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Sample records for brunei

  1. Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Brunei's population characteristics, geographical features, history, form of government, and political and economic situation were briefly described. Brunei is a small country on the northwest coast of the island of Borneo. Estimated population size is 214,000 (1983), and the annual population growth rate is 0.35% (1971-81). Ethnically, the population is 65% Malay, 20% Chinese, and 15% other. The major religion is Islam, and a variety of languages are spoken, including Malay, English, Chinese, and Iban. Education is compulsory through the primary grades, and the literacy rate among the young is 95%. Between the 1500s and the 1800s, the country was a Buddhist kingdom, then a Hindu kingdom, and finally an Islamic kingdom. In 1847 the Sultan of Brunei entered into a trade agreement with Great Britain, and in 1888 the country was placed under British rule. In 1929 the discovery of oil lead to the economic development of the country. During World War II, the country was occupied by the Japanese. In 1984, after resisting pressure to unite with Sarawak and Malaysia, Brunei was granted independence. At that time it adopted the official name of Brunei Darussalam. The country remains a hereditary sultanate, and the current sultan is Sir Muda Hassanal Bolkaih Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah. The sultan has supreme executive authority and is assisted in administering the country by a 6-person cabinet which includes 3 members of the royal family. 46% of the work force is employed by the government, and government workers are provided with an extensive array of economic benefits, ranging from free medical care to low interest loans. The economy is based primarily on the production of oil and gas, which is produced by Brunei Shell, a consortium owned jointly by the government and Shell Oil. Brunei Shell is the country's 2nd largest employer next to the government, accounts for 72% of the gross domestic product (GDP), and is the primary source of government revenue. Oil accounts for 99% of

  2. African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam. Home > African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  3. Extended investigation on road fatality in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N B; Hoque, M A; Steele, M C; Yong, S Y

    2018-06-08

    Road fatality is one of the leading causes of death in Brunei with 79 deaths in 1993, the highest ever recorded. The Brunei government has been trying to reduce this by implementing new traffic measures and successfully reduced fatalities to 24 fatalities in 2014. Yearly road fatality has been fluctuating, but there has been a declining tendency overall. The aim of this study is to investigate road fatality in Brunei by extending the research. We developed a multiple regression model and carried out an analysis on road fatality in Brunei. Our analysis indicates that the road fatality appears to rise depending on the increase in the number of young drivers between 15 to 24 years and the number of unemployed people. Comparisons of Brunei road fatality rate per 10,000 vehicles are made with some other countries and we conclude that Brunei has approximately the same rate as Australia in 2014.

  4. Coping Styles of Failing Brunei Vocational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Salleh, Sallimah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of two types of underachieving students (n = 246) (active failing (AF) and passive failing (PF)) in Brunei vocational and technical education (VTE) institutions and their patterns of coping. Design/methodology/approach: The field survey method was used to directly reach many…

  5. Child Rearing Study in Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosberg, Marilee A.

    In order to gather data on children's lives, language, and religious activities, and to gather data on child rearing practices in Brunei, a study interviewed parents from 38 Malaysian families having one or more children 3-8 years old. Results indicated that 92 percent of the children crawled when they were between 6-9 months old; 63 percent were…

  6. Awareness of BIM adoption in Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Motiar

    2017-09-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is getting increased attention day-by-day due to its many benefits, including clash detection, collaboration between contract parties, visualization future structure, optimized schedule and project control, waste control, design documentation, and harmonized facilities management. As such, many countries have already adopted BIM, and many other countries are exploring the potential of adopting it. However, it is still relatively new and unknown to some other countries like Brunei. This study was therefore undertaken to generate and/or gauge the awareness of Brunei construction industry participants, targeting adoption of BIM, through a structured questionnaire survey. Responses from 90 industry participants reveal that Brunei Construction industry is not well aware of BIM, lack the required technical knowledge and application in construction, and cost involvement. They are unsure about the potential benefits and barriers to implementing BIM. However, respondents are hopeful that BIM can bring the required changes in construction, willing to adopt BIM, expects cliental support with initial investment for its adoption, and believe that BIM is the future of construction project information management. On the whole, private sector was seen to be more aware on BIM than public sector. The study outcomes are expected to provide the policy makers a first-hand information on the industry awareness on BIM, which in turn help them for further exploration / examination and to design any action plan and guidelines for BIM adoption.

  7. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Brunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Brunei is a very small country consisting of only 5,800 sq km, and with only 150,000 people. Its main mineral products are crude oil and natural gas. It is hot and humid throughout the year being located only 4 degrees north of the equator on the island of Borneo. The sultanate of Brunei contains very thick sediments, some of which probably have the characteristics of a good uranium host rock for sandstone type deposits, but tacking a classic source, the uranium potential is minimal. Potential for other types of uranium deposits is likewise considered minimal. Therefore Brunei is assigned a potential in category 1 (less than 1000 tonnes U). (author)

  8. Kebijakan Pemerintah Brunei Darussalam Meratifikasi The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Alunaza SD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Health issue is one of national priority issue in Brunei in recent decades. Sultan of Brunei formed the seriousness of the health accord with the realization of the national development agenda Health Promotion Blueprint 2011-2015 and the Brunei Vision 2035. This paper is aims to answer the question why Brunei ratified the WHO Convention on Tobacco Control. This paper is an explanatory with qualitative approach. Data collection method in this research is through library with secondary data sources. All data are taken from books, journals, internet articles and other relevant data to the research. By using the theory of the rational actor model of decision making and the concept of health security, this research shows the policy taken by the Sultan of Brunei is a form of the Health Security of Government to the citizens. Sultan of Brunei ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control because of health issue is including in national development agenda. Various efforts to create Brunei Darussalam as a free smoke state in 2025 have been realized. The evidence of the successes policy of Brunei Government related to tobacco control shown by activities of imported tobacco is significantly decreased and also decreasing the number of smokers in Brunei in 2011. It was also offset by the increasing level of public health in Brunei and the achievement of some of WHO health targets as the Millennium Development Goals.

  9. Developmental Interdependence Hypothesis Revisited in the Brunei Classroom [and] A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Elizabeth M.; Saravanan, Vanithamani

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of developing the native language (L1), i.e., "Bahasa Melayu," as a firm foundation for the learning of a second language (L2) in Brunei and analyzes problems facing learners of "Bahasa Melayu" and English in Brunei classrooms. Saravanan's response focuses on the structure of the Brunesian bilingual…

  10. CODE CHOICE WITHIN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION AMONG ETHNIC MINORITY IN BRUNEI

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    Fatimah Chuchu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influences of globalisation and multilingualism have caused linguistic diversity and emergence of interesting and unique sociolinguistic phenomena, for instance, language contact in intercultural communication. As the study of intercultural communication has yet to be studied at large, this research takes the opportunity to embark on a descriptive study of code choice within intercultural communication, relating to the ethnic minorities in Brunei Darussalam. This investigation aims to identify these ethnics’ preferable code choice within intercultural communication, and their needs and motivations practising those codes in a shared multilingual setting. Involving empirical investigation, this study was conducted on 60 native Brunei ethnics in Mukim Ukong, Tutong District. Research found that study involving multilingual settings and intercultural communications are rather relatively complex sociolinguistic phenomena, where speakers would employ different dialects or languages at an episode of communication, but still mutually understood by each other. To some extent, some speakers also accommodate their speech styles or languages to ease communication process between parties. The hegemony of globalisation, local vernacular, speakers’ background and setting are among others influenced the selection of their everyday code choice.

  11. Measurement of global solar radiation over Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.Q.; Ak Abd Malik Abd Raub Pg Ghani

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface were carried out for a period of 11 months starting from June 2001 to April 2002. The pyrano meter (Kipp and Zonen) was placed at the top of the library building of University of Brunei Darussalam, which affords optimum exposure to the instrument sensor without appreciable obstacle for incoming global radiation. The maximum and minimum monthly-averaged global irradiations of 553 W/m 2 and 433 W/m 2 were recorded for the months of March and October respectively. The variation of global solar radiation can be divided into two distinct groups - the low radiation values being associated with cloud and turbidity while the high values are associated with less turbid and cloudy periods

  12. A new species of the genus Acarothrix (Acari: Halacaridae) from Brunei Darussalam and India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Marshall, D.J.; Guru, B.C.; Ingole B.S.; Pesic V.

    Acarothrix grandocularis sp. nov. is described from specimens collected in Brunei Darussalam and India. The new species is characterized by the presence of dorsal seta 1 on the posterior part of anterior dorsal plate, a triangular posterior margin...

  13. Teacher interpersonal behaviour and student attitudes in Brunei primary science classes classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, R.; Brok, den P.J.; Fisher, D.; Staver, J.; Zandvliet, D.; Tillotson, J.; Anderson, C. W.; Crawley, F.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between students’ perceptions of their teachers’ interpersonal behaviour and their subject-related attitude in primary science classes in Brunei. Teacher-student interpersonal behaviour was mapped with the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and reported

  14. The importance of teacher interpersonal behaviour for student attitudes in Brunei primary science classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, den P.J.; Fisher, D.; Scott, R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behaviour and their subject-related attitude in primary science classes in Brunei. Teacher-student interpersonal behaviour was mapped with the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and reported

  15. A multilevel analysis of teacher interpersonal behaviour and student attitudes in Brunei primary science classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, R.; Brok, den P.J.; Fisher, D.; Putnam, R.; Borko, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between students’ perceptions of their teachers’ interpersonal behaviour and their subject-related attitude in primary science classes in Brunei. Teacher-student interpersonal behaviour was mapped with the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and reported

  16. Rainfall interception from a lowland tropical rainforest in Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, A. P.

    1997-12-01

    Results from a programme of throughfall measurements in a lowland tropical rainforest in Brunei, northwest Borneo, indicate that interception losses amount to 18% of the gross incident rainfall. The high annual rainfall experienced by the study area results in annual interception losses of around 800 mm, which may result in total annual evapotranspiration losses significantly higher than in other rainforest locations. An improved version of Gash's analytical interception model is tested on the available data using assumed values for the "forest" parameters, and is found to predict interception losses extremely well. The model predictions are based on an estimated evaporation rate during rainfall of 0.71 mm h -1. This is significantly higher than has been reported in other tropical studies. It is concluded that these results are distinctive when compared with previous results from rainforests, and that further, detailed work is required to establish whether the enhanced evaporation rate is due to advective effects associated with the maritime setting of the study area.

  17. Village midwives and their changing roles in Brunei Darussalam: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah Haji

    2016-10-01

    There are lay midwives worldwide, interchangeably and universally called traditional birth attendants or traditional midwives by organisations such as the World Health Organization and the International Confederation of Midwives. This study aimed to explore the history of lay midwives (village midwives) in Brunei, describe the evolution from their previous to current roles and determine if they are still needed by women today. This qualitative, descriptive study included in-depth, semi-structured interviews with eight women who had received care from village midwives. Data analysis was based on the principles underpinning thematic analysis and used a constant comparative method. Village midwives have been popular in Brunei since the 1900s, with their major role being to assist women with childbirth. However, since the 1960s, their roles and practices have changed to focus on pre-conception, antenatal, postnatal and women's general healthcare. Traditional practices were influenced by religion, culture and the social context of and within Brunei. The major changes in village midwives' roles and practices resulted from the enforcement of the Brunei Midwives' Act in 1956. Village midwives' traditional practices became juxtaposed with modern complementary alternative medicine practices, and they began charging a fee for their services. Brunei village midwives are trusted by women, and their practices may still be widely accepted in Brunei. Further research is necessary to confirm their existence, determine the detailed scope and appropriateness of their practices and verify the feasibility of them working together with healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Service Quality in Higher Education--A Case Study of Universiti Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Farooq; Yaqoub, Yasir; Hamdan, Mahani

    2015-01-01

    No one doubts the value and importance of quality education, and quality assurance is one major driving force to achieve this. Measuring the performance of service quality of education services of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), as part of the quality assessment, was assessed based on Parasuraman's five Servqual dimensions. The assessment was…

  19. Miscue Analysis of Oral Reading among Less Proficient Readers in Primary Schools in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Juliana Bte Haji Abdul; Abosi, Okechukwu

    2011-01-01

    Reading disability is the most common disability. At least one in five children has significant challenges learning to read. This study focused on the oral reading performance of 30 Year-Three students. The students were identified as less proficient readers from two randomly selected primary schools in Brunei Darussalam. The oral reading…

  20. Extreme differences in forest degradation in Borneo: comparing practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Bryan

    Full Text Available The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak are global hotspots of forest loss and degradation due to timber and oil palm industries; however, the rates and patterns of change have remained poorly measured by conventional field or satellite approaches. Using 30 m resolution optical imagery acquired since 1990, forest cover and logging roads were mapped throughout Malaysian Borneo and Brunei using the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System. We uncovered ∼364,000 km of roads constructed through the forests of this region. We estimated that in 2009 there were at most 45,400 km(2 of intact forest ecosystems in Malaysian Borneo and Brunei. Critically, we found that nearly 80% of the land surface of Sabah and Sarawak was impacted by previously undocumented, high-impact logging or clearing operations from 1990 to 2009. This contrasted strongly with neighbouring Brunei, where 54% of the land area remained covered by unlogged forest. Overall, only 8% and 3% of land area in Sabah and Sarawak, respectively, was covered by intact forests under designated protected areas. Our assessment shows that very few forest ecosystems remain intact in Sabah or Sarawak, but that Brunei, by largely excluding industrial logging from its borders, has been comparatively successful in protecting its forests.

  1. Prediction of employer?employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah

    2017-01-01

    Lawrence Mundia, Salwa Mahalle, Rohani Matzin, Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria, Nor Zaiham Midawati Abdullah, Siti Norhedayah Abdul Latif Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer&nd...

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Aidia borneensis leaf infusion, an endemic plant in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metussin, N.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the total antioxidant capacity of Aidia borneensis leaf infusion, a Bornean endemic plant, which is traditionally consumed as a home-remedy beverage in Brunei Darussalam. The antioxidant capacity of the infusion of A. borneensis leaves was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging ability. We found that the infusion shows a relatively high antioxidant capacity, and it was attributed to its high phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents which were evaluated by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, colorimetric assay, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. By comparing its total antioxidant capacity, we estimated that the infusion of A. borneensis leaves is in the middle rank among twelve different commercially available Camellia sinensis teas. Our findings would have significant implications on A. borneensis products from Brunei Darussalam and on the feasibility of establishing this new beverage among the commercially available conventional C. sinensis and herbal teas.

  3. Role of occupational health in managing non-communicable diseases in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pg Khalifah Pg Ismail

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most ASEAN countries, Brunei faces an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. To deal with the complexity of NCDs prevention, all perspectives - be it social, familial or occupational – need to be considered. In Brunei Darussalam, occupational health services (OHS offered by its Ministry of Health, among others, provide screening and management of NCDs at various points of service. The OHS does not only issue fitness to work certificates, but is a significant partner in co-managing patients’ health conditions, with the advantage of further management at the workplace. Holistic approach of NCD management in the occupational setting is strengthened with both employer and employee education and participation, targeting several approaches including risk management and advocating healthy lifestyles as part of a healthy workplace programme.

  4. Educational Opportunities for Students with Disabilities: The Experience of a University Student in Brunei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridah Serajul Haq

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brunei, increased numbers of children with disabilities have been given educational opportunities in appropriate programs in schools. Students with disabilities have also succeeded in qualifying for higher studies on completing secondary education. However, there is a need for local university and colleges to cater to the specific needs of students with disabilities. This paper describes the experiences of a student with visual disabilities in Universiti Brunei Darussalam. The student emphasised his use of compensatory learning strategies, the accommodation available on campus, peer relationships and self-advocacy to communicate his needs. The support given to the student facilitated his academic success. The student is fully aware of his capabilities and his positive self-esteem has helped to overcome various setbacks. It is hoped that the information provided in this article will foster improvement in providing facilities for students with disabilities to learn in comfort and for the future enrollment of more students with special needs.

  5. A critical exploration of deaf young people’s underachievement in Brunei Darussalam

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Shahminan, Hajah Norbayah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This study employs qualitative methods to explore the tensions experienced by deaf young people with hearing parents, hearing parents with little or no experience of deafness prior to the birth of their deaf children and language teachers with a lack of skills and knowledge of deafness in the implementation of an inclusive education system in Brunei Darussalam. The empirical evidence I used t...

  6. An exploration of the internationalisation of the nursing and midwifery curriculum in Brunei Darussalam

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Abdul Mumin, Khadizah

    2013-01-01

    This study explored curriculum developers’ experiences of developing and internationalising the nursing and midwifery curriculum in Brunei Darussalam (henceforth: ‘Brunei’), and students’ and graduates’ views of learning from the curriculum. The internationalisation of the curriculum, in education generally and health care and nursing in particular, has featured as a phenomenon in much global literature, describing attempts to ensure that curricula are fit for purpose, both to meet globally a...

  7. Genetic stock compositions and natal origin of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging at Brunei Bay

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    Juanita Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetics composition and growth stages of endangered green turtles, as well as the connectivity between nesting and foraging grounds is important for effective conservation. A total of 42 green turtles were captured at Brunei Bay with curved carapace length ranging from 43.8 to 102.0 cm, and most sampled individuals were adults and large juveniles. Twelve haplotypes were revealed in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Most haplotypes contained identical sequences to haplotypes previously found in rookeries in the Western Pacific, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity indices of the Brunei Bay were 0.8444±0.0390 and 0.009350±0.004964, respectively. Mixed-stock analysis (for both uninformative and informative prior weighting by population size estimated the main contribution from the Southeast Asian rookeries of the Sulu Sea (mean ≥45.31%, Peninsular Malaysia (mean ≥17.42%, and Sarawak (mean ≥12.46%. Particularly, contribution from the Sulu Sea rookery was estimated to be the highest and lower confidence intervals were more than zero (≥24.36%. When estimating contributions by region rather than individual rookeries, results showed that Brunei Bay was sourced mainly from the Southeast Asian rookeries. The results suggest an ontogenetic shift in foraging grounds and provide conservation implications for Southeast Asian green turtles.

  8. Foreign Language Learners' Motivation and Its Effects on Their Achievement: Implications for Effective Teaching of Students Studying Japanese at Universiti Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Minako; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of students at the University of Brunei Darussalam are studying the Japanese language. However, research on the relationship between learners' motivation and their achievement has not been given sufficient attention in Japanese foreign language education compared to English in Brunei. The present study, which utilized a…

  9. Psychosocial Work Stressors, Work Fatigue, and Musculoskeletal Disorders: Comparison between Emergency and Critical Care Nurses in Brunei Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Abdul Rahman, BHSc

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study has provided good estimates for the exposure rate of psychosocial work stressors, work-related fatigue, and musculoskeletal disorders among nurses in Brunei. It provided important initial insight for nursing management and policymakers to make informed decisions on current and future planning to provide nurses with a conducive work environment.

  10. The total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of selected plant leaves commonly consumed in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watu, Aswani; Metussin, Nurzaidah; Yasin, Hartini M.; Usman, Anwar

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of several selected plants, namely Centella asiatica, Aidia borneensis and Anacardium occidentale, which are grown and traditionally consumed in Brunei Darussalam. The total antioxidant capacities of aqueous-methanolic infusions of their leaves were measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and microscopic fluorescence images were measured to identify the fluorescent substances bound in the leaves. We found that the total antioxidant capacity of their infusions is estimated to be 150, 25, 15 folds, respectively, lower compared with that of the standard gallic acid. Accordingly, we demonstrated that the relative antioxidant activity of young and matured leaves agrees with the intensity of red light emission of their fresh leaves upon UV excitation. Thus, this non-invasive spectroscopic method can be potentially utilized to indicate the antioxidants in plant leaves qualitatively.

  11. Psychosocial Work Stressors, Work Fatigue, and Musculoskeletal Disorders: Comparison between Emergency and Critical Care Nurses in Brunei Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Hanif; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Little evidence estimated the exposure of psychosocial work stressors, work-related fatigue, and musculoskeletal disorders for nurses working in South-East Asian region, and research on this subject is almost nonexistent in Brunei. The main aim of our study was to provide a comprehensive exploration and estimate exposure of the study variables amongst emergency (ER) and critical care (CC) nurses in Brunei. The study also aims to compare whether experiences of ER nurses differ from those of CC nurses. This cross-sectional study was implemented in the ER and CC departments across Brunei public hospitals from February to April 2016 by using Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II, Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery scale, and Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire. In total, 201 ER and CC nurses (82.0% response rate) participated in the study. Quantitative demands of CC nurses were significantly higher than ER nurses. Even so, ER nurses were 4.0 times more likely [95% confidence interval (2.21, 7.35)] to experience threats of violence, and 2.8 times more likely [95% confidence interval: (1.50, 5.29)] to experience chronic fatigue. The results revealed that nurses experienced high quantitative demands, work pace, stress, and burnout. High prevalence of chronic and persistent fatigue, threats of violence and bullying, and musculoskeletal pain at the neck, shoulder, upper and lower back, and foot region, was also reported. This study has provided good estimates for the exposure rate of psychosocial work stressors, work-related fatigue, and musculoskeletal disorders among nurses in Brunei. It provided important initial insight for nursing management and policymakers to make informed decisions on current and future planning to provide nurses with a conducive work environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. KANUNISASI FIKIH JINAYAT KONTEMPORER Studi Materi Muatan Qānūn Jināyat Aceh dan Brunei Darussalam

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    Samsudin Aziz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will view specifically codification of Islamic Criminal Law in `Muslim community, such as Brunei Darussalam, a country based on Islamic principles, and Aceh is a part of Indonesian territory administratively, granted special autonomy to implement Islamic Sharia. Despite having different qualities, -as a country and a province- both have in common as a political power which apply Islamic Criminal Law. Refer to both qānūn jināyat in Brunei and Aceh, the author’ll explain the substance of the criminal law in both area, while also reinforces the implementation of Islamic Criminal Law in the framework of a modern state. The article concludes that basically the application of Islamic Sharia, particularly the Islamic Criminal Law, is closely related to the situation and socio-political conditions of a community or country. The differences of political system, for example, has contributed to the difference in the output of product or policy made by a particular country or territory. On the other hand, Brunei and the Aceh case show that there has been adjustment Islamic Criminal Law specifically set forth in the books of fiqh (as illustration of the Qur'an and Sunnah with the needs of the community itself

  13. Prediction of employer–employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers

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    Mundia L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Salwa Mahalle, Rohani Matzin, Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria, Nor Zaiham Midawati Abdullah, Siti Norhedayah Abdul Latif Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer–employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer; obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer–employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer–employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer–employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated

  14. Spatial variation of natural terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates in Brunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.; Lai, K.K.; Manato, S.; Kodaira, K.

    1998-01-01

    A carbon survey of natural terrestrial gamma-rat dose rates along the main roads of the western part of Brunei Darussalam was carried out using two portable type 1.5 φ x 4 NaI(TI) and 1 φ x 2 NaI(TI) scintillation counters. A series of semicontinuous count rates measurements were performed inside a moving vehicle. This yielded equal-distance data which were analysed statistically to obtain the spatial variation of the natural terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates. The equal-distance data of dose rates were obtained by correcting for shielding effect of the car. The thickness of the pavement and the contribution from the pavement material were estimated from a correlation curve between the dose rates measured on pavements and on the nearby soils. A spectral analysis of the equal-distance data enabled us to clarify the structure of the spatial variation in dose rates. The data could be reasonably smoothened by removing the random noise components in a higher wave number region. (author). 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Spatial variation of natural terrestrial γ-ray dose rates in Brunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.; Lai, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    A carborne survey of natural terrestrial y-ray dose rates along the main roads of the western part of Brunei Darussalam was carried out using two portable type 1.5'φx4' NaI(T1) and 1'φx2' NaI(T1) scintillation counters. A series of semicontinuous count rates measurements were performed inside a moving vehicle. This yielded equal-distance data which were analysed statistically to obtain the spatial variation of the natural terrestrial γ-ray dose rates. The equal-distance data of dose rates were obtained by correcting for shielding effect of the car. The thickness of the pavement and the contribution from the pavement material were estimated from a correlation curve between the dose rates measured on pavements and on the nearby soils. A spectral analysis of the equal-distance data enabled us to clarify the structure of the spatial variation in dose rates. The data could be reasonably smoothened by removing the random noise components in a higher wave number region

  16. Konsepsi Pidana Hudud dalam Qanun Jinayat Aceh-Indonesia dan Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharis Mabrur

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: Although derive from Malay Islam-Sunni Shafeites, the hudud in Islamic Criminal Canon of Aceh and Brunei is indicated to be worded differently, whereas conceptually is known as a “definitive matter”, so it’s interesting to find out how the actual conception is, its implications, as well as things impacting. This normative legal research shows: although showing "red thread" with classical fiqh thought but overall it seems to be more moderate and suit generic of Aceh-Indonesia, so substantively different from KHJB that is purely represent Shafeite thought; the conception has implication on the mixing of hudud and ta’zir in the hudud criminal weighting context of QJA; and the both conceptions is interfered by the existence of paradigm of Islamic law legislation. It is recommended that the substance of QJA is arranged comprehensively and systematically based on its classification; to avoid the mixing of hudud and ta'zir in the crimes wording of hudud, the QJA could find the comparison of a “two-criminal law formulation” in KHJB; and as the living law it is alright that the fiqh of Shafi’i is prevailed in Islamic law process but by persist to prioritize the relevant aspect and without limiting the thought creativity.

  17. Effects of moisture content on coarse woody debris respiration in a tropical rainforest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Y.; Li, G.; Han, S. H.; Abu Salim, K.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since coarse woody debris (CWD) respiration (Rcwd) has an important role in carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems, it is a significant parameter in an investigation of CWD decomposition rate. Rcwd is known as to be influenced not only by environmental factors but also by CWD properties (e.g., moisture content). This study investigated the effects of CWD moisture content on Rcwd in a lowland mixed Dipterocarp tropical rainforest of Brunei Darussalam. CWDs in the forest were selected and categorized into two decay classes (sound and partially decomposed), and three diameter classes (10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, more than 30 cm). Samplings of CWDs were conducted in February and October, 2016. The fresh weight and Rcwd of the samples were measured within 24 h of sampling. Rcwd measurements were conducted using a closed chamber system with a diffusion-type, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor. In February, the fresh weight and Rcwd of the samples were remeasured, after submerging them in the fresh water for 24, 48, and 72 h. The Rcwd increased significantly with moisture content in February (r2=0.25, p0.05). Rcwd was lowest in the largest diameter class (p0.05). On the basis of these results, the Rcwd in this site was in the range of Rcwd in previous studies conducted in other tropical rainforests. Rcwd increased with moisture content, however, the contribution of moisture content to changes in Rcwd might not be influential during the eight months study period.*Supported by research grants from the Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01).

  18. Respiratory symptoms of vendors in an open-air hawker center in brunei darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazurah Bt Abdul Wahid, Nurul Nor; Balalla, N B P; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied respiratory problems among vendors exposed to cooking fumes in an open-air hawker center. Exposure to cooking fumes from either the use of fossil fuels or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been shown to be associated with adverse respiratory health effects. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 67 food vendors exposed to cooking fumes as well as 18 merchandise sellers at an open-air hawker center in Brunei Darussalam. Past medical and smoking history and exposure to cooking fumes were obtained. The validated American Thoracic Society Questionnaire with a translated Malay version was used to ask for respiratory symptoms. Compared to merchandise sellers (n = 18), cooking vendors (n = 67) had a higher self-reported respiratory symptoms (50.7% for those cooking and 33.3% for merchandise sellers). Cough (28.3%) was the main respiratory symptom experienced in cooking vendors and breathlessness (22.2%) among merchandise sellers. Half (50.0%) of cooking vendors who worked for more than 10 years had cough and 27.3% had phlegm. Those cooking with charcoal were two times more likely to have cough than those cooking with LPG. Cooking vendors with a job duration of more than 10 years were thrice more likely to have cough. Cooking vendors in the open-air hawker center exposed to cooking fumes had more respiratory symptoms compared to non-exposed merchandise sellers. The type of fuel used for cooking and duration of work was associated with increased prevalence of cough.

  19. CSR in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods Retail Industry of Brunei Darussalam and its Influence on Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Suria, Siti Fatimah Masayu

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is on the subject of corporate social responsibility (CSR), specifically looking at CSR in one of Brunei Darussalam's industries, to shed some light on the state of CSR in the country. The Fast moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) retail industry is chosen and three of the largest local firms are involve in the study. The main objective of the study is to find out the extent of CSR in these companies and to see if CSR has permeated into their supply chain management. A qualitative m...

  20. ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN THE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGH LEARNING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NEGARA BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

    OpenAIRE

    Mahayudin Hj Yahaya

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the term of `Umran made by Ibn Khaldun in the 14th Century A.D. with the aim to compare with other terms, notably civilization and urbanization practied by modern society in the context of development and management. The objective of the study is to identify the triangular theory of universal prosperity (ToUP/`Umran/) to be implemented according to the current situation and circumstances in line with the demands of Shari`a Law in Negara Brunei Darussalam. Among the focus o...

  1. Code-Switching in the Primary Classroom: One Response to the Planned and the Unplanned Language Environment in Brunei [and] A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter W.; Espiritu, Clemencia C

    1996-01-01

    Examines how the teacher incorporates elements of both "Bahasa Melayu" and Brunei Malay into content lessons and views code switching in the primary classroom within the wider framework of community language norms and the linguistic pressures on students and teachers. Espiritu shares Martin's concern regarding the quantity and quality of…

  2. Mesophotic mushroom coral records at Brunei Darussalam support westward extension of the Coral Triangle to the South China Sea waters of Northwest Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, D.J.W.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2016-01-01

    This communication reports the discovery of two additional fungiid coral species, Cycloseris hexagonalis and Lithophyllon spinifer, from a relatively deep shelf reef in Brunei waters. These new records plus two earlier excluded ones, Cycloseris explanulata and C. wellsi, raise the known number of

  3. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  4. Social Desirability, Non-Response Bias and Reliability in a Long Self-Report Measure: Illustrations from the MMPI-2 Administered to Brunei Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The survey investigated the problems of social desirability (SD), non-response bias (NRB) and reliability in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Revised (MMPI-2) self-report inventory administered to Brunei student teachers. Bruneians scored higher on all the validity scales than the normative US sample, thereby threatening the…

  5. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  6. Prediction of employer-employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer-employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer); obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer-employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer-employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer-employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated with and predicted employer-employee relationship problems in Brunei public and private sector workers. Having identified these, the next step, efforts and priority should be directed at addressing the presenting issues via counseling and psychotherapy with affected employees. Further research is recommended to understand better the problem and its

  7. Prediction of employer–employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer–employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer); obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer–employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer–employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer–employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated with and predicted employer–employee relationship problems in Brunei public and private sector workers. Having identified these, the next step, efforts and priority should be directed at addressing the presenting issues via counseling and psychotherapy with affected employees. Further research is recommended to understand better the

  8. Application of best practice for setting minimum energy efficiency standards in technically disadvantaged countries: Case study of Air Conditioners in Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Setting MEPS requires significant data, financial resources and technical capacity. • Application of best practice in technical disadvantaged countries (TDCs) was demonstrated. • Best practice was successfully applied to Brunei for its AC MEPS. • For Brunei, COP at 2.9 is recommended and 15% efficiency improvement is achievable. • The methodology is applicable to other appliances in any TDCs. - Abstract: Application of the best practice of setting minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in technically disadvantaged countries (TDCs) faces many barriers. The best practice of determining MEPS has a comprehensive analytical framework including engineering-economic analysis, life-cycle cost-benefit analysis, as well stakeholders’ and market impact assessments. However, TDCs usually are lack of reference product classes, market data, and other necessary inputs data. This study demonstrated how to overcome those barriers to apply the best practice to TDCs using the actual experience in setting initial MEPS for Air Conditioners (ACs) in Brunei from scratch with limited secondary data as an example. The series of application works include definition of the product classes and the baseline group; collection of market data; formulation of cost-efficiency relationship from the market data; examination of the economic, environmental, and financial impacts of various MEPS options; revealing of the consumers’ willingness to pay; and analysis of the impacts and responses from the industry and consumers. The coordination with the compliance of the Montreal Protocol was also considered. The methodology should also be applicable to setting MEPF for other appliances in any TDCs.

  9. The diversity and abundance of ground herbs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hazlina Zaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants are important components of total plant species richness in tropical forests. Ground herb diversity and abundance were studied in a lowland Mixed Dipterocarp forest (Andulau and a heath forest (Bukit Sawat in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. At each site, all ground herbs in twenty randomly selected 10 × 10 m subplots within a one hectare permanent plot were censused and identified. The study recorded a total of 20 families and 32 genera of ground herbs, with the family Zingiberaceae as the most abundant at both sites. Thirteen genera were recorded only at Andulau and 7 genera were exclusive to Bukit Sawat, with twelve genera common to both sites. Ground herb species richness appear higher at Andulau than Bukit Sawat (37 vs. 29, but this difference was not statistically significant at the subplot level. However, ground herb abundance and density were significantly higher at Bukit Sawat than Andulau (n =  846 vs. 385; 4230 vs. 1925 individuals ha-1. The more open canopy at Bukit Sawat may provide higher light availability here than at Andulau, which is characterised by a closed canopy. We suggest that light availability is the most important environmental factor influencing ground herb density and abundance at these sites. 

  10. Psychosocial factors, musculoskeletal disorders and work-related fatigue amongst nurses in Brunei: structural equation model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Hanif; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial factors, musculoskeletal disorders and work-related fatigue have adverse effects on individual nurses and place a substantial financial burden on health care. Evidence of an association has been reported in the literature, but no theoretical explanation has been published to date. To explore and develop a structural model to provide a theoretical explanation for this relationship. A cross-sectional study using data from 201 valid samples of emergency and critical care nurses across public hospitals in Brunei was performed via self-administered questionnaire. The structural equation model was assessed using partial least squares analysis. A valid and robust structural model was constructed. This revealed that 61.5% of the variance in chronic fatigue could be explained by psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal disorders pathways. Among the psychosocial factors, work-family conflict was identified as a key mediator for progression of musculoskeletal problems and subsequent fatigue through stress and burnout. This report provides a novel theoretical contribution to understanding the relationship between psychosocial factors, musculoskeletal disorders and work-related fatigue. These preliminary results may be useful for future studies on the development of work-related fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders, particularly the central role of work-family conflict. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stratigraphy and age estimate of Neogene shallow marine fossiliferous deposits in Brunei Darussalam (Ambug Hill, Tutong district)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, László; Briguglio, Antonino; Roslim, Amajida; Razak, Hazirah; Ćorić, Stjepan; Frijia, Gianluca

    2018-06-01

    The Ambug Hill in Brunei is an exceptional geological site where a series of siliciclastic rocks crops out with some layers extremely rich in marine fossils. Such fossiliferous outcrops are extremely rare in the northern part of Borneo and their description is of primary importance as their fossil content can be used to correlate the regional depositional sequences with global biostratigraphic zonations. In this work we present for the first time a detailed sedimentary profile completed with Sr-isotopes and biostratigraphic dating. The succession is divided into four sedimentary units. The first unit comprises bioturbated sandstone followed by a second unit of clay-silt rich levels whose first 9.5 m contain rich marine fossil assemblages. Calcareous nannoplankton data indicate a Late Tortonian - Early Messinian (NN11) age, which is confirmed by Sr-isotope dating derived from bivalves giving a numerical age range from 8.3 to 6.2 My. After a major emersion surface, the third sedimentary unit of sand- and siltstone lacks suitable fossils for bio- and isotope stratigraphy. The age of emersion and the related sedimentary gap can be either correlated with the Me1 (7.25 My) or the Me2 (5.73 My) sequence boundary. A fourth, thin sedimentary unit is recognized on the top of the profile with silt- and claystone beds without age diagnostic remains and calcareous fossils.

  12. Phytochemical screening, total phenolics and antioxidant activities of bark and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw from Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Iqbal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Goniothalamus velutinus Airy Shaw belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, antitumor and many other bioactivities. Natives of Sabah and Sarawak use root decoction of G. velutinus for the treatment of headache and food poisoning while the bark was used as a mosquito repellent. Bark and leaf extracts of this plant, obtained from Brunei Darussalam, were tested for phytochemical and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Quantitative determination of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and various in vitro antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP of methanolic extract was carried out using colorimetric methods. The total phenolic content, expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per gram of extract, was found to be 68 mg GAE/g and 78 mg GAE/g for bark and leaves respectively. The radical scavenging activity measurement, expressed in terms of EC50 (effective concentration of extract in μg/mL that reduces DPPH absorbance to 50% as compared to negative control, for leaf and bark extracts was found to be 155 μg/mL and 204 μg/mL respectively. Standards trolox and ascorbic acid show EC50 value of 5 μg/mL and 4 μg/mL respectively. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was measured using the ABTS and FRAP method. Result for bark and leaf extracts was 79 mg and 106 mg trolox equivalent (TE/g respectively for the ABTS method. For FRAP assay, results for bark and leaf extracts were 80 and 89 mg TE/g respectively.

  13. Plant DNA barcodes and assessment of phylogenetic community structure of a tropical mixed dipterocarp forest in Brunei Darussalam (Borneo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Salim, Kamariah; Chase, Mark W.; Dexter, Kyle G.; Pennington, R. Toby; Tan, Sylvester; Kaye, Maria Ellen; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a fast and reliable tool to assess and monitor biodiversity and, via community phylogenetics, to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes that may be responsible for the community structure of forests. In this study, DNA barcodes for the two widely used plastid coding regions rbcL and matK are used to contribute to identification of morphologically undetermined individuals, as well as to investigate phylogenetic structure of tree communities in 70 subplots (10 × 10m) of a 25-ha forest-dynamics plot in Brunei (Borneo, Southeast Asia). The combined matrix (rbcL + matK) comprised 555 haplotypes (from ≥154 genera, 68 families and 25 orders sensu APG, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2016), making a substantial contribution to tree barcode sequences from Southeast Asia. Barcode sequences were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood, both with and without constraining the topology of taxonomic orders to match that proposed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. A third phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the program Phylomatic to investigate the influence of phylogenetic resolution on results. Detection of non-random patterns of community assembly was determined by net relatedness index (NRI) and nearest taxon index (NTI). In most cases, community assembly was either random or phylogenetically clustered, which likely indicates the importance to community structure of habitat filtering based on phylogenetically correlated traits in determining community structure. Different phylogenetic trees gave similar overall results, but the Phylomatic tree produced greater variation across plots for NRI and NTI values, presumably due to noise introduced by using an unresolved phylogenetic tree. Our results suggest that using a DNA barcode tree has benefits over the traditionally used Phylomatic approach by increasing precision and accuracy and allowing the incorporation of taxonomically unidentified individuals into analyses

  14. Approach to voxel-based carbon stock quanticiation using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Piao, Dongfan; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Yoon, Mihae; Moon, Jooyeon

    2016-04-01

    Forest is an important means to adapt climate change as the only carbon sink recognized by the international community (KFS 2009). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sectors including forestry contributed 24% of total anthropogenic emissions in 2010 (IPCC 2014; Tubiello et al. 2015). While all sectors excluding AFOLU have increased Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, land use sectors including forestry remains similar level as before due to decreasing deforestation and increasing reforestation. In earlier researches, optical imagery has been applied for analysis (Jakubowski et al. 2013). Optical imagery collects spectral information in 2D. It is difficult to effectively quantify forest stocks, especially in dense forest (Cui et al. 2012). To detect individual trees information from remotely sensed data, Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been used (Hyyppäet al. 2001; Persson et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2006). Moreover, LiDAR has the ability to actively acquire vertical tree information such as tree height using geo-registered 3D points (Kwak et al. 2007). In general, however, geo-register 3D point was used with a raster format which contains only 2D information by missing all the 3D data. Therefore, this research aimed to use the volumetric pixel (referred as "voxel") approach using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei. By comparing the parameters derived from voxel based LiDAR data and field measured data, we examined the relationships between them for the quantification of forest carbon. This study expects to be more helpful to take advantage of the strategic application of climate change adaption.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards eating and physical activity among primary school children in Brunei: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murang, Zaidah Rizidah; Tuah, Naa; Naing, Lin

    2017-11-30

    Background Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. Many studies have been conducted to explore the knowledge, attitude and practices towards eating and physical activity amongst parents and healthcare workers. However, very little is known amongst children. It is imperative to understand these factors as they have been associated with obesity among children. Objective This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of Bruneian children towards eating and physical activity, in order to identify the factors that influence the development of obesity. Methods The study involved 353 children from four primary schools in Brunei. The data collection tool used was modified validated questionnaires with sections on demographic characteristic, knowledge about obesity, eating habits and physical activity. Results The majority of children (>60%) had good knowledge of obesity and intake of healthy food, but, 84.2% lacked knowledge on the required daily servings of fruits and vegetables. 68.8% purchased food and beverages from their school canteen. 93.8% were aware about the health benefits of physical activity and 70.2% spent only 1-2 h of screen time per day, however, 46.9% did not meet the recommended amount of physical activity although they reported to have performed enough. This suggested that a comprehensive education on food intake requirements and physical activity are necessary in order to better educate children. Conclusion Health educators and public health professionals may find our findings useful in order to plan and develop tailored interventions for children, as well as better promotion of a healthy lifestyle to children and their families.

  16. Plant DNA barcodes and assessment of phylogenetic community structure of a tropical mixed dipterocarp forest in Brunei Darussalam (Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Heckenhauer

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a fast and reliable tool to assess and monitor biodiversity and, via community phylogenetics, to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes that may be responsible for the community structure of forests. In this study, DNA barcodes for the two widely used plastid coding regions rbcL and matK are used to contribute to identification of morphologically undetermined individuals, as well as to investigate phylogenetic structure of tree communities in 70 subplots (10 × 10m of a 25-ha forest-dynamics plot in Brunei (Borneo, Southeast Asia. The combined matrix (rbcL + matK comprised 555 haplotypes (from ≥154 genera, 68 families and 25 orders sensu APG, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2016, making a substantial contribution to tree barcode sequences from Southeast Asia. Barcode sequences were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood, both with and without constraining the topology of taxonomic orders to match that proposed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. A third phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the program Phylomatic to investigate the influence of phylogenetic resolution on results. Detection of non-random patterns of community assembly was determined by net relatedness index (NRI and nearest taxon index (NTI. In most cases, community assembly was either random or phylogenetically clustered, which likely indicates the importance to community structure of habitat filtering based on phylogenetically correlated traits in determining community structure. Different phylogenetic trees gave similar overall results, but the Phylomatic tree produced greater variation across plots for NRI and NTI values, presumably due to noise introduced by using an unresolved phylogenetic tree. Our results suggest that using a DNA barcode tree has benefits over the traditionally used Phylomatic approach by increasing precision and accuracy and allowing the incorporation of taxonomically unidentified individuals

  17. Sociodemographic variables and social values: relationship with work-attendance problems in Brunei public- and private-sector employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study investigated the degree to which selected sociodemographic variables and social values were related to work-attendance problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public- and private-sector employees and the nature of this relationship. Materials and methods This quantitative study used the field-survey approach to administer research instruments directly to participants. This enabled the researchers to help participants who needed assistance in completing the measures properly, so as to increase the number of usable returns. Results Two sociodemographic variables (seeking help from a counselor/psychologist and marital status) correlated significantly with work attendance. Private-sector employees were more likely to have work-attendance problems than government workers. Both single and married employees and the chief wage earner in the household were more likely to have work-attendance issues to deal with compared to their counterparts. However, employees who sought help from a counselor/psychologist were far less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to those who did not get such help. The most significant social-value correlates with work-attendance problems were interpersonal communication, employer–employee relationship, work-stress problems, self-presentation, self-regulation, self-direction, and interpersonal trust. Self-regulation, self-direction, and satisfaction with work-related achievements significantly predicted work-attendance problems positively, while interpersonal communication problems and work-stress problems predicted work-attendance problems negatively. Low scorers on self-regulation and self-direction, as well as on satisfaction with work-related achievements, were more likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high scorers. However, low scorers on interpersonal communication and work-stress problems were less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high-scoring peers. Conclusion Ample

  18. Modernity and Globalisation: Is the Presence of English and of Cultural Products in English a Sign of Linguistic and Cultural Imperialism? Results of a Study Conducted in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at language use and attitudes in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia through a survey conducted among 88 university students for each country. The focus of the article, however, is on the expanding use of English, particularly as far as media consumption is concerned, relating this with issues of globalisation and linguistic and…

  19. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behara Satyanarayana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%, followed by Sundar (27% and Limbang (15%. The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%. The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  20. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present. PMID:29479500

  1. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Behara; M Muslim, Aidy; Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite-ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method-PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans , Rhizophora apiculata , Sonneratia caseolaris , S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok-suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  2. A review of the genus Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with description of five new species from Brunei, Hong Kong and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Martin, Jon H

    2018-03-28

    The whitefly genus Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi is reviewed using types and determined specimens. The generic diagnosis is redefined together with description of five new species: T. bruneiensis Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Brunei, T. crypta Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Hong Kong, and T. ordo Dubey Martin sp. nov., T. aequalis Dubey Martin sp. nov. and T. variabilis Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Malaysia. New species descriptions are accompanied with camera lucida drawings and microphotographs of holotype and paratypes. Tuberaleyrodes actinodaphnis Takahashi is elevated from its status as a variety of T. machili Takahashi to species level. Lectotypes are selected for T. actinodaphnis Takahashi Stat. nov. and T. bobuae Takahashi. Tuberaleyrodes actinodaphnis Takahashi is a new record to Taiwan. A new combination, Tuberaleyrodes glutae (Corbett) Comb. nov. is proposed for Dialeurodes glutae Corbett. Two species, T. glutae (Corbett) and Tuberaleyrodes spiniferosa (Corbett) are re-described, and placement of T. spiniferosa in the genus Tuberaleyrodes is confirmed. The genus Tuberaleyrodes is newly recorded from Borneo and Sulawesi. An identification key to puparia of Tuberaleyrodes species so far described is provided along with the countries of present records. Four plants families viz., Annonaceae, Fabaceae, Myristicaceae and Pentaphylacaeae are recorded as new hosts for Tuberaleyrodes species. New host plant records are indicated.

  3. Cross-sectional STEPwise Approach to Surveillance (STEPS) Population Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) and Risk Factors in Brunei Darussalam 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Sok King; Lai, Daphne Teck Ching; Wong, Justin Yun Yaw; Si-Ramlee, Khairil Azhar; Razak, Lubna Abdul; Kassim, Norhayati; Kamis, Zakaria; Koh, David

    2017-11-01

    This article provides a cross-sectional weighted measurement of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and risk factors prevalence among Brunei adult population using WHO STEPS methodology. A 2-staged randomized sampling was conducted during August 2015 to April 2016. Three-step surveillance included (1) interview using standardized questionnaire, (2) blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and (3) biochemistry tests. Data weighting was applied. A total of 3808 adults aged 18 to 69 years participated in step 1; 2082 completed steps 2 and 3 measurements. Adult smoking prevalence was 19.9%, obesity 28.2%, hypertension 28.0%, diabetes 9.7%, prediabetes 2.1%, and 51.3% had fasting cholesterol level ≥5 mmol/L. Inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables prevalence was high at 91.7%. Among those aged 40 to 69 years, 8.9% had a 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥30%, or with existing CVD. Population strategies and targeted group interventions are required to control the NCD risk factors and morbidities.

  4. Tsunami run-up and inundation along the coast of Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia due to a potential Brunei submarine mass failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wai Kiat; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2017-07-01

    Submarine landslides, also known as submarine mass failures (SMFs), are major natural marine disasters that could critically damage coastal facilities such as nuclear power plants and oil and gas platforms. It is therefore essential to investigate submarine landslides for potential tsunami hazard assessment. Three-dimensional seismic data from offshore Brunei have revealed a giant seabed mass deposited by a previous SMF. The submarine mass extends over 120 km from the continental slope of the Baram Canyon at 200 m water depth to the deep basin floor of the Northwest Borneo Trough. A suite of in-house two-dimensional depth-averaged tsunami simulation model TUNA (Tsunami-tracking Utilities and Application) is developed to assess the vulnerability of coastal communities in Sabah and Sarawak subject to potential SMF tsunami. The submarine slide is modeled as a rigid body moving along a planar slope with the center of mass motion parallel to the planar slope and subject to external forces due to added mass, gravity, and dissipation. The nonlinear shallow water equations are utilized to simulate tsunami propagation from deepwater up to the shallow offshore areas. A wetting-drying algorithm is used when a tsunami wave reaches the shoreline to compute run up of tsunami along the shoreline. Run-up wave height and inundation maps are provided for seven densely populated locations in Sabah and Sarawak to highlight potential risks at each location, subject to two scenarios of slide slopes: 2° and 4°. The first wave may arrive at Kudat as early as 0.4 h after the SMF, giving local communities little time to evacuate. Over a small area, maximum inundated depths reaching 20.3 m at Kudat, 26.1 m at Kota Kinabalu, and 15.5 m at Miri are projected, while the maximum inundation distance of 4.86 km is expected at Miri due to its low-lying coast. In view of the vulnerability of some locations to the SMF tsunami, it is important to develop and implement community resilience

  5. 14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

  6. Hand Injuries in the Oil Fields of Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Devkota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hands are essential organs and their agility and dexterity are vital to our daily lives. In the present study, we analysed 107 patients who presented at the local hospital with hand injuries sustained in the oil fields, oil industries and related employment sectors from the surrounding regions. All the patients were male and the mean age was 37.89 years (range,21-61y. Forty-seven (43.93% patients had simple cut injuries, 14 patients (13.08% had tendon injuries, 13 patients (12.14% had amputation of the digit (30.84% had bone fractures (including 20 (66.66% open fractures. Only 19 (17.75% patients were admitted in hospital for further treatment. Ninety-one (85.04% patients injured within one year of employment and 57(53.27% patients were not satisfied with instructions and orientation before starting their job. Hand injury is one of the most common injuries in the oil industry and overtime work further increases incidence of this injury.

  7. Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Quantum yield for B. berminyak were unaffected and it showed the least reduction in growth parameters studied when expose to salinity stress. From both salinity tolerance and genetic variation investigations for these 12 cultivars, it may probably be better to intercross between Arat (moderately tolerant) ...

  8. Emergence and nosocomial spread of carbapenem-resistant OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Brunei Darussalam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq Fikry; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Phee, Lynette M.; Wareham, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are identified as a major global health concern. The success of CRE is facilitated by the emergence, acquisition and spread of successful clones carrying plasmid-encoded resistance genes. In this study, an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant

  9. Re-Engineering Values into the Youth Education System: A Needs Analysis Study in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Tajudeen, Ahmad Labeeb; Nawi, Aliff; Mahalle, Salwa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a practical framework for designing a values teaching program in the youth education system. The choice of content, the nature of the students with respect to learning and their perception about the selected content for teaching values were studied. The study follows a Needs analysis design which drew upon document…

  10. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  11. A Delphi Survey on Citizenship Education in Asean Countries: Findings for Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Hajah Sallimah Haji Mohammed; Laxman, Kumar; Jawawi, Rosmawijah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Delphi Survey was to elucidate Bruneian Education experts' responses to five questions regarding their knowledge and understanding of the charateristics of citizenship education viz. Environment, Coexistence, Culture, Social Justice and Equity, Democracy, Sustainable Development, Interdependence, Foreign Language, Social Welfare,…

  12. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Suardi Wekke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available مستخلص:  حكومة بروناى دار السلام تقوم نشيطة بتنمية نموذج مثالى للتعليم وإدارة التربية الإسلامية بالوسائل التكنولوجية. وهذه المحاولة تدعمها مبادرة سلطان بروناى دار السلام بوصفه رئيسا للدولة. وهذه المقالة تكون معلوماتها مستمدة من حقائق الدراسة العلمية:   تكامل التربية الإسلامية واستخدامها وسائل الإتصال والإخبار التكنولجية فى عملية التعليم. هذه المحاولة المتكاملة لها أثرها النافع فى إثراء المواد الدراسية للطلاب وفى تسهيل عملية التدريس. وما كادت هذه البرامج تمضى ثمان سنوات حتى حصلت الحكومة على الإرتقاء بمقدرة الطلاب، وباستيعابهم على المواد الدارسية، وبكيفية التقويم التربوي الأصلح, وباصلاح عملية تنظيم التربية الإداري. وهذه الدراسة تحصل على أن وسائل الإخبار والإتصال التكنولوجية تتساير وتقدم التربية الإسلامية تسايرا متكاملا فى ترقية ذكاء الطلاب. Abstrak:  Pemerintah Brunai Darussalam giat mengembangkan model pembelajaran dan administrasi pendidikan Islam dengan menjadikan teknologi sebagai fasilitator. Upaya itu didorong oleh prakarsa Sultan Brunai Darussalam, kepala negara sekaligus sultan negara itu. Makalah ini mengemukakan hasil penelitian tentang integrasi pendidikan Islam dan penggunaan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi. Integrasi tersebut memberikan manfaat dalam pengayaan materi dan memudahkan proses pembelajaran. Setelah delapan tahun berjalan, program itu mampu mendorong kepada peningkatan kemampuan siswa, penguasaan materi pelajaran yang lebih terarah, evaluasi yang berkualitas, dan perbaikan pengelolaan administrasi pendidikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa teknologi informasi dapat bersinergi dengan pendidikan Islam sehingga pembelajaran menghasilkan kecerdasan bagi peserta didik.

  13. The ecology and forest types of the peat swamp forests of Sarawak and Brunei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.A.R.

    1961-01-01

    The following is an author’s summary of the (as yet unpublished) thesis by Dr. J.A.R. Anderson of Kuching, Sarawak (see III. Personal news). Both the author and botanical science are to be congratulated with the completion of this important work, which we hope before long to see in print. The thesis

  14. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  15. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  16. The Impact of a Child with Autism on the Bruneian Family System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen J.; Mundia, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of parents' perspectives on family life with a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei) and the socio-cultural context in which these families function was conducted. It has been suggested that the impact of a child with a developmental disability, like autism spectrum disorder, on the…

  17. Herbaria, gardens, organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1998-01-01

    The ARBEC (ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation) Research & Development Team has compiled a comprehensive weblink of all ten ASEAN countries (i.e., Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). These links will

  18. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1990-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Topics include children's reading, nonstandard spoken Indonesian, English speech act performance, classroom verbal interaction, journal writing, and listening comprehension. (LB)

  19. To Stay or Not to Stay: Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations and Their Impact on Host Nation/Regional Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    conflicted claims. Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , Philippines and Brunei have continued to assert their territorial claims which have resulted in...broadcasts, newspaper announcements, and notices at tourist hotels to disseminate information about the security situation and evacuations to the

  20. The Coast Guard’s Critical Role as an Armed Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    security authorities. Although the Revenue Cutter Service under the Department of the Treasury was primarily responsible for the enforcement of taxation ...maritime exercises with Brunei, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia .15 Coast Guard cutters and Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs

  1. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    in Malaysia and the highest (10) in Brunei Duressalam. Stricter .... in line with the global findings that the introduction and enforcement of legislation on helmet .... Motorcycle helmet wearing behavior among Naresuan university students.

  2. Becoming a mathematician an international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Leigh N; Reid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Based on interviews, observations and surveys conducted in Australia, South Africa, Northern Ireland, Canada and Brunei, this book investigates the experiences and views of students and graduates in the process of seeking their identities as mathematicians.

  3. Nationalism: The Media, State, and Public in the Senkaku/Diaoyu Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Spratly Islands Dispute Brunei, China, Malaysia , Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam all claim sovereignty over a group of islands, rocks, and reefs in the...South China Sea, known internationally as the Spratly islands. Brunei, Malaysia , Philippines, and Vietnam claim only a portion, while China and...continued its attempt to manage both domestic support and negative consequences over the dispute. In March, the Diet adopted a resolution on the SDI

  4. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    and through which a major portion of world’s trade passes by sea. Territory claimed by China is also claimed in part by Brunei, Malaysia , the...comprises 10 Southeast Asian nations: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia , Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam. 30 U.S...media continues to be subject to Communist Party censorship . Against this evolving backdrop, the human rights question remains one of the thorniest in

  5. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  6. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  7. ARPA-NRL Laser Program - Semiannual Technical Report to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1 January 1974-30 June 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Johnson and R.G, Fijw!’r, I. Chem. I’hys P. Millet , i. Salamero, n. Brunei, J. Goly, Ü. Bl.inc, and J, L. fuysslri...Chem Phys. 53, 1004 (1970). i «. wnem. ’Reference 4. ’P. Millet , Y. Salamero, H. Brunei, ,1. Galv. D. Blanc and J.L. reysster, J, Chem...1973) . 7. N. Djeu and R. Burnham, to be published. 8. P. Jean , M. Martin, J.P. Barrat, and J.L. Cojan, Compt. Rend. 264B, 609 (1967). 9. J.P

  8. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    .... \\1\\ ASEAN Member countries include, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the... generation safety standards. The revised nuclear capacity target for 2020 is now 58 GWe. During the same timeframe, the State Council approved the 12th Five- Year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution...

  9. 8 CFR 212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... special humanitarian concern; and (iv) Poses no threat to the welfare, safety or security of the United States, its territories, or commonwealths. Any potential threats to the welfare, safety, or security of...) of this section: Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea...

  10. J97 as a tool to investigate the effects of the Southeast Asia smog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, M C; Morris, C; Dunn, R

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes the use of the J97 Health Surveillance System to monitor the effects of exposure to atmospheric pollution on the health of the Army population in Brunei. It shows that the J97 Health Surveillance tool is adaptable and can be used to rapidly set up a population-based health surveillance system.

  11. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T.

  12. Japan prime s LNG utilization expansion and supply power analysis. ; Structuring mutual reliance relationship with project partners is urged. Nippon no LNG riyo kakudai to kyokyuryoku bunseki. ; Projectter dot partner kan no shinrai kankei no kochiku wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    The Brunei Project is a joint venture among the Brunei Government, Shell and Mitsubishi Shoji, but when its supply began in 1972, the share ownership has consisted of Mitsubishi Shoji and Shell at 45% respectively and the Brunei Government at 10%. The mutual reliance relationship among the project partners has been built gradually in such ways as Shell has built an agricultural vocational school inviting professors specialized in agriculture from England. Mitsubishi has created a large-scale cattle breeding business and produced beef cattles under the severe tropical environment, with an unfortunate result that the production cost did not balance with the market price. Recently, three Japanese agricultural engineers have succeeded at last producing tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuces through endeavors of vegetable production by means of hydroponic processes. The Brunei Goverment is also planning to cultivate fish and shells. Meanwhile the voices from the working site stress strongly that the operation has been continued with the safety-first concept at all times.

  13. 77 FR 43133 - Request for Comments on Negotiating Objectives With Respect to Mexico's Participation in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... negotiating partners (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam... negotiating objectives for Mexico in the context of this proposed regional agreement. (b) Economic costs and... support the development of efficient production and supply chains that include U.S. firms in order to...

  14. 78 FR 26682 - Request for Comments on Negotiating Objectives With Respect to Japan's Participation in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ..., (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam... context of the TPP negotiations; (b) economic costs and benefits to U.S. producers and consumers of... businesses in trade, and support the development of efficient production and supply chains that include U.S...

  15. 75 FR 64778 - Request for Comments on Negotiating Objectives With Respect to Malaysia's Participation in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam), the USTR informed Congress... of this proposed regional agreement. (b) Economic costs and benefits to U.S. producers and consumers... trade, and support the development of efficient production and supply chains that include U.S. firms in...

  16. 76 FR 76479 - Request for Comments on Mexico's Expression of Interest in the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam, as well as the... following: (a) Economic costs and benefits to U.S. producers and consumers of eliminating tariffs and..., and the development of efficient production and supply chains. Public Comment: Requirements for...

  17. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... imported from Colombia or the Dominican Republic because of the finding of agromyzids, when such agromyzids..., Brazil, Brunei, Canary Islands, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Ecuador, Iceland, Japan, Korea... the inspector, they cannot be cleaned or treated, or if they contain soil or other prohibited...

  18. The Southern Kurile Islands: Shrouded in Eternal Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Kurile Islands?”44 during a meeting of the Japanese Diet on October 19, 1951. His initial answer was that the Northern and the Southern Kuriles were...Islands: Vietnam, China, and Taiwan, and 2) the Spratly Islands: Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Malaysia , Philippines, and Brunei. 7 John J. Stephan, The

  19. Promoting Japan and South Korea’s Role in East Asian Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    activity. 29 The Spratly Islands are currently claimed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , Brunei, and the Philippines30 while the Paracel Islands...The National Diet of Japan, The Constitution of Japan, November 3, 1946, linked from the House of Councillors Homepage, http://www.sangiin.go.jp/eng

  20. Characteristics and Pedagogical Behaviours of Good EFL Instructors: The Views of Selected Southeast Asian and Mexican SLTE Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kenneth G.; Lara Herrera, Romero

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the views of selected Southeast Asian and Mexican second language teacher education students regarding the characteristics and pedagogical behaviours of good EFL instructors. A total of 116 participants from Mexico, Brunei, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia, and Vietnam took part in the…

  1. The Forgotten Service: Determining the US Army’s Role in Shaping American Strategy in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    bombers 2,263 716 Tactical bombers 1,251 723 Fighters 3,456 1,897 Transporters 849 545 Naval aviation Land-based aircraft 204...ASEAN) is comprised of ten member states: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar , Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and

  2. Strategic Forum. August 2013. The Rebalance to Asia: U.S.-China Relations and Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    overweighted in the Middle East and underweighted in the Asia-Pacific.3 The phrase rebalance to Asia was intended to highlight the region’s heightened...Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru , Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam). TPP is an example of “open

  3. The translator status, the translation market and developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... article is an attempt to examine the sociology of translation in the development context of ten countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam).

  4. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brunei Darussalam, 1. Burkina Faso, 2. Cameroon, 1. Canada, 3. Chile, 3. China, 25. Colombia, 3. Côte d'Ivoire, 3. Denmark, 2. Ecuador, 1. Egypt, Arab Rep. 13 ... Peru, 1. Philippines, 11. Poland, 6. Portugal, 5. Puerto Rico, 1. Romania, 9. Russian Federation, 5. Saudi Arabia, 3. Senegal, 2. South Africa, 11. Spain, 4.

  5. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1992-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a sociolinguistic profile, teacher and learner views of language lessons, Malay-accented English and employability, reading difficulties, language culture disjunction, placement interviews, and…

  6. Measuring the Comprehensibility of Englishes within ASEAN among Aseans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Teo, Adisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on designing a comprehensibility test and a questionnaire for spoken world Englishes in Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore, and utilizing the test to investigate the comprehension of Burmese, Cambodians, Indonesians, Laotians, Thais and Vietnamese. We reviewed the demarcation of users of English based on Kachru's…

  7. 48 CFR 1852.213-70 - Offeror Representations and Certifications-Other Than Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...” means all work or service— (1) Exacted from any person under the age of 18 under the menace of any..., Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam, Korea...] (3) The Government will evaluate offers in accordance with the policies and procedures of FAR part 25...

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  9. : tous les projets | Page 71 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet traitera des effets de la croissance économique rapide dans la région du bassin du Mékong sur les emplois pour les jeunes. Région: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 1,029,600.00.

  10. Making Bilingualism Work: Developments in Bilingual Education in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakir, Ann

    1993-01-01

    Systems of bilingual education in three neighboring countries, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam are examined in an attempt to understand basic issues. These are all Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries that fall into the category of Small Young Countries as discussed in Pakir (1992a). (Contains 43 references.) (JL)

  11. Computers in Science and Mathematics Education in the ASEAN Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisayon, Vivien M.

    1989-01-01

    Compares policies and programs on computers in science and mathematics education in the six ASEAN countries: Brunei, Indonesia; Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Limits discussion to the computer as a teaching aid and object of study, attendant problems, and regional cooperation. (MVL)

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  13. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak project – progress and future activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.S.; Nadiah, I.; Eryani, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical forests in Borneo (Brunei Darussalam, Kalimantan, Sabah and Sarawak) are considered as one of the twelve mega biodiversity centres in the world. However, until now, there is no up-to-date or complete documentation on the flora of the island. The Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Project,

  14. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    Ashton, P.S.: A Manual of the Dipterocarp Trees of Brunei State and of Sarawak. Supplement. Borneo Literature Bureau, Rock Road, Kuching, Sarawak (Printed by Cathay Press, Hong Kong). 1968. viii + 129 pp., 15 fig., 20 pl. (photogr.), large 8°, clothbound. M$ 18.00 + postage M$ 1.30; bank charges of

  15. Keeping Special Forces Special: Regional Proficiency in Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    and traveled extensively throughout my AOR for work and leisure . I am now [serving] as an Army attaché in Southeast Asia and can go toe-to-toe with...Southeast Asia Brunei Darussalam Cambodia Indonesia Lao People’s Democratic Republic Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Timor-Leste Viet

  16. Herbaria, gardens, organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    Brunei Checklist Project — Mr. A. DAVIES started on 1 January 1994 at K. His main priority is to name specimens, edit the taxon list, and bring ‘neglected’ groups up to the standard of worked-up groups. Following an introductory period with Mr. L.L. FORMAN he began on Ficus and Myrtaceae, both of

  17. Integrating the Use of Interdisciplinary Learning Activity Task in Creating Students' Mathematical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanin, Hajah Umisuzimah Haji; Shahrill, Masitah; Tan, Abby; Mahadi, Mar Aswandi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the use of interdisciplinary learning activity task to construct students' knowledge in Mathematics, specifically on the topic of scale drawing application. The learning activity task involved more than one academic discipline, which is Mathematics, English Language, Art, Geography and integrating the Brunei Darussalam…

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  19. European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, E-MRS 󈨦 Scientific/Technical Symposia and Exhibition, Held in Congress Center - Palais de la Musique et des Congres - Strasbourg, France on June 16-19, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    INDUCED SECOND HARMONIC GENE - RATION, M. Anderson, P. Wilson, andM.C. Downer, Physics Department, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712...Bentoumi, A. Deneuville. CNRS-LEPES, BP166X, 38042 Grenoble 9, Fance ; F. Brunei, CNRS-Laboratoire de Cristallographie, BP166X, 38042 Grenoble 9

  20. The Significance of Social Relationships in Learning to Become a Vocational and Technical Education Teacher: A Case Study of Three Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Adeline Yuen Sze

    2013-01-01

    This article about workplace learning examines the learning of individuals in becoming a Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) teacher in Brunei. Drawing on research findings from a group of student teachers, it presents case study accounts of three individuals to illustrate the importance of social relationships in learning to become a VTE…

  1. Personal news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1960-01-01

    Mr G.H. Addison, Curator of the Singapore Botanic Garden, repatriated end 1959. Mr P. Ashton, Forest Botanist, Brunei, will return to England after expiry of his contract early 1950. He obtained a grant for some years to work out his data on various items, Dipterocarps and other trees, of Borneo, as

  2. Peaceful Twilight: Grand Strategy for a Power in Relative Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    similar disputes with Vietnam over the Paracel Islands and with the Philippines, Malaysia , Brunei, and Vietnam over the Spratly Islands in the South...predicted that the internet and greater access to information, even accounting for the effects of Chinese censorship , would lead to a rebirth of the 1989

  3. U.S.-China Partnership: Building Regional Synergy for Stability and Security of the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    control on its populace. For over sixty years, these controls have included extensive censorship of information in and out of the country. A...Anniversary Summit in 2007, the 10 full ASEAN Members (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam

  4. China: The Awakened Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    United States should abandon the issues of human rights or censorship ; however, U.S. leaders should limit open criticism of China over issues the...Paracels, Spratlys, Macclesfield Bank, and Pratas. Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , Vietnam, the Philippines, and Taiwan also in part, lay claim to the

  5. Rebalance to Asia and the Pacific: Leveraging Vietnam to Counter-Balance China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Invite Vietnam to participate in military exercises in the Pacific region ...................... 53 Increase military aid to Vietnam by... Malaysia is lying low, Brunei has solved its problem with China, Indonesia has no well-defined foreign policy on the subject, the Philippines has few...

  6. Malaysian and Bruneian micro-caddisflies in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Hydroptilinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan

  7. Chinese Grand Strategy: How Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) Fits in China’s Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    ensuing global depression . An electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) attack, from an ICBM, long range cruise missile, or satellite, detonated 400km over the U.S...Philippines, Malaysia , and Brunei all actively disputing some area of the South China Sea. There are several reasons for the intense competition as the area

  8. Hegemon and Potential Peer Competitor: An Analysis of the United States Security Strategy Towards China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    fundamental goals of ASEAN. Indonesia, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia are members. The ASEAN region...cannot name a single Chinese brand. By this stage in its growth path, Japan was boasting Sony , Honda, JVC and Toyota, to name but a few (The

  9. Maritime Domain Awareness: The Key to Maritime Security Operational Challenges and Technical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    series with the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia , Brunei, and the United States. Another example of regional collaboration is the South East...computers to choose from producers such as Sony , Fujitsu, Compaq, Toshiba, Macintosh or a custom-built PC. The selection depends on factors such as

  10. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    ABSTRACT. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a collaborative group of 10 countries. (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore,. Thailand, Vietnam) located in South-East Asia. In most ASEAN countries, the majority of road users are motorcyclists.

  11. LNG: in Asia, the demand should double by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In a well-documented study, ''Asia Gas Study'', published by the end of the first semester of 1996, the International Energy Agency (IEA) anticipated the doubling of the LNG demand from Asia, because of a more rapid growth of gas industry than for other energy industries. The regional gas trade should even triple by 2010. This study is the first from IEA about Asia and focusses on 6 key-countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. About 7% of the worldwide natural gas reserves belong to Asia but this self-sufficiency will fall rapidly. This paper summarizes the forecasting and uncertainties of natural gas demand from Japan, South Korea, China and India by the year 2010. LNG producers such as Brunei and Australia but also Papua-New Guinea, Vietnam, Alaska and Middle East are ready to supply the Asian demand. (J.S.)

  12. The relationships within the mathematical content of teachers’ lesson sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, M.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Roslan, R.

    2017-12-01

    This study explored how mathematics content is carried through by means of the problems presented during lessons. Following the definitions and the coding criteria from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study, a total of 163 mathematics problems were identified in the video- recorded lesson sequences of four Bruneian mathematics teachers teaching at the Year 8 level. These problems were classified according to the four basic kinds of relationships: mathematically related, thematically related, repetition and unrelated. Drawing on the mathematical content of the teachers’ lesson sequences, the findings revealed variations among the mathematical problems coded as repetition and thematically related, between the four Brunei classes. The aggregated results obtained from the four classes highlighted several points of discussion, such as the relatively higher proportion of repetition problems (52%) from one teacher in particular; the percentage similarities of thematically related problems for all four classes (ranging from 26% to 33%); and the incredibly varied results for mathematically related problems across the four Brunei classes.

  13. The Effect of Defense R&D Expenditures on Military Capability and Technological Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    as France, divide the expenditure between the civilian (power plants ) and the defense (weapons) sectors (Brzoska, 2005). Finally, enterprise...0.007092 0.008992092 114 Cuba 0.00617 0.007823069 115 Montenegro 0.005834 0.007397048 116 Rwanda 0.005678 0.007199252 117 Jamaica 0.005405 0.00685311...0.0001794 126 1043716034 121 Gabon 0.0001527 127 9138902194 81 Brunei Darussalam 0.0001447 128 14141361533 75 Montenegro 0.0001332 129 1292862098

  14. Classifying Vessels Operating in the South China Sea by Origin with the Automatic Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    p. 5) means to track voyage and safety related information in real time. Over time, massive amounts of information related to maritime operations... safety related messages from land based stations, navigation aids, and search and rescue (SAR) crews. All AIS messages are intended to encourage open...United States is the South China Sea. Eight countries, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , Singapore, and Vietnam

  15. Comparing Rising Powers: The Case of Pre-World War II Japanese Nationalism and Contemporary Chinese Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    comprised of five nations, including Thailand, Malaysia , Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. Since then, ASEAN has expanded to include Brunei...making it more difficult to ensure the safety of workers building OBOR infrastructure. However, Lu Shuling, former Chinese ambassador to Pakistan...projects in Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia , and the Philippines. China’s economic outreach stretches along its northern and western borders as well

  16. The Strategy-Legitimacy Paradigm: Getting it Right in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Jollibee” franchise in Basilan’s capital city, Isabela. Jollibee is similar to the McDonalds’ franchise in the United States. The decision by the Jollibee...Corporation to open a franchise on Basilan was made based not only on an assessment that the environment was secure enough, but also that the...link to the Brunei Darussalam- Indonesia- Malaysia -Philippines East Asia Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA). The BIMP- EAGA initiative was launched by the four

  17. The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-07

    proteins, butter fat, and dairy food preparations. These actions would likely result in the closure of thousands of small and medium-sized American dairy...eliminated.29 For its part, Brunei maintains a rigorous halal certification process, requiring on-site inspection for every establishment seeking to...Iron and Steel Foods , NESOI Special Classification Other Total 838 569 158 157 124 120 110 108 76 69 63 51 51 47 38 573 3,152

  18. Data collection, transfer and the development of national standards – critical components necessary for the success of a GIS in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2006-04-20

    Full Text Available Switzerland Thailand United Kingdom United States of America Slide 21 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za 30 Observing members of ISO/TC 211 Argentina Bahrain Brunei Darussalam Colombia Croatia Cuba Estonia France Greece Hong Kong..., International Association of Oil and Gas Producers Slide 23 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za External liaisons to ISO/TC 211 (2) • PAIGH, Pan-American Institute of Geography and History • PCGIAP, The Permanent Committee on GIS...

  19. Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    patterns of scarcity as demand for food, potable water, and suitable living spaces increases. Furthermore migrants tend to be low skilled workers who move...conditions for true crises: violent competition or coercive measures employed by armed groups to maintain control over scarce resources. Human...destinations for environmentally displaced people are Brunei, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore , and China.76 Precedent for Humanitarian

  20. ASEAN - China Free Trade Area : A quantitative study of Trade diversion and Trade creation effects on ASEAN - China trade flows

    OpenAIRE

    Duong Xuan, Vinh

    2011-01-01

    The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China have a long history of trading with each other. They are economic partners as well as competitors for many years. In order to push their economic relationship to a higher level, in November 2002, ASEAN and China signed the initial framework agreement, determined on establishing the ASEAN - China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) among the eleven countries by 2010 for the ASEAN-6 (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)...

  1. BAHASA MELAYU WAHANA KEDAMAIAN DI SELATAN THAI DAN NUSANTARA

    OpenAIRE

    Pahosan Jehwahe

    2015-01-01

    Bahasa Melayu adalah bahasa yang sangat penting di nusantara. Bahasa Melayu berperanan sebagai bahasa penyebaran agama, bahasa politik, bahasa pendidikan, bahasa perdagangan dan lain-lain. Dengan dijadikannya bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa resmi di negara Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei Darussalam dan Singgapura telah menjadikan bahasa yang menyampaikan pesan-pesan damai dan kebahagian. Bahasa Melayu tidak menjadi penghalang bahasa-bahasa lain berkembang bahkan mendukung memperkukuhkan perekonomian...

  2. Rebalancing: The Cost of Shifting to the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan.”3 2 While in Australia, President Obama highlighted some benefits of the increased presence in the Pacific. This change...to promote free trade with nine other countries: Australia, Brunei, Chili , Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam. 6 In...The using unit is responsible for compiling with all customs and agricultural inspections requirements. To better convey the benefits of the

  3. From Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2014-01-01

    Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the volume 15 number: 1 of TOJDE, In this issue, 18 articles of 34 authors from 9 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the tojde from, bBangladesh, Brunei, Greece, India, Indonasia, Malaysia, Republic Of Korea, Turkey and USA. The 1st article is arrived from Grecee written by Evangelos Bebetsos and Dimitrios Goulimaris from Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Democritus Unive...

  4. A Comparative Study of Costumes for Religious Festivals in ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jaruphan Supprung

    2014-01-01

    Aims of this research were to study the major religious festivals of merit making and joyful celebrations (nationwide) in each country of ASEAN countries and to compare the costumes for these major religious festivals among these countries. This documentary research employed qualitative research methodology. The findings of the research disclosed that there are 28 main religious festivals in ASEAN countries: 3 Islamic festivals in Brunei Darussalam such as Hari Raya Aidiladha Festival, Maulud...

  5. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 24 MAR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011...Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is an evolving regional free trade agreement FTA . The TPP was originally...an FTA among Singapore, New Zealand, Chile, and Brunei. The United States, along with Australia, Peru, and Vietnam, joined the negotiations in the

  6. The Next Arms Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    the case today. The real Chinese presence today is in the pervasive economic presence across the markets for consumer goods and food stuffs. Russia...Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia , and Vietnam. There is also the unresolved issue of the future of Taiwan. The spread of...investigation carried out to identify the source of the particles, it believed the particles could have been brought into the country through contaminated

  7. Re-emerging tiger economies boost gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the economic crises of Southeast Asia focussing on Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, Papua New Guinea. the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar, and discusses the recoveries, the countries' economies and the growth in the Asian gas market. Details are given of natural gas reserves, the production and export of liquefied natural gas, exploration and development, the use of gas for power generation, and the Pan Asian gas grid

  8. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Singapore Brunei Kenya South Korea Bolivia Laos Suriname Cambodia Malaysia Syria Canada Mexico Trinidad and Tobago Djibouti Myanmar Thailand Ecuador Nepal...34 Varicella Susceptibility And Vaccine Use In Young Adults Enlisting In The U.S. Navy." Shah KV, Daniel RW, Tennant MK, Shah N, McKee KT, Jr, Gaydos...Symposium, 17-20 April 2001, San Antonio, TX. Ryan MAK, Smith TC, Honner WK, Gray GC. " Varicella Susceptibility And Vaccine Use In Young Adults

  9. Littoral Combat Ship: Additional Testing and Improved Weight Management Needed Prior to Further Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    monohull design with a steel hull and aluminum superstructure, while the Austal USA Independence variant (LCS 2 and other even- Background Seaframe...including Singapore; Malaysia ; Brunei; and Indonesia. The ship also conducted some real-world operations as directed by the 7th Fleet, such as...requirements for service life allowances already fall short of the growth margins called for under Navy and industry recommended practice.21 Table 8: Navy

  10. Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    the Philippines for typhoon relief, Chinese participation in PEACE MISSION 2013 in July-August 2013, the goodwill voyage of the PLA Navy to South...ADMM+) in Brunei. The PLA Navy also conducted a goodwill tour to South America in 2013 from October until December aimed at improving...of advanced SAMs. These include the indigenous CSA-9 (HQ-9) and Russian SA-10 (S- 300PMU) and SA-20 (S-300PMU1/PMU2), which have the advertised

  11. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  12. JPRS Report. Environmental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-11

    groups Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and the Philippines . Aichi noted that Singapore, which has made tremendous efforts to...departments, the USSR Academy of Sciences has allowed tardiness in the formation of scientifically sound criteria for the popula- tion to live on...surprised by the tardiness of the refer- endum. It will be held eight years after approval of the AES project, six years after the start of work. Already

  13. China’s Use of Peoples War Theory in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Fishing Industry, in which he expounded on the importance of fishing China’s vast marine territories to meet the challenges of the rising demand for food ...conflicts with the claims of Taiwan, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines’ and Vietnam. Although all these countries, in addition to China, are...owned Baosha fishing corporation, provides an example of Mao’s concept of employing the population in a people’s war when he stated, “Vietnam seems like

  14. The role of tourism and exchange rate on economic growth:Evidence from the BIMP-EAGA countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah Harvey; Fumitaka Furuoka; Qaiser Munir

    2013-01-01

    Developing economies as well as developed economies recognized appropriate tourism policies will be an important factor in promoting economic growth. BIMP-EAGA (Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area) was conceived with the objective to speed up economic development among the four countries and one of which is focused on tourism. Focusing on annual data, this paper utilized the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error-correction modeling to evaluate if tourism ...

  15. The Multilateralization of Regional Security in Southeast and Northeast Asia: The Role of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    obligation of the Soviet Union of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia , the Philippines, to provide it at the expense of its own development. Singapore, and Brunei to... Malaysia , which still applicable to the United States and Japan than to the officially insist on an end to permanent Soviet Union. Proposals cover the...can large South Korean companies, including Hyundai, commit the nation and keep its word. After almost Samsung , and Lucky Goldstar, are enlarging their

  16. Teacher-student relationships in multicultural classes: Reviewing the past, preparing the future

    OpenAIRE

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution reviews research that links students’ and teachers’ ethnic background to students’ perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior, teacher treatment of individual students, and student achievement and subject-related attitudes. The review mainly includes studies from the United States, Australia and the Netherlands and a few Asian countries (Singapore, Brunei and Taiwan). The literature revealed that ethnicity is consistently associated with students’ perceptions of their tea...

  17. The Role of ABRI in the Post-Suharto Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-04

    Nations. It includes Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia , Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar. DPR. Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat . People’s...Suharto’s rule from 1965 to 1998. 5Indonesia has territorial disputes with Malaysia over the Sipadan and Ligitan Islands and the Kalimantan border. It...of the ABRI’s role will be captured. The research design is summarized in figure 2. Existing models E.g. Thailand, Burma, - Malaysia . Latin America r

  18. High activity levels nearly everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Far East. Large crude producing countries are upgrading their mature oil properties. Offshore gas fields are being found and developed as new pipeline infrastructures open several remote areas. Separate evaluations are given for China, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Pakistan, Myanmar, Brunei, Philippines, and briefly for Cambodia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mongolia, Taiwan, Afghanistan, and the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area

  19. Mitigating the Security Risks in the South China Sea Island Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    third of the global crude oil and more than half of global gas shipping passes through the South China Sea. 2 For the United States, $1.2 trillion...China Sea. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia , and Brunei contest the sovereignty of these islands. In recent years, China has become...Administration estimates that the South China Sea holds approximately 11 billion barrels of oil 2 and 190 trillion cubic feet of natural gas

  20. Managing the Growing Chinese Power in SE Asia: The U.S. Struggle to Maintain Power Projection in the Face of the Rising Middle Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Active Locations Spreadsheet from December 02, 2014. 32 Shannon Deebe and Mary Kaldor, The Ultimate Weapon is No Weapon (New York: Perseus Books ...available online at: https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1945-50Intel/d269. See also Kennan’s original hand-annotated draft dated April 30...to further add to the dispersed scheme, DLA-E needs to investigate sites in other politically viable locations such as Cambodia, Brunei, and Malaysia

  1. The United States -- India Strategic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    currently composed of the following countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia , Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam...Security,” 47. 66 Mohan, “India’s Geopolitics and Southeast Asian Security,” 50. 22 In 2005, India and Indonesia signed a framework agreement...officials accepting large bribes , and little military hardware as a result. There is also an institutional lack of risk-taking associated with

  2. ASEAN mining industry`s development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simatupang, M [ASEAN Federation of Mining Associations (AFMA), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    A report is presented on the potential and challenges of mining in the ASEAN region. Legal and financial provision, the and business climate for future investment is also discussed. One problem is the small scale of many of the mining operations, so special guidance is needed, especially in environmental matters. Specific discussion is presented of mining in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Brunei, and Vietnam and Myanmar. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Burma: Strategic Backwater or Strategic Fulcrum? U.S. Choices in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Ne Win’s dictatorship lasted until 1988. Isolation, socialism, ongoing conflict with the hill tribes, and pervasive repression and censorship all...Concern in the regime grew in the 2000s as sanctions mounted and the country’s financial situation worsened. The ruling party extended censorship ...Cooperation, which establishes a free trade area encompassing China, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, Singapore, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and

  4. The U.S.-China Military Scorecard: Forces, Geography, and the Evolving Balance of Power, 1996-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the Philippines and Vietnam, efforts should also be made with the states of Southeast Asia’s “southern tier,” including Indonesia and Malaysia . This...Hanoi THAILAND CAMBODIA VIETNAM LAOS MALAYSIA MALAYSIA BRUNEI PHILIPPINES TAIWAN INDONESIA South China Sea PhilippineSea Sulu Sea Palawan uzon Hainan...blocked pages hosted on U.S. cloud computing services, and simple proxy serv- ers, to circumvent censorship .83 Recently, however, China has become more

  5. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 4, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    agreements that could legitimize authoritarian governments’ censorship of the Internet. Cultural differences present a difficulty in reaching any broad...agreed to launch the ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA). The FTA between China and six nations of ASEAN—Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia , the...also arranged the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI)—now called the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM)—with Thailand, Malaysia , Indonesia

  6. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-30

    Croatia Bahrain Poland Cyprus Belgium Portugal Estonia Brazil Qatar Ireland Brunei Romania Latvia Bulgaria Russia Macedonia (FYR) Canada Saudi Arabia Malta...remainder dependent on traditional irrigation methods, some of these based on run-offs from or use of aquifers that are being degraded by deep water...Egypt Portugal Observers Estonia Qatar Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Finland Romania Relief France (co-chair) Russia Economic Cooperation

  7. Adjusting DICOM specifications when using wireless LANs: The MedLAN example

    OpenAIRE

    Banitsas, KA; Tachakra, S; Song, YH

    2003-01-01

    Wireless networks will become increasingly useful in point-of-care areas such as hospitals, because of their ease of use and their flexibility. A system called MedLAN has been developed by the Central Middlesex Hospital and Brunei University to take advantage of the above desirable properties of WLANs for use in accident & emergency departments to broadcast live, high quality video images and sound over a LAN or the Internet. However, in many cases, the limited available throughput of such a ...

  8. Benefits of International Diversification: The Case of Asian Emerging Equity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Apong, Matusin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The main purpose of this study is to examine whether, from the Brunei Investment Agency's perspective, the benefits of international diversification gain exist in equity investment in emerging markets in Asia. The quantitative research that was used is based on Markowitz's Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). This method utilized data from December 1998 to July 2005 for sixteen indices of developed and emerging countries. The countries selected for the study were grouped into devel...

  9. Privately Contracted Military Firms in the Twenty-First Century: Reclassifying, Redefining, and Reforming the Way We Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    government received the military training but Saudi Arabia, Malaysia , Kuwait, Brunei, and the United Arab Emirates funded the payment.31 Currently...the government during the Vietnam War, stating, “Why this huge contract has not been and is not now being adequately audited is beyond me. The...trivial problem because under nearly any conceivable set of arrangements civilian control is assured . To over–concentrate on it when it is appropriate

  10. MEMBANGUN SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP UNTUK MENINGKATKAN DAYA SAING GLOBAL (BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INCREASING GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS)

    OpenAIRE

    NABABAN, TONGAM SIHOL

    2014-01-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index or the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) In 2013 positioned Indonesia at ranked 76 of 118 countries. Compared with the ASEAN countries, the position are still far below Singapore (13), and still below Malaysia (57), Brunei Darussalam (58), Thailand (65). This fact shows that Indonesia has not been optimal in building its entrepreneurial yet. To enhance the development of entrepreneurship, the Indonesian government has launched ...

  11. Re-emerging tiger economies boost gas demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Victoria

    2000-11-01

    This paper considers the economic crises of Southeast Asia focussing on Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, Papua New Guinea. the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar, and discusses the recoveries, the countries' economies and the growth in the Asian gas market. Details are given of natural gas reserves, the production and export of liquefied natural gas, exploration and development, the use of gas for power generation, and the Pan Asian gas grid.

  12. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-12

    The TPP negotiating parties are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia , Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States, and...Korea’s progressive groups, who have opposed much of Park and Lee’s policy agenda and their governing styles . U.S.-South Korea Relations...banks can be granted an exemption from sanctions if the President certifies that the parent country of the bank has significantly reduced its purchases

  13. China's good terms and prosperity with ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Jianren

    2006-01-01

    The 15 years since dialogue was established between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have witnessed steadily improving relations between the two sides. ASEAN, founded in 1967, includes Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and Brunei. Despite being close neighbours, China and ASEAN did not have official relations until 1991, due largely to the negative influence of the Cold War. China and ASEAN's member countri...

  14. Perdagangan Bebas Asean-China Free Trade Areal (ACFTA) Terkait Industri Dan Iklim Investasi Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    TRI ATIKA FEBRIANY, SH A.21211057, Jurnal Mahasiswa S2 UNTAN

    2014-01-01

    Countries (Indonesia, Thailand , Malaysia , Singapore , Philippines and Brunei Darussalam) with China , which is called the ASEAN -China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA). These free trade is in the form of a tax rate reduction for goods on a regular basis up to 0% , the tariff reduction program framework of free trade between ASEAN and China, carried out in stages beginning on January 1, 2004 for EHP This thesis discusses about the implication problem of ASEAN - China Free Trade Area focusing on ...

  15. The Dual Function of the Indonesian Armed Forces (Dwi Fungsi ABRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    miles) from north to south. Indonesia’s 13,667 islands are nestled between two continents, Asia and Australia, and two oceans, the Indian and the...shares borders with Malaysia , Papua New Guinea and sea borders with Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, and 9 Australia. Indonesia’s Exclusive...Asian Nation (ASEAN), which it co-founded in 1967 along with Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore. Brunei joined in 1984. Indonesia was

  16. Assignment Problem for the U.S. Marine Corps: Regional, Culture, and Language Familiarization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    stations, such as rank, experience, duty preference, or gender . Prior to developing the MSGAT, the assignment personnel would have to manually assign...Zimbabwe, Zambia Mongolia, China , Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Chinese 14. Northeast Asia 10% (Mandarin), Taiwan Korean Brunei Darussalam...from: http://opensolver.org/. 68 Reinhardt, U. E. (1992). Reflections on the meaning of efficiency: Can efficiency be separated from equity ? Yale

  17. BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INCREASING GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    NABABAN, TONGAM SIHOL

    2014-01-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index or the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) In 2013 positioned Indonesia at ranked 76 of 118 countries. Compared with the ASEAN countries, the position are still far below Singapore (13), and still below Malaysia (57), Brunei Darussalam (58), Thailand (65). This fact shows that Indonesia has not been optimal in building its entrepreneurial yet. To enhance the development of entrepreneurship, the Indonesian government has launched a...

  18. Computational Intelligence in Information Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien-Wan; Omar, Saiful

    2017-01-01

    This book constitutes the Proceedings of the Computational Intelligence in Information Systems conference (CIIS 2016), held in Brunei, November 18–20, 2016. The CIIS conference provides a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and to present new research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications. The 26 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully selected from 62 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.

  19. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-24

    FTA). Originally formed as an FTA among Singapore, New Zealand, Chile , and Brunei, the TPP is now an agreement under negotiation among the original...a final agreement, if one is reached. Japan’s Demographic Challenge Japan’s combination of a low birth rate, strict immigration practices, and a...social safety net.47 Japan’s immigration policies have traditionally been strictly limited, closing one potential source of new workers Selected

  20. The Dynamics of Malay Culture in West Kalimantan in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ahyat, Ita Syamtasiyah

    2014-01-01

    There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan, which can be divided into two broad categories: (1) Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan (West Kalimantan) or contemporary Malays and (2) local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays. Contemporary Malays are Malay people who came from various areas in Sumatra, Riau Islands, Malay peninsula, East Malaysia (Serawak and Sabah States), and Brunei Darussalam. This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay cult...

  1. Causes of shortage and delay in material supply: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Yap, Y. H.; Ramli, N. R.; Dullah, M. A.; Shamsuddin, M. S. W.

    2017-11-01

    Shortage and delay in materials supply is argued to be one of the most important factors that lead to delay in construction project delivery globally. However, the relevant underlying reasons vary from country to country. As such, this paper summarises the outcomes of a study that targeted identifying causes of shortage and delay in materials supply in Brunei Darussalam. The study was conducted through fifteen semi-structured interviews of contractors and materials suppliers in Brunei. The study identified six causes of shortageof materials and nine causes of delay in materials supply in Brunei. The most importantcausefor shortage of materials relates to the origin or availability of construction materials. On the other hand, the most influential cause of delay in material supply was found to be poor materials procurement and inventory management system, which has other underlying reasons such as late identification of the type of materials needed. The observations are expected to help in formulating or reviewing relevant policies, in order to ensure on-time project delivery.

  2. Developing an Independence State: Some Insights from Qalam Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norziati Mohd Rosman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is to identify a few concepts on independence and proposed a necessary approach in developing an identity of the country by analysing articles written in Qalam periodicals by three figures, Edrus, Dr Burhanuddin al-Helmy and Muhammad Isa Anshary. Qalam is a socio-politics periodical in Jawi script published in Singapore in 1950 until 1969. By analysing the writings, it is believed that proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945 inspired to the development of Malaysia as a sovereign country and influenced readers in Malaya, Singapore and Brunei in which their countries were still struggling for independence.

  3. The diplomacy of scientific research in the South China Sea: the case of join to oceanographic marine scientific research expedition between Vietnam and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyawan, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The South China Sea is one of the hot-spot areas in the world. This area is claimed by China, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Vietnam and the Philippines. It also noted, the South China Sea is rich in biodiversity as well as oil and gas. On the other side, environmental degradation is still happening in the South China Sea due to the reluctance of surrounding states to conduct a preservation program and mitigating action on climate change effects. Joint Oceanographic Marine Scientific Research Expedition between Vietnam and the Philippines is a breakthrough to start collaboration actions as well as to conduct Science Diplomacy.

  4. Environment and security in the South China Sea region : the role of experts, non-governmental actors and governments in regime building processes

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Background: The Spratly islands in the South China Sea are today the focal point of a territorial dispute that represents a serious threat to the regional security in Southeast Asia. Six governments - China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei - have laid claims to all or some of the more than 230 islets, reefs and shoals in the Spratly area. The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a key player in the South China Sea conflict. However, the South China Sea is not jus...

  5. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa

  6. Coercive Levers in Chinese Economic Statecraft: Attributed Across Earth, Rarely Apparent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines and Brunei) and the CLMV (Cambodia, Laos , Myanmar, Vietnam) economies by skewing development...Earths Industry and its Role in the International Market,” 2–3. 186 Tse Pui-Kwan, “China’s rare-earth industry,” U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report...Assessment of China’s Rare Earth Policy,” The Jamestown Foundation, China Brief 10:22 (2010): 2–5. 190 Ibid., 3. 191 Tse , “China’s rare-earth

  7. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    OpenAIRE

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, Fran?ois S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The ot...

  8. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  9. An Army Illumination Model (AAIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Brazil Rio de Janeiro –22.900 –43.233 3180000 Brazil Salvador –12.963 –38.512 17711000 Brazil Sao Paulo –23.533 –46.617 52300 Brunei Bandar Seri...4 Table 2. Breakdown of Street and flood lights in El Paso, TX and Las Cruces, NM in 2007. ......9 Table 3. Program inputs and their...by percent. The results are presented in table 2. 9 Table 2. Breakdown of Street and flood lights in El Paso, TX and Las Cruces, NM in 2007

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral and Dental Healthcare in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bamanikar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal child health clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, Brunei, Darussalam.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternal child health center in Brunei, Darussalam. The study group was comprised of 95 pregnant women attending the MCH clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, September 2010, using convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used, after it was pre-tested and validated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version16.Results: Of the total study group, 97.9% responded to the questionnaire and participated in the study. All the women brushed at least twice daily. However, only 40.9% flossed daily, 31.2% brushed after meals and 26.9% had a dental check-up at least twice a year. The knowledge related to dental care was also poor among the pregnant women. Though the majority of them (96.8% agreed that women should have a dental check-up during pregnancy, only 55.9% actually practiced this. This raises serious concern since pregnant women may need extra oral and dental care due to susceptibility to gum diseases during pregnancy, which may contribute to low birth weight babies and premature births.Conclusion: This study highlights important gaps in dental knowledge and practices related to oral and dental healthcare among pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. More intense dental health education, including oral health promotion in maternal child health centers can lead to

  11. 4th INNS Symposia Series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Fourth International Neural Network Symposia series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems, INNS-CIIS 2014, held in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei in November 2014. INNS-CIIS aims to provide a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and present the most current research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications in various domains. The 34 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.  

  12. Territorial disputes simmer in areas of South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that China's award of an exploration cooperation contact in the Nansha area of the South China Sea has revived territorial disputes in the area centering ton the Spratly and Paracel islands. The key dispute is between China and Viet Nam, which earlier engaged in military action over ownership of the islands, believed to have world class potential for hydrocarbon discoveries. Those two nations, as well as Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan, lay claim to overlapping boundaries of the Spratly Islands. Separately, China and Viet Nam dispute territorial claims in the Paracels. Tensions continue to mount, and regional governments are trying to negotiate compromises to avoid a repeat of warfare

  13. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  14. Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Myanmar. However, when we apply LM unit root with structural break, we find overwhelming evidence that there is no unit root in per capita energy consumption for these 15 East Asia & Pacific countries.

  15. Cracking the great Asian gas ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    A regional gas pipeline network for South East Asia, proposed in 1996, linking Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam, could solve the regions gas demand crisis, which has been gravely affected by the current economic collapse many Asian currencies are experiencing. Massive deposits of natural gas, located off the Island of Natuna could, if exploited, provide enough electricity and gas to fuel the whole of South East Asia and China. The collapse of local economies makes Western investment less likely and local initiatives are urged. (UK)

  16. From Raja to Prime Minister Entre rajah et premier ministre. Les étrangers et l’exploitation économique à Bornéo et dans le Pacifique au xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Dijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Some twenty years after the Sultan of Brunei had bestowed upon the Englishman James Brooke the title of Rajah of Sarawak, giving him extensive authorities over a large tract of land, an American, Joseph William Torrey, United States consul in Brunei, gained the right to call himself Rajah of Marudu and Ambong. Though Torrey’s efforts failed to establish a profitable business in Sabah, they formed the root of the British North Borneo Company. Torrey probably was one of the last of his kind. Elsewhere in the Pacific, European and American residents and adventurers did not bother much about native titles, expanding their hold over land and its inhabitants by economic and political manipulation. In Hawaii and Samoa political reform and becoming cabinet minister or prime minister of a still independent island state served their purposes better.Quelque vingt ans après que le sultan de Brunei eut accordé à l’Anglais James Brooke le titre de rajah de Sarawak, qui lui donnait d’importants pouvoirs sur une vaste région, un Américain, Joseph William Torrey, consul des Etats-Unis à Brunei, obtint le titre de rajah de Marudu et Ambong. Les efforts de Torrey, échouant à établir une affaire profitable à Sabah, constituèrent néanmoins les bases de la British North Borneo Company. Torrey fut sans doute l’un des derniers de ce type d’aventuriers. Ailleurs dans le Pacifique, des résidents et des aventuriers européens et américains, par des manœuvres économiques et politiques, consolidèrent leur contrôle sur les territoires et leurs populations, sans trop se soucier d’obtenir des titres locaux. A Hawaii et à Samoa, il leur fut plus utile d’entreprendre des réformes politiques et de se pourvoir d’un poste de ministre ou de premier ministre d’un Etat insulaire encore indépendant.

  17. Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey Exploration and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    tourism , security, etc. It is home to Western Mindanao Command and some of the Philippine Air Forces. It also enjoys reliable power most of the time...Philippines as part of a widespread Islamic state which would span Indonesia, Malaysia , southern Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, and the southern Philippines...Services w2data$Q17.B <- as.numeric(recodeFivePos(w2data$Q17.B)) # Health/ Medical Services w2data$Q17.C <- as.numeric(recodeFivePos(w2data$Q17.C

  18. ASEAN and the commitment to end nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional political and economic organization. It was established on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined in 1984, Viet Nam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999. ASEAN aims to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in its Member States and to promote regional peace and stability. All ASEAN States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The NPT aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, and to further the goal of nuclear disarmament. It also promotes international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The ten ASEAN countries are all Member States of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). They all signed the CTBT early on, some on the very first day that it opened for signature on 24 September 1996. But four have yet to ratify the Treaty: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Indonesia's ratification is particularly important as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  19. A study into psychosocial factors as predictors of work-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hanif Abdul; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2016-07-14

    To explore and determine relationship between psychosocial factors and work-related fatigue among emergency and critical care nurses in Brunei. Cross-sectional study conducted on all emergency and critical care nurses across Brunei public hospitals from February to April 2016. 201 nurses participated in the study (82% response rate). A total of 36% of the variance of chronic fatigue was explained by stress, trust in management, decision latitude, self-rated health, and work-family conflict. Burnout, self-rated health, commitment to workplace, and trust in management explained 30% of the variance of acute fatigue. Stress, work-family conflict and reward explained 28% of the variance of intershift recovery after controlling for significant sociodemographic variables. Smoking was identified as an important sociodemographic factor for work-related fatigue. Psychosocial factors were good predictors of work-related fatigue. A range of psychosocial factors were established, however more research is required to determine all possible causation factors of nurses' work-related fatigue.

  20. That mighty pantun river and its tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Choo Ming

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Known as pantun to the Malays in Brunei, Malaysia, Pattani, Riau, Singapore, and Southern Phillipines, it is called peparikan to the Javanese, sesindiran to the Sundanese and many other different names in different ethnic groups in the different parts of the Indo-Malay world, which is made up of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Pattani in southern Thailand, and Mindanao in the southern Philippines. In almost every settlement that sprang up along the major rivers and tributaries in the Indo-Malay world, the pantun blend well with their natural and cultural surroundings. In this article, the geographical extent of the pantun family in the Indo-Malay world is likened to a mighty river that has a complex network of tributaries all over the Indo-Malay world. Within the Indo-Malay world, it is the movement of the peoples help the spread of pantun from one area to the other and makes it an art form of immensely rich and intricate as can be seen from the examples given.

  1. Prevalence, demographic and psychosocial correlates for school truancy among students aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-11-01

    Truancy among adolescents may negatively affect the achievement of academic goals. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of school truancy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 28 419 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN member states that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of past 30 day truancy across six ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 24.8%; ranging from below 20% in Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam to more than 30% in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors (older age, being male, the experience of hunger), externalising behaviour (tobacco use, alcohol use, having been in a physical fight, being bullied, having sustained an injury), and lack of protective social-familial factors (lack of peer support and lack of parental or guardian support) were found to be associated with truancy. High rates of truancy were found in ASEAN member states calling for interventions aimed to reduce truancy considering identified associated factors.

  2. Kinerja Keuangan dan Internet Financial Reporting Index (IFRI: Sebuah Studi Relevansi Pada Sektor Perbankan Syariah di Kawasan ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanda Firmantyas Putri Pertiwi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of Islamic Banks financial performance according to the Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earnings and Capital (RGEC on the disclosure of financial performance through the company’s website or being known as Internet Financial Reporting Index (IFRI. Taking Islamic banks across the ASEAN region as target of the research, this study result the conclusion that profitability ratios and nonperforming finance are two things that do not affect the index of internet financial report. While CAR and FDR show significant impacts on the index of IFR. These results have been proven their robustnesses. Control variables was added to the model and the results obtained did not change significantly. The total number of Islamic banks in the ASEAN region are 32 banks. Twelve Islamic banks are in Indonesia, 16 in Malaysia, one in the Philippines, one in Thailand and two in Brunei Darussalam. One bank in Brunei being canceled due to incomplete information. The method used in this research is multiple linear regression, furthermore control variables was added to reduce the bias of the research results.

  3. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization among Children after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization has recommended all countries to introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV in routine immunization schedule, especially those countries with higher rate of mortality in children. However, Islamic Republic of Iran and more than 50 other countries including Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus, Belize, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Cabo Verde, Chad, China, Comoros, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Gabon, Grenada, Guinea, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Jordan, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Montenegro, Nauru, Poland, Romania, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovenia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu, and Viet Namhave not introduced PCV till April 2016.

  4. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Influence of Temperature on the Performance of Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Silicon Module in the Bruneian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Q. Malik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of working temperature for  a  polysilicon module has been investigated in Brunei Darussalam for a period of two years.  The rise in temperature produces thermal agitation which not only increases the dark current but also enhances the losses of free carriers in a polycrystalline module. The efficiency and the output power decreases with an increase in the working temperature. A maximum decline in the output power of 97% has been measured under a dominated diffused radiation environment. The temperature coefficients have been obtained and equations are developed to evaluate the change in the rating of module at any working temperature with reference to their values at STC.

  6. BAHASA MELAYU WAHANA KEDAMAIAN DI SELATAN THAI DAN NUSANTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahosan Jehwahe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa Melayu adalah bahasa yang sangat penting di nusantara. Bahasa Melayu berperanan sebagai bahasa penyebaran agama, bahasa politik, bahasa pendidikan, bahasa perdagangan dan lain-lain. Dengan dijadikannya bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa resmi di negara Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei Darussalam dan Singgapura telah menjadikan bahasa yang menyampaikan pesan-pesan damai dan kebahagian. Bahasa Melayu tidak menjadi penghalang bahasa-bahasa lain berkembang bahkan mendukung memperkukuhkan perekonomian negara tersebut. Bahasa Melayu juga menjadi alat diplomasi diantara negara pengguna bahasa Melayu. Bahasa Melayu berupaya menjadi bahasa perdamaian di Selatan Thai, jika kerajaan Thai memberikan hak dan peluang kepada rakyat Selatan Thai dengan bebas mempelajari bahasa Melayu dan menjadikan bahasa yang wajib dikuasai oleh seluruh pegawai kerajaan Thai yang berkerja di Selatan Thai. Dengan menguasai bahasa Melayu diharapkan salah paham antara masyarakat Patani dan pegawai kerajaan Thai, tidak terjadi lagi sehingga tidak menjadi puncak konflik yang berkepanjangan dan memakan banyak korban nyawa.

  7. Development of controlled release silicone adhesive–based mupirocin patch demonstrates antibacterial activity on live rat skin against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David SR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheba R David,1 Nurafiqah Malek,1 Abdul Hanif Mahadi,2 Srikumar Chakravarthi,3 Rajan Rajabalaya1 1PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; 2Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (CAMES, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; 3School of Medicine, Perdana University, Jalan MAEPS Perdana, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Peritonitis is the most serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. Staphylococcus aureus infections could lead to peritonitis which causes reversal of peritoneal dialysis treatment back to hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release silicone adhesive-based mupirocin patch for prophylactic effect and analyze its antibacterial effectiveness against S. aureus.Methods: The matrix patches were prepared by using different polymers, with and without silicone adhesive, dibutyl sebacate and mupirocin. The patches were characterized for mechanical properties, drug content, moisture content, water absorption capacity and Fourier transform infrared spectrum. In vitro release studies were performed by using Franz diffusion cell. In vitro disk diffusion assay was performed on the Mueller–Hinton Agar plate to measure the zone of inhibition of the patches. The in vivo study was performed on four groups of rats with bacterial counts at three different time intervals, along with skin irritancy and histopathologic studies. Results: The patches showed appropriate average thickness (0.63–1.12 mm, tensile strength (5.08–10.08 MPa and modulus of elasticity (21.53–42.19 MPa. The drug content ranged from 94.5% to 97.4%, while the moisture content and water absorption capacities at two relative humidities (75% and 93% were in the range of 1.082–3.139 and 1.287–4.148 wt%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that there were no significant interactions between the polymer and the drug

  8. Energy and exergy analysis at the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Sattar, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Abdessalam, H.; Shahruan, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, sectoral energy and exergy analysis model is applied to the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia by considering the energy and exergy flows from 1990 to 2003. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined for the sub-sectors and devices used in these two sectors. It has been found the hydroelectric power plant sub-sector is more energy and exergy efficient compared to the thermal power plant sub-sector. The energy and exergy efficiencies of utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia are compared with a few other countries around the world as well. The utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia are found to be more efficient than that of Thailand, Brunei, China, and Vietnam in 1999

  9. Tourism and Economic Development in ASEAN 1998-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berly Martawardaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many countries support government policies to encourage tourism sector, including ASEAN countries, due to an assumption that tourism contributes positively to GDP and poverty reduction. This study investigates that assumption, as well as the correlation between tourism and HDI, by applying panel data regression to eight ASEAN countries (Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Laos Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam, during 1998--2013. We found that the number of international tourist arrivals as a proxy variable for tourism have a significant and positive correlation with poverty reduction. Tourism is also proven to increase GDP per capita (albeit in a smaller magnitude and increase HDI (in an even smaller scale. These findings confirmed our hypothesis on the positive effects of tourism. It is recommended that the tourist promotion is continued while studying the best practices to strategically develop the tourism sector in order to strengthen the positive correlation.

  10. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.. Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  11. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S; Amoroso, Victor B

    2016-05-06

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the-for Nepenthes-unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  12. The treatment and disposal of oily solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.A.D.; Noordhuis, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Oily solids are generated as a waste product of Brunel Shell Petroleum's drilling and production activities. The main sources are waste oil based mud, tank bottom sludges, and oil contaminated soil. The oily solids are stored in a purpose built holding basin which is gradually being filled up. The need for appropriate treatment and an acceptable means of final disposal of the solids has been recognized as an item for attention in the Company's Environmental Management Plan. The paper describes the resulting feasibility study which is evaluating the relative merits of processes such as incineration, lime stabilization, and landfarming. The feasibility study is considering the quantity and properties of the solids, the environmental conditions in Brunei, the availability of treatment services in the country, and the need to define acceptable environmental criteria for the treatment and disposal methods. The way in which these factors influence the study are discussed

  13. Comparision of Istanbul with Hong Kong and Singapore for Regional Treasury Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk DİZKIRICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is examining Istanbul to find out whether or not it has the ability to become an appropriate location to host regional treasury centers. Hence; Simkova’s 11 location criteria are compared across Istanbul additionally Hong Kong and Singapore, being already attractive locations in South East Asia for multinational corporations to set up their regional finance offices, to specify Istanbul’s weaker facilities even if it is not regarded as a rival for Hong Kong and Singapore. The study contributes to the understanding of Simkova’s location criteria assessment before establishing a regional treasury center in any location, as it is applied to some European countries and three Asian countries: Brunei, Hong Kong and Singapore, previously. Lastly, it is concluded that Istanbul is not as superior as Hong Kong and Singapore but it has reasonable conditions to become an attractive location for regional treasury centers.

  14. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    2004-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL would like to remind you of the entry formalities applicable to those travelling to the United States. Nationals of Switzerland and of the following countries : Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, entering the United States under the Visa Waiver Program (no visa requirement), must be in possession of an machine-readable passport that is valid for at least six months after the date of the return trip. Children, including infants, must have their own passport. An entry in the parents' passport is not sufficient. For entry into the United States, an e-ticket (fax or e-mail confirmation or passenger receipt) or a return ticket to the departure point or a ticket to a subsequent onward destination (valid for 90 days) must be presented together with the green ...

  15. The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries may utilize a long coastline in relation to their landmass as a resource to develop their maritime economy. This paper argues that ASEAN countries differ in utilizing their maritime potential. As a basis for further comparative studies the Center for Policy Research and International Studies (CenPRIS in Penang developed a set of indicators to measure the maritime potential of nations, the state of their maritime industries, and the degree to which the maritime potential has actually been utilized. Using the CenPRIS Ocean Index (COI shows that Brunei and the Philippines have underutilized their maritime potentials, whereas Singapore and Thailand have made full use of it. Malaysia still has the potential to further develop its maritime economy.

  16. ASEAN coal development and its impact on electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, H.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Association of southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) comprising the States of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand is presently experiencing rapid growth in electricity demand attributed mainly to the continued high growth in the economy. This rapid pace of industrialization is exerting pressure on resources available to meet electricity demand. Over the last few years coal has emerged as a significant energy resource in the region and is poised to play an even bigger role in the electricity sector. The paper outlines the electricity supply and coal development in each of the ASEAN countries. The impact of coal in the future generation mix is analyzed. The major issues relating to these developments are also discussed

  17. Implementing the Flipped Classroom Model in the Teaching of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Waznah Abdul Latif

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness in implementing the Flipped Classroom model in teaching History and to identify the students’ perceptions using this approach towards their learning. The chosen History topic was on ‘James Brooke’s activities in Sarawak in the 1840s’. The sample consisted of twelve students from two Year 9 classes in one of the secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam. In adopting the Flipped Classroom approach, the students were required to watch a video lesson outside the classroom setting. To measure its effectiveness, a test instrument was used, and five students were interviewed. The findings revealed that the utilisation of this instructional method was effective in teaching History, as there were improvements in the students’ test results. The analyses of the students’ perceptions using this approach revealed that while some students believed that it helped them improve in their communication and writing skills, others did not perceive it effective for their learning.

  18. Examing the prospective of implementing passive house standards in providing sustainable schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaili, Wan Farhani; Shahrill, Masitah

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the potential of implementing the passive house standards to reduce energy consumption on school buildings in Brunei. Furthermore, it investigates whether sustainable school buildings make business sense to the government. To do this, conventional and Passive House primary school buildings are compared in terms of their performances using the Passive House Planning Package as well as the Ecotect environmental analysis tool. The findings indicated that by replacing lower U-values building fabrics brought a significantly reduction in the cooling demand of 54%. Whereas, Ecotect models have demonstrated that the heating and cooling loads have tremendously reduced to 75% by reorienting the location of the building to south elevation and by replacing the building fabrics with a lower U-values. These findings were then evaluated with a cost benefit analysis that proved to save cost energy annually from air-conditioning usage from a typical primary school with eight years of pay back period.

  19. Analisis Penerapan Value Creation Selling dalam Strategi Pemasaran Perusahaan Jasa Logistik: Studi Kasus di PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A company is a market-oriented when the culture of value creation superior customer systematically and comprehensively implemented on company concerned. Value can be defined as the ratio of benefit to cost, where customers expect a rate of return equal or exceed the costs they incurred to obtain the products they bought. From the case studies conducted on PT XYZ, then, in getting the project tender delivery of goods geophysical equipment for the Brunei Loon project, it has been implemented value selling creation, which includes three main components, ie customer portraits, the proposed value, and benefits to customers or total value of ownership. Overall, the efficiency given value is about 20% compared to its closest competitor, the safety shipping and on time, as well as the positive benefits of the profit margin, cash flow, return on investment, brand equity, market share and customers.

  20. A cadinene biopolymer in fossil and extant dammar resins as a source for cadinanes and bicadinanes in crude oils from South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aarssen, B. G. K.; Cox, H. C.; Hoogendoorn, P.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1990-11-01

    The chemical composition of a fossil resin from a Miocene outcrop in Brunei, South East Asia, is compared with its extant counterpart dammar, obtained from trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae, to establish the nature of the precursor of bicadinanes. The alcohol soluble fractions of the resins consist of functionalised triterpenoids and a small amount of sesquiterpenoids. None of the compounds present in this fraction bears any structural relation to bicadinanes. The alcohol insoluble fractions of the resins consist of a polymer based on cadinene. A structure for this polymer is proposed. Heating the polymer in dammar resin resulted in the formation of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric cadinenes. It is thought that the naturally occurring bicadinanes result from dimeric cadinenes upon cyclisation.

  1. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S

    2001-01-01

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO(trademark) exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages

  2. Korean gas in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongin

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on the increasing role of natural gas as the major fuel for cooking, heating and power generation in Korea, and the Korean Government's restructuring programme aimed at the security of natural gas supplies and the diversification of imported gas sources. The introduction of natural gas into Korea after the two world oil shocks of the 1970s, the growing demand for natural gas, and supplies of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Qater, Oman and possibly piped gas via a pipeline from the Irkutsk Siberian gas project are discussed along with the construction of liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals, the restructuring and privatisation of the industry, and the introduction of competition. Details are given of LNG consumption between 1990 and 2010, quantities of natural gas imported based on long term contracts, and the plan for the reform of the natural gas industry

  3. Summary of the first meeting of ASEAN Network of Regulatory Bodies on Atomic Energy (ASEANTOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriratana Biramontri, Pantip Ampornrat

    2013-01-01

    The 1st Meeting of ASEAN Network of Regulatory Bodies on Atomic Energy (ASEANTOM) was organized in Phuket, Thailand on 3 - 4 September, 2013. The meeting was held on annually basis following the Meeting to Finalize the Term of Reference (TOR) in Bangkok, Thailand on 29 August, 2012. The objective of the meeting is to review and finalize TOR, and to set up the action plan of ASEANTOM. The action plan is an expected outcome of the meeting. The Meeting consisted of 41 participants from IAEA and ASEAN Member States (AMS), namely, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand. Only Brunei Darussalam could not attend the Meeting. Participant's organizations were regulatory body or relevant authorities, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  4. Modern Political and Economic Aspects of the Oil and Gas Complex in the Southeast Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstracUThe article reviews the problems caused by the conflict of interests between certain Southeast Asian countries and other states, China foremost, which aroused from oil and gas field development on disputable offshore sections. At the same time the positions of the region's leading transnational corporations in the field of oil and gas policy and their relationships with the countries-ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations members are outlined. Separately are represented the foreign policy stands of Indonesia, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and Malaysia on territorial disputes over offshore oil and gas fields. These processes are pushing both European and American business to abandon the conventional schemes and accept the new conditions of their activity in Southeast Asia.

  5. Drilling and testing hot, high-pressure wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAndrew, R. (Ranger Oil Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Parry, N. (Phillips Petroleum Company United Kingdom Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Prieur, J.M. (Conoco UK Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Wiggelman, J. (Shell UK Exploration and Production, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Diggins, E. (Brunei Shell Petroleum (Brunei Darussalam)); Guicheney, P. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Cameron, D.; Stewart, A. (Dowell Schlumberger, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    Meticulous planning and careful control of operations are needed to safely drill and test high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Techniques, employed in the Central Graben in the UK sector of the North Sea, where about 50 HTHP wells have been drilled, are examined. Three main areas of activity are covered in this comprehensive review: drilling safety, casing and cementation, and testing. The three issues at the heart of HTHP drilling safety are kick prevention, kick detection and well control. Kicks are influxes of reservoir fluid into the well. Test equipment and operations are divided into three sections: downhole, subsea and surface. Also details are given of how this North Sea experience has been used to help plan a jackup rig modification for hot, high-pressure drilling off Brunei. 16 figs., 32 refs.

  6. High-dependency care: experiences of the psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hanif Abdul; Naing, Lin; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah

    2017-11-23

    to explore high-dependency care nurses' experiences of their psychosocial work environment. four focus groups were conducted with 23 emergency and critical care hospital nurses in Brunei. All sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive-approach thematic analysis. three major themes were identified. 'Specialisation/specific skills' explained a fundamental requirement for the high-dependency care nurses to work effectively and efficiently in their workplace. 'Task completion' narrated the pressure they experienced to complete their tasks within time constraints exacerbated by a reduced number of staff. 'Acknowledgement' signified their need for fair and adequate reward for their hard work through career progression and promotion. this study facilitates the design of future interventions and policies that promote a healthy psychosocial work environment by ensuring nurses working in these areas have the required specialisation skills, there is a balance of workload and nurse-to-patient ratios, and they are offered fairness and equity in career progression and promotion.

  7. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on energy conservation in chief industries in ASEAN countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With objectives to understand ASEAN countries for their current situation in energy consumption in the typical factories and businesses in their chief industries, prepare appropriate advices on energy saving methods, and establish energy inspection means, surveys were carried out working with experts in the ASEAN countries. In the workshop held in Singapore in November 2000, the textile factory, Arab-Malaysia Development Berhad was selected for Malaysia, on which the survey was performed from January 15 through 19, 2001. Energy saving proposals were submitted based on the survey results. For Indonesia, the paper and pulp mill, P.T. Kertas Leces (Persoro) Pulp Paper Mill was selected, on which the survey was performed from January 22 through 26, 2001. Based on the survey results, the energy saving means and their effects, necessary investment amount, and amortization period were prepared. For Brunei, the cement factory, Butra Djajanti Cement SDN BHD was surveyed, whereas improvements of the facilities were proposed. (NEDO)

  8. How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Development of East Asia's petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia's petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry

  9. Understanding the Southeast Asian haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Karthik K. R.; Baikie, T.; T, Mohan Dass E.; Huang, Y. Z.; Guet, C.

    2017-08-01

    The Southeast Asian region had been subjected to a drastic reduction in air quality from the biomass burnings that occurred in 2013 and 2015. The smoke from the biomass burnings covered the entire region including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, with haze particulate matter (PM) reducing the air quality to hazardous levels. Here we report a comprehensive size-composition-morphology characterization of the PM collected from an urban site in Singapore during the two haze events. The two haze events were a result of biomass burning and occurred in two different geographical source regions. We show the similarities and variations of particle size distribution during hazy and clear days during the two haze events. Sub-micron particles (method is used to determine the fractal dimensions of the PM, and the dimensionality varied for every classification from 1.79 to 1.88. We also report the complexities of particles and inconsistencies in the existing approaches to understand them.

  10. The Dynamics of Malay Culture in West Kalimantan in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Syamtasiyah Ahyat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan, which can be divided into two broad categories: (1 Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan (West Kalimantan or contemporary Malays and (2 local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays. Contemporary Malays are Malay people who came from various areas in Sumatra, Riau Islands, Malay peninsula, East Malaysia (Serawak and Sabah States, and Brunei Darussalam. This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay culture in West Kalimantan. This historiographical project is undertaken by applying historical method which consists of several main steps: searching for relevant sources, selecting the sources, interpreting the sources, and reconstructing events as relevant to the main topic. Bibliography consists of local sources, documents, and works of foreign scholars which are relevant to the topic.

  11. Epidemiology and Inequality in the Incidence and Mortality of Nasopharynx Cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavifar, Neda; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Khosravi, Bahman; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-12-01

    One of the most common head and neck cancers is nasopharynx cancer. Knowledge about the incidence and mortality of this disease and its distribution in terms of geographical areas is necessary for further study and better planning. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the incidence and mortality rates of nasopharynx cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012. The aim of this ecologic study was to assess the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its components, which include the following: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income per capita. Data about SIR and SMR for every Asian country for 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used the correlation bivariate method for the assessment. Statistical significance was assumed if p  ASMR were Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei. The correlation between HDI and ASIR was 0.097 ( p  = 0.520) [0.105 in men ( p  = 0.488) and 0.119 in women ( p  = 0.901)]. The correlation between HDI and ASMR was -0.102 ( p  = 0.502) [-0.072 in men ( p  = 0.633) and -0.224 in women ( p  = 0.134)]. Nasopharynx cancer is native to Southeast Asia. The highest incidence and mortality rates are found in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brunei. No significant relation was found between the standardized incidence and mortality rates of nasopharynx cancer and the HDI components. Further studies are recommended in Southeast Asian countries in order to find the etiology of cancer, as well as its diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntra Suwantarat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and multidrug-resistant glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters, have emerged and spread throughout Southeast Asia. Methods We reviewed and summarized current critical knowledge on the epidemiology and molecular characterization of MDRGN in Southeast Asia by PubMed searches for publications prior to 10 March 2016 with the term related to “MDRGN definition” combined with specific Southeast Asian country names (Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Brunei. Results There were a total of 175 publications from the following countries: Thailand (77, Singapore (35, Malaysia (32, Vietnam (23, Indonesia (6, Philippines (1, Laos (1, and Brunei (1. We did not find any publications on MDRGN from Myanmar and Cambodia. We did not include publications related to Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp. and non-human related studies in our review. English language articles and abstracts were included for analysis. After the abstracts were reviewed, data on MDRGN in Southeast Asia from 54 publications were further reviewed and included in this study. Conclusions MDRGNs are a major contributor of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of ESBLs has been a major problem since 2005 and is possibly related to the development of carbapenem resistant organisms in this region due to the overuse of carbapenem therapy. Carbapenem–resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the most common pathogen associated with nosocomial infections in this region followed by carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although Southeast Asia is not an endemic area for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, recently, the rate of CRE detection has been increasing. Limited infection control measures, lack of antimicrobial control, such as the presence of

  13. Implications of applying solar industry best practice resource estimation on project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    Solar resource estimation risk is one of the main solar PV project risks that influences lender’s decision in providing financing and in determining the cost of capital. More recently, a number of measures have emerged to mitigate this risk. The study focuses on solar industry’s best practice energy resource estimation and assesses its financing implications to the 27 MWp solar PV project study in Brunei Darussalam. The best practice in resource estimation uses multiple data sources through the measure-correlate-predict (MCP) technique as compared with the standard practice that rely solely on modelled data source. The best practice case generates resource data with lower uncertainty and yields superior high-confidence energy production estimate than the standard practice case. Using project financial parameters in Brunei Darussalam for project financing and adopting the international debt-service coverage ratio (DSCR) benchmark rates, the best practice case yields DSCRs that surpass the target rates while those of standard practice case stay below the reference rates. The best practice case could also accommodate higher debt share and have lower levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) while the standard practice case would require a lower debt share but having a higher LCOE. - Highlights: •Best practice solar energy resource estimation uses multiple datasets. •Multiple datasets are combined through measure-correlate-predict technique. •Correlated data have lower uncertainty and yields superior high-confidence energy production. •Best practice case yields debt-service coverage ratios (DSCRs) that surpass the benchmark rates. •Best practice case accommodates high debt share and have low levelized cost of electricity.

  14. Oral and transdermal drug delivery systems: role of lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabalaya R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rajan Rajabalaya, Muhammad Nuh Musa, Nurolaini Kifli, Sheba R David PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam Abstract: Liquid crystal (LC dosage forms, particularly those using lipid-based lyotropic LCs (LLCs, have generated considerable interest as potential drug delivery systems. LCs have the physical properties of liquids but retain some of the structural characteristics of crystalline solids. They are compatible with hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds of many different classes and can protect even biologicals and nucleic acids from degradation. This review, focused on research conducted over the past 5 years, discusses the structural evaluation of LCs and their effects in drug formulations. The structural classification of LLCs into lamellar, hexagonal and micellar cubic phases is described. The structures of these phases are influenced by the addition of surfactants, which include a variety of nontoxic, biodegradable lipids; these also enhance drug solubility. LLC structure influences drug localization, particle size and viscosity, which, in turn, determine drug delivery properties. Through several specific examples, we describe the applications of LLCs in oral and topical drug formulations, the latter including transdermal and ocular delivery. In oral LLC formulations, micelle compositions and the resulting LLC structures can determine drug solubilization and stability as well as intestinal transport and absorption. Similarly, in topical LLC formulations, composition can influence whether the drug is retained in the skin or delivered transdermally. Owing to their enhancement of drug stability and promotion of controlled drug delivery, LLCs are becoming increasingly popular in pharmaceutical formulations. Keywords: liquid crystal, drug delivery, controlled release, lyotropic, surfactants, drug localization

  15. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.Keywords: educational quality, medical education, quality control, quality assessment, quality management models

  16. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  17. Analisis Sosiologis terhadap Sistem Pergantian Sultan di Kesultanan Palembang Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syawaluddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One task of being a umaro sultan, that he was a religious adviser to the government. The existence of the Sultanate of Palembang is not only the cultural but also the existing political elements. In this study it was found that the process of appointment of kings or sultans who ruled in Palembang no different from those in other sultanates that ever existed on earth this archipelago. Despite having Islamic political unity, but actually still continue what has been there in the past, the concept of Hindu-Buddhism, Islam simply as a shirt while outside. The same is true for aspects of legality. As a maritime empire that is absolute, it seems referrals can be directed only remaining absolute monarchy in Southeast Asia was the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. However, the origin of the empire was not of royal birth agrarian civilization as a palace, but of an empire in estuaries and the sea like, the kingdoms in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and others.   One task of being umaro sultan, that he was a religion adviser to the government. The existence of the Sultanate of Palembang was not only the cultural but also the existing elements of political. In this study it was found that the process of appointment of kings or sultans who ruled in Palembang not different from people of other sultanates that ever existed on this archipelago earth. Despite having Islamic political unity, but actually still continued what had been there in the past, the concept of Hindu-Buddhism, Islam was only as a temporary shirt outside. The same thing was prevail for the aspects of legality. As a maritime empire that was absolute, it seemed directive could be directed only remaining absolute monarchy in Southeast Asia was the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. However, the origin of the empire was not born the empire of agrarian civilization as a palace, but from an empire in estuaries and the sea like, the Kingdoms in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and others.

  18. LNG trade preparations are a decade too soon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, S [Mar. Week; Faridany, E; Mitchell, P

    1979-03-01

    A discussion of papers delivered at the 6th International LNG/LPG, Gastech 78, Conference (Monte Carlo 11/7-10/78) covers an estimate by E. Faridany (Ocean Phoenix Transp. Inc.) that in 1981-85, world trade in LNG would increase by 1775 million cu ft/day (Mcfd) over the current 2720 Mcfd, but of this increment only the 460 Mcfd Panhandle project using Lake Charles, La., as a regasification terminal will be into the U.S. while all other trade will be to Europe. Of the present LNG trade, 48Vertical Bar3< goes to Japan from the Brunei (535 Mcfd, the world's largest) and Abu Dhabi projects, and only 20Vertical Bar3< goes to the U.S. Faridany's estimates of U.S. LNG imports in 1990 vary from the 8215 Mcfd ''high'' to the ''median'' forecast of 2930 Mcfd; he predicted that the proportion of incremental sources of gas supply taken up by LNG in 1990 is only 20-40Vertical Bar3< for the U.S., compared with 25Vertical Bar3< for Europe and 90Vertical Bar3< for Japan. According to P. Mitchell (Poten and Partners), world demand for LPG could rise from 9 million to 38 million tons in 1979-85.

  19. Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Jia Sian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90

  20. Just Say No to the TPP: A Democratic Setback for American and Asian Public Health; Comment on “The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Is It Everything We Feared for Health?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Muntaner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article by Labonté, Schram, and Ruckert is a significant and timely analysis of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP policy and the severe threats to public health that it implies for 12 Pacific Rim populations from the Americas and Asia (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam. With careful and analytic precision the authors convincingly unearth many aspects of this piece of legislation that undermine the public health achievements of most countries involved in the TTP. Our comments complement their policy analysis with the aim of providing a positive heuristic tool to assist in the understanding of the TPP, and other upcoming treaties like the even more encompassing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, and in so doing motivate the public health community to oppose the implementation of the relevant provisions of the agreements. The aims of this commentary on the study of Labonté et al are to show that an understanding of the health effects of the TPP is incomplete without a political analysis of policy formation, and that realist methods can be useful to uncover the mechanisms underlying TPP’s political and policy processes.

  1. Just Say No to the TPP: A Democratic Setback for American and Asian Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Mahabir, Deb Finn

    2017-01-01

    The article by Labonté, Schram, and Ruckert is a significant and timely analysis of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) policy and the severe threats to public health that it implies for 12 Pacific Rim populations from the Americas and Asia (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam). With careful and analytic precision the authors convincingly unearth many aspects of this piece of legislation that undermine the public health achievements of most countries involved in the TTP. Our comments complement their policy analysis with the aim of providing a positive heuristic tool to assist in the understanding of the TPP, and other upcoming treaties like the even more encompassing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), and in so doing motivate the public health community to oppose the implementation of the relevant provisions of the agreements. The aims of this commentary on the study of Labonté et al are to show that an understanding of the health effects of the TPP is incomplete without a political analysis of policy formation, and that realist methods can be useful to uncover the mechanisms underlying TPP’s political and policy processes. PMID:28812839

  2. Just Say No to the TPP: A Democratic Setback for American and Asian Public Health Comment on "The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Is It Everything We Feared for Health?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Mahabir, Deb Finn

    2016-11-06

    (TPP) policy and the severe threats to public health that it implies for 12 Pacific Rim populations from the Americas and Asia (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam). With careful and analytic precision the authors convincingly unearth many aspects of this piece of legislation that undermine the public health achievements of most countries involved in the TTP. Our comments complement their policy analysis with the aim of providing a positive heuristic tool to assist in the understanding of the TPP, and other upcoming treaties like the even more encompassing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), and in so doing motivate the public health community to oppose the implementation of the relevant provisions of the agreements. The aims of this commentary on the study of Labonté et al are to show that an understanding of the health effects of the TPP is incomplete without a political analysis of policy formation, and that realist methods can be useful to uncover the mechanisms underlying TPP's political and policy processes. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  3. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  4. The Scale of Sexual Aggression in Southeast Asia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Lylla; Krahé, Barbara; Guest, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the most dynamic regions in the world. It is experiencing rapid socioeconomic change that may influence the level of sexual aggression, but data on the scale of sexual aggression in the region remain sparse. The aim of the present article was to systematically review the findings of studies available in English on the prevalence of self-reported sexual aggression and victimization among women and men above the age of 12 years in the 11 countries of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). Based on four scientific databases, the search engine Google, Opengrey database, and reference checking, 49 studies were found on sexual victimization. Of those, 32 included only women. Self-reported perpetration was assessed by only three studies and included all-male samples. Prevalence rates varied widely across studies but showed that sexual victimization was widespread among different social groups, irrespective of sex and sexual orientation. Methodological heterogeneity, lack of representativeness of samples, imbalance of information available by country, missing information within studies, and cultural differences hampered the comparability between and within countries. There is a need for operationalizations that specifically address sexual aggression occurring after the age of consent, based on detailed behavioral descriptions of unwanted sexual experiences and allied to a qualitative approach with cultural sensitivity. Data on sexual aggression in conflict settings and in human trafficking are also limited. Recommendations for future research are presented in the discussion.

  5. Emerging Pollutant of Concern: Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Asia with Particular Preference to Southeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia countries were developing countries, with the rapid development for a better living condition leads to longer life expectancy, which increased total population. It may result in increased the demand of pharmaceutical in domestic use and or in hospital. Although most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs met the local authority’s regulatory requirement, there are still many pharmaceutical compound incompletely removed and discharge to the water stream and enter the environment. Recently many studies and researches have published on the occurrence and source as well as the fate of pharmaceuticals all over the world including Asia. As part of Asia region, Southeast Asia countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Cambodia, and Lao PDR seem has lack of research knowledge and information regarding this emerging pollutant issues compared to developed Asia country as China, Korea and Hong Kong. In this paper, it will review recent studies occurrences (surface and wastewater on most common pharmaceuticals with several recommendations to overcome and thus summarise the actual situation in Southeast Asia.

  6. The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement, intellectual property and medicines: Differential outcomes for developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Deborah; Lexchin, Joel; Lopert, Ruth; Kilic, Burcu

    2018-04-01

    The final text of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), agreed between the 12 negotiating countries in 2016, included a suite of intellectual property provisions intended to expand and extend pharmaceutical company exclusivities on medicines. It drew wide criticism for including such provisions in an agreement that involved developing countries (Vietnam, Peru, Malaysia, Mexico, Chile and Brunei Darussalam) because of the effect on delaying the introduction of low-cost generics. While developing nations negotiated transition periods for implementing some obligations, all parties would have eventually been expected to meet the same standards had the TPP come into force. While the TPP has stalled following US withdrawal, there are moves by some of the remaining countries to reinvigorate the agreement without the United States. The proponents may seek to retain as much as possible of the original text in the hope that the United States will re-join the accord in future. This article presents a comparative analysis of the impact the final 2016 TPP intellectual property chapter could be expected to have (if implemented in its current form) on the intellectual property laws and regulatory regimes for medicines in the TPP countries. Drawing on the published literature, it traces the likely impact on access to medicines. It focuses particularly on the differential impact on regulatory frameworks for developed and developing nations (in terms of whether or not legislative action would have been required to implement the agreement). The article also explores the political and economic dynamics that contributed to these differential outcomes.

  7. A survey of ASEAN instruments relating to peatlands, mangroves and other wetlands: The REDD+ context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng-Lian Koh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 13th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Summit in November 2007, held in Singapore, ASEAN has accelerated its response to climate change issues, including REDD+ as a mechanism for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to enhance conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. There are many wetlands in ASEAN including more than 25 million ha of peatlands spread over Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Philippines, Vietnam and Lao PDR. The peatlands account for 60 per cent of global tropical peatland resources. They are of significance for sequestration of carbon. However, degraded wetlands, including peatlands, are also a major source of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. Of the types of wetlands, ASEAN has focused attention predominantly on peatlands in relation to REDD+, mainly because of the ‘Indonesian Haze’. The Asia-Pacific Centre for Environmental Law (APCEL organised a Workshop titled, REDD+ and Legal Regimes of Mangroves, Peatland and Other Wetlands: ASEAN and the World, in Singapore from 15-16 November 2012. The articles contained in this special themed edition of the International Journal of Rural Law and Policy (IJRLP contains a selection of the papers presented. This editorial will provide a brief background to some aspects of REDD+. Included in this issue of IJRLP is a summary of the proceedings of the workshop as interpreted by the assigned rapporteur and editors of APCEL. These summaries were reviewed and approved by the presenters.

  8. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: challenges for Australian health and medicine policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A; Townsend, Ruth

    2011-01-17

    Four formal rounds of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations took place in 2010. They involved over 200 officials from Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Chile, Singapore, Brunei, Peru, Vietnam and Malaysia. Future negotiations officially are set to include three issues with public health and medicines policy implications for Australia and our region: ways to approach regulatory coherence and transparency; how to benefit multinational and small-medium enterprises; and multilateral investor-state dispute settlement. US-based multinational pharmaceutical companies are lobbying for TPPA provisions like those in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, which reduce government cost-effectiveness regulatory control of pharmaceuticals, threatening equitable access to medicines. They also advocate increased TPPA intellectual monopoly privilege protection, which will further limit the development of Australian generic medicine enterprises and restrict patient access to cheap, bioequivalent prescription drugs. Of particular concern is that proposed TPPA multilateral investor-state dispute settlement procedures would allow US corporations (as well as those of other TPPA nations) to obtain damages against Australian governments through international arbitral proceedings if their investments are impeded by Australian public health and environment protection legislation.

  9. Management systems in production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, K.B.; Henderson, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Cullen Enquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster in the U.K. North Sea recommended that an operator should formally present it's company Management System and demonstrate how safety is achieved throughout the life cycle of a platform, from design through operation to abandonment. Brunei Shell Petroleum has prepared a corporate level Safety Management System. As part of Safety Case work, the corporate system is being extended to include the development of specific Management Systems with particular emphasis on offshore production operations involving integrated oil and gas facilities. This paper will describe the development of Management Systems, which includes an intensive Business Process Analysis and will comment upon it's applicability and relationship to ISO 9000. The paper will further describe the applicability and benefits of Management Systems and offer guidance on required effort. The paper will conclude that development of structured Management Systems for safety critical business processes is worthwhile but prioritization of effort will be necessary. As such the full adoption of Management Systems will be directional in nature

  10. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ASEAN CURRENCIES USING A COPULA APPROACH AND A DYNAMIC COPULA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUKIAT CHAIBOONSRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC will be shaped developing to be a single market and production base in 2015, moving towards regional Economic Integration, 2009. These developments in international financial markets do lead to some adverse cost for AEC country borrowers. The specific objective aims to investigate the dependent measures and the co-movement among selected ASEAN currencies. A Copula Approach was used to examine dependent measures of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. Also, a Dynamic Copula Approach was tested to investigate the co-movement of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. The results of the study based on a Pearson linear correlation coefficient confirmed that Thai Baht exchange rate and each of selected ASEAN currencies have a linear correlation during the specific period excluding Vietnam exchange rate. Furthermore, based on empirical Copula Approach, Thai Baht exchange rate had a dependent structure with each of the selected in ASEAN currencies including Brunei exchange rate, Singapore exchange rate, Malaysia exchange rate, Indonesia exchange rate, Philippine exchange rate, and Vietnam exchange rate respectively. The results of Dynamic Copula estimation indicated that Thai Baht exchange rate had a co-movement with selected ASEAN currencies. The research results provide an informative and interactive ASEAN financial market to all users, including Global financial market.

  11. Perceived critical success factors of electronic health record system implementation in a dental clinic context: An organisational management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, Yusof Haji; Martins, Jorge Tiago

    2017-11-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) make health care more efficient. They improve the quality of care by making patients' medical history more accessible. However, little is known about the factors contributing to the successful EHR implementation in dental clinics. This article aims to identify the perceived critical success factors of EHR system implementation in a dental clinic context. We used Grounded Theory to analyse data collected in the context of Brunei's national EHR - the Healthcare Information and Management System (Bru-HIMS). Data analysis followed the stages of open, axial and selective coding. Six perceived critical success factors emerged: usability of the system, emergent behaviours, requirements analysis, training, change management, and project organisation. The study identified a mismatch between end-users and product owner/vendor perspectives. Workflow changes were significant challenges to clinicians' confident use, particularly as the system offered limited modularity and configurability. Recommendations are made for all the parties involved in healthcare information systems implementation to manage the change process by agreeing system goals and functionalities through wider consensual debate, and participated supporting strategies realised through common commitment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  13. Indicators of security of natural gas supply in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalu, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource and a global commodity. The demand for it has significantly increased. Japan, Korea and Taiwan heavily rely on liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. On the other hand, countries like Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. Gas supply interruptions, volatile gas prices, transportation and distribution bottlenecks, and a growing reliance on imports over longer distances have renewed interest on gas security in Asia. This paper examines the relative vulnerability to natural gas supply disruptions of seven gas-importing countries in Asia for year 2008. Based on four indicators of security of gas supply, a composite gas supply security index is estimated as an overall indication of gas vulnerability for our sample countries. The results demonstrate that there are differences in the values of the overall indicator of gas vulnerability among countries and the assessment is useful in developing an effective strategy of natural gas supply security in countries in the Asian region. (author)

  14. ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance while emphasizing social, economic, and cultural cooperation and development. Its member states include Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. ASEAN encompasses a population of 321.2 million, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Its gross domestic product was US$196 billion in 1987, with a per capita GDP of $621 and an annual growth rate of 5.8%. A striking characteristic of ASEAN is its wide diversity in terms of race (Malay, Thai, Chinese, Indian), culture, languages, and religion. Although ASEAN has gradually developed a number of formal consultative meetings and committees, it has only a limited permanent structure. Decisions are made by consensus or through informal, ad hoc consultations. The periodic meetings of the 6 foreign ministers constitute the principal decision-making body. The ASEAN nations are mainly committed to market and export-oriented economic growth strategies. Except for Singapore, the ASEAN economies are heavily agricultural, producing primarily rice. In the modern sector, all of the economies (except for Singapore's) are heavily reliant on basic industries, but high-technology manufacturing (e.g., electronic components) is becoming more important. ASEAN has demonstrated a remarkable ability to put aside historical disputes and limited economic complementarity to concentrate on issues of common interest. All 6 member nations have made preservation and enhancement of regional cohesion through ASEAN a foreign policy priority.

  15. Integrating virtual manipulative with the use of iPad in the teaching and learning of fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajah Nadzirah Fatin Mohammad Malik Finti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have suggested that students have difficulties in understanding the concepts of fraction, particularly on fraction equivalence and addition of fractions that involved unlike denominators. It is envisaged that the implementation of Virtual Manipulative using iPad would enhance students’ conceptual understanding. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Virtual Manipulative with the use of iPads in teaching equivalence and addition of fractions. The target groups were two Year 7 classes in one of the secondary schools in Brunei, one class comprising high-achieving students, while the other consist of low-achieving students. An action research design that included quantitative and qualitative data analyses was conducted. The findings revealed that the implementation of Virtual Manipulative using iPad has significant effect on students’ performance in-group activities, and it has significant effect for students with low abilities. The study also revealed that students’ motivation to learn fractions increased as they found the use of iPads to be fun and interesting. However, the results also revealed that the use of iPads as a teaching tool appeared to be challenging for teachers.

  16. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesan UK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complications in the specialty of orthodontics. Despite their infrequent occurrence, the morbidity from a single incident and the amount of specialty medical care that may be needed to manage such incidents is too high to ignore. There is also the associated risk of malpractice litigation given the fact that these incidents are preventable. At present, no clear guidelines exist regarding prevention of this emergency in practice. This article attempts to review relevant literature and aims to formulate certain recommendations based on best available evidence to minimize the incidence of such events, while also suggesting guidelines toward making their management more effective. A flow chart outlining management options and strategies to aid the clinician in the event of such an emergency is also presented.Keywords: foreign bodies, ingestion, orthodontics, respiratory aspiration, orthodontic appliances

  17. Decision Making Model for Ro-Ro Short Sea Shipping Operations in Archipelagic Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Md Arof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a decision-making model for determining the potential of interstate Ro-Ro Short Sea Shipping (SSS operations in Archipelagic Southeast Asia (ASEA. It is expected to assist SSS authorities, private investors and financial institutions focus their limited resources on several key factors that could ensure the success of their undertakings. This study will begin with identifying the relevant factors that have contributed towards successful SSS operations through a process of literature review. Subsequently, a Delphi survey was conducted with sub-regional experts to identify any new determinants and assess their opinions on the relative importance of all the determinants involved. Finally the weightages of the determinants were ascertained through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Twenty expert respondents from Brunei Darussalam. Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines were involved in the Delphi survey while 18 expert respondents continue to participate in the AHP survey. This study concludes with the development of a decision-making model that was tested on three interstate Ro-Ro SSS routes within the ASEA sub-region. Keywords: Archipelagic Southeast Asia, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, ASEAN, Delphi, Ro-Ro, Short Sea Shipping (SSS

  18. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project for arrangement of the basis of the international energy utilization rationalization. Survey of diagnosis of energy conservation in main industries of ASEAN countries; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika kiban seibi jigyo chosa hokokusho. ASEAN shokoku shuyo sangyo ni okeru sho energy shindan chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of securing the stable energy supply/demand and contributing to the sustainable economic growth in ASEAN countries, survey of the diagnosis of energy conservation was conducted. In this survey, the diagnosis on energy conservation was made in terms of typical plants/works jointly with ASEAN-side engineers to grasp the actual state of energy consumption of each of the plants and to give advice on energy conservation policies. The countries and companies selected as objects in this fiscal year are a fiber plant in Malaysia (Arab-Malaysian Development Berhad), a paper mill in Indonesia (P.T.Kertas Leces Pulp Paper Mill) and a cement plant in Brunei (Butra Djajanti Cement SDN BHD). Diagnosis was made for each of them on January 15-19, on January 22-26 and on February 5-9, 2001, respectively. Through Workshops No. 1 (November 2000) and No. 2 (December 2000), this diagnosis program was carried out in 2001. On the basis of the results of the diagnosis, presented were the necessary energy conservation policies to be taken. (NEDO)

  19. FY2000 survey report research and development internationalization in industrial sector among APEC economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey is conducted and a database is constructed on internationalization of research and development activities in the industrial sectors of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) countries, namely, on research and development support systems, research and development appropriations, research and development personnel, research VISA granting procedures and control over foreign funds, trends of research and development among private sector businesses, main research and development organizations, evaluation by private sector businesses of the research and development environments of their countries, and the like. Incorporated into the database are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam. The database, compiled for Internet web pages, CD-ROMs, and publications, covers the industrial technology related policies of all the countries and helps understand the research and development systems, and enables access to main research organizations. The database comprises a general section dealing with the background, system constitution, and internationalization trend and a countries section collecting information on the respective countries. (NEDO)

  20. Teaching problem solving using non-routine tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Maureen Siew Fang; Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi

    2018-04-01

    Non-routine problems are related to real-life context and require some realistic considerations and real-world knowledge in order to resolve them. This study examines several activity tasks incorporated with non-routine problems through the use of an emerging mathematics framework, at two junior colleges in Brunei Darussalam. The three sampled teachers in this study assisted in selecting the topics and the lesson plan designs. They also recommended the development of the four activity tasks: incorporating the use of technology; simulation of a reality television show; designing real-life sized car park spaces for the school; and a classroom activity to design a real-life sized dustpan. Data collected from all four of the activity tasks were analyzed based on the students' group work. The findings revealed that the most effective activity task in teaching problem solving was to design a real-life sized car park. This was because the use of real data gave students the opportunity to explore, gather information and give or receive feedback on the effect of their reasons and proposed solutions. The second most effective activity task was incorporating the use of technology as it enhanced the students' understanding of the concepts learnt in the classroom. This was followed by the classroom activity that used real data as it allowed students to work and assess the results mathematically. The simulation of a television show was found to be the least effective since it was viewed as not sufficiently challenging to the students.

  1. Processes involved in solving mathematical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra

    2018-04-01

    This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.

  2. Implementation of problem-based learning in geometry lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, S. N. S. H.; Li, H.-C.; Shahrill, M.; Prahmana, R. C. I.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. Firstly, it aims to examine the effects of the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach on students’ performance in the learning of geometry. Secondly, it seeks to gain insights from the students regarding the implementation of PBL in geometry lessons. The participants were 22 students from one Year 10 class in a co-educational secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. A mixed method design was employed with data collected from the pre-, post- and retention tests, and interviews. The findings from this study revealed positive influences on students’ performance in learning geometry as gain and retention of knowledge was observed. Meanwhile, mixed responses from the interviews implied that in terms of 1) learning attitudes, students favoured the idea of independent learning but some critiqued that the process of PBL might be time-consuming; 2) learning difficulties, some students struggled in assimilating information leading to poor decision- making; and 3) knowledge and skills, some students believed to have nurtured some skills such as communication and research skills.

  3. DOES SUKUK FINANCING PROMOTE ECONOMIC GROWTH? AN EMPHASIS ON THE MAJOR ISSUING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani ECHCHABI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past few decades, Islamic finance has imposed itself as a viable alternative / complementary system to the long existing conventional financial system. Nevertheless, recent research has claimed that Islamic finance as it is currently practice, does not promote economic growth. Hence, the objective of this study is to empirically test this claim, by examining the potential effect of Islamic finance in the specific form of Sukuk issuance on the economic growth represented by three proxies, namely, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Gross Capital Formation (GDP and trade activities. The data covers not only GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council, but also other countries including Malaysia, Indonesia, Turkey, Pakistan, Singapore, China, Brunei, Kazakhstan, Germany, United Kingdom (UK, The Gambia and France. The data were collected from the Islamic Finance Information Services (IFIS and the World Bank databases, and were subsequently analysed through Toda and Yamamoto Granger Non Causality test. Accordingly, the findings indicated that the Sukuk issuance had an influence on the GDP and GCF only when all the countries were pulled together, otherwise no effect was identified for Saudi Arabia and the GCC.

  4. Travel to the United States under the Visa Waiver Program

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The following information has been taken from the Web site of the United States Embassy in Paris, which shall be the only authentic text in the matter: http://www.amb-usa.fr/consul/niv_vwpfr.htm With effect from 15 May 2003, Belgian citizens wishing to travel to the United States (for business or pleasure for a maximum of 90 days) shall be eligible for admission without a visa only if they are in possession of a valid MACHINE-READABLE passport. However, they may still travel to the United States with a valid old-style passport after this date provided that they obtain a visa. This visa waiver for those holding a valid MACHINE-READABLE passport will also apply to the citizens of the following countries with effect from 1st October 2003: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Citizens not in poss...

  5. Improving the management of infertile acid soils in Southeast Asia: The approach of the IBSRAM Acid-Soils network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefroy, R.D.B.

    2000-01-01

    The IBSRAM ASIALAND Management of Acid Soils network aims to improve the understanding of the broad range of biophysical and socio-economic production limitations on infertile acid soils of Southeast Asia, and to lead to development and implementation of sustainable land-management strategies for these important marginal areas. The main activities of the network are in Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam, with associated activity in Thailand, and minor involvement in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, and Malaysia. The main experimental focus is through researcher-managed on-farm trials, to improve the management of phosphorus nutrition with inorganic and organic amendments. A generic design is used across the eight well characterised sites that form the core of the network. The results will be analysed across time and across sites. Improved methods for laboratory analyses, experimental management, socio-economic data collection, and data analysis and interpretation are critical components. Three important initiatives are associated with the core activities. These aim to establish a broader network on maintenance of quality laboratory analyses, to assess the potential for implementation of improved strategies through farmer-managed on-farm trials, and to improve our understanding of, and ways of estimating, nutrient budgets for diverse farming systems. (author)

  6. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. full text

  7. Nursing qualification and workforce for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Nursalam, N; Kurniati, Anna; Gunawan, Joko

    2018-01-23

    International nurse migration among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries has the potential to increase the effectiveness of health services and access for the ASEAN Economic Community. Providing equivalent nursing qualifications and licensure standards and increasing the availability of the nursing workforce has become a challenge for ASEAN members. The purpose of this study is: 1) to comparatively analyze information on nursing licensing examinations (NLE) across ASEAN countries; and 2) to present information on the human resources required for a successful nursing workforce. This study reviews all documents published on the subject within the ASEAN Economic Community. NLE systems exist in all ASEAN Member States (AMSs)s except Brunei, Vietnam, and Lao PDR. Nursing education systems also vary across ASEAN countries. Language as a means of general communication and nursing examinations also differs. The availability of a qualified health workforce at the regional level is above the threshold in some areas. However, at the national level, Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Lao PDR fall below the threshold. Professional licensure requirements differ among ASEAN nurses as a part of the process to become a qualified nurse in host and source countries. Mutual Recognition Agreements on nursing services should address the differences in NLE requirements as well as the availability of nurses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The burden of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Norman, Rosana; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the most recent data on cancer rates and the burden of cancer in the ASEAN region. Epidemiological data were sourced from GLOBOCAN 2008 and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost were estimated using the standard methodology developed within the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease study. Overall, it was estimated there were over 700,000 new cases of cancer and 500,000 cancer deaths in ASEAN in the year 2008, leading to approximately 7.5 million DALYs lost in one year. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (98,143), breast (86,842) and liver cancers (74,777). The most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (85,772), liver cancer (69,115) and colorectal cancer (44,280). The burden of cancer in terms of DALYs lost was highest in Laos, Viet Nam and Myanmar and lowest in Brunei, Singapore and the Philippines. Significant differences in the patterns of cancer from country to country were observed. Another key finding was the major impact played by population age distribution on cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer rates in ASEAN are expected to increase with ageing of populations and changes in lifestyles associated with economic development. Therefore, ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place cancer-control health care policies, focussed on strengthening the health systems to cope with projected increases in cancer prevention, treatment and management needs.

  9. The Distribution and Population Density of Bornean Tarsier, “Tarsius Bancanus Borneanus (Elliot)” in Secondary and Rehabilitated Forests of Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimi, Hani Nabilia Muhd; Chubo, John Keen; Top @ Mohd. Tah, Marina Mohd.; Saripuddin, Noor Bahiah; Ab Rahim, Siti Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Tarsius bancanus borneanus was first reported by Elliot in 1990 which an endemic species that can be found on the Island of Borneo consisting of Sabah and Sarawak of Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam and Kalimantan, Indonesia. This sub-species has been listed as a totally protected animal under the Sarawak Wild Life Protection Ordinance (1998) and vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The present study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus (UPMKB), Sarawak from October 2014 till March 2015. Through mark and recapture sampling covering an area of 37 ha of secondary forest patches and 7.13 ha of rehabilitated forest, a total of 16 tarsiers were captured using mist nets while one tarsier was recapture. The population density was 38 individuals/km2 was captured using mist nets in the secondary forest while 28 individuals/km2 was recorded for the rehabilitated forest. Using the catch per unit effort (net hour) method, the average time for capturing tarsiers in the secondary forest patches was 26.6 net hour per animal and 30.0 net hour per animal in the rehabilitated forest. The presented results provides information on the presence of tarsiers in both the secondary and rehabilitated forests of UPMKB, Sarawak, Malaysia which underlines the conservation value of these forested areas. PMID:29644021

  10. Diversity of Begonia (Begoniaceae in Borneo – how many species are there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 126 species are currently named and described from Borneo (Brunei - 16 species, Kalimantan – 5 species, Sabah – 41 species and Sarawak – 72 species. However, based on our survey of the Begonia collection in the Sarawak Herbarium, the un-named taxa (about 110 species significantly outnumber the 72-named species. The situation is probably the same for Sabah, so with many more new species than the 41 named ones at a conservative estimate the Sabah Begonia flora can be expected to exceed 100 species. For Kalimantan (5 named species, the total number of un-named species is likely to be even higher considering that Kalimantan occupies a  larger land area, its begonia-rich mountains and limestone areas are hardly collected, and the Begonia flora has hardly been studied at all. We can therefore expect the Begonia flora of Borneo to exceed 600 species. In view of the high level of narrow endemism (80% of species are known from a single locality, expeditions to unexplored areas are  necessary to document, in particular, areas that are experiencing irreversible land-use change. Alpha-taxonomy on a large scale is needed to tackle the backlog of literally hundreds of new undescribed species. 

  11. The Distribution and Population Density of Bornean Tarsier, "Tarsius Bancanus Borneanus (Elliot)" in Secondary and Rehabilitated Forests of Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimi, Hani Nabilia Muhd; Chubo, John Keen; Top Mohd Tah, Marina Mohd; Saripuddin, Noor Bahiah; Ab Rahim, Siti Sarah

    2018-03-01

    Tarsius bancanus borneanus was first reported by Elliot in 1990 which an endemic species that can be found on the Island of Borneo consisting of Sabah and Sarawak of Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam and Kalimantan, Indonesia. This sub-species has been listed as a totally protected animal under the Sarawak Wild Life Protection Ordinance (1998) and vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The present study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus (UPMKB), Sarawak from October 2014 till March 2015. Through mark and recapture sampling covering an area of 37 ha of secondary forest patches and 7.13 ha of rehabilitated forest, a total of 16 tarsiers were captured using mist nets while one tarsier was recapture. The population density was 38 individuals/km 2 was captured using mist nets in the secondary forest while 28 individuals/km 2 was recorded for the rehabilitated forest. Using the catch per unit effort (net hour) method, the average time for capturing tarsiers in the secondary forest patches was 26.6 net hour per animal and 30.0 net hour per animal in the rehabilitated forest. The presented results provides information on the presence of tarsiers in both the secondary and rehabilitated forests of UPMKB, Sarawak, Malaysia which underlines the conservation value of these forested areas.

  12. Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Borneo: A Review of Current Knowledge with Emphasis on Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Gianna; Zulkifli Poh, Anna Norliza; Peter, Cindy; Porter, Lindsay; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along Borneo's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan, Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei. Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. chinensis, and that of Sousa sahulensis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are frequently documented. Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive. The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementing thinking aloud pair and Pólya problem solving strategies in fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpol, N. S. H.; Shahrill, M.; Li, H.-C.; Prahmana, R. C. I.

    2017-12-01

    This study implemented two pedagogical strategies, the Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving and Pólya’s Problem Solving, to support students’ learning of fractions. The participants were 51 students (ages 11-13) from two Year 7 classes in a government secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. A mixed method design was employed in the present study, with data collected from the pre- and post-tests, problem solving behaviour questionnaire and interviews. The study aimed to explore if there were differences in the students’ problem solving behaviour before and after the implementation of the problem solving strategies. Results from the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test revealed a significant difference in the test results regarding student problem solving behaviour, z = -3.68, p = .000, with a higher mean score for the post-test (M = 95.5, SD = 13.8) than for the pre-test (M = 88.9, SD = 15.2). This implied that there was improvement in the students’ problem solving performance from the pre-test to the post-test. Results from the questionnaire showed that more than half of the students increased scores in all four stages of the Pólya’s problem solving strategy, which provided further evidence of the students’ improvement in problem solving.

  14. Estimating Carbon Dynamics in an Intact Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest Using a Forest Carbon Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongyeol Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intact dipterocarp forests in Asia act as crucial carbon (C reservoirs, and it is therefore important to investigate the C dynamics in these forests. We estimated C dynamics, together with net ecosystem production (NEP, in an intact tropical dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam. Fifty-four simulation units (plots; 20 m × 20 m were established and initial C stocks were determined via direct field measurement. The C dynamics were annually simulated with a regression model and the Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC model. The initial C stock (Mg C·ha−1 of biomass, litter, dead wood and mineral soil were 213.1 ± 104.8, 2.0 ± 0.8, 31.3 ± 38.8, and 80.7 ± 15.5, respectively. Their annual changes (Mg C·ha−1·year−1 were 3.2 ± 1.1, 0.2 ± 0.2, −3.7 ± 6.1, and −0.3 ± 1.1, respectively. NEP was −0.6 ± 6.1 Mg C·ha−1·year−1, showing large heterogeneity among the plots. The initial C stocks of biomass and dead wood, biomass turnover rates and dead wood decay rates were elucidated as dominant factors determining NEP in a sensitivity analysis. Accordingly, investigation on those input data can constrain an uncertainty in determining NEP in the intact tropical forests.

  15. The geopolitics of $10 oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The market and the geopolitical implications of the possibility of $10 a barrel becoming the norm for oil prices in 1999 are examined. The low price will present budgetary difficulties for all the world's major oil producing countries with the exception of Brunei. In some countries, such as Nigeria and Venezuela, general financial and economic reform will become inevitable with the pressure for political reform to follow. If energy development is to continue in the Caspian region in a low price era, long term political stability will be necessary and a move towards democracy from the present autocracies may be necessary to achieve this. In the Middle East, countries are facing the erosion of their core financial base. Depressed oil prices could force Gulf States, which in the past have depended on their oil revenues alone, to introduce taxation as an alternative source of income. Hitherto, oil has meant power in political as well as in energy terms, but the diminished value of oil in a world where their are alternative energy sources will reduce the importance, even of key regions such as the Middle East. The power of OPEC is threatened by its failure to bring about the massive co-ordinated production cutbacks which alone might turn the market around. The beneficiaries of cheap oil will be the consuming nations, particularly those of East Asia where the pace of economic recovery will be speeded up. (UK)

  16. Determining The Optimal Mix of Institutional Geopolitical Power And ASEAN Corporate Governance on the Firm Value of Malaysia’s Multinational Corporations (MNCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sallha Yusoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between institutional geopolitics, ASEAN corporate governance quality and the firm value of Malaysia’s multinational corporation (MNC. We used the data of MNCs in Malaysia that were active from 2009 to 2013 as an evidence of MNCs from emerging market economies. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis and panel data analysis have been utilized to test the equation model. We also propose optimization analysis by using differential evolution method to capture the optimal mix of institutional geopolitics and ASEAN_CG on the firm value of MNC. Results reveal that the geopolitics of G7(Canada, France, German, Italy, Japan, Europe, and the United States, BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, and ASEAN (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia are highly correlated with the firm value of Malaysia’s MNC. The power of institutional geopolitics, namely, military, material, and social power, influences firm value negatively and ASEAN_CG moderate the negative influence of institutional geopolitics on the firm value of MNC. Thus, it is importance for corporate management to understand the geopolitical changes of host countries’ and increase the compliance of ASEAN_CG in formulating their market value and segmentation strategies.

  17. Arithmetic learning with the use of graphic organiser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F. L.; Shahrill, M.; Tan, A.; Han, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    For this study, Zollman’s four corners-and-a-diamond mathematics graphic organiser embedded with Polya’s Problem Solving Model was used to investigate secondary school students’ performance in arithmetic word problems. This instructional learning tool was used to help students break down the given information into smaller units for better strategic planning. The participants were Year 7 students, comprised of 21 male and 20 female students, aged between 11-13 years old, from a co-ed secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. This study mainly adopted a quantitative approach to investigate the types of differences found in the arithmetic word problem pre- and post-tests results from the use of the learning tool. Although the findings revealed slight improvements in the overall comparisons of the students’ test results, the in-depth analysis of the students’ responses in their activity worksheets shows a different outcome. Some students were able to make good attempts in breaking down the key points into smaller information in order to solve the word problems.

  18. How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Alison M.; Gandois, Laure; Eri, Jangarun; Dommain, René; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Kai, Fuu Ming; Haji Su’ut, Nur Salihah; Harvey, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    Tropical peatlands now emit hundreds of megatons of carbon dioxide per year because of human disruption of the feedbacks that link peat accumulation and groundwater hydrology. However, no quantitative theory has existed for how patterns of carbon storage and release accompanying growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands are affected by climate and disturbance. Using comprehensive data from a pristine peatland in Brunei Darussalam, we show how rainfall and groundwater flow determine a shape parameter (the Laplacian of the peat surface elevation) that specifies, under a given rainfall regime, the ultimate, stable morphology, and hence carbon storage, of a tropical peatland within a network of rivers or canals. We find that peatlands reach their ultimate shape first at the edges of peat domes where they are bounded by rivers, so that the rate of carbon uptake accompanying their growth is proportional to the area of the still-growing dome interior. We use this model to study how tropical peatland carbon storage and fluxes are controlled by changes in climate, sea level, and drainage networks. We find that fluctuations in net precipitation on timescales from hours to years can reduce long-term peat accumulation. Our mathematical and numerical models can be used to predict long-term effects of changes in temporal rainfall patterns and drainage networks on tropical peatland geomorphology and carbon storage. PMID:28607068

  19. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  20. How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Alexander R; Hoyt, Alison M; Gandois, Laure; Eri, Jangarun; Dommain, René; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Kai, Fuu Ming; Haji Su'ut, Nur Salihah; Harvey, Charles F

    2017-06-27

    Tropical peatlands now emit hundreds of megatons of carbon dioxide per year because of human disruption of the feedbacks that link peat accumulation and groundwater hydrology. However, no quantitative theory has existed for how patterns of carbon storage and release accompanying growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands are affected by climate and disturbance. Using comprehensive data from a pristine peatland in Brunei Darussalam, we show how rainfall and groundwater flow determine a shape parameter (the Laplacian of the peat surface elevation) that specifies, under a given rainfall regime, the ultimate, stable morphology, and hence carbon storage, of a tropical peatland within a network of rivers or canals. We find that peatlands reach their ultimate shape first at the edges of peat domes where they are bounded by rivers, so that the rate of carbon uptake accompanying their growth is proportional to the area of the still-growing dome interior. We use this model to study how tropical peatland carbon storage and fluxes are controlled by changes in climate, sea level, and drainage networks. We find that fluctuations in net precipitation on timescales from hours to years can reduce long-term peat accumulation. Our mathematical and numerical models can be used to predict long-term effects of changes in temporal rainfall patterns and drainage networks on tropical peatland geomorphology and carbon storage.

  1. Contribution of the Heart of Borneo (HoB initiative towards botanical exploration in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Sabran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Heart of   Borneo (HoB declaration is a conservation agreement initiated by WWF and signed by three countries, i.e., Brunei       Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia in Bali, Indonesia on 12th February 2007 to protect more than 23 million hectares of forested region on Borneo Island. These forested areas could be well protected when conservation management plan is in place. One of the crucial activities to facilitate the planning and formulation of conservation plan is to conduct  scientific expeditions that include botanical exploration. The primary objective of the expedition is to identify the key conservation targets within the forest reserves. For the past five years, several expeditions have been conducted by the Sabah Forestry Department under the auspices of the HoB project to explore various forest reserves with conservation issues within the Heart of Borneo area. This paper will present the findings which include plant richness, endemism and plant conservation status in each forest reserves that has been explored. 

  2. Sea Reclamation Status of Countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjue Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea reclamation information of countries around the South China Sea was extracted from 1975 to 2010. The spatial state and driven forces of sea reclamation are then discussed. Results show that the overall strength of sea reclamation in the South China Sea was great. New reclaimed land added up to 3264 km2. Sea reclamation for fish farming was the main reclamation type and widely distributed in the whole area, especially on the coast from the Pearl River Delta to the Red River Delta, and the coast of Ca Mau Peninsula. Sea reclamation in China and Vietnam was rather significant, which occupies 80.6% of the total reclamation area. Singapore had the highest level of sea reclamation. New reclaimed land for fish farming holds a key role in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, while new reclaimed land for construction and docks dominated in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Areas and use-type compositions of new reclaimed land in countries varied greatly due to the differences of economic factors, policy inclination, and landscapes in the respective countries.

  3. The Prospects of Creating an Optimum Currency Area among Asean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the prospects of creating an optimum currency area (OCA among ASEAN countries. To ensure sustainability of the creating currency zone, the potential candidate countries should meet the criteria of the OCA theory. At the same time, the present technique of assessing candidate countries implies that they must meet the OCA criteria relative to the «anchor» country. This approach creates the problem of the sensitivity of calculation results to the choice of the anchor country. Thus, the case of the OCA composition with Indonesia as the anchor country is different from the one with Singapore as the anchor country. Author’s modification of the specified technique allows bypassing the mentioned problem. Applying the modified approach to the ASEAN member countries allows concluding that the creation of an optimum currency area in South-East Asia is economically feasible for Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei Darussalam and Thailand. The rest of the ASEAN member countries (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar have not yet reached a high degree of macroeconomic convergence with partners of the integration bloc and even among themselves. Therefore there is a need for a transition period, during which the economies of these three countries can «catch up» the level of the more developed ASEAN member countries

  4. Informational and analytical support of the state bodies activities (on the example of expert surveys in APR countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L S Ruban

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the expert surveys conducted within the international project “Dialogue Partnership as a Factor of Stability and Integration” (“Bridge between East and West” over ten years (2005-2014 and control interviews conducted in 2009 and 2015 in the longitude format (70% of experts were the same the author provides a comprehensive analysis of the situation in the Asia-Pacific region with the help of highly qualified experts and VIP-persons - decision-makers from 16 Asian-Pacific countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, the People’s Republic of China, Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Russian Federation, Singapore, USA, Thailand, the Philippines and Japan. This study is not abstract or theoretical; it is a tool for informational and analytical support of the relevant state bodies of the Russian Federation responsible for the development of the situation in the Asia-Pacific region. The author analyzes the geopolitical balance of power and leadership in the region, its economic and energy situation, the level of security, risks and threats, the possibility of a military conflict so as to identify possible ways for the effective cooperation and coordination of interests of various countries in the region.

  5. The roles of weather modification technology in mitigation of the peat fires during a period of dry season in Bengkalis, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhyavitri, A.; Perdana, M. A.; Sutikno, S.; Widodo, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    The annual peat fire disasters have suffered human life, deteriorated peat land ecosystems, and caused severe economic losses in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore during a period of 2014-2016. The objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the weather modification technology (WMT) may play its roles in increasing the precipitation rates in order to mitigate the peat fires disaster in Bengkalis, Riau Province, Indonesia. The study obtained the precipitation rates data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) satellite during the period of 2014, 2015 and 2016. The data then statistically analyzed using the Grads software package. While the process of WMT at the designated research location was evaluated together between the Artificial Rain Unit of BPPT (Agency for the Assessment and Application Technology), and the Engineering Faculty, University of Riau, 2016. The research showed that the WMT increased the rainfall rates during the dry season within the study area by 8% (520.7 mm to 557 mm) in the 3 months period (July 14 -October 6, 2016), and reducing significantly hotspots by 88.6% from 6.725 in 2014 to 770 in 2016. Hence, it confirmed that the application of technical WMT procedures may increase precipitation rates and reduce the number of hot spots in Bengkalis.

  6. A Novel Approach for Identification and Ranking of Road Traffic Accident Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahran El-Said M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Traffic Accidents (RTA are known to be one of the main causes of fatalities worldwide. One usef ul approach to improve road safety is through the identification of RT A hotspots along a road, so they can be prioritised and treated. This paper introduces an approach based on Geographical Information System (GI S to identify and prioritise RTA hotspots along a road network using historical RTA data. One particular urban road in Brunei with a historically high rate of RT As, Jalan Gadong, was selected as a case study. Five years of historical RTA data were acquired from the relevant authorities and input into a GIS database. GI S analysis was then used to identify the spatial extension of the RT A hotspots. The RT A hotspots were ranked according to three different schemes: frequency, severity and socio-economic impact of RTAs. A composite ranking scheme was also developed to combine these schemes; this enabled the prioritisation and development of intervention and maintenance programmes of the identified RTA hotspots. A visualisation method of the RTA spatial distribution within each identified RTA hotspot was also developed to determine the most risky road stretches within each hotspot, which is important for treatment prioritisation when limited resources are available.

  7. Current status of natural gas in Asia and future problems; Asia no tennen gas josei no genjo to kongo no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes current status of natural gas in individual countries of Asia and future prospects. Japan is the largest consuming country, and consumes 29% of Asia-Pacific region. Japan, Korea and Taiwan consume 35%. All of natural gas are imported. Indonesia, the largest LNG exporting country in the world, makes efforts to develop natural gas in response to the future shortage of oil with the economic growth. In Malaysia, natural gas utilization is extending for the diversification of energy. Natural gas utilization occupies 36% of primary energy consumption, which results in the reduced oil consumption. Brunei is an important natural gas supplier in Asia, and 90% of the production is exported. Australia has a large reserve of natural gas, which is exported besides domestic use. China has a large latent demand as well as India. In Taiwan, most of natural gas is imported. In Korea, demand of city gas has extended in addition to power generation, and it will extend in future. Current conditions in Vietnam and Thailand are also described. In the Philippine, natural gas is not used. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Setting effective mandatory energy efficiency standards and labelling regulations: A review of best practices in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • S and L regulations are needed to materialize the various benefits of energy efficiency. • S and L regulations can appear in various formats as in the Asia–Pacific region. • Effective regime has to be clear, authoritative, open, and enforceable. • Clear policy, customisation, inclusiveness, transparency and flexibility are desirable. - Abstract: This paper attempts to inform policy makers and legislators on how to set energy efficiency standards and labelling (S and L) regulations. It draws lessons from the literature on S and L regulations in the Asia–Pacific region and from practical experience in drafting the S and L regulations for Brunei Darussalam. The paper proposes necessary components for effective S and L regulations, as follows: clear liabilities, authoritative administration, open principles for technical systems, and enforceable mechanisms. It also recommends some key issues in good practice toward effective S and L regulations, such as policy making in advance, customised legislation, inclusive and transparent legislative procedure, and flexibility in the legislation

  9. Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Roger Anderson, O.

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample of the study consisted of six classes (140 Form 3 students of 13-15 years old) selected from a typical coeducational school in Brunei. Three classes (40 boys and 30 girls) were taught using the TTA while three other classes (41 boys and 29 girls) used the CMA, enriched with PowerPoint presentations. After the interventions (lessons on magnetism), the students in both groups were asked to describe in writing their understanding of magnetism accrued from the lessons. Their written descriptions were analyzed using flow map analyses to assess their content knowledge and its organisation in memory as evidence of cognitive structure. The extent of CLE was measured using a published CLE survey. The results showed that the cognitive structures of the CMA students were more extensive, thematically organised and richer in interconnectedness of thoughts than those of TTA students. Moreover, CMA students also perceived their classroom learning environment to be more constructivist than their counterparts. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers consider using the CMA teaching technique to help students enrich their understanding, especially for more complex or abstract scientific content.

  10. Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

  11. Optimal management of chronic osteomyelitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande KC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ketan C Pande Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Chronic osteomyelitis is a challenging condition to treat. It is seen mostly after open fractures or in implant-related infections following treatment of fractures and prosthetic joint replacements. Recurrence of infection is well known, and successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach with surgical debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapy as the cornerstone of treatment. Staging of the disease and identification of the causative microorganism is essential before initiation of treatment. Important surgical steps include radical debridement of necrotic and devitalized tissue, removal of implants, management of resultant dead space, soft-tissue coverage, and skeletal stabilization or management of skeletal defects. The route of administration and duration of antimicrobial therapy continues to be debated. The role of biofilm is now clearly established in the chronicity of bone infection, and newer modalities are being developed to address various issues related to biofilm formation. The present review addresses various aspects of chronic osteomyelitis of long bones seen in adults, with a review of recent developments. Keywords: osteomyelitis, infection, biofilm, bone, therapy, treatment

  12. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  13. Représentations architecturales et processus identitaires : le cas de l’Indonésie Architectural Representations and Identity Markers : The Case of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guerreiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Indonésie, comme dans les autres pays d’Asie du Sud-Est insulaire (Malaysia, Brunei, les Philippines, Singapour, Taiwan, la maison d’habitation ou la maison cérémonielle est l’objet d’un fort investissement identitaire au niveau de l’ethnie et/ou de la région. Elle donne lieu à des présentations à la fois muséographiques (éléments architecturaux, sculptures, motifs décoratifs, maquettes et touristiques, dont certaines reprennent le concept du « musée vivant  ». L’idée de « représentation » est définie selon ses différents sens, en analysant la position des unités de signification sous-jacentes au processus de la représentation, dans une perspective sémiologique (Barthes, notamment en confrontant les notions d’index (la référence, d’icône (la ressemblance et de symbole (la convention. Le Parc de la belle Indonésie en miniature (Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, un parc à thème architectural construit en 1975 sous le régime de l’Ordre nouveau du président Suharto dans la banlieue de Jakarta, en est un exemple paradigmatique. Il décline le patrimoine architectural du pays, en une représentation englobante de la culture nationale, mise en scène autour de la transition vers ce qui est conçu comme la « modernité ». La notion de « diversité culturelle » fait l’objet d’une comparaison, dans son traitement muséographique le plus courant en Indonésie et dans son développement au Taman Mini.In Indonesia, as in the other countries of insular Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, the house, used either as a dwelling or for ceremonial occasions, is a focus of identity at both the ethnic and regional levels. As a building, the house is a focus of displays, both in museums (architectural features, sculptures, decorative patterns, house models and for tourism, sometimes associated with the concept of the “living museum.” The idea of

  14. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY: A LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON LEGISLATIONS AND TESTING MECHANISM FOR ASEAN PRODUCT SAFETY DIRECTIVE

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    Syed Sagoff Alsagoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1967 ASEAN has advanced in great leaps in the economic sector luring new member states into its pact. From a mere five member states (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines ASEAN has today managed to entice five other neighbouring states (Brunei 1984, Vietnam 1995, Laos & Myanmar 1997, Cambodia 1999 into its pact transforming itself into union of ten member states with a consumer population expected to exceed 600 million people. In order to ensure sustainability amid global challenges, member states have engrossed ASEAN Charter in 2007 with a view of creating an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 that is robust, competitive and sustainable. At this juncture, ASEAN has to realize that like any trade liberalization initiatives, goods moved readily and freely throughout the free-trade area that is facilitated by a lucrative non-barrier tariffs incentives. This vision of a single market which creates a frontier without borders can prove to be advantageous to member states only if they have the required vehicle that is able to overcome the drawback of its progression through harmonization and synchronization efforts that is effective and successful. Like everything else, every advantage has some disadvantages attached to it. This article will address important determining factors that are crucial in the development and scope of proposed ASEAN Product Safety Directive including reviewing relevant determining factors such as regional stability, consumer protection legislations and standard and testing agencies of which one without the other will be incomplete. The proposals suggested in this article will strengthen and unite ASEAN in overcoming unsafe product issues at ASEAN level.

  15. The Analysis of Income per Capita Convergence on ASEAN Plus Three (APT Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Fatiwetunusa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to test the convergence of income per capita in APT countries through three models: absolute convergence, conditional convergence and sigma convergence. Regression analysis of panel data from 13 APT countries during the period of 2001-2014 is used to analysed to study problem. In absolute convergence model, the growth of real GDP per capita and initial real GDP are used as the variables, meanwhile, 8 variables such as the growth of real GPD per capita, initial real GDP per capita, labor force ratio, value added in agricultural sector, value added in industrial sector, terms of trade, foreign direct investment and internet users ratio are analyzed in conditional convergence model. According to the Solow model, the economies of the countries will converge in which the growth of income per capita of developing countries will be higher than those of developed countries. The economies will be convergent if the countries tend to move to a similar steady state resulting in smaller gap between the countries. Based on the results of absolute convergence and conditional convergence models, APT countries is converging with the rate of 2% and 2.2%. This is consistent with the results of sigma convergence model that shows a declining trend in the dispersion of real GDP per capita in APT regions. The growth of real GDP per capita is influenced by initial GDP per capita, labor force ratio, value added in agricultural sector, value added in industrial sector, terms of trade, foreign direct investment and internet users ratio. Developed countries such as Singapore, Brunei Darussalam and South Korea experience the impact of high real GDP per capita growth. On the contrary, Indonesia, Laos, Vietnam and The Phillipines undergo the impact of low GDP per capita growth.

  16. Using reference nutrient density goals with food balance sheet data to identify likely micronutrient deficits for fortification planning in countries in the Western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Collection of nationwide food consumption data at the individual level is the preferred option for planning fortification programs. However, such data are seldom collected in low-income countries. In contrast, Food Balance Sheets (FBS), published annually for approximately 180 countries, may provide a source of national data for program planning. To explore the use of micronutrient densities from FBS data to identify likely deficits for eight micronutrients in national diets. Micronutrient densities in the daily available food supply per capita were calculated from the micronutrient contents of 95 food commodities in 17 Western Pacific Region countries. Densities were compared with reference nutrient density goals developed to ensure that at least 95% of individuals, irrespective of life-stage group, are likely to have adequate intakes. Of the eight micronutrients, Cambodia and Korea D.P.R. had likely deficits for six; China, Fiji, Kiribati, Korea Republic, Lao P.D.R., Philippines, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam had likely deficits for five; Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea had likely deficits for four; and New Caledonia had likely deficits for three. The most frequent deficits were for iron, zinc, and calcium (all countries), followed by vitamin B2 and vitamin A (n = 13), vitamin B1 (n = 2), and vitamin B12 (n = 1). The nutrient density approach could be applied to FBS data for ranking countries according to likely micronutrient deficits, but it provides no information on distribution of nutrient supply for fortification program planning. The approach described here could be applied to data from Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) to characterize households at greatest risk.

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcom W. Mintz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Simone Prodolliet, Händlerinnen, Goldgr��ber und Staatsbeamte; Sozialgeschichte einer Kleinstadt im Hochland Südwestsumatras. Berlin: Reimer, 1996, 372 pp. [Berner Sumatra-Forschungen.] - Richard Chauvel, Antje van der Hoek, Religie in Ballingschap; Institutionalisering en Leiderschap onder Christelijke en Islamitische Molukkers in Nederland. Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij, 1994, 297 pp. - J.E. Lelijveld, Kees Groeneboer, Weg tot het Westen; Het Nederlands voor Indië 1600-1950. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1993, xii + 580 pp. - Bernd Nothofer, P.W. Martin, Language Use & Language Change in Brunei Darussalam, Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1996, xvi + 373 pp. [Monographs in International Studies 100.], C. Ozog, G. Poedjosoedarmo (eds. - Anton Ploeg, Pamela Swadling, Plumes from Paradise; Trade cycles in outer Southeast Asia and their impact on New Guinea and nearby islands until 1920. With contributions by Roy Wagner and Billai Laba. Boroko/Coorparoo (Qld: Papua New Guinea National Museum in association with R. Brown & Ass. (Qld, 1996, 352 pp. Plates, maps, index. - Bernard Sellato, Traude Gavin, The women’s warpath; Iban ritual fabrics from Borneo, Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1996, 99 pp. - Jyh Wee Sew, Malcom W. Mintz, A course in conversational Indonesian (with equivalent Malay vocabulary. Singapore: EPB Publishers, 1994, 558 pp. - Kees Snoek, Liesbeth Dolk, Twee Zielen, Twee Gedachten; Tijdschriften en Intellectuelen op Java (1900-1957, Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1993, 220 pp. - Nicholas Tarling, Paul H. Kratoska, Malaya and Singapore during the Japanese Occupation. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995, xii + 175 pp. [Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Special Publications Series 3.

  18. Environmental change in south-east Asia. People, politics and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnwell, M.J.G.; Bryant, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of politics and ecology in the quest for sustainable development in South East Asia is explored in this book by contributors who provide a broad range of perspectives. In the first of the four main sections, the political context of ecological change is examined. The topics discussed are: Indonesia and Thailand in a globalising pulp and paper industry; environmental organisations and different political contexts in Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam; Japan and South East Asia's environment. Some of the processes and forms of human-induced environmental change are illustrated in the second section. These include: the search for sustainable livelihoods in Indonesian transmigration settlements; the 210 MW hydro-power project on the Theun river in Laos which illustrates the tensions between environmental costs and potential economic benefits; forest management in Laos. Discussion of the various methods which strengthen understanding of human-induced environmental change in the region is integrated with further illustrations of its process and context in the third section where the following are considered: environmental change in Malaysian Borneo; the value of remote sensing and geographical information systems in mapping the environment; the weakness of Vietnam's tropical forestry action plan. In the final section, an examination of some of the options for change which are necessary if sustainable development is to become a reality includes: the sustainability of ecotourism in Indonesia; the potential stewardship role of the Bajau people in Indonesia's proposed marine parks; environmental degradation, non-timber forest products and Iban communities in Sarawak; conservation and development in Brunei's rainforests; Philippine community-based forest management. (27 figures; 23 tables; 752 references) (UK)

  19. Competitiveness in tourism economies of the APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna María Ibáñez Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that by 2030 the influx of tourists worldwide scope 1. 7 billion people. For such figures become a reality, timely in formation that can be taken as a reference for the generation of strategies aimed at harnessing the tourism potential of the various destinations in the world is required, plus a coordinated work between different economies, blocks and organizations. Here, in this article, an overview of the situation and development of tourism competitiveness of nations that make up the Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC is provided. The methodology consisted of review of specialized search and sta tistical information influx, income and tourism competitiveness globally and literature APEC member country. The main results indicate that globally between 2010 and 2013, APEC countries experienced an increase in tourism revenues of 25%, a figure that exceeds global trends. In 2013, the level of tourism competitiveness presented by APEC, ranged between 6 and 82 position globally and only 53% of the 19 APEC economies that were evaluated by the World Economic Forum (WEF, improved their level of competitiveness. In relation to the regulatory framework linked to tourism, nations like Peru, Brunei and Russia reached the lowest ratings of the block thus have enormous work to do to improve your score in this category. In business environment and infrastructure, highlighted America. While in human and cultural resources, proved to be the issue in which APEC economies outperformed. Finally, results for APEC economies, evidence that critical areas are those concerning regulation and policies; and particularly sustainability issue, which can become a bottleneck in terms of competitiveness in the area of APEC therefore must strengthen and design better strategies for joint efforts in relation to such matters.

  20. Structural Determinants and Children's Oral Health: A Cross-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S R; Foster Page, L; Thomson, W M; Broomhead, T; Bekes, K; Benson, P E; Aguilar-Diaz, F; Do, L; Hirsch, C; Marshman, Z; McGrath, C; Mohamed, A; Robinson, P G; Traebert, J; Turton, B; Gibson, B J

    2018-03-01

    Much research on children's oral health has focused on proximal determinants at the expense of distal (upstream) factors. Yet, such upstream factors-the so-called structural determinants of health-play a crucial role. Children's lives, and in turn their health, are shaped by politics, economic forces, and social and public policies. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's clinical (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth) and self-reported oral health (oral health-related quality of life) and 4 key structural determinants (governance, macroeconomic policy, public policy, and social policy) as outlined in the World Health Organization's Commission for Social Determinants of Health framework. Secondary data analyses were carried out using subnational epidemiological samples of 8- to 15-y-olds in 11 countries ( N = 6,648): Australia (372), New Zealand (three samples; 352, 202, 429), Brunei (423), Cambodia (423), Hong Kong (542), Malaysia (439), Thailand (261, 506), United Kingdom (88, 374), Germany (1498), Mexico (335), and Brazil (404). The results indicated that the type of political regime, amount of governance (e.g., rule of law, accountability), gross domestic product per capita, employment ratio, income inequality, type of welfare regime, human development index, government expenditure on health, and out-of-pocket (private) health expenditure by citizens were all associated with children's oral health. The structural determinants accounted for between 5% and 21% of the variance in children's oral health quality-of-life scores. These findings bring attention to the upstream or structural determinants as an understudied area but one that could reap huge rewards for public health dentistry research and the oral health inequalities policy agenda.

  1. Parenting Stress and Resilience in Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilias, Kartini; Cornish, Kim; Kummar, Auretta S.; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah; Golden, Karen J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to review the literature on the factors associated with parenting stress and resilience among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the South East Asia (SEA) region. Methods: An extensive search of articles in multiple online databases (PsycNET, ProQuest, PudMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) resulted in 28 papers that met the inclusion criteria (i.e., conducted in the SEA region, specific to ASD only, published in a peer-reviewed journal, full text in English). Studies found were conducted in the following countries: Brunei, n = 1; Indonesia, n = 2; Malaysia, n = 12; Philippines, n = 5; Singapore, n = 5, Thailand, n = 2; and Vietnam, n = 1, but none from Cambodia, East Timor, Laos, and Myanmar were identified. Results: Across the studies, six main factors were found to be associated with parenting stress: social support, severity of autism symptoms, financial difficulty, parents' perception and understanding toward ASD, parents' anxiety and worries about their child's future, and religious beliefs. These six factors could also be categorized as either a source of parenting stress or a coping strategy/resilience mechanism that may attenuate parenting stress. Conclusion: The findings suggest that greater support services in Western countries may underlie the cultural differences observed in the SEA region. Limitations in the current review were identified. The limited number of studies yielded from the search suggests a need for expanded research on ASD and parenting stress, coping, and resilience in the SEA region especially in Cambodia, East Timor, Laos, and Myanmar. The identified stress and resilience factors may serve as sociocultural markers for clinicians, psychologists, and other professionals to consider when supporting parents of children with ASD. PMID:29686632

  2. Parenting Stress and Resilience in Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilias, Kartini; Cornish, Kim; Kummar, Auretta S; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah; Golden, Karen J

    2018-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to review the literature on the factors associated with parenting stress and resilience among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the South East Asia (SEA) region. Methods: An extensive search of articles in multiple online databases (PsycNET, ProQuest, PudMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) resulted in 28 papers that met the inclusion criteria (i.e., conducted in the SEA region, specific to ASD only, published in a peer-reviewed journal, full text in English). Studies found were conducted in the following countries: Brunei, n = 1; Indonesia, n = 2; Malaysia, n = 12; Philippines, n = 5; Singapore, n = 5, Thailand, n = 2; and Vietnam, n = 1, but none from Cambodia, East Timor, Laos, and Myanmar were identified. Results: Across the studies, six main factors were found to be associated with parenting stress: social support, severity of autism symptoms, financial difficulty, parents' perception and understanding toward ASD, parents' anxiety and worries about their child's future, and religious beliefs. These six factors could also be categorized as either a source of parenting stress or a coping strategy/resilience mechanism that may attenuate parenting stress. Conclusion: The findings suggest that greater support services in Western countries may underlie the cultural differences observed in the SEA region. Limitations in the current review were identified. The limited number of studies yielded from the search suggests a need for expanded research on ASD and parenting stress, coping, and resilience in the SEA region especially in Cambodia, East Timor, Laos, and Myanmar. The identified stress and resilience factors may serve as sociocultural markers for clinicians, psychologists, and other professionals to consider when supporting parents of children with ASD.

  3. Estimating radiotherapy demands in South East Asia countries in 2025 and 2035 using evidence-based optimal radiotherapy fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noorazrul; Roslan, Nurhaziqah

    2018-01-08

    As about 50% of cancer patients may require radiotherapy, the demand of radiotherapy as the main treatment to treat cancer is likely to rise due to rising cancer incidence. This study aims to quantify the radiotherapy demand in countries in Southeast Asia (SEA) in 2025 and 2035 using evidence-based optimal radiotherapy fractions. SEA country-specific cancer incidence by tumor site for 2015, 2025 and 2035 was extracted from the GLOBOCAN database. We utilized the optimal radiotherapy utilization rate model by Wong et al. (2016) to calculate the optimal number of fractions for all tumor sites in each SEA country. The available machines (LINAC & Co-60) were extracted from the IAEA's Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) from which the number of available fractions was calculated. The incidence of cancers in SEA countries are expected to be 1.1 mil cases (2025) and 1.4 mil (2035) compared to 0.9 mil (2015). The number of radiotherapy fractions needed in 2025 and 2035 are 11.1 and 14.1 mil, respectively, compared to 7.6 mil in 2015. In 2015, the radiotherapy fulfillment rate (RFR; required fractions/available fractions) varied between countries with Brunei, Singapore and Malaysia are highest (RFR > 1.0 - available fractions > required fractions), whereas Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Timor-Leste and Vietnam have RFR fractions, estimation for number of machines required can be obtained which will guide acquisition of machines in SEA countries. RFR is low with access varied based on the economic status. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. The political economy of tobacco and poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia: contradictions in the role of the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2010-03-01

    Of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), all but Indonesia have embraced the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and all endorse some form of tobacco control policy. Nevertheless, except for Brunei, all these states are, to varying degrees, complicit in investing in or promoting the tobacco industry, often using the justification of poverty alleviation. Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of illness and death among the populations of these countries. Claims that tobacco alleviates poverty in developing countries have increasingly been discredited: thus continuing state support for the industry represents a fundamental paradox. Using primary documents from governments and the tobacco industry, and published studies investigating tobacco and poverty, this article explores the contradictions inherent in the state seeking to prevent tobacco use in the interests of health, while actively promoting tobacco for the economic benefit of its citizens. These contradictions result in both symbolic and substantial harm to tobacco control efforts: tobacco production is legitimized, rational policy principles are violated, direct cooperation between the state and multinational tobacco corporations is made possible with associated opportunities for mollifying control policies, and different state agencies work at cross purposes. Although tobacco exports within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also threaten the group's health solidarity, it is argued that divestiture of state ownership of capital in tobacco corporations and a commitment by states not to promote tobacco are urgently required if the Convention is to have full effect both in the countries of the region and in other states that have ratified it.

  5. A NEGLECTED INDIAN SPECIES OF CYPERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. KERN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subgen. Cyperus; sect. Iriae Kunth. — Annuus. Culmi erecti, tenues, triquetri, laeves, 1—7 dm alti, 1—2 mm crassi, inferne paucifoliati. Folia culmo breviora vel aequilonga, plana, flaccida, longe acuminata, in supe- riore parte scabra, 1—5 mm lata. Anthela simplex vel subcomposita, laxa. Bracteae oblique patentes, 2—4 longissimae, foliis consimiles, anthelam valde superantes. Anthelae radii 3—9, e cladoprophyllis tubulosis ore oblique truncatis postice cuspidatis vel bidentatis basi bruneis 0.5—1.5 cm longis emergentes, inaequales, oblique patentes, graciles, compressi, laeves vel apice hispiduli, ad 16 cm longi, longiores nonnunquam apice pauci- ramosi; radioli brevissimi ab ochreolo caudato suffulti. Spicae ovatae vel oblonga-ovatae, laxae vel subdensae, 1—3 cm longae, 8—25(—30 mm latae, 5—20-spiculosae, rhachi flexuosa angulis hispida. Spiculae compressae, rectangule divaricatae vel imae subreflexae, ovatae usque ad oblongo-linea- res, 3—12 mm longae, 2—2.5 mm latae, 4—18-f lorae, basi saepe a seta su- buliformi suffultae. Rhachilla obscure brunea, recta, subexalata, internodiis 0.6—1 mm longis. Glumae membranaceae,1/3—1/2 parte imbricatae, patulae, concavae, fere orbiculatae, (1.75—2mm longae ac latae, sub apice emar- ginato mucronulatae, dorso viridi 7-nerviae, lateribus fulvae purpureo- notatae uninerviae, carina acuta arcuata superne angustissime alata, spinuloso-ciliata. Stamina 2; antherae breves, oblongae, interdum lineares; connectivum in appendicem brevem productum. Stylus fere nullus; stigmata 3, achenio multo breviora. Achenium ambitu obovatum, trique- trum, lateribus concavis, basi late stipitatum, apice mucronatum, atro- bruneum, nitidum, dense puncticulatum, 1.5 mm longum, 0.8—0.9 mm latum.

  6. A look at Asia's changing youth population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, P; Kabamalan, M; Westley, S B

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a recent East-West Center study on demographic and social changes among young people aged 15-24 years in 17 countries in East, Southeast, and South Asia. Nearly every country in Asia has experienced fertility decline. Decline began in Japan and Singapore during the 1950s, followed by declines in Hong Kong, South Korea, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Brunei, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, and China during the 1960s. Declines occurred during the 1970s in Indonesia, India, and Myanmar. A "youth bulge" occurred about 20 years later due to declines in infant and child mortality. This bulge varies by country with the timing and magnitude of population growth and subsequent fertility decline. The proportion of youth population rises from 16% to 18% about 20 years after the beginning of fertility decline and declines to a much lower stable level after several decades. The bulge is large in countries with rapid fertility decline, such as China. Governments can minimize the effects of bulge on population growth by raising the legal age at marriage, lengthening the interval between first marriage and first birth, and increasing birth intervals. School enrollments among adolescents are rising. In South Korea, the population aged 15-24 years increased from 3.8 to 8.8 million during 1950-90, a rise of 132% compared to a rise of 653% among school enrollments. It is expected that the number of out-of-school youths will decline from 5.1 to 3.6 million during 1990-2025. Youth employment varies by gender. Policies/programs in family planning and reproductive health will need to address the changing needs of youth population.

  7. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments’ ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  8. Environmental externalities: An ASEAN application to coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Significant benefits to human health that result from emissions control programs may justify the costs of pollution control policies. Many scientists, economists, risk analysts, and policymakers believe that comparisons of the benefits with the costs of pollution control demonstrate that the US stationary source, air emissions control program is justified. This justification is based upon pronounced benefits to human health, especially from controlling suspended particulates and sulfur compounds. Market decisions are usually made on the basis of a consideration of traditional costs such as capital, operating and maintenance, fuel costs, and fixed charges. Social costs, which could be significant, are not incorporated explicitly into such decisions. These social costs could result in a net reduction in the welfare of individuals, and of society as a whole. Because these social costs and their effects are not represented in the price of energy, individual have no way to explicitly value them; hence, they remain unaccounted for in market decisions. By accounting for external costs, the selection of energy sources and production of energy products can lead to and equilibrium, where the total cost of energy and energy products, together with resulting social costs, can be brought to an economic minimum. The concept of an air emissions control program is of interest to the ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) and their governments, especially if such a program could be justified in cost-benefit terms and shown to be directly applicable to ASEAN conditions. It is the intent of the effort described herein to demonstrate that technical options are available to control emissions from coal-based, electric power plants and that that costs of these options may be justified in cost-benefit terms

  9. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  10. Psychiatric disorders in ASEAN-migrants in Malaysia--a university hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, W; Hashim, A

    1998-09-01

    Malaysia's workforce presently includes 13% foreigners most coming from the neighboring ASEAN-countries. No data of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders amongst this population is currently available. All patients from ASEAN-countries admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur between January 1994 and June 1996 were included in a prospective study. During the study period 39 patients were admitted. Five patients were male (12.8%) and 34 female (87.2%). Most came from Indonesia (51.3%) and the Philippines (41.0%), while one each was from Brunei, Singapore and Thailand. Thirty (76.9%) were working in Malaysia as unskilled workers, 23 (59.0%) as maids. Six of the patients (15.4%) were married to Malaysians and only three (7.2%) held white-collar jobs. Three patients (7.2%) received the diagnosis schizophrenia and ten (25.6%) acute and transient psychotic disorder. Two (5.1%) were diagnosed as bipolar affective disorder--manic and two (5.1%) as depression without psychotic features. Five patients (12.8%) were depressed and had as well presence of psychotic features. Adjustment disorders mostly with depressed mood was diagnosed in fourteen (35.9%), three (7.2%) received another diagnosis. The study showed high rates of acute and transient psychosis as well as adjustment disorders indicating high stress level in this population. In particular maids from Indonesia and the Philippines with their dependent and isolated situation seem vulnerable to develop psychiatric disorders. However, overall the rates of psychiatric admissions (only 1.3%) in the ASEAN-nationals is relatively low and tends to support the view that migrants do not suffer from an excess of mental disorders.

  11. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Methods Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. Results The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. Conclusions This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. PMID:25908597

  12. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  13. Parenting Stress and Resilience in Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini Ilias

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper aimed to review the literature on the factors associated with parenting stress and resilience among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD in the South East Asia (SEA region.Methods: An extensive search of articles in multiple online databases (PsycNET, ProQuest, PudMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar resulted in 28 papers that met the inclusion criteria (i.e., conducted in the SEA region, specific to ASD only, published in a peer-reviewed journal, full text in English. Studies found were conducted in the following countries: Brunei, n = 1; Indonesia, n = 2; Malaysia, n = 12; Philippines, n = 5; Singapore, n = 5, Thailand, n = 2; and Vietnam, n = 1, but none from Cambodia, East Timor, Laos, and Myanmar were identified.Results: Across the studies, six main factors were found to be associated with parenting stress: social support, severity of autism symptoms, financial difficulty, parents' perception and understanding toward ASD, parents' anxiety and worries about their child's future, and religious beliefs. These six factors could also be categorized as either a source of parenting stress or a coping strategy/resilience mechanism that may attenuate parenting stress.Conclusion: The findings suggest that greater support services in Western countries may underlie the cultural differences observed in the SEA region. Limitations in the current review were identified. The limited number of studies yielded from the search suggests a need for expanded research on ASD and parenting stress, coping, and resilience in the SEA region especially in Cambodia, East Timor, Laos, and Myanmar. The identified stress and resilience factors may serve as sociocultural markers for clinicians, psychologists, and other professionals to consider when supporting parents of children with ASD.

  14. A comparative study to evaluate factors that influence survival in multidisciplinary predialysis educated patients and “Crashlanders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairulsadek Zukmin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multidisciplinary predialysis education (MPE is usually provided to support and prepare the pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients before the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT. However, the impact of MPE is not known in our population, which is comprised patients of Asian origins and recipients of a totally subsidized health-care system. This research compared the survival probability, sociodemographic, and clinical characteristics of MPE patients and non-MPE patients (or crashlanders. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate ESRD patients who started RRT in Brunei Darussalam from January 2013 to December 2014. Data were extracted from the computerized clinical database and dialysis records. A total of 351 new cases of ESRD patients who started on hemodialysis during the study period were included in the study. The median age was 56.0 years, with a slight male preponderance (56.6%. The MPE group was significantly older (P = 0.001 and more likely to have a history of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.013, ischemic heart disease (P = 0.014, and hypertension (P = 0.016. Despite being older and having more comorbidities (P = 0.028, MPE patients have a better survival probability (P = 0.028 and a 34% decreased risk of dying. Of those who died, older age (P = 0.001, higher serum creatinine (P = 0.01, and lower hemoglobin level (P = 0.017 were significant prognostic indicators. MPE before the initiation of RRT contributed to greater survival probability in near ESRD patients. The survival benefits were evident despite the presence of inherent risks (older age and presence of comorbidities in the MPE population in comparison with the non-MPE cohort.

  15. Parceria Trans-Pacífico: Novas Geometrias no Capitalismo Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyêdo Nunes Lins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 2005, Brunei, Chile, Cingapura e Nova Zelândia firmaram acordo de parceria econômica no sentido de uma interação estratégica na região Ásia-Pacífico. Em 2009, os Estados Unidos se envolveram, assumindo a liderança das negociações. Desde então, as tratativas sobre a Parceria Trans-Pacífico ganharam impulso, com Austrália, Malásia, Peru e Vietnã aderindo em 2010 e Canadá e México em 2012, somando onze membros até o início de 2013. Baseado em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, o artigo caracteriza essa iniciativa e discute seus termos principais e questões mais controversas. Entre estas, figuram as propostas sobre direitos de propriedade intelectual e investimentos, com vantagens para grandes empresas, inclusive na resolução de disputas entre investidores e Estados, fontes de apreensão e fortes críticas entre grupos sociais. Também se explora a motivação dos Estados Unidos, envolvendo garantia de proeminência na região de maior crescimento econômico no planeta. “Conter” a influência e a liderança chinesas parece uma estratégia central daquele país, questões econômicas e geopolíticas entrelaçando-se fortemente nesse contexto.

  16. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-05-01

    To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  18. Fire intensity and phosphorus availability in Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterings, Q.M.; Bigham, J.M.; Noordwijk, M. van

    1999-01-01

    Fire is still widely used as a tool for land clearing in Indonesia. The environmental problems caused by these became an international issue in the fall of 1997 when smoke originating from land clearing activities in Sumatra and West Kalimantan blanketed not only large parts of Indonesia but also the neighboring countries of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines and Thailand. Alternatives must be found. For alternatives to slash-and-burn to be acceptable, they should address both the problems and the benefits of burning as a land clearing method for small rubber and oil palm farmers. A social/economic/agronomic survey conducted in Sepunggur, Jambi Province, Sumatra, indicated that burning: 1) was the cheapest and easiest way to create space to plant and walk in the field; 2) added free fertilizer in the form of ash; 3) improved soil structure allowing faster establishment of seedlings; 4) reduced weed/tree competition; and 5) reduced problems with pest/diseases. Farmers also indicated that harveys delays and yield reductions would lead to an increase in poverty, mainly due to a loss in ash (fertilizer) addition if fire was no longer used. Slash-sell wood-and-burn is a alternative that has the advantage of maintaining at least part of the benefits of burning while reducing air pollution. The sale of wood (if permitted) could supply the farmer with an extra source of income. Before this alternative can be promoted, it should be known what a reduction in fuel load and fire intensity will mean for soil fertility and plant growth and thus for the economic situation of farmers that depend on it. Two questions need to be answered: 1) how is fir intensity related to nutrient availability; and 2) how important are short-term fertilizer (ash) additions versus longer lasting, heat induced changes in soil mineralogical properties? Refs. 11 (author)

  19. Fault kinematics and active tectonics of the Sabah margin: Insights from the 2015, Mw 6.0, Mt. Kinabalu earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, S.; Tapponnier, P.; WANG, X.; Lindsey, E.; Sieh, K.

    2016-12-01

    A gravity-driven "Mega-Landslide" model has been evoked to explain the shortening seen offshore Sabah and Brunei in oil-company seismic data. Although this model is considered to account simultaneously for recent folding at the edge of the submarine NW Sabah trough and normal faulting on the Sabah shelf, such a gravity-driven model is not consistent with geodetic data or critical examination of extant structural restorations. The rupture that produced the 2015 Mw6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake is also inconsistent with the gravity-driven model. Our teleseismic analysis shows that the centroid depth of that earthquake's mainshock was 13 to 14 km, and its favored fault-plane solution is a 60° NW-dipping normal fault. Our finite-rupture model exhibits major fault slip between 5 and 15 km depth, in keeping with our InSAR analysis, which shows no appreciable surface deformation. Both the hypocentral depth and the depth of principal slip are far too deep to be explained by gravity-driven failure, as such a model would predict a listric normal fault connecting at a much shallower depth with a very gentle detachment. Our regional mapping of tectonic landforms also suggests the recent rupture is part of a 200-km long system of narrowly distributed active extension in northern Sabah. Taken together, the nature of the 2015 rupture, the belt of active normal faults, and structural consideration indicate that active tectonic shortening plays the leading role in controlling the overall deformation of northern Sabah and that deep-seated, onland normal faulting likely results from an abrupt change in the dip-angle of the collision interface beneath the Sabah accretionary prism.

  20. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  1. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-10-16

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  2. Projecting range-wide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Scotson

    Full Text Available Monitoring population trends of threatened species requires standardized techniques that can be applied over broad areas and repeated through time. Sun bears Helarctos malayanus are a forest dependent tropical bear found throughout most of Southeast Asia. Previous estimates of global population trends have relied on expert opinion and cannot be systematically replicated. We combined data from 1,463 camera traps within 31 field sites across sun bear range to model the relationship between photo catch rates of sun bears and tree cover. Sun bears were detected in all levels of tree cover above 20%, and the probability of presence was positively associated with the amount of tree cover within a 6-km2 buffer of the camera traps. We used the relationship between catch rates and tree cover across space to infer temporal trends in sun bear abundance in response to tree cover loss at country and global-scales. Our model-based projections based on this "space for time" substitution suggested that sun bear population declines associated with tree cover loss between 2000-2014 in mainland southeast Asia were ~9%, with declines highest in Cambodia and lowest in Myanmar. During the same period, sun bear populations in insular southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei were projected to have declined at a much higher rate (22%. Cast forward over 30-years, from the year 2000, by assuming a constant rate of change in tree cover, we projected population declines in the insular region that surpassed 50%, meeting the IUCN criteria for endangered if sun bears were listed on the population level. Although this approach requires several assumptions, most notably that trends in abundance across space can be used to infer temporal trends, population projections using remotely sensed tree cover data may serve as a useful alternative (or supplement to expert opinion. The advantages of this approach is that it is objective, data-driven, repeatable, and it requires that

  3. Translation and validation of the Malay version of Shiffman-Jarvik withdrawal scale and cessation self-efficacy questionnaire: a review of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Eng Wah; Lee, Yuin Yi; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2015-04-09

    version of the CSEQ-M and the SJWS-M showed great reliability and validity evidences therefore is an adequate and useful instrument to evaluate Malaysian smokers. Future studies could investigate differences in self-esteem between long-term and short-term smokers and evaluate the usability of these questionnaires in local smoking research and other Malay speaking countries (Brunei and Indonesia).

  4. Statistics of Stacked Strata on Experimental Shelf Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A. M.; Straub, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margin deposits provide the most complete record on Earth of paleo-landscapes, but these records are complex and difficult to interpret. To a seismic geomorphologist or stratigrapher, mapped surfaces often present a static diachronous record of these landscapes through time. We present data that capture the dynamics of experimental shelf-margin landscapes at high-temporal resolution and define internal hierarchies within stacked channelized and weakly channelized deposits from the shelf to the slope. Motivated by observations from acoustically-imaged continental margins offshore Brunei and in the Gulf of Mexico, we use physical experiments to quantify stratal patterns of sub-aqueous slope channels and lobes that are linked to delta-top channels. The data presented here are from an experiment that was run for 26 hours of experimental run time. Overhead photographs and topographic scans captured flow dynamics and surface aggradation/degradation every ten minutes. Currents rich in sediment built a delta that prograded to the shelf-edge. These currents were designed to plunge at the shoreline and travel as turbidity currents beyond the delta and onto the continental slope. Pseudo-subsidence was imposed by a slight base-level rise that generated accommodation space and promoted the construction of stratigraphy on the delta-top. Compensational stacking is a term that is frequently applied to deposits that tend to fill in topographic lows in channelized and weakly channelized systems. The compensation index, a metric used to quantify the strength of compensation, is used here to characterize deposits at different temporal scales on the experimental landscape. The compensation timescale is the characteristic time at which the accumulated deposits begins to match the shape of basin-wide subsidence rates (uniform for these experiments). We will use the compensation indices along strike transects across the delta, proximal slope and distal slope to evaluate the

  5. Benthic infaunal community structuring in an acidified tropical estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Belal; Marshall, David J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that increasing ocean acidification (OA) should have strong direct and indirect influences on marine invertebrates. While most theory and application for OA is based on relatively physically-stable oceanic ecological systems, less is known about the effects of acidification on nearshore and estuarine systems. Here, we investigated the structuring of a benthic infaunal community in a tropical estuarine system, along a steep salinity and pH gradient, arising largely from acid-sulphate groundwater inflows (Sungai Brunei Estuary, Borneo, July 2011- June 2012). Preliminary data indicate that sediment pore-water salinity (range: 8.07 - 29.6 psu) declined towards the mainland in correspondence with the above-sediment estuarine water salinity (range: 3.58 - 31.2 psu), whereas the pore-water pH (range: 6.47- 7.72) was generally lower and less variable than the estuarine water pH (range: 5.78- 8.3), along the estuary. Of the thirty six species (taxa) recorded, the polychaetes Neanthes sp., Onuphis conchylega, Nereididae sp. and the amphipod Corophiidae sp., were numerically dominant. Calcified microcrustaceans (e.g., Cyclopoida sp. and Corophiidae sp.) were abundant at all stations and there was no clear distinction in distribution pattern along the estuarine between calcified and non-calcified groups. Species richness increased seawards, though abundance (density) showed no distinct directional trend. Diversity indices were generally positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation) with salinity and pH (p 0.05). Three faunistic assemblages were distinguished: (1) nereid-cyclopoid-sabellid, (2) corophiid-capitellid and (3) onuphid- nereid-capitellid. These respectively associated with lower salinity/pH and a muddy bottom, low salinity/pH and a sandy bottom, and high salinity/pH and a sandy bottom. However, CCA suggested that species distribution and community structuring is more strongly influenced by sediment particle characteristics than by the

  6. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-27

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  7. Pesticide management approach towards protecting the safety and health of farmers in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Norsyazwani; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; How, Vivien; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Hashim, Zailina

    2018-06-27

    It is estimated that pesticide production and use have increased continuously in the countries of Southeast Asia in recent years. Within the context of protecting the safety and health of workers in the agricultural sector, there is an existing gap in the implementation of the pesticide management framework because safety and health effects arising from occupational exposures continue to be reported. This study aims to provide narrative similarities, differences and weaknesses of the existing pesticide management system in Southeast Asian countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) within the context of occupational safety and health. This is preliminary traditional review study. Pesticide regulation and management at the country level were identified using web-based search engines such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Google. Book, reports, legislation document and other documents retrieved were also gathered from international organizations and specific websites of governmental agency in Southeast Asian countries. The scope of this review is only limited to literature written in English. In total, 44 review articles, reports and documents were gathered for this study. The approach of pesticide management in protecting safety and health in the agricultural setting were benchmarked according to the elements introduced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, namely, (1) the protection of workers and (2) the practice of safety. All countries have assigned a local authority and government organization to manage and control pesticide use in the agricultural sector. The countries with the highest usage of pesticide are Thailand, Philippines and Malaysia. Most Southeast Asian countries have emphasized safety practice in the management of pesticide usage, but there were less emphasis on the element of protection of workers within the framework in Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam

  8. The ASEAN economic community and medical qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittrakulrat, Jathurong; Jongjatuporn, Witthawin; Jurjai, Ravipol; Jarupanich, Nicha; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-01-01

    In the regional movement toward ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), medical professions including physicians can be qualified to practice medicine in another country. Ensuring comparable, excellent medical qualification systems is crucial but the availability and analysis of relevant information has been lacking. This study had the following aims: 1) to comparatively analyze information on Medical Licensing Examinations (MLE) across ASEAN countries and 2) to assess stakeholders' view on potential consequences of AEC on the medical profession from a Thai perspective. To search for relevant information on MLE, we started with each country's national body as the primary data source. In case of lack of available data, secondary data sources including official websites of medical universities, colleagues in international and national medical student organizations, and some other appropriate Internet sources were used. Feasibility and concerns about validity and reliability of these sources were discussed among investigators. Experts in the region invited through HealthSpace.Asia conducted the final data validation. For the second objective, in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Thai stakeholders, purposely selected based on a maximum variation sampling technique to represent the points of view of the medical licensing authority, the medical profession, ethicists and economists. MLE systems exist in all ASEAN countries except Brunei, but vary greatly. Although the majority has a national MLE system, Singapore, Indonesia, and Vietnam accept results of MLE conducted at universities. Thailand adopted the USA's 3-step approach that aims to check pre-clinical knowledge, clinical knowledge, and clinical skills. Most countries, however, require only one step. A multiple choice question (MCQ) is the most commonly used method of assessment; a modified essay question (MEQ) is the next most common. Although both tests assess candidate's knowledge, the Objective Structured Clinical

  9. ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Focus in this discussion of the 6 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) is on the following: georgraphy; the people; history; institutions (foreign ministers' meetings, economic ministers' meetings, the ASEAN Secretariat, and the Task Force on the Future of ASEAN cooperation): the economy; defense; external relations; and relations between the US and the ASEAN nations. In mid-1985 the population totaled 289.5 million with an average (unweighted) annual growth rate of 2.2%. Located on the Southeast Asian peninsula and the islands to the south and east in the South China Sea, the 6 ASEAN states guard some of the most important sealanes in the world. The ASEAN states lie astride the Equator and extend from roughly 1600 km north to 804 km south. 1 of the most striking characteristics of ASEAN is its wide diversity in race, language, culture, and religion; many ethnic groups coexist. Malayo-Polyneian make up the majority in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia (and thus in ASEAN), although Malaysia and Indonesia have significant numbers of other groups. Thailand is 75% Thai. Ethnic Chinese make up 77% of the population of Singapore, and sizable Chinese minorities are found in each of the other ASEAN nations. ASEAN founded officially on August 8, 1967, was created to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance through economic, social, and cultural cooperation. The organization developed slowly during its 1st decade, due in part to differing economic interests, varied historical experience, and the initially fragile political ties among the 5 original states. The Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, starting in December 1978, was a further stimulus to collaboration. The ASEAN nations successfully managed passage of UN resolutions condemning Vietnam and were the chief sponsors in the July 1981 International Conference on Kampuchea. Although ASEAN was established with primarily economic and

  10. Relationship between stakeholders' information value perception and information security behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Sharul; Olphert, Wendy; Doherty, Neil

    2015-02-01

    security behaviours. This study seeks to address this gap in the research. Data will be presented from a pilot study consisting of interviews with 6 participants from public organisations in Brunei Darussalam which illustrate the nature of the value assignment process, together with an initial model of the relationship between perceived information value and information security behaviours.

  11. The Incidence and Mortality of Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship With the Human Development Index in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian, Maryam; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common cancer among men, and its incidence is increasing in Asia. Awareness about the status of this cancer incidence and mortality is necessary for a better plan. The present study was done with the aim to investigate the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012. This study was an ecological study, which was conducted based on the GLOBOCAN project of the World Health Organization for Asian countries. We assessed the correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of colorectal cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS software, version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A total of 592,563 incidences of and 325,752 deaths from colorectal cancer were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The 5 countries with the highest SIR were Republic of Korea (45 per 100,000), Israel (35.9 per 100,000), Singapore (33.7 per 100,000), Japan (32.2 per 100,000), and Jordan (25.6 per 100,000). The 5 countries with the highest SMR for colorectal cancer were Jordan (15.5 per 100,000), Kazakhstan (12.8 per 100,000), Democratic Republic of Korea (12 per 100,000), Brunei (12 per 100,000), and Japan (11.9 per 100,000). Correlation between HDI and SIR was 0.709 overall (P ≤ .001)- 0.667 in men (P ≤ .001) and 0.759 in women (P ≤ .001). Also, correlation between HDI and SMR overall was 0.517 (P ≤ .001)- 0.447 in men (P = .002) and 0.593 in women (P ≤ .001). Cancer incidence and mortality are higher in countries with more development. A positive and statistically significant correlation was found between standardized incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer and the Human Development Index and its components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Current status of nutrition labelling and claims in the South-East Asian region: are we in harmony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-Siong; Tamin, Suryani; Ilyas, Rosmulyati; Ramos, Adelisa; Tan, Wei-Ling; Lai, Darwin Kah-Soon; Kongchuntuk, Hataya

    2002-01-01

    This review includes the situation of nutrition labelling and claims in six countries in South-East Asia: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. With the exception of Malaysia, there is no mandatory nutrition labelling requirements for foods in these countries except for special categories of foods and when nutritional claims are made for fortified or enriched foods. Nevertheless, several food manufacturers, especially multinationals, do voluntarily label the nutritional content of a number of food products. There is, therefore, increasing interest among authorities in countries in the region to start formulating regulations for nutrition labelling for a wider variety of foods. Malaysia has proposed new regulations to make it mandatory to label a number of foodstuffs with the four core nutrients, protein, carbohydrate, fat and energy. Other countries have preferred to start with voluntary labelling by the manufacturers, but have spelt out the requirements for this voluntary labelling. The format and requirements for nutrition labelling differ widely for countries in the region. Some countries, such as Malaysia, closely follow the Codex guidelines on nutrition labelling in terms of format, components to be included and mode of expression. Other countries, such as the Philippines and Thailand, have drafted nutrition labelling regulations very similar to those of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of the United States. Nutrition and health claims are also not specifically permitted under food regulations that were enacted before 1998. However, various food products on the market have been carrying a variety of nutrition and health claims. There is concern that without proper regulations, the food industry may not be certain as to what claims can be made. Excessive and misleading claims made by irresponsible manufacturers would only serve to confuse and mislead the consumer. In recent years, there has been efforts in countries in

  13. Psychometric assessment of the short-form Child Perceptions Questionnaire: an international collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W M; Foster Page, L A; Robinson, P G; Do, L G; Traebert, J; Mohamed, A R; Turton, B J; McGrath, C; Bekes, K; Hirsch, C; Del Carmen Aguilar-Diaz, F; Marshman, Z; Benson, P E; Baker, S R

    2016-12-01

    To examine the factor structure and other psychometric characteristics of the most commonly used child oral-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) measure (the 16-item short-form CPQ 11-14 ) in a large number of children (N = 5804) from different settings and who had a range of caries experience and associated impacts. Secondary data analyses used subnational epidemiological samples of 11- to 14-year-olds in Australia (N = 372), New Zealand (three samples: 352, 202, 429), Brunei (423), Cambodia (244), Hong Kong (542), Malaysia (439), Thailand (220, 325), England (88, 374), Germany (1055), Mexico (335) and Brazil (404). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the factor structure of the CPQ 11-14 across the combined sample and within four regions (Australia/NZ, Asia, UK/Europe and Latin America). Item impact and internal reliability analysis were also conducted. Caries experience varied, with mean DMFT scores ranging from 0.5 in the Malaysian sample to 3.4 in one New Zealand sample. Even more variation was noted in the proportion reporting only fair or poor oral health; this was highest in the Cambodian and Mexican samples and lowest in the German sample and one New Zealand sample. One in 10 reported that their oral health had a marked impact on their life overall. The CFA across all samples revealed two factors with eigenvalues greater than 1. The first involved all items in the oral symptoms and functional limitations subscales; the second involved all emotional well-being and social well-being items. The first was designated the 'symptoms/function' subscale, and the second was designated the 'well-being' subscale. Cronbach's alpha scores were 0.72 and 0.84, respectively. The symptoms/function subscale contained more of the items with greater impact, with the item 'Food stuck in between your teeth' having greatest impact; in the well-being subscale, the 'Felt shy or embarrassed' item had the greatest impact. Repeating the analyses by world region

  14. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is

  15. Systematics of Old World Odontacolus Kieffer s.l. (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.: parasitoids of spider eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valerio

    2013-07-01

    known from India, is here recorded from Brunei, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The relationships, distribution and biology of Odontacolus are discussed, and a key is provided to identify all species.

  16. Statement to Fifty-Eight Regular Session of IAEA General Conference, 22 September 2014, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    I will begin by welcoming three new Member States which have joined the Agency since the last General Conference: the Bahamas, Brunei Darussalam and San Marino. In my visits to Member States all over the world, I become more and more convinced of the vital importance of science and technology for sustainable development. Nuclear science and technology have much to contribute to the achievement of development goals in areas such as human health, agriculture, water management, and industrial applications, as well as in energy. The nations of the world are presently considering new sustainable development goals for the years after 2015. I ask all Member States to help ensure that the importance of science and technology is explicitly recognised as a central part of the post-2015 agenda. This should include recognition of the immense benefits of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. I am doing what I can to build awareness in this area. A key challenge facing the world in the coming decades will be to provide reliable supplies of energy as the population grows, and, at the same time, to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Many countries believe nuclear power can help them to address this challenge. Nuclear power is one of the lowest emitters of carbon dioxide - alongside hydro- and wind-based electricity - when emissions through the entire life cycle are considered.mProgress continues to be made in improving nuclear safety throughout the world. I have seen concrete improvements in safety features at every nuclear power plant I have visited since the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The Agency and its Member States continue to implement the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was endorsed by the General Conference in 2011. The central role of the Agency in helping to strengthen the global nuclear security framework is widely recognized. The international nuclear security environment is constantly changing. With its broad mandate and technical capabilities, and

  17. Air quality in Malaysia: impacts, management issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, M B; Jaafar, A B; Abdullah, A M; Ismail, M B; Hassan, M N; Abdullah, R; Johan, S; Noor, H

    2000-06-01

    Observations have been made on the long-term trends of major air pollutants in Malaysia including nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, the ozone and total suspended particulate matter (particularly PM10), and sulfur dioxide, emitted from industrial and urban areas from early 1970s until late 1998. The data show that the status of atmospheric environment in Malaysia, in particular in highly industrialized areas such as Klang Valley, was determined both by local and transboundary emissions and could be described as haze and non-haze periods. During the non-haze periods, vehicular emissions accounted for more than 70% of the total emissions in the urban areas and have demonstrated two peaks in the diurnal variations of the aforementioned air pollutants, except ozone. The morning 'rush-hour' peak was mainly due to vehicle emissions, while the late evening peak was mainly attributed to meteorological conditions, particularly atmospheric stability and wind speed. Total suspended particulate matter was the main pollutant with its concentrations at few sites often exceeding the Recommended Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines. The levels of other pollutants were generally within the guidelines. Since 1980, six major haze episodes were officially reported in Malaysia: April 1983, August 1990, June 1991, October 1991, August to October 1994, and July to October 1997. The 1997 haze episode was the worst ever experienced by the country. Short-term observations using continuous monitoring systems during the haze episodes during these periods clearly showed that suspended particulate matter (PM10) was the main cause of haze and was transboundary in nature. Large forest fires in parts of Sumatra and Kalimantan during the haze period, clearly evident in satellite images, were identified as the probable key sources of the widespread heavy haze that extended across Southeast Asia from Indonesia to Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. The results of several studies have also provided strong

  18. AB052. The Human Variome Project (HVP) and the HVP ASEAN Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwi, Zilfalil Bin

    2015-01-01

    and procedures that ensures that the repository is operated and maintained in a responsible and accountable manner that is consistent with both national and HVP Standards. The HVP Malaysian Node (MyHVP), one of 23 HVP Country Nodes currently in existence, was established in 2010 and officially launched by Professor Cotton. The MyHVP database was made available on the internet a year later. The HVP Malaysian Node has taken a key role in the region and has worked to establish the HVP ASEAN Regional Node. Among its objectives is to foster closer collaboration among ASEAN member states on issues relating to data sharing, data basing and variant interpretation expertise, resources and technical facilities. The HVP ASEAN Regional Node also provides help with capacity building and training, especially to less well-resourced countries in the South East Asian region, for example Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. The HVP ASEAN Regional Node was launched in 2013 at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Representatives from Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines and the international Human Variome Project were represented. This presentation will provide an in-depth overview of the HVP ASEAN Regional Node and its progress to date.

  19. Carbon sequestration in Southeast Asian tropical peatlands over the Holocene period: large-scale hydrological controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Couwenberg, J.; Cobb, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F.; Su'ut, N.; Abu Salim, K.; Harvey, C. F.; Glaser, P. H.; Joosten, H.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical peatlands are recognized as a significant sink of carbon dioxide and an important source of methane. Low latitude peatlands contain an estimated pool of 90 Pg C, of which ca. 70 Pg C is stored in Southeast Asian peatlands. However, the Holocene development of this carbon reservoir is poorly established. Here we provide a synthesis of carbon uptake rates by tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia across millennial timescales for the past 11,000 years. Our reconstruction of the carbon accumulation history for Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia is based on a synthesis of radiocarbon dated peat profiles, modeling of peatland extent, and a new carbon accumulation record from Brunei (NW-Borneo). During the early Holocene the first peatlands formed in southern Borneo under the influence of a strong monsoon and rapid rise in sea-level. The carbon accumulation rate (CAR) in these peatlands was on average 60 g C m-2 yr-1 at this time. Peatlands started to spread across the coastal lowlands of Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia after 8000 cal BP only when the rate of rising sea-level decreased. The major phase of coastal peatland initiation lasted from 7000 to 4000 cal BP. This period was marked by a Holocene precipitation maximum, suppressed El Niño activity, and the Holocene maximum in sea-level on the Sunda Shelf. The mean CAR of coastal peatlands at this time was 80 g C m-2 yr-1, with a Holocene peak of ~100 g C m-2 yr-1 from 4900 to 4500 cal BP. Significantly, atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured in the Taylor Dome Antarctic ice core indicate a plateau during this period of otherwise rising CO2 concentrations. During the Late Holocene CAR declined both in coastal peatlands (ca. 70 g C m-2 yr-1) and in southern Borneo (ca. 20 g C m-2 yr-1) in response to falling sea-levels and increased El Niño frequency and intensity. In fact, several peatlands in southern Borneo have stopped accumulating peat-carbon under higher El Niño activity. These results

  20. Ruschita Romanian marble - 130 years of official exploitation and 130 m depth of architectural beauty around the word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetean, Valentina

    2013-04-01

    the slabs being used both for inside and the outside application: from flooring, walling, stairs, solid masonry units, capitals, plinths, fireplaces, kitchen tops (even if not-recommended because is not resistant to acids), tablet, architectural elements, until paving and flooring works, elements in contact with the floor, non-vertical surfaces etc. A bigger attention has to be paid for using of Ruschita marble at external facades in those regions with many freezing - thaw cycles per year with big differences between the lower and higher value of temperature, because the stone can suffer important damage due to the different thermal dilatation coefficient. In this case, the recommended thickness of panels is bigger than 2 cm, the lustre final polishing The Dom from Milano - known as into a continuously maintenance work in the last 500 years - was partially rebuilt in the '70ties with Ruschita marble. Another interesting places where this marble was used are: the Parliament buildings from Wien (Austria) and Budapest (Hungary), BBC centre from Menheim (Germany), architectural elements from Michael Schumacher's villa from Monte Carlo or the bathrooms from sultan's palace in Brunei. Similar to other type of marbles used as in the ornamental stone industry, Ruschita type combines the specific colour with the internal structure, qualitative properties and unique ornamental characteristics. All these are decisive elements recommend the Ruschita marble as candidates for "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation.

  1. A consensus plan for action to improve access to cancer care in the association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    consists of Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It, thus, includes low- and middle-income countries where the double whammy of infectious and chronic diseases will pose an enormous challenge in allocating limited resources to competing health issues. Cancer statistics, even at the sub-national level, only tell part of the story. Many individuals who contract cancer in poor countries have no medical insurance and no, or limited, expectation of public assistance. Whilst any person who has a family member with cancer can expect to bear some consequential burden of care or expense, in a poor family in a poor environment the burden will surely be greater. This additional burden from cancer is rarely considered, and even more rarely quantified, even in developed nations.

  2. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  3. News; Actualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    The price of gas will increase of about 3.8% for individuals. EDF and GDF become joint-stock companies. The firms Packinox and Roforge have received the two innovation prices of GEP 2004. The ADEME, the AFGNV, the GART and Gaz de France join for setting pilot sites of NGV. The Italian petroleum group ENI has obtained a net funded profit of 1.67 milliard of euros at the third trimester 2004 (in rise of 75% compared to the same period of last year). The public firm Oman Oil Company has concluded an agreement to obtain a share of 7.5% in an important re-gasification plant in building in Sagunto (Spain). The national Romanian firm Petrom has been repurchased by the Austrian group OMV. The new representative in charge of Energy, Letton Andris Piebalgs, has underlined the importance to promote the renewable energy sources and to decrease the energy demand. The Britain firm BP has agreed to put to Tbilissi several millions of dollars for the safety of the Bakou-Tbilissi-Ceyhan pipeline. The Bulgarian and Greek presidents are determined to open a pipeline plan for transporting Russian petroleum between the Black sea and the Aegean sea. Gazprom and ExxonMobil plan for the development of the petroleum and gas plan Sakhaline-1. Russia has ratified the Kyoto protocol. The Russian gas group, Novatek, plans to open its capital and to sale 10% of its shares. Total will invest 4.7 milliards of dollars for the development of the Vankor petroleum deposit (125 millions of tons of crude oil reserves and 75 milliards of m{sup 3} of gas). The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya petroleum reserves are of 47 milliards of barrels and could be still more important. Qatar has signed an agreement for the manufacture of four methane tankers in South-Korea. The West Libyan Gas Project for supplying in natural gas the Italy and Europe through an underground pipeline has been inaugurated. Shell has announced a new discovery carried out in the offshore petroleum field of Brunei. The Indian Oil Corporation (IOC

  4. Key trends of climate change in the ASEAN countries. The IPAT decomposition analysis 1980-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, J.; Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Allievi, F.

    2012-07-01

    change in CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion in eight ASEAN member countries: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Analyses for Cambodia and Lao PDR are not provided due to data limitations and unreliability concerning the analysed time period 1980-2005. The applied decomposition analysis is introduced in section 2. Section 3 gives the essential background information for the analysis, i.e. trends of CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion and gross domestic product (GDP) during the studied period. In section 4, results of the decomposition analysis are presented and preliminary interpretations given for each analysed country. Sections 5, 6 and 7 present the benchmarking results from the decomposition analyses of China and India (section 5), United States, OECD Europe and Japan (section 6), and the World total (section 7). Finally, section 8 presents the conclusions. Special references are made to the policy analyses related to the Bali agreement and zero-carbon strategies of the ASEAN countries.

  5. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied, Rethinking Raffles; A study of Stamford Raffles’ discourse on religions amongst Malays. (Nathan Porath Walter Angst, Wayang Indonesia; Die phantastische Welt des indonesischen Figurentheaters/The fantastic world of Indonesian puppet theatre. (Dick van der Meij Adrienne Kappler and others, James Cook and the exploration of the Pacific. (H.J.M. Claesen Aurel Croissant, Beate Martin and Sascha Kneip (eds, The politics of death; Political violence in Southeast Asia. (Freek Colombijn Frank Dhont, Kevin W. Fogg and Mason C. Hoadley (eds, Towards an inclusive democratic Indonesian society; Bridging the gap between state uniformity and multicultural identity patterns. (Alexander Claver Bronwen Douglas and Chris Ballard (eds, Foreign bodies; Oceania and the science of race, 1750-1940. (H.J.M. Claesen Ricky Ganang, Jay Crain, and Vicki Pearson-Rounds, Kemaloh Lundayeh-English dictionary and bibliographic list of materials relating to the Lundayeh-Lun Bawang-Kelabit and related groups of Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei and East Kalimantan. (Michael Boutin Jeffrey Hadler, Muslims and matriarchs; Cultural resilience in Indonesia through Jihad and Colonialism. (Franz von Benda-Beckmann Uli Kozok, Kitab undang-undang Tanjung Tanah: Naskah Melayu yang tertua. (Arlo Griffiths Alfonds van der Kraan, Murder and mayhem in seventeenth-century Cambodia; Anthony van Diemen vs. King Ramadhipati I. (Jeroen Rikkerink Jean Michaud, ‘Incidental’ ethnographers; French Catholic missions on the Tonkin-Yunnan frontier, 1880-1930. (Nicholas Tapp M.C. Ricklefs, Polarising Javanese society; Islamic and other visions (c. 1830-1930. (Matthew Isaac Cohen Stuart Robson, Arjunawiwāha; The marriage of Arjuna of Mpu Ka?wa. (Andrea Acri László Székely and István Radnai, Dit altijd alleen zijn; Verhalen over het leven van planters en koelies in Deli (1914-1930. (Adrienne Zuiderweg Patricia Tjiook-Liem (Giok Kiauw

  6. Peran Tradisi Lisan Iko-Iko Berbasis Sastra Melayu dalam Penguatan Komunitas Etnis Bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suardika

    2016-12-01

    mencerminkan sastra Melayu, sehingga persebaran Etnis Bajo dengan sastra iko-iko ikut menyebarkan  Budaya Melayu ke Asia Tenggara, yang kelak menjaeli perekat  persatuan Nusantara  dan Asia Tenggara. Generasi muda Bajo seka­ rang  kurang tertarik  mewarisi iko-iko  yang memiliki  banyak  versi dan judul kisah, maka untuk. menjaga kelestariannya, perlu pendokumentasian dan transliterasi  untuk selanjutnya  eliterbitkan menjadi buku dan artikel ilmiah. Bajonese  is a malay culture  based community  which lives in group and spread  on many costal  and rural areas in Indonesia  and Southeast  Asia. They are known as sea people or Sea ethnic in West Malaysia  and Bajaunese in East Malaysia,  Brunei Darussalam and Philippine. Despite the naming difference; depending on where they live geographically, they have a common culture particularly  concerning  knowledge inheri­ tance  process,  values,  and skill  to preserve  the community    through  perpetuating oral  tradition  iko-iko, nauya, and pantun. Some studies found that the bajonese is originally from  Melaka strait and then scattered in various Malay archipelago  (Malaysia, Indonesia,  Brunai Darussalam  and Philippine   as a result of the arrival ofthe Portuguese imperialism in the year of the seizing ofMalacca 1511. As one the core communi­ ties in Melaka Kingdom, the Bajonese fought against the Portuguese Imperialism. Even after the kingdom were surrounded, they carried on fighting around the coastal areas. Settlement  patterns that are semi nomadic as traditional fishermen, resulting in a development of  original learning system. One of the teaching media used is iko-iko (heroism story. It is an endangered tradition as only elderly who are over 50 years old who can tell the stcries. Iko-iko literature tradition plays an important role to convey messages of moral and spirit of fighting which is narrated orally for generations. The story is about heroism which is sung during voyage and as

  7. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the volume 15 number: 1 of TOJDE, In this issue, 18 articles of 34 authors from 9 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the tojde from, bBangladesh, Brunei, Greece, India, Indonasia, Malaysia, Republic Of Korea, Turkey and USA. The 1st article is arrived from Grecee written by Evangelos Bebetsos and Dimitrios Goulimaris from Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Democritus University Of Thrace Komotini, Hellas, on “Personal Outcome And Leadership As Defining Factors Of Satisfaction In The Context Of The Course “Arts II: Overview Of Greek Music And Dance” of The Hellenic Open University”. The purpose of this study was twofold: to assess the construct validity of the modified greek version of the “scale of athlete satisfaction” presented by Theodorakis and Bebetsos (2003 in the broader academic research sector and specifically in the field of open and distance learning, and to examine if variables such as sex, age, marital status and prior experience, influence the levels of students’ satisfaction. Participants were 144 students (55 men and 89 women of the Hellenic Open University who participated in the course “arts ii: review of the Greek music and dance”, between the ages of 25 up to 67 years of age (μage=42, sd=7.62. The scale consists of two factors: a personal outcome and b leadership. Results from factor analysis provided evidence for the construct validity of the scale developed by Theodorakis and Bebetsos (2003. Additionally, results indicated differences between the age groups on the factor of “personal outcome” were the youngest age group had the lowest scores among all three and also, results indicated differences on the factor of “leadership”, were men had higher scores than women. Overall, the study underlines the necessity of adaptation and usage of such an instrument in order to inform and educate

  8. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw