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Sample records for brunei

  1. Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Brunei's population characteristics, geographical features, history, form of government, and political and economic situation were briefly described. Brunei is a small country on the northwest coast of the island of Borneo. Estimated population size is 214,000 (1983), and the annual population growth rate is 0.35% (1971-81). Ethnically, the population is 65% Malay, 20% Chinese, and 15% other. The major religion is Islam, and a variety of languages are spoken, including Malay, English, Chinese, and Iban. Education is compulsory through the primary grades, and the literacy rate among the young is 95%. Between the 1500s and the 1800s, the country was a Buddhist kingdom, then a Hindu kingdom, and finally an Islamic kingdom. In 1847 the Sultan of Brunei entered into a trade agreement with Great Britain, and in 1888 the country was placed under British rule. In 1929 the discovery of oil lead to the economic development of the country. During World War II, the country was occupied by the Japanese. In 1984, after resisting pressure to unite with Sarawak and Malaysia, Brunei was granted independence. At that time it adopted the official name of Brunei Darussalam. The country remains a hereditary sultanate, and the current sultan is Sir Muda Hassanal Bolkaih Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah. The sultan has supreme executive authority and is assisted in administering the country by a 6-person cabinet which includes 3 members of the royal family. 46% of the work force is employed by the government, and government workers are provided with an extensive array of economic benefits, ranging from free medical care to low interest loans. The economy is based primarily on the production of oil and gas, which is produced by Brunei Shell, a consortium owned jointly by the government and Shell Oil. Brunei Shell is the country's 2nd largest employer next to the government, accounts for 72% of the gross domestic product (GDP), and is the primary source of government revenue. Oil accounts for 99% of

  2. Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Brunei's population characteristics, geographical features, history, form of government, and political and economic situation were briefly described. Brunei is a small country on the northwest coast of the island of Borneo. Estimated population size is 214,000 (1983), and the annual population growth rate is 0.35% (1971-81). Ethnically, the population is 65% Malay, 20% Chinese, and 15% other. The major religion is Islam, and a variety of languages are spoken, including Malay, English, Chinese, and Iban. Education is compulsory through the primary grades, and the literacy rate among the young is 95%. Between the 1500s and the 1800s, the country was a Buddhist kingdom, then a Hindu kingdom, and finally an Islamic kingdom. In 1847 the Sultan of Brunei entered into a trade agreement with Great Britain, and in 1888 the country was placed under British rule. In 1929 the discovery of oil lead to the economic development of the country. During World War II, the country was occupied by the Japanese. In 1984, after resisting pressure to unite with Sarawak and Malaysia, Brunei was granted independence. At that time it adopted the official name of Brunei Darussalam. The country remains a hereditary sultanate, and the current sultan is Sir Muda Hassanal Bolkaih Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah. The sultan has supreme executive authority and is assisted in administering the country by a 6-person cabinet which includes 3 members of the royal family. 46% of the work force is employed by the government, and government workers are provided with an extensive array of economic benefits, ranging from free medical care to low interest loans. The economy is based primarily on the production of oil and gas, which is produced by Brunei Shell, a consortium owned jointly by the government and Shell Oil. Brunei Shell is the country's 2nd largest employer next to the government, accounts for 72% of the gross domestic product (GDP), and is the primary source of government revenue. Oil accounts for 99% of

  3. Brunei Darussalam Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    Brunei Darussalam has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of improving education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decisionmaking needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weak...

  4. Brunei Darussalam; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    The statistical appendices present the following details for Brunei Darussalam: Nominal GDP and quarterly nominal GDP by economic activity, nominal GDP and quarterly nominal GDP by expenditure, quarterly composition of nominal GDP and composition of nominal GDP by activity, real GDP and quarterly real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, oil and gas production and sales, consumer price index, imports and exports by commodities, country destination exchange rates, energy sector, financial...

  5. Põhjapanevad uuendused Brunei naftasultanaadis / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Parlamenti ehk Seadusandlikku Kogu pole Bruneis eksisteerinud 42 aastat, sest 1962. a. saatis valitseja Omar Ali Saifuddin selle laiali. 25. sept. tuli 21-liikmeline parlament kokku. Bruneist kui heaolu riigist

  6. The oil and gas market in Brunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunei, a small oil-rich Sultanate on the northwest coast of Borneo, is the third largest oil producer in South East Asia, and the fourth largest producer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the world, with a current production of 225,000 barrels per day of oil and 1 billion cubic feet of gas per day. In 2001, the government of Brunei plans to make major investments into the downstream oil and gas sector, with the opening of deep water blocks for oil and gas exploration. This move presents potential opportunities for Canadian companies in new sales of oil and gas production equipment and machinery. It also presents opportunities in the field of exploration. Currently, the key players in Brunei's oil and gas industry are the United Kingdom, the United States, the Netherlands and Germany. In terms of market access, any foreign partners wishing to work with the Brunei Shell Petroleum (BSP) Co. should work through local partners. Major developments currently underway include the Ampa-Fairley Rationalisation Project which is intended to extend the service life of 30-year-old offshore oil facilities for another 30 to 40 years, and the Brunei LNG Plan to expand an existing LNG facility. Another development is the September 2000 announcement of a 20 year plan to construct a 10,000 km natural gas pipeline and associated electricity grid to link the 10 ASEAN nations which include Brunei. refs

  7. Educational Discourses and Literacy in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the last century, the small Malay Islamic Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam, on the northern coast of Borneo, has moved away from an oral tradition, to a print culture and towards mass literacy. Discovery of oil in the early part of the 20th century transformed the economic situation in the country, and led to major changes and developments in…

  8. Chinese-Brunei Oil Cooperation Benefits Two Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Thanks to joint efforts by both sides, the trade and economic relations between China and Brunei have in recent years witnessed a steady and healthy development, which will no doubt benefit the two countries and the two peoples.

  9. Coastal resources of Brunei Darussalam: Status, utilization and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, G.; Jaafar, H.M.H.; Yusof, P.S.P.H.; De Silva, M.W.R.N.; Chua, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    In light of the environmental dangers accompanying its recent program of economic diversification, the Government of Brunei Darussalam has signalled the need for improved management of its coastal areas, where 85 percent of the population lives and the country's social and economic activities are concentrated. The report contains the proceedings of a conference held in 1991 to review recent studies of Brunei Darussalam's coastal resources and draft an initial coastal area management plan. Individual papers cover: capture fisheries; mangrove and mangrove forest resources; fish communities in natural reef and artificial habitats; coastal area water quality; the populations and diversity of benthic fauna that inhabit coastal waters and are threatened by oil spills; a simulation of oil slick movement in Brunei Darussalam; a composite sensitivity index ranking the susceptibility of Brunei's five zones (as identified by resource prevalence) to oil spills; a management strategy for Brunei's 33 islands, most of which are uninhabited; zoning of industrial activities to minimize adverse effects on coastal water quality and the environment; the socioeconomic importance of Brunei's coastal resources; and the legal and institutional environment for coastal resource management.

  10. Automated peritoneal dialysis in Brunei Darussalam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat KAMAL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic kidney disease in Brunei Darussalam is a growing problem. The number of patients reaching end stage kidney failure has increased dramatically in the last ten years. Currently, most are managed with haemodialysis while a smaller proportion is managed with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD is a form of peritoneal dialysis and has been used in Brunei Darussalam since May 2008. Materials and Methods: Eight patients participated in this prospective clinical trial. As all APD patients were previously on CAPD, comparisons are made between the outcomes of APD against CAPD. Results: The median and mean age of APD patients were 42 and 45.5 ± 12.73 years respectively. After switching to APD, the serum haemoglobin and albumin improved from 10.56 ± 1.95 gm/L and 27.88 ± 7.71 gm/dL to 12.26 ± 1.82 gm/L and 33.63 ± 6.89 gm/dL respectively (p values <0.05. This corresponded to improvements in seven (87.5% and six (75% patients respectively in both parameters. Erythropoietin requirement was reduced in six (75% patients, including three (37.5% patients who were able to stop erythropoietin completely. There was no peritonitis encountered. All patients reported improved quality of life with better sleep, appetite and general well-being. Conclusions: Our study showed that APD was as good as CAPD with improvement seen in both laboratory and quality of life parameters. There was also reduction in erythropoietin requirement. Based on these findings, we will actively encourage and promote APD usage as oppose to CAPD usage in our population.

  11. 特集論文 Brunei Economy and its Integration in the Regional Economic Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful, Islam

    2011-01-01

    Trade and investment integration in East Asia has increased considerably after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Oil-rich Brunei has increasinglyparticipated in this process, through trade and FDI activities. This paper looks at the extent of the participation of Brunei in the economicactivities of the region. The main objectives of this paper are to provide an up to date account of the economic growth of Brunei, and to explore trade and FDI activities of Brunei in other East Asian economies. ...

  12. E-Health Initiative and Customer's Expectation: Case Brunei

    CERN Document Server

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Low, Patrick Kim Cheng; Anshari, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This paper is to determine the dimension of e-health services in Brunei Darussalam (Brunei) from customers' perspective. It is to identify, understand, analyze and evaluate public's expectation on e-health in Brunei. A questionnaire was designed to gather quantitative and qualitative data to survey patients, patient's family, and health practitioners at hospitals, clinics, or home care centers in Brunei starting from February to March, 2011. A 25-item Likert-type survey instrument was specifically developed for this study and administered to a sample of 366 patients. The data were analyzed to provide initial ideas and recommendation to policy makers on how to move forward with the e-health initiative as a mean to improve healthcare services. The survey revealed that there exists a high demand and expectation from people in Brunei to have better healthcare services accessible through an e-health system in order to improve health literacy as well as quality and efficiency of healthcare. Regardless of the limita...

  13. Customer expectation of e-health systems in Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Wint, Zaw; Low, Kim Cheng Patrick; Anshari, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the dimension of e-health services in Brunei Darussalam from the customer's perspective. The study seeks to identify, understand, analyze, and evaluate the public's expectation of e-health in Brunei Darussalam. A questionnaire was designed to gather quantitative and qualitative data to survey patients, the patient's family, and health practitioners at hospitals, clinics, or home care centers in Brunei Darussalam from February to March 2011. A 25-item Likert-type survey instrument was specifically developed for this study and administered to a sample of 366 patients. These data were analyzed to provide initial ideas and recommendations to policy makers on how to move forward with the e-health initiative as a means to improve health care services. The survey revealed that there is a high demand and expectation from people of Brunei to have better health care services through an e-health system in order to improve health literacy as well as quality and efficiency of health care. Regardless of the limitations of the survey, the general public has responded to the questionnaire with great support for the abilities of an e-health system. The results of the survey provide a solid foundation for our ongoing research project to proceed further to develop the model of e-health and subsequently to develop a system prototype that incorporates expectations from patients.

  14. Healthcare in Brunei Darussalam: Flying Doctor Service (Part I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of an official healthcare system in Brunei in 1907, service provision continued to improve, albeit slowly. Some of the limiting factors included the lack of infrastructure in healthcare, roads and transportation and workforce (limited to dressers and a visiting doctor from Labuan in the initial part, and limited knowledge of the bygone era.

  15. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line.

  16. Proifles of autoimmune hepatitis in Brunei Darussalam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand Jalihal; Pemasari Upali Telisinghe; Vui Heng Chong

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inlfammatory disease of the liver. Data on the disease remain scarce in the Southeast Asia region. This study was undertaken to assess the proifles of AIH in Brunei Darussalam. METHODS: Nineteen patients with AIH treated at the hepatology clinic, RIPAS Hospital (up until December 2008) were reviewed. Demographic, laboratory, histologic, clinical, and therapeutic data of the patients were collected. RESULTS: The median age of the 19 patients at diagnosis was 52 years (range 33-70) with a male to female ratio of 1∶3.75. All patients were diagnosed with typeⅠAIH. The prevalence rate of the disease was 5.61/100 000 and was higher in the Chinese than in Malays and Indigenous people. Commonly seen presentations were abnormal liver function (52.6%), icteric hepatitis (36.8%), and decompensated liver disease (10.5%). Histologically advanced ifbrosis was found in 47.4% and cirrhosis in 21.1% of the patients. Immune-mediated diseases were present in 36.8%. In a follow-up for 31 months (range 0.25-102), three patients died, 2 had progressive liver failure and 1 had lymphoma. Complete biochemical response was seen in 75%of the patients, partial response in 12.5%, and no response in 12.5%. HLA DRB1*03 (DR3) was detected in 18.2%of the patients and DRB1*04 (DR4) in 45.5%. There were signiifcant associations between HLA Cw7 (P=0.038) and DQB1*04 (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The data of the 19 patients were comparable to those reported in the literature. Most of the patients were found to have abnormal biochemistry. There were signiifcant associations between HLA Cw7 and DQB1*04, but not between DRB1*03 (DR3) and DRB1*04 (DR4).

  17. The Governance of Knowledge: Perspectives from Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningrum, Farah; Evers, Hans-Dieter; Ariff Lim, Syamimi; Anthony Banyouko, Ndah

    2014-01-01

    The paper revisits the concept of knowledge governance by drawing on the experience of building knowledge clusters in two countries; Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam. It explores the strategies by which a country may take up the governance of knowledge, in the context of avoiding the knowledge trap drawing on experiences of Southeast Asian countries. We posit that an investigation of knowledge governance would require a study of the formal and informal institutional arrangements allowing knowle...

  18. Haze Research in Brunei Darussalam During the 1998 Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, M.

    - Brunei Darussalam experienced a severe haze episode between the beginning of February and the end of April 1998 due mainly to local peat and forest fires in Brunei and in neighbouring Sabah and Sarawak. The extensive research studies of the haze carried out in Brunei are outlined together with selected results. Particulate matter (PM10) was the only significant criteria pollutant and it exceeded WHO guidelines and accepted air quality standards on most days during the haze episode. Gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NO2, O3) were generally well below WHO guidelines and at these concentrations they are expected to have no significant health or environmental effects. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), aldehydes, phenol, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Personal exposure monitoring of PM10 revealed significant differences in exposure patterns between different individuals depending on the location, time and activity. Data on outpatient visits showed an increase for some illnesses (e.g., acute respiratory infection) during the months of haze. No significant impacts of haze on rainwater acidity or deposition were noted. Emission factors for some volatile compounds were determined in combustion experiments in which peat was burned at temperatures typical of smouldering.

  19. A new species of the genus Acarothrix (Acari: Halacaridae) from Brunei Darussalam and India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Marshall, D.J.; Guru, B.C.; Ingole B.S.; Pesic V.

    ) Department of Biology, Indian School of Learning, I.S.M. Annexe, P.O. – I.S.M., Dhanbad-826004, Jharkhand, India; E-mail: drtchatterjee@yahoo.co.in (2) Department of Biology, University Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE 1410, Brunei...

  20. Public Art Education in Brunei Darussalam: The Cultural Language of Community Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2014-01-01

    Two mural projects in Brunei offer insight into the specific and universal aspects of public art education and community art making. This article describes how the author used his initiative and experience as a muralist to plan and implement two community art research projects in Bandar Seri Begwan, the capital of Brunei Darussalam. A premise of…

  1. CODE CHOICE WITHIN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION AMONG ETHNIC MINORITY IN BRUNEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Chuchu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influences of globalisation and multilingualism have caused linguistic diversity and emergence of interesting and unique sociolinguistic phenomena, for instance, language contact in intercultural communication. As the study of intercultural communication has yet to be studied at large, this research takes the opportunity to embark on a descriptive study of code choice within intercultural communication, relating to the ethnic minorities in Brunei Darussalam. This investigation aims to identify these ethnics’ preferable code choice within intercultural communication, and their needs and motivations practising those codes in a shared multilingual setting. Involving empirical investigation, this study was conducted on 60 native Brunei ethnics in Mukim Ukong, Tutong District. Research found that study involving multilingual settings and intercultural communications are rather relatively complex sociolinguistic phenomena, where speakers would employ different dialects or languages at an episode of communication, but still mutually understood by each other. To some extent, some speakers also accommodate their speech styles or languages to ease communication process between parties. The hegemony of globalisation, local vernacular, speakers’ background and setting are among others influenced the selection of their everyday code choice.

  2. Implementing performance management in Brunei : a case study of public sector reform.

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Said, Thuraya F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of performance management (PM) in the Brunei public sector within the context of debates about new public management, bureaucracy and post-bureaucracy. Although Brunei opted for such reform to modernise and improve its public-sector performance, in the literature there appear to be differences between the rhetoric and realities of adopting PM and this brings into question the extent to which the sector is moving towards post-bureaucracy. This study ...

  3. Governing Knowledge for Development: Knowledge Clusters in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ariff, Syamimi; Hans-Dieter, Evers; Anthony Banyouko, Ngah; Farah, Purwaningrum

    2014-01-01

    With the dwindling of natural resources, like oil and gas, even resource-rich countries like Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia have to re-adjust their development strategies. Governing knowledge for development (K4D) is seen as a way out of the dilemma of reduced revenues from natural resources. This paper analyses the attempts to create knowledge clusters as a strategy to move Brunei and Malaysia towards knowledge-based economies. Our study shows that several knowledge clusters have already bee...

  4. Hillslope hydrology in tropical rainforest steeplands in Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, A. P.; Thornes, J. B.

    2000-02-01

    Many remaining areas of tropical rainforest in south-east Asia are located on landscapes dominated by deep valleys and very steep slopes. Now that logging activities are extending into these steeplands, it is essential to understand how the natural rainforest system behaves if any kind of realistic assessment of the effects of such disturbance is to be made. This paper examines the hydrological behaviour of an undisturbed rainforest system on steep topography in the Temburong District of Brunei, north-west Borneo. The physical and hydrological properties of the regolith material are generally typical of tropical residual soils. The regolith has a clay texture and a low dry bulk density beneath a superficial litter/organic horizon. The infiltration capacity of the surface soil was several hundred mm h-1. That of the exposed mineral subsoil was an order of magnitude less, similar to the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of around 180 mm h-1 at a depth of 150 cm. There was no indication that Ksat reduced with depth except very near the bedrock interface.Soil tensions were measured using a two-dimensional array of tensiometers on a 30° slope. During dry season conditions, infiltrating rain-water contributes to soil moisture, and drying of the soil is dominated by transpiration losses. During wet season conditions, perched water tables quickly develop during heavy rainfall, giving rise to the rapid production of return flow in ephemeral channels. No infiltration excess or saturation overland flow was observed on hillslopes away from channel margins. Subsurface storm flow combined with return flow produce stream flow hydrographs with high peak discharges and very short lag times. Storm event runoff coefficients are estimated to be as high as 40%. It is concluded that the most distinctive feature of the hydrology of this steepland rainforest is the extremely flashy nature of the catchment runoff regime produced by the combination of thin but very permeable regolith

  5. Micro-caddisflies in the tribe Hydroptilini (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Hydroptilinae) from Malaysia and Brunei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Huisman, J.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two new species of Hydroptilidae in six genera are described from Malaysia and Brunei: Ugandatrichia Mosely (1), Macrostactobia Schmid (1), Hydroptila Dalman (16), Oxyethira Eaton (1), and Hellyethira Neboiss (3). In addition, new distributional records of previously described species of Ugan

  6. Extreme differences in forest degradation in Borneo: comparing practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Bryan

    Full Text Available The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak are global hotspots of forest loss and degradation due to timber and oil palm industries; however, the rates and patterns of change have remained poorly measured by conventional field or satellite approaches. Using 30 m resolution optical imagery acquired since 1990, forest cover and logging roads were mapped throughout Malaysian Borneo and Brunei using the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System. We uncovered ∼364,000 km of roads constructed through the forests of this region. We estimated that in 2009 there were at most 45,400 km(2 of intact forest ecosystems in Malaysian Borneo and Brunei. Critically, we found that nearly 80% of the land surface of Sabah and Sarawak was impacted by previously undocumented, high-impact logging or clearing operations from 1990 to 2009. This contrasted strongly with neighbouring Brunei, where 54% of the land area remained covered by unlogged forest. Overall, only 8% and 3% of land area in Sabah and Sarawak, respectively, was covered by intact forests under designated protected areas. Our assessment shows that very few forest ecosystems remain intact in Sabah or Sarawak, but that Brunei, by largely excluding industrial logging from its borders, has been comparatively successful in protecting its forests.

