies to enhance pollination and crop yield, including the timing and placement of honey bees, should consider the effectiveness of developmentally advanced flowers.

  16. A taxonomic revision of three Chinese spurless species of genus Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxiong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to some common or similar features (e.g., small leaf, spurless, yellow flower, three Chinese species of the genus Epimedium (Berberidaceae, E. ecalcaratum, E. platypetalum, and E. campanulatum, are controversial based on morphological characteristics. In the present study, the descriptions of morphological characteristics for the three species were revised based on extensive studies and observations both in field and in herbaria. In general, E. ecalcaratum has long creeping rhizomes 1–3 mm in diameter, two alternate or opposite trifoliolate leaves, 7–14 flowers, and petals obovate and apex subacute. Epimedium platypetalum has short or long-creeping rhizomes 1–3 mm in diameter, one trifoliolate leaf, 2–6 flowers, and petals oblong and apex rounded. Epimedium campanulatum has compact rhizomes 4–6 mm in diameter, two alternate or opposite trifoliolate leaves, 15–43 flowers, and petals obovate and apex rounded. Through comparison, we found that despite the close affinity of these three species, they can be distinguished by rhizome differences, stem-leaves, the morphology of flower (e.g., petals, and the number of per inflorenscence.

  17. A taxonomic revision of three Chinese spurless species of genus Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoxiong; Liu, Linjian; Huang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Yuye; Xu, Yanqin

    2017-01-01

    Due to some common or similar features (e.g., small leaf, spurless, yellow flower), three Chinese species of the genus Epimedium (Berberidaceae), E. ecalcaratum , E. platypetalum , and E. campanulatum , are controversial based on morphological characteristics. In the present study, the descriptions of morphological characteristics for the three species were revised based on extensive studies and observations both in field and in herbaria. In general, E. ecalcaratum has long creeping rhizomes 1-3 mm in diameter, two alternate or opposite trifoliolate leaves, 7-14 flowers, and petals obovate and apex subacute. Epimedium platypetalum has short or long-creeping rhizomes 1-3 mm in diameter, one trifoliolate leaf, 2-6 flowers, and petals oblong and apex rounded. Epimedium campanulatum has compact rhizomes 4-6 mm in diameter, two alternate or opposite trifoliolate leaves, 15-43 flowers, and petals obovate and apex rounded. Through comparison, we found that despite the close affinity of these three species, they can be distinguished by rhizome differences, stem-leaves, the morphology of flower (e.g., petals), and the number of per inflorenscence.

  18. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves,

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. S. R. Bhat. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 85 Issue 2 August 2006 pp 133-139 Research Article. Homeotic-like modification of stamens to petals is associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression in cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura Brassica juncea · Gargi Meur K.

  20. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia.

  1. Phylogenetic utility of the AP3/DEF K-domain and its molecular evolution in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.; Geuten, K.; Viaene, T.; Yong-Ming, Y.; Yi, S.; Smets, E.

    2007-01-01

    APETALA3 (AP3)/DEFICIENS (DEF) is a MADS-box transcription factor that is involved in establishing the identity of petal and stamen floral organs. The AP3/DEF gene lineage has been extensively examined throughout the angiosperms in order to better understand its role in floral diversity and

  2. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (lackfruit tree; Hindi: Katha!) of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The entire female inflorescence together with parts of individual flowers forms a large multiple fruit. The sepals and petals become fleshy and juicy to form the edible part of the fruit. The timber is hard and durable and usedfor making various wooden articles. The leaves are used in skin diseases and as an antidote to snake ...

  3. 75 FR 24742 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Semiconductor, Xiqing Integrated Semiconductor, Manufacturing Site, No. 15 Xinghua Road, Xiqing Economic... Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., NO. 2 Jalan SS 8/2, Free Industrial Zone, Sungai Way, 47300 Petaling Jaya, Selengor, Malaysia. Freescale Semiconductor Pte. Ltd., 7 Changi South Street 2, 03-00, Singapore 486415. Freescale...

  4. Anti-malarial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Piliostigma thonningii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... Key words: Piliostigma thonningii, anti plasmodial, Plasmodium berghei berghei NK65. ... predicted that a reliable malaria vaccine is several years away. The global ... nature and its petals are white to pinkish colour produced between ... randomized into three groups of three mice each and were given.

  5. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Lysanne; Kammerer, Dietmar R.; Stintzing, Florian C.; Spring, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MSn) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals. PMID:28098796

  6. Salacia hallei, a name for a rare Celastraceae species from western central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    A new species, Salaria hallei (Celastraceae), from Gabon and Angola is described and illustrated. The species is unique by the combination of glabrous leaves with a transverse tertiary venation, a conspicuous pedunculate inflorescence and glabrous flowers with 3-4 mm wide, almost round, petals and 4

  7. JOPAT [14th Edition - Jan to Dec 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretary

    Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering,. University of Development Alternative, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh. *Present address: Dept. of Pharmacy, Lincoln College, Mayang Plaza, Block A, No 1, Jalan SS 26/2,. Taman Mayang Jaya, 47301, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ...

  8. PH4 of petunia is an R2R3-MYB protein that activates vacuolar acidification through interactions with Basic-Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors of the anthocyanin pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchio, F.M.; Verweij, C.W.; Spelt, C.E.; Mol, J.N.M.; Koes, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Petunia hybrids genes ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) and AN2 encode transcription factors with a basic-helix-loop-helix (BHLH) and a MYB domain, respectively, that are required for anthocyanin synthesis and acidification of the vacuole in petal cells. Mutation of PH4 results in a bluer flower color,

  9. PH4 of petunia is an R2R3-MYB protein that activates vacuolar acidification through interactions with Basic-Helix-Loop transcription factors of the anthocyanin pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchio, F.M.; Verweij, C.W.; Kroon, A.R.; Spelt, C.E.; Mol, J.N.M.; Koes, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Petunia hybrids genes ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) and AN2 encode transcription factors with a basic-helix-loop-helix (BHLH) and a MYB domain, respectively, that are required for anthocyanin synthesis and acidification of the vacuole in petal cells. Mutation of PH4 results in a bluer flower color,

  10. Bombacaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Trees, often with very thick trunks, all parts covered by stellate hairs or squamae. Leaves alternate, simple, or digitately compound. Stipules deciduous. Flowers mostly solitary, often very large. Flowers hermaphrodite, 5-merous. Calyx valvate. Epicalyx present or wanting. Petals contorted. Stamens

  11. Gene dosage induction of silencing directed against an Arabidopsis Myb transgene in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    An unexpected reduction in petal pigmentation on petunia plants genetically engineered for enhanced flower color was one of the first experimental demonstrations of the natural process of RNA-associated gene silencing. The obvious visual nature of such alterations to pigment patterns of transgenic ...

  12. A chimeric repressor of petunia PH4 R2R3-MYB family transcription factor generates margined flowers in torenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasajima, Ichiro; Sasaki, Katsutomo

    2016-05-03

    The development of new phenotypes is key to the commercial development of the main floricultural species and cultivars. Important new phenotypes include features such as multiple-flowers, color variations, increased flower size, new petal shapes, variegation and distinctive petal margin colourations. Although their commercial use is not yet common, the transgenic technologies provide a potentially rapid means of generating interesting new phenotypes. In this report, we construct 5 vectors which we expected to change the color of the flower anthocyanins, from purple to blue, regulating vacuolar pH. When these constructs were transformed into purple torenia, we unexpectedly recovered some genotypes having slightly margined petals. These transgenic lines expressed a chimeric repressor of the petunia PhPH4 gene under the control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S RNA promoter. PhPH4 is an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor. The transgenic lines lacked pigmentation in the petal margin cells both on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Expressions of Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and Flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) genes were reduced in the margins of these transgenic lines, suggesting an inhibitory effect of PhPH4 repressor on anthocyanin synthesis.

  13. Ethnic Differences in the Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Man and Draw-a-Woman Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A. E.; Chen, S. T.

    1979-01-01

    The draw-a-man (DAM) and draw-a-woman (DAW) tests were given to 307 school children in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. The children were ethnically Malay, Chinese, or Indian (Tamil), and all came from lower socioeconomic groups. Journal availability: British Medical Journal, 1172 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02134. (Author)

  14. Annual Progress Report FY-82. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of Binaural Versus 316 Monaural Amplification. (FY-81PI) 2535 Development of Method for Generating 318 Individualized Aural Rehabilitation...Oncology Group. 428 (FY-74 I ) 4116 The Evaluation of Petal Systolic Time Intervals 429 and Beat interval Variation in Fetal heart Rate as Early

  15. Multilocus genotyping of a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’-related strain associated with cauliflower phyllody disease in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new cauliflower disease characterized by formation of leaf-like inflorescences and malformed flowers occurred in a seed production filed located in Yunnan, a southwest province of China. In the diseased plants, floral organs in three inner whorls (petals, carpels, and stamens) were under-develope...

  16. Programmed Cell Death and Postharvest Deterioration of Horticultural Produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Iakimova, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process where cells or tissues are broken down in an orderly and predictable manner, whereby nutrients are re-used by other cells, tissues or plant parts. The process of (petal) senescence shows many similarities to autophagic PCD in animal cells including a massive

  17. Plant guide: Parsnipflower buckwheat: Eriogonum heracleoides Nutt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Dan Ogle; Loren St. John

    2007-01-01

    Parsnipflower buckwheat is a perennial forb to subshrub with a branching woody stem. Leaves are covered with dense white hairs making the herbage appear a light green to blue-grayish color. The flowers are a creamy-yellow color and have six petals which are borne in simple or compound umbels. Plants of parsnipflower buckwheat can be distinguished from other closely...

  18. Procedures for expressing natural or induced variability in carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenesis (gamma rays) and in vitro organogenesis are used separately or both to diversify carnation varieties by revealing and creating variability. As regards to in vivo mutagenesis, an important diversification of the flower colour is obtained by applying a 60 Gray dose to two hundred rooted cuttings. The organogenesis ability has been tested among different types of explants. The petal of young floral bud shows the best caulogenesis capacities. The organogenesis region is located at the petal base. Histological studies reveal that neoformations are originated from epidermic and sub-epidermic cellular layers. The morphogenetic evolution of neoformations depends on growth factors imbalance. Isolated neoformations can grow in a vegetative way (vitrous plantlets) or in a reproductive one (petaloid structures). Modifications of the petal and neoformations culture conditions induce a normal development by preventing and suppressing vitrification. Histological studies show strong anatomic differences between vitrous and petaloid forms when compared to the normal ones. A method combining in vitro organogenesis and mutagenesis has been investigated. To avoid chimera, petals are irradiated the second day of culture (differentiated cells). A 20 or 40 Gray dose can be applied [fr

  19. The duplicated B-class heterodimer model: whorl-specific effects and complex genetic interactions in Petunia hybrida flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Michiel; Zethof, Jan; Royaert, Stefan; Weterings, Koen; Gerats, Tom

    2004-03-01

    In both Antirrhinum (Antirrhinum majus) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the floral B-function, which specifies petal and stamen development, is embedded in a heterodimer consisting of one DEFICIENS (DEF)/APETALA3 (AP3)-like and one GLOBOSA (GLO)/PISTILLATA (PI)-like MADS box protein. Here, we demonstrate that gene duplications in both the DEF/AP3 and GLO/PI lineages in Petunia hybrida (petunia) have led to a functional diversification of their respective members, which is reflected by partner specificity and whorl-specific functions among these proteins. Previously, it has been shown that mutations in PhDEF (formerly known as GREEN PETALS) only affect petal development. We have isolated insertion alleles for PhGLO1 (FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN1) and PhGLO2 (PETUNIA MADS BOX GENE2) and demonstrate unique and redundant properties of PhDEF, PhGLO1, and PhGLO2. Besides a full homeotic conversion of petals to sepals and of stamens to carpels as observed in phglo1 phglo2 and phdef phglo2 flowers, we found that gene dosage effects for several mutant combinations cause qualitative and quantitative changes in whorl 2 and 3 meristem fate, and we show that the PHDEF/PHGLO1 heterodimer controls the fusion of the stamen filaments with the petal tube. Nevertheless, when the activity of PhDEF, PhGLO1, and PhGLO2 are considered jointly, they basically appear to function as DEF/GLO does in Antirrhinum and to a lesser extent as AP3/PI in Arabidopsis. By contrast, our data suggest that the function of the fourth B-class MADS box member, the paleoAP3-type PETUNIA HYBRIDA TM6 (PhTM6) gene, differs significantly from the known euAP3-type DEF/AP3-like proteins; PhTM6 is mainly expressed in the developing stamens and ovary of wild-type flowers, whereas its expression level is upregulated in whorls 1 and 2 of an A-function floral mutant; PhTM6 is most likely not involved in petal development. The latter is consistent with the hypothesis that the evolutionary origin of the higher eudicot

  20. POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF FEIJOA FLOWERS TREATED WITH DIFFERENT PRESERVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE

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    ALEXANDRA GOEDE DE SOUZA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to assess the postharvest quality preservation of feijoa(Acca sellowiana Berg flowers in response to treatments with different preservative solutions and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP. Recently opened feijoa flowers were harvested in the morning (between 8h and 10h and immediately after pulsed with preservative solutions of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid and sucrose, all at doses of 0 (control, 2, 5 or 10%, and treated with 1-MCP at doses of 0 (control, 250, 500 or 1,000 nL L-1. Each trial with preservative solutions or 1-MCP treatment was a distinct experiment conducted in a completely randomized design with four replicates, each replicate with four flowers. After the treatment, the flowers were stored for 12 days at 10±1 oC and 85±5% RH. At every two-days intervals the flower petals were visually evaluated for wilting and darkening according to a hedonic scale varying from 1 (less intense to 5 (more intense. Petal color was ranked from 1 (intense pink to 5 (white. The 1-MCP at 500 nL L-1 and the salicylic acid (regardless of the dose delayed the changes of petal color for up to eight and six days of storage, respectively. Flowers treated with salicylic acid, 1-MCP or ascorbic acid had a more substantial delay in petal wilting. Flowers treated with salicylic acid had wilting rank of 2 after six days of storage when treated with doses of 5% or 10%, and after eight days when treated with the dose of 2%, while flowers treated with 1-MCP at 500 and 1,000 nL L-1 and ascorbic acid at 2% and 5% had wilting rank of 2 after four days of storage. The most substantial delay of petal darkening (until the fourth day of storage was achieved with 1-MCP at 500 nL L-1.

  1. A Facile in Situ and UV Printing Process for Bioinspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. González Lazo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A facile in situ and UV printing process was demonstrated to create self-cleaning synthetic replica of natural petals and leaves. The process relied on the spontaneous migration of a fluorinated acrylate surfactant (PFUA within a low-shrinkage acrylated hyperbranched polymer (HBP and its chemical immobilization at the polymer-air interface. Dilute concentrations of 1 wt. % PFUA saturated the polymer-air interface within 30 min, leading to a ten-fold increase of fluorine concentration at the surface compared with the initial bulk concentration and a water contact angle (WCA of 108°. A 200 ms flash of UV light was used to chemically crosslink the PFUA at the HBP surface prior to UV printing with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS negative template of red and yellow rose petals and lotus leaves. This flash immobilization hindered the reverse migration of PFUA within the bulk HBP upon contacting the PDMS template, and enabled to produce texturized surfaces with WCA well above 108°. The synthetic red rose petal was hydrophobic (WCA of 125° and exhibited the adhesive petal effect. It was not superhydrophobic due to insufficient concentration of fluorine at its surface, a result of the very large increase of the surface of the printed texture. The synthetic yellow rose petal was quasi-superhydrophobic (WCA of 143°, roll-off angle of 10° and its self-cleaning ability was not good also due to lack of fluorine. The synthetic lotus leaf did not accurately replicate the intricate nanotubular crystal structures of the plant. In spite of this, the fluorine concentration at the surface was high enough and the leaf was superhydrophobic (WCA of 151°, roll-off angle below 5° and also featured self-cleaning properties.

  2. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  3. Analisis Keragaman Morfologi dan Biokimia pada Anggrek Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae

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    Aline Sisi Handini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPhalaenopsis orchid is one of famous genera in Orchidaceae family which have high economic value. Phalaenopsis breeding needs to be developed intensively to fulfill market demand for new varieties. The objective of this study was to obtain the information of  morphological and biochemical diversity of a collection of Phalaenopsis orchid which will be useful for Phalaenopsis breeding. Plant materials used were 10 genotypes of Phalaenopsis with various petal colours of white, yellow, pink, deep pink, purple, or combination of yellow and brown. Morphological diversity of 10 genotypes were analyzed based on qualitative and quantitative characters following UPOV guidance for Phalaenopsis, while biochemical diversity was based on pigment content such as chlorophyl, anthocyanin, and carotene in plant roots, leaves and flower petals. The result of this research showed morphological diversity of 10 genotypes used was relatively high, with similarity of 55%. In that level of similarity, genotypes were grouped into two cluster. Biochemical analysis showed that most of genotypes were different for anthocyanin and carotenoid content for each plant organ. Genotype which showed high content of anthocyanin in leaves was Phal. hybrid ‘PH37’ while high content of carotene in leaves was Phal. hybrid ‘PIROUI. High content of anthocyanin in petals were found in Phal. hybrid ‘PH37’ and Phal. esmeralda, and high content of carotene were in Phal. cornucervi and Phal. cornucervi Red. Root with high anthocyanin content was found in Phal. hybrid ‘PIROU1’. There were significant correlation (0.975 for anthocyanin content between leaves and petals, petals and roots (0.953 on Phal.hybrid ‘PH37’, and between leaves and roots (0.874 on Phal. hybrid ‘PIROU1.Keywords: anthocyanin, carotene, chlorophyll, Phalaenopsis, similarity

  4. Ultraviolet-B radiation screening effectiveness of reproductive organs in Hesperis matronalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, T.A.; Demchik, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280–320 nm) screening effectiveness of reproductive organs (sepals, petals and ovaries) of naturally growing Hesperis matronalis L. (dame's rocket, Brassicaceae) plants by measuring surface reflectance, epidermal and whole-organ transmittance and depth of penetration of 300 nm UV-B. We also measured the concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds in these organs (as well as pollen) to provide explanations for differences in their UV-B screening abilities. Surface reflectance of UV-B was less than 4% and was similar in sepals, petals and sides of ovaries. Ultraviolet-B penetrated (assessed as 1% of incident) an average of 275 μm and 384 μm into sepals and petals, respectively. In contrast, UV-B penetrated only 140 μm into the side of ovaries (measured mid-way between the base of the ovary and the stigma) and 108 μm into the stigma toward the ovary. Thus, UV-B was attenuated well before reaching the ovules which were over 500 μm within the sides of the ovaries and over 4000 μm below the stigma surface. This relatively effective attenuation of UV-B by the ovary was probably due to high concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds which averaged more than twice those found in sepals and petals on a silhouette-area basis. Although their small size prevented us from measuring UV-B penetration, pollen grains also contained very high concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds, averaging about 20 times those of sepals and petals on a silhouette-area basis. While this suggests that pollen of H. matronalis is effective at screening UV-B, the reported UV-B sensitivity of pollen suggests these high concentrations of absorbing compounds may not be completely effective in protecting the male gametes. (author)

  5. Down regulation of APETALA3 homolog resulted in defect of floral structure critical to explosive pollen release in Cornus canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Liu; Lu Li; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) Xiang

    2017-01-01

    In mature buds of the dwarf dogwood lineage (DW) of Cornus,petals and filaments form an "x"-like box containing mechanical energy from the filaments to allow explosive pollen dispersal.As a start to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the origin of this unique structure in Cornus,we cloned and characterized the sequences of APETALA3 (AP3) homologs from Cornus canadensis of the DW lineage and five other Cornus species,given the function of AP3 on petal and stamen development in Arabidopsis,and tested the function of CorcanAP3 using a stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system.The cloned CorAP3s (AP3-like genes in Cornus) were confirmed to belong to the euAP3 lineage.qRT-PCR analysis indicated strong increase of CorcanAP3 expression in floral buds of wildtype C.canadensis.A hairpin construct of CorcanAP3 was successfully introduced into wild type plants of C.canadensis,resulting in significant reduction of CorcanAP3 expression and abnormal floral development.The abnormal floral buds lost the "x" form and opened immaturely due to delay or retard of petal and stamen elongation and the push of style elongation.The results suggested CorcanAP3 may function to regulate the coordinated rate of development of petals and stamens in C.canadensis,necessary for the x-structure formation,although the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear.Comparison among six Comus species indicated a greater ratio of stamen to petal and style growth in C.canadensis,suggesting an evolutionary change of CorAP3 expression pattern in the DW lineage,leading to the greater growth of filaments to form the "x"-box.

  6. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae) is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str.) is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies), including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes. We furthermore

  7. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Sze Li

    Full Text Available Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str. is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies, including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes

  8. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion, methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one freeze-dried extracts for evaluation. These extracts were evaluated initially at concentrations of 500 and 100 µg/mL for in vitro hemolytic activity and in vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood, respectively. Sixteen extracts (23 % of all extracts tested, 42 % of all plant species, representing the following plants: Chaunochiton kappleri (Olacaceae, Diclinanona calycina (Annonaceae, Paypayrola grandiflora (Violaceae, Pleurisanthes parviflora (Icacinaceae, Sarcaulus brasiliensis (Sapotaceae, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards human platelet aggregation. A group of extracts with antiplatelet aggregation activity having no in vitro hemolytic activity has therefore been identified. Three extracts (4 %, all derived from Elaeoluma nuda (Sapotaceae, exhibited hemolytic activity. None of the plant species in this study has known use in traditional medicine. So, these data serve as a baseline or minimum of antiplatelet and hemolytic activities (and potential usefulness of non-medicinal plants from the Amazon forest. Finally, in general, these are the first data on hemolytic and inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation for the genera which these plant species represent.No presente estudo, partes aéreas obtidas de doze (12 espécies vegetais da Amazônia encontradas na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (localizada na cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia foram coletadas, secadas e mo

  9. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  10. Aspectos florísticos e fitossociológicos da reserva Capão de Tupanciretã, Tupanciretã, RS, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Ferreira da Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Reserva Capão de Tupanciretã, município de Tupanciretã (RS, em uma área com 8 hectares pertencente à Fundação de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Rio Grande do Sul (FEPAGRO. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica da floresta. Utilizaram-se dez parcelas de tamanho 10 x 20 m distribuídas sistematicamente na área. Nessas parcelas, foram medidos e identificados todos os indivíduos com DAP maior ou igual a 5 cm. Dentro das parcelas principais, alocaram-se subunidades de 5 x 5 m para avaliar o componente arbustivo (DAP entre 1 e 5 cm e de 2 x 2 m para a regeneração natural (DAP menor que 1 cm e altura superior a 30 cm. Os resultados foram analisados usando o programa FITOANALISE, calculando-se os parâmetros fitossociológicos tradicionais de densidade, dominância, freqüência, valor de importância, valor de cobertura e índice de diversidade. As espécies com maior representatividade no componente arbóreo da floresta foram Camboatá-vermelho (Cupania vernalis Cambess. e o Branquilho (Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L. B. Sm. & Downs. No componente arbustivo e na regeneração, as espécies que apresentaram o maior número de indivíduos foram Camboatá-vermelho (Cupania vernalis Cambess., Primavera (Brunfelsia australis Benth., Chal-chal (Allophylus edulis (A. St.–Hil, Cambess. & A. Juss. e Canela-amarela (Nectandra lanceolata Nees

  11. Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutoux, G., E-mail: boutoux@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr; Rabhi, N.; Batani, D.; Ducret, J.-E. [Univ. de Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Binet, A.; Nègre, J.-P.; Reverdin, C.; Thfoin, I. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Jakubowska, K. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery Street 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. We calibrated at the ELSA electron beam facility (CEA DIF) the five different available types of IPs (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) to electrons from 5 to 18 MeV. In the context of diagnostic development for the PETawatt Aquitaine Laser (PETAL), we investigated the use of stacks of IP in order to increase the detection efficiency and get detection response independent from the neighboring materials such as X-ray shielding and detector supports. We also measured fading functions in the time range from a few minutes up to a few days. Finally, our results are systematically compared to GEANT4 simulations in order to provide a complete study of the IP response to electrons over the energy range relevant for PETAL experiments.

  12. "Volatile Constituents of Amedicinal Plant of Iran , Echium Amoenim Fisch. and C.A. Mey "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolah Ghassemi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Boraginaceae is an endemic Iranian plant, that its dry violet–blue petals has long been used in traditional medicine of Iran. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the dried petals of this plant which was isolated by steam distillation extraction with pentane (in yield of 0.05% was examined by GC-MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra and Kovats’ indices. The major components except aliphatic alkanes which belong to sesquiterpenes were: δ-cadinene (24.25%, viridiflorol (4.9%, α-muurolene (4.52%, ledene (3.8%, α-calacorene (3.04%, and γ-cadinene (2.9%.

  13. Design and construction of the structure of the DEMONSTRATOR of the CALIFA detector for R3B-FAIR using carbon-fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casarejos E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the DEMONSTRATOR structures and active units (PETALs developed for the detector CALIFA of the experiment R3B - FAIR. The design is based in the CALIFA BARREL mechanical solutions, but adapted to the characteristics of the PETALs, namely in what concerns the load distribution during setup and service. The R&D program defined the materials and procedures for both producing the pieces of carbon fiber (CF composites as well as the mounting of the bundles to make an alveolar structure. The procedures also include a quality control program to ensure the dimensional properties of the CF assemblies. We are also developing the use of tomographic imaging analysis for this quality program, that will be of mayor interest in the construction of the future CALIFA CF-structure.

  14. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C{sub 19}H{sub 29}NO{sub 5} compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C{sub 3} hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene.

  15. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C 19 H 29 NO 5 compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C 3 hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene

  16. A New Rose of Sharon Variety, 'Changhae' Developed by A Mutation Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.S.; Park, I.S.; Lim, Y.T.; Kim, J.K.; Lee, G.J.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, J.B.; Kang, S.Y.

    2006-01-01

    'Changhae' is a new Hibiscus variety developed by a mutation breeding by using a gamma ray irradiation. One hundred seeds of the original variety, 'Suminokura', grown in a breeding field in the Namyangju, Gyeonggi Province were irradiated with a 100 Gy gamma ray from a ∨60Co source at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1993 (Fig. 1). The original variety, 'Suminokura' belonged to the I-b category represented by a single flower, with an intermediate ratio of petal length/petal width, and a red purple color with a red-eye in the center of it's flower

  17. Detection of 1-O-malylglucose: pelargonidin 3-O-glucose-6''-O-malyltransferase activity in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Tera, Masayuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Okamura, Masachika; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Momose, Masaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-05

    Carnations have anthocyanins acylated with malate. Although anthocyanin acyltransferases have been reported in several plant species, anthocyanin malyltransferase (AMalT) activity in carnation has not been identified. Here, an acyl donor substance of AMalT, 1-O-beta-D-malylglucose, was extracted and partially purified from the petals of carnation. This was synthesized chemically to analyze AMalT activity in a crude extract from carnation. Changes in the AMalT activity showed close correlation to the accumulation of pelargonidin 3-malylglucoside (Pel 3-malGlc) during the development of red petals of carnation, but neither AMalT activity nor Pel 3-malGlc accumulation was detectable in roots, stems and leaves.

  18. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  19. Imaging of plant materials using indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging is a method for imaging distributions of metabolites in plant materials, in particular leaves and petals. The challenge in direct imaging of such plant materials with DESI-MS is particularly the protective layer of cu...... of interest from parts of their matrix while preserving the spatial information in the two dimensions. The imprint can then easily be imaged by DESI-MS. The method delivers simple and robust mass spectrometry imaging of plant material with very high success ratios....... of cuticular wax present in leaves and petals. The cuticle protects the plant from drying out, but also makes it difficult for the DESI sprayer to reach the analytes of interest inside the plant material. A solution to this problem is to imprint the plant material onto a surface, thus releasing the analytes...

  20. New Hydrogels Enriched with Antioxidants from Saffron Crocus Can Find Applications in Wound Treatment and/or Beautification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Sansone, Claudia; Macchiarelli, Guido; Continenza, Maria Adelaide; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2018-01-01

    Saffron extracts have a long history of application as skin protectant, possibly due to their ability to scavenge free radicals. In this work, the performance of a hydrogel enriched with antioxidant compounds isolated from saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) petals was tested. These hydrogels could be considered as new drug delivery system. Hydrogels are crosslinked polymer networks that absorb large quantities of water but retain the properties of a solid, thus making ideal dressings for sensitive skin. We tested antioxidant-enriched hydrogels on primary mouse fibroblasts. Hydrogels enriched with kaempferol and crocin extracted from saffron petals showed good biocompatibility with in vitro cultured fibroblasts. These new types of hydrogels may find applications in wound treatment and/or beautification. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Electrostatic micromotor based on ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, E. G.

    2004-11-01

    A new electrostatic micromotor is described that utilizes the electromechanical energy conversion principle earlier described by the authors. The electromechanical energy conversion is based on reversible electrostatic rolling of thin metallic films (petals) on a ferroelectric surface. The motor's active media are layers of ferroelectric ceramics (about 100 µm in thickness). The characteristics of the electrostatic rolling of the petals on different ceramic surfaces are studied, as well as the dynamic characteristics of the micromotors. It is shown that the use of antiferroelectric material allows one to reach a specific energy capacitance comparable to that of the micromotors based on ferroelectric films and to achieve a specific power of 30-300 µW mm-2.

  2. Composite rogue waves and modulation instability for the three-coupled Hirota system in an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Han-Peng; Tian, Bo; Chai, Jun; Du, Zhong

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the three-coupled Hirota system, which is applied to model the long distance communication and ultrafast signal routing systems governing the propagation of light pulses. With the aid of the Darboux dressing transformation, composite rogue wave solutions are derived. Spatial-temporal structures, including the four-petaled structure for the three-coupled Hirota system, are exhibited. We find that the four-petaled rogue waves occur in two of the three components, whereas the eye-shaped rogue wave occurs in the other one. The composite rogue waves can split up into two or three single rogue waves. The corresponding conditions for the occurrence of such phenomena are discussed and presented. We find that the relative position of every single rogue wave is influenced by the ratios of certain parameters. Besides, the linear instability analysis is performed, and our results agree with those from the baseband modulation instability theory.

  3. Floral vascular patterns of the double-flowered and wildtype morphs of Nigella damascena L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Deroin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The perianth of the double-flowered morph of Nigella damascena L. consists of spirally inserted petaloid sepals and sepal-like organs, similar in shape and colour to the petaloid sepals of the wild-type flower. It is devoid of petals. We compare the vascularization of each organ category of the double flower with that of the wild-type. We show that the vascular patterns of the sepal-like organs and of the petals are identical, and found an inverse relationship between the number of bracts and the number of sepals in the double-flowered morph. These two surprising findings will influence the future evo-devo studies on this plant model.

  4. Azimuthal anisotropy of light extraction from photonic crystal light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chun-Feng; Lu, T.C.; Wang, S.C. [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chao, C.H.; Hsueh, H.T.; Wang, J.F.T.; Yeh, W.Y.; Chi, J.Y. [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China); Kuo, H.C.

    2008-07-01

    Photonic crystal (PhC) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) exhibiting anisotropic light extraction have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is found that the anisotropic light extraction strongly depends on the lattice constant and orientation. Optical images of the anisotropy in the azimuthal direction are obtained using annular structure with triangular lattice. 6-fold symmetric light extraction patterns with varying number of petals are observed. More petals in multiple of 6 appear in the observed image with lattice constant increasing. This anisotropic behavior suggests a new means to optimize the PhC design of GaN LED for light extraction. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Transient expression of color genes and in vitro regerenation from agroinfiltration-transformed floral tissues of Dendrobium Sonia 'Earsakul'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagun, Jorge R.

    2016-05-01

    Dendrobium Sonia 'Earsakul' is one of the favorite orchid hybrids in Thailand that has been popularized in most countries around the world due to its spectacular form, however, it is only limited to purple flower variety. As the high demand of tropical orchids increased the level of competition in the global market, molecular breeding offers an alternative to traditional hybridization for a rapid development of new cultivars with interesting qualities such as variation in flower colors. Therefore, we established a molecular baseline of a possible redirection of the endogenous anthocyanin into another flavonoid, the yellow aurone, in D. Sonia 'Earsakul'. We successfully constructed pSTARGATE-F3H, pCAMBIA1304-AmAS1 and pCAMBIA1304-Am4'CGT vectors characterized the individual effects of endogenous DseF3H silencing or overexpression of aurone genes, AS1 and 4'CGT and the combinations of the 3 genes through agroinfiltration-based transient transformation in petal and sepal tissues of D. Sonia 'Earsakul'. As expected, down-regulation of endogenous DseF3H mRNA transcript and color changes were observed in infiltrated areas of petal and sepal tissues as a result of impaired anthocynanin accumulation. On the other hand, the introduction of heterologous AmAS1 and Am4'CGT genes and their combined constructs have resulted to unexpected color phenotypes in D. Sonia 'Earsakul' petal and sepal tissues. The combination of the three gene constructs has resulted to white coupled with yellowish green phenotypes. However, semi-quantitative RT-PCR results could not be established if the color changes were the end products of aruone biosynthesis. Determination of the in vitro regenerative potential of petal and sepal tissues was also conducted for designing a new transformation system in orchids. Petal and sepal explants from floral buds (2.0-2.3 cm) survived on half-strength MS solid medium supplemented with or without α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or/and benzylaminopurine (BA) but

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of conidia of the fungus Colletotrichum abscissum on Citrus sinensis plants with methylene blue under solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Júlia C; Brancini, Guilherme T P; Rodrigues, Gabriela B; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Ú L

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light based approach to control diseases caused by plant-pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of APDT with the phenothiazinium photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) under solar radiation on the germination and viability of conidia of the pathogenic fungus Colletotricum abscissum (former Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato). Experiments were performed both on petals and leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) in different seasons and weather conditions. Conidial suspensions were deposited on the leaves and petals surface, treated with the PS (25 or 50μM) and exposed to solar radiation for only 30min. The effects of APDT on conidia were evaluated by counting the colony forming units recovered from leaves and petals and by direct evaluating conidial germination on the surface of these plant organs after the treatment. To better understand the mechanistic of conidial photodynamic inactivation, the effect of APDT on the permeability of the conidial plasma membrane was assessed using the fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) together with flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. APDT with MB and solar exposure killed C. abscissum conidia and prevented their germination on both leaves and petals of citrus. Reduction of conidial viability was up to three orders of magnitude and a complete photodynamic inactivation was achieved in some of the treatments. APDT damaged the conidial plasma membrane and increased its permeability to PI. No damage to sweet orange flowers or leaves was observed after APDT. The demonstration of the efficacy of APDT on the plant host represents a further step towards the use of the method for control phytopathogens in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing the functionality of photovoltaic and photonic biointerfaces through structuration

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This two-part thesis focuses on biointerfaces of two different biological systems. It specifically examines the interplay of structure and functionality in these biointerfaces. Part one studies photo-bio-electrochemically active bacteria and the strong dependence of their electrical current generation on electrode structure and pigment organisation. Part two uncovers surprising design principles of photonic structures on flower petals and presents research tools to study disordered optical sy...

  8. Diversity of morphology and oil content of rosa damascena land races and related rosa species from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, A.; Khan, M.; Riaz, A.; Ali, A.

    2011-01-01

    For the perfume industry, Rosa damascena is the most important species used in the production of rose attar which is made by distilling volatile oils from the petals of flowers. It is also used widely in the production of rose water, a flavoring agent. Other species like R. gallica L., R. centifolia L., R. bourboniana and Gruss an Teplitz also exhibit the fragrance that is sought by perfumeries in the world. Eight land races of Damask rose along with related Rosa species were collected from Punjab province and evaluated to determine the diversity on the basis of morphology and oil yield. The investigated characters were flower weight, flower diameter, peduncle length, number of petals, number of stamens and oil content. Pearson's coefficients showed a negative association of flower weight with peduncle length (r = -0.3348) and a positive and strong correlation was observed for flower weight with the all other morphological characters. Flower diameter showed a positive but weak correlation with peduncle length, number of petals and number of stamens with the values of r = 0.0733, r 0.5302 and r = 0.1241, respectively. Oil content (%) was measured from the Rosa species by using Soxhlet extractor with N-hexane. R. damascena land race from Choha Syedan Shah produced the highest oil content of absolute oil (0.147%) on petal basis while the lowest value for absolute oil content was 0.36% from R. indica. Dendrogram created by cluster analysis for morphological characters, indicated no relationship of genetic variation with their collection sites. This study has revealed that the selection of land races for their specific characteristic could be possible for future breeding program. It also provides practical information for the future collection of Damask rose germplasm and breeding program. (author)

  9. Use of radiations in rose improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.M.; Abraham, V.

    1978-01-01

    One year old, 250 potted plants of roses in 30 cultivars were irradiated with chronic gamma rays. A dose of about 8 kR of chronic gamma rays was optimum for induction of mutations. A number of morphological abnormalities were observed. A few plants showed changes in petal colour. Three mutants with complete flower colour change were isolated from two cultivars namely Cv. 'Soraya' and Cv. 'Confidence'. Use of ionizing radiation is an effective tool in mutation breeding of roses. (auth.)

  10. Temporal and spatial regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis provide diverse flower colour intensities and patterning in Cymbidium orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Albert, Nick W; Zhang, Huaibi; Arathoon, Steve; Boase, Murray R; Ngo, Hanh; Schwinn, Kathy E; Davies, Kevin M; Lewis, David H

    2014-11-01

    This study confirmed pigment profiles in different colour groups, isolated key anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and established a basis to examine the regulation of colour patterning in flowers of Cymbidium orchid. Cymbidium orchid (Cymbidium hybrida) has a range of flower colours, often classified into four colour groups; pink, white, yellow and green. In this study, the biochemical and molecular basis for the different colour types was investigated, and genes involved in flavonoid/anthocyanin synthesis were identified and characterised. Pigment analysis across selected cultivars confirmed cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside and peonidin 3-O-rutinoside as the major anthocyanins detected; the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside and robinoside were also present in petal tissue. β-carotene was the major carotenoid in the yellow cultivars, whilst pheophytins were the major chlorophyll pigments in the green cultivars. Anthocyanin pigments were important across all eight cultivars because anthocyanin accumulated in the flower labellum, even if not in the other petals/sepals. Genes encoding the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzymes chalcone synthase, flavonol synthase, flavonoid 3' hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were isolated from petal tissue of a Cymbidium cultivar. Expression of these flavonoid genes was monitored across flower bud development in each cultivar, confirming that DFR and ANS were only expressed in tissues where anthocyanin accumulated. Phylogenetic analysis suggested a cytochrome P450 sequence as that of the Cymbidium F3'H, consistent with the accumulation of di-hydroxylated anthocyanins and flavonols in flower tissue. A separate polyketide synthase, identified as a bibenzyl synthase, was isolated from petal tissue but was not associated with pigment accumulation. Our analyses show the diversity in flower colour of Cymbidium orchid derives not from different individual pigments but from subtle

  11. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, th...

  12. Comparison of mRNA levels of three ethylene receptors in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Nagata, Masayasu; Tanikawa, Natsu; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Three ethylene receptor genes, DC-ERS1, DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1, were previously identified in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Here, the presence of mRNAs for respective genes in flower tissues and their changes during flower senescence are investigated by Northern blot analysis. DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs were present in considerable amounts in petals, ovaries and styles of the flower at the full-opening stage. In the petals the level of DC-ERS2 mRNA showed a decreasing trend toward the late stage of flower senescence, whereas it increased slightly in ovaries and was unchanged in styles throughout the senescence period. However, DC-ETR1 mRNA showed no or little changes in any of the tissues during senescence. Exogenously applied ethylene did not affect the levels of DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs in petals. Ethylene production in the flowers was blocked by treatment with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulphonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS), but the mRNA levels for DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 decreased in the petals. DC-ERS1 mRNA was not detected in any cases. These results indicate that DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 are ethylene receptor genes responsible for ethylene perception and that their expression is regulated in a tissue-specific manner and independently of ethylene in carnation flowers during senescence.

  13. Synthesis of graphene nanomaterials and their application in electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoping

    The need to store and use energy on diverse scales in a modern technological society necessitates the design of large and small energy systems, among which electrical energy storage systems such as batteries and capacitors have attracted much interest in the past several decades. Supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors, or electrochemical capacitors, with fast power delivery and long cycle life are complementing or even replacing batteries in many applications. The rapid development of miniaturized electronic devices has led to a growing need for rechargeable micro-power sources with high performance. Among different sources, electrochemical micro-capacitors or micro-supercapacitors provide higher power density than their counterparts and are gaining increased interest from the research and engineering communities. Rechargeable Li ion batteries with high energy and power density, long cycling life, high charge-discharge rate (1C - 3C) and safe operation are in high demand as power sources and power backup for hybrid electric vehicles and other applications. In the present work, graphene-based graphene materials have been designed and synthesized for electrochemical energy storage applications, e.g., conventional supercapacitors (macro-supercapacitors), microsupercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. Factors influencing the formation and structure of graphitic petals grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates were investigated through process variation and materials analysis. Insights gained into the growth mechanism of these graphitic petals suggest a simple scribing method can be used to control both the location and formation of petals on flat Si substrates. Transitional metal oxides and conducting polymers have been coated on the graphitic petal-based electrodes by facile chemical methods for multifunctional energy storage applications. Detailed electrochemical characterization (e.g., cyclic voltammetry and

  14. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapi...

  15. Gene and genome duplications and the origin of C4 photosynthesis: Birth of a trait in the Cleomaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van den Bergh

    2014-08-01

    DATA: The data deposited at NCBI represents raw RNA reads for each data series mentioned: 5 leaf stages, root, stem, stamen, petal, carpel, sepal, 3 seedling stages and 3 seed stages of Tarenaya hassleriana and Gynandropsis gynandra. The assembled reads were used for all analyses of this paper where RNA was used. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?study=SRP036637, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?study=SRP036837

  16. Failure of supplementary ultraviolet radiation to enhance flower color under greenhouse conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R. M. [University of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    1990-03-15

    In order to determine whether the concentration of floral petal anthocyanin pigments could be increased, ultraviolet radiations in the UV-A and UV-B wavelength bands were presented to a variety of flowering plants to partly restore those wavelengths filtered out by greenhouse glass. In no tested plant did the supplementary ultraviolet radiation enhance floral anthocyanin content. Supplementary UV radiation has no economic value in greenhouse production of flowering plants. (author)

  17. Gilbertiodendron grandistipulatum (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), a singular species from West Central Africa and new record for Congo (Brazzaville)

    OpenAIRE

    De La Estrella, Manuel; Devesa, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gilbertiodendron (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tropical African genus of ca. 30 species, most of which are trees of primary forest. The highest concentration of species and morphological variation is found in the Guineo-Congolian region, particularly in Gabon. One of those species is G. grandistipulatum, which is easily recognized by its stipules (up to 18 cm long) and flowers (adaxial petal up to 12.5 × 14 cm). The taxonomy, habitat and distribution of G. grandistipultaum are ...

  18. Illustrations and studies in Neotropical Orchidaceae. 6. The Lepanthes guatemalensis group (Pleurothallidinae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Pupulin, Franco; Bogarín, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We revise and characterize the group of species close to Lepanthes guatemalensis. The group comprises eight species in Costa Rica. Three new species are described and illustrated. Lepanthes durikäensis is distinguished by the non resupinate flowers, the lateral sepals ovate with the apical tails diverging, the lower lobe of petals lanceolate-subfalcate, up-curved and the pinkish column. Lepanthes leporina is recognized by the resupinate flowers with yellow sepals, faintly suffused with red, t...

  19. Blooming Knit Flowers: Loop-Linked Soft Morphing Structures for Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    A loop-linked structure, which is capable of morphing in various modes, including volumetric transformation, is developed based on knitting methods. Morphing flowers (a lily-like, a daffodil-like, gamopetalous, and a calla-like flower) are fabricated using loop patterning, and their blooming motion is demonstrated by controlling a current that selectively actuates the flowers petals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa

    2015-02-20

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens.

  1. An Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plant Species Found in the St. Louis, Missouri, Corps of Engineers District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    from the staminate spike. Leaves 7-15 mm wide. Habitat: Edge of lake. Range: Maine to South Dakota, south to Missouri, Ala- bama, and North Carolina... staminate . Leaves of pistillate plants broadly lanceolate, to 13 mm long, to 4 mm broad. Sepals 3. Petals 3. Leaves of staminate plants linear to linear...Missouri: Rare. 0 Description: Aquatic. Leaves floating, heart-shaped, with spongy air cells on the lower surface. Flowers uni- sexual. Ovary inferior

  2. An ethylene-responsive enhancer element is involved in the senescence-related expression of the carnation glutathione-S-transferase (GST1) gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Itzhaki, H; Maxson, J M; Woodson, W R

    1994-01-01

    The increased production of ethylene during carnation petal senescence regulates the transcription of the GST1 gene encoding a subunit of glutathione-S-transferase. We have investigated the molecular basis for this ethylene-responsive transcription by examining the cis elements and trans-acting factors involved in the expression of the GST1 gene. Transient expression assays following delivery of GST1 5' flanking DNA fused to a beta-glucuronidase receptor gene were used to functionally define ...

  3. Enhanced formation of aromatic amino acids increases fragrance without affecting flower longevity or pigmentation in Petunia × hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Perl, Avichai; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Galili, Gad; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Purple Petunia × hybrida V26 plants accumulate fragrant benzenoid-phenylpropanoid molecules and anthocyanin pigments in their petals. These specialized metabolites are synthesized mainly from the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine. Here, we studied the profile of secondary metabolites of petunia plants, expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy-di-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway, as a tool to stimulate the conversion of primary to secondary metabolism via the aromatic amino acids. We focused on specialized metabolites contributing to flower showy traits. The presence of AroG* protein led to increased aromatic amino acid levels in the leaves and high phenylalanine levels in the petals. In addition, the AroG* petals accumulated significantly higher levels of fragrant benzenoid-phenylpropanoid volatiles, without affecting the flowers' lifetime. In contrast, AroG* abundance had no effect on flavonoids and anthocyanins levels. The metabolic profile of all five AroG* lines was comparable, even though two lines produced the transgene in the leaves, but not in the petals. This implies that phenylalanine produced in leaves can be transported through the stem to the flowers and serve as a precursor for formation of fragrant metabolites. Dipping cut petunia stems in labelled phenylalanine solution resulted in production of labelled fragrant volatiles in the flowers. This study emphasizes further the potential of this metabolic engineering approach to stimulate the production of specialized metabolites and enhance the quality of various plant organs. Furthermore, transformation of vegetative tissues with AroG* is sufficient for induced production of specialized metabolites in organs such as the flowers. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aircraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    fabrics of seats, carpets, drapes , lap robes, and sound deadening insulation. Also of concern are the polymeric based plastics used in interior walls...anti-petalling or backing boards,are used to seal up perforations caused by a wide -ange of combat threats, including ball and armour piercing...safe areas. Vital iarts of the engine/fuel system may be protected by armour . On the question of combustor chamber flame break out endeavours are

  5. Dendrobium okinawense Hatusima & Ida (Orchidaceae: A Newly Recorded Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wen Chung

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A newly recorded species, Dendrobium okinawense Hatusima & Ida, in Taiwan is described and illustrated. This species is rare and endemic to Ryukyu Islands. We recently found it in the mountains along the coast of southeastern Taiwan. Although the flower of D. okinawense is somewhat structurally similar to that of D. moniliforme, they are evidently different from each other in floral dimension, petals, lip shape and floral color.

  6. A novel lactone-forming carboxylesterase: molecular identification of a tuliposide A-converting enzyme in tulip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2012-06-01

    Tuliposides, the glucose esters of 4-hydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate, are major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). Their lactonized aglycons, tulipalins, function as defensive chemicals due to their biological activities. We recently found that tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE) purified from tulip bulbs catalyzed the conversion of tuliposides to tulipalins, but the possibility of the presence of several TCE isozymes was raised: TCE in tissues other than bulbs is different from bulb TCE. Here, to prove this hypothesis, TCE was purified from petals, which have the second highest TCE activity after bulbs. The purified enzyme, like the bulb enzyme, preferentially accepted tuliposides as substrates, with 6-tuliposide A the best substrate, which allowed naming the enzyme tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA), but specific activity and molecular mass differed between the petal and bulb enzymes. After peptide sequencing, a novel cDNA (TgTCEA) encoding petal TCEA was isolated, and the functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to tulipalin A. TgTCEA was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in bulbs, indicating the presence of a bulb-specific TgTCEA, as suggested by the distinct enzymatic characters between the petal and bulb enzymes. Plastidial localization of TgTCEA enzyme was revealed, which allowed proposing a cytological mechanism of TgTCE-mediated tulipalin formation in the tulip defensive strategy. Site-directed mutagenesis of TgTCEA suggested that the oxyanion hole and catalytic triad characteristic of typical carboxylesterases are essential for the catalytic process of TgTCEA enzyme. To our knowledge, TgTCEA is the first identified member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases, specifically catalyzing intramolecular transesterification.

  7. A Novel Lactone-Forming Carboxylesterase: Molecular Identification of a Tuliposide A-Converting Enzyme in Tulip1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Tuliposides, the glucose esters of 4-hydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate, are major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). Their lactonized aglycons, tulipalins, function as defensive chemicals due to their biological activities. We recently found that tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE) purified from tulip bulbs catalyzed the conversion of tuliposides to tulipalins, but the possibility of the presence of several TCE isozymes was raised: TCE in tissues other than bulbs is different from bulb TCE. Here, to prove this hypothesis, TCE was purified from petals, which have the second highest TCE activity after bulbs. The purified enzyme, like the bulb enzyme, preferentially accepted tuliposides as substrates, with 6-tuliposide A the best substrate, which allowed naming the enzyme tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA), but specific activity and molecular mass differed between the petal and bulb enzymes. After peptide sequencing, a novel cDNA (TgTCEA) encoding petal TCEA was isolated, and the functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to tulipalin A. TgTCEA was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in bulbs, indicating the presence of a bulb-specific TgTCEA, as suggested by the distinct enzymatic characters between the petal and bulb enzymes. Plastidial localization of TgTCEA enzyme was revealed, which allowed proposing a cytological mechanism of TgTCE-mediated tulipalin formation in the tulip defensive strategy. Site-directed mutagenesis of TgTCEA suggested that the oxyanion hole and catalytic triad characteristic of typical carboxylesterases are essential for the catalytic process of TgTCEA enzyme. To our knowledge, TgTCEA is the first identified member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases, specifically catalyzing intramolecular transesterification. PMID:22474185

  8. In Vitro Digestibility of Aluminum from Hibiscus sabdariffa Hot Watery Infusion and Its Concentration in Urine of Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankova, Adela; Malik, Jan; Drabek, Ondrej; Szakova, Jirina; Sperlingova, Ilona; Kloucek, Pavel; Novy, Pavel; Tejnecky, Vaclav; Landa, Premysl; Leuner, Ogla; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2016-12-01

    Increased ingestion of aluminum (Al) can lead to its accumulation in the human body, especially in people with kidney problems. Al is also associated with several nervous diseases and its negative influence on embryo development during pregnancy has been proven in animal models. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petals are widely used alone or in fruit tea formulas, which are recommended for drinking during pregnancy instead of tea. Its petals can contain similar and even higher amounts of Al as tea, which is a known Al accumulator. Our research investigated whether the regular intake of H. sabdariffa infusion leads to increased burden of Al. Sixteen days of ingestion of H. sabdariffa infusion (c Al  = 0.5 mg.L -1 ) led to increased but unbalanced levels (15-86 μg L -1 ) of Al in urine compared to a period when the infusion was not ingested. The highest amounts of Al excreted were observed every third day during the ingestion. Mild health problems, such as nausea and dizziness (which could be related to plant properties) were reported by more sensitive volunteers.Our results suggest that the tea infusion from H. sabdariffa petals increases body burden of Al and, therefore, sensitive individuals as pregnant women and people with kidney problems should be cautious with excessive consumption of hibiscus infusion or fruit teas containing this plant. However, further study including more individuals is needed to fully confirm our preliminary results.

  9. Cytoembryologic study of gamma-ray induced sterile Pisum sativum L. mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molkhova, E.; Vasileva, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three new pea mutant forms are described - 1878, Crampled petal Waxless type, and Lathyrus type - which were induced by different gamma-ray ( 60 Co) doses and rates. The flowers of the 1878 and Crampled petal Waxless type mutants were very much deformed, while those of the Lathyrus type had smaller flowers with normal morphology. The three mutant forms were entirely sterile and were propagated by segregation in the progeny of heterozygous sister plants. PMC meiosis and the development of the male gametophyte of the Lathyrus type mutant had a normal course, while in the mutant forms Crampled petal Waxless type and 1878 slight disturbances were observed, but the pollen of all three mutants was not functional. The development of the female gametophyte of the three mutants stops at an early phase and only in the Lathyrus type mutant in single cases embryosacks were formed with differentiated sex apparatus and early stages of embryo and endosperm development were scored, but they also soon degenerate. It is pointed out that sterility of the three pea mutant forms studied depends on factors, which stop at different stages the normal development of the generative organs, of the female gametophyte and of embryogenesis. (author)

  10. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  11. Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-05-26

    Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored.

  12. Combined effect of gamma irradiation methods and in vitro explant sources on mutation induction of flower color in Chrysanthemum morifoliun Ramat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki; Miyahira, Eiken; Degi, Konosuke

    1997-01-01

    Effective radiation breeding method was searched by establishing an effective exposure method to induce a mutation involved in flower color of chrysanthemum and clarifying the effects of its combined use with cultured explants. A chrysanthemum 'Taihei', a variety suitable for cut-flower use was used as the subject, which was irradiated at a dose ranging from 0.25-1.5 Gy/day for 20 days. The floral petals, buds and leaves were used as the explants for callus induction culture. The flower color was evaluated using Japanese Standard Color chart for Horticultural Plants. The color spectrum of the adaxial surface of a petal was recorded by spectro-photometer TC-1800 MK-2. Thus, six mutants of flower color were registered as new varieties. Either of these mutants was derived from chronic irradiation. Three varieties from petal culture, two from bud one and one from cutting culture were obtained, showing that the combined method of chronic irradiation and organ culture is useful in practice for mutation breeding of flower species. Further, this method is applicable for production of non-chimeric mutants, enhancement of the mutation rate and widening the mutation spectra in vegetatively propagated plants. (M.N.)

  13. Production of soybean isoflavone genistein in non-legume plants via genetically modified secondary metabolism pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongrong; Hu, Yuanlei; Li, Jialin; Lin, Zhongping

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification of secondary metabolic pathways to produce desirable natural products is an attractive approach in plant biotechnology. In our study, we attempted to produce a typical soybean isoflavone genistein, a well-known health-promoting metabolite, in non-legume plants via genetic engineering. Both overexpression and antisense suppression strategies were used to manipulate the expression of several genes encoding key enzymes in the flavonoids/isoflavonoids pathway in transgenic tobacco, lettuce, and petunia. Introducing soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS) into these plants, which naturally do not produce isoflavonoids due to a lack of this leguminous enzyme, resulted in genistein biosynthesis in tobacco petals, petunia leaves and petals, and lettuce leaves. In tobacco, when flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) expression was suppressed by its antisense gene while soybean IFS was overexpressed at the same time, genistein yield increased prominently. In addition, overexpression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) also led to an enhanced genistein production in tobacco petals and lettuce leaves in the presence of IFS than in the plants that overexpressed only IFS.

  14. Shape accuracy requirements on starshades for large and small apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Cady, Eric

    2017-09-01

    Starshades have been designed to work with large and small telescopes alike. With smaller telescopes, the targets tend to be brighter and closer to the Solar System, and their putative planetary systems span angles that require starshades with radii of 10-30 m at distances of 10s of Mm. With larger apertures, the light-collecting power enables studies of more numerous, fainter systems, requiring larger, more distant starshades with radii >50 m at distances of 100s of Mm. Characterization using infrared wavelengths requires even larger starshades. A mitigating approach is to observe planets between the petals, where one can observe regions closer to the star but with reduced throughput and increased instrument scatter. We compare the starshade shape requirements, including petal shape, petal positioning, and other key terms, for the WFIRST 26m starshade and the HABEX 72 m starshade concepts, over a range of working angles and telescope sizes. We also compare starshades having rippled and smooth edges and show that their performance is nearly identical.

  15. A Conserved Cytochrome P450 Evolved in Seed Plants Regulates Flower Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Boachon, Benoît; Lugan, Raphaël; Tavares, Raquel; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jérôme; Demais, Valérie; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Brunaud, Véronique; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Pencik, Ales; Achard, Patrick; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues

    2015-12-07

    Global inspection of plant genomes identifies genes maintained in low copies across taxa and under strong purifying selection, which are likely to have essential functions. Based on this rationale, we investigated the function of the low-duplicated CYP715 cytochrome P450 gene family that appeared early in seed plants and evolved under strong negative selection. Arabidopsis CYP715A1 showed a restricted tissue-specific expression in the tapetum of flower buds and in the anther filaments upon anthesis. cyp715a1 insertion lines showed a strong defect in petal development, and transient alteration of pollen intine deposition. Comparative expression analysis revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in pollen development, cell wall biogenesis, hormone homeostasis, and floral sesquiterpene biosynthesis, especially TPS21 and several key genes regulating floral development such as MYB21, MYB24, and MYC2. Accordingly, floral sesquiterpene emission was suppressed in the cyp715a1 mutants. Flower hormone profiling, in addition, indicated a modification of gibberellin homeostasis and a strong disturbance of the turnover of jasmonic acid derivatives. Petal growth was partially restored by the active gibberellin GA3 or the functional analog of jasmonoyl-isoleucine, coronatine. CYP715 appears to function as a key regulator of flower maturation, synchronizing petal expansion and volatile emission. It is thus expected to be an important determinant of flower-insect interaction. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Will fusion be ready to meet the energy challenge for the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchet, Yves; Massard, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Finite amount of fossil fuel, global warming, increasing demand of energies in emerging countries tend to promote new sources of energies to meet the needs of the coming centuries. Despite their attractiveness, renewable energies will not be sufficient both because of intermittency but also because of the pressure they would put on conventional materials. Thus nuclear energy with both fission and fusion reactors remain the main potential source of clean energy for the coming centuries. France has made a strong commitment to fusion reactor through ITER program. But following and sharing Euratom vision on fusion, France supports the academic program on Inertial Fusion Confinement with direct drive and especially the shock ignition scheme which is heavily studied among the French academic community. LMJ a defense facility for nuclear deterrence is also open to academic community along with a unique PW class laser PETAL. Research on fusion at LMJ-PETAL is one of the designated topics for experiments on the facility. Pairing with other smaller European facilities such as Orion, PALS or LULI2000, LMJ-PETAL will bring new and exciting results and contribution in fusion science in the coming years.

  17. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  18. Technology demonstration of starshade manufacturing for NASA's Exoplanet mission program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Lisman, D.; Shaklan, S.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Martin, S.; Marchen, L.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Macintosh, B.; Rudd, R. E.; Savransky, D.; Mikula, J.; Lynch, D.

    2012-09-01

    It is likely that the coming decade will see the development of a large visible light telescope with enabling technology for imaging exosolar Earthlike planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. One such technology utilizes an external occulter, a satellite flying far from the telescope and employing a large screen, or starshade, to suppress the incoming starlight suffciently for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. This trades the added complexity of building the precisely shaped starshade and flying it in formation against simplifications in the telescope since extremely precise wavefront control is no longer necessary. In this paper we present the results of our project to design, manufacture, and measure a prototype occulter petal as part of NASA's first Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions program. We describe the mechanical design of the starshade and petal, the precision manufacturing tolerances, and the metrology approach. We demonstrate that the prototype petal meets the requirements and is consistent with a full-size occulter achieving better than 10-10 contrast.

  19. Effects of Artificial Ligaments with Different Porous Structures on the Migration of BMSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate- (PET- based artificial ligaments (PET-ALs are commonly used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction surgery. The effects of different porous structures on the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs on artificial ligaments and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, a cell migration model was utilized to observe the migration of BMSCs on PET-ALs with different porous structures. A rabbit extra-articular graft-to-bone healing model was applied to investigate the in vivo effects of four types of PET-ALs, and a mechanical test and histological observation were performed at 4 weeks and 12 weeks. The BMSC migration area of the 5A group was significantly larger than that of the other three groups. The migration of BMSCs in the 5A group was abolished by blocking the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway with Y27632. The in vivo study demonstrated that implantation of 5A significantly improved osseointegration. Our study explicitly demonstrates that the migration ability of BMSCs can be regulated by varying the porous structures of the artificial ligaments and suggests that this regulation is related to the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Artificial ligaments prepared using a proper knitting method and line density may exhibit improved biocompatibility and clinical performance.

  20. Will fusion be ready to meet the energy challenge for the 21st century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bréchet, Yves; Massard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Finite amount of fossil fuel, global warming, increasing demand of energies in emerging countries tend to promote new sources of energies to meet the needs of the coming centuries. Despite their attractiveness, renewable energies will not be sufficient both because of intermittency but also because of the pressure they would put on conventional materials. Thus nuclear energy with both fission and fusion reactors remain the main potential source of clean energy for the coming centuries. France has made a strong commitment to fusion reactor through ITER program. But following and sharing Euratom vision on fusion, France supports the academic program on Inertial Fusion Confinement with direct drive and especially the shock ignition scheme which is heavily studied among the French academic community. LMJ a defense facility for nuclear deterrence is also open to academic community along with a unique PW class laser PETAL. Research on fusion at LMJ-PETAL is one of the designated topics for experiments on the facility. Pairing with other smaller European facilities such as Orion, PALS or LULI2000, LMJ-PETAL will bring new and exciting results and contribution in fusion science in the coming years. (paper)

  1. Construction of the CMS Tracker End-Caps and an Impact Study on Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Linn, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at the research center CERN close to Geneva will study proton proton collisions at up to now unprecedented centre of mass energies from the year 2008 on. To discover theoretically predicted elementary particles, CMS was equipped with the largest silicon tracker so far with a sensitive area of 198m2. Partitioned into more than 15.000 silicon strip modules, the construction and test of the tracker was a huge challenge for the involved institutes. The III. Physikalisches Institut B of the RWTH Aachen had a leading role in the construction and test of substructures, so called petals, for the end caps of the tracker. The petals were assembled in a clean room and underwent first basic tests to ensure the general operationability of each component. Failures detected during the assembly are described and improvements of the silicon strip modules are discussed. After the assembly the petals underwent a cold test for several days. For the first time all readout components of th...

  2. Functional diversification of grapevine MYB5a and MYB5b in the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in a petunia anthocyanin regulatory mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Erika; Zenoni, Sara; Finezzo, Laura; Guzzo, Flavia; Zamboni, Anita; Avesani, Linda; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-03-01

    Flavonoids play a key role in grapevine physiology and also contribute substantially to the quality of berries and wines. VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b are R2R3-MYB transcription factors previously proposed to control the spatiotemporal expression of flavonoid structural genes during berry development. We investigated the functions of these two proteins in detail by heterologous expression in a petunia an2 mutant, which has negligible anthocyanin levels in the petals because it lacks the MYB protein PhAN2. We also expressed VvMYBA1, the grapevine ortholog of petunia PhAN2, in the same genetic background. The anthocyanin profiles induced by expressing these transgenes in the petals revealed that VvMYBA1 is the functional ortholog of PhAN2 and that, unlike VvMYB5a, VvMYB5b can partially complement the an2 mutation. Transcriptomic analysis of petals by microarray hybridization and quantitative PCR confirmed that VvMYB5b up-regulates a subset of anthocyanin structural genes, whereas VvMYB5a has a more limited impact on the expression of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, we identified additional specific and common targets of these two regulators, related to vacuolar acidification and membrane remodeling. Taken together, these data provide insight into the role of VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b in flavonoid biosynthesis and provide evidence for additional regulatory roles in distinct pathways.

  3. Molecular diversity of tuliposide A-converting enzyme in the tulip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Tsuchigami, Aya; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA) catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to its lactonized aglycon, tulipalin A, in the tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). The TgTCEA gene, isolated previously from petals, was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in the bulbs despite the presence of TCEA activity, which allowed prediction of the presence of a TgTCEA isozyme gene preferentially expressed in the bulbs. Here, the TgTCEA-b gene, the TgTCEA homolog, was identified in bulbs. TgTCEA-b polypeptides showed approximately 77% identity to the petal TgTCEA. Functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA-b encoded the TCEA. Moreover, the TgTCEA-b was found to be localized to plastids, as found for the petal TgTCEA. Transcript analysis revealed that TgTCEA-b was functionally transcribed in the bulb scales, unlike the TgTCEA gene, whose transcripts were absent there. In contrast, TgTCEA-b transcripts were in the minority in other tissues where TgTCEA transcripts were dominant, indicating a tissue preference for the transcription of those isozyme genes.

  4. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene for the control of Botrytis cinerea on cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seglie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are marketed for their ornamental characteristics making post-harvest flower life an important determinant of crop value. Botrytis cinerea is one of the most significant post-harvest fungal pathogens causing losses in ornamental plants. Disease caused by this fungus seems to be enhanced by the presence of a ethylene hormone, that both the plant and the fungus are known to synthesize. The aim of the experiment was to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene antagonist, could be used to reduce B. cinerea damage to cut flowers. Six cultivars of four ornamental species: Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’, Rosa × hybrida ‘White Dew’ and ‘Ritz’, Ranunculus asiaticus ‘Saigon’ and ‘Green’, and Cyclamen persicum line ‘Halios Bianco Puro Compatto’ were given three concentrations of 1-MCP (0.38 μl L-1, 1.14 μL L-1, and 3.62 μL L-1 for 24 hours. Subsequently, 10 petals per cultivar were treated with a B. cinerea conidial suspension (5×103 conidia cm-2 and stored in air-tight vases. To evaluate B. cinerea development an arbitrary damage scale (1–7 was used. A high concentration of 1-MCP significantly reduced B. cinerea damage on D. caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’ and C. persicum ‘Halios White Pure Compact’ petals. In carnation, 1-MCP treatment slowed B. cinerea infection; its threshold level was reached three days after that of the control. In cyclamen, treated petals and control petals remained aesthetically good until day 53 and day 28 respectively. At low concentrations, 1-MCP slowed grey mould on R. × hybrida ‘Ritz’ for up to three days beyond the control. On the two buttercup cultivars ‘Green’ and ‘Saigon’, 1-MCP treatments were not effective. In conclusion, 1-MCP limited pathogen development; its effect depended on the species and the 1-MCP concentration. Further investigations will be performed to improve methods to reduce B. cinerea development on the petals of cut

  5. Transmission Grating and Optics Technology Development for the Arcus Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf; Arcus Team

    2018-01-01

    Arcus is a high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy MIDEX mission selected for a Phase A concept study. It is designed to explore structure formation through measurements of hot baryon distributions, feedback from black holes, and the formation and evolution of stars, disks, and exoplanet atmospheres. The design provides unprecedented sensitivity in the 1.2-5 nm wavelength band with effective area above 450 sqcm and spectral resolution R > 2500. The Arcus technology is based on 12 m-focal length silicon pore optics (SPO) developed for the European Athena mission, and critical-angle transmission (CAT) x-ray diffraction gratings and x-ray CCDs developed at MIT. The modular design consists of four parallel channels, each channel holding an optics petal, followed by a grating petal. CAT gratings are lightweight, alignment insensitive, high-efficiency x-ray transmission gratings that blaze into high diffraction orders, leading to high spectral resolution. Each optics petal represents an azimuthal sub-aperture of a full Wolter optic. The sub-aperturing effect increases spectral resolving power further. Two CCD readout strips receive photons from each channel, including higher-energy photons in 0th order. Each optics petal holds 34 SPO modules. Each grating petal holds 34 grating windows, and each window holds 4-6 grating facets. A grating facet consists of a silicon grating membrane, bonded to a flexure frame that interfaces with the grating window. We report on a sequence of tests with increasing complexity that systematically increase the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for the combination of CAT gratings and SPOs towards TLR 6. CAT gratings have been evaluated in x rays for diffraction efficiency (> 30% at 2.5 nm) and for resolving power (R> 10,000). A CAT grating/SPO combination was measured at R ~ 3100 at blaze angles smaller than design values, exceeding Arcus requirements. Efficiency and resolving power were not impacted by vibration and thermal testing of gratings. A

  6. [Variations of structure and of flora of the "carrasco" vegetation of the Ibiapaba plateau, state of Cearsá, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, F S; Martins, F R; Shepherd, G J

    1999-11-01

    "Carrasco" is a closed, tall-shrubby, xerophilous vegetation on Quartz Sand soils between altitudes of 700 and 900 m on Ibiapaba and Araripe plateaus in the Brazilian semi-arid domain. As it is still very poorly known, this paper aims to describe the structure and composition of the woody community and its spatial variation in relation to the soil. One-hundred 10 x 10 m plots were located by pairs of random numbers in a coordinate system at the locality of Jaburuna (3 degrees 54'34"S, 40 degrees 59'24"W, about 830 m altitude), municipality of Ubajara, north Ibiapaba. All woody plants with a minimum stem diameter of 3 cm at ground level had their vertical height (not for climbers) and stem perimeter recorded. A soil extract from 0-50 cm depth was taken at the centre of each plot. Published surveys of other carrasco areas on the south Ibiapaba were considered for comparison. The community structure showed great dominance concentration, the most abundant species (Acacia langsdorffii, Piptadenia moniliformis, Thiloa glaucocarpa) varied between surveys. At Jaburuna 81% of all sampled plants were shrubs, 14% trees (the most with less than 10 cm of trunk diameter and 6 m height), and 5% climbers. Canberra distances and Jaccard's Indices were calculated from a primary matrix of 87 species (with 5 or more individuals) and 175 plots. Several methods of cluster analysis were employed, all showed great floristic variation from place to place. A matrix of soil physical and chemical variates per plot was constructed, and the canonical correspondence analysis was applied to both primary and soil matrices. Lower pH and higher sum of bases (e. g. Brunfelsia cuneifolia, Neojeobertia candoleana), higher content of gross sand (e. g. Acacia glomerosa, Aspidosperma subincanumn) and higher content of fine sand (e. g. Aspidosperma discolor, Hymenaea velutina) were the main variates separating species. The floristic richness at Jaburuna was of 74 species, and the surveys showed no

  7. Effects of Planting Date and Plant Density on Physiological Indices, Quantity and Quality Traits of Two Varieties of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is originated from North West Africa and Mediterranean area, is a medicinal plant used for several purposes. It is an annual herb or short-lived perennial from the Asteraceae family with yellow or orange flowers. The Marigold has been used as a traditional medicine and food dye, but is currently used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healer. It is grown for drug, obtained from the flowers. The flowers blossom during summer three or more times per year. The essential oil of yellow or orange petals of Calendula officinalis L. is one of the important yield components which is used for food and medicine. Moreover, the seed has an oil content of 5-20 %. Seed oil could be used as a binder in paints, coating and cosmetics. Growth, development and production of medicinal plants, as well as other plants are affected by genetic and agronomic factors. Planting date and plant density are two most important factors that can affect yield and yield components. Planting date affects the quantity and quality of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. The optimum sowing date and plant density can improve the light and temperature absorption and other factors during the growing season. The positive effects of optimal planting date and plant density has been described by a number of researchers. The Plant population is dependent on the plant characters, growth period, time and method of cultivation. Also, the suitable sowing date has advantages for maximum production. Early sowing in the spring causes weakly establishment of plant and late planting date shortens growth period and simultaneous flowering period due to high temperature in summer. In this study, the effects of plant density and planting date on physiological indices, quantity and quality of two varieties of spare and compact marigold has been evaluated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of planting date and plant density on

  8. Growth of nano hexagon-like flake arrays cerium carbonate created with PAH as the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: limei@imust.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Engineering, Department of Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Department of Inorganic and Metalloid Materials, Key Laboratory of New Technologies of Modern Metallurgy and Application of Rare Materials, Baotou 014010 (China); Hu, Y.H., E-mail: bthyh@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Engineering, Department of Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Department of Inorganic and Metalloid Materials, Key Laboratory of New Technologies of Modern Metallurgy and Application of Rare Materials, Baotou 014010 (China); Liu, Z.G.; Wang, X.F.; Wang, M.T. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Department of Inorganic and Metalloid Materials, Key Laboratory of New Technologies of Modern Metallurgy and Application of Rare Materials, Baotou 014010 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Petals-like Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} on Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} nano hexagon-like flake arrays have been precipitatingly fabricated using PAH substrates. By changing the way of feeding, PAH concentration and aging time, petals-like Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} was created best when adding PAH into the Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution, joined (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution along with mixing, PAH concentration is 0.9 g/L, aging time is 4 h. A growth mechanism was proposed to account for the growth of the petals-like Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} with PAH as the substrate. Poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) is as template agent which forms π-allyl complex with Ce{sup 3+} and controls the morphology of Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} particle. PAH and Ce{sup 3+} form π-allyl complex, and then induce the formation of Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} crystal nucleus. And infrared spectrum analysis verified. XRD show that after adding PAH which is adsorbed on the crystal plane, the growth of Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} crystal is inhibited on (2 4 2), the growth is promoted on (2 0 2) which is differentiated into the new (1 5 1), (2 2 2) is unchanged, Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} crystal is accumulated petals shape by hexagon-like flake. UV absorption spectra show that CeO{sub 2} as prepared precursor Ce{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} after calcinations in air at high temperatures, the petal-like CeO{sub 2} has strong UV absorption and reflection effects, and absorption interval changed significantly by the move to UVA from UVB. - Graphical abstract: Each Ce-atom connects three Cl-atoms and three allyls in three dimensional spaces. To take the plane as a reference plane which is arrayed with three Ce-atom as equilateral triangle. The triangular each vertex is Ce-atom, the triangular center place is Cl-atom, the equilateral triangle which is mutually perpendicular with Ce-triangle surface and the inclined angle is 60° is made up with three Cl-atoms. - Highlights: • Petals

  9. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  10. Origin of the color of Cv. rhapsody in blue rose and some other so-called "blue" roses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnet, Jean-François

    2003-08-13

    Flowers of the rose cultivar Rhapsody in Blue display unusual colors, changing as they age, from a vivid red-purple to a lighter and duller purple, which are based on tonalities corresponding to hue angles between 340 and 320 degrees in the CIELAB scale. Unexpectedly, the chemical basis of these colors is among the simplest, featuring cyanin (cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside), the most frequent anthocyanin in flowers, as the sole pigment and quercetin kaempferol glycosides as copigments at a relatively low copigment/pigment ratio (about 3/1), which usually produces magenta or red shades in roses. This color shift to bluer shades is coupled with the progressive accumulation of cyanin into vacuolar anthocyanic inclusions (AVIs), the occurrence of which increases as the petals grow older. In addition to the normal lambda(max) of cyanin at approximately 545 nm, the transmission spectra of live petals and of epidermal cells exhibit a second lambda(max) in the 620-625 nm range, the relative importance increasing with the presence of AVIs. In petals of fully opened flowers, the only pigmented structures in the vacuoles of epidermal cells are AVIs; their intense and massive absorption in the 520-640 nm area produces a much darker and bluer color than measured for the vacuolar solution present at the very first opening stage. Cyanin is probably "trapped" into AVIs at higher concentrations than would be possible in a vacuolar solution and in quinonoidal form, appearing purple-blue because of additional absorption in the 580-630 nm area. Quite similar pigmentation features were found in very ancient rose cultivars (cv. L'Evêque or Bleu Magenta), also displaying this type of so-called "blue" color.

  11. The role of ABC genes in shaping perianth phenotype in the basal angiosperm Magnolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, M; Dołzbłasz, A; Zagórska-Marek, B

    2016-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the genus Magnolia is characterised by an undifferentiated perianth, typically organised into three whorls of nearly identical tepals. In some species, however, we encountered interesting and significant perianth modifications. In Magnolia acuminata, M. liliiflora and M. stellata the perianth elements of the first whorl are visually different from the others. In M. stellata the additional, spirally arranged perianth elements are present above the first three whorls, which suggests that they have been formed within the domain of stamen primordia. In these three species, we analysed expression patterns of the key flower genes (AP1, AGL6, AP3, PI, AG) responsible for the identity of flower elements and correlated them with results of morphological and anatomical investigations. In all studied species the elements of the first whorl lacked the identity of petals (lack of AP3 and PI expression) but also that of leaves (presence of AGL6 expression), and this seems to prove their sepal character. The analysis of additional perianth elements of M. stellata, spirally arranged on the elongated floral axis, revealed overlapping and reduced activity of genes involved in specification of the identity of the perianth (AGL6) but also of generative parts (AG), even though no clear gradient of morphological changes could be observed. In conclusion, Magnolia genus is capable of forming, in some species, a perianth differentiated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). Spirally arranged, additional perianth elements of M. stellata, despite activity of AG falling basipetally, resemble petals. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Co-composting of rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure and straw or sawdust: effects of carbon source and C/N ratio on decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal, Emrah; Ekinci, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    Rose oil is a specific essential oil that is produced mainly for the cosmetics industry in a few selected locations around the world. Rose oil production is a water distillation process from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Since the oil content of the rose petals of this variety is between 0.3-0.4% (w/w), almost 4000 to 3000 kg of rose petals are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. Rose oil production is a seasonal activity and takes place during the relatively short period where the roses are blooming. As a result, large quantities of solid waste are produced over a limited time interval. This research aims: (i) to determine the possibilities of aerobic co-composting as a waste management option for rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure; (ii) to identify effects of different carbon sources - straw or sawdust on co-composting of rose oil processing waste and caged layer manure, which are both readily available in Isparta, where significant rose oil production also takes place; (iii) to determine the effects of different C/N ratios on co-composting by the means of organic matter decomposition and dry matter loss. Composting experiments were carried out by 12 identical laboratory-scale composting reactors (60 L) simultaneously. The results of the study showed that the best results were obtained with a mixture consisting of 50% rose oil processing waste, 64% caged layer manure and 15% straw wet weight in terms of organic matter loss (66%) and dry matter loss (38%). © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effects of abscisic acid on ethylene biosynthesis and perception in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Serra, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style–stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500 nl l−1 methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1 mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9 h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style–stigma plus stamens between 1 h and 6 h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6 h and 9 h, particularly in style–stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied. PMID:21841180

  14. ROSELLE FLOWER (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

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    Nikmah Jalilah Ritonga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa has been used as a food and herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a herbal medicine. Objective: To examine the effect of consuming roselle dried flower petals on changes in maternal hypertensive blood pressure during postpartum period. Methods: This was a Quasi experimental study with non-equivalent control group design conducted in 2016. There were 30 samples recruited by consecutive sampling with 15 samples in the intervention and control group. Data were analyzed using paired t-test to know the difference of blood pressure value before and after intervention in the intervention and control group, and Independent t-test to determine the difference of blood pressure decrease between intervention and control group. Mann-whitney and Wilcoxon test were also performed for non-normal data distribution. Results: Findings showed that there were statistically significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values before and after intervention in the intervention group with p-value 0.000 <0.05 with mean of systolic blood pressure decrease was 39.67 mmHg and diastolic was 22.33 mmHg. Additionally, there was a significant difference in the duration of healing between both groups with p-value 0.000 <0.05, with the average duration of healing in the intervention group was 2 days while in the control group was 3-4 days. Conclusion: There was significant effects of dried petals of rosella flowers (Hibiscus sabdariffa in lowering blood pressure, and there was significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and duration of healing between the intervention and control group of mothers who consumed antihypertensive drugs. The results of this study can be applied by midwives or health services in postpartum care with the cases of hypertension. It is expected that this intervention can help the healing process more quickly through a combination of antihypertensive medicines and

  15. ROSELLE FLOWER (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmah Jalilah Ritonga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa has been used as a food and herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a herbal medicine. Objective: To examine the effect of consuming roselle dried flower petals on changes in maternal hypertensive blood pressure during postpartum period. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group design conducted in 2016. There were 30 samples recruited using consecutive sampling with 15 samples in the intervention group and control group. Data were analyzed using paired t-test to know the difference of blood pressure value before and after intervention in the intervention and control group, and Independent t-test to determine the difference of blood pressure decrease between intervention and control group. Mann-whitney and Wilcoxon test were also performed for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that there were statistically significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values before and after intervention in the intervention and control group with p-value 0.000 <0.05 with systolic blood pressure decrease was 5 mmHg and diastolic was 5.33 mmHg. Additionally, there was a significant effect in the duration of healing in the intervention group with p-value 0.000 <0.05, with the average duration of healing was 2 days. Conclusion: There was significant effects of dried petals of rosella flowers (Hibiscus sabdariffa brewed with 200 ml of hot water with temperature 90oC in lowering blood pressure, and there was significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and duration of healing between the intervention and control group of mothers who consumed antihypertensive drugs. The results of this study can be applied by midwives in postpartum care with the cases of hypertension. It is expected that this intervention can help the healing process more quickly through a combination of antihypertensive medicines and sedated petals of rosella flowers.

  16. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  17. Functional diversification of duplicated CYC2 clade genes in regulation of inflorescence development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntheikki-Palovaara, Inka; Tähtiharju, Sari; Lan, Tianying; Broholm, Suvi K; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Ruonala, Raili; Kale, Liga; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2014-09-01

    The complex inflorescences (capitula) of Asteraceae consist of different types of flowers. In Gerbera hybrida (gerbera), the peripheral ray flowers are bilaterally symmetrical and lack functional stamens while the central disc flowers are more radially symmetrical and hermaphroditic. Proteins of the CYC2 subclade of the CYC/TB1-like TCP domain transcription factors have been recruited several times independently for parallel evolution of bilaterally symmetrical flowers in various angiosperm plant lineages, and have also been shown to regulate flower-type identity in Asteraceae. The CYC2 subclade genes in gerbera show largely overlapping gene expression patterns. At the level of single flowers, their expression domain in petals shows a spatial shift from the dorsal pattern known so far in species with bilaterally symmetrical flowers, suggesting that this change in expression may have evolved after the origin of Asteraceae. Functional analysis indicates that GhCYC2, GhCYC3 and GhCYC4 mediate positional information at the proximal-distal axis of the inflorescence, leading to differentiation of ray flowers, but that they also regulate ray flower petal growth by affecting cell proliferation until the final size and shape of the petals is reached. Moreover, our data show functional diversification for the GhCYC5 gene. Ectopic activation of GhCYC5 increases flower density in the inflorescence, suggesting that GhCYC5 may promote the flower initiation rate during expansion of the capitulum. Our data thus indicate that modification of the ancestral network of TCP factors has, through gene duplications, led to the establishment of new expression domains and to functional diversification. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Relationship between the species-representative phenotype and intraspecific variation in Ranunculaceae floral organ and Asteraceae flower numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Phenotypic variation in floral morphologies contributes to speciation by testing various morphologies that might have higher adaptivity, leading eventually to phylogenetic diversity. Species diversity has been recognized, however, by modal morphologies where the variation is averaged out, so little is known about the relationship between the variation and the diversity. We analysed quantitatively the intraspecific variation of the organ numbers within flowers of Ranunculaceae, a family which branched near the monocot-eudicot separation, and the numbers of flowers within the capitula of Asteraceae, one of the most diverse families of eudicots. We used four elementary statistical quantities: mean, standard deviation (s.d.), degree of symmetry (skewness) and steepness (kurtosis). While these four quantities vary among populations, we found a common relationship between s.d. and the mean number of petals and sepals in Ranunculaceae and number of flowers per capitulum in Asteraceae. The s.d. is equal to the square root of the difference between the mean and specific number, showing robustness: for example, 3 in Ficaria sepals, 5 in Ranunculus petals and Anemone tepals, and 13 in Farfugium ray florets. This square-root relationship was not applicable to Eranthis petals which show little correlation between the s.d. and mean, and the stamens and carpels of Ranunculaceae whose s.d. is proportional to the mean. The specific values found in the square-root relationship provide a novel way to find the species-representative phenotype among varied morphologies. The representative phenotype is, in most cases, unique to the species or genus level, despite intraspecific differences of average phenotype among populations. The type of variation shown by the statistical quantities indicates not only the robustness of the morphologies but also how flowering plants changed during evolution among representative phenotypes that eventually led to phylogenetic diversification. © The

  19. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  20. Analysis of DC properties and current distribution in TFAS ITER conductor samples using high Jc Nb3Sn advanced strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Torre, A.; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Dewittler, R.; Staehli, F.

    2007-01-01

    Two full-size conductor samples using advanced Nb 3 Sn strands were tested in the SULTAN facility in 2005-2006 within (I,B,T) ranges close to the ITER operating conditions (B MAX ∼ 12 T, T ∼ 5 K). Each sample includes two conductor legs, connected together by a twin-box joint in their lower part. The conductor design is the same for the four legs, similar to that of the ITER Toroidal Field Model Coil, but each leg uses specific strands newly developed and industrially produced to reach higher J c performances than in previous samples. In addition to classical voltage taps and temperature sensors, the sample instrumentation included Hall probe (HP) heads positioned so as to discriminate current distribution between conductor main sub-cables (petals). In a first simple approach, we analyse the results supposing that the conductor drives a uniform current among strands. The model is mainly based on geometrical considerations associated with a global approach on strand mechanical behavior. In a second part, we model the conductor in a more realistic way with different currents shared between main sub-cables. Taking into account various geometrical aspects (spiral trajectories, precise self-field maps...) the current in all petals are reconstructed with help of HP's signals, expected to experience self-field from CICC's. The mechanical aspects are also tentatively considered (electromagnetic load, bending strain...). Global results for both samples are shown, and possible inaccuracies due to geometrical parameters (petals positioning) are discussed. Those data are then injected into a Matlab program for electrical and geometrical CICC modeling (derived from the previous ENSIC code from CEA) and compared with dedicated experimental runs. Results are finally commented on the basis of overall consistency with HP's signals. (authors)

  1. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the nectaries and osmophores of water forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides L.

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of Myosotis scorpioides L. (Boraginaceae are pollinated by different insects, among others by the honey bee. They produce both secondary attractants (colour, odour and primary attractants which include nectar and pollen. The nectary glands occurring in the flowers form a ring surrounding the base of a superior ovary. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomical characteristics and ultrastructure of the nectary and odour-producing tissues located on the petals. The study was carried out using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nectary forms a uniform ring surrounding a 4-loculed superior ovary. Nectar is secreted through stomata. The presence of large cell nuclei, numerous plastids and rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER was found in the ultrastructure of the nectary cells. In the parenchyma cells of the nectary, ER was fused to large cisterns (vesicles situated in the marginal parts of the cytoplasm. This study shows that essential oils are emitted through papillae located in the adaxial epidermis of the petals and through large palisade epidermal cells occurring in the yellow region of the corolla, which form the osmophore tissue. The epidermal cells of the osmophore were characterized by the presence of thin cell walls, large nuclei and numerous chromoplasts. Lipid plastoglobules were observed in the chromoplasts; their presence can be associated with the production of essential oils. It was found that the tissues forming the yellow ring at the mouth to the corolla tube (osmophore released a more intense scent than the surface region of the petal on which the papillae occur.

  2. Pollinator scarcity drives the shift to delayed selfing in Himalayan mayapple Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying-Ze; Fang, Qiang; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetics have indicated that American mayapple (mainly self-incompatible, SI) and Himalayan mayapple, which was considered to be self-compatible (SC), are sister species with disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We test a hypothesis that the persistence of this early spring flowering herb in the Himalayan region is attributable to the transition from SI to SC, the capacity for selfing in an unpredictable pollination environment. Pollinator observations were conducted in an alpine meadow with hundreds of Himalayan mayapple (Podophyllum hexandrum Royle) individuals over 2 years. To examine autogamy, seed set under different pollination treatments was compared. To clarify whether automatic self-pollination is achieved by movement of the pistil as a previous study suggested, we measured incline angles of the pistil and observed flower movement during anthesis using video. Floral visitors to the nectarless flowers were very rare, but solitary bees and honeybees could be potential pollinators. Seed set of bagged flowers was not significantly different from that of open-pollinated, self- or cross-pollinated flowers. However, removal of petals or stamens lowered seed yield. The angles of inclination of pistils did not change during the process of pollination. Automatic self-pollination was facilitated by petals closing and stamens moving simultaneously to contact the stigma. Stigmatic pollen load increased little during the day time, in contrast to a sharp increase when the flowers closed during the night-time. These observations indicated that Himalayan mayapple was SC and delayed self-pollination was facilitated by the movement of petals rather than the pistil. Compared with SI American mayapple, no obvious inbreeding depression in SC Himalayan mayapple may contribute its existence in the uplifting zone. A scarcity of pollinators may have driven the shift to delayed selfing in P. hexandrum.

  3. Within and between whorls: comparative transcriptional profiling of Aquilegia and Arabidopsis.

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    Claudia Voelckel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Aquilegia is an emerging model system in plant evolutionary biology predominantly because of its wide variation in floral traits and associated floral ecology. The anatomy of the Aquilegia flower is also very distinct. There are two whorls of petaloid organs, the outer whorl of sepals and the second whorl of petals that form nectar spurs, as well as a recently evolved fifth whorl of staminodia inserted between stamens and carpels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an oligonucleotide microarray based on EST sequences from a mixed tissue, normalized cDNA library of an A. formosa x A. pubescens F2 population representing 17,246 unigenes. We then used this array to analyze floral gene expression in late pre-anthesis stage floral organs from a natural A. formosa population. In particular, we tested for gene expression patterns specific to each floral whorl and to combinations of whorls that correspond to traditional and modified ABC model groupings. Similar analyses were performed on gene expression data of Arabidopsis thaliana whorls previously obtained using the Ath1 gene chips (data available through The Arabidopsis Information Resource. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative gene expression analyses suggest that 1 petaloid sepals and petals of A. formosa share gene expression patterns more than either have organ-specific patterns, 2 petals of A. formosa and A. thaliana may be independently derived, 3 staminodia express B and C genes similar to stamens but the staminodium genetic program has also converged on aspects of the carpel program and 4 staminodia have unique up-regulation of regulatory genes and genes that have been implicated with defense against microbial infection and herbivory. Our study also highlights the value of comparative gene expression profiling and the Aquilegia microarray in particular for the study of floral evolution and ecology.

  4. Hydrolytic enzymes in the central vacuole of plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolase content of vacuoles isolated from protoplasts of suspension-cultured tobacco cells, of tulip petals, and pineapple leaves, and the sedimentation behavior of tobacco tonoplasts were studied. Three precautions were found to be important for the analysis of vacuolar hydrolases and of the tonoplast: (a) purification of protoplasts in a Ficoll gradient was necessary to remove cell debris which contained contaminating hydrolases adsorbed from the fungal cell-wall-degrading enzyme preparation; (b) hydrolase activities in the homogenates of the intact cells or the tissue used and of the purified protoplasts had to be compared to verify the absence of contaminating hydrolases in the protoplast preparation; and (c) vacuoles obtained from the protoplasts by an osmotic shock had to be purified from the lysate in a Ficoll gradient. Since the density of the central vacuole approximates that of the protoplasts, about a 10% contamination of the vacuolar preparation by surviving protoplasts could not be eliminated. The intracellular activities of the following acid hydrolases were primarily localized in the vacuole of tobacco cells: α-mannosidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, β-fructosidase, nuclease, phosphatase, phosphodiesterase. A similar composition of acid hydrolases was found in vacuoles obtained from protoplasts of tulip petals. Proteinase, a hydrolase with low activity in tobacco cells and tulip petals was found to be vacuolar in pineapple leaves, a tissue containing high levels of this enzyme. None of the vacuolar enzymes investigated ws found to be bound to the tonoplast. When vacuoles were isolated from cells labeled with radioactive choline, the vacuolar membrane was found to contain radioactivity. On sucrose gradients, the label incorporated into tonoplasts banded around a density of 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter

  5. Investigation of variations and trends in solar radiation in Klang Valley Region, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Elnour Yassen, Jamaluddin Mohd Jahi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate variations and trends in the global solar radiation in Klang Valley region. The least square method was used for the trend analysis. Since the available time series covers 27 years, linear regression was preferred for the trend analysis. The linear trend is used mainly to test the change in solar radiation and to set limits on the rate of change. Trend line and values and significance levels of the slopes have been found. The seasonal and the annual average values were computed from the monthly average radiation data. The seasonal and annual average solar radiation values were designated as dependent variables, and thus, were fitted linearly for season and annual means for each station. The results showed that the mean of maximum incoming global radiation in Sepember with a value of 21.1 MJ m-2 at Petaling Jaya, while the mean minimum in November and December with values of 10.7 and 10.9 MJ m-2 at Petaling Jaya. The low amounts of solar radiation received in November and December are due to greater cloudiness during the period coinciding with the northeast monsoon season. On rainy days, very little global solar radiation received in November and December are due to greater cloudiness during the period coinciding with the northeast monsoon season. On rainy days, very little global solar radiation is received. The distribution of the seasonal mean values of solar radiation exhibits a high symmetry. Inter-monsoon seasons (April-May) and (October-November) show a similar behavior, just like the northeast monsoon season. The overall average rate of change in global solar radiation during 1975-2002 and 1977-2000 is represented by the slope of the linear regression was small (-0.126 and -0.314 MJ m-2 per year for Subang Airport and Petaling Jaya respectively)

  6. The ground support equipment for the LAUE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, E.; Auricchio, N.; Basili, A.; Carassiti, V.; Cassese, F.; Del Sordo, S.; Frontera, F.; Pecora, M.; Recanatesi, L.; Schiavone, F.; Silvestri, S.; Squerzanti, S.; Stephen, J. B.; Virgilli, E.

    2013-09-01

    The development of wide band Laue lens imaging technology is challenging, but has important potential applications in hard X- and γ-ray space instrumentation for the coming decades. The Italian Space Agency has funded a project dedicated to the development of a reliable technology to assemble a wide band Laue lens for use in space. The ground support equipment (GSE) for this project was fundamental to its eventual success... The GSE was implemented in a hard X-ray beam line built at the University of Ferrara and had the main purpose of controlling the assembly of crystals onto the Laue lens petal and to verify its final performance. The GSE incorporates the management and control of all the movements of the beam line mechanical subsystems and of the precision positioner (based on a Hexapod tool) of crystals on the petal, as well as the acquisition, storing and analysis of data obtained from the focal plane detectors (an HPGe spectrometer and an X-ray flat panel imager). The GSE is based on two PC's connected through a local network: one, placed inside the beam line, to which all the movement subsystems and the detector I/O interface and on which all the management and acquisition S/W runs, the other in the control room allows the remote control and implements the offline analysis S/W of the data obtained from the detectors. Herein we report on the GSE structure with its interface with the beam line mechanical system, with the fine crystal positioner and with the focal plane detector. Furthermore we describe the SW developed for the handling of the mechanical movement subsystems and for the analysis of the detector data with the procedure adopted for the correct orientation of the crystals before their bonding on the lens petal support.

  7. An ethylene-responsive enhancer element is involved in the senescence-related expression of the carnation glutathione-S-transferase (GST1) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, H; Maxson, J M; Woodson, W R

    1994-09-13

    The increased production of ethylene during carnation petal senescence regulates the transcription of the GST1 gene encoding a subunit of glutathione-S-transferase. We have investigated the molecular basis for this ethylene-responsive transcription by examining the cis elements and trans-acting factors involved in the expression of the GST1 gene. Transient expression assays following delivery of GST1 5' flanking DNA fused to a beta-glucuronidase receptor gene were used to functionally define sequences responsible for ethylene-responsive expression. Deletion analysis of the 5' flanking sequences of GST1 identified a single positive regulatory element of 197 bp between -667 and -470 necessary for ethylene-responsive expression. The sequences within this ethylene-responsive region were further localized to 126 bp between -596 and -470. The ethylene-responsive element (ERE) within this region conferred ethylene-regulated expression upon a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus-35S TATA-box promoter in an orientation-independent manner. Gel electrophoresis mobility-shift assays and DNase I footprinting were used to identify proteins that bind to sequences within the ERE. Nuclear proteins from carnation petals were shown to specifically interact with the 126-bp ERE and the presence and binding of these proteins were independent of ethylene or petal senescence. DNase I footprinting defined DNA sequences between -510 and -488 within the ERE specifically protected by bound protein. An 8-bp sequence (ATTTCAAA) within the protected region shares significant homology with promoter sequences required for ethylene responsiveness from the tomato fruit-ripening E4 gene.

  8. Ethylene regulates phosphorus remobilization and expression of a phosphate transporter (PhPT1) during petunia corolla senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Laura J.; Jones, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The programmed degradation of macromolecules during petal senescence allows the plant to remobilize nutrients from dying to developing tissues. Ethylene is involved in regulating the timing of nucleic acid degradation in petunia, but it is not clear if ethylene has a role in the remobilization of phosphorus during petal senescence. To investigate ethylene's role in nutrient remobilization, the P content of petals (collectively called the corolla) during early development and senescence was compared in ethylene-sensitive wild type Petunia×hybrida ‘Mitchell Diploid’ (MD) and transgenic petunias with reduced sensitivity to ethylene (35S::etr1-1). When compared to the total P content of corollas on the day of flower opening (the early non-senescing stage), P in MD corollas had decreased 74% by the late stage of senescence (advanced wilting). By contrast, P levels were only reduced by an average of 32% during etr1-1 corolla (lines 44568 and Z00-35-10) senescence. A high-affinity phosphate transporter, PhPT1 (PhPht1;1), was cloned from senescing petunia corollas by RT-PCR. PhPT1 expression was up-regulated during MD corolla senescence and a much smaller increase was detected during the senescence of etr1-1 petunia corollas. PhPT1 mRNA levels showed a rapid increase in detached corollas (treated at 1 d after flower opening) following treatment with low levels of ethylene (0.1 μl l-1). Transcripts accumulated in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, indicating that PhPT1 is a primary ethylene response gene. PhPT1 is a putative phosphate transporter that may function in Pi translocation during senescence. PMID:19380421

  9. Overexpression of CrtR-b2 (carotene beta hydroxylase 2) from S. lycopersicum L. differentially affects xanthophyll synthesis and accumulation in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Caterina; Stigliani, Adriana Lucia; Giorio, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Plant chloroplasts are enriched in xanthophylls which participate in photosynthesis as light-absorbing pigments and as dissipaters of excess light. In comparison, chromoplasts have evolved the capacity to synthesize and store brightly coloured carotenoid pigments to give flowers and fruits the power to attract pollinators and fruit dispersers. The best performing accumulator of xanthophylls in tomato is the petal chromoplast in contrast to the fruit chromoplast which only seems able to store carotenes. We have generated genetically engineered tomato lines carrying the tomato CrtR-b2 transgene with the aim of forcing the fruit to accumulate beta-xanthophylls. Both chloroplast- and chromoplast-containing tissues of hemizygous transgenic plants were found to contain elevated xanthophyll contents as a direct consequence of the increased number of CrtR-b2 transcripts. Hemizygous transgenic leaves contained fourfold more violaxanthin than control leaves. Developing fruits were yellow instead of green since they lacked chlorophyll a, and their violaxanthin and neoxanthin contents were seven- and threefold higher, respectively, than those of the control. Ripe fruits of hemizygous transgenic plants contained free violaxanthin and significant amounts of esterified xanthophylls. Esterified xanthophylls were present also in ripe fruits of control and homozygous plants. However, in transgenic homozygous plants, we observed a reduction in transcript content in most tissues, particularly in petals, due to a post-transcriptional gene silencing process. These findings demonstrate that tomato fruit chromoplasts can accumulate xanthophylls with the same sequestration mechanism (esterification) as that exploited by chromoplasts of the tomato petal and pepper fruit. This study on transgenic plants overexpressing an important carotenoid gene (CrtR-b2) provides an interesting model for future investigations on perturbations in beta-carotene-derived xanthophyll synthesis which in turn may

  10. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: Variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Del Valle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes and vegetative organs (leaves from 18 populations representing the species’ geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of

  11. Orbits of two electrons released from rest in a uniform transverse magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2018-03-01

    Two identical charged particles released from rest repel each other radially. A uniform perpendicular magnetic field will then cause their trajectories to curve into a flower petal pattern. The orbit of each particle is approximately circular with a long period for a strong magnetic field, whereas it becomes a figure-eight for a weak magnetic field with each lobe completed in a cyclotron period. For example, such radially bound motions arise for two-dimensional electron gases. The level of treatment is appropriate for an undergraduate calculus-based electromagnetism course.

  12. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  13. Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Cross-Shaped Spiral Fuel in High-Power-Density BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conboy, Thomas; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Power up-rating of existing nuclear reactors promises to be an area of great study for years to come. One of the major approaches to efficiently increasing power density is by way of advanced fuel design, and cross-shaped spiral-fuel has shown such potential in previous studies. Our work aims to model the thermal-hydraulic consequences of filling a BWR core with these spiral-shaped pins. The helically-wound pins have a cross-section resembling a 4-petaled flower. They fill an assembly in a tight bundle, their dimensions chosen carefully such that the petals of neighboring pins contact each other at their outer-most extent in a self-supporting lattice, absent of grid spacers. Potential advantages of this design raise much optimism from a thermal-hydraulic perspective. These spiral rods possess about 40% larger surface area than traditional rods, resulting in increased cooling and a proportional reduction in average surface heat flux. The thin petal-like extensions help by lowering thermal resistance between the hot central region of the pin and the bulk coolant flow, decreasing the maximum fuel temperature by 200 deg. C according to Finite Element (COSMOS) models. However, COSMOS models also predict a potential problem area at the 'elbow' region of two adjoining petals, where heat flux peaking is twice that along the extensions. Preliminary VIPRE models, which account only for the surface area increase, predict a 22% increase in critical power. It is also anticipated that the spiral twist would provide the flowing coolant with an additional radial velocity component, and likely promote turbulence and mixing within an assembly. These factors are expected to provide further margin for increased power density, and are currently being incorporated into the VIPRE model. The reduction in pressure drop inherent in any core without grid-spacers is also expected to be significant in aiding core stability, though this has not yet been quantified. Spiral-fuel seems to be a

  14. Vection is modulated by the semantic meaning of stimuli and experimental instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaki; Seno, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Vection strength is modulated by the semantic meanings of stimuli. In experiment 1--even though vection stimuli were of uniform size, color, and luminance--when they also had semantic meaning as falling objects, vection was inhibited. Specifically, stimuli perceived as feathers, petals, and leaves did not effectively induce vection. In experiment 2 we used the downward motion of identical dots to induce vection. Participants observed stimuli while holding either an umbrella or a wooden sword. Results showed that vection was inhibited when participants held the umbrella and the stimuli was perceived as rain or snow falling. The two experiments suggest that vection is modulated by the semantic meaning of stimuli.

  15. Alternaria Leaf Spot on Mealycup Sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.) Caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromitsu, NEGISHI; Kazuo, SUYAMA; Faculty of Agriculture,Tokyo University of Agriculture; Faculty of Agriculture,Tokyo University of Agriculture

    2002-01-01

    In June 1995, a disease causing round to irregular-shaped, water-soaked, brown to blackish brown spots on mealycup sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.) was found in Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The symptoms were seen only on leaves, not on neither flower petals or stems. The disease was also found in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Memambetsu-cho, Hokkaido and Shimoda-shi and Matsuzaki-cho, Shizuoka. An Alternaria sp. was frequently isolated from these diseased plants. The isolates were severely pat...

  16. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  17. From stationary annular rings to rotating Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available contributions from the two ring-slits completely overlap (evident in Fig. 1), the angular rotation is non-zero and the entire field at P3 experiences the rotation. 3. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY The experimental setup used to generate superpositions of higher...) as a ?petal?-field. The field at the ring-slit hologram (i.e., the field at plane P1), we will term the ?singularity?-field and that formed at plane P2 (a distance of 2f from lens L4) will be termed as the ?spiral?-field. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION...

  18. Structural and electrochemical properties of SnO nanoflowers as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M. Zubair; Wang, Fengping; Zhao, Hailei; Rafique, M. Yasir; Wang, Jie; Li, Quanshui

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Novel self-assembled highly hierarchical SnO nanoflowers with acute edge petals have been successfully synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal growth method using SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O and KOH as precursors. Field emission scanning electron microscopy results show that the flower-like SnO architectureis in the range 4–7 μm. Furthermore, Raman modes at A 1g = 212 and B 1g = 114 cm −1 further testify to the existence of nanotetragonal phase SnO. The electrochemical results suggest that synthesized SnO nanoflowers are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  19. Scattering and the Point Spread Function of the New Generation Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreur, Julian J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary design work on the New Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is currently under way. This telescope is envisioned as a lightweight, deployable Cassegrain reflector with an aperture of 8 meters, and an effective focal length of 80 meters. It is to be folded into a small-diameter package for launch by an Atlas booster, and unfolded in orbit. The primary is to consist of an octagon with a hole at the center, and with eight segments arranged in a flower petal configuration about the octagon. The comers of the petal-shaped segments are to be trimmed so that the package will fit atop the Atlas booster. This mirror, along with its secondary will focus the light from a point source into an image which is spread from a point by diffraction effects, figure errors, and scattering of light from the surface. The distribution of light in the image of a point source is called a point spread function (PSF). The obstruction of the incident light by the secondary mirror and its support structure, the trimmed corners of the petals, and the grooves between the segments all cause the diffraction pattern characterizing an ideal point spread function to be changed, with the trimmed comers causing the rings of the Airy pattern to become broken up, and the linear grooves causing diffraction spikes running radially away from the central spot, or Airy disk. Any figure errors the mirror segments may have, or any errors in aligning the petals with the central octagon will also spread the light out from the ideal point spread function. A point spread function for a mirror the size of the NGST and having an incident wavelength of 900 nm is considered. Most of the light is confined in a circle with a diameter of 0.05 arc seconds. The ring pattern ranges in intensity from 10(exp -2) near the center to 10(exp -6) near the edge of the plotted field, and can be clearly discerned in a log plot of the intensity. The total fraction of the light scattered from this point spread function is called

  20. Portulaca psammotropha Hance (Portulacaceae, a Neglected Species in the Flora of Taiwan and the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wen Chung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A neglected species in the Flora of Taiwan and the Philippines (the Batan islets, Portulaca psammotropha Hance, is described and illustrated. Herein, Portulaca quadrifida var. formosana and P. insularis are treated as synonym of P. psammotropha. This species is a typical littoral plant that is scattered on coral sands and coral reef in the archipelago around SE China. It can be characterized by leaves alternate; leaf blade quite fleshy, oblong to obovate-oblong, 3-10 mm long, apex obtuse; petals 5, yellowish, ca. 3-5 mm long. The stamen number and stigma lobes of this species vary among the populations observed.

  1. Psittacanthus corderoi, a new species of Loranthaceae from the colombia Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psittacanthus corderoi F. González, F. J. Roldán & Pabón-Mora, a species from the department of Amazonas, Colombia, is here described and illustrated for the first time. The new species is similar to P. lasianthus Sandwith, from Guyana and Venezuela, but it differs by various vegetative and floral traits. The most conspicuous diagnostic trait is the presence of numerous laciniae to 2 mm long on the outer surface of the petals, a trait unique in the genus.

  2. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl glucoside (C3mg and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  3. The effect of ethylene on sucrose-uptake by senescing petunia flowers.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The influence of sucrose as an important factor in the vase-life of cut flowers has been dually noted. Sucrose is actively transported across the cell membrane via a symport system and the membrane-imbedded ATPase enzyme generates the required energy and proton gradient for the process. The activity of this enzyme decreases during the senescence of Petunia petals, concomitant with a decrease in sucrose-uptake in the post-climacteric phase. However, ATP does not appear to be limiting, indicati...

  4. Polyvinylpyrrolidone adsorption effects on the morphologies of synthesized platinum particles and its catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, Mahayatun Dayana Johan [Nano - Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Aziz, Azlan Abdul [Nano - Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Nanobiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), INFORMM, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Flower-like Platinum micro-structures were synthesized from different concentration of the PVP using solvothermal method. At 5.0×10{sup −3} mmol of PVP, well-defined flower-like pattern consists of triangular petals radiating from the centre were produced whereas larger flower network developed at higher PVP concentration. High degree of crystallinity was obtained upon each increment of PVP. The well defined flower like pattern synthesized using 5.0×10{sup −3} mmol PVP exhibit the highest catalytic activity and stability towards electro-oxidation of formic acid.

  5. Microstructure Evolution of TiC Particles In Situ, Synthesized by Laser Cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanhui; Ding, Jieqiong; Qu, Weicheng; Su, Yu; Yu, Zhishui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a TiC reinforcement metal matrix composite coating is produced using nickel and graphite mixing powder on the surface ofTi-6Al-4V alloy by laser radiation. The microstructure of the coatings is investigated by XRD, SEM and EDS. Results show that most of the TiC phase is granular, with a size of several micrometers, and a few of the TiC phases are petals or flakes. At the cross-section of the coatings, a few special TiC patterns are found and these TiC patterns do not always occ...

  6. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Somov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-01-01

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics

  7. Quality assurance experience in the manufacture of PFBR reactor vessel during technology development work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, K.; Chandramohan, R.; Ramamurthy, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    An efficient and proper implementation of quality assurance in the technology development works of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) main vessel was undertaken to achieve the desired quality and dimensional accuracy of main vessel. In this paper an attempt has been made to bring out the methods and procedures adopted to implement the quality assurance programme on important activities including approval of documents, material, general requirements for manufacture of SS components, inspection procedures, forming and welding of petals, non-destructive testing etc. (author)

  8. Building a Stereo-angle into strip-sensors for the ATLAS-Upgrade Inner-Tracker Endcaps

    CERN Document Server

    Hessey, NP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Strips Endcap detector for the ATLAS Upgrade needs several sensor shapes, each of which is approximately a wedge shape like the current SCT. For the Endcap to use a stave-like approach as proposed for the barrel, care is needed to design the shapes to avoid clashes and minimise gaps between them. This note gives the basic formulae for one way of building up a petal. It allows for a stereo-angle to be built into the wafer, and takes into account the maximum usable wafer size.

  9. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  10. Florivory and nectar-robbing perforations in flowers of pointleaf manzanita Arctostaphylos pungens (Ericaceae) and their effects on plant reproductive success

    OpenAIRE

    Eliyahu, Dorit; McCall, Andrew C.; Lauck, Marina; Trakhtenbrot, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Damage to petals may have varying effects on the reproductive success of the plant. The variation may depend on the kind of damage to the corolla. Whether the damage is limited to the corolla, as is usually the case with nectar-robbing perforations, or extending to the reproductive parts of the flower, as in the case of florivory holes, might determine the extent of the effect on the plant's reproduction. We examined the various perforations in the flowers of Arctostaphylos pungens and correl...

  11. Paepalanthus rectifolius, a new name in Eriocaulaceae (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Echternacht

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Syngonanthus weddellii var. gracilis Moldenke (1973 was described very briefly based on a single collection. A careful analysis reveals that this variety has dimerous flowers, free petals of the pistillate flower and bifid stigmatic branches. It is therefore misplaced in Syngonanthus Ruhland (1900. We transfer it to Paepalanthus Mart. (1834 at the species level, as it is distinct from morphologically similar species: Paepalanthus flaccidus (Bong. Koern. (1863, Paepalanthus trichophyllus (Bong. Koern. (1863, and Paepalanthus strictus Koern. (1863. The epithet gracilis is no longer available, hence, we have coined the name Paepalanthus rectifolius. We also provide a full description, illustrations, a distribution map, and pertinent comments.

  12. Nervus terminalis projection to the retina in the 'four-eyed' fish, Anableps anableps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D L; Malz, C R; Jadhao, A G

    1996-08-02

    The eye of the surface dwelling 'four-eyed' fish, Anableps possesses an aquatic and an aerial optical system. The aerial system is strongly hyperopic when the animal dives, i.e. during mating, and the dorsal pupil is submerged. We studied the retino-petal nervus terminals projection to the aerial and to the aquatic retina by Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRF) immunocytochemistry and found both to be equally innervated. This finding sheds doubt on the proposed functional significance of this projection for reproductive behaviour.

  13. Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available where tight focusing is required, e.g., optical trapping and tweezing and optically driven flow for optofluidics. II. THEORY We recall that light fields with a phase factor of exp(i�ϕ), where ϕ is the azimuthal angle and � the topological charge... out that the total optical field may be viewed as two separate structures that perform independent rigid rotations. The dominant structure with the petal pattern is located in the central region of the beam. The other structure, which has rings, has a...

  14. Colecta y rescate del conocimiento local de algodones nativos en las costas de los estados Falcón y Aragua, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez M, Margaret; Trujillo, Baltazar; Pérez, Delis; Márques, Alexis; Pacheco, William

    2009-01-01

    Con el objetivo de rescatar la variabilidad genética del género Gossypium en Venezuela, se realizaron dos expediciones de colecta en los estados Falcón (formaciones climásicas y sucesionales de espinares) y Aragua (zona costera). Fueron colectados 23 ejemplares nativos de crecimiento subespontáneo; para la clasificación botánica se utilizaron los descriptores color de planta y hoja, número de lóbulos, forma de las hojas, color de los pétalos, presencia de "Petal Spot" (mancha púrpura en la ba...

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for High Altitude Mobile Pointing Platform Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-22

    white or yellow petals ɘ.5 inches long. Arizona hedgehog Echinocereus Endangered Dark green cylindro id 2 .5-12 Gila, Pinal 3,700-5,200 ft Ecotone...that the species does oot central spines largest occur outside of the type locality. deflexed and 5-11 shorter radial spines . Flower: l) rilliant red... hedgehog Echinocereus Endangered Dark green cylindro id 2 .5-12 Gila. Pinal 3,700-5,200 ft Ecotone IJetween interior Open slopes, in narrow cracks between

  16. Coelogyne magnifica (Orchidaceae, a new species from northern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coelogyne magnifica (Orchidaceae, a new species from Putao, Kachin State, Myanmar, is described and illustrated. It belongs to Coelogyne section Ocellatae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. and it is morphologically similar to Coelogyne corymbosa and C. taronensis, but can be distinguished from these species by its larger flowers, lanceolate sepals and petals, a narrowly ovate lip, which has two bright yellow patches surrounded by shiny brownish red and two fimbriate or erose-lacerate lateral keels on the lip. The major differences between these species are outlined and discussed.

  17. The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yang, M; Solava, J; Ma, H

    1999-09-01

    Normal flower development likely requires both specific and general regulators. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant ask1-1 (for -Arabidopsis skp1-like1-1), which exhibits defects in both vegetative and reproductive development. In the ask1-1mutant, rosette leaf growth is reduced, resulting in smaller than normal rosette leaves, and internodes in the floral stem are shorter than normal. Examination of cell sizes in these organs indicates that cell expansion is normal in the mutant, but cell number is reduced. In the mutant, the numbers of petals and stamens are reduced, and many flowers have one or more petals with a reduced size. In addition, all mutant flowers have short stamen filaments. Furthermore, petal/stamen chimeric organs are found in many flowers. These results indicate that the ASK1 gene affects the size of vegetative and floral organs. The ask1 floral phenotype resembles somewhat that of the Arabidopsis ufo mutants in that both genes affect whorls 2 and 3. We therefore tested for possible interactions between ASK1 and UFO by analyzing the phenotypes of ufo-2 ask1-1 double mutant plants. In these plants, vegetative development is similar to that of the ask1-1 single mutant, whereas the floral defects are more severe than those in either single mutant. Interior to the first whorl, the double mutant flowers have more sepals or sepal-like organs than are found in ufo-2, and less petals than ask1-1. Our results suggest that ASK1 interacts with UFO to control floral organ identity in whorls 2 and 3. This is very intriguing because ASK1 is very similar in sequence to the yeast SKP1 protein and UFO contains an F-box, a motif known to interact with SKP1 in yeast. Although the precise mechanism of ASK1 and UFO action is unknown, our results support the hypothesis that these two proteins physically interact in vivo. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Synopsis of Commelina L. (Commelinaceae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, reveals a new white-flowered species endemic to Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Marco Octávio de Oliveira; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis for the genus Commelina in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is presented here, including a new species, ten new synonyms, five designated lectotypes, two designated epitypes and an excluded name. Commelina huntii, a new species, is remarkable due to the combination of rusty to rusty-brown hairs at the margin of its leaf-sheaths, connate spathes, white flowers with auriculate medial petal, ovaries with sparse black papillae and dehiscent fruits. Additionally, we provide an identification key, illustrations, and conservation status for the species of Commelina recorded in the state of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:28781552

  19. Prospects For Gamma-ray Focusing Telescopes Beyond 70/100 Kev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, F.

    2011-09-01

    I will report on the LAUE project, devoted to the development of a lens petal with 20 m focal length. The final goal is to develop a technology for building Laue lenses with a passband from 70/100 to 600 keV. The project is on the way in a synergic collaboration between scientific institutions (University of Ferrara; INAF/IASF, Bologna; CNR/IMEM, Parma; DTM, Modena; Thales-Alenia Space Italy). The LAUE project is supported by the Italian Space Agency ASI.

  20. Love me, love me not: changed names

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: " A selection of 150 cities within Slavs and Tatars’ Eurasian remit, Love Me, Love Me Not : Changed Names plucks the petals off the past to reveal an impossibly thorny stem : a lineage of names changed by the course of the region’s grueling history. Some cities divulge a resolutely Asian heritage, so often forgotten in today’s quest, at all costs, for European integration. Some vacillate almost painfully, and others with numbing repetition, entire metro...

  1. Naked eye picometer resolution in a Michelson interferometer using conjugated twisted beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2017-01-15

    Michelson interferometry is one of the most widely used techniques for accuracy measurements. Its main characteristic feature is to infer a displacement in one of the arms of the interferometer from a phase measurement. Two different twisted beams, also called vortex beams, with opposite twisted rotations in each arm of the interferometer interfere in a daisy flower-like pattern. The number of petals is twice the topological charge. Their position depends on the relative phase of the beams. Naked eye detection of 44 pm displacements is achieved. The sensitivity of such an interferometer together with possible further improvements, and applications are then discussed.

  2. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN “KOMBUCHA” TEH ROSELLA TERHADAP PROFIL DARAH MENCIT (Mus musculus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhani Dwi Hidayanti; Sussi Astuti; Maria Erna Kustyawati

    2015-01-01

    “Kombucha” rosella tea is a functional fermented beverage product solution from the petals of rosella tea and sugar using a microbial starter “Kombucha” (Acetobacter xylinum and several kind of yeast). The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of “Kombucha” rosella tea on the blood profile of mice (Mus musculus L). The experiment compiled in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments dose “Kombucha” rosella tea was 0,73 ml/20 g BB mice (distilled water) (K), 0,36 ml...

  3. CERN is awarded environmental label

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Ophrys apifera, or bee orchid: the most widespread variety at our site. Anacamptis pyramidalis or pyramidal orchid: another common variety, with close to 2500 plants counted in 2005. This year, a Himantoglossum robertianum or giant orchid was spotted for the first time, an extremely rare specimen to find in our region. The monkey orchid, Orchis simia, gets its name from the bizarre shape of its labellum (this is actually the third petal, hanging down from the flower), which may remind you of a monkey. Himantoglossum hircinum, the lizard orchid, occurs periodically on the site. It has a rather strong odour, which is why in French it is called orchis bouc (goat orchid).

  4. The DCL gene of tomato is required for chloroplast development and palisade cell morphogenesis in leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Keddie, J S; Carroll, B; Jones, J D; Gruissem, W

    1996-01-01

    The defective chloroplasts and leaves-mutable (dcl-m) mutation of tomato was identified in a Ds mutagenesis screen. This unstable mutation affects both chloroplast development and palisade cell morphogenesis in leaves. Mutant plants are clonally variegated as a result of somatic excision of Ds and have albino leaves with green sectors. Leaf midribs and stems are light green with sectors of dark green tissue but fruit and petals are wild-type in appearance. Within dark green sectors of dcl-m l...

  5. Pollinator-mediated selection on nectary depth in Urophysa (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been considered to be one of major factors that shapes the evolution of flowers by matching flowers to their pollinators on traits associated with attraction of pollinators or mechanical fit. The match between nectary depth, which means the length of the tubular structure formed in many plant species to hide the nectary and store nectar, and the mouthparts length of its major nectar-foraging pollinators has been repeatedly demonstrated as an example, because this trait have shown a positive relationship with pollen removal and deposition in experimental manipulations in many synpetalous plants and orchid family. However, it remains unclear how pollinator-mediated selection affects the evolution of nectary depth in choripetalous and actinomorphic flowers, such as most flowers in Ranunculaceae. Here we investigated floral characteristics and pollinators in Urophysa rockii Ulbr. and U. henryi (Oliv. Ulbr., as they are quite the same in habitat, anthesis and morphological characteristics except for nectary depth. Both of these species have flat white sepals and yellow petals each has a spatial structure at the base that contains nectar, but the nectary depth of U. rockii is deeper than that of U. henryi, for the former petals are shortly spurred about 3-4mm in length while the latter are saccate. Meanwhile, the flowers of both species are most frequently visited by Apis cerana, the Chinese honey bee, and one or two species of hover fly, Syrphidae, but only A. cerana was able to forage nectar in U. rockii while all visitors can forage nectar in U. henryi. A. cerana always lands on the center of a flower and projects its proboscis into each petal when its thorax touches anthers and stigmas. The difference between two species is that U. rockii was visited by A. cerana with a higher frequency, longer visiting time per flower and more activities on flowers than U. henryi. Besides, the petal width and its nectary depth of

  6. TOXIC PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS OF ECHIUM AMOENUM FISCH. & MEY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITRA MEHRABANI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids are present in some species of Echium (Boraginaceae. In this study petals of Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey. (Gol-e-Gavzaban as a popular herbal medicine in Iran, were investigated for pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The alkaloids were separated and purified by preparative TLC and characterized by IR, one and two dimensional 1H and 13C-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Four toxic alkaloids namely: echimidine I, echimidine isomer II, 7-angeloyl retronecine III and 7-tigloyl retronecine IV were identified.

  7. US Department of Agriculture/Corps of Engineers Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Research. Annual Report for FY 1982. Biological and Chemical Control Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    pollen. Fruits and seeds have not yet been observed in the United States. Pollination . Although the female hydrilla flower has been abundant at many U.S...The flowers can only be pollinated in the air. The female flower reaches the water surface by elongation of the hypanthium (flower "stalk"). The petals...Both the experimental herbicides N-252 and S-734 were effective against waterhyacinth at the treatment rate of 5.6 kg/ha (Table 30). Water lettuce was

  8. Variations of adventitious bud plants initiated from cutting scales of irradiated lily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kezhong; Zhao Xiangyun; Huang Shanwu; Lu Changxun; Zhang Qixiang

    2003-01-01

    Adventitious bud plants were initiated from cutting scales of irradiated lilies. During adventitious bud plants growth and development, variation was observed on their petals, stamens, pistils and leaves. Stamens gave birth to the highest mutation rate and the most diverse variation, such as no pollen male sterility type, pollen abortion male sterility type, stamen collapse male sterility type and partial male sterility type, etc. Different male sterility types were found among the three lilies. Considering mutation rate of adventitious bud plants, 1-2 Gy was suitable dose for 'Pollyana' and 1-3 Gy was proper to Lilium regale and 'Romano'

  9. Cutting the Cord-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  10. Cutting the Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  11. Description of some characteristics of flowers and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana - ecotype landsberg erecta and mutant NW4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Trząski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers and seeds of Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype and NW4 mutant were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal characteristic features of their structure. The NW4 mutant flowers differ from Ler mainly in presence of two bract-like sepals with complicated vasculature and a variable number of secondary flowers. In the two outer whorls of NW4 flower, variable number of transformed stamen-, petal-, sepal- and style-like elements also occur. The NW4 mutant seeds are characterized by the absence of mucilage around the surface and a deviating seed coat morphology.

  12. Stationary states and rotational properties of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates held under a toroidal trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhang-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Kato, Masaya; Han, Wei; Saito, Hiroki

    2018-06-01

    We consider a pseudospin-1/2 Bose-Einstein condensate with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a two-dimensional toroidal trap. By solving the damped Gross-Pitaevskii equations for this system, we show that the system exhibits a rich variety of stationary states, such as vehicle wheel and flower-petal stripe patterns. These stationary states are stable against perturbation with thermal energy and can survive for a long time. In the presence of rotation, our results show that the rotating systems have exotic vortex configurations. These phenomenon originates from the interplay among spin-orbit coupling, trap geometry, and rotation.

  13. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) prefer similar colours of higher spectral purity over trained colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Katja; Papiorek, Sarah; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Differences in the concentration of pigments as well as their composition and spatial arrangement cause intraspecific variation in the spectral signature of flowers. Known colour preferences and requirements for flower-constant foraging bees predict different responses to colour variability. In experimental settings, we simulated small variations of unicoloured petals and variations in the spatial arrangement of colours within tricoloured petals using artificial flowers and studied their impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Workers were trained to artificial flowers of a given colour and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours: either the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher spectral purity, or the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher dominant wavelength; in all cases the perceptual contrast between the training colour and the additional test colours was similarly small. Bees preferred artificial test flowers which resembled the training colour with the exception that they preferred test colours with higher spectral purity over trained colours. Testing the behaviour of bees at artificial flowers displaying a centripetal or centrifugal arrangement of three equally sized colours with small differences in spectral purity, bees did not prefer any type of artificial flowers, but preferentially choose the most spectrally pure area for the first antenna contact at both types of artificial flowers. Our results indicate that innate preferences for flower colours of high spectral purity in pollinators might exert selective pressure on the evolution of flower colours.

  14. Identification of Flavonoids (Quercetin, Gallic acid and Rutin from Catharanthus roseus Plant Parts using Deep Eutectic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Nisar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green technology is the most important topic in the pharmaceutical field because it reduces the cost of medicines and minimizes the environmental impact of the field and is better for human health and safety. Green chemistry emphasizes that the solvent should be nontoxic, safe, cheap, green, readily available, recyclable, and biodegradable. Deep eutectic solvents, a new type of green solvent, have some renowned properties—for instance, high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, low cost, biodegradability, and high viscosity. In this study, deep eutectic solvents made up of choline chloride-glycerol (1:2 were used for the extraction and isolation of flavonoid (rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin from Catharanthus roseus plant parts, flower petal, leaves, stem, and root. The amounts of rutin and quercetin in flower petal are 29.46 and 6.51%, respectively, whereas, rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin amounts in leaves are 25.16, 8.57, and 10.47%, respectively. In stem the amounts of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin are 13.02, 5.89, and 7.47%, respectively. In root, only quercetin has been obtained that is 13.49%. The HPLC is an analytical method, which was found to be an excellent technique for determination of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin using deep eutectic solvent extraction from plant parts of Catharanthus roseus.

  15. Genetic engineering of novel bluer-colored chrysanthemums produced by accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Aida, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Sanae; Ishiguro, Kanako; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) have no purple-, violet- or blue-flowered cultivars because they lack delphinidin-based anthocyanins. This deficiency is due to the absence of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene (F3'5'H), which encodes the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. In F3'5'H-transformed chrysanthemums, unpredictable and unstable expression levels have hampered successful production of delphinidin and reduced desired changes in flower color. With the aim of achieving delphinidin production in chrysanthemum petals, we found that anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters combined with a translational enhancer increased expression of some F3'5'H genes and accompanying delphinidin-based anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic chrysanthemums. Dramatic accumulation of delphinidin (up to 95%) was achieved by simple overexpression of Campanula F3'5'H controlled by a petal-specific flavanone 3-hydroxylase promoter from chrysanthemum combined with the 5'-untranslated region of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene as a translational enhancer. The flower colors of transgenic lines producing delphinidin-based anthocyanins changed from a red-purple to a purple-violet hue in the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Charts. This result represents a promising step toward molecular breeding of blue chrysanthemums.

  16. Recent progress on external occulter technology for imaging exosolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Sirbu, D.; Samuels, J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Martin, S.

    Imaging planets orbiting nearby stars requires a system for suppressing the host starlight by at least ten orders of magnitude. One such approach uses an external occulter, a satellite flying far from the telescope and employing a large screen, or starshade, to suppress the incoming starlight. This trades the added complexity of building the precisely shaped starshade and flying it in formation against simplifications in the telescope since extremely precise wavefront control is no longer necessary. Much progress has been made recently in designing, testing and manufacturing starshade technology. In this paper we describe the design of starshades and report on recent accomplishments in manufacturing and measuring a prototype occulter petal as part of NASA's first Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program. We demonstrate that the as-built petal is consistent with a full-size occulter achieving better than 10-10 contrast. We also discuss laboratory testing at the Princeton Occulter Testbed. These experiments use sub-scale, long-distance beam propagation to verify the diffraction analysis associated with occulter starlight suppression. We demonstrate roughly 10-10 suppression in the laboratory and discuss the important challenges and limitations.

  17. Effects of irradiation on epidermis ultrastructure of fresh day-lily flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.-S.; Chyau, C.-C.; Horng, D.-T.; Yang, J.-S.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on epidermis ultrastructure of fresh day-lily (Hemerocallis fulva L.) flowers were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Damaged cells of petal epidermis were found in the day-lily flowers irradiated with 1.0 or more kGy. The cells damaged by irradiation broke and lost cytoplasm, and therefore, showed a serious shrinkage. The compartment of the cells disappeared in injury. With 1.0 or more kGy irradiation, the damaged cells were also observed on the epidermis of the sepal and receptacle cells. The injury was found in a small spot or area on the epidermis of the sepal as well as the petal. The injury spot of the sepal epidermis was shown to resemble ashes and no cell wall of the epidermis was found. On the other hand, the epidermis of the receptacle was torn away with 1.0 or more kGy irradiation. The damaged spots of the receptacle epidermis also appeared after irradiation. Irradiation was not recommended for treating the fresh day-lily flowers as vegetables since the dosage (2.0 or more kGy) needed for inhibiting the flower blooming as shown in our previous works, caused injury on the epidermis of the flowers

  18. Thermo capillary and buoyancy convection in a fluid locally heated on its free surface; Convection thermocapillaire et thermogravitaire dans un fluide chauffe localement sur sa surface libre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, E.

    1997-09-26

    coupled buoyancy and thermo-capillary convection lead to a convective motion of the interface liquid/gas which drastically changes the heat and mass transfer across the liquid layer. Two experiments were considered, depending on the fluid: oil or mercury. The liquid is set in a cooled cylindrical vessel, and heated by a heat flux across the center of the free surface. The basic flow, in the case of oil, is a torus. When the heat parameter increases, a stationary flow appears as petals or rays when the aspect ratio. The lateral confinement selects the azimuthal wavelength. In the case of petals-like flow, a sub-critical Hopf bifurcation is underlined. The turbulence is found to be `weak`, even for the largest values of the Marangoni number (Ma = 1.3 10{sup 5}). In the case of mercury, the thermo-capillary effect is reduced to zero to impurities at the surface which have special trajectories we describe and compare to a simpler experiment. Only the buoyancy forces induce a unstationary, weakly turbulent flow as soon as the heating power exceeds 4W (Ra = 4.5 10{sup 3}, calculated with h = 1 mm). The past part concerns the analysis of the effect on the flow of the boundary conditions, the geometry, the Prandtl number and the buoyancy force with the help of the literature. Results concerning heat transfer, in particular the exponent of the law Nusselt number vs. heating power, were compared with available data. (author) 115 refs.

  19. Several New Aspects of the Foraging Behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an Apple Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski, which is a useful pollinator in apple orchards consisting of only one kind of commercial cultivars such as “Fuji”, and of different types of pollinizers, such as the red petal type, “Maypole” or “Makamik”. It was confirmed that, in terms of the number of foraging flowers per day, visiting flowers during low temperatures, strong wind, and reduced sunshine in an apple orchard, O. cornifrons were superior to honeybees. We indicated that O. cornifrons seemed to use both petals and anthers as foraging indicator, and that not only female, but also males contributed to apple pollination and fertilization by the pollen grains attached to them from visiting flowers, including those at the balloon stage. It was confirmed that O. cornifrons acts as a useful pollinator in an apple orchard consisting of one kind of cultivar with pollinizers planted not more than 10 m from commercial cultivars.

  20. Silicon Strip detectors for the ATLAS End-Cap Tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00232570

    Inside physics programme of the LHC different experiment upgrades are foreseen. After the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector the luminosity will be increased up to 5-7.5x10E34 cm-2s-1. This will mean a considerable increase in the radiation levels, above 10E16 neq/cm2 in the inner regions. This thesis is focused on the development of silicon microstrip detectors enough radiation hard to cope with the particle fluence expected at the ATLAS detector during HL-LHC experiment. In particular on the electrical characterization of silicon sensors for the ATLAS End-Caps. Different mechanical and thermal tests are shown using a Petal core as well as the electrical characterization of the silicon sensors that will be used with the Petal structure. Charge collection efficiency studies are carried out on sensors with different irradiation fluences using the ALiBaVa system and two kinds of strips connection are also analized (DC and AC ganging) with a laser system. The Petalet project is presented and the electrical c...

  1. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2008-08-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  2. Divergence of the Floral A-Function between an Asterid and a Rosid Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Patrice; Heijmans, Klaas; Rozier, Frédérique; Zethof, Jan; Chamot, Sophy; Bento, Suzanne Rodrigues; Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie; Chambrier, Pierre; Trehin, Christophe; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2017-07-01

    The ABC model is widely used as a genetic framework for understanding floral development and evolution. In this model, the A-function is required for the development of sepals and petals and to antagonize the C-function in the outer floral whorls. In the rosid species Arabidopsis thaliana , the AP2-type AP2 transcription factor represents a major A-function protein, but how the A-function is encoded in other species is not well understood. Here, we show that in the asterid species petunia ( Petunia hybrida ), AP2B/BLIND ENHANCER ( BEN ) confines the C-function to the inner petunia floral whorls, in parallel with the microRNA BLIND BEN belongs to the TOE-type AP2 gene family, members of which control flowering time in Arabidopsis. In turn, we demonstrate that the petunia AP2-type REPRESSOR OF B-FUNCTION ( ROB ) genes repress the B-function (but not the C-function) in the first floral whorl, together with BEN We propose a combinatorial model for patterning the B- and C-functions, leading to the homeotic conversion of sepals into petals, carpels, or stamens, depending on the genetic context. Combined with earlier results, our findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms controlling the spatial restriction of the floral organ identity genes are more diverse than the well-conserved B and C floral organ identity functions. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioinspired leaves-on-branchlet hybrid carbon nanostructure for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoping; He, Pingge; Lyu, Zhipeng; Chen, Tengfei; Huang, Boyun; Chen, Lei; Fisher, Timothy S

    2018-02-23

    Designing electrodes in a highly ordered structure simultaneously with appropriate orientation, outstanding mechanical robustness, and high electrical conductivity to achieve excellent electrochemical performance remains a daunting challenge. Inspired by the phenomenon in nature that leaves significantly increase exposed tree surface area to absorb carbon dioxide (like ions) from the environments (like electrolyte) for photosynthesis, we report a design of micro-conduits in a bioinspired leaves-on-branchlet structure consisting of carbon nanotube arrays serving as branchlets and graphene petals as leaves for such electrodes. The hierarchical all-carbon micro-conduit electrodes with hollow channels exhibit high areal capacitance of 2.35 F cm -2 (~500 F g -1 based on active material mass), high rate capability and outstanding cyclic stability (capacitance retention of ~95% over 10,000 cycles). Furthermore, Nernst-Planck-Poisson calculations elucidate the underlying mechanism of charge transfer and storage governed by sharp graphene petal edges, and thus provides insights into their outstanding electrochemical performance.

  4. Postharvest quality of cut roses following electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.Y.; Gladon, R.J.; Gleason, M.L.; Parker, S.K.; Agnew, N.H.; Olson, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Cut Rosa x hybrida L. 'Royalty' flowers were used to determine the efficacy of electron-beam irradiation for increasing postharvest quality and decreasing petal infection by Botrytis cinerea Pers. In an experiment for determining the injury threshold, roses received electron-beam irradiation of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy. Irradiation dosages greater than or equal to 4 kGy caused necrosis on petal tissue and decreased postharvest life at 20 degrees C. In a second experiment to evaluate postharvest quality, roses were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy. Dosages of 0.25 and 0.5 kGy slowed the rate of flower bud opening for 2 days but did not decrease postharvest quality when compared with nonirradiated roses. Roses that received irradiation dosages of 0.75 and 1 kGy showed unacceptable quality. In a third experiment, roses that had or had not been inoculated with B. cinerea were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 kGy. Irradiation did not control B. cinerea populations, and rose quality decreased as dosage increased. In a fourth experiment to determine the effect of irradiation on B. cinerea, conidia on water-agar plates exposed to dosages less than or equal to 1, 2, and 4 kGy germinated at rates of approximately 90%, 33%, and 2%, respectively, within 24 h

  5. First cosmic rays seen in the CMS Tracker Endcap

    CERN Multimedia

    Lutz Feld, RWTH Aachen

    2006-01-01

    On March 14, 2006, first cosmic muon tracks have been measured in the Tracker EndCap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker. The end caps have silicon strip modules mounted onto wedge-shaped carbon fiber support plates called petals. Up to 28 modules are arranged in radial rings on both sides of these plates. One eighth of an end cap (called sector) is populated with 18 petals. The TEC+ endcap is currently being integrated at RWTH Aachen. 400 silicon modules with a total of 241664 channels, corresponding to one eighth of the endcap, are read-out simultaneously by final power supply and DAQ components. On the left is the TEC+ in Aachen, whilst on the right is a computer image of a cosmic ray traversing the many layers of silicon sensors. To understand the response to real particles, basic functionality testing was followed by a cosmic muon run. A total of 400 silicon strip modules are read out with a channel inefficiency of below 1% and a common mode noise of only 25% of the intrinsic noise.

  6. Porro prism lasers: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Porro prism lasers are insensitive to misalignment caused by, for example, shock and temperature variation, making them useful in field applications, for example in target designation and range-finding systems. This property is a result of the property of Porro prisms that they return a reflected beam parallel to the incident beam, regardless of any tilt on the prism. These lasers are generally used in a marginally stable or unstable configuration for low divergence, but in the stable configuration some interesting kaleidoscope modes can be modelled. In previous work on Porro prism resonators we formulated an analytical method of determining which Porro angles resonate and result in petal output modes, as well as the corresponding number of petals. This work has been verified using a numerical model as well as experimentally. We have developed this work further and have investigated the losses associated with a range of Porro angles as well as the effects of these losses on the resulting modes. We conclude by summarizing the design considerations for Porro prism lasers.

  7. Large aperture telescope technology: a design for an active lightweight multi-segmented fold-out space mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Whalley, M.; Edeson, R.; Edeson, R.; Tosh, I.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Montgomery, D.; Nawasra, J.

    2017-11-01

    Large aperture telescope technology (LATT) is a design study for a differential lidar (DIAL) system; the main investigation being into suitable methods, technologies and materials for a 4-metre diameter active mirror that can be stowed to fit into a typical launch vehicle (e.g. ROKOT launcher with 2.1-metre diameter cargo) and can self-deploy - in terms of both leaving the space vehicle and that the mirrors unfold and self-align to the correct optical form within the tolerances specified. The primary mirror requirements are: main wavelength of 935.5 nm, RMS corrected wavefront error of λ/6, optical surface roughness better than 5 nm, areal density of less than 16 kg/m2 and 1-2 mirror shape corrections per orbit. The primary mirror consists of 7 segments - a central hexagonal mirror and 6 square mirror petals which unfold to form the 4-meter diameter aperture. The focus of the UK LATT consortium for this European Space Agency (ESA) funded project is on using lightweighted aluminium or carbon-fibre-composite materials for the mirror substrate in preference to more traditional materials such as glass and ceramics; these materials have a high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, significantly reducing risk of damage due to launch forces and subsequent deployment in orbit. We present an overview of the design, which includes suitable actuators for wavefront correction, petal deployment mechanisms and lightweight mirror technologies. Preliminary testing results from manufactured lightweight mirror samples will also be summarised.

  8. Evaluation of ploidy level and endoreduplication in carnation (Dianthus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Olmos, Enrique; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the fifth most important ornamental species worldwide. Many desirable plant characteristics, such as big size, adaptation under stress, and intra or interspecific hybridization capability, are dependent on plant ploidy level. We optimized a quick flow cytometry method for DNA content determination in wild and cultivated carnation samples that allowed a systematic evaluation of ploidy levels in Dianthus species. The DNA content of different carnation cultivars and wild Dianthus species was determined using internal reference standards. The precise characterization of ploidy, endoreduplication and C-value of D. caryophyllus 'Master' makes it a suitable standard cultivar for ploidy level determination in other carnation cultivars. Mixoploidy was rigorously characterized in different regions of several organs from D. caryophyllus 'Master', which combined with a detailed morphological description suggested some distinctive developmental traits of this species. Both the number of endoreduplication cycles and the proportion of endopolyploid cells were highly variable in the petals among the cultivars studied, differently to the values found in leaves. Our results suggest a positive correlation between ploidy, cell size and petal size in cultivated carnation, which should be considered in breeding programs aimed to obtain new varieties with large flowers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Topographic design and application of hierarchical polymer surfaces replicated by microinjection compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Sheng; Huang, Han-Xiong; Wang, Bin

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the fast growing demand for biomimetic surfaces featuring unique wettability and functionality in various fields highlights the necessity of developing a reliable technique for mass production. In this work, hierarchical topography designs of templates were applied to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces via microinjection compression molding, comprehensively considering the feasibility of mechanical demolding and the superhydrophobicity and mechanical robustness of the molded polypropylene parts. Mimicking the wettability of a lotus leaf or rose petal, superhydrophobic surfaces were replicated. An unstable wetting state formed on the surface exhibiting the petal effect. On such a surface, the increased water pressure could cause water penetration into the micro gaps between the hierarchical asperities featuring low-roughness sidewalls and bottom surface; the resultant water membrane led to drastically increased water adhesion of the surface. Moreover, the low-adhesion superhydrophobicity of the molded surface was changed into superhydrophilicity, by means of introducing carbonyl groups via ultraviolet/ozone treatment and the subsequent water membrane preserved in microstructures via the pre-wetting process. Patterning the superhydrophilic micro channel on the superhydrophobic surface developed the surface microfluidic devices for micro-liter fluid pumping and mixing processes driven by surface tension.

  10. Experimental charcoalification of plant reproductive organs: Taphonomic implications for taxonomic information loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, R. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Charcoalification can preserve reproductive organs of plants in exceptional detail, but it has not been clear to what extent these taxonomically important structures suffer non-allometric size reduction during this process. To address this problem, seven angiosperm and two gymnosperm species were buried in sand and experimentally charcoalified in a muffle furnace at 325--350 degrees Celsius for two hours, and percent size reduction measured. Carpels, stamens, and petals never shrank by the same amount for a given angiosperm species. To determine the effect of different periods of heating on organs, one angiosperm species was treated for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Organs continued to shrink over this entire period without reaching a plateau. This is important in designing future experiments, and in terms of interpreting fossils, since heat treatment varies across a single site in natural fires. Observations made during this study suggest that some carpels and petals never become charcoalified, that stamens are particularly susceptible to fragmentation after charcoalification, that some organs show predictable damage which is correlated with time, and that the saturation of a structure with water can significantly retard charcoalification for heat exposure of less than one hour. These factors may severely affect the entry of the charred remains into the fossil record. Despite the suggestion that female structures can be expected to shrink the least, it is impossible to prescribe quantitative correction factors to permit accurate reconstructions without constraining additional variables such as temperature and duration of heating.

  11. Pollination increases ethylene production in Lilium hybrida cv. Brindisi flowers but does not affect the time to tepal senescence or tepal abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Silvia; Prisa, Domenico; Burchi, Gianluca; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-01-15

    In many species, pollination induces a rapid increase in ethylene production, which induces early petal senescence, petal abscission, or flower closure. Cross-pollination in Lilium hybrida cv. Brindisi resulted in a small increase in flower ethylene production. In intact plants and in isolated flowers, pollination had no effect on the time to tepal senescence or tepal abscission. When applied to closed buds of unpollinated flowers, exogenous ethylene slightly hastened the time to tepal senescence and abscission. However, exogenous ethylene had no effect when the flowers had just opened, i.e. at the time of pollination. Experiments with silver thiosulphate, which blocks the ethylene receptor, indicated that endogenous ethylene had a slight effect on the regulation of tepal senescence and tepal abscission, although only at the time the tepals were still inside buds and not in open flowers. Low ethylene-sensitivity after anthesis therefore explains why pollination had no effect on the processes studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. CMS tracker observes muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A computer image of a cosmic ray traversing the many layers of the TEC+ silicon sensors. The first cosmic muon tracks have been observed in one of the CMS tracker endcaps. On 14 March, a sector on one of the two large tracker endcaps underwent a cosmic muon run. Since then, thousands of tracks have been recorded. These data will be used not only to study the tracking, but also to exercise various track alignment algorithms The endcap tested, called the TEC+, is under construction at RWTH Aachen in Germany. The endcaps have a modular design, with silicon strip modules mounted onto wedge-shaped carbon fibre support plates, so-called petals. Up to 28 modules are arranged in radial rings on both sides of these plates. One eighth of an endcap is populated with 18 petals and called a sector. The next major step is a test of the first sector at CMS operating conditions, with the silicon modules at a temperature below -10°C. Afterwards, the remaining seven sectors have to be integrated. In autumn 2006, TEC+ wil...

  13. Sterilization of African Violet in the in Vitro Culture Using Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles by Two Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major advantages of in vitro culture of African violet (Saintpaulha ionantha is production of new cultivars and propagation of their chimera which might not be propagated by the other methods. In this study, we tested the effects of silver nanoparticles on the sterilization rate (antifungal and antibacterial activity, regeneration and shoot formation of African violet "Pink Amiss" explants. These nanoparticles were synthesized from pomegranate peels and Damask rose petals extracts. We used a completely randomized design test with factorial arrangement to investigate various volumetric ratios of plant extracts to silver nitrate (1:20, 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 on the culture contaminations. Using silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts, especially Damask rose petals extract resulted in no fungal and bacterial contamination in the African violet explants after 1 and 3 weeks as compared to the control, and silver nitrate (1mM. All tested concentrations of the silver nanoparticles significantly (P &le 0.05 controlled both bacterial and fungal contaminations. The 1:20 ratio of plant extracts to silver nitrate showed the best control. In addition, the highest regeneration (%52 and shoot regeneration (%38 was observed in this treatment. In conclusion, we suggest using silver nanoparticles synthesized by plant extracts for sterilization of in Vitro Culture for African Violet rather than using other chemicals such as silver nitrate.

  14. Vase life and rehydration capacity of dry-stored gladiolus flowers at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cavalcante da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Normally, it is not recommended the conditioning of gladiolus stems in water during storage or transport. Hydration of petals may accelerate flower opening, even at a low temperature, which compromises quality at marketing moment. However, for this species, neither the effect of prolonged dry cold storage nor its behavior when transferred to water at room temperature has been evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the vase life and the rehydration capacity of gladiolus flowers ( Gladiolus grandiflora Hort. after dry storage at low temperature. Flower stems of cultivars Blue Frost, Gold Field, Traderhorn, and Jester were dry-stored at a temperature of 5 ± 1 ºC and relative humidity of 85% for 12, 24, 36, and 48h. Control stems remained always in deionized water. After storage, they were returned to the water at room temperature and evaluated for vase life (adopting the discard criterion when 50% of the basal flowers displayed loss of color and wilting, fresh weight change (%, water uptake rate and transpiration rate, as well as relative water content of the petals (%. In dry cold storage conditions, for up to 36h, the vase life was not affected although incomplete rehydration of the flowers. Rehydration capacity of the stem is linked to the staggered opening of flowers along the inflorescence.

  15. Mating System Evolution under Strong Pollen Limitation: Evidence of Disruptive Selection through Male and Female Fitness in Clarkia xantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Geber, Monica A; Pickett-Leonard, Michael; Moeller, David A

    2017-05-01

    Selection on floral traits in hermaphroditic plants is determined by both male and female reproductive success. However, predictions regarding floral trait and mating system evolution are often based solely on female fitness. Selection via male fitness has the potential to affect the outcomes of floral evolution. In this study, we used paternity analysis to assess individual selfing rates and selection on floral traits via male and female fitness in an experimental population of Clarkia xantiana where pollen limitation of seed set was strong. We detected selection through both female and male fitness with reinforcing or noninterfering patterns of selection through the two sex functions. For female fitness, selection favored reduced herkogamy and protandry, traits that promote increased autonomous selfing. For male fitness, selection on petal area was disruptive, with higher trait values conferring greater pollinator attraction and outcross siring success and smaller trait values leading to higher selfed siring success. Combining both female and male fitness, selection on petal area and protandry was disruptive because intermediate phenotypes were less successful as both males and females. Finally, functional relationships among male and female fertility components indicated that selfing resulted in seed discounting and pollen discounting. Under these functional relationships, the evolutionarily stable selfing rate can be intermediate or predominantly selfing or outcrossing, depending on the segregating load of deleterious mutations.

  16. Estimation of genetic variability, mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in M2 flower mutant lines of Capsicum annuum L. treated with caffeine and their analysis through RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumana Aslam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation healthy and certified seeds of Capsicum annuum were treated with five concentrations of caffeine i.e. 0.10%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.0%. Germination percentage, plants survival and pollen fertility were decreased with the increase of caffeine concentrations. Similarly root length and shoot length were decreased as the concentrations increased in M1 generation. Different mutants were isolated in M1 generation. In M2 generation, various flower mutants with changes in number of sepals, petals, anther size colour i.e. Trimerous, tetramerous, pentamerous with fused petals, hexamerous etc were segregated. Heptamerous and anther change was not observed in lower concentration viz. 0.1%. All these mutants showed significant changes in morphological characters and good breeding values at lower and intermediate concentrations. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency was observed on the basis of M2 flower mutant frequency. It was generally decreased with the increase of mutagen concentrations. Cytological aberrations in mutants showed the decreasing trend at meiotic final stages. These mutants were further analysed through RAPD method and on the basis of appearance of polymorphic DNA bands, they distinguished these flower mutants genotypically. Among 93 bands 44 bands were polymorphic which showed great genetic variation produced by caffeine. As an outcome of that the above caffeine concentrations are good for the induction of genetic variability in Capsicum genotype.

  17. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  18. Petalet prototype for the ATLAS silicon strip detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperlich, Dennis [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Bloch, Ingo; Keller, John Stakely; Lohwasser, Kristin; Poley, Louise; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Diez Cornell, Sergio [DESY (Germany); Hauser, Marc Manuel; Mori, Riccardo; Kuehl, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich [Albert-Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    To achieve more precise measurements and to search new physics phenomena, the luminosity at the LHC is expected to be increased during a series of upgrades in the next years. The latest scheduled upgrade, called the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is proposed to provide instantaneous luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}. The increased luminosity and the radiation damage will affect the current Inner Tracker. In order to cope with the higher radiation dose and occupancy, the ATLAS experiment plans to replace the current Inner Detector with a new all-silicon tracker consisting of ∝8 m{sup 2} pixel and ∝192 m{sup 2} strip detectors. In response to the needs, highly modular structures will be used for the strip system, called Staves for the barrel region and Petals for the end-caps region. A small-scaled prototype for the Petal, the Petalet, is built to study some specialties of this complex wedge-shaped structures. The Petalet consists of one large and two small sized sensors. This report focuses on the recent progress in the prototyping of the Petalet and their electrical performances.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation in 'jongkolnee' water lily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puripunyavanich, Vichai; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2005-10-01

    Bulb lets of 'Jongkolnee' water lily irradiated with gamma rays at 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 grays (20) bulb lets/treatment). All of them were planted in nursery tubs. Ninety percents of the non-irradiated 'Jongkolnee' germinated in 3-4 dyas. The irradiated 'Jongkolnee' germinated in 5, 7, 10 and 14 days and their germination ratios were 75%, 50%, 30% and 10% respectively. Later, they were transplanted into water lily pots. irradiated 'Jongkolnee' were grew slower than non irradiated 'Jongkolnee' and some irradiated plants died in the first 3 months. Healthy plants were transplanted in bigger pots. When they flowered, two nutnat characteristics were transplanted into bigger pots. When they flowered, two mutant characteristics were discovered: one with white petals and one with purple petals. However, the white 'Jongkolnee' flower shape was abnormal bad, therefore, bulb lets of white 'Jongkolnee' will be plant for selecting in the next generation. On the other hand, the purple 'Jongkolnee' flower shape was similar to the original pink one. the purple 'Jongkolnee' will be used for further studies in the future

  20. Antimicrobial Activities of Three Medicinal Plants and Investigation of Flavonoids of Tripleurospermum disciforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Zahra; Molazem, Maryam; Doostdar, Behnaz; Taban, Parisa; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Yassa, Narguess

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena, Tripleurospermum disciforme and Securigera securidaca were used as disinfectant agents and for treatment of some disease in folk medicine of Iran. The antimicrobial effects of different fractions of seeds extract of S. securidaca, petals extract of R. damascena and aerial parts extract of T. disciforme were examined against some gram positive, gram negative and fungi by cup plate diffusion method. The petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of S. securidaca showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while its methanol fraction had no antibacterial effects. R. damascena petals extract demonstrated antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. T. disciforme aerial parts extract exhibited antimicrobial effects only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. None of the fractions had any antifungal activities. Therefore, present study confirmed utility of these plants as disinfectant agents. Six flavonoids were isolated from T. disciforme: Luteolin, Quercetin-7-O-glucoside, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, Apigenin and Apigenin-7-O-glucoside. The flavonoids and the antimicrobial activity of T. disciforme are reported for the first time.

  1. cDNA cloning and expression of carotenogenic genes during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Masashiro; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    All cDNAs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis leading to lycopene in yellow petals of Gentiana lutea have been cloned from a cDNA library. They encode a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, a phytoene synthase, a phytoene desaturase and a zeta-carotene desaturase. The indicated function of all cDNAs was established by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNAs were between 47.5% and 78.9% identical to those reported for the corresponding enzymes from other higher plants. Southern analysis suggested that the genes for each enzyme probably represent a small multi-gene family. Tissue-specific expression of the genes and expression during flower development was investigated. The expression of the phytoene synthase gene, psy, was enhanced in flowers but transcripts were not detected in stems and leaves by northern blotting. Transcripts of the genes for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (ggpps), phytoene desaturase (pds) and zeta-carotene desaturase (zds) were detected in flowers and leaves but not in stems. Analysis of the expression of psy and zds in petals revealed that levels of the transcripts were lowest in young buds and highest in fully open flowers, in parallel with the formation of carotenoids. Obviously, the transcription of these genes control the accumulation of carotenoids during flower development in G. lutea. For pds only a very slight increase of mRNA was found whereas the transcripts of ggpps decreased during flower development.

  2. Cloning of two individual cDNAS encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase from Gentiana lutea, their tissue-specific expression and physiological effect in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Kauder, Friedrich; Römer, Susanne; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) cDNAs have been cloned from a petal library of Gentiana lutea. Both cDNAs carry a putative transit sequence for chloroplast import and differ mainly in their length and the 5'-flanking regions. GlNCED1 was evolutionary closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana NCED6 whereas GlNCED2 showed highest homology to tomato NCED1 and A. thaliana NCED3. The amounts of GlNCED2 transcript were below Northern detection in G. lutea. In contrast, GlNCED1 was specifically expressed at higher levels in developing flowers when petals start appearing. By genetic engineering of tobacco with coding regions of either gene under a constitutive promoter, their function was further analyzed. Although mRNA of both genes was detectable in the corresponding transgenic plants, a physiological effect was only found for GlNCED1 but not for GlNCED2. In germination experiments of GlNCED1 transgenic lines, delayed radicle formation and cotyledon appearance were observed. However, the transformants exhibited no improved tolerance against desiccation stress. In contrast to other plants with over-expressed NCEDs, prolonged delay of seed germination is the only abscisic-acid-related phenotypic effect in the GlNCED1 transgenic lines.

  3. Starshades for Exoplanet Imaging and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Macintosh, B.; Sirbu, D.; Lo, A.

    2014-01-01

    An external occulter is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade, that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light before entering the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. In this presentation I will explain how star shades achieve high contrast through precise design and control of their shape and how we develop an error budget to establish requirements on the manufacturing and control. Raising the technology readiness level of starshades requires a sequence of activities to verify approaches to manufacturing, deployment, test, and analysis. The SAT-TDEM program has been instrumental in raising the readiness level of the most critical technology. In particular, I will show the results of our first TDEM in 2010-2012 that verified a full scale petal could be built and measured to the needed accuracy for 10 orders of magnitude of contrast. Our second TDEM in 2012-2014 verified that a starshade could be deployed and the petals could be placed to the required position to better than 1 mm. Finally, laboratory experiments have verified the optical modeling used to predict starshade performance to better than 1e-10.

  4. Tuning 3D topography on biomimetic surface for efficient self-cleaning and microfluidic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Wei-Sheng; Huang, Han-Xiong; Chen, An-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, micro-/nanotopography on polymeric replica is generally limited to 2D when a mechanical demolding approach is applied. In this work, one-step replication of bio-inspired 3D topography is achieved using microinjection compression molding with novel dual-layer molds. Using a proposed flexible template, the replica topography and wettability are highly tunable during molding. Moreover, dual-scale topography on the mold is developed by coating the micropatterned insert with submicron silica particles. Contact angle and roll-off angle measurements indicate the lotus leaf, rose petal and rice leaf effects on biomimetic surfaces. Among the three kinds of surfaces, the petal-inspired surface possesses the superior performance in self-cleaning submicron contaminants and mechanical robustness, which is highly correlated to the low roughness-induced adhesive superhydrophobicity and the absence of fragile submicron-/nanostructure, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-layer mold structure is proposed for fabricating the open microfluidic devices. The embedment of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica particles in the microstructured open channel and the hydrophobic silica particles in the background area during replication renders the wettability contrast sharp, realizing the self-driven flow of microfluid confined within the open microchannel. (paper)

  5. Character evolution and missing (morphological) data across Asteridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Gregory W; Schori, Melanie; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2018-04-14

    Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological data sets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit, and seed features) across 248 species for ancestral state reconstruction using a phylogenetic framework based on 73 plastid genes and the same 248 species. Iridoid production, unitegmic ovules, and cellular endosperm were all reconstructed as synapomorphic for Asteridae. Sympetaly, long associated with asterids, shows complex patterns of evolution, suggesting it arose several times independently within the clade. Stamens equal in number to the petals is likely a synapomorphy for Gentianidae, a major asterid subclade. Members of Lamianae, a major gentianid subclade, are potentially diagnosed by adnate stamens, unilacunar nodes, and simple perforation plates. The analyses presented here provide a greatly improved understanding of character evolution across Asteridae, highlighting multiple characters potentially synapomorphic for major clades. However, several important parts of the asterid tree are poorly known for several key phenotypic features (e.g., degree of petal fusion, integument number, nucellus type, endosperm type, iridoid production). Further morphological, anatomical, developmental, and chemical investigations of these poorly known asterids are critical for a more detailed understanding of early asterid evolution. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Starshade mechanical design for the Habitable Exoplanet imaging mission concept (HabEx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Manan; Webb, David; McGown, James; Lisman, P. Douglas; Shaklan, Stuart; Bradford, S. Case; Steeves, John; Hilgemann, Evan; Trease, Brian; Thomson, Mark; Warwick, Steve; Freebury, Gregg; Gull, Jamie

    2017-09-01

    An external occulter for starlight suppression - a starshade - flying in formation with the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission Concept (HabEx) space telescope could enable the direct imaging and spectrographic characterization of Earthlike exoplanets in the habitable zone. This starshade is flown between the telescope and the star, and suppresses stellar light sufficiently to allow the imaging of the faint reflected light of the planet. This paper presents a mechanical architecture for this occulter, which must stow in a 5 m-diameter launch fairing and then deploy to about a 80 m-diameter structure. The optical performance of the starshade requires that the edge profile is accurate and stable. The stowage and deployment of the starshade to meet these requirements present unique challenges that are addressed in this proposed architecture. The mechanical architecture consists of a number of petals attached to a deployable perimeter truss, which is connected to central hub using tensioned spokes. The petals are furled around the stowed perimeter truss for launch. Herein is described a mechanical design solution that supports an 80 m-class starshade for flight as part of HabEx.

  7. Floral anatomy of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae: comparing flower organization and vascular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the tribe Delphinieae have dorsoventralized flowers; their pentamerous calyx and reduced corolla are dorsally spurred and inner spurs are nectariferous. Based on this common floral scheme, Delphinieae species exhibit a wide diversity of floral structures and morphologies. We present here the first investigation of the floral anatomy in Delphinieae. The organization of the floral vascular system has been studied in species representative of the floral morphological diversity of Delphinieae: Aconitum lasiocarpum, Delphinium elatum, and Consolida regalis. The three species show a similar vascularization of the calyx and of the reproductive organs, but exhibit distinct anatomical features in the corolla where the nectaries are borne. The sepals and the stamens have a trilacunar three-traced and a unilacunar one-traced vascularization, respectively. Three free carpels in D. elatum and A. lasiocarpum are basically supplied by six vascular bundles – three independent dorsal bundles and three fused lateral bundles. In C. regalis the single carpel is supplied by three independent vascular bundles (one dorsal and two ventral. Staminodes are not vascularized. The basic type of petal vascularization is unilacunar one-traced, but in the case of C. regalis the derived bilacunar two-traced type has been observed. This latter state arose as a result of the fusion of the two dorsal petal primordia. The results of this first comparative study of the floral anatomy of Delphinieae are discussed with the recent phylogenetic, morphological, and evo-devo findings concerning the tribe.

  8. Simultaneous qualitative assessment and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in various tissues of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quad mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Fang, Linchuan; Xi, Huifen; Guan, Le; Fang, Jinbao; Liu, Yanling; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua

    2012-04-29

    Flavonoid composition and concentration were investigated in 12 different tissues of 'Ti-1' lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) by high performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detection tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)). A total of 20 flavonoids belonging to six groups (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, isohamnetin, diosmetin derivatives) were separated and identified. Myricetin 3-O-galactoside, myricetin 3-O-glucuronide, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucuronide and free aglycone diometin (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone) were first reported in lotus. Flavonoid composition varied largely with tissue type, and diverse compounds (5-15) were found in leaf and flower stalks, flower pistils, seed coats and embryos. Flower tissues including flower petals, stamens, pistils, and, especially, reproductive tissue fruit coats had more flavonoid compounds (15-17) than leaves (12), while no flavonoids were detectable in seed kernels. The flavonoid content of seed embryos was high, 730.95 mg 100g(-1) DW (dry weight). As regards the other tissues, mature leaf pulp (771.79 mg 100 g(-1) FW (fresh weight)) and young leaves (650.67 mg 100 g(-1) FW) had higher total flavonoid amount than flower stamens (359.45 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and flower petals (342.97 mg 100g(-1) FW), while leaf stalks, flower stalks and seed coats had much less total flavonoid (less than 40 mg 100 g(-1) FW). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. cDNA cloning and expression analyses of phytoene synthase 1, phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes from Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaya Supathaweewat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the cloning of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs encoding the enzymes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis,namely phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS and -carotene desaturase (ZDS, respectively, from high-lycopene tomato cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003. DNA sequence analyses showed that the complete openreading frames of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs were 1,239, 1,752 and 1,767 base pairs in length and encoded proteins of 412,583 and 588 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and the conserved domain analyses suggest that PSY1, PDS and ZDSfrom S. lycopersicum KKU-T34003 potentially have similar structures and biological functions to the corresponding proteinsfrom other plants. Gene expression studies showed that Psy1 was expressed only in the petal and the breaker fruit, whereasthe expressions of Pds and Zds were observed in the petal, the breaker fruit and the leaf. The highest expression level for allgenes was detected in the breaker-stage fruit, suggesting that carotenoid accumulation was developmentally regulated inthe chromoplast-containing tissues.

  10. Experimental investigation of complex circular Airy beam characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirev, A. P.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Khonina, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a new type of circular Airy beams, the so-called azimuthally modulated circular Airy beams, generated by utilizing a diffraction element, whose transmission function is the sum of the transmission function of the element generating a "petal" pattern and the transmission function of the element generating a circular Airy beam. We experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of such beams and demonstrate that their autofocusing and selfhealing properties are strongly dependent on the number of generated petals. These beams are a combination of a conventional circular Airy beam and vortex laser beams (or their superpositions). Using a spatial light modulator, we demonstrate that these beams have unique properties such as autofocusing, "nondiffractive" propagation and self-healing after passing through an obstacle. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation. We believe that these results can be very useful for lensless laser fabrication and laser manipulation techniques, as well as for development of new filament plasma multi-channel formation methods.

  11. Butterfly Learning and the Diversification of Plant Leaf Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dalbosco Dell'aglio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues are important for insects to find flowers and host plants. It has been proposed that the diversity of leaf shape in Passiflora vines could be a result of negative frequency dependent selection driven by visual searching behavior among their butterfly herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that Heliconius butterflies use leaf shape as a cue to initiate approach towards a host plant. We first tested for the ability to recognize shapes using a food reward conditioning experiment. Butterflies showed an innate preference for flowers with three and five petals. However, they could be trained to increase the frequency of visits to a non-preferred flower with two petals, indicating an ability to learn to associate shape with a reward. Next we investigated shape learning specifically in the context of oviposition by conditioning females to lay eggs on two shoots associated with different artificial leaf shapes: their own host plant, Passiflora biflora, and a lanceolate non-biflora leaf shape. The conditioning treatment had a significant effect on the approach of butterflies to the two leaf shapes, consistent with a role for shape learning in oviposition behavior. This study is the first to show that Heliconius butterflies use shape as a cue for feeding and oviposition, and can learn shape preference for both flowers and leaves. This demonstrates the potential for Heliconius to drive negative frequency dependent selection on the leaf shape of their Passiflora host plants.

  12. Sex allocation and functional bias of quaternary and quinary flowers on same inflorescence in the hermaphrodite Ruta graveolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Yu; Ren, Ming-Xun

    2011-09-01

    Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits is important to understand the pollination function of an inflorescence and the real reproductive outputs of a plant. Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) produce both quaternary (four petals and eight stamens) and quinary (five petals and ten stamens) flowers on the same cymes, while their pollination roles and the effects on the reproductive success remained unexplored. We experimentally examined the biomass of female versus male organs and pollen viability and stigma receptivity to explore the sex allocation patterns between the flowers. The breeding systems and reproductive outputs through either female function (seed set) or male function (pollen dispersal) were also studied for quinary and quaternary flowers to determine whether there was functional bias. The results showed that R. graveolens was protandrous, with a mixed mating system. Its stamens could slowly move one by one and only dehisce when positioning at the flower center, which could greatly enhance pollen dispersal. The first-opened quinary flower allocated significantly higher resources (dry biomass) in female organs while quaternary flowers allocated more resource in male organs. The quaternary flowers experienced higher pollen limitation in seed production but were more successful in pollen dispersal and the quinary flowers reproduced both through female and male functions. Our data suggested that quinary and quaternary flower on same inflorescence in R. graveolens functioned mainly as the sex role that most resources were allocated, which probably reflect an adaptation for floral phenology and pollination process in this plant.

  13. The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2α-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2α-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake.

  14. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface of high adhesion fabricated with micronano binary structure on aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Jindan; Li, Shuyi; Liu, Jiaan; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-25

    Triggered by the microstructure characteristics of the surfaces of typical plant leaves such as the petals of red roses, a biomimetic superhydrophobic surface with high adhesion is successfully fabricated on aluminum alloy. The essential procedure is that samples were processed by a laser, then immersed and etched in nitric acid and copper nitrate, and finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The obtained surfaces exhibit a binary structure consisting of microscale crater-like pits and nanoscale reticula. The superhydrophobicity can be simultaneously affected by the micronano binary structure and chemical composition of the surface. The contact angle of the superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 158.8 ± 2°. Especially, the surface with micronano binary structure is revealed to be an excellent adhesive property with petal-effect. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surfaces show excellent stability in aqueous solution with a large pH range and after being exposed long-term in air. In this way, the multifunctional biomimetic structural surface of the aluminum alloy is fabricated. Furthermore, the preparation technology in this article provides a new route for other metal materials.

  15. Tuning 3D topography on biomimetic surface for efficient self-cleaning and microfluidic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Sheng; Huang, Han-Xiong; Chen, An-Fu

    2015-03-01

    Currently, micro-/nanotopography on polymeric replica is generally limited to 2D when a mechanical demolding approach is applied. In this work, one-step replication of bio-inspired 3D topography is achieved using microinjection compression molding with novel dual-layer molds. Using a proposed flexible template, the replica topography and wettability are highly tunable during molding. Moreover, dual-scale topography on the mold is developed by coating the micropatterned insert with submicron silica particles. Contact angle and roll-off angle measurements indicate the lotus leaf, rose petal and rice leaf effects on biomimetic surfaces. Among the three kinds of surfaces, the petal-inspired surface possesses the superior performance in self-cleaning submicron contaminants and mechanical robustness, which is highly correlated to the low roughness-induced adhesive superhydrophobicity and the absence of fragile submicron-/nanostructure, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-layer mold structure is proposed for fabricating the open microfluidic devices. The embedment of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica particles in the microstructured open channel and the hydrophobic silica particles in the background area during replication renders the wettability contrast sharp, realizing the self-driven flow of microfluid confined within the open microchannel.

  16. Phenylpropanoid Scent Compounds in Petunia x hybrida Are Glycosylated and Accumulate in Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cna'ani, Alon; Shavit, Reut; Ravid, Jasmin; Aravena-Calvo, Javiera; Skaliter, Oded; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Floral scent has been studied extensively in the model plant Petunia. However, little is known about the intracellular fate of scent compounds. Here, we characterize the glycosylation of phenylpropanoid scent compounds in Petunia x hybrida. This modification reduces scent compounds' volatility, reactivity, and autotoxicity while increasing their water-solubility. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses revealed that flowers of petunia cultivars accumulate substantial amounts of glycosylated scent compounds and that their increasing level parallels flower development. In contrast to the pool of accumulated aglycones, which drops considerably at the beginning of the light period, the collective pool of glycosides starts to increase at that time and does not decrease thereafter. The glycoside pool is dynamic and is generated or catabolized during peak scent emission, as inferred from phenylalanine isotope-feeding experiments. Using several approaches, we show that phenylpropanoid scent compounds are stored as glycosides in the vacuoles of petal cells: ectopic expression of Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase-1 targeted to the vacuole resulted in decreased glycoside accumulation; GC–MS analysis of intact vacuoles isolated from petal protoplasts revealed the presence of glycosylated scent compounds. Accumulation of glycosides in the vacuoles seems to be a common mechanism for phenylpropanoid metabolites. PMID:29163617

  17. Biologically inspired growth of hydroxyapatite crystals on bio-organics-defined scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chunrong, E-mail: milkhoney3@163.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Li, Yuli; Nan, Kaihui [Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Petal-like crystals were observed to form on the surface of the BG/COL/ChS scaffolds. Highlights: ► Porous scaffolds were prepared using bioglass, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. ► Highly oriented HA crystals were grown on scaffolds using simulated body fluids ► The microstructure and orientation of HA were explained by molecular configuration. - Abstract: Several bio-organics-defined composite scaffolds were prepared using 58s-bioglass (BG), collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS). These scaffolds possess highly porous structure. X-ray diffraction of these scaffolds strongly indicated that hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals formed on their surfaces in simulated body fluids within 3 d, and similar formation process of crystals could be obtained on BG/Col and BG/Col/ChS scaffolds. The morphology and structure of the crystals were further examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained indicate that an apatite with petal-like structure similar to that found on BG/Col scaffolds can be produced on BG/Col/ChS scaffolds through biomimetic synthesis, while that on BG/ChS scaffolds took place differently. The differences could be explained by self-assembly processes and the different macromolecular configurations of the Col and ChS fibrils which self-assemble spontaneously into their fibers. On the other hand, the bio-organics-defined composites have good cell biocompability. The results may be applicable to develop tailored biomaterials for peculiar bone substitute.

  18. Biologically inspired growth of hydroxyapatite crystals on bio-organics-defined scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chunrong; Li, Yuli; Nan, Kaihui

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Petal-like crystals were observed to form on the surface of the BG/COL/ChS scaffolds. Highlights: ► Porous scaffolds were prepared using bioglass, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. ► Highly oriented HA crystals were grown on scaffolds using simulated body fluids ► The microstructure and orientation of HA were explained by molecular configuration. - Abstract: Several bio-organics-defined composite scaffolds were prepared using 58s-bioglass (BG), collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS). These scaffolds possess highly porous structure. X-ray diffraction of these scaffolds strongly indicated that hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals formed on their surfaces in simulated body fluids within 3 d, and similar formation process of crystals could be obtained on BG/Col and BG/Col/ChS scaffolds. The morphology and structure of the crystals were further examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained indicate that an apatite with petal-like structure similar to that found on BG/Col scaffolds can be produced on BG/Col/ChS scaffolds through biomimetic synthesis, while that on BG/ChS scaffolds took place differently. The differences could be explained by self-assembly processes and the different macromolecular configurations of the Col and ChS fibrils which self-assemble spontaneously into their fibers. On the other hand, the bio-organics-defined composites have good cell biocompability. The results may be applicable to develop tailored biomaterials for peculiar bone substitute

  19. Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents of Pt nanoflowers with enhanced activity for ethanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lu; Fan Youjun; Wang Honghui; Tian Na; Zhou Zhiyou; Sun Shigang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been applied to produce the uniform Pt nanoflowers with sharp single crystal petals and high density of atomic steps. ► The as-prepared Pt nanoflowers exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than commercial Pt black catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation. ► The growth of Pt nanoflowers in DESs by the simple electrochemical route is straightforward and controllable in terms of nanoflowers’ shape and size. - Abstract: The electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been applied to produce the electrocatalyst of Pt nanoflowers. The uniform Pt nanoflowers with sharp single crystal petals and high density of atomic steps were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS and electrochemical tests. The results illustrated that the as-prepared Pt nanoflowers exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than commercial Pt black catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation. The growth of Pt nanoflowers in DESs by the simple electrochemical route is straightforward and controllable in terms of nanoflowers’ shape and size, which can be applied in shape-controlled synthesis of other noble metal nanoparticles with high catalytic activity.

  20. Biosensing based on magnetically induced self-assembly of particles in magnetic colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Takamura, Tsukasa; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2012-03-01

    Superparamagnetic beads and nonmagnetic beads of different sizes were assembled to form a "ring-structure" in a magnetorheological (MR) fluid solution by the application of external magnetic fields. For superparamagnetic beads and non-magnetic beads functionalized with probe and target molecules, respectively, the ring-structure was maintained even after removing the external magnetic field due to biomolecular bonding. Several experiments are described, including the formation process of ring-structures with and without molecular interactions, the accelerating effect of external magnetic fields, and the effect of biotin concentration on the structures of the rings. We define the small nonmagnetic particles as "petals" because the whole structure looks like a flower. The number of remnant ring petals was a function of the concentration of target molecules in the concentration range of 0.0768 ng/ml-3.8419 ng/ml which makes this protocol a promising method for biosensing. Not only was the formation process rapid, but the resulting two-dimensional colloidal system also offers a simple method for reducing reagent consumption and waste generation.