  7. Total and free available fluoride in toothpastes in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Benzian; C.J. Holmgren; M. Buijs; C. van Loveren; F. van der Weijden; W.H. van Palenstein Helderman

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience samples were bought in the five coun

  8. Service Quality in Higher Education--A Case Study of Universiti Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Farooq; Yaqoub, Yasir; Hamdan, Mahani

    2015-01-01

    No one doubts the value and importance of quality education, and quality assurance is one major driving force to achieve this. Measuring the performance of service quality of education services of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), as part of the quality assessment, was assessed based on Parasuraman's five Servqual dimensions. The assessment was…

  9. Secondary teachers' interpersonal behaviour in Singapore, Brunei and Australia: A cross-national comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, P.; Fisher, D.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.; Rickards, T.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) in three countries: Singapore, Brunei and Australia. The QTI maps student perceptions of interpersonal teacher behaviour and is based on the circumplex Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behaviour (MI

  10. The mushroom coral fauna (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) of Brunei Darussalam (South China Sea) and its relation to the Coral Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Lane, D.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Brunei Darussalam is situated on the northwest coast of Borneo, just outside the westernmost boundary of the area presently recognised as the centre of maximum marine biodiversity, the so-called Coral Triangle. This diversity is particularly quantified with regard to numbers of reef coral species. Most coral reefs of Brunei are offshore, submerged patch reefs, which makes them hard to discern from the water surface. Few coral studies have been carried out here, although recently an extensive ...

  11. Role of occupational health in managing non-communicable diseases in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pg Khalifah Pg Ismail

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most ASEAN countries, Brunei faces an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. To deal with the complexity of NCDs prevention, all perspectives - be it social, familial or occupational – need to be considered. In Brunei Darussalam, occupational health services (OHS offered by its Ministry of Health, among others, provide screening and management of NCDs at various points of service. The OHS does not only issue fitness to work certificates, but is a significant partner in co-managing patients’ health conditions, with the advantage of further management at the workplace. Holistic approach of NCD management in the occupational setting is strengthened with both employer and employee education and participation, targeting several approaches including risk management and advocating healthy lifestyles as part of a healthy workplace programme.

  12. Diversity of Manota Williston (Diptera, Mycetophilidae in Ulu Temburong National Park, Brunei

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    Jan Ševčík

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 15 species of Manota Williston, 1896 are recorded from Brunei, based on the investigations in 2013-2014. Thirteen species are recorded from Ulu Temburong National Park and three species from the Universiti Brunei Darussalam Campus in Tungku. Six species are described as new to science: Manota belalongensis sp. n., M. kaspraki sp. n., M. macrothrix sp. n., M. megachaeta sp. n. and M. pileata sp.n. from Ulu Temburong, and M. ricina sp. n. from Tungku. New records of the following species are given: Manota bifida Hippa & Papp, M. bruneiensis Hippa & Ševčík, M. hyboloma Hippa & Ševčík, M. oligochaeta Hippa, M. pappi Hippa, M. perangulata Hippa & Ševčík, M. pollex Hippa, M. procera Hippa and M. simplex Hippa.

  13. Science textbooks for lower secondary schools in Brunei: issues of gender equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Ann G.

    2004-07-01

    This paper is concerned with issues affecting equity in science education for girls and boys. In the paper the results of an investigation into the recently published (1998-2000) series of textbooks entitled Lower Secondary Science for Brunei Darussalam are presented. In the first part of the paper, background issues of continuing gender inequality in science education and of the nature and scope of textbook analyses are outlined. Then the representation of males and females in both illustrations and text in the Bruneian textbooks is discussed. From this analysis a picture emerges of the extent to which science is portrayed as a pursuit of equal appropriateness for both boys and girls. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of the findings presented within the wider context of gender and education in Brunei.

  14. A critical exploration of deaf young people’s underachievement in Brunei Darussalam

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Shahminan, Hajah Norbayah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This study employs qualitative methods to explore the tensions experienced by deaf young people with hearing parents, hearing parents with little or no experience of deafness prior to the birth of their deaf children and language teachers with a lack of skills and knowledge of deafness in the implementation of an inclusive education system in Brunei Darussalam. The empirical evidence I used t...

  15. Promoting Islamic Tourism in Brunei : Through Customers Understanding Towards the Syariah Compliant Hotel Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Mohamed, Haji Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    The demand for and supply of Islamic hospitality services has been affected positively by the increasing number of Islamic followers globally and positive tourism trends. It is assumed that the emergence of Islamic financing is one of the influences of Syariah-Compliant Hotels besides the increasing number of Arab and Muslim travellers and their high purchasing power. In the context of tourism in Brunei Darussalam, however, the report cited poor tourism infrastructure such as public transport...

  16. Genetic stock compositions and natal origin of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging at Brunei Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetics composition and growth stages of endangered green turtles, as well as the connectivity between nesting and foraging grounds is important for effective conservation. A total of 42 green turtles were captured at Brunei Bay with curved carapace length ranging from 43.8 to 102.0 cm, and most sampled individuals were adults and large juveniles. Twelve haplotypes were revealed in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Most haplotypes contained identical sequences to haplotypes previously found in rookeries in the Western Pacific, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity indices of the Brunei Bay were 0.8444±0.0390 and 0.009350±0.004964, respectively. Mixed-stock analysis (for both uninformative and informative prior weighting by population size estimated the main contribution from the Southeast Asian rookeries of the Sulu Sea (mean ≥45.31%, Peninsular Malaysia (mean ≥17.42%, and Sarawak (mean ≥12.46%. Particularly, contribution from the Sulu Sea rookery was estimated to be the highest and lower confidence intervals were more than zero (≥24.36%. When estimating contributions by region rather than individual rookeries, results showed that Brunei Bay was sourced mainly from the Southeast Asian rookeries. The results suggest an ontogenetic shift in foraging grounds and provide conservation implications for Southeast Asian green turtles.

  17. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  18. Five year survival of non-small cell lung cancer patients in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd Syafiq ABDULLAH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths in Brunei Darussalam for the past five years. This study is the first to supply data for the 5-year survival of patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in Brunei Darussalam. Materials and Methods: From 2002 to 2009, 302 patients diagnosed with NSCLC were identified from the National Cancer Registry of Brunei Darussalam. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively retrieved from the clinical notes. All deaths and dates of death were obtained and crosschecked with the National Birth and Death Registry at the Immigration Department. Data were analysed using SPSS statistical software and 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival curves were derived and analysed. Predictors of 5-year survival were analysed using Cox regression analysis. Results: Mean age of the 302 patients was 64.9 ± 12.8 (27.4–90.6 years with male to female ratio of 194:108. Racial distribution consisted of 84.4% (n=255 Malay, 12.5% (n=38 Chinese and 3.1% of other racial origin (indigenous and foreign nationals. Histological types of NSCLC consisted of 67.9% (n=205 adenocarcinoma, 16.2% (n=49 squamous cell carcinoma, 6.3% (n=19 large cell carcinoma, 5.3% (n=16 bronchioalveolar carcinoma and 4.3% of other origin. Only 13.9% of patients underwent surgical resection. At completion of follow-up, only 47 (15.5% patients were still alive. There were 255 deaths. Overall 5-year survival for the whole group was 3.6% with a median survival time of 6.5 ± 0.9 months (95% CI: 4.7-8.4 months but according to stage of disease was 60.9% for Stage IA, 29.9% for Stage IB, 10.0% for Stage IIB, 7% for Stage IIIB and 3% for Stage IV. Significant prognostic factors were younger age at diagnosis, surgical resection, tumour types and tumour stages. Conclusion: Overall 5-year survival of patients diagnosed with NSCLC in Brunei Darussalam is still generally poor but comparable to previously reported data. Significant

  19. Implementation of SPN21 Curriculum in Brunei Darussalam: A Review of Selected Implications on School Assessment Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    In the past twelve years (1997-2009), Brunei Darussalam has implemented three major educational policies: (1) inclusive education, in 1998; (2) the National Education System for the 21st Century known in Malay as Sistem Pendidikan Negara Abad 21 or SPN21, 2008; and (3) education for the gifted / talented students, 2009. These changes are partly…

  20. The mushroom coral fauna (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) of Brunei Darussalam (South China Sea) and its relation to the Coral Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Lane, D.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Brunei Darussalam is situated on the northwest coast of Borneo, just outside the westernmost boundary of the area presently recognised as the centre of maximum marine biodiversity, the so-called Coral Triangle. This diversity is particularly quantified with regard to numbers of reef coral species. M

  1. China-ASEAN Association President Gu Xiulian Visits Myanmar,Indonesia and Brunei and Attends Second Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Union Solidarity and Development Association of Myanmar (USDA), the Association of Indonesia-China Economic, Social and Cultural Cooperation (AICESCC) and the Brunei-China Friendship Association (BCFA), Gu Xiulian, president of the China-ASEAN Association and vice chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, led a delegation of the China-ASEAN Association to pay a goodwill visit to Myanmar, Indonesia and Brunei from June 10 to 21 and attended the Second Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.

  2. THE ASSESSMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS IN BRUNEI FEMALE, MATURE AGE AND PART-TIME IN-SERVICE STUDENT TEACHERS: COUNSELING IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    HAQ, FARIDAH SERAJUL; MUNDIA, LAWRENCE

    2013-01-01

    Although most trainee and serving teachers in Brunei are women, no studies have specifically addressed the problems of female pre-service and in-service student teachers. However, literature indicated that a female undergraduate student recently left her teacher education program due to unaddressed mental health problems. The present study investigated other psychological problems in 20 Brunei female, mature-age, and part-time student teachers who were simultaneously engaged in employment, ma...

  3. Modern Foraminifera from a depth transect offshore Brunei Darussalam: diversity, sedimentation rate and preservation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Goeting, Sulia; Kusli, Rosnani; Roslim, Amajida; Polgar, Gianluca; Kocsis, Laszlo

    2016-04-01

    For this study, 11 samples have been collected by scuba diving from 5 to 35 meters water depth off shore Brunei Darussalam. The locations sampled are known as: Pelong Rock (5 samples, shallow reef with soft and stony corals and larger foraminifera, 5 to 8 meters water depth), Abana Rock (1 sample, shallow reef with mainly soft corals and larger foraminifera, 13 to 18 meters water depth), Oil Rig wreck (1 sample, very sandy bottom with larger foraminifera, 18 meters water depth), Dolphin wreck (1 sample, muddy sand with many small rotaliids, 24 meters water depth), US wreck, (1 sample, sand with small clay fraction, 28 meters water depth), Australian wreck (1 sample, mainly medium to coarse sand with larger foraminifera, 34 meters water depth) and Blue water wreck (1 sample, mainly coarse sand, coral rubble and larger foraminifera, 35 meters water depth). Those samples closer to the river inputs are normally richer in clay, while the most distant samples are purely sandy. Some additional samples have been collected next to reef environments which, even if very shallow, are mainly sandy with almost no clay fraction. The deepest sample, which is 30 km offshore, contains some planktonic foraminifera and is characterized by a large range of preservations concerning foraminifera, thus testifying the presence or relict sediments at the sea bottom. The presence of relict sediments was already pointed out by older oil-related field studies offshore Brunei Darussalam, and now it is possible to draw the depth limit of these deposits. The diversity of the benthic foraminiferal fauna is relatively high but not as higher as neighboring regions as some studies have highlighted. The species collected and identified are more than 50: in reef environment the most abundant are Calcarina defrancii, Neorotalia calcar and the amphisteginidae; deeper in the muddy sediments the most abundant is Pararotalia schroeteriana and in the deepest sandy sample the most abundant are Calcarina

  4. Annual litter fall in an intact mixed dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yujin; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Sohye; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Davies, Stuart James; Son, Yowhan

    2016-04-01

    Estimating litter dynamics in an intact tropical forests is important for understanding tropical forests. Litter fall varies with seasonality, forest type or species composition, forest age, soil water retention, and soil fertility. These parameters are known to be strongly affected by elevation. The objective of this study was to estimate annual litter fall along a relative elevation in an intact mixed dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam. This study was conducted in the Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Five 0.36 ha plots were established within the permanent 25 ha UBD-CTFS plot. The plots were divided into three groups by relative elevation of the site: 1) high (N = 1), 2) middle (N = 2) and 3) low (N = 2). In January 2015, nine litter traps were installed in each plot and falling litter was collected every month from February to November, 2015. The collected litter was separated into leaves and other materials, and then weighed after drying at 80oC. The average annual litter fall in this site was 8.70 ± 0.16 Mg ha-1 yr-1, and this was within the range reported in previous studies which were conducted in tropical forests. Litter fall at high, middle and low plots was 9.09 ± 0.46, 8.90 ± 0.29 and 8.06 ± 0.29 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Litter fall was not significantly different among the groups (P>0.05). The results of regression analysis showed that litter fall was not significantly increased with altitude. We suppose that litter fall may be relatively constant in this site. *Supported by research grants from the Korea Forest Service (S121314L130100)

  5. Late Miocene fossils from shallow marine sediments in Brunei Darussalam: systematics, palaeoenvironment and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslim, Amajida; Briguglio, Antonino; Kocsis, László; Ćorić, Stjepan; Razak, Hazirah

    2016-04-01

    The geology of Brunei Darussalam is fascinating but difficult to approach: rainforests and heavy precipitation tend to erode and smoothen the landscape limiting rocks exposure, whereas abundant constructions sites and active quarries allow the creation of short time available outcrop, which have to be immediately sampled. The stratigraphy of Brunei Darussalam comprises mainly Neogene sediments deposited in a wave to tide dominated shallow marine environment in a pure siliciclastic system. Thick and heavily bioturbated sandstone layers alternate to claystone beds which occasionally yield an extraordinary abundance and diversity of fossils. The sandstones, when not bioturbated, are commonly characterized by a large variety of sedimentary structures (e.g., ripple marks, planar laminations and cross beddings). In this study, we investigate the sediments and the fossil assemblages to record the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the shallow marine environment during the late Miocene, in terms of sea level change, chemostratigraphy and sedimentation rate. The study area is one of the best in terms of accessibility, extension, abundance and preservation of fossils; it is located in the region -'Bukit Ambug' (Ambug Hill), Tutong District. The fossils fauna collected encompasses mollusks, decapods, otoliths, shark and ray teeth, amber, foraminifera and coccolithophorids. In this investigation, sediment samples were taken along a section which measures 62.5 meters. A thick clay layer of 9 meters was sampled each 30 cm to investigate microfossils occurrences. Each sample was treated in peroxide and then sieved trough 63 μm, 150μm, 250μm, 450μm, 600μm, 1mm and 2mm sieves. Results point on the changes in biodiversity of foraminifera along the different horizons collected reflecting sea level changes and sediment production. The most abundant taxa identified are Pseoudorotalia schroeteriana, Ampistegina lessonii, Elphidium advenum, Quinqueloculina sp., Bolivina sp

  6. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS OF VENDORS IN AN OPEN AIR HAWKER CENTRE IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Nor Nazurah ebt Abdul Wahid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe studied respiratory problems among vendors exposed to cooking fumes in an open-air hawker centre. Exposure to cooking fumes from either the use of fossil fuels or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG has been shown to be associated with adverse respiratory health effects.Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 67 food vendors exposed to cooking fumes as well as 18 merchandise sellers at an open-air hawker centre in Brunei Darussalam. Past medical and smoking history and exposure to cooking fumes were obtained. The validated American Thoracic Society (ATS Questionnaire with a translated Malay version was used to ask for respiratory symptoms. Results Compared to merchandise sellers (n=18, cooking vendors (n=67 had a higher self-reported respiratory symptoms (50.7% for those cooking and 33.3% for merchandise sellers. Cough (28.3% was the main respiratory symptom experienced in cooking vendors and breathlessness (22.2% among merchandise sellers. Half (50.0% of cooking vendors who worked for more than 10 years had cough and 27.3% had phlegm. Those cooking with charcoal were two times more likely to have cough than those cooking with LPG. Cooking vendors with a job duration of more than 10 years were thrice more likely to have cough.Conclusion Cooking vendors in the open air hawker centre exposed to cooking fumes had more respiratory symptoms compared to non-exposed merchandise sellers. The type of fuel used for cooking and duration of work were associated with increased prevalence of cough.

  7. A Comparison of Learning Styles and Study Strategies Used by Low and High Math Achieving Brunei Secondary School Students: Implications for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The survey assessed the learning styles and study strategies used by 135 randomly selected Brunei secondary school students and compared them by educational level, math ability, and gender. Junior students (Forms 1-3) rely heavily on the use of the written-expressive learning style than their senior counterparts (Forms 4-5). In addition, the more…

  8. A new technique for inventory of permanent plots in tropical forests: a case study from lowland dipterocarp forest in Kuala Belalong, Brunei Darussalam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hédl, R.; Svátek, M.; Dančák, M.; Rodzay, A.W.; Salleh, M.A.B.; Kamariah, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for inventory of permanent plots in tropical forests and presents the results of its application in a 1 ha permanent plot in a lowland dipterocarp forest at Kuala Belalong, Ulu Temburong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. The technique is based on mapping of posit

  9. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  10. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  11. A Comparison of Brunei and Hong Kong - SAR Student Teachers’ Self-efficacy in Implementing Inclusive Education Practices: Implications for Teacher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Tait; Lawrence Mundia

    2013-01-01

    The survey compared the scores of 159 (118 females) randomly selected Brunei and Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region) student teachers on the New General Self-efficacy Scale (NGSS); Self-efficacy in Implementing Inclusive Practices Scale (SIIPS); Sentiments, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale (SACIES); and Inclusive Classroom Setting Scale (ICSS). The scales were reliable and valid for use with participants in both countries. Females scored significantly higher on NGS...

  12. The diversity and abundance of ground herbs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hazlina Zaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants are important components of total plant species richness in tropical forests. Ground herb diversity and abundance were studied in a lowland Mixed Dipterocarp forest (Andulau and a heath forest (Bukit Sawat in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. At each site, all ground herbs in twenty randomly selected 10 × 10 m subplots within a one hectare permanent plot were censused and identified. The study recorded a total of 20 families and 32 genera of ground herbs, with the family Zingiberaceae as the most abundant at both sites. Thirteen genera were recorded only at Andulau and 7 genera were exclusive to Bukit Sawat, with twelve genera common to both sites. Ground herb species richness appear higher at Andulau than Bukit Sawat (37 vs. 29, but this difference was not statistically significant at the subplot level. However, ground herb abundance and density were significantly higher at Bukit Sawat than Andulau (n =  846 vs. 385; 4230 vs. 1925 individuals ha-1. The more open canopy at Bukit Sawat may provide higher light availability here than at Andulau, which is characterised by a closed canopy. We suggest that light availability is the most important environmental factor influencing ground herb density and abundance at these sites. 

  13. Tree Diversity and Community Composition of the Tutong White Sands, Brunei Darussalam: A Rare Tropical Heath Forest Ecosystem

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    Hazimah Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bornean heath (Kerangas forests are a unique and increasingly rare tropical forest ecosystem that remains little studied. We quantified tree floristic diversity in Kerangas forests in the Tutong White Sands, Brunei Darussalam, and investigated the influence of soil and environmental variables on community composition. Six 20 m × 20 m plots were established, where all trees of ≥5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH were identified and measured to determine stem diameter and basal area. We determined pH, gravimetric water content, and concentrations of total nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P in topsoil, as well as litter depth and percentage canopy openness. A total of 296 trees were recorded, representing 78 species in 59 genera and 38 families. Stem diameter, basal area, species richness, and species diversity differed significantly among the six plots. The NMDS ordination revealed that differences in tree community compositions were significantly associated with total N concentrations and percentage canopy openness. Despite the small sampling area, we recorded several Bornean endemic tree species (16/78 tree species; 20.5%, including several IUCN Red List endangered and vulnerable species. Our results illustrate the potentially high conservation value of the Kerangas forests in the Tutong White Sands and highlight the urgent need to protect and conserve this area.

  14. Phytochemical screening, total phenolics and antioxidant activities of bark and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw from Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Iqbal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Goniothalamus velutinus Airy Shaw belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, antitumor and many other bioactivities. Natives of Sabah and Sarawak use root decoction of G. velutinus for the treatment of headache and food poisoning while the bark was used as a mosquito repellent. Bark and leaf extracts of this plant, obtained from Brunei Darussalam, were tested for phytochemical and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Quantitative determination of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and various in vitro antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP of methanolic extract was carried out using colorimetric methods. The total phenolic content, expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per gram of extract, was found to be 68 mg GAE/g and 78 mg GAE/g for bark and leaves respectively. The radical scavenging activity measurement, expressed in terms of EC50 (effective concentration of extract in μg/mL that reduces DPPH absorbance to 50% as compared to negative control, for leaf and bark extracts was found to be 155 μg/mL and 204 μg/mL respectively. Standards trolox and ascorbic acid show EC50 value of 5 μg/mL and 4 μg/mL respectively. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was measured using the ABTS and FRAP method. Result for bark and leaf extracts was 79 mg and 106 mg trolox equivalent (TE/g respectively for the ABTS method. For FRAP assay, results for bark and leaf extracts were 80 and 89 mg TE/g respectively.

  15. Approach to voxel-based carbon stock quanticiation using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Piao, Dongfan; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Yoon, Mihae; Moon, Jooyeon

    2016-04-01

    Forest is an important means to adapt climate change as the only carbon sink recognized by the international community (KFS 2009). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sectors including forestry contributed 24% of total anthropogenic emissions in 2010 (IPCC 2014; Tubiello et al. 2015). While all sectors excluding AFOLU have increased Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, land use sectors including forestry remains similar level as before due to decreasing deforestation and increasing reforestation. In earlier researches, optical imagery has been applied for analysis (Jakubowski et al. 2013). Optical imagery collects spectral information in 2D. It is difficult to effectively quantify forest stocks, especially in dense forest (Cui et al. 2012). To detect individual trees information from remotely sensed data, Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been used (Hyyppäet al. 2001; Persson et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2006). Moreover, LiDAR has the ability to actively acquire vertical tree information such as tree height using geo-registered 3D points (Kwak et al. 2007). In general, however, geo-register 3D point was used with a raster format which contains only 2D information by missing all the 3D data. Therefore, this research aimed to use the volumetric pixel (referred as "voxel") approach using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei. By comparing the parameters derived from voxel based LiDAR data and field measured data, we examined the relationships between them for the quantification of forest carbon. This study expects to be more helpful to take advantage of the strategic application of climate change adaption.

  16. Modernity and Globalisation: Is the Presence of English and of Cultural Products in English a Sign of Linguistic and Cultural Imperialism? Results of a Study Conducted in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at language use and attitudes in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia through a survey conducted among 88 university students for each country. The focus of the article, however, is on the expanding use of English, particularly as far as media consumption is concerned, relating this with issues of globalisation and linguistic and…

  17. Effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohye; Kim, Seungjun; Roh, Yujin; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Davies, Stuart; Son, Yowhan

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests have been considered important ecosystems in terms of carbon cycle and climate change, because they sequester carbon more than any other terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, coarse woody debris is one of the main carbon storages, accounting for 10 - 40% of the tropical forest carbon. Carbon in coarse woody debris is released by various activities of organisms, and particularly termite's feeding activities are known to be main process in tropical forests. Therefore, investigating the effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition is important to understanding carbon cycles of tropical forests. This study was conducted in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) of Brunei Darussalam, and three main MDF tree species (Dillenia beccariana, Macaranga bancana, and Elateriospermum tapos) were selected. Coarse woody debris samples of both 10 cm diameter and length were prepared, and half of samples were covered twice with nylon net (mesh size 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm) to prevent termite's approach. Three 2 m × 11 m permanent plots were installed in January, 2015 and eighteen samples per plot (3 species × 2 treatments × 3 repetitions) were placed at the soil surface. Weights of each sample were recorded at initial time, and weighed again in August, 2015. On average, uncovered and covered samples lost 18.9 % and 3.3 % of their initial weights, respectively. Weight loss percentage was highest in uncovered samples of M. bancana (23.9 %), and lowest in covered samples of E. tapos (7.8 %). Two-way ANOVA showed that tree species and termite exclusion treatment had statistically significant effects on coarse woody debris decomposition (P = 0.0001). The effect of species and termite exclusion treatment interaction was also statistically significant (P = 0.0001). The result reveals that termite activities promote the coarse woody debris decomposition and they influence differently along the wood species. However, many samples of D. beccariana

  18. Brunei Darussalam; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the following are discussed: nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, composition of nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly composition of nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, growth in real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, growth in quarterly real GDP by economic a...

  19. 14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

  20. KBE Frameworks and Their Applicability to a Resource-based Country: The Case of Brunei Darussalam

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi Naser Ibne Afzal; Roger Lawrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is generally considered to be one of the most important drivers of economic growth. The difference between a knowledge-based economy (KBE) and a resource-based one is that in the former, the main competition between individuals, firms, and countries is the ability to innovate. Other forms of competition, for example through pricing strategies and access to resources, become secondary. Generally, knowledge is information combined with technology that dramatically increases its impact...

  1. GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF INTRODUCED Gouramy Helostoma Temminckii (Pisces: Helostomatidae) IN BRUNEI'S WETLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.S.Zohrah; P.H.C.Fauzani; C. S. Jen; O. Norsuzieyanti

    2003-01-01

    Kissing gouramy (Helostoma temminckii) was introduced into Tasek Merimbun in the 1980's. We studied their genetic profile using allozyme electrophoresis and found that all loci were monomorphic. The loss of heterozygotes may suggest that the gouramy are inbreds. They must have reproduced by repeated sib-mating over the years. The severe drought in Tasek Merimbun may have aggravated the genetic erosion further. The genetic variability of kissing gouramy in terms of % polymorphic loci, mean number of alleles per loci and observed heterozygosity level were lower than cyprinids in the same lake and kissing gouramy from the wild. We also note that kissing gouramy is a fast grower and may threaten the livelihood of indigenous fishes in the lake.

  2. Leadership Style of Religious School Headmasters and Its Relationship to Academic Achievement in Brunei Darussalam

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria; Halimah Kamis; Salwa Mahalle; Aliff Nawi

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted at 15 religious schools in Tutong District. The objectives of this research are to identify leadearship style and its relationship to academic achievement. The “Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire” (LBDQ) formed by Halpin (1966) was used. Meanwhile Academic achievement was measured using the “School Certificate Examination Results, Religious Primary School (SSSRU) from 2008-2011. A total of 191 teachers and 15 headmasters from religious school in Tutong Dist...

  3. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  4. Surgical release of trigger fingers: Experience of a district general hospital in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod DEVKOTA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trigger finger is a common finger aliment. It is caused by inflammation and subsequent narrowing of the first annular (A1 pulley producing a difference in diameters of a flexor tendon and its retinacular sheath. This causes pain, clicking, catching, and loss of motion of the affected finger. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 53 cases of trigger fingers of 41 patients who were managed surgically. Analysis of the gender, predominance of hand, age, symptoms and signs, surgical outcomes and complications were carried out. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.8 (28-79 years. There were 18 (43.9% male and 23 (56.1% female patients. The middle finger was the most commonly affected (37.7%, n= 20, followed by the ring finger (24.5 %, n=13, thumb (24.5%, n=13 and index finger (13.2%, n=7. Symptoms resolved completely with full range of motion of joints after the surgical release without complications like tendon injuries and neuroma. Two patients complained of pain at the operative site after three months of surgery which was successfully managed with analgesics. Conclusion: Surgical intervention by the release of A1 pulley is an ideal option for the management of trigger fingers with minimal complications.

  5. Corporatisation in the telecommunication industry: a case study from Brunei Darussalam

    OpenAIRE

    Dato Haji Metussin, Halimatussaadah

    2012-01-01

    For any organisation to survive, it needs to be able to change. Due to problems that most governments are facing such as inefficiency, some governments have sought for corporatisation of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Corporatisation means ‘efforts to make SOEs operate as if they were private firms facing a competitive market or if monopolies, efficient regulation’ (Shirley, 1999, p. 115). This is often conducted prior to privatisation. In contrast to the large quantity of literature concern...

  6. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Suardi Wekke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available مستخلص:  حكومة بروناى دار السلام تقوم نشيطة بتنمية نموذج مثالى للتعليم وإدارة التربية الإسلامية بالوسائل التكنولوجية. وهذه المحاولة تدعمها مبادرة سلطان بروناى دار السلام بوصفه رئيسا للدولة. وهذه المقالة تكون معلوماتها مستمدة من حقائق الدراسة العلمية:   تكامل التربية الإسلامية واستخدامها وسائل الإتصال والإخبار التكنولجية فى عملية التعليم. هذه المحاولة المتكاملة لها أثرها النافع فى إثراء المواد الدراسية للطلاب وفى تسهيل عملية التدريس. وما كادت هذه البرامج تمضى ثمان سنوات حتى حصلت الحكومة على الإرتقاء بمقدرة الطلاب، وباستيعابهم على المواد الدارسية، وبكيفية التقويم التربوي الأصلح, وباصلاح عملية تنظيم التربية الإداري. وهذه الدراسة تحصل على أن وسائل الإخبار والإتصال التكنولوجية تتساير وتقدم التربية الإسلامية تسايرا متكاملا فى ترقية ذكاء الطلاب. Abstrak:  Pemerintah Brunai Darussalam giat mengembangkan model pembelajaran dan administrasi pendidikan Islam dengan menjadikan teknologi sebagai fasilitator. Upaya itu didorong oleh prakarsa Sultan Brunai Darussalam, kepala negara sekaligus sultan negara itu. Makalah ini mengemukakan hasil penelitian tentang integrasi pendidikan Islam dan penggunaan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi. Integrasi tersebut memberikan manfaat dalam pengayaan materi dan memudahkan proses pembelajaran. Setelah delapan tahun berjalan, program itu mampu mendorong kepada peningkatan kemampuan siswa, penguasaan materi pelajaran yang lebih terarah, evaluasi yang berkualitas, dan perbaikan pengelolaan administrasi pendidikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa teknologi informasi dapat bersinergi dengan pendidikan Islam sehingga pembelajaran menghasilkan kecerdasan bagi peserta didik.

  7. Brunei Media, For the Monarch and Islamic%浸透着伊斯兰文化传统的文莱媒介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李异平

    2002-01-01

    文莱是个穆斯林君主制和伊斯兰传统的国家.1984年独立后,政府一直依靠集权统治和至高无上的宗教体系来维持原有的意识形态和价值观.媒介,作为意识形态的一个主要部分,自然也被浸透在伊斯兰君主制的思想中,而且在法律的监护下担负着将伊斯兰思想渗透到社会各个阶层的任务.

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF THE HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL SAFEGUARDS OF THE VISTING TO GUAM,BRUNEI AND SINGAPORE%出访关岛、文莱和新加坡的水文气象保障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颜; 杨亮; 闫明; 毛可修; 修义瑞

    2004-01-01

    2003年10月中旬到11月中旬,舰艇编队出访关岛、文莱和新加坡期间,多次遇有台风、冷空气等灾害性天气.保障中通过分析西太平洋海域的船舶报资料、卫星云图和日本传真图资料以及编队发回的海上实况资料等信息,结合南海海域和菲律宾海域10~11月份多年的水文气象平均资料,对出访过程中所要航行的海区做了整体的掌握和重点的分析,为编队航行提供了及时准确的天气海洋预报,使编队能及时规避冷空气和台风等灾害性天气,圆满完成了出访期间的水文气象保障工作.

  9. Quantitative bedrock geology of east and Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, eastern and southeastern China, East Timor, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, far-eastern Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic bedrock based on data from the most recent digital geologic maps of East and Southeast Asia (Coordinating Committee for Coastal and Offshore Geosciences Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) and the Geologic Survey of Japan, 1997; 1:2,000,000), published as Digital Geoscience Map G-2 by the Geological Survey of Japan. Sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks, plutonic rocks, ultramafic rocks and metamorphic rocks cover 73.3%, 8.5%, 8.8%, 0.9%, and 8.6% of the surface area, respectively. The average ages of major lithologic units, weighted according to bedrock area, are as follows: sedimentary rocks (average stratigraphic age of 123 Myr/median age of 26 Myr), volcanic rocks (84 Myr/20 Myr), intrusive rocks (278 Myr/195 Myr), ultramafic rocks (unknown) and metamorphic rocks (1465 Myr/1118 Myr). The variability in lithologic composition and age structure of individual countries reflects the complex tectonic makeup of this region that ranges from Precambrian cratons (e.g., northeast China and North Korea) to Mesozoic-Cenozoic active margins (e.g., Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea). The spatial resolution of the data varies from 44 km2 per polygon (Japan) to 1659 km2 per polygon (Taiwan) and is, on average (490 km2/polygon), similar to our previous analyses of the United States of America and Canada. The temporal and spatial resolution is sufficiently high to perform age-area analyses of individual river basins larger than ˜10,000 km2 and to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between bedrock geology and river chemistry. As many rivers draining tropical, mountainous islands of East and Southeast Asia have a disproportionate effect on the dissolved and particulate load delivered to the world oceans, bedrock geology in such river drainage basins disproportionately affect ocean chemistry.

  10. 8 CFR 217.2 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States from a foreign place. Designated country refers to Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,...

  11. 76 FR 14725 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Open Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... emphasize strengthening local community infrastructure and capacity, especially in the area of technology... Asia and Pacific (EAP): Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines,...

  12. Herbaria, gardens, organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1991-01-01

    The holdings of BRUN stood at 10,815 numbers at 31 December 1990. Of these, D.S. EDWARDS (Universiti Brunei Darussalam) contributed 113 numbers of Brunei ferns. The second Flora Malesiana Symposium will be held from 7-12 September 1992 at the Garuda Hotel, Yokyakarta, Indonesia. There will be two ma

  13. 77 FR 43133 - Request for Comments on Negotiating Objectives With Respect to Mexico's Participation in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ..., 2011, USTR published notices in the Federal Register (76 FR 76479), seeking public comments on Mexico's... negotiating partners (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam... economically significant market access opportunities for America's workers, manufacturers, service...

  14. 78 FR 26682 - Request for Comments on Negotiating Objectives With Respect to Japan's Participation in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... (76 FR 76478), seeking public comments on Japan's possible participation in the TPP negotiations. On... participation with the other TPP negotiating partners, (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Malaysia... America's workers, manufacturers, service suppliers, farmers, ranchers, and small businesses. The...

  15. Geologic Provinces of Southeast Asia, 2000 (prv3bl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia,...

  16. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1990-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Topics include children's reading, nonstandard spoken Indonesian, English speech act performance, classroom verbal interaction, journal writing, and listening comprehension. (LB)

  17. Revealing Customer Behavior on Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Nabil Almunawar; Muhammad Anshari; Heru Susanto; Chin Kang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of mobile phones is very interesting as the new generation, known as “smart phones†, offer highly attractive features. The main advantage of smart phones is the ability to connect to the Internet from anywhere, consequently enabling them to remain continuously in touch with their social networks. This paper discusses how consumers in Brunei Darussalam (Brunei) responded to the survey of smart phones. A Theory of Reasoned Action Model is used to understand customers pref...

  18. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality manageme...

  19. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  20. Islamic Banking and Finance: Is IT Complementing or Competing The Conventional Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Bunchuan, Dahang

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Islamic banking industry is still considered in its infancy period. However, the growth is quite fast considering the type of business and the products that they have. In Brunei Darussalam, Islamic banking has just started it operation on January 1993, meaning to say that the industry is still at its growing stage. The competition, however, for client base is very competitive due to the market size in Brunei. The main objective for the set up of the Islamic banking was as pa...

  1. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  2. 77 FR 64409 - Designation of Taiwan for the Visa Waiver Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... include Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium,\\2\\ Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg... rule at 73 FR 32440 (June 9, 2008), and implementing notice at 73 FR 67354 (November 13, 2008)....

  3. Reified Languages and Scripts versus Real Literacy Values and Practices: Insights from Research with Young Bilinguals in an Islamic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Mukul

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of this article is on the multilingual literacy practices and values of English-educated university students (aged 14-20) in Brunei Darussalam, Southeast Asia. Multilingual literacy is used as a lens to examine the impact of globalization on the communicative practices of these young people and to investigate the specific ways in…

  4. Preparing for the China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On July 3, 2009, liaison of ficers meeting for the Sixth China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit hosted by CCPIT was hold in Beijing. The summit liaison officers coming from Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam and other countries, the Embassy officials in China of Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and other countries, and the related Chinese officials, attended the meeting.

  5. 76 FR 76480 - Request for Comments on Canada's Expression of Interest in the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... negotiations include Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam... commerce issues. (g) Relevant trade-related intellectual property rights issues. (h) Relevant investment... participation of small- and medium-sized businesses in trade, and the development of efficient production...

  6. 76 FR 76478 - Request for Comments on Japan's Expression of Interest in the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Asia-Pacific region. Currently, the negotiations include Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Malaysia... commerce issues. (g) Relevant trade-related intellectual property rights issues. (h) Relevant investment... participation of small- and medium-sized businesses in trade, and the development of efficient production...

  7. Herbaria, gardens, organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    Brunei Checklist Project — Mr. A. DAVIES started on 1 January 1994 at K. His main priority is to name specimens, edit the taxon list, and bring ‘neglected’ groups up to the standard of worked-up groups. Following an introductory period with Mr. L.L. FORMAN he began on Ficus and Myrtaceae, both of wh

  8. 48 CFR 1852.213-70 - Offeror Representations and Certifications-Other Than Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan... entitled “Buy American Act-Supplies.” (2) Foreign End Products: Line Item No. and Country of Origin (3) The...—Israeli Trade Act: NAFTA Country or Israeli End Products: Line Item No. and Country of Origin (iii)...

  9. Secondary School Students' Motivation and Achievement in Combined Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shean Jen; Yong, Bob Chui Seng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated students' motivation and achievement in combined science. A sample of 324 Year 11 students from eight government secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam participated in the study. Of the sample, 141 were boys and 183 were girls and their average age was 16.4 years. The motivation instrument used was adapted from the science…

  10. From The Editor-Welcome to Volume 16, Number 1 of TOJDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Volkan YUZER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the Volume 16, Number 1 of TOJDE, In this issue, there are 16 articles. These articles are written by 25 authors from 10 different countries including Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, Colombia, India, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, and Turkey.

  11. 77 FR 43131 - Request for Comments on Negotiating Objectives With Respect to Canada's Participation in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... negotiations. On December 7, 2011, USTR published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 76480), seeking... participation with the other TPP negotiating partners (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Malaysia, New... effects on U.S. industries and consumers of the removal of tariffs and non-tariff barriers on...

  12. Q&A on Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2011-01-01

    @@ China-ASEAN FTA, the world's largest free trade area in terms of population took effect on January 1, 2010, covering 13 million square kilometers and 1.9 billion people.Over 90 percent of the commodities traded between China and the six original ASEAN countries, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, now enjoy no tariffs from 2010.

  13. Malaysian and Bruneian micro-caddisflies in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Hydroptilinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan

  14. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ..., Singapore, and Vietnam). In his letter of October 5, 2010, the USTR advised the Commission that Malaysia has... countries (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) on (i... States producing the product concerned, and (ii) the U.S. economy as a whole. The USTR asked that...

  15. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... include, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and... include five panel sessions on topics ranging from nuclear infrastructure to waste management and fuel..., or one of the countries. Participants will be able to take advantage of U.S. Embassy rates for...

  16. Seeking a Peaceful Settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has indisputable sovereignty over the Nansha Archipelago and its neighboring seas. But some Southeast Asian nations-Viet Nam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei--began to claim complete or part sovereignty over the Nansha Archipelago from the late 1960s and early 1970s, because international marine law underwent a revolu-tionary change.

  17. Zero Tariff-Step #1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is widely reported that starting the first day of 201 0,China and six old ASEAN member nations,including Brunei,Indonesia,Malaysia,the Philippines,Singapore and Thailand,imposed zero tariffs on most normal products,while China and the other four new ASEAN members namely Cambodia,Lao PDR,Myanmar and Vietnam will do the same in 2015.

  18. Computers in Science and Mathematics Education in the ASEAN Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisayon, Vivien M.

    1989-01-01

    Compares policies and programs on computers in science and mathematics education in the six ASEAN countries: Brunei, Indonesia; Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Limits discussion to the computer as a teaching aid and object of study, attendant problems, and regional cooperation. (MVL)

  19. East Asian Cooperation:the Approach and Direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYunling

    2003-01-01

    The Leaders' Meeting of the East Asia held in Brunei in November 2001 has drawn a great attention mainly because an agreement was reached by 10 ASEAN country members together with China on a Free Trade Area(FTA) and other progress between China,Japan and the Republic of Korea(ROK).

  20. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1992-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a sociolinguistic profile, teacher and learner views of language lessons, Malay-accented English and employability, reading difficulties, language culture disjunction, placement interviews, and…

  1. Editorial Board 2011-2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology Editorial Board consists of 523 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in gastrointestinal pathophysiology.They are from 45 countries,including Argentina(2),Australia(14),Austria(3),Belgium(9),Brazil(10),Brunei Darussalam(1),Canada(20),China(30),Croatia(1),Czech Republic(2),Denmark(4),Egypt(1),Estonia(1),Finland(1),France(8),Germany(22),Greece(7),Hungary

  2. ASEAN og Kambodsja-konflikten : en regional sikkerhetspolitisk analyse av Sørøst Asia

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    ASEAN OG KAMBODSJA-KONFLIKTEN - EN REGIONAL/ SIKKERHETSPOLITISK ANALYSE AV SØRØST ASIA Temaet i denne oppgaven er regional sikkerhetspolitikk i Sørøst Asia, med ASEANs rolle i Kambodsja-konflikten som mitt hovedanliggende. Utgangspunktet for dette prosjektet var min nysgjerrighet på hva ASEAN som regional organisasjon sto for og bedrev. ASEAN ble stiftet av Indonesia, Filippinene, Malaysia, Thailand og Singapore i 1967 (Brunei kom med i 1984) som en økonomisk samarbeidsorganisasjon. Ett...

  3. MEMBANGUN SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP UNTUK MENINGKATKAN DAYA SAING GLOBAL (BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INCREASING GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nababan, Tongam Sihol

    2014-01-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index or the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) In 2013 positioned Indonesia at ranked 76 of 118 countries. Compared with the ASEAN countries, the position are still far below Singapore (13), and still below Malaysia (57), Brunei Darussalam (58), Thailand (65). This fact shows that Indonesia has not been optimal in building its entrepreneurial yet. To enhance the development of entrepreneurship, the Indonesian government has launched a...

  4. MEMBANGUN SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP UNTUK MENINGKATKAN DAYA SAING GLOBAL (BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INCREASING GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nababan, Tongam Sihol

    2014-01-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index or the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) In 2013 positioned Indonesia at ranked 76 of 118 countries. Compared with the ASEAN countries, the position are still far below Singapore (13), and still below Malaysia (57), Brunei Darussalam (58), Thailand (65). This fact shows that Indonesia has not been optimal in building its entrepreneurial yet. To enhance the development of entrepreneurship, the Indonesian government has launched ...

  5. From Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2014-01-01

    Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the volume 15 number: 1 of TOJDE, In this issue, 18 articles of 34 authors from 9 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the tojde from, bBangladesh, Brunei, Greece, India, Indonasia, Malaysia, Republic Of Korea, Turkey and USA. The 1st article is arrived from Grecee written by Evangelos Bebetsos and Dimitrios Goulimaris from Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Democritus Unive...

  6. From Coast to Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Asia-Pacific economic integration seems destined to take on new dimensions.On March 15,officials from eight nations began talks in Melbourne,Australia,on the expansion of a trans-Pacific free trade agreement.The United States,Australia,Peru and Viet Nam are seeking to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership(TPP),which already includes Chile,Singapore,New Zealand and Brunei.

  7. The role of tourism and exchange rate on economic growth:Evidence from the BIMP-EAGA countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah Harvey; Fumitaka Furuoka; Qaiser Munir

    2013-01-01

    Developing economies as well as developed economies recognized appropriate tourism policies will be an important factor in promoting economic growth. BIMP-EAGA (Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area) was conceived with the objective to speed up economic development among the four countries and one of which is focused on tourism. Focusing on annual data, this paper utilized the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error-correction modeling to evaluate if tourism ...

  8. Jihočínské moře jako oblast potenciálního ozbrojeného konfliktu?

    OpenAIRE

    Do Thai, Quang

    2015-01-01

    The South China Sea dispute receives continually growing attention. Seven countries has territorial claims over the area. These countries are: People's Republic of China, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Brunei and Cambodia. The reasons are strategic position of the South China Sea, potential oil and liquid gas reserves and fisheries managemet. Countries outside of the region have various interests in the area as well. These countries are: the USA, Japan, India and South Korea. The Sou...

  9. Benefits of International Diversification: The Case of Asian Emerging Equity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Apong, Matusin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The main purpose of this study is to examine whether, from the Brunei Investment Agency's perspective, the benefits of international diversification gain exist in equity investment in emerging markets in Asia. The quantitative research that was used is based on Markowitz's Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). This method utilized data from December 1998 to July 2005 for sixteen indices of developed and emerging countries. The countries selected for the study were grouped into devel...

  10. Australia and the Future of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement aims to be a high quality, 21st Century economic agreement that furthers economic integration in the Asia Pacific. In late 2011 it remains unclear whether the TPP will turn out to be a stepping stone or stumbling block towards regional or global economic integration. The current negotiations involve Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States and Vietnam with Japan, Mexico and Canada expressing interest in j...

  11. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, ...

  12. Potential Impact of TPP Trade Agreement on US Bilateral Agricultural Trade: Trade Creation or Trade Diversion?

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua

    2015-01-01

    Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement is a trade agreement U.S is negotiating with 11 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) to reduce or eliminate tariffs on U.S. products exported to the TPP countries. With TPP, U.S expects to expand its trade with members of the partnership; resulting in GDP growth. However, there exist large concerns about the potential negative ...

  13. Ensuring Food Security - A Case for ASEAN Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Amelia L.

    2005-01-01

    The ASEAN member countries can be grouped into three sub-groups, each of which exhibits a distinct pattern with respect to food security issues. The first group is made up of the relatively food-secure countries of Singapore and Brunei. The second group consists of Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam. In these countries, except for Vietnam, agriculture has contributed a declining share in GDP, employment, and international trade. In addition, food habits in these countries...

  14. Distinctive Tropical Forest Variants Have Unique Soil Microbial Communities, But Not Always Low Microbial Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Binu M.; Song, Woojin; Slik, J.W.F.; Sukri, Rahayu S.; Jaafar, Salwana; Dong, Ke; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, Northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland h...

  15. Q&A on Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2010-01-01

    China-ASEAN FTA, the world's largest free trade area in terms of population took effect on January 1, 2010, covering 13 million square kilometers and 1.9 billion people. Over 90 percent of the commodities traded between China and the six original ASEAN countries, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, now enjoy no tariffs from 2010. As a window to ASEAN countries, Beibu Gulf Economic Zone is in more limelight since the new year.

  16. Managing a Voluntary Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dk. Hjh. Siti Fatimah - Pg. Hj. Petra

    2014-01-01

    This paper reveals the experience of a young member of a non-profitable organisation in managing a team of professionals in Brunei Darussalam. In a team, the experience of managing has not been as scary as expected; positions taken, however, must be firm and effective. Being a leader of the contingency approach type, actions and responses are based on circumstances. Marketing and managing changes need to be pursued as a new leader of a voluntary organization. Careful considerations and risks ...

  17. Use of Expansion Factors to Estimate the Burden of Dengue in Southeast Asia: a Systematic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S Shepard; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Halasa, Yara A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA). Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources--surveillance data, World Health Organiz...

  18. ANSWER: A tapping apex beat

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar LUQMAN

    2012-01-01

    (Refer to page 253)Answer: Mitral valve stenosis (Doming of mitral leaflets)The mitral valve is frequently involved in rheumatic heart disease, which is still prevalent in developing countries. Other valves may also be involved. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is now less common in developed and developing nations. It is notinfrequently encountered in Brunei Darussalam. The mitral valve is usually affected decades following an episode of rheumatic carditis. With time, the rheumatic h...

  19. High activity levels nearly everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Far East. Large crude producing countries are upgrading their mature oil properties. Offshore gas fields are being found and developed as new pipeline infrastructures open several remote areas. Separate evaluations are given for China, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Pakistan, Myanmar, Brunei, Philippines, and briefly for Cambodia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mongolia, Taiwan, Afghanistan, and the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area

  20. Optimal management of chronic osteomyelitis: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pande KC

    2015-01-01

    Ketan C Pande Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Chronic osteomyelitis is a challenging condition to treat. It is seen mostly after open fractures or in implant-related infections following treatment of fractures and prosthetic joint replacements. Recurrence of infection is well known, and successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach with surgical debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapy as the cornerstone of treatment. ...

  1. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Umesan UK; Chua KL; Balakrishnan P

    2012-01-01

    Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complica...

  2. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND SMEs IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA: INNOVATION POLICY AND INNOVATION PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    STUART MACDONALD; TIM TURPIN

    2008-01-01

    The paper is derived from a study carried out among the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), comprising of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao PDR , Myanmar and Cambodia [Macdonald, Turpin and Ancog (2006)]. The study focused on the relationship between the region's intellectual property rights (IPR) system and the innovation of its SMEs. IPR administrators and policymakers appear convinced that SMEs need IPR to be competitive...

  3. Report on metric study tour to Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laner, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The modernized metric system, known universally as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI under the French name) was renamed in 1960 by the world body on standards. A map shows 98 percent of the world using or moving toward adoption of SI units. Only the countries of Burma, Liberia, Brunei, and Southern Yemen are nonmetric. The author describes a two-week session in Pretoria and Johannesburg on metrication, followed by additional meetings on metrication in Rhodesia. (MCW)

  4. Use of Expansion Factors to Estimate the Burden of Dengue in Southeast Asia: a Systematic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Shepard; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Halasa, Yara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA). Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. Methods and Findings We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources—surveillance data, World Health Organizati...

  5. When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.

    2007-07-01

    With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on students’ understanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the students’ understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

  6. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Hamid, Malai Hayati; Osman, Ratna Suriani

    2016-01-01

    We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not) influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years), employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy) in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. PMID:27382342

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral and Dental Healthcare in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bamanikar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal child health clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, Brunei, Darussalam.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternal child health center in Brunei, Darussalam. The study group was comprised of 95 pregnant women attending the MCH clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, September 2010, using convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used, after it was pre-tested and validated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version16.Results: Of the total study group, 97.9% responded to the questionnaire and participated in the study. All the women brushed at least twice daily. However, only 40.9% flossed daily, 31.2% brushed after meals and 26.9% had a dental check-up at least twice a year. The knowledge related to dental care was also poor among the pregnant women. Though the majority of them (96.8% agreed that women should have a dental check-up during pregnancy, only 55.9% actually practiced this. This raises serious concern since pregnant women may need extra oral and dental care due to susceptibility to gum diseases during pregnancy, which may contribute to low birth weight babies and premature births.Conclusion: This study highlights important gaps in dental knowledge and practices related to oral and dental healthcare among pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. More intense dental health education, including oral health promotion in maternal child health centers can lead to

  8. Some introductory notes on the development and characteristics of Sabah Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Hoogervorst

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary description of the Malay variety used as a lingua franca in the Malaysian state of Sabah at the northernmost top of Borneo. The paper discusses a number of common linguistic features that distinguish Sabah Malay from other Malay varieties and analyses these features from a historical linguistic perspective. While it is argued that Sabah Malay has a close historical relation with other Malay dialects spoken in Borneo, especially Brunei Malay, the vernacular is also influenced phonologically and lexically by Sabah’s indigenous and immigrant speech communities. Words and sentences recorded or elicited during fieldwork in various parts of Sabah illustrate these points.

  9. 4th INNS Symposia Series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Fourth International Neural Network Symposia series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems, INNS-CIIS 2014, held in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei in November 2014. INNS-CIIS aims to provide a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and present the most current research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications in various domains. The 34 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.  

  10. Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Myanmar. However, when we apply LM unit root with structural break, we find overwhelming evidence that there is no unit root in per capita energy consumption for these 15 East Asia & Pacific countries.

  11. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa

  12. Letter of Thanks by 2013 CAYCEF Participants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Editor’s note:The CPAFFC and the China National Committee for the Care of Children(CNCCC)hosted the fi rst China-ASEAN Youth Cultural Exchange Festival(CAYCEF)in Beijing from August 1st to 6th 2013,organized by CNCCC Public Service Center.Around 250 young delegates participated in the event.They came from 20 provinces or cities in China’s mainland and Taiwan as well as from 10 ASEAN countries including Brunei,Cambodia,Indonesi

  13. Environment and security in the South China Sea region : the role of experts, non-governmental actors and governments in regime building processes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Background: The Spratly islands in the South China Sea are today the focal point of a territorial dispute that represents a serious threat to the regional security in Southeast Asia. Six governments - China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei - have laid claims to all or some of the more than 230 islets, reefs and shoals in the Spratly area. The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a key player in the South China Sea conflict. However, the South China Sea is not jus...

  14. Highly divergent dengue virus type 1 genotype sets a new distance record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Cameron, Jane N.; Hewitson, Glen R.; Pukallus, Dennis S.; Huang, Bixing; Warrilow, David; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are the leading cause of mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. They exist in both endemic and sylvatic ecotypes. In 2014, a viremic patient who had recently visited the rainforests of Brunei returned to Australia displaying symptoms consistent with DENV infection. A unique DENV strain was subsequently isolated from the patient, which we propose belongs to a new genotype within DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Bayesian evolutionary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the putative sylvatic DENV-1 Brunei 2014 (Brun2014) is the most divergent DENV-1 yet recorded and increases the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for DENV-1 from ≈120 years to ≈315 years. DENV-1 classification of the Brun2014 strain was further supported by monoclonal antibody serotyping data. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that Brun2014 replication rates in mosquito cells and infection rates in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were not significantly different from an epidemic DENV-1 strain. Given its ability to cause human illness and infect Ae. aegypti, potential urban spillover and clinical disease from further Brun2014 transmission cannot be discounted. PMID:26924208

  15. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.

  16. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries. PMID:27244964

  17. ASEAN and the commitment to end nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional political and economic organization. It was established on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined in 1984, Viet Nam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999. ASEAN aims to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in its Member States and to promote regional peace and stability. All ASEAN States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The NPT aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, and to further the goal of nuclear disarmament. It also promotes international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The ten ASEAN countries are all Member States of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). They all signed the CTBT early on, some on the very first day that it opened for signature on 24 September 1996. But four have yet to ratify the Treaty: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Indonesia's ratification is particularly important as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  18. Pattern of hospitalized-stroke patients in ASEAN countries an ASNA stroke epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Misbach

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understanding the demographic characteristics, admission time, clinical pattern, risk factors, stroke type, length of stay, and discharge outcome of hospitalized acute stroke patients in ASEAN member countries, ASEAN   Neurological Association (ASNA formed a Standing Commiltee for Stroke in 1996 and this is the first ASNA Stroke Epidemiological Study using the same stroke protocol. This prospective hospital based study was conducted in seven ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam by participating neurologists from October 1996 to March 1997. Of the 3723 consecutive hospitalized stroke patients (2030 males and 1660 females from 44 participating hospitals in this study ie Brunei (n=53, Indonesia (n=2065, Malaysia (n=300,Philippines (n=545,Singapore (n=232, Thailand (n=244 and Vietnam (n=284, the mean age was 59.0 ± 13,8 years 16% of patients were younger than 45 years and 37% of patients were older than 65 years. There were no significant differences in age at onset among stroke subjects except in Vietnam (younger and Singapore (older. The sex distribution showed a slight higher prevalence of women in Singapore and in the age group > 64 years. The mean adrnission time was 41.5 ± 87.0 hours, 19% of patients were admitted within 3 hours, 29% within 6 hours and 66% more than 6 hours (delayed admission especially in Malaysia and Singapore (80% and 77% respectively. Motor disability was the most prevalent clinical feature in all countries and carotid bruit was the rarest (1%. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (68% in all countries, followed by TIA (35%, smoking, diabetes mellitus, ischnemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia. CT scan was performed on 76% of subjects. The diagnostic classification was non lacunar anterior circulation (32%, lacunar infarction (14%, hemorrhagic stroke (26%, SAH (4%. Mean length of stay was 11.4 ± 11.8 days. Most of the patients

  19. Représentations architecturales et processus identitaires : le cas de l’Indonésie Architectural Representations and Identity Markers : The Case of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Guerreiro

    2012-01-01

    En Indonésie, comme dans les autres pays d’Asie du Sud-Est insulaire (Malaysia, Brunei, les Philippines, Singapour, Taiwan), la maison d’habitation ou la maison cérémonielle est l’objet d’un fort investissement identitaire au niveau de l’ethnie et/ou de la région. Elle donne lieu à des présentations à la fois muséographiques (éléments architecturaux, sculptures, motifs décoratifs, maquettes) et touristiques, dont certaines reprennent le concept du « musée vivant  ». L’idée de « représentation...

  20. Représentations architecturales et processus identitaires : le cas de l’Indonésie

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    En Indonésie, comme dans les autres pays d’Asie du Sud-Est insulaire (Malaysia, Brunei, les Philippines, Singapour, Taiwan), la maison d’habitation ou la maison cérémonielle est l’objet d’un fort investissement identitaire au niveau de l’ethnie et/ou de la région. Elle donne lieu à des présentations à la fois muséographiques (éléments architecturaux, sculptures, motifs décoratifs, maquettes) et touristiques, dont certaines reprennent le concept du « musée vivant  ». L’idée de « représentation...

  1. The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries may utilize a long coastline in relation to their landmass as a resource to develop their maritime economy. This paper argues that ASEAN countries differ in utilizing their maritime potential. As a basis for further comparative studies the Center for Policy Research and International Studies (CenPRIS in Penang developed a set of indicators to measure the maritime potential of nations, the state of their maritime industries, and the degree to which the maritime potential has actually been utilized. Using the CenPRIS Ocean Index (COI shows that Brunei and the Philippines have underutilized their maritime potentials, whereas Singapore and Thailand have made full use of it. Malaysia still has the potential to further develop its maritime economy.

  2. Comparision of Istanbul with Hong Kong and Singapore for Regional Treasury Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk DİZKIRICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is examining Istanbul to find out whether or not it has the ability to become an appropriate location to host regional treasury centers. Hence; Simkova’s 11 location criteria are compared across Istanbul additionally Hong Kong and Singapore, being already attractive locations in South East Asia for multinational corporations to set up their regional finance offices, to specify Istanbul’s weaker facilities even if it is not regarded as a rival for Hong Kong and Singapore. The study contributes to the understanding of Simkova’s location criteria assessment before establishing a regional treasury center in any location, as it is applied to some European countries and three Asian countries: Brunei, Hong Kong and Singapore, previously. Lastly, it is concluded that Istanbul is not as superior as Hong Kong and Singapore but it has reasonable conditions to become an attractive location for regional treasury centers.

  3. New lucinid bivalves from shallow and deeper water of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four new species and a new genus of lucinid bivalves are described from shallow and deeper waters in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. The new genus Scabrilucina (subfamily Lucininae includes the little-known S. victorialis (Melvill, 1899 from the Arabian Sea and S. vitrea (Deshayes, 1844 from the Andaman Sea as well as a new species S. melvilli from the Torres Strait off northeastern Australia. Ferrocina brunei new species (Lucininae was recovered from 60 m near oil drilling activities off Borneo; its anatomy confirmed the presence of symbiotic bacteria. Two unusual deeper water species of Leucosphaerinae are described, both species included in on-going molecular analyses; Gonimyrtea ferruginea from 400–650 m in the southwest Pacific and Myrtina reflexa from 200–825 m off Zanzibar and Madagascar.

  4. Analisis Penerapan Value Creation Selling dalam Strategi Pemasaran Perusahaan Jasa Logistik: Studi Kasus di PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A company is a market-oriented when the culture of value creation superior customer systematically and comprehensively implemented on company concerned. Value can be defined as the ratio of benefit to cost, where customers expect a rate of return equal or exceed the costs they incurred to obtain the products they bought. From the case studies conducted on PT XYZ, then, in getting the project tender delivery of goods geophysical equipment for the Brunei Loon project, it has been implemented value selling creation, which includes three main components, ie customer portraits, the proposed value, and benefits to customers or total value of ownership. Overall, the efficiency given value is about 20% compared to its closest competitor, the safety shipping and on time, as well as the positive benefits of the profit margin, cash flow, return on investment, brand equity, market share and customers.

  5. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  6. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.. Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  7. Results of field testing the cement evaluation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, C.A.; Finlayson, C.G.; Van der Kolk, C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cement Evaluation Tool (CET) developed by Schlumberger employs a pulse-echo technique using eight sonic transducers to investigate the casing cement bond. The tool has been widely field tested in a clastic environment in Brunei (N.W. Borneo), across both oil and gas bearing reservoirs. Numerous comparisons of the CET with conventional CBL/VDL logs have been made. Across oil and water bearing intervals the CET is shown to compare favourably with the CBL/VDL and yields significant additional information on channeling, cement distribution, and the success of casing centralization. In addition, the accuracy of the acoustic calipers have proved sufficient to be used in assisting drilling and completion operations. The response of the tool to a microannulus has also been demonstrated by multiple runs under varying wellbore pressures.

  8. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    2004-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL would like to remind you of the entry formalities applicable to those travelling to the United States. Nationals of Switzerland and of the following countries : Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, entering the United States under the Visa Waiver Program (no visa requirement), must be in possession of an machine-readable passport that is valid for at least six months after the date of the return trip. Children, including infants, must have their own passport. An entry in the parents' passport is not sufficient. For entry into the United States, an e-ticket (fax or e-mail confirmation or passenger receipt) or a return ticket to the departure point or a ticket to a subsequent onward destination (valid for 90 days) must be presented together with the green ...

  9. Korean gas in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the increasing role of natural gas as the major fuel for cooking, heating and power generation in Korea, and the Korean Government's restructuring programme aimed at the security of natural gas supplies and the diversification of imported gas sources. The introduction of natural gas into Korea after the two world oil shocks of the 1970s, the growing demand for natural gas, and supplies of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Qater, Oman and possibly piped gas via a pipeline from the Irkutsk Siberian gas project are discussed along with the construction of liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals, the restructuring and privatisation of the industry, and the introduction of competition. Details are given of LNG consumption between 1990 and 2010, quantities of natural gas imported based on long term contracts, and the plan for the reform of the natural gas industry

  10. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO(trademark) exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages

  11. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Development of in situ hybridization and PCR assays for the detection of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), a microsporidian parasite infecting penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Redman, Rita M; Han, Jee Eun; Tran, Loc H; Lightner, Donald V

    2015-09-01

    A microsporidian parasite, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (abbreviated as EHP), is an emerging pathogen for penaeid shrimp. EHP has been found in several shrimp farming countries in Asia including Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and China, and is reported to be associated with growth retardation in farmed shrimp. We examined the histological features from infected shrimp collected from Vietnam and Brunei, these include the presence of basophilic inclusions in the hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells, in which EHP is found at various developmental stages, ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. By a PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene, a 1.1kb 18S rRNA gene fragment of EHP was amplified, and this sequence showed a 100% identity to EHP found in Thailand and China. This fragment was cloned and labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP, and in situ hybridized to tissue sections of infected Penaeus vannamei (from Vietnam) and P. stylirostris (Brunei). The results of in situ hybridization were specific, the probe only reacted to the EHP within the cytoplasmic inclusions, not to a Pleistophora-like microsporidium that is associated with cotton shrimp disease. Subsequently, we developed a PCR assay from this 18S rRNA gene region, this PCR is shown to be specific to EHP, did not react to 2 other parasitic pathogens, an amoeba and the cotton shrimp disease microsporidium, nor to genomic DNA of various crustaceans including polychaetes, squids, crabs and krill. EHP was detected, through PCR, in hepatopancreatic tissue, feces and water sampled from infected shrimp tanks, and in some samples of Artemia biomass. PMID:26146228

  13. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  14. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.Keywords: educational quality, medical education, quality control, quality assessment, quality management models

  15. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L A Gaveau

    Full Text Available The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2 of Borneo's area (737,188 km2 was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2% in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%. We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km-2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km-2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8% of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo.

  16. ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance while emphasizing social, economic, and cultural cooperation and development. Its member states include Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. ASEAN encompasses a population of 321.2 million, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Its gross domestic product was US$196 billion in 1987, with a per capita GDP of $621 and an annual growth rate of 5.8%. A striking characteristic of ASEAN is its wide diversity in terms of race (Malay, Thai, Chinese, Indian), culture, languages, and religion. Although ASEAN has gradually developed a number of formal consultative meetings and committees, it has only a limited permanent structure. Decisions are made by consensus or through informal, ad hoc consultations. The periodic meetings of the 6 foreign ministers constitute the principal decision-making body. The ASEAN nations are mainly committed to market and export-oriented economic growth strategies. Except for Singapore, the ASEAN economies are heavily agricultural, producing primarily rice. In the modern sector, all of the economies (except for Singapore's) are heavily reliant on basic industries, but high-technology manufacturing (e.g., electronic components) is becoming more important. ASEAN has demonstrated a remarkable ability to put aside historical disputes and limited economic complementarity to concentrate on issues of common interest. All 6 member nations have made preservation and enhancement of regional cohesion through ASEAN a foreign policy priority.

  17. Application of Intelligent Agents in Wireless Prepaid Energy Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepaid meter (PM is getting very popular especially in developing countries. There are many advantages to use prepaid meter as opposed to postpaid meter both to the utility provider and to the consumer. Brunei has adopted PM but it is not intelligent and not wireless enabled. Reading meters and topping up balance are still done manually. Utility provider does not have information on the usage statistics and has only limited functionalities in the grid control. So accordingly an intelligent agent based wireless prepaid energy meter been developed using JADE-LEAP Agent development kit allowing agent from utility provider to query wireless energy meter for energy values for every household. These statistics can be used for statistical computation of the power consumed and for policy and future planning. Agent from consumers’ mobile devices can query the energy meter to study the power consumed and for topping up the balance. When the meter reaches the threshold, agent at energy meter would also send messages to alert consumers for topping up through mobile handset and failing to do so will lead to power being cut automatically

  18. A survey of ASEAN instruments relating to peatlands, mangroves and other wetlands: The REDD+ context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng-Lian Koh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 13th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Summit in November 2007, held in Singapore, ASEAN has accelerated its response to climate change issues, including REDD+ as a mechanism for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to enhance conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. There are many wetlands in ASEAN including more than 25 million ha of peatlands spread over Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Philippines, Vietnam and Lao PDR. The peatlands account for 60 per cent of global tropical peatland resources. They are of significance for sequestration of carbon. However, degraded wetlands, including peatlands, are also a major source of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. Of the types of wetlands, ASEAN has focused attention predominantly on peatlands in relation to REDD+, mainly because of the ‘Indonesian Haze’. The Asia-Pacific Centre for Environmental Law (APCEL organised a Workshop titled, REDD+ and Legal Regimes of Mangroves, Peatland and Other Wetlands: ASEAN and the World, in Singapore from 15-16 November 2012. The articles contained in this special themed edition of the International Journal of Rural Law and Policy (IJRLP contains a selection of the papers presented. This editorial will provide a brief background to some aspects of REDD+. Included in this issue of IJRLP is a summary of the proceedings of the workshop as interpreted by the assigned rapporteur and editors of APCEL. These summaries were reviewed and approved by the presenters.

  19. Ants use odour cues to exploit fig-fig wasp interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bertrand; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Fig wasps may constitute a relatively abundant food source for ants associated with the fig-fig wasp nursery pollination mutualism. We found previously that a Mediterranean ant species detects fig wasps by chemical signals. In this paper we want to test the generality of this finding by studying two tropical ants, Oecophylla smaragdina and Crematogaster sp., preying on fig wasps on the dioecious Ficus fistulosa in Brunei (Borneo). Behavioural tests in a Y-tube olfactometer showed that these two ants were attracted both to odours emitted by receptive figs and to those emitted by fig wasps (male and female of the pollinator, and a non-pollinating fig wasp) used here as a kairomone. Naïve workers were not attracted to fig wasps, suggesting that olfactory learning may play a role in prey detection. We also found that O. smaragdina was much more likely to be present on figs of male trees (where fig wasps are more abundant), and that the abundance of this ant species varied strongly with developmental phase of figs on individual trees. Moreover, its aggressiveness was also strongly influenced by the nature of the object presented in our behavioural tests, the site of the test and the developmental phase of the fig tested. Investigation on the chemical and behavioural ecology of the different interacting species provides important insights into the intricate relationships supported by the fig-fig wasp mutualism.

  20. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  1. Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Borneo: A Review of Current Knowledge with Emphasis on Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Gianna; Zulkifli Poh, Anna Norliza; Peter, Cindy; Porter, Lindsay; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along Borneo's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan, Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei. Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. chinensis, and that of Sousa sahulensis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are frequently documented. Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive. The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus.

  2. Setting effective mandatory energy efficiency standards and labelling regulations: A review of best practices in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • S and L regulations are needed to materialize the various benefits of energy efficiency. • S and L regulations can appear in various formats as in the Asia–Pacific region. • Effective regime has to be clear, authoritative, open, and enforceable. • Clear policy, customisation, inclusiveness, transparency and flexibility are desirable. - Abstract: This paper attempts to inform policy makers and legislators on how to set energy efficiency standards and labelling (S and L) regulations. It draws lessons from the literature on S and L regulations in the Asia–Pacific region and from practical experience in drafting the S and L regulations for Brunei Darussalam. The paper proposes necessary components for effective S and L regulations, as follows: clear liabilities, authoritative administration, open principles for technical systems, and enforceable mechanisms. It also recommends some key issues in good practice toward effective S and L regulations, such as policy making in advance, customised legislation, inclusive and transparent legislative procedure, and flexibility in the legislation

  3. Improving the management of infertile acid soils in Southeast Asia: The approach of the IBSRAM Acid-Soils network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IBSRAM ASIALAND Management of Acid Soils network aims to improve the understanding of the broad range of biophysical and socio-economic production limitations on infertile acid soils of Southeast Asia, and to lead to development and implementation of sustainable land-management strategies for these important marginal areas. The main activities of the network are in Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam, with associated activity in Thailand, and minor involvement in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, and Malaysia. The main experimental focus is through researcher-managed on-farm trials, to improve the management of phosphorus nutrition with inorganic and organic amendments. A generic design is used across the eight well characterised sites that form the core of the network. The results will be analysed across time and across sites. Improved methods for laboratory analyses, experimental management, socio-economic data collection, and data analysis and interpretation are critical components. Three important initiatives are associated with the core activities. These aim to establish a broader network on maintenance of quality laboratory analyses, to assess the potential for implementation of improved strategies through farmer-managed on-farm trials, and to improve our understanding of, and ways of estimating, nutrient budgets for diverse farming systems. (author)

  4. CRM 2.0 within E-Health Systems: Towards Achieving Health Literacy & Customer Satisfaction

    CERN Document Server

    Anshari, Muhammad; Low, Patrick Kim Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) within healthcare organization can be viewed as a strategy to attract new customers and retaining them throughout their entire lifetime of relationships. At the same time, the advancement of Web technology known as Web 2.0 plays a significant part in the CRM transition which drives social change that impacts all institutions including business and healthcare organizations. This new paradigm has been named as Social CRM or CRM 2.0 because it is based on Web 2.0. We conducted survey to examine the features of CRM 2.0 in healthcare scenario to the customer in Brunei Darussalam. We draw the conclusion that the CRM 2.0 in healthcare technologies has brought a possibility to extend the services of e-health by enabling patients, patient's families, and community at large to participate more actively in the process of health education; it helps improve health literacy through empowerment, social networking process, and online health educator. This paper is based on our works pre...

  5. DOES SUKUK FINANCING PROMOTE ECONOMIC GROWTH? AN EMPHASIS ON THE MAJOR ISSUING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani ECHCHABI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past few decades, Islamic finance has imposed itself as a viable alternative / complementary system to the long existing conventional financial system. Nevertheless, recent research has claimed that Islamic finance as it is currently practice, does not promote economic growth. Hence, the objective of this study is to empirically test this claim, by examining the potential effect of Islamic finance in the specific form of Sukuk issuance on the economic growth represented by three proxies, namely, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Gross Capital Formation (GDP and trade activities. The data covers not only GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council, but also other countries including Malaysia, Indonesia, Turkey, Pakistan, Singapore, China, Brunei, Kazakhstan, Germany, United Kingdom (UK, The Gambia and France. The data were collected from the Islamic Finance Information Services (IFIS and the World Bank databases, and were subsequently analysed through Toda and Yamamoto Granger Non Causality test. Accordingly, the findings indicated that the Sukuk issuance had an influence on the GDP and GCF only when all the countries were pulled together, otherwise no effect was identified for Saudi Arabia and the GCC.

  6. Cancer epidemiology and control in peninsular and island South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Manan, Azizah Ab; Chow, Khuan Yew; Cornain, Santoso F; Devi, C R Beena; Triningsih, F X Ediati; Laudico, Adriano; Mapua, Cynthia A; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Noorwati, S; Nyunt, Kan; Othman, Nor Hayati; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sinuraya, Evlina Suzanna; Yip, Cheng Har; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment. PMID:20553070

  7. Contribution of the Heart of Borneo (HoB initiative towards botanical exploration in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Sabran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Heart of   Borneo (HoB declaration is a conservation agreement initiated by WWF and signed by three countries, i.e., Brunei       Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia in Bali, Indonesia on 12th February 2007 to protect more than 23 million hectares of forested region on Borneo Island. These forested areas could be well protected when conservation management plan is in place. One of the crucial activities to facilitate the planning and formulation of conservation plan is to conduct  scientific expeditions that include botanical exploration. The primary objective of the expedition is to identify the key conservation targets within the forest reserves. For the past five years, several expeditions have been conducted by the Sabah Forestry Department under the auspices of the HoB project to explore various forest reserves with conservation issues within the Heart of Borneo area. This paper will present the findings which include plant richness, endemism and plant conservation status in each forest reserves that has been explored. 

  8. Diversity of Begonia (Begoniaceae in Borneo – how many species are there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 126 species are currently named and described from Borneo (Brunei - 16 species, Kalimantan – 5 species, Sabah – 41 species and Sarawak – 72 species. However, based on our survey of the Begonia collection in the Sarawak Herbarium, the un-named taxa (about 110 species significantly outnumber the 72-named species. The situation is probably the same for Sabah, so with many more new species than the 41 named ones at a conservative estimate the Sabah Begonia flora can be expected to exceed 100 species. For Kalimantan (5 named species, the total number of un-named species is likely to be even higher considering that Kalimantan occupies a  larger land area, its begonia-rich mountains and limestone areas are hardly collected, and the Begonia flora has hardly been studied at all. We can therefore expect the Begonia flora of Borneo to exceed 600 species. In view of the high level of narrow endemism (80% of species are known from a single locality, expeditions to unexplored areas are  necessary to document, in particular, areas that are experiencing irreversible land-use change. Alpha-taxonomy on a large scale is needed to tackle the backlog of literally hundreds of new undescribed species. 

  9. Problems of food handling and trade in ASEAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) with a population of some 280 million population is a major producer of several food commodities and also a large, and growing, market for many food items. The handling of food products in ASEAN is undertaken under many constraints, related mainly to small and traditional production structures with less than efficient distribution and marketing systems. Activities of the ASEAN Food Handling Project in promoting more efficient food handling methods and technologies in ASEAN are discussed in relation to the existing post harvest losses (50% in fish, 30% in grains and 20-40% in fruits and vegetables) and attempts to reduce these. Activities in this project include training courses and the establishment of laboratories as training and research centres pilot packing houses for fruit and vegetable handling, improvement of transportation systems for fish and livestock, and improvement of post harvest grain handling technologies. The extent of food trade in ASEAN is assessed and problems of food handling and trade are discussed, with special focus on problems of standardization of quality, and tariff and non-tariff barriers for external trade. (author)

  10. Psychiatric morbidity and socio-occupational dysfunction in residents of a drug rehabilitation centre: challenges of substance misuse management in a Bruneian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hilda; Adanan, Anddy Maz; Omar, Radiah

    2015-10-01

    Aims and method In 2011, a psychiatric clinic was started in Pusat Al-Islah, a drug rehabilitation centre. Our aim was to record self-reported socio-occupational dysfunction and patterns of drug misuse and to evaluate the usefulness of a psychiatric screening tool. A two-phased approach using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to examine the rates of psychiatric diagnoses. Results Methamphetamine was the most commonly misused substance in 94.5% of residents. High levels of socio-occupational dysfunction were reported. In total, 5.5% met criteria for major depressive disorder, 4.8% for lifetime psychotic disorder and 11.5% for suicidal ideation. In addition, 13.3% reported previous untreated mental health problems. Clinical implications A screening tool such as the SRQ can be used to identify those needing further psychiatric assessment. Interventions to address amphetamine misuse and associated socio-occupational dysfunction are required. Societal views and legislation influence the management of substance misuse problems in Brunei.

  11. Description of two final stadium platystictid larvae from Borneo, including that of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, identified using DNA barcoding (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Albert G; Dow, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The final stadium larva of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, is described and illustrated based on a single male specimen collected at Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, Brunei. The larva was identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens. The larva presented a good match with both D. attala and D. barbatula Lieftinck in this gene, but as adults of only the former species had been collected at the locality, it is presumed more likely to be that species. Another, unidentified platystictid larva, Platystictidae A, collected at the same general locality is also described. The two larvae show significant differences from each other and from D. sundana Krüger, the only other Oriental region member of the family for which larval morphology is known. The three species are also compared with the larvae of the Neotropical genus Palaemnema, which they closely resemble, despite being currently placed in different subfamilies. Based on this known material, Oriental and Neotropical forms differ significantly in details of mandibular morphology, especially the armature of the molar field. PMID:26250164

  12. Mobile Health (mHealth) Services and Online Health Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshari, Muhammad; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology enables health-care organizations to extend health-care services by providing a suitable environment to achieve mobile health (mHealth) goals, making some health-care services accessible anywhere and anytime. Introducing mHealth could change the business processes in delivering services to patients. mHealth could empower patients as it becomes necessary for them to become involved in the health-care processes related to them. This includes the ability for patients to manage their personal information and interact with health-care staff as well as among patients themselves. The study proposes a new position to supervise mHealth services: the online health educator (OHE). The OHE should be occupied by special health-care staffs who are trained in managing online services. A survey was conducted in Brunei and Indonesia to discover the roles of OHE in managing mHealth services, followed by a focus group discussion with participants who interacted with OHE in a real online health scenario. Data analysis showed that OHE could improve patients' confidence and satisfaction in health-care services.

  13. ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    ASEAN is a group of counties encompassing 3 million sq. km with 333 million inhabitants, of whom approximately 65% are literate. The group was formed August 8, 1967, and includes Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Malay, Indonesian, Filipino, Thai, Chinese, and English are spoken by Malay, Thai, Chinese, Indian, and other ethnic groups who variously are of the Islamic, Buddhist, Christian, Taoist, and Hindu faiths. Life expectancy is approximately 85 years, with the marked exception of Indonesia. The gross domestic product is $303 billion, growing at a rate of 7.6%. Per capita income is $950. The group's natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, timber, tin, nickel, copper, iron, bauxite, and other minerals. The agricultural products rice, rubber, cassava, sugar, coffee, corn, pineapple, bananas, coconuts, and palm oil, as well as electronics, petroleum, textiles, minerals, chemicals, food processing, wood products, fabricated steel, and ships are areas of economic production. Machinery and other capital goods, chemicals, oil, and food are imported, and office machinery and electronics, petroleum, textiles, telecommunications equipment, natural rubber, processed seafood and fruits, wood products, tin, palm oil, sugar, and coffee are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, intraregional and international cooperation, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. PMID:12178041

  14. Oral health: Role of chewing gum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy MANIKANDAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in Brunei Darussalam is highly alarming and dental anxiety in general leads to avoidance of dental care. Since this is an era of preventive dentistry utilising a holistic approach, excellent results could be achieved if preventative methods are regularly used by people in day-to-day life. Gum chewing is increasing dramatically despite racial, cultural and religious taboos against them. Many previously considered chewing sugared gum might increase the cariogenic load. However with better understanding of cariology, it is now perceived by many that chewing sugared gum after meals is safe. Sugarless gum has an important role in preventive dentistry. Chewing gum with incorporation of anti-plaque agents and various drug delivery systems is distinctive as a special confectionary item. This article reviews the historical background of gum chewing, the role of various chewing gums in preventing oral diseases like dental caries and periodontal diseases, its role in the management of xerostomia, hypersensitive teeth and as an alternate to cigarette smoking habit.

  15. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  16. El Niño timings and rainfall extremes in India, Southeast Asia and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1999-05-01

    Whereas some El Niño years are known to be associated with droughts in some parts of the globe, notably India, other El Niños do not seem to be effective. Recently, it was observed that Unambiguous ENSOW (El Niño years, in which the Southern Oscillation Index minima and Pacific sea surface temperature maxima occurred in the middle of the calendar year) were better associated with droughts. This association was checked for rainfalls in South Asia and China. Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and East Asia (comprising of the People's Republic of China and adjacent regions, including India) showed a good association of Unambiguous ENSOW events with droughts. Thailand, Malaysia and the whole Philippines showed some association; but the northwest Philippines showed opposite results. To find a rational for this criterion, it was checked whether such events were in any way related to the timings of the El Niño events. In general, El Niños active during the main rainy season (June-September for all India's summer monsoon rainfall) were better associated with droughts. But some events did not fit this pattern. Also, many years not having El Niños were associated with droughts. Thus, the El Niño relationship is not clear-cut and predictions based on the same alone are likely to go wrong more often than not, as in the case of the recent El Niño (1997).

  17. Travel to the United States under the Visa Waiver Program

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The following information has been taken from the Web site of the United States Embassy in Paris, which shall be the only authentic text in the matter: http://www.amb-usa.fr/consul/niv_vwpfr.htm With effect from 15 May 2003, Belgian citizens wishing to travel to the United States (for business or pleasure for a maximum of 90 days) shall be eligible for admission without a visa only if they are in possession of a valid MACHINE-READABLE passport. However, they may still travel to the United States with a valid old-style passport after this date provided that they obtain a visa. This visa waiver for those holding a valid MACHINE-READABLE passport will also apply to the citizens of the following countries with effect from 1st October 2003: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Citizens not in poss...

  18. The geopolitics of $10 oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market and the geopolitical implications of the possibility of $10 a barrel becoming the norm for oil prices in 1999 are examined. The low price will present budgetary difficulties for all the world's major oil producing countries with the exception of Brunei. In some countries, such as Nigeria and Venezuela, general financial and economic reform will become inevitable with the pressure for political reform to follow. If energy development is to continue in the Caspian region in a low price era, long term political stability will be necessary and a move towards democracy from the present autocracies may be necessary to achieve this. In the Middle East, countries are facing the erosion of their core financial base. Depressed oil prices could force Gulf States, which in the past have depended on their oil revenues alone, to introduce taxation as an alternative source of income. Hitherto, oil has meant power in political as well as in energy terms, but the diminished value of oil in a world where their are alternative energy sources will reduce the importance, even of key regions such as the Middle East. The power of OPEC is threatened by its failure to bring about the massive co-ordinated production cutbacks which alone might turn the market around. The beneficiaries of cheap oil will be the consuming nations, particularly those of East Asia where the pace of economic recovery will be speeded up. (UK)

  19. DENVirDB: A web portal of Dengue Virus sequence information on Asian isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J. Asnet

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available DENVirDB is a web portal that provides the sequence information and computationally curated information of dengue viral proteins. The advent of genomic technology has increased the sequences available in the public databases. In order to create relevant concise information on Dengue Virus (DENV, the genomic sequences were collected, analysed with the bioinformatics tools and presented as DENVirDB. It provides the comprehensive information of complete genome sequences of dengue virus isolates of Southeast Asia, viz. India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, East Timor, Philippines, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Brunei and China. DENVirDB also includes the structural and non-structural protein sequences of DENV. It intends to provide the integrated information on the physicochemical properties, topology, secondary structure, domain and structural properties for each protein sequences. It contains over 99 entries in complete genome sequences and 990 entries in protein sequences, respectively. Therefore, DENVirDB could serve as a user friendly database for researchers in acquiring sequences and proteomic information in one platform.

  20. Emerging Pollutant of Concern: Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Asia with Particular Preference to Southeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia countries were developing countries, with the rapid development for a better living condition leads to longer life expectancy, which increased total population. It may result in increased the demand of pharmaceutical in domestic use and or in hospital. Although most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs met the local authority’s regulatory requirement, there are still many pharmaceutical compound incompletely removed and discharge to the water stream and enter the environment. Recently many studies and researches have published on the occurrence and source as well as the fate of pharmaceuticals all over the world including Asia. As part of Asia region, Southeast Asia countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Cambodia, and Lao PDR seem has lack of research knowledge and information regarding this emerging pollutant issues compared to developed Asia country as China, Korea and Hong Kong. In this paper, it will review recent studies occurrences (surface and wastewater on most common pharmaceuticals with several recommendations to overcome and thus summarise the actual situation in Southeast Asia.

  1. Optimal management of chronic osteomyelitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande KC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ketan C Pande Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Chronic osteomyelitis is a challenging condition to treat. It is seen mostly after open fractures or in implant-related infections following treatment of fractures and prosthetic joint replacements. Recurrence of infection is well known, and successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach with surgical debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapy as the cornerstone of treatment. Staging of the disease and identification of the causative microorganism is essential before initiation of treatment. Important surgical steps include radical debridement of necrotic and devitalized tissue, removal of implants, management of resultant dead space, soft-tissue coverage, and skeletal stabilization or management of skeletal defects. The route of administration and duration of antimicrobial therapy continues to be debated. The role of biofilm is now clearly established in the chronicity of bone infection, and newer modalities are being developed to address various issues related to biofilm formation. The present review addresses various aspects of chronic osteomyelitis of long bones seen in adults, with a review of recent developments. Keywords: osteomyelitis, infection, biofilm, bone, therapy, treatment

  2. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesan UK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complications in the specialty of orthodontics. Despite their infrequent occurrence, the morbidity from a single incident and the amount of specialty medical care that may be needed to manage such incidents is too high to ignore. There is also the associated risk of malpractice litigation given the fact that these incidents are preventable. At present, no clear guidelines exist regarding prevention of this emergency in practice. This article attempts to review relevant literature and aims to formulate certain recommendations based on best available evidence to minimize the incidence of such events, while also suggesting guidelines toward making their management more effective. A flow chart outlining management options and strategies to aid the clinician in the event of such an emergency is also presented.Keywords: foreign bodies, ingestion, orthodontics, respiratory aspiration, orthodontic appliances

  3. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ASEAN CURRENCIES USING A COPULA APPROACH AND A DYNAMIC COPULA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUKIAT CHAIBOONSRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC will be shaped developing to be a single market and production base in 2015, moving towards regional Economic Integration, 2009. These developments in international financial markets do lead to some adverse cost for AEC country borrowers. The specific objective aims to investigate the dependent measures and the co-movement among selected ASEAN currencies. A Copula Approach was used to examine dependent measures of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. Also, a Dynamic Copula Approach was tested to investigate the co-movement of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. The results of the study based on a Pearson linear correlation coefficient confirmed that Thai Baht exchange rate and each of selected ASEAN currencies have a linear correlation during the specific period excluding Vietnam exchange rate. Furthermore, based on empirical Copula Approach, Thai Baht exchange rate had a dependent structure with each of the selected in ASEAN currencies including Brunei exchange rate, Singapore exchange rate, Malaysia exchange rate, Indonesia exchange rate, Philippine exchange rate, and Vietnam exchange rate respectively. The results of Dynamic Copula estimation indicated that Thai Baht exchange rate had a co-movement with selected ASEAN currencies. The research results provide an informative and interactive ASEAN financial market to all users, including Global financial market.

  4. Three-dimensional Simulations of the Mean Air Transport During the 1997 Forest Fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia Using a Mesoscale Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswintiarti, O.; Raman, S.

    - This paper describes the meteorological processes responsible for the mean transport of air pollutants during the ENSO-related forest fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia from 00 UTC 21 September to 00 UTC 25 September, 1997. The Fifth Generation of the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) is used to simulate three-dimensional winds at 6-hourly intervals. A nonhydrostatic version of the model is run using two nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 45 km and 15 km. From the simulated wind fields, the backward and forward trajectories of the air parcel are investigated using the Vis5D model.The results indicate that the large-scale subsidence over Indonesia, the southwest monsoon low-level flows (2-8 m s-1), and the shallow planetary boundary layer height (400-800 m) play a key role in the transport of air pollutants from Kalimantan to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei.

  5. First Record of the Gekkonid Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 from Gunung Mulu National Park, Northern Sarawak, East Malaysia may Represent an Undescribed Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    André KOCH; Sebastian SCHULZ

    2014-01-01

    We provide conifrmed photographic evidence for the previously overlooked occurrence of the polyphyletic Asian gecko genus Cnemaspis from Gunung Mulu National Park, the world-renowned UNESCO natural heritage site in northern Sarawak, East Malaysia. This new record from Sarawak province represents a remarkable range extension for Cnemaspis cf. kendallii by 550 km to the northeast and denotes the most northern occurrence of the genus in Borneo. Our new ifnding makes it very likely that these gekkonid lizards also inhabit appropriate limestone karst habitats in adjacent Sabah, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Given the visible differences in the Mulu specimen compared to those from the remaining distribution range on Borneo and the Malaysian Peninsula together with the fact that numerous Cnemaspis species are restricted to small areas, it seems plausible that another undescribed, rather cryptic and possibly locally endemic Bornean species is involved. Lastly, the new record contributes to the importance of the Mulu National Park as a major conservation area in East Malaysia of international concerns.

  6. Représentations architecturales et processus identitaires : le cas de l’Indonésie Architectural Representations and Identity Markers : The Case of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guerreiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Indonésie, comme dans les autres pays d’Asie du Sud-Est insulaire (Malaysia, Brunei, les Philippines, Singapour, Taiwan, la maison d’habitation ou la maison cérémonielle est l’objet d’un fort investissement identitaire au niveau de l’ethnie et/ou de la région. Elle donne lieu à des présentations à la fois muséographiques (éléments architecturaux, sculptures, motifs décoratifs, maquettes et touristiques, dont certaines reprennent le concept du « musée vivant  ». L’idée de « représentation » est définie selon ses différents sens, en analysant la position des unités de signification sous-jacentes au processus de la représentation, dans une perspective sémiologique (Barthes, notamment en confrontant les notions d’index (la référence, d’icône (la ressemblance et de symbole (la convention. Le Parc de la belle Indonésie en miniature (Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, un parc à thème architectural construit en 1975 sous le régime de l’Ordre nouveau du président Suharto dans la banlieue de Jakarta, en est un exemple paradigmatique. Il décline le patrimoine architectural du pays, en une représentation englobante de la culture nationale, mise en scène autour de la transition vers ce qui est conçu comme la « modernité ». La notion de « diversité culturelle » fait l’objet d’une comparaison, dans son traitement muséographique le plus courant en Indonésie et dans son développement au Taman Mini.In Indonesia, as in the other countries of insular Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, the house, used either as a dwelling or for ceremonial occasions, is a focus of identity at both the ethnic and regional levels. As a building, the house is a focus of displays, both in museums (architectural features, sculptures, decorative patterns, house models and for tourism, sometimes associated with the concept of the “living museum.” The idea of

  7. The political economy of tobacco and poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia: contradictions in the role of the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2010-03-01

    Of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), all but Indonesia have embraced the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and all endorse some form of tobacco control policy. Nevertheless, except for Brunei, all these states are, to varying degrees, complicit in investing in or promoting the tobacco industry, often using the justification of poverty alleviation. Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of illness and death among the populations of these countries. Claims that tobacco alleviates poverty in developing countries have increasingly been discredited: thus continuing state support for the industry represents a fundamental paradox. Using primary documents from governments and the tobacco industry, and published studies investigating tobacco and poverty, this article explores the contradictions inherent in the state seeking to prevent tobacco use in the interests of health, while actively promoting tobacco for the economic benefit of its citizens. These contradictions result in both symbolic and substantial harm to tobacco control efforts: tobacco production is legitimized, rational policy principles are violated, direct cooperation between the state and multinational tobacco corporations is made possible with associated opportunities for mollifying control policies, and different state agencies work at cross purposes. Although tobacco exports within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also threaten the group's health solidarity, it is argued that divestiture of state ownership of capital in tobacco corporations and a commitment by states not to promote tobacco are urgently required if the Convention is to have full effect both in the countries of the region and in other states that have ratified it. PMID:20595353

  8. Management of liver trauma in RIPAS Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Yuh Yen KOK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The management of blunt and penetrating liver trauma continues to pose a tremendouschallenge to surgeons. This study reviews the pattern of liver trauma and its management, bothoperative and non-operative, in RIPAS Hospital, the only tertiary referral center in Brunei Darussalam.Material and Methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted with liver trauma, with and withoutother associated injuries between January 2002 and December 2006 to RIPAS Hospital was undertaken.The patients’ case records were retrieved. Details on age, sex, mode of injury, pre-operativeimaging, severity of liver injury based on the Liver Injury Scale (LIS, grades I to VI, presence of otherassociated injuries, overall management, complications and outcome were collected and analysed. Results:Twenty patients (male, n = 12 with a mean age of 36 years old (range 20 to 75 were treatedfor liver trauma (median LIS grade of III, range I to V during the study period. Road traffic accidentsaccounted for 75% of the injuries. Thirteen (65% had high grade injuries (6 LIS grade III. Seventeen(85% patients underwent surgical procedures for liver and other associated injuries. Four patients(20% had non-operative management with one failure (5%. This patient subsequently requiredsurgery. There were six post-operative deaths (mortality 30%. There were three major morbidities(15%: right hepatic artery aneurysm, a right hepatic duct bile leak and left hemiplegia secondaryto cerebrovascular accident. Conclusions: In our local setting, blunt liver trauma is often due toroad traffic accidents and is associated with a high mortality rate. A majority was of high grades andrequired urgent surgical interventions. Non-operative management is an option for those with lowgrade injuries and who are stable.

  9. Competitiveness in tourism economies of the APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna María Ibáñez Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that by 2030 the influx of tourists worldwide scope 1. 7 billion people. For such figures become a reality, timely in formation that can be taken as a reference for the generation of strategies aimed at harnessing the tourism potential of the various destinations in the world is required, plus a coordinated work between different economies, blocks and organizations. Here, in this article, an overview of the situation and development of tourism competitiveness of nations that make up the Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC is provided. The methodology consisted of review of specialized search and sta tistical information influx, income and tourism competitiveness globally and literature APEC member country. The main results indicate that globally between 2010 and 2013, APEC countries experienced an increase in tourism revenues of 25%, a figure that exceeds global trends. In 2013, the level of tourism competitiveness presented by APEC, ranged between 6 and 82 position globally and only 53% of the 19 APEC economies that were evaluated by the World Economic Forum (WEF, improved their level of competitiveness. In relation to the regulatory framework linked to tourism, nations like Peru, Brunei and Russia reached the lowest ratings of the block thus have enormous work to do to improve your score in this category. In business environment and infrastructure, highlighted America. While in human and cultural resources, proved to be the issue in which APEC economies outperformed. Finally, results for APEC economies, evidence that critical areas are those concerning regulation and policies; and particularly sustainability issue, which can become a bottleneck in terms of competitiveness in the area of APEC therefore must strengthen and design better strategies for joint efforts in relation to such matters.

  10. The Use of MBIM/MABBIM Glossary in the Translation of Agricultural Science Books by the Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Masittah Raja Ariffin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation is a process of transfer from a source language to the target language. Through translation readers who are not familiar with the source language will be able to gain knowledge through the target language. In other words, the translated texts can help broaden readers’ knowledge and ways of thinking. During the translation process, a translator has to identify and use the appropriate term in the target language in order to ensure that the translated text will be accurate and effective. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which translators have utilised the terms produced by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP/Majlis Bahasa Indonesia-Malaysia (MBIM/ Majlis Bahasa Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia (MABBIM in the translation of Agricultural Science books from English into Malay, with particular focus on the accuracy and effectiveness of the translated terms. This study also seeks to identify the problems often faced by the translators in choosing and using the translated terms for texts related to the field of agricultural science. The data for this study is obtained from six Agricultural Science books as well as from interviews with the translators. 332 terms have been gathered from the books and it is found that almost 32% of them are different from the terminologies produced by the DBP/MBIM/MABBIM. This may be due to the internal and external factors that are related to the attitude of the translators as well as the lack of agricultural terminologies when the books were being translated.

  11. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  12. A look at Asia's changing youth population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, P; Kabamalan, M; Westley, S B

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a recent East-West Center study on demographic and social changes among young people aged 15-24 years in 17 countries in East, Southeast, and South Asia. Nearly every country in Asia has experienced fertility decline. Decline began in Japan and Singapore during the 1950s, followed by declines in Hong Kong, South Korea, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Brunei, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, and China during the 1960s. Declines occurred during the 1970s in Indonesia, India, and Myanmar. A "youth bulge" occurred about 20 years later due to declines in infant and child mortality. This bulge varies by country with the timing and magnitude of population growth and subsequent fertility decline. The proportion of youth population rises from 16% to 18% about 20 years after the beginning of fertility decline and declines to a much lower stable level after several decades. The bulge is large in countries with rapid fertility decline, such as China. Governments can minimize the effects of bulge on population growth by raising the legal age at marriage, lengthening the interval between first marriage and first birth, and increasing birth intervals. School enrollments among adolescents are rising. In South Korea, the population aged 15-24 years increased from 3.8 to 8.8 million during 1950-90, a rise of 132% compared to a rise of 653% among school enrollments. It is expected that the number of out-of-school youths will decline from 5.1 to 3.6 million during 1990-2025. Youth employment varies by gender. Policies/programs in family planning and reproductive health will need to address the changing needs of youth population. PMID:12349008

  13. The role of tree-fall dynamics in long-term carbon storage of tropical peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Cobb, A.; Joosten, H.; Glaser, P. H.; Chua, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F. M.; Noren, A. J.; Kamariah, A. S.; Su'ut, N. S.; Harvey, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    The forested peatlands of the Earth's tropical belt represent a major terrestrial carbon pool that may contain over 90 petagram C. However, the mechanisms that led to the build-up of this significant pool of carbon are poorly understood. Moreover, the rates of carbon uptake by peat accumulation in these tropical settings have rarely been quantified and natural variations in uptake on decadal to millennial scales are not well constrained. We studied carbon accumulation dynamics on these timescales of a peat swamp forest dominated by the dipterocarp Shorea albida - a unique forest type that, until recently, widely covered the lowlands of northwest Borneo. The impressive Shorea albida trees may reach heights of 70 m and are therefore strongly susceptible to windthrow and lightning. Such natural disturbances cause these trees to fall and uproot - excavating over 1 m deep holes into the peat that fill with water to become tip-up pools. The analysis of high-resolution aerial photographs and radiocarbon dated peat cores from our field site in Brunei together with the construction of a simulation model of peat accumulation allowed us to determine the role of tree-fall and tip-up pools in carbon storage. In a hectare of Shorea albida forest four tip-up pools form per decade. A pool completely fills with organic matter within 200 years according to our pollen record and a dated pool deposit stored 40 kg C m-2 of the total 110 kg C m-2 large local peat carbon pool. The carbon accumulation rates in these pools reach over 800 g C m-2 yr-1 - within the range of annual litterfall in dipterocarp forests. The simulation model indicates that up to 60% of the peat deposits under Shorea albida forests could be derived from infilled pools. Tip-up pools are therefore local hotspots for carbon storage in tropical forested peatlands.

  14. Distinctive Tropical Forest Variants Have Unique Soil Microbial Communities, But Not Always Low Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Song, Woojin; Slik, J W F; Sukri, Rahayu S; Jaafar, Salwana; Dong, Ke; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, Northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests) due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity. PMID:27092105

  15. Overview of the Sustainable Uses of Peat Soil in Malaysia with Some Relevant Geotechnical Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidah Adon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is an important ecosystem that provides a significant contribution to the global climate stability. In Malaysia, peat soils are considered as a soil with little economic benefit, apart from it being used for agricultural activity. The total world coverage of peat soil is about thirty million hectares with Canada and Russia having the largest distribution of peat (Zainorabiddin,2010. More than sixty percent of the world’s tropical peat lands are found in South-East Asia (Lette,2006. Most notable are the large peat land on the islands of Borneo (belonging to Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei and Sumatra (Indonesia. However, there are also significant occurrences in other parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines. The main contributory functions and benefits of peat soil are within the engineering disciplines of hydrology, agriculture, social-economics, biodiversity habitats and carbon sequestration. Peat was used in temperate climates (especially in Finland, Ireland, Sweden and UK as a fuel to generate electricity and heat. Therefore peat can be considered as a renewable energy source but this will be very detrimental to the market of genuine renewables. The western coastal lowlands of Malaysia (such as Kukup are mangroves that represent the initiation of peat soil formation. Such areas provide the natural habitat of mangrove forests. It also fixes more carbon from the atmosphere than is released and approximately one-quarter of the carbon stored in land plants and soils. On the other hand, peat is one of the problematic or challenging foundation soil of poor quality due to it’s very high water content, high compressibility and low shear strength. Peat consists of decomposed plant fragments and the unfavourable characteristics of peat soil deposits make them unsuitable for making sustainable infrastructure development for varied engineering projects. This paper therefore gives an overview of the pros and cons

  16. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  17. Glomus tumour of the hands: A review of presentation and outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Thachilethu ABRAHAM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: glomus tumour is a rare benign neoplasm of the normal neuroarterial structure called glomus body. They present with obscure symptoms making diagnosis difficult and delayed. Though classical symptoms and signs such as pain, temperature sensitivity, and point tenderness are described, imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the current understanding of glomus tumours of the hand in the context of the cases treated in Brunei Darussalam emphasising the importance of detailed clinical examination over imaging modalities. Materials and Methods: We present a series of seven patients diagnosed as glomus tumour and operated in our hospital from Sept 1997 to Sept 2009. Data was collected from the clinical and operative records regarding preoperative history and workup, intraoperative details, postoperative follow up and histopathology. Results: There were three male and four female patients with a median age of 37 years. All patients had severe fingertip pain on touch with positive Love’s test. One patient had hypersensitivity to cold. Presumptive diagnosis of glomus tumour was made in six patients and foreign body granuloma in one patient based on detailed history and clinical examination alone. Histopathology confirmed glomus tumour in all the patients. All are asymptomatic after surgery. One patient had increased mitotic activity on histopathological examination and is on close follow up. Conclusion: High suspicion, detailed history and careful physical examination can significantly decrease the pre-operative morbidity of the patient with glomus tumour. An imaging study may not always be required for diagnosis. 

  18. WATER TABLE AND REDOX CONDITIONS IN DEEP TROPICAL PEAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajah Dulima Jali

    2007-01-01

    Redox potential in the well developed tropical peat swamp in Brunei was studied for a year. Generally the redox potential measurements showed a large variation, ranging from -234 mV to 727 mV. The expected rise in redox values did not take place following the drop of water table during the dry months of June to September. The redox value at 100 cm depth indicated that the soil remained reduced throughout the year in spite of the lowering of water table below 150 cm in all sites during dry period. Similarly the redox values did not decrease rapidly following flooding when the water table rose to the surface. This phenomenon could be attributed to the topography of the peat dome which facilitated the fast lateral movement of water and thus promoted oxygen supply down the peat profile, though not great enough to reach the 100 cm depth. The rapid lateral flow of water in the outer Alan batu site facilitated aeration, but in the inner sites remained which was reduced because of the slower water movement. The slower initiation of the reducing condition was likely due to the presence of nitrate which has accumulated as a result of ammonium oxidation during the relatively long aerobic period. Differences in the distribution of redox potential with depth are possibly explained by the different permeability of peat affecting flow patterns and residence time of water. The nature and compactibility of the peat might have slowed the diffusion rates of O2 into the lower layer. Though the bulk density of the peat was low, the composition of the peat might influence the peat permeability and hydraulic conductivity. The tree trunks are not decomposed or large branches must have lowered permeability compared to the other peat material.

  19. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  20. New pseudo-skin model for flow convergence to perforations in competent formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonkwo, F.C. [University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Onyekonwu, M.O. [Laser Engineering Consultants/Uniport, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    1997-05-01

    Existing models for calculating pseudo-skin due to perforations give values that do not agree with observed values. In this paper we discuss a new analytical model that can be used for calculating pseudo-skin due to flow convergence to perforations. The model was developed by combining Bernoulli and Forchheimer equations. Geertsma`s (1974) correlation was introduced to account for the inertia coefficient {beta}. We used our model to calculate skin factors and productivity ratios (PR) for several perforation parameters. The results were compared with results obtained using existing models. In terms of trend, results from all the models, including our model, agree. For example, the models show that the productivity index increases with increase in perforation length and shot density. Also, our model agrees with Locke`s (1981) finding that if all perforation parameters remain the same, a 90 phasing will give the maximum productivity while 0 phasing will give minimum productivity. Quantitatively, results from our model differ (in some cases significantly) from results from other models. For example, some models predict that for 4 shots/ft (13 shots/m) and 90 phasing, a perforated well will have same productivity as an open-hole completion if the perforation depth is between 4 and 6 in (0.1016-0.1524 m). With our model we predicted that this equivalence will occur if the perforation depth is between 14 and 16 in (0.3556-0.4064 m). We validated our model with field data from Brunei and experimental data published by Muskat and McDowell (1950) and Howard and Watson (1952). Our model applies to wells with perforations in competent (consolidated) formations and for modified Reynold`s number of up to 1000

  1. Economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA. Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources--surveillance data, World Health Organization (WHO, and published studies--and adjusted for underreporting using expansion factors from previous literature. We obtained unit costs per episode through a systematic literature review, and completed missing data using linear regressions. We excluded costs such as prevention and vector control, and long-term sequelae of dengue. Over the decade of 2001-2010, we obtained an annual average of 2.9 million (m dengue episodes and 5,906 deaths. The annual economic burden (with 95% certainty levels was US$950m (US$610m-US$1,384m or about US$1.65 (US$1.06-US$2.41 per capita. The annual number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, based on the original 1994 definition, was 214,000 (120,000-299,000, which is equivalent to 372 (210-520 DALYs per million inhabitants. CONCLUSION: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in SEA with a DALY burden per million inhabitants in the region. This burden is higher than that of 17 other conditions, including Japanese encephalitis, upper respiratory infections, and hepatitis B.

  2. Simulation of Smoke-Haze Dispersion from Wildfires in South East Asia with a Lagrangian Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, D.; Burgin, L.; Gan, C.; Hort, M.; Jones, A. R.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning, often related to agricultural deforestation, not only affects local pollution levels but periodically deteriorates air quality in many South East Asian megacities due to the transboundary transport of smoke-haze. In June 2013, Singapore experienced the worst wildfire related air-pollution event on record following from the escalation of peatland fires in Sumatra. An extended dry period together with anomalous westerly winds resulted in severe and unhealthy pollution levels in Singapore that lasted for more than two weeks. Reacting to this event, the Met Office and the Meteorological Service Singapore have explored how to adequately simulate haze-pollution dispersion, with the aim to provide a reliable operational forecast for Singapore. Simulations with the Lagrangian particle model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment), running on numerical weather prediction data from the Met Office and Meteorological Service Singapore and emission data derived from satellite observations of the fire radiative power, are validated against PM10 observations in South East Asia. Comparisons of simulated concentrations with hourly averages of PM10 measurements in Singapore show that the model captures well the severe smoke-haze event in June 2013 and a minor episode in March 2014. Different quantitative satellite-derived emissions have been tested, with one source demonstrating a consistent factor of two under-prediction for Singapore. Confidence in the skill of the model system has been substantiated by further comparisons with data from monitoring sites in Malaysia, Brunei and Thailand. Following the validation study, operational smoke-haze pollution forecasts with NAME were launched in Singapore, in time for the 2014 fire season. Real-time bias correction and verification of this forecast will be discussed.

  3. Different pitcher shapes and trapping syndromes explain resource partitioning in Nepenthes species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Laurence; Bazile, Vincent; Huguin, Maïlis; Bonhomme, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants display interspecific diversity in pitcher form and diets. This species-rich genus might be a conspicuous candidate for an adaptive radiation. However, the pitcher traits of different species have never been quantified in a comparative study, nor have their possible adaptations to the resources they exploit been tested. In this study, we compare the pitcher features and prey composition of the seven Nepenthes taxa that grow in the heath forest of Brunei (Borneo) and investigate whether these species display different trapping syndromes that target different prey. The Nepenthes species are shown to display species-specific combinations of pitcher shapes, volumes, rewards, attraction and capture traits, and different degrees of ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism. The prey spectra also differ among plant species and between ontogenetic morphotypes in their combinations of ants, flying insects, termites, and noninsect guilds. According to a discriminant analysis, the Nepenthes species collected at the same site differ significantly in prey abundance and composition at the level of order, showing niche segregation but with varying degrees of niche overlap according to pairwise species comparisons. Weakly carnivorous species are first characterized by an absence of attractive traits. Generalist carnivorous species have a sweet odor, a wide pitcher aperture, and an acidic pitcher fluid. Guild specializations are explained by different combinations of morpho-functional traits. Ant captures increase with extrafloral nectar, fluid acidity, and slippery waxy walls. Termite captures increase with narrowness of pitchers, presence of a rim of edible trichomes, and symbiotic association with ants. The abundance of flying insects is primarily correlated with pitcher conicity, pitcher aperture diameter, and odor presence. Such species-specific syndromes favoring resource partitioning may result from local character displacement by competition and/or previous

  4. Environmental externalities: An ASEAN application to coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant benefits to human health that result from emissions control programs may justify the costs of pollution control policies. Many scientists, economists, risk analysts, and policymakers believe that comparisons of the benefits with the costs of pollution control demonstrate that the US stationary source, air emissions control program is justified. This justification is based upon pronounced benefits to human health, especially from controlling suspended particulates and sulfur compounds. Market decisions are usually made on the basis of a consideration of traditional costs such as capital, operating and maintenance, fuel costs, and fixed charges. Social costs, which could be significant, are not incorporated explicitly into such decisions. These social costs could result in a net reduction in the welfare of individuals, and of society as a whole. Because these social costs and their effects are not represented in the price of energy, individual have no way to explicitly value them; hence, they remain unaccounted for in market decisions. By accounting for external costs, the selection of energy sources and production of energy products can lead to and equilibrium, where the total cost of energy and energy products, together with resulting social costs, can be brought to an economic minimum. The concept of an air emissions control program is of interest to the ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) and their governments, especially if such a program could be justified in cost-benefit terms and shown to be directly applicable to ASEAN conditions. It is the intent of the effort described herein to demonstrate that technical options are available to control emissions from coal-based, electric power plants and that that costs of these options may be justified in cost-benefit terms

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcom W. Mintz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Simone Prodolliet, Händlerinnen, Goldgr��ber und Staatsbeamte; Sozialgeschichte einer Kleinstadt im Hochland Südwestsumatras. Berlin: Reimer, 1996, 372 pp. [Berner Sumatra-Forschungen.] - Richard Chauvel, Antje van der Hoek, Religie in Ballingschap; Institutionalisering en Leiderschap onder Christelijke en Islamitische Molukkers in Nederland. Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij, 1994, 297 pp. - J.E. Lelijveld, Kees Groeneboer, Weg tot het Westen; Het Nederlands voor Indië 1600-1950. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1993, xii + 580 pp. - Bernd Nothofer, P.W. Martin, Language Use & Language Change in Brunei Darussalam, Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1996, xvi + 373 pp. [Monographs in International Studies 100.], C. Ozog, G. Poedjosoedarmo (eds. - Anton Ploeg, Pamela Swadling, Plumes from Paradise; Trade cycles in outer Southeast Asia and their impact on New Guinea and nearby islands until 1920. With contributions by Roy Wagner and Billai Laba. Boroko/Coorparoo (Qld: Papua New Guinea National Museum in association with R. Brown & Ass. (Qld, 1996, 352 pp. Plates, maps, index. - Bernard Sellato, Traude Gavin, The women’s warpath; Iban ritual fabrics from Borneo, Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1996, 99 pp. - Jyh Wee Sew, Malcom W. Mintz, A course in conversational Indonesian (with equivalent Malay vocabulary. Singapore: EPB Publishers, 1994, 558 pp. - Kees Snoek, Liesbeth Dolk, Twee Zielen, Twee Gedachten; Tijdschriften en Intellectuelen op Java (1900-1957, Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1993, 220 pp. - Nicholas Tarling, Paul H. Kratoska, Malaya and Singapore during the Japanese Occupation. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995, xii + 175 pp. [Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Special Publications Series 3.

  6. Second-chance university admission, the theory of planned behaviour and student achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Yabit; Anshari, Muhammad; Sabtu, Norakmarul Ihsan; Yunus, Norazmah

    2016-06-01

    The theory of planned behaviour attempts to explain factors which influence behaviour. One of these factors is intention. Positive or negative intentions are formed by a person's impression of the way other people would perceive similar behaviour (external forces). The authors of this study used the theory of planned behaviour to examine, compare and interpret the academic performance of students entering a university either via direct intake or via a bridging programme. This study focuses on the UniBridge programme offered by Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), which is an intensive one-semester course that prepares students for undergraduate-level study. While direct-intake applicants pass minimum requirements for entry and are able to enrol directly into an undergraduate programme, applicants who do not meet these minimum requirements can join this bridging programme which is designed to be a "second-chance" entry option. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors subjected student performance data of both direct-intake and bridge-programme undergraduates to statistical analyses, carried out interviews and then used the theoretical framework of planned behaviour to pinpoint individual attitudes and social pressures which form an intention to prepare for entry examinations. The results were mostly consistent and showed that the two groups were competitive in terms of undergraduate academic achievement, thus proving the second-chance programme to be effective in enabling students with poor A-Level results to experience academic confidence at university level. On the strength of these findings, the authors conclude their paper with recommendations for tertiary institutions to support lifelong learning initiatives through the use of multiple channels of entry.

  7. Environmental change in south-east Asia. People, politics and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of politics and ecology in the quest for sustainable development in South East Asia is explored in this book by contributors who provide a broad range of perspectives. In the first of the four main sections, the political context of ecological change is examined. The topics discussed are: Indonesia and Thailand in a globalising pulp and paper industry; environmental organisations and different political contexts in Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam; Japan and South East Asia's environment. Some of the processes and forms of human-induced environmental change are illustrated in the second section. These include: the search for sustainable livelihoods in Indonesian transmigration settlements; the 210 MW hydro-power project on the Theun river in Laos which illustrates the tensions between environmental costs and potential economic benefits; forest management in Laos. Discussion of the various methods which strengthen understanding of human-induced environmental change in the region is integrated with further illustrations of its process and context in the third section where the following are considered: environmental change in Malaysian Borneo; the value of remote sensing and geographical information systems in mapping the environment; the weakness of Vietnam's tropical forestry action plan. In the final section, an examination of some of the options for change which are necessary if sustainable development is to become a reality includes: the sustainability of ecotourism in Indonesia; the potential stewardship role of the Bajau people in Indonesia's proposed marine parks; environmental degradation, non-timber forest products and Iban communities in Sarawak; conservation and development in Brunei's rainforests; Philippine community-based forest management. (27 figures; 23 tables; 752 references) (UK)

  8. ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Focus in this discussion of the 6 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) is on the following: georgraphy; the people; history; institutions (foreign ministers' meetings, economic ministers' meetings, the ASEAN Secretariat, and the Task Force on the Future of ASEAN cooperation): the economy; defense; external relations; and relations between the US and the ASEAN nations. In mid-1985 the population totaled 289.5 million with an average (unweighted) annual growth rate of 2.2%. Located on the Southeast Asian peninsula and the islands to the south and east in the South China Sea, the 6 ASEAN states guard some of the most important sealanes in the world. The ASEAN states lie astride the Equator and extend from roughly 1600 km north to 804 km south. 1 of the most striking characteristics of ASEAN is its wide diversity in race, language, culture, and religion; many ethnic groups coexist. Malayo-Polyneian make up the majority in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia (and thus in ASEAN), although Malaysia and Indonesia have significant numbers of other groups. Thailand is 75% Thai. Ethnic Chinese make up 77% of the population of Singapore, and sizable Chinese minorities are found in each of the other ASEAN nations. ASEAN founded officially on August 8, 1967, was created to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance through economic, social, and cultural cooperation. The organization developed slowly during its 1st decade, due in part to differing economic interests, varied historical experience, and the initially fragile political ties among the 5 original states. The Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, starting in December 1978, was a further stimulus to collaboration. The ASEAN nations successfully managed passage of UN resolutions condemning Vietnam and were the chief sponsors in the July 1981 International Conference on Kampuchea. Although ASEAN was established with primarily economic and

  9. The Impact of TPP on the Logistics Industry and the Responding Strategy%TPP对货运物流业的影响及相关对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永清

    2015-01-01

    历时5年多的《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(TPP)谈判结束,包括美国、日本、文莱、智利、新加坡、新西兰在内的 12个成员国在美国佐治亚州亚特兰大举行的部长级会议上达成基本协议,同意进行自由贸易,并在投资及知识产权等广泛领域统一规范.TPP的形成直接影响了我国现有的出口贸易格局和贸易网络,对中国主导的"一带一路"战略也将产生极大的经济效益.我国国际货运业应该利用 TPP协议尚未生效的这段时间,在紧盯中国主导的战略性协定催生商机的同时,重视因 TPP而出现的新商机.加强对将来有可能在 TPP协议成员国间发生的贸易转移的研究,以及对将来为应对 TPP原产地规则等而出现的大规模的企业产业转移进行跟踪研究.%The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiation, which has lasted for five years is ended.At the ministerial conference hold-ing in Atlanta, Georgia State, twelve member countries including USA, Japan, Brunei, Chile, Singapore, and New Zealand reached a ba-sic agreement on free trade and unified regulations in terms of investment and intellectual property among other fields. The formation of TPP directly affects the structure of export trade and trade network of China, bringing about great economic benefit to China's One Belt and One Road strategy. Enterprises providing international cargo transportation services should make the best of the time when TPP a-greement has not taken into effect, attach importance on new business opportunities while focusing on chances brought by strategic a-greement leading by China. They should enhance the study of trade transfer that will possibly happen between TPP member countries and take tracking study of large-scale industrial transfer in responding to the TPP rule of origin.

  10. Smoke over Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At least once a year for a period lasting from a week to several months, northern Sumatra is obscured by smoke and haze produced by agricultural burning and forest fires. These data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer document the presence of airborne particulates on March 13, 2002, during Terra orbit 11880. On the left is an image acquired by MISR's 70-degree backward-viewing camera. On the right is a map of aerosol optical depth, a measure of the abundance of atmospheric particulates. This product utilized a test version of the MISR retrieval that incorporates an experimental set of aerosol mixtures. The haze has completely obscured northeastern Sumatra and part of the Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatra and the Malaysian Peninsula. A northward gradient is apparent as the haze dissipates in the direction of the Malaysian landmass. Each panel covers an area of about 760 kilometers x 400 kilometers.Haze conditions had posed a health concern during late February (when schools in some parts of North Sumatra were closed), and worsened considerably in the first two weeks of March. By mid-March, local meteorology officials asked residents of North Sumatra's provincial capital, Medan, to minimize their outdoor activities and wear protective masks. Poor visibility at Medan airport forced a passenger plane to divert to Malaysia on March 14, and visibility reportedly ranged between 100 and 600 meters in some coastal towns southeast of Medan.The number and severity of this year's fires was exacerbated by dry weather conditions associated with the onset of a weak to moderate El Nino. The governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei have agreed to ban open burning in plantation and forest areas. The enforcement of such fire bans, however, has proven to be an extremely challenging task.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by

  11. 东北亚区域旅游协同发展制度构建研究--基于与东南亚区域之比较%On the System Construction of Synergetic Development for Regional Tourism in Northeast Asia--- Based on Comparison with Southeast Asia Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 黄朕

    2016-01-01

    在世界旅游热点区域之一的亚洲,东盟国家(ASEAN)地区和由中(主要是中国的东北三省和环渤海以及京津冀地区)、日、韩、朝、蒙以及俄远东地区构成的东北亚地区尤为重要,在世界范围内都有着举足轻重的地位和作用。本文将运用比较研究法和实地考察法以及文献研究法对上述两个区域的相关方面和旅游现状做一个尝试性的比较,希望从东南亚国家的旅游发展研究中找出东北亚区域能够得到的相关启示,从而对东北亚区域旅游协同发展制度构建和跨文化交流有借鉴作用和实践意义。%In general ,there are two of the most important tourist areas in Northeast Asia [China (Chinese mainland ,Hong Kong ,Macao and Taiwan) ,South Korea ,North Korea ,Japan ,Mongolia and the Russian Far East] and Southeast Asia (including Singapore ,Malaysia ,Thailand ,Cambodia , Vietnam ,Indonesia ,the Philippines ,Myanmar ,Brunei and Laos) ,which are due to the important status and role in the whole Asia or even the world .This paper makes a tentative comparison of the two areas by comparative method ,field observation and literature study ,in the hope of getting some inspiration from the tourist development in Southeast Asia and getting some reference and practical significance for the system construction of regional tourist synergetic development and intercultural communication in Northeast Asia .

  12. 东北亚区域旅游协同发展制度构建研究--基于与东南亚区域之比较%On the System Construction of Synergetic Development for Regional Tourism in Northeast Asia--- Based on Comparison with Southeast Asia Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 黄朕

    2016-01-01

    In general ,there are two of the most important tourist areas in Northeast Asia [China (Chinese mainland ,Hong Kong ,Macao and Taiwan) ,South Korea ,North Korea ,Japan ,Mongolia and the Russian Far East] and Southeast Asia (including Singapore ,Malaysia ,Thailand ,Cambodia , Vietnam ,Indonesia ,the Philippines ,Myanmar ,Brunei and Laos) ,which are due to the important status and role in the whole Asia or even the world .This paper makes a tentative comparison of the two areas by comparative method ,field observation and literature study ,in the hope of getting some inspiration from the tourist development in Southeast Asia and getting some reference and practical significance for the system construction of regional tourist synergetic development and intercultural communication in Northeast Asia .%在世界旅游热点区域之一的亚洲,东盟国家(ASEAN)地区和由中(主要是中国的东北三省和环渤海以及京津冀地区)、日、韩、朝、蒙以及俄远东地区构成的东北亚地区尤为重要,在世界范围内都有着举足轻重的地位和作用。本文将运用比较研究法和实地考察法以及文献研究法对上述两个区域的相关方面和旅游现状做一个尝试性的比较,希望从东南亚国家的旅游发展研究中找出东北亚区域能够得到的相关启示,从而对东北亚区域旅游协同发展制度构建和跨文化交流有借鉴作用和实践意义。

  13. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  14. Statistics of Stacked Strata on Experimental Shelf Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A. M.; Straub, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margin deposits provide the most complete record on Earth of paleo-landscapes, but these records are complex and difficult to interpret. To a seismic geomorphologist or stratigrapher, mapped surfaces often present a static diachronous record of these landscapes through time. We present data that capture the dynamics of experimental shelf-margin landscapes at high-temporal resolution and define internal hierarchies within stacked channelized and weakly channelized deposits from the shelf to the slope. Motivated by observations from acoustically-imaged continental margins offshore Brunei and in the Gulf of Mexico, we use physical experiments to quantify stratal patterns of sub-aqueous slope channels and lobes that are linked to delta-top channels. The data presented here are from an experiment that was run for 26 hours of experimental run time. Overhead photographs and topographic scans captured flow dynamics and surface aggradation/degradation every ten minutes. Currents rich in sediment built a delta that prograded to the shelf-edge. These currents were designed to plunge at the shoreline and travel as turbidity currents beyond the delta and onto the continental slope. Pseudo-subsidence was imposed by a slight base-level rise that generated accommodation space and promoted the construction of stratigraphy on the delta-top. Compensational stacking is a term that is frequently applied to deposits that tend to fill in topographic lows in channelized and weakly channelized systems. The compensation index, a metric used to quantify the strength of compensation, is used here to characterize deposits at different temporal scales on the experimental landscape. The compensation timescale is the characteristic time at which the accumulated deposits begins to match the shape of basin-wide subsidence rates (uniform for these experiments). We will use the compensation indices along strike transects across the delta, proximal slope and distal slope to evaluate the

  15. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia. PMID:26868904

  16. Cooperation in Southeast Asia [Strengthening the infrastructure related to radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its budget of May 2004, the Australian Government made provision for two initiatives related to strengthening infrastructure related to radioactive sources. Both initiatives flow from Australia's history of active involvement in international efforts to develop the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. The first initiative, a programme to enhance Australia's national radiation emergency preparedness and response capability, is being led by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Agency. The second programme is a three year, US $3 million project to strengthen the security of radioactive sources in the Southeast Asia and Pacific regions. It is based on the recognition of security threats in the region and on the Australian Government's desire to strengthen regional partnerships in the field of security and radiation protection. That project, known as the Securing Sources project, is being led by my organization, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The project has a wide scope that includes technical, administrative and regulatory aspects of source security. It is being delivered in two programmes, one of which covers 11 Southeast Asian countries closest to Australia. These include the seven IAEA Member States Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, as well as four States that are not members of the IAEA: Laos, Cambodia, Brunei and East Timor. A companion programme focuses on 14 Pacific Island countries, including Papua New Guinea, Fiji and the Solomon Islands, which are not members of the IAEA. The Regional Security project aims are to assist countries in a region to manage poorly controlled sources and to generally improve source security. Activities include strategies for remediation of legacies of orphan sources and poorly controlled sources; sharing of historic information on source transfers

  17. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of South East Asia: history of exploration, taxon richness and notes on zoogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai M. Korovchinsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of Cladocera studies in South-East Asia is reviewed, beginning from the early start of explorations in the end of the 19th century by J. Richard and T. Stingelin. In the first half of the 20th century, extensive research was carried out by V. Brehm, who investigated material collected by the Wallacea-Expedition and the Deutschen Limnologischen Sunda-Expedition. Later, in the 1970-1980s, C.H. Fernando and collaborators, besides a few other researchers, provided a new series of regional studies of the cladoceran faunas together with the systematic revisions of some taxa from tropical Asia. Then and up to present, investigations of the Cladocera have concentrated in Thailand and many species have been revised and described as new to science. In total, 298 taxa of species rank have been recorded in SE Asia but only comparatively few of them (67 taxa; 22.5% can be regarded good species, of which the valid status has been confirmed by recent studies, while others are synonyms (68; 22.8% or taxa of uncertain taxonomic status, including those which definitely represent complexes of species (163; 54.7%. Most total taxa of species level and good species are known from Thailand (155 and 54, respectively, followed by Malaysia (plus Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia in this respect (70-119 total taxa and 23-33 good species respectively. Laos, Burma (Myanmar and Brunei remain practically unexplored. Only good species were used for the zoogeographic analysis. Of them, about a quarter is known only in SE Asia but more species are distributed in tropical/subtropical/temperate Asia and Australia, others in tropics/subtropics of the eastern hemisphere (17.9% or even wider. Tropical species, constituting the primary part of the cladoceran fauna of SE Asia, can penetrate the neighboring subtropical and southern temperate zones to a different degree. Only a small fraction of species (7 or 10.5% here are of more or less northern

  18. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is

  19. Relationship between stakeholders' information value perception and information security behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Sharul; Olphert, Wendy; Doherty, Neil

    2015-02-01

    security behaviours. This study seeks to address this gap in the research. Data will be presented from a pilot study consisting of interviews with 6 participants from public organisations in Brunei Darussalam which illustrate the nature of the value assignment process, together with an initial model of the relationship between perceived information value and information security behaviours.

  20. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  1. 广东珠海市2007年登革病毒分子流行病学分析%Phylogenetic analysis on dengue viruses in Zhuhai outbreak during 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泉德; 张如胜; 李红霞; 谭爱军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the Dengue virus type Ⅰ /Ⅱ strain ZH1067/07 and ZH1340/07 in Zhuhai city and explore the possible viral origin. Methods The primers used for amplification and sequencing of Dengue virus type I and Dengue virus type Ⅱ genomic sequences were designed separately based on strains AB178040 and M29095. The amplification fragments were sequenced on both strand by using these primers. The sequencing results were assembled into a viral complete genomic sequence by spliced the terminals overlapped each other. The viral genomic sequences were submitted to the CenBank (Accession No: Eu359008 and Eu359009). The genetic distances were calculated and the phylogenetic trees were constructed by compared the genomic sequences with present sequences available on GenBank. Results The complete genome of Dengue virus type I strain of ZH1067/07 was composed of 10735bp and comprised a large open reading frame (ORF). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that it was closest to AB178040 and Fj231/04 (99% identity, 10638/ 10735). The epidemic evidence supported that Dengue virus type I strain caused outbreak in zhuhai 2007 was originated from FJ231/04. The genom sequence of Dengue virus type II strain of ZH1340/07 was composed of 10723bp. It consisted of 96bp and 454bp at The 3' terminal and 5' terminal non-coding region separately and an open reading frame (ORF)locating in 97-10269 nucleotides. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that it was closest to EU179857 and EU179858 strains from Brunei. The epidemic investigation showed that the 2 input cases from Macao were no relationship with outbreak in Zhuhai of 2007. Conclusion Dengue virus type I .which genetically closest to Japan strains (AB178040 from Micronesia),was input from Fujian province of China and caused outbreak in Zhuhai of 2007. Dengue virus type Ⅱ nearest to Brunei strain EU179857,meanwhile inputed cases from Macao,had no relationship with Zhuhai outbreak of 2007.%目的 了解2007年珠

  2. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  3. Ruschita Romanian marble - 130 years of official exploitation and 130 m depth of architectural beauty around the word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetean, Valentina

    2013-04-01

    the slabs being used both for inside and the outside application: from flooring, walling, stairs, solid masonry units, capitals, plinths, fireplaces, kitchen tops (even if not-recommended because is not resistant to acids), tablet, architectural elements, until paving and flooring works, elements in contact with the floor, non-vertical surfaces etc. A bigger attention has to be paid for using of Ruschita marble at external facades in those regions with many freezing - thaw cycles per year with big differences between the lower and higher value of temperature, because the stone can suffer important damage due to the different thermal dilatation coefficient. In this case, the recommended thickness of panels is bigger than 2 cm, the lustre final polishing The Dom from Milano - known as into a continuously maintenance work in the last 500 years - was partially rebuilt in the '70ties with Ruschita marble. Another interesting places where this marble was used are: the Parliament buildings from Wien (Austria) and Budapest (Hungary), BBC centre from Menheim (Germany), architectural elements from Michael Schumacher's villa from Monte Carlo or the bathrooms from sultan's palace in Brunei. Similar to other type of marbles used as in the ornamental stone industry, Ruschita type combines the specific colour with the internal structure, qualitative properties and unique ornamental characteristics. All these are decisive elements recommend the Ruschita marble as candidates for "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation.

  4. Systematics of Old World Odontacolus Kieffer s.l. (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.: parasitoids of spider eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valerio

    2013-07-01

    known from India, is here recorded from Brunei, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The relationships, distribution and biology of Odontacolus are discussed, and a key is provided to identify all species.

  5. Statement to Fifty-Eight Regular Session of IAEA General Conference, 22 September 2014, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I will begin by welcoming three new Member States which have joined the Agency since the last General Conference: the Bahamas, Brunei Darussalam and San Marino. In my visits to Member States all over the world, I become more and more convinced of the vital importance of science and technology for sustainable development. Nuclear science and technology have much to contribute to the achievement of development goals in areas such as human health, agriculture, water management, and industrial applications, as well as in energy. The nations of the world are presently considering new sustainable development goals for the years after 2015. I ask all Member States to help ensure that the importance of science and technology is explicitly recognised as a central part of the post-2015 agenda. This should include recognition of the immense benefits of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. I am doing what I can to build awareness in this area. A key challenge facing the world in the coming decades will be to provide reliable supplies of energy as the population grows, and, at the same time, to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Many countries believe nuclear power can help them to address this challenge. Nuclear power is one of the lowest emitters of carbon dioxide - alongside hydro- and wind-based electricity - when emissions through the entire life cycle are considered.mProgress continues to be made in improving nuclear safety throughout the world. I have seen concrete improvements in safety features at every nuclear power plant I have visited since the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The Agency and its Member States continue to implement the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was endorsed by the General Conference in 2011. The central role of the Agency in helping to strengthen the global nuclear security framework is widely recognized. The international nuclear security environment is constantly changing. With its broad mandate and technical capabilities, and

  6. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km

  7. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P. H.

    2004-09-01

    There is a new tradition in England called Apple Day which is held on some day in October. The actual day varies from place to place. For instance, in 2003, 23 October was Apple Day at Woolsthorpe Manor, the house where Isaac Newton was born and where, during the Plague, he is said to have developed the theory of gravity. (For information on future Apple Days see, for example, http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/thingstodo.) Last year in our garden we picked an apple which weighed one pound, thirteen and a half ounces (1 lb 13 1/2 oz or 29 1/2 oz). The following day we went to an Apple Day event where there were many exotic apples on display, varieties which are not sold in shops. One of the varieties there was called 'Twenty Ounce'. By now you may be wondering what all this has to do with the book being reviewed. We shall return to this later. This entertaining book is ostensibly about units, in particular about Imperial and metric units, but there are numerous informative digressions. The author reminds us that almost every country 'with the exception of the United States, North and South Yemen, Burma and Brunei' has gone metric. He points out that the United States (US) became officially metric in 1893. However, as early as 1866, the US legal definition of the metre was 39.370000 inches. He tells us that after World War II the (US) inch was rounded down (from 25.400051) to 25.4 mm. There is no mention that the Imperial (British) inch was simultaneously rounded up from 25.399956 mm to 25.4 mm. The author frequently digresses, covering such matters as the trisection of angles and Eratosthenes' graphic solution for duplicating the cube. There is an informative discussion on the length of the day: appropriately 25 December, which lasts for 24 h and 30 s, is the longest day. He shows how with cycles and epicycles one can construct an ellipse. Ptolemy did not realize the importance of the focus of the ellipse. The author discusses various topics in the development of

  8. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied, Rethinking Raffles; A study of Stamford Raffles’ discourse on religions amongst Malays. (Nathan Porath Walter Angst, Wayang Indonesia; Die phantastische Welt des indonesischen Figurentheaters/The fantastic world of Indonesian puppet theatre. (Dick van der Meij Adrienne Kappler and others, James Cook and the exploration of the Pacific. (H.J.M. Claesen Aurel Croissant, Beate Martin and Sascha Kneip (eds, The politics of death; Political violence in Southeast Asia. (Freek Colombijn Frank Dhont, Kevin W. Fogg and Mason C. Hoadley (eds, Towards an inclusive democratic Indonesian society; Bridging the gap between state uniformity and multicultural identity patterns. (Alexander Claver Bronwen Douglas and Chris Ballard (eds, Foreign bodies; Oceania and the science of race, 1750-1940. (H.J.M. Claesen Ricky Ganang, Jay Crain, and Vicki Pearson-Rounds, Kemaloh Lundayeh-English dictionary and bibliographic list of materials relating to the Lundayeh-Lun Bawang-Kelabit and related groups of Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei and East Kalimantan. (Michael Boutin Jeffrey Hadler, Muslims and matriarchs; Cultural resilience in Indonesia through Jihad and Colonialism. (Franz von Benda-Beckmann Uli Kozok, Kitab undang-undang Tanjung Tanah: Naskah Melayu yang tertua. (Arlo Griffiths Alfonds van der Kraan, Murder and mayhem in seventeenth-century Cambodia; Anthony van Diemen vs. King Ramadhipati I. (Jeroen Rikkerink Jean Michaud, ‘Incidental’ ethnographers; French Catholic missions on the Tonkin-Yunnan frontier, 1880-1930. (Nicholas Tapp M.C. Ricklefs, Polarising Javanese society; Islamic and other visions (c. 1830-1930. (Matthew Isaac Cohen Stuart Robson, Arjunawiwāha; The marriage of Arjuna of Mpu Ka?wa. (Andrea Acri László Székely and István Radnai, Dit altijd alleen zijn; Verhalen over het leven van planters en koelies in Deli (1914-1930. (Adrienne Zuiderweg Patricia Tjiook-Liem (Giok Kiauw

  9. Key trends of climate change in the ASEAN countries. The IPAT decomposition analysis 1980-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, J.; Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Allievi, F.

    2012-07-01

    change in CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion in eight ASEAN member countries: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Analyses for Cambodia and Lao PDR are not provided due to data limitations and unreliability concerning the analysed time period 1980-2005. The applied decomposition analysis is introduced in section 2. Section 3 gives the essential background information for the analysis, i.e. trends of CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion and gross domestic product (GDP) during the studied period. In section 4, results of the decomposition analysis are presented and preliminary interpretations given for each analysed country. Sections 5, 6 and 7 present the benchmarking results from the decomposition analyses of China and India (section 5), United States, OECD Europe and Japan (section 6), and the World total (section 7). Finally, section 8 presents the conclusions. Special references are made to the policy analyses related to the Bali agreement and zero-carbon strategies of the ASEAN countries.

  10. The analysis of information on fruit flies from ASEAN intercepted at chinese ports%我国口岸截获东盟实蝇疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兴莉; 刘海军; 李志红; 胡学难; 陈克

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,due to the increase of the fruit and vegetable trade between China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN),a great number of fruit flies are intercepted at chinese ports from imported fruits and vegetables and goods carried by incoming travelers from ASEAN.In this paper,we analyzed the information on ASEAN fruit flies intercepted at chinese ports from 2004 to 2010 according to the following characteristics: enter data,origin nation,Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau name,goods category,goods name,etc.The results show that the smallest number of batches of fruit flies were intercepted at chinese ports is 128 in 2004,however,the largest number of batches of fruit flies were intercepted is 1789 in 2005,in other years,about 600 batches of fruit flies were intercepted;In the nine ASEAN’s countries,exclusive of Brunei,we intercepted 3411 batches of fruit flies from cargos and goods carried by incoming travelers coming from Thailand,it’s the maximum number,followed by 538 batches from Vietnamese,431 batches from Malaysia and 378 batches from Myanmar;Altogether 15 Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureaus had intercepted the fruit fly pests in cargos and goods carried by incoming travelers from ASEAN,in which,Guangdong,Shenzhen and Yunnan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureaus have intercepted the most batches of fruit flies,followed by Shanghai,Fujian,Xiamen,and Guangxi.With higher numbers of batches of fruit flies intercepted from cargos are Bactrocera correcta,B.dorsalis,and B.tau respectively.With higher numbers of batches of fruit flies intercepted from goods carried by incoming travelers are B.latifrons,B.dorsalis,B.correcta and B.tau respectively;fruit flies were intercepted from more than 60 kinds of goods.Therefore,it is imperative to enhance inspection and quarantine to protect the safety of our agricultural and forestry production.%近年来,随着我国和东盟果蔬贸易额逐年攀升,我国口岸从东盟进

  11. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the volume 15 number: 1 of TOJDE, In this issue, 18 articles of 34 authors from 9 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the tojde from, bBangladesh, Brunei, Greece, India, Indonasia, Malaysia, Republic Of Korea, Turkey and USA. The 1st article is arrived from Grecee written by Evangelos Bebetsos and Dimitrios Goulimaris from Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Democritus University Of Thrace Komotini, Hellas, on “Personal Outcome And Leadership As Defining Factors Of Satisfaction In The Context Of The Course “Arts II: Overview Of Greek Music And Dance” of The Hellenic Open University”. The purpose of this study was twofold: to assess the construct validity of the modified greek version of the “scale of athlete satisfaction” presented by Theodorakis and Bebetsos (2003 in the broader academic research sector and specifically in the field of open and distance learning, and to examine if variables such as sex, age, marital status and prior experience, influence the levels of students’ satisfaction. Participants were 144 students (55 men and 89 women of the Hellenic Open University who participated in the course “arts ii: review of the Greek music and dance”, between the ages of 25 up to 67 years of age (μage=42, sd=7.62. The scale consists of two factors: a personal outcome and b leadership. Results from factor analysis provided evidence for the construct validity of the scale developed by Theodorakis and Bebetsos (2003. Additionally, results indicated differences between the age groups on the factor of “personal outcome” were the youngest age group had the lowest scores among all three and also, results indicated differences on the factor of “leadership”, were men had higher scores than women. Overall, the study underlines the necessity of adaptation and usage of such an instrument in order to inform and educate

  12. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw