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Sample records for brunei

  1. Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Brunei's population characteristics, geographical features, history, form of government, and political and economic situation were briefly described. Brunei is a small country on the northwest coast of the island of Borneo. Estimated population size is 214,000 (1983), and the annual population growth rate is 0.35% (1971-81). Ethnically, the population is 65% Malay, 20% Chinese, and 15% other. The major religion is Islam, and a variety of languages are spoken, including Malay, English, Chinese, and Iban. Education is compulsory through the primary grades, and the literacy rate among the young is 95%. Between the 1500s and the 1800s, the country was a Buddhist kingdom, then a Hindu kingdom, and finally an Islamic kingdom. In 1847 the Sultan of Brunei entered into a trade agreement with Great Britain, and in 1888 the country was placed under British rule. In 1929 the discovery of oil lead to the economic development of the country. During World War II, the country was occupied by the Japanese. In 1984, after resisting pressure to unite with Sarawak and Malaysia, Brunei was granted independence. At that time it adopted the official name of Brunei Darussalam. The country remains a hereditary sultanate, and the current sultan is Sir Muda Hassanal Bolkaih Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah. The sultan has supreme executive authority and is assisted in administering the country by a 6-person cabinet which includes 3 members of the royal family. 46% of the work force is employed by the government, and government workers are provided with an extensive array of economic benefits, ranging from free medical care to low interest loans. The economy is based primarily on the production of oil and gas, which is produced by Brunei Shell, a consortium owned jointly by the government and Shell Oil. Brunei Shell is the country's 2nd largest employer next to the government, accounts for 72% of the gross domestic product (GDP), and is the primary source of government revenue. Oil accounts for 99% of

  2. Enterovirus 71 Outbreak, Brunei

    OpenAIRE

    AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sam, I-Ching; Yusof, Jaliha; Lim, Meng Keang; Misbah, Suzana; ,; Hooi, Poh-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreaks occur periodically in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, Brunei reported its first major outbreak of EV71 infections, associated with fatalities from neurologic complications. Isolated EV71 strains formed a distinct lineage with low diversity within subgenogroup B5, suggesting recent introduction and rapid spread within Brunei.

  3. Brunei Darussalam; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    The statistical appendices present the following details for Brunei Darussalam: Nominal GDP and quarterly nominal GDP by economic activity, nominal GDP and quarterly nominal GDP by expenditure, quarterly composition of nominal GDP and composition of nominal GDP by activity, real GDP and quarterly real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, oil and gas production and sales, consumer price index, imports and exports by commodities, country destination exchange rates, energy sector, financial...

  4. Põhjapanevad uuendused Brunei naftasultanaadis / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Parlamenti ehk Seadusandlikku Kogu pole Bruneis eksisteerinud 42 aastat, sest 1962. a. saatis valitseja Omar Ali Saifuddin selle laiali. 25. sept. tuli 21-liikmeline parlament kokku. Bruneist kui heaolu riigist

  5. Chinese-Brunei Oil Cooperation Benefits Two Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Thanks to joint efforts by both sides, the trade and economic relations between China and Brunei have in recent years witnessed a steady and healthy development, which will no doubt benefit the two countries and the two peoples.

  6. Automated peritoneal dialysis in Brunei Darussalam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat KAMAL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic kidney disease in Brunei Darussalam is a growing problem. The number of patients reaching end stage kidney failure has increased dramatically in the last ten years. Currently, most are managed with haemodialysis while a smaller proportion is managed with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD is a form of peritoneal dialysis and has been used in Brunei Darussalam since May 2008. Materials and Methods: Eight patients participated in this prospective clinical trial. As all APD patients were previously on CAPD, comparisons are made between the outcomes of APD against CAPD. Results: The median and mean age of APD patients were 42 and 45.5 ± 12.73 years respectively. After switching to APD, the serum haemoglobin and albumin improved from 10.56 ± 1.95 gm/L and 27.88 ± 7.71 gm/dL to 12.26 ± 1.82 gm/L and 33.63 ± 6.89 gm/dL respectively (p values <0.05. This corresponded to improvements in seven (87.5% and six (75% patients respectively in both parameters. Erythropoietin requirement was reduced in six (75% patients, including three (37.5% patients who were able to stop erythropoietin completely. There was no peritonitis encountered. All patients reported improved quality of life with better sleep, appetite and general well-being. Conclusions: Our study showed that APD was as good as CAPD with improvement seen in both laboratory and quality of life parameters. There was also reduction in erythropoietin requirement. Based on these findings, we will actively encourage and promote APD usage as oppose to CAPD usage in our population.

  7. Coastal resources of Brunei Darussalam: Status, utilization and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, G.; Jaafar, H.M.H.; Yusof, P.S.P.H.; De Silva, M.W.R.N.; Chua, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    In light of the environmental dangers accompanying its recent program of economic diversification, the Government of Brunei Darussalam has signalled the need for improved management of its coastal areas, where 85 percent of the population lives and the country's social and economic activities are concentrated. The report contains the proceedings of a conference held in 1991 to review recent studies of Brunei Darussalam's coastal resources and draft an initial coastal area management plan. Individual papers cover: capture fisheries; mangrove and mangrove forest resources; fish communities in natural reef and artificial habitats; coastal area water quality; the populations and diversity of benthic fauna that inhabit coastal waters and are threatened by oil spills; a simulation of oil slick movement in Brunei Darussalam; a composite sensitivity index ranking the susceptibility of Brunei's five zones (as identified by resource prevalence) to oil spills; a management strategy for Brunei's 33 islands, most of which are uninhabited; zoning of industrial activities to minimize adverse effects on coastal water quality and the environment; the socioeconomic importance of Brunei's coastal resources; and the legal and institutional environment for coastal resource management.

  8. E-Health Initiative and Customer's Expectation: Case Brunei

    CERN Document Server

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Low, Patrick Kim Cheng; Anshari, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This paper is to determine the dimension of e-health services in Brunei Darussalam (Brunei) from customers' perspective. It is to identify, understand, analyze and evaluate public's expectation on e-health in Brunei. A questionnaire was designed to gather quantitative and qualitative data to survey patients, patient's family, and health practitioners at hospitals, clinics, or home care centers in Brunei starting from February to March, 2011. A 25-item Likert-type survey instrument was specifically developed for this study and administered to a sample of 366 patients. The data were analyzed to provide initial ideas and recommendation to policy makers on how to move forward with the e-health initiative as a mean to improve healthcare services. The survey revealed that there exists a high demand and expectation from people in Brunei to have better healthcare services accessible through an e-health system in order to improve health literacy as well as quality and efficiency of healthcare. Regardless of the limita...

  9. Healthcare in Brunei Darussalam: Flying Doctor Service (Part I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of an official healthcare system in Brunei in 1907, service provision continued to improve, albeit slowly. Some of the limiting factors included the lack of infrastructure in healthcare, roads and transportation and workforce (limited to dressers and a visiting doctor from Labuan in the initial part, and limited knowledge of the bygone era.

  10. Customer expectation of e-health systems in Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Wint, Zaw; Low, Kim Cheng Patrick; Anshari, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the dimension of e-health services in Brunei Darussalam from the customer's perspective. The study seeks to identify, understand, analyze, and evaluate the public's expectation of e-health in Brunei Darussalam. A questionnaire was designed to gather quantitative and qualitative data to survey patients, the patient's family, and health practitioners at hospitals, clinics, or home care centers in Brunei Darussalam from February to March 2011. A 25-item Likert-type survey instrument was specifically developed for this study and administered to a sample of 366 patients. These data were analyzed to provide initial ideas and recommendations to policy makers on how to move forward with the e-health initiative as a means to improve health care services. The survey revealed that there is a high demand and expectation from people of Brunei to have better health care services through an e-health system in order to improve health literacy as well as quality and efficiency of health care. Regardless of the limitations of the survey, the general public has responded to the questionnaire with great support for the abilities of an e-health system. The results of the survey provide a solid foundation for our ongoing research project to proceed further to develop the model of e-health and subsequently to develop a system prototype that incorporates expectations from patients.

  11. Proifles of autoimmune hepatitis in Brunei Darussalam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand Jalihal; Pemasari Upali Telisinghe; Vui Heng Chong

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inlfammatory disease of the liver. Data on the disease remain scarce in the Southeast Asia region. This study was undertaken to assess the proifles of AIH in Brunei Darussalam. METHODS: Nineteen patients with AIH treated at the hepatology clinic, RIPAS Hospital (up until December 2008) were reviewed. Demographic, laboratory, histologic, clinical, and therapeutic data of the patients were collected. RESULTS: The median age of the 19 patients at diagnosis was 52 years (range 33-70) with a male to female ratio of 1∶3.75. All patients were diagnosed with typeⅠAIH. The prevalence rate of the disease was 5.61/100 000 and was higher in the Chinese than in Malays and Indigenous people. Commonly seen presentations were abnormal liver function (52.6%), icteric hepatitis (36.8%), and decompensated liver disease (10.5%). Histologically advanced ifbrosis was found in 47.4% and cirrhosis in 21.1% of the patients. Immune-mediated diseases were present in 36.8%. In a follow-up for 31 months (range 0.25-102), three patients died, 2 had progressive liver failure and 1 had lymphoma. Complete biochemical response was seen in 75%of the patients, partial response in 12.5%, and no response in 12.5%. HLA DRB1*03 (DR3) was detected in 18.2%of the patients and DRB1*04 (DR4) in 45.5%. There were signiifcant associations between HLA Cw7 (P=0.038) and DQB1*04 (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The data of the 19 patients were comparable to those reported in the literature. Most of the patients were found to have abnormal biochemistry. There were signiifcant associations between HLA Cw7 and DQB1*04, but not between DRB1*03 (DR3) and DRB1*04 (DR4).

  12. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line.

  13. Haze Research in Brunei Darussalam During the 1998 Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, M.

    - Brunei Darussalam experienced a severe haze episode between the beginning of February and the end of April 1998 due mainly to local peat and forest fires in Brunei and in neighbouring Sabah and Sarawak. The extensive research studies of the haze carried out in Brunei are outlined together with selected results. Particulate matter (PM10) was the only significant criteria pollutant and it exceeded WHO guidelines and accepted air quality standards on most days during the haze episode. Gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NO2, O3) were generally well below WHO guidelines and at these concentrations they are expected to have no significant health or environmental effects. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), aldehydes, phenol, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Personal exposure monitoring of PM10 revealed significant differences in exposure patterns between different individuals depending on the location, time and activity. Data on outpatient visits showed an increase for some illnesses (e.g., acute respiratory infection) during the months of haze. No significant impacts of haze on rainwater acidity or deposition were noted. Emission factors for some volatile compounds were determined in combustion experiments in which peat was burned at temperatures typical of smouldering.

  14. Developmental Interdependence Hypothesis Revisited in the Brunei Classroom [and] A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Elizabeth M.; Saravanan, Vanithamani

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of developing the native language (L1), i.e., "Bahasa Melayu," as a firm foundation for the learning of a second language (L2) in Brunei and analyzes problems facing learners of "Bahasa Melayu" and English in Brunei classrooms. Saravanan's response focuses on the structure of the Brunesian bilingual…

  15. Public Art Education in Brunei Darussalam: The Cultural Language of Community Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2014-01-01

    Two mural projects in Brunei offer insight into the specific and universal aspects of public art education and community art making. This article describes how the author used his initiative and experience as a muralist to plan and implement two community art research projects in Bandar Seri Begwan, the capital of Brunei Darussalam. A premise of…

  16. English Language Teaching in Brunei: A View through a Critical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Clayton

    2011-01-01

    The small sultanate of Brunei, located on the island of Borneo in the South China Sea, introduced bilingual education shortly after independence. As a consequence, Brunei's Ministry of Education outsourced much of its English language teaching requirements to qualified expatriate teachers. Despite over 25 years of systemic English language…

  17. Healthcare Pioneers: The Nurses of Brunei Darussalam (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In any healthcare system, nurses play a vital role in the delivering of medical and health services. A significant point in the history of nursing in Brunei was the training of two local women on ’ward utility’ of Maternal and Child services in 1932. In 1933, a local Maternal and Child Nurse was appointed and another trained as probationer midwife. In 1936, seven male officers were engaged in this service. Two nurses were also trained to provide educational services for antenatal women. Importance was placed on midwifery due to the high obstetric complications and maternal and infant mortality rates.

  18. CODE CHOICE WITHIN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION AMONG ETHNIC MINORITY IN BRUNEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Chuchu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influences of globalisation and multilingualism have caused linguistic diversity and emergence of interesting and unique sociolinguistic phenomena, for instance, language contact in intercultural communication. As the study of intercultural communication has yet to be studied at large, this research takes the opportunity to embark on a descriptive study of code choice within intercultural communication, relating to the ethnic minorities in Brunei Darussalam. This investigation aims to identify these ethnics’ preferable code choice within intercultural communication, and their needs and motivations practising those codes in a shared multilingual setting. Involving empirical investigation, this study was conducted on 60 native Brunei ethnics in Mukim Ukong, Tutong District. Research found that study involving multilingual settings and intercultural communications are rather relatively complex sociolinguistic phenomena, where speakers would employ different dialects or languages at an episode of communication, but still mutually understood by each other. To some extent, some speakers also accommodate their speech styles or languages to ease communication process between parties. The hegemony of globalisation, local vernacular, speakers’ background and setting are among others influenced the selection of their everyday code choice.

  19. Primar y biliar y cirrhosis in Brunei Darussalam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vui Heng Chong; Pemasiri Upali Telisinghe; Anand Jalihal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an uncom-mon autoimmune cholestatic disease that predominantly affects women. Certain human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) have been reported to be associated with susceptibility for PBC. We describe the proifles of PBC in Brunei Darussalam. METHODS: All patients with PBC (n=10) were identiifed from our prospective databases. The HLA proifles (n=9, PBC) were compared to controls (n=65) and patients with autoimmune hepatitis (n=13, AIH). RESULTS: All patients were women with a median age of 51 years (27-83) at diagnosis. The prevalence rate of the disease was 25.6/million-population and the estimated incidence rate varied from 0 to 10.3/million-population per year. Chinese (41.15/million) and the indigenous (42.74/million) groups had higher prevalence rates compared to Malays (22.62/million). The prevalence among female population was 54.6/million-population. All patients were referred for abnormal liver proifles. Five patients had symptoms at presentations:jaundice (20%), fatigue (20%), arthralgia (30%) and pruritus (20%). Serum anti-mitochondrial antibody was positive in 80%of the patients. Overlap with AIH was seen in 30%. Liver biopsies (n=8) showed stage I (n=2), II (n=4) and III (n=2) ifbrosis. There were no signiifcant differences in the HLA proifles between PBC and AIH. Compared to the controls, PBC patients had signiifcantly more HLA class I alleles speciifcally B7 (P=0.003), Cw7 (P=0.002) and Cw12 (P=0.007) but not the class II alleles. At a median follow-up of 23.5 months (2 to 108), all patients were alive without evidence of disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: PBC is also a predominant female disorder in our local setting and most had mild disease. The HLA proifles of our patients were different to what have been reported.

  20. Hillslope hydrology in tropical rainforest steeplands in Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, A. P.; Thornes, J. B.

    2000-02-01

    Many remaining areas of tropical rainforest in south-east Asia are located on landscapes dominated by deep valleys and very steep slopes. Now that logging activities are extending into these steeplands, it is essential to understand how the natural rainforest system behaves if any kind of realistic assessment of the effects of such disturbance is to be made. This paper examines the hydrological behaviour of an undisturbed rainforest system on steep topography in the Temburong District of Brunei, north-west Borneo. The physical and hydrological properties of the regolith material are generally typical of tropical residual soils. The regolith has a clay texture and a low dry bulk density beneath a superficial litter/organic horizon. The infiltration capacity of the surface soil was several hundred mm h-1. That of the exposed mineral subsoil was an order of magnitude less, similar to the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of around 180 mm h-1 at a depth of 150 cm. There was no indication that Ksat reduced with depth except very near the bedrock interface.Soil tensions were measured using a two-dimensional array of tensiometers on a 30° slope. During dry season conditions, infiltrating rain-water contributes to soil moisture, and drying of the soil is dominated by transpiration losses. During wet season conditions, perched water tables quickly develop during heavy rainfall, giving rise to the rapid production of return flow in ephemeral channels. No infiltration excess or saturation overland flow was observed on hillslopes away from channel margins. Subsurface storm flow combined with return flow produce stream flow hydrographs with high peak discharges and very short lag times. Storm event runoff coefficients are estimated to be as high as 40%. It is concluded that the most distinctive feature of the hydrology of this steepland rainforest is the extremely flashy nature of the catchment runoff regime produced by the combination of thin but very permeable regolith

  1. Total and free available fluoride in toothpastes in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Benzian; C.J. Holmgren; M. Buijs; C. van Loveren; F. van der Weijden; W.H. van Palenstein Helderman

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience samples were bought in the five coun

  2. Service Quality in Higher Education--A Case Study of Universiti Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Farooq; Yaqoub, Yasir; Hamdan, Mahani

    2015-01-01

    No one doubts the value and importance of quality education, and quality assurance is one major driving force to achieve this. Measuring the performance of service quality of education services of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), as part of the quality assessment, was assessed based on Parasuraman's five Servqual dimensions. The assessment was…

  3. Micro-caddisflies in the tribe Hydroptilini (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Hydroptilinae) from Malaysia and Brunei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Huisman, J.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two new species of Hydroptilidae in six genera are described from Malaysia and Brunei: Ugandatrichia Mosely (1), Macrostactobia Schmid (1), Hydroptila Dalman (16), Oxyethira Eaton (1), and Hellyethira Neboiss (3). In addition, new distributional records of previously described species of Ugan

  4. Role of occupational health in managing non-communicable diseases in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pg Khalifah Pg Ismail

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most ASEAN countries, Brunei faces an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. To deal with the complexity of NCDs prevention, all perspectives - be it social, familial or occupational – need to be considered. In Brunei Darussalam, occupational health services (OHS offered by its Ministry of Health, among others, provide screening and management of NCDs at various points of service. The OHS does not only issue fitness to work certificates, but is a significant partner in co-managing patients’ health conditions, with the advantage of further management at the workplace. Holistic approach of NCD management in the occupational setting is strengthened with both employer and employee education and participation, targeting several approaches including risk management and advocating healthy lifestyles as part of a healthy workplace programme.

  5. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  6. Genetic stock compositions and natal origin of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging at Brunei Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetics composition and growth stages of endangered green turtles, as well as the connectivity between nesting and foraging grounds is important for effective conservation. A total of 42 green turtles were captured at Brunei Bay with curved carapace length ranging from 43.8 to 102.0 cm, and most sampled individuals were adults and large juveniles. Twelve haplotypes were revealed in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Most haplotypes contained identical sequences to haplotypes previously found in rookeries in the Western Pacific, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity indices of the Brunei Bay were 0.8444±0.0390 and 0.009350±0.004964, respectively. Mixed-stock analysis (for both uninformative and informative prior weighting by population size estimated the main contribution from the Southeast Asian rookeries of the Sulu Sea (mean ≥45.31%, Peninsular Malaysia (mean ≥17.42%, and Sarawak (mean ≥12.46%. Particularly, contribution from the Sulu Sea rookery was estimated to be the highest and lower confidence intervals were more than zero (≥24.36%. When estimating contributions by region rather than individual rookeries, results showed that Brunei Bay was sourced mainly from the Southeast Asian rookeries. The results suggest an ontogenetic shift in foraging grounds and provide conservation implications for Southeast Asian green turtles.

  7. Foreign Language Learners' Motivation and Its Effects on Their Achievement: Implications for Effective Teaching of Students Studying Japanese at Universiti Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Minako; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of students at the University of Brunei Darussalam are studying the Japanese language. However, research on the relationship between learners' motivation and their achievement has not been given sufficient attention in Japanese foreign language education compared to English in Brunei. The present study, which utilized a…

  8. Comparison of Brunei Preservice Student Teachers' Attitudes to Inclusive Education and Specific Disabilities: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Faridah Serajul; Mundia, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated and compared Brunei trainee teachers' attitudes to specific disabilities and students with high support needs. The random sample consisted of 89 participants of both genders on 2 teacher education programs. Data were collected using a 3-part self-report instrument constructed by the researchers. Overall, the participants…

  9. The mushroom coral fauna (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) of Brunei Darussalam (South China Sea) and its relation to the Coral Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Lane, D.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Brunei Darussalam is situated on the northwest coast of Borneo, just outside the westernmost boundary of the area presently recognised as the centre of maximum marine biodiversity, the so-called Coral Triangle. This diversity is particularly quantified with regard to numbers of reef coral species. M

  10. China-ASEAN Association President Gu Xiulian Visits Myanmar,Indonesia and Brunei and Attends Second Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Union Solidarity and Development Association of Myanmar (USDA), the Association of Indonesia-China Economic, Social and Cultural Cooperation (AICESCC) and the Brunei-China Friendship Association (BCFA), Gu Xiulian, president of the China-ASEAN Association and vice chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, led a delegation of the China-ASEAN Association to pay a goodwill visit to Myanmar, Indonesia and Brunei from June 10 to 21 and attended the Second Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.

  11. Late Miocene fossils from shallow marine sediments in Brunei Darussalam: systematics, palaeoenvironment and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslim, Amajida; Briguglio, Antonino; Kocsis, László; Ćorić, Stjepan; Razak, Hazirah

    2016-04-01

    The geology of Brunei Darussalam is fascinating but difficult to approach: rainforests and heavy precipitation tend to erode and smoothen the landscape limiting rocks exposure, whereas abundant constructions sites and active quarries allow the creation of short time available outcrop, which have to be immediately sampled. The stratigraphy of Brunei Darussalam comprises mainly Neogene sediments deposited in a wave to tide dominated shallow marine environment in a pure siliciclastic system. Thick and heavily bioturbated sandstone layers alternate to claystone beds which occasionally yield an extraordinary abundance and diversity of fossils. The sandstones, when not bioturbated, are commonly characterized by a large variety of sedimentary structures (e.g., ripple marks, planar laminations and cross beddings). In this study, we investigate the sediments and the fossil assemblages to record the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the shallow marine environment during the late Miocene, in terms of sea level change, chemostratigraphy and sedimentation rate. The study area is one of the best in terms of accessibility, extension, abundance and preservation of fossils; it is located in the region -'Bukit Ambug' (Ambug Hill), Tutong District. The fossils fauna collected encompasses mollusks, decapods, otoliths, shark and ray teeth, amber, foraminifera and coccolithophorids. In this investigation, sediment samples were taken along a section which measures 62.5 meters. A thick clay layer of 9 meters was sampled each 30 cm to investigate microfossils occurrences. Each sample was treated in peroxide and then sieved trough 63 μm, 150μm, 250μm, 450μm, 600μm, 1mm and 2mm sieves. Results point on the changes in biodiversity of foraminifera along the different horizons collected reflecting sea level changes and sediment production. The most abundant taxa identified are Pseoudorotalia schroeteriana, Ampistegina lessonii, Elphidium advenum, Quinqueloculina sp., Bolivina sp

  12. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS OF VENDORS IN AN OPEN AIR HAWKER CENTRE IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Nor Nazurah ebt Abdul Wahid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe studied respiratory problems among vendors exposed to cooking fumes in an open-air hawker centre. Exposure to cooking fumes from either the use of fossil fuels or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG has been shown to be associated with adverse respiratory health effects.Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 67 food vendors exposed to cooking fumes as well as 18 merchandise sellers at an open-air hawker centre in Brunei Darussalam. Past medical and smoking history and exposure to cooking fumes were obtained. The validated American Thoracic Society (ATS Questionnaire with a translated Malay version was used to ask for respiratory symptoms. Results Compared to merchandise sellers (n=18, cooking vendors (n=67 had a higher self-reported respiratory symptoms (50.7% for those cooking and 33.3% for merchandise sellers. Cough (28.3% was the main respiratory symptom experienced in cooking vendors and breathlessness (22.2% among merchandise sellers. Half (50.0% of cooking vendors who worked for more than 10 years had cough and 27.3% had phlegm. Those cooking with charcoal were two times more likely to have cough than those cooking with LPG. Cooking vendors with a job duration of more than 10 years were thrice more likely to have cough.Conclusion Cooking vendors in the open air hawker centre exposed to cooking fumes had more respiratory symptoms compared to non-exposed merchandise sellers. The type of fuel used for cooking and duration of work were associated with increased prevalence of cough.

  13. The Suitability of the EPQ-R Short Scale for Counselling Brunei Student Teachers when Administered in English and Malay Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Abu Bakar, Hj Abu Zahari Bin

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the psychometric properties of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) Short Scale administered to two groups of Brunei trainee teachers of both genders taking psychology courses in English (117 students) and Malay (106 students). The extraversion scale had the most problematic items. Both administrations…

  14. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  15. A Comparative Study of Teachers' Pedagogical Competencies in Supporting Children with Learning Difficulties in Primary Schools in Ghana and Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosi, Okechukwu; Alhassan, Abdul Razak Kuyini

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' pedagogical competencies level is increasingly affecting the implementation of inclusive education policy in many countries. The aimed at comparing primary school teachers' competence levels in supporting children with learning difficulties in Brunei Darussalam and Ghana. Descriptive survey design was used and 188 primary school teachers…

  16. Code-Switching in the Primary Classroom: One Response to the Planned and the Unplanned Language Environment in Brunei [and] A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter W.; Espiritu, Clemencia C

    1996-01-01

    Examines how the teacher incorporates elements of both "Bahasa Melayu" and Brunei Malay into content lessons and views code switching in the primary classroom within the wider framework of community language norms and the linguistic pressures on students and teachers. Espiritu shares Martin's concern regarding the quantity and quality of…

  17. A new technique for inventory of permanent plots in tropical forests: a case study from lowland dipterocarp forest in Kuala Belalong, Brunei Darussalam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hédl, R.; Svátek, M.; Dančák, M.; Rodzay, A.W.; Salleh, M.A.B.; Kamariah, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for inventory of permanent plots in tropical forests and presents the results of its application in a 1 ha permanent plot in a lowland dipterocarp forest at Kuala Belalong, Ulu Temburong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. The technique is based on mapping of posit

  18. 对文莱能长期保持政治社会稳定的几点看法%My Views on Brunei's Long - term Perseverance of its Political and Social Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云娇

    2005-01-01

    Brunei has its unique features in its politics and society. With this in view, this article tries, from the sociological perspective, to state some views on how it is able to sustain its stability in those two fields.

  19. The diversity and abundance of ground herbs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hazlina Zaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants are important components of total plant species richness in tropical forests. Ground herb diversity and abundance were studied in a lowland Mixed Dipterocarp forest (Andulau and a heath forest (Bukit Sawat in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. At each site, all ground herbs in twenty randomly selected 10 × 10 m subplots within a one hectare permanent plot were censused and identified. The study recorded a total of 20 families and 32 genera of ground herbs, with the family Zingiberaceae as the most abundant at both sites. Thirteen genera were recorded only at Andulau and 7 genera were exclusive to Bukit Sawat, with twelve genera common to both sites. Ground herb species richness appear higher at Andulau than Bukit Sawat (37 vs. 29, but this difference was not statistically significant at the subplot level. However, ground herb abundance and density were significantly higher at Bukit Sawat than Andulau (n =  846 vs. 385; 4230 vs. 1925 individuals ha-1. The more open canopy at Bukit Sawat may provide higher light availability here than at Andulau, which is characterised by a closed canopy. We suggest that light availability is the most important environmental factor influencing ground herb density and abundance at these sites. 

  20. Approach to voxel-based carbon stock quanticiation using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Piao, Dongfan; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Yoon, Mihae; Moon, Jooyeon

    2016-04-01

    Forest is an important means to adapt climate change as the only carbon sink recognized by the international community (KFS 2009). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sectors including forestry contributed 24% of total anthropogenic emissions in 2010 (IPCC 2014; Tubiello et al. 2015). While all sectors excluding AFOLU have increased Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, land use sectors including forestry remains similar level as before due to decreasing deforestation and increasing reforestation. In earlier researches, optical imagery has been applied for analysis (Jakubowski et al. 2013). Optical imagery collects spectral information in 2D. It is difficult to effectively quantify forest stocks, especially in dense forest (Cui et al. 2012). To detect individual trees information from remotely sensed data, Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been used (Hyyppäet al. 2001; Persson et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2006). Moreover, LiDAR has the ability to actively acquire vertical tree information such as tree height using geo-registered 3D points (Kwak et al. 2007). In general, however, geo-register 3D point was used with a raster format which contains only 2D information by missing all the 3D data. Therefore, this research aimed to use the volumetric pixel (referred as "voxel") approach using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei. By comparing the parameters derived from voxel based LiDAR data and field measured data, we examined the relationships between them for the quantification of forest carbon. This study expects to be more helpful to take advantage of the strategic application of climate change adaption.

  1. Modernity and Globalisation: Is the Presence of English and of Cultural Products in English a Sign of Linguistic and Cultural Imperialism? Results of a Study Conducted in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at language use and attitudes in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia through a survey conducted among 88 university students for each country. The focus of the article, however, is on the expanding use of English, particularly as far as media consumption is concerned, relating this with issues of globalisation and linguistic and…

  2. Effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohye; Kim, Seungjun; Roh, Yujin; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Davies, Stuart; Son, Yowhan

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests have been considered important ecosystems in terms of carbon cycle and climate change, because they sequester carbon more than any other terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, coarse woody debris is one of the main carbon storages, accounting for 10 - 40% of the tropical forest carbon. Carbon in coarse woody debris is released by various activities of organisms, and particularly termite's feeding activities are known to be main process in tropical forests. Therefore, investigating the effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition is important to understanding carbon cycles of tropical forests. This study was conducted in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) of Brunei Darussalam, and three main MDF tree species (Dillenia beccariana, Macaranga bancana, and Elateriospermum tapos) were selected. Coarse woody debris samples of both 10 cm diameter and length were prepared, and half of samples were covered twice with nylon net (mesh size 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm) to prevent termite's approach. Three 2 m × 11 m permanent plots were installed in January, 2015 and eighteen samples per plot (3 species × 2 treatments × 3 repetitions) were placed at the soil surface. Weights of each sample were recorded at initial time, and weighed again in August, 2015. On average, uncovered and covered samples lost 18.9 % and 3.3 % of their initial weights, respectively. Weight loss percentage was highest in uncovered samples of M. bancana (23.9 %), and lowest in covered samples of E. tapos (7.8 %). Two-way ANOVA showed that tree species and termite exclusion treatment had statistically significant effects on coarse woody debris decomposition (P = 0.0001). The effect of species and termite exclusion treatment interaction was also statistically significant (P = 0.0001). The result reveals that termite activities promote the coarse woody debris decomposition and they influence differently along the wood species. However, many samples of D. beccariana

  3. Statistical Estimation of Dose-response Functions of Respiratory Diseases and Societal Costs of Haze-related Air Pollution in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaman, K. A.; Ibrahim, N.

    - The effects on human health resulting from the January to April 1998 haze-related air pollution episode in Brunei Darussalam were analysed for five groups of diseases of the respiratory system. The analysis concentrated on the statistical estimation of dose-response functions which related the number of cases of respiratory diseases to the level of quality of ambient environment as measured by the pollutants standards index (PSI) and other environmental variables. The total number of cases of the five groups of diseases was shown to be significantly related to PSI and temperature. Societal costs were also estimated. The results showed that societal costs were significantly related to PSI, temperature and relative humidity. Societal costs increased with higher PSI and relative humidity but decreased with increasing temperature.

  4. Brunei Darussalam; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the following are discussed: nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, composition of nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly composition of nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, growth in real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, growth in quarterly real GDP by economic a...

  5. Language Shift Caused by Language Policy at Brunei%文莱语言政策影响下的语言转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洁

    2016-01-01

    Sultan,the head and Prime Minister of Negara Brunei Darussalam,advocates the ideology“Malay,Islam and Monarchy”with a series of policies to assimilate non Malay and non Muslim citizens in the country.As a result,non Malay languages are assimilated by the official language Malay in line with the ideology in terms of word formation and syntax.Both Malay and the second language English have been promoted by the Bilingual Language Education Policy since 1985.With the orientation of language policy,indigenous languages tend to be reduced or even wiped out.%文莱在苏丹王的统治之下大力推行“马来化、伊斯兰化和君主制”,通过一系列的政策同化非马来族和非伊斯兰教的国民。非马来语在全国统一的意识形态下构词和句法上受到官方语言马来语同化;第二语言英语在文莱现代化进程中扮演重要角色,语言教育政策进一步加强了它的社会地位。就文莱语言生态现状来看,少数民族语言正逐年减少而呈弱化、消亡趋势,语言多样性生存空间较小。

  6. 14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

  7. Tsunami run-up and inundation along the coast of Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia due to a potential Brunei submarine mass failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wai Kiat; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2017-03-25

    Submarine landslides, also known as submarine mass failures (SMFs), are major natural marine disasters that could critically damage coastal facilities such as nuclear power plants and oil and gas platforms. It is therefore essential to investigate submarine landslides for potential tsunami hazard assessment. Three-dimensional seismic data from offshore Brunei have revealed a giant seabed mass deposited by a previous SMF. The submarine mass extends over 120 km from the continental slope of the Baram Canyon at 200 m water depth to the deep basin floor of the Northwest Borneo Trough. A suite of in-house two-dimensional depth-averaged tsunami simulation model TUNA (Tsunami-tracking Utilities and Application) is developed to assess the vulnerability of coastal communities in Sabah and Sarawak subject to potential SMF tsunami. The submarine slide is modeled as a rigid body moving along a planar slope with the center of mass motion parallel to the planar slope and subject to external forces due to added mass, gravity, and dissipation. The nonlinear shallow water equations are utilized to simulate tsunami propagation from deepwater up to the shallow offshore areas. A wetting-drying algorithm is used when a tsunami wave reaches the shoreline to compute run up of tsunami along the shoreline. Run-up wave height and inundation maps are provided for seven densely populated locations in Sabah and Sarawak to highlight potential risks at each location, subject to two scenarios of slide slopes: 2° and 4°. The first wave may arrive at Kudat as early as 0.4 h after the SMF, giving local communities little time to evacuate. Over a small area, maximum inundated depths reaching 20.3 m at Kudat, 26.1 m at Kota Kinabalu, and 15.5 m at Miri are projected, while the maximum inundation distance of 4.86 km is expected at Miri due to its low-lying coast. In view of the vulnerability of some locations to the SMF tsunami, it is important to develop and implement community resilience

  8. Chemical characterisation of the haze in Brunei Darussalam during the 1998 episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, T. R.; Radojevic, Miroslav; Waugh, Allan; Caruana, Anthony

    Coinciding with the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1997-1998, SE Asia experienced a severe air pollution episode locally referred to as haze. The monitoring and response efforts in the region mainly centred around criteria pollutants, though it was obvious that the pollution episode is fundamentally different from classical urban air pollution. This paper reports the results of the first-ever study of the detailed chemical composition of the haze in SE Asia. Although numerous studies of forest fire plumes have been conducted in other parts of the world, ours is the first study to be carried out with the specific aim of identifying and quantifying chemical components which are likely to have long-term human health implications. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), aldehydes, cresol, phenol, acetic acid, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suspended particles teratogens (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene, PAHs), and they have the potential to cause serious long-term effects.

  9. Re-Engineering Values into the Youth Education System: A Needs Analysis Study in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Tajudeen, Ahmad Labeeb; Nawi, Aliff; Mahalle, Salwa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a practical framework for designing a values teaching program in the youth education system. The choice of content, the nature of the students with respect to learning and their perception about the selected content for teaching values were studied. The study follows a Needs analysis design which drew upon document…

  10. Human resource management in domestic vs. multinational enterprises: an investigation in the country of Brunei

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Abdul Fattaah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Very little past work has focused on the comparative analysis of human resource management (HRM) practices between domestic (DEs) and multinational enterprises (MNEs). The majority of the work in this area has instead concentrated on comparing the HRM practices employed by the subsidiaries of MNEs, and has mostly been conducted in the context of developed countries. This research studies t...

  11. A new species of the genus Acarothrix (Acari: Halacaridae) from Brunei Darussalam and India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Marshall, D.J.; Guru, B.C.; Ingole B.S.; Pesic V.

    , Montenegro; 1 male and 1 female will also be kept in first author’s personal collection. The following abbreviations are used in the text and figure legends: AD, anterior dorsal plate; AE, anterior epimeral plate; ds1-6, dorsal setae 1-6 on idiosoma; GA... setae, 4th palpal segment with 3 setae in basal whorl. Genital sclerites of male with 4 pairs of SGS and 1 pair of external genital acetabula. GAof female with 3 pairs PGS. Genital sclerites of female with a single pair of SGS near anterior end...

  12. A Delphi Survey on Citizenship Education in Asean Countries: Findings for Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Hajah Sallimah Haji Mohammed; Laxman, Kumar; Jawawi, Rosmawijah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Delphi Survey was to elucidate Bruneian Education experts' responses to five questions regarding their knowledge and understanding of the charateristics of citizenship education viz. Environment, Coexistence, Culture, Social Justice and Equity, Democracy, Sustainable Development, Interdependence, Foreign Language, Social Welfare,…

  13. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Suardi Wekke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available مستخلص:  حكومة بروناى دار السلام تقوم نشيطة بتنمية نموذج مثالى للتعليم وإدارة التربية الإسلامية بالوسائل التكنولوجية. وهذه المحاولة تدعمها مبادرة سلطان بروناى دار السلام بوصفه رئيسا للدولة. وهذه المقالة تكون معلوماتها مستمدة من حقائق الدراسة العلمية:   تكامل التربية الإسلامية واستخدامها وسائل الإتصال والإخبار التكنولجية فى عملية التعليم. هذه المحاولة المتكاملة لها أثرها النافع فى إثراء المواد الدراسية للطلاب وفى تسهيل عملية التدريس. وما كادت هذه البرامج تمضى ثمان سنوات حتى حصلت الحكومة على الإرتقاء بمقدرة الطلاب، وباستيعابهم على المواد الدارسية، وبكيفية التقويم التربوي الأصلح, وباصلاح عملية تنظيم التربية الإداري. وهذه الدراسة تحصل على أن وسائل الإخبار والإتصال التكنولوجية تتساير وتقدم التربية الإسلامية تسايرا متكاملا فى ترقية ذكاء الطلاب. Abstrak:  Pemerintah Brunai Darussalam giat mengembangkan model pembelajaran dan administrasi pendidikan Islam dengan menjadikan teknologi sebagai fasilitator. Upaya itu didorong oleh prakarsa Sultan Brunai Darussalam, kepala negara sekaligus sultan negara itu. Makalah ini mengemukakan hasil penelitian tentang integrasi pendidikan Islam dan penggunaan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi. Integrasi tersebut memberikan manfaat dalam pengayaan materi dan memudahkan proses pembelajaran. Setelah delapan tahun berjalan, program itu mampu mendorong kepada peningkatan kemampuan siswa, penguasaan materi pelajaran yang lebih terarah, evaluasi yang berkualitas, dan perbaikan pengelolaan administrasi pendidikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa teknologi informasi dapat bersinergi dengan pendidikan Islam sehingga pembelajaran menghasilkan kecerdasan bagi peserta didik.

  14. Brunei Media, For the Monarch and Islamic%浸透着伊斯兰文化传统的文莱媒介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李异平

    2002-01-01

    文莱是个穆斯林君主制和伊斯兰传统的国家.1984年独立后,政府一直依靠集权统治和至高无上的宗教体系来维持原有的意识形态和价值观.媒介,作为意识形态的一个主要部分,自然也被浸透在伊斯兰君主制的思想中,而且在法律的监护下担负着将伊斯兰思想渗透到社会各个阶层的任务.

  15. The Future and Prospect of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    of Brunei in the ASEAN became the corner stone of its external legitimacy in 1984. The absolute monarch of Brunei or the Malay Muslim Monarch ( Melayu ...Brunei Darussalam as the Beraja Islam Melayu (Monarchical Islamic Malay) state. The legitimacy of the rule of the Sultan which bases its governance on the

  16. THE ANALYSIS OF THE HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL SAFEGUARDS OF THE VISTING TO GUAM,BRUNEI AND SINGAPORE%出访关岛、文莱和新加坡的水文气象保障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颜; 杨亮; 闫明; 毛可修; 修义瑞

    2004-01-01

    2003年10月中旬到11月中旬,舰艇编队出访关岛、文莱和新加坡期间,多次遇有台风、冷空气等灾害性天气.保障中通过分析西太平洋海域的船舶报资料、卫星云图和日本传真图资料以及编队发回的海上实况资料等信息,结合南海海域和菲律宾海域10~11月份多年的水文气象平均资料,对出访过程中所要航行的海区做了整体的掌握和重点的分析,为编队航行提供了及时准确的天气海洋预报,使编队能及时规避冷空气和台风等灾害性天气,圆满完成了出访期间的水文气象保障工作.

  17. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS..., Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi,...

  18. Geologic Provinces of Southeast Asia, 2000 (prv3bl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia,...

  19. 49 CFR 26.5 - What do the terms used in this part mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race; (iii) “Native Americans,” which includes..., Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei, Samoa, Guam, the...

  20. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  1. Rootsi kuningriik põhiseaduskriisis / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Rootsi riigikorra järgi ei ole kuningal lubatud teha põhiseadusega vastuollu minevaid poliitilisi avaldusi. Brunei sultanit kiites läks Rootsi kuningas Carl XVI Gustav vastuollu riigi ametliku välispoliitikaga

  2. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Brunei, Canary Islands, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Ecuador, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Liechtenstein... production site until such time when APHIS and the NPPO of the exporting country, can agree that...

  3. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  4. That mighty pantun river and its tributaries

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Choo Ming

    2010-01-01

    Known as pantun to the Malays in Brunei, Malaysia, Pattani, Riau, Singapore, and Southern Phillipines, it is called peparikan to the Javanese, sesindiran to the Sundanese and many other different names in different ethnic groups in the different parts of the Indo-Malay world, which is made up of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Pattani in southern Thailand, and Mindanao in the southern Philippines. In almost every settlement that sprang up along the major rivers and ...

  5. Oral and transdermal drug delivery systems: role of lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rajabalaya, Rajan; Musa,Muhammad Nuh; Kifli, Nurolaini; Sheba R. David

    2017-01-01

    Rajan Rajabalaya, Muhammad Nuh Musa, Nurolaini Kifli, Sheba R David PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam Abstract: Liquid crystal (LC) dosage forms, particularly those using lipid-based lyotropic LCs (LLCs), have generated considerable interest as potential drug delivery systems. LCs have the physical properties of liquids but retain some of the structural characteristics of crystalline solids. They are compatible with hydrophobic and hydrophi...

  6. The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    attempt has been made to create a dominant political party modeled on the LDP; in Singapore and Malaysia , there has been talk of an "Asian" model... multiracial , multiethnic, and multicultural society in the first place. In the opinion of such critics, Japan’s particular virtue is not its greater...members were Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. 68APEC members as of 1992 include Australia, Brunei, Canada, China

  7. Military Power of the People’s Republic of China 2008: Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    groups, and Macclesfield Bank – claims disputed by Brunei, the Philippines, Malaysia , Taiwan, and Vietnam. A PRC spokesperson asserted that China...Brunei, the Philippines, Malaysia , Taiwan, and Vietnam. In December 2007, China announced the establishment of “Sansha City” to assert...been 51,000 pollution-related protests in 2005 (almost 1,000 per week). Pollution and deforestation in China have worldwide implications. China may

  8. The China Factor in U.S.-Vietnam Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    entirety. The other nations that claim portions of the South China Sea are the Philippines, Malaysia , Brunei, and the Republic of China (Taiwan), whose...All 2 Philippines None None 60 8 Malaysia None None 12 4 Brunei None None None None   Diplomatic challenges Further complicating matters is the...ASEAN’s multilateral discussions with China. 18    prepared to accept Chinese bullying and demonstrated a renewed regional enthusiasm for a

  9. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  10. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal TRIPATHI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is increasing and is the most common cancer among females in Brunei Darussalam. Mostare ductal carcinoma. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman who was diagnosed with primary angiosarcomaof the right breast, a rare condition. To the best of our knowledge this is the only reportedcase in Brunei Darussalam. She underwent lumpectomy followed by mastectomy as the resection marginswere not clear. No adjuvant therapy was given because the size of tumour was small, there wasno residual tumour in mastectomy specimen and she had no distant metastasis.

  11. Personal news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1961-01-01

    Mr J.A.R. Anderson of Kuching, Sarawak, has been awarded the degree of Ph.D. by the University of Edinburgh, in absentia, on July 6, 1961. The title of his thesis is: The ecology and forest types of the peat swamp forests of Sarawak and Brunei in relation to their silviculture. It is a privilege to

  12. The Significance of Social Relationships in Learning to Become a Vocational and Technical Education Teacher: A Case Study of Three Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Adeline Yuen Sze

    2013-01-01

    This article about workplace learning examines the learning of individuals in becoming a Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) teacher in Brunei. Drawing on research findings from a group of student teachers, it presents case study accounts of three individuals to illustrate the importance of social relationships in learning to become a VTE…

  13. To Stay or Not to Stay: Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations and Their Impact on Host Nation/Regional Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    conflicted claims. Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , Philippines and Brunei have continued to assert their territorial claims which have resulted in...departments have cultural biases, vastly different planning capacities and resources. These differences in the way personnel of State and Defense...150 people were killed and over a thousand others were injured. The Presidential Guard also publicly raped many of the female protestors. Forty

  14. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T. alticol

  15. Improving U.S.-India HA/DR Coordination in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Defence Services Staff College in Wellington, Tamil Nadu. The two admirals’ friendship of nearly 30 years facilitated...conducted Opera- tion MADAD in Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, and Kerala, and Operation SEA WAVES in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In Sri Lanka, Mal...natural disaster or tsunami. Countries sending ships to participate in the exercise included Aus- tralia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia

  16. 77 FR 64409 - Designation of Taiwan for the Visa Waiver Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... include Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium,\\2\\ Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg... rule at 73 FR 32440 (June 9, 2008), and implementing notice at 73 FR 67354 (November 13, 2008)....

  17. Encouraging Reader-Response to Literature in ESL Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Describes a Language Development course that integrates language learning with drama activities in a Teaching-English-as-a-Second-Language (TESL) program at the University of Brunei. The strategies are described using William Golding's "Lord of the Flies" and George Orwell's "Animal Farm." (GLR)

  18. Malaysian and Bruneian micro-caddisflies in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Hydroptilinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan

  19. Exemplary Training Models in Industrial Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Michael J., Comp.

    Prepared by Canadian, Chinese Taipei, and Thai educational agencies and based on surveys of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation member nations, this report provides descriptions of 52 exemplary industrial technology training models in Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, the People's Republic…

  20. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-28

    International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, among others. 2 See...Foreign Relations Committee, July 8, 2002. 20 Letter from Daniel J. Bryan, Assistant Attorney General, U.S. Department of Justice, to Senator Joseph...Arabia Bolivia * Jamaica Senegal * Bosnia & Herzegovina * Japan Serbia* Botswana * Jordan Seychelles Brazil * Kazakhstan * Sierra Leone Brunei Darussalam

  1. Preparing for the China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On July 3, 2009, liaison of ficers meeting for the Sixth China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit hosted by CCPIT was hold in Beijing. The summit liaison officers coming from Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam and other countries, the Embassy officials in China of Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and other countries, and the related Chinese officials, attended the meeting.

  2. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... include, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and... ] with key stakeholders and to enter the promising Chinese and Vietnamese markets for civil nuclear goods... organizations to meet with Chinese and Vietnamese officials to discuss timely nuclear issues. The mission...

  3. Seeking a Peaceful Settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has indisputable sovereignty over the Nansha Archipelago and its neighboring seas. But some Southeast Asian nations-Viet Nam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei--began to claim complete or part sovereignty over the Nansha Archipelago from the late 1960s and early 1970s, because international marine law underwent a revolu-tionary change.

  4. Naval Law Review. Volume 61, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    63 Taiwan, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines, and Malaysia are each involved in contests with China over offshore... sex appeal” in making their case, especially in light of America’s continuing ambivalence toward membership in international institutions. While...are focused on counterdrug, disaster assistance, antiterrorism, anti-proliferation, refugee , and prisoners of war (POW) recovery activities.145

  5. 8 CFR 212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section: Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea... identified by the Department of State as a source country of refugees designated of special humanitarian... Administrative Region (SAR) passport and Hong Kong identification card are required), Japan, Malaysia, Nauru,...

  6. A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Indonesia, Malaysia , southern Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, and the Southern Philippines.200 Fig. 5-1. Bali and Jemaah Islamiya Theology...Internet cafes , and other means of relative anonymous communications. Embedding information in digital pictures and graphics and sending them over...Army of Mohammed based in Pakistan JI: Jemaah Islamiya based in Malaysia and Singapore Joint Field Office: (JFO) See National Response Plan

  7. The Role of the TP TESL Supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, James Mannes

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing role of the student teacher supervisor in elementary school English as a Second Language education, arguing for a development model of supervision. Data collected over 6 years in Brunei indicated that there were tensions over different models of student teacher supervision used. The key functions of the student teacher…

  8. Operationalizing the Asia-Pacific Defense Strategy(Joint Forces Quarterly 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Valladolid Adana Izmir Frunze Lviv Ho Chi Minh City Likasi Bayonne Bombay Cochin Davao Fuxin Hefei Multan Perth Porto Sapporo Taiyuan Tol Yatti Varanasi...Vietnam Sri Lanka Laos Bangladesh Malaysia Papua New Guinea Brunei Singapore Philippines Taiwan Indonesia East Timor Japan Mongolia South Korea

  9. The Publishing of Library and Information Science Journals in Southeast Asia--An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow-fei, Jaffe Yee

    This paper presents an overview of the present state of the publishing activities of library and information science journals in Southeast Asia, focusing on format, circulation/readership, quality, and editorial focus. It also highlights some of the important titles from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, Vietnam,…

  10. Making Bilingualism Work: Developments in Bilingual Education in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakir, Ann

    1993-01-01

    Systems of bilingual education in three neighboring countries, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam are examined in an attempt to understand basic issues. These are all Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries that fall into the category of Small Young Countries as discussed in Pakir (1992a). (Contains 43 references.) (JL)

  11. Measuring the Comprehensibility of Englishes within ASEAN among Aseans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Teo, Adisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on designing a comprehensibility test and a questionnaire for spoken world Englishes in Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore, and utilizing the test to investigate the comprehension of Burmese, Cambodians, Indonesians, Laotians, Thais and Vietnamese. We reviewed the demarcation of users of English based on Kachru's…

  12. Computers in Science and Mathematics Education in the ASEAN Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisayon, Vivien M.

    1989-01-01

    Compares policies and programs on computers in science and mathematics education in the six ASEAN countries: Brunei, Indonesia; Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Limits discussion to the computer as a teaching aid and object of study, attendant problems, and regional cooperation. (MVL)

  13. China’s Soft Power and Growing Influence in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    members (Indonesia, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) understood their 78 Joffe. “The...the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Co-operation, agreeing the FTA would be created within 10 years.121 Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia ...has resulted in the export of poor labor, political, and environmental policies. Deforestation is an issue in Burma as trade increases with China

  14. The Future Strategic Environment of East Asia: Implications of a PRC-Taiwan Reunification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    conflict with a number of East Asian nations, including Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, the Philippines, Brunei, and Malaysia . In recent years the upswing of...confrontation with Japan over the disputed Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands in the East China Sea In response to this perceived Chinese bullying , Asian nations drew

  15. 76 FR 16231 - Clarification of Countries and Geographic Areas Eligible for Participation in the Guam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 56... regulations to clarify this issue. The amended regulation explicitly allows Hong Kong individuals holding BN(O... admission to both Guam and the CNMI: Australia, Brunei, Japan, Malaysia, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua...

  16. Evaluating Students' Understanding of Kinetic Particle Theory Concepts Relating to the States of Matter, Changes of State and Diffusion: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Crowley, Julianne; Yung, Benny H. W.; Cheong, Irene P.-A.; Othman, Jazilah

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the understanding of three key conceptual categories relating to the kinetic particle theory: (1) intermolecular spacing in solids, liquids and gases, (2) changes of state and intermolecular forces and (3) diffusion in liquids and gases, amongst 148 high school students from Brunei, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore using 11…

  17. Q&A on Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2011-01-01

    @@ China-ASEAN FTA, the world's largest free trade area in terms of population took effect on January 1, 2010, covering 13 million square kilometers and 1.9 billion people.Over 90 percent of the commodities traded between China and the six original ASEAN countries, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, now enjoy no tariffs from 2010.

  18. Is the Current Royal Australian Air Force an Air Force of Strategic Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    global non-state threats including terrorism, extremism, weapons proliferation, transnational crime, illegal immigration, and illegal fishing as...export markets in Asia with favourable balances of trade, and perhaps most importantly, experienced exceptionally favourable exchange rate with the US...in, and regularly hosts, bilateral and multilateral exercises with the US, and a number of SEA nations including Brunei, Indonesia , Malaysia

  19. Genetic identification and structure of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Southeast Asia using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paolin; Sulaiman, Zohrah

    2015-05-22

    A phylogenetic tree and median-joining network based on cytochrome b sequence data revealed clades consistent with morphological differences and geographical distribution of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Southeast Asia. AMOVA analysis for variation was significant among populations (PJava and Brunei/Borneo, Brunei/Borneo and west Malaysia, and Java and west Malaysia samples (P Java, and between west Malaysia and Laos-Sumatra. Nine haplotypes were unique to geographical regions. The Java species had high haplotype (1.000 ± 0.126) but low nucleotide (0.017) diversities, suggesting a population bottleneck followed by expansion. However, SSD and Hri (P=0.5) did not support demographic expansion. Instead, purifying selection where mutations occur and accumulate at silent sites is a more acceptable explanation.

  20. Nurturing RP-US Bilateral Security Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    the time when Filipinos assimilated the American culture . The assimilation began as an initiative of the US Army and the American teachers who came...raised following a rape case in the Philippines involving an American soldier. This event prompted the move of the Philippine Senate. Lately, Senator...Taiwan, Vietnam claim sovereignty over the entire group of islands, while Philippine, Malaysia , and Brunei claim parts of the group. The six

  1. Privately Contracted Military Firms in the Twenty-First Century: Reclassifying, Redefining, and Reforming the Way We Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    principal and plausible deniability for the 3 agent.2 This opaque way of doing business carries with it a stench of corruption and erodes public and...government received the military training but Saudi Arabia, Malaysia , Kuwait, Brunei, and the United Arab Emirates funded the payment.31 Currently...Misidentifying PCMFs, or worse, applying blanket legalese to the entire industry not only fails to prevent fraud and abuse, it may actually encourage it

  2. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T. alticola (Indonesia: Irian Jaya), T. angustifrons (Indonesia: Irian Jaya?), T. arriagadai (Philippines), T. aukei (W. Malaysia, Sabah), T. bertiae (India), T. boukei (Sabah), T. brevis (Sabah), T. capilla...

  3. Editorial Board 2011-2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology Editorial Board consists of 523 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in gastrointestinal pathophysiology.They are from 45 countries,including Argentina(2),Australia(14),Austria(3),Belgium(9),Brazil(10),Brunei Darussalam(1),Canada(20),China(30),Croatia(1),Czech Republic(2),Denmark(4),Egypt(1),Estonia(1),Finland(1),France(8),Germany(22),Greece(7),Hungary

  4. The Political Impact of Islam in Southeast Asia. Phase II. Topic A-16,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    an Indonesian Islamic State (Negara Islam Indonesia). The DI revolt was centered on West Java ( Sundanese ) and drew its armed strength from the Muslim...vicissitudes of empire, the royal family , prideful in the continuity of the regime, views Brunei’s monarchy, as the repository of legitimate Islamic Malay...maintenance of the status, power, privileges, and wealth of the aristocracy and in particular the royal family . Independence has brought no democratization

  5. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    patterns from routine microbiology lab cultures were arranged. Arrangements have been made to have Keesler Air Force Medical Center join the network in...mechanism established. Participation in the TSN system facili- tates daily, independent quality-assurance review and feedback to microbiology labs, the...Singapore Brunei Kenya South Korea Bolivia Laos Suriname Cambodia Malaysia Syria Canada Mexico Trinidad and Tobago Djibouti Myanmar Thailand Ecuador Nepal

  6. China’s Arrival: A Strategic Framework for a Global Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Seas, some of which may contain energy resources. A number of countries contest those claims including Japan, Taiwan, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia ...such demand-side mea- sures to fuel efficiency where China’s standards exceed U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy ( CAFE ) standards. 49 Between 2005...But it is to the south, in the complex maritime region of the South China and Java seas, domi- nated by Singapore, peninsular Malaysia , and the many

  7. Searching for Partners: Regional Organizations and Peace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    South Africa, by monitoring elections in 1994 that produced a postapartheid multiracial government. First Leg of the Tripod The lesson learned is...1967 of ASEAN, founded by Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia , Singapore, and the Philippines and later joined by Brunei and then Vietnam. The dramatic...deployment of U.N. peacekeeping operations. The Third ARF also agreed that the ISM on Peacekeeping Operations, co-chaired by Canada and Malaysia

  8. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Umesan UK; Chua KL; Balakrishnan P

    2012-01-01

    Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complica...

  9. From Coast to Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Asia-Pacific economic integration seems destined to take on new dimensions.On March 15,officials from eight nations began talks in Melbourne,Australia,on the expansion of a trans-Pacific free trade agreement.The United States,Australia,Peru and Viet Nam are seeking to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership(TPP),which already includes Chile,Singapore,New Zealand and Brunei.

  10. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  11. U.S. Accession to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations? Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-13

    world’s largest carbon emitters, largely by virtue of the rapid pace of deforestation . U.S. relations with Malaysia , another core majority-Muslim ASEAN...02/119422.htm. ASEAN’s ten members are Brunei Darussalam, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, Thailand...particularly China and Malaysia , which in the past have voiced reservations with U.S. participation. Australia’s accession to the TAC in 2005, which

  12. Issues and Tasks in Intra-ASEAN Economic Cooperation after the Asian Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, Kazushi

    2005-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is leading regional economic cooperation among developing countries and regional economic cooperation organization in East Asia. ASEAN has been the only economic cooperation in East Asia and promoted deepening and widening of its regional cooperation. The original members in 1967 were five countries : Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, growing to include Brunei in 1984, Vietnam in 1995, Myanmar and Laos in 1997, and...

  13. Beyond Rivalry and Camaraderie: Explaining Varying Asian Responses to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    EPAs with the Philippines, Malaysia, Mexico and Singapore. Japan signed two BITs: Vietnam (2003), and Korea (2002). 102 of bilateral economic ties...EPAs with Switzerland, ASEAN, Indonesia, Brunei, Thailand, Chile, Philippines, Malaysia, Mexico and Singapore. 369 Ibid, as of October 2008. The...Cooperative Partnership”," Comparative Connections, Vol. 2, No. 4, Jan 2001a. ---, "China-Korea Relations: Economic Interests Uber Alles: Hitting

  14. Healthcare Pioneers: Pehin Dato Philip I. Franks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pehin Dato Philip I. Franks graduated from St Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical School, London in 1930. After working for four years in London, he joined the Indian Medical Service in 1934 where he worked until 1947. He later worked in Malaya as an eye specialist before coming to Brunei on 6th September 1961 as Brunei’s first eye specialist (State Ophthalmologist.

  15. Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey Exploration and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    23 Table 3. Factor Analysis Results for Cotabato. The dark shaded region of the tables indicates common factors with common loadings, the lighter... tourism , security, etc. It is home to Western Mindanao Command and some of the Philippine Air Forces. It also enjoys reliable power most of the time...Philippines as part of a widespread Islamic state which would span Indonesia, Malaysia , southern Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, and the southern Philippines

  16. China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    categories by replacing larger numbers of older, obsolescent ships with smaller numbers of more modern and more capable ships, this is not necessarily the...has been bullying its neighbors over disputed claims in the South and East China Seas, while continuing an arms build-up across from Taiwan. In...Whereas China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Taiwan, Malaysia , and Brunei have disputed territorial claims over the Spratly Islands, and China and

  17. Behind the Periscope: Leadership in China’s Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    territory between China and Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia , Brunei, and the Philippines  Disputes over the control of the Spratly Islands between China...and Vietnam, Malaysia , and the Philippines  Disputes over the Paracel Islands between China and Vietnam...navy and our people need and love peace. If anyone bullies us, we will not be frightened by going to war and will surely win.” 428 RADM Leng

  18. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 4, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    his request to the inter- national laws, but by his bullying .” In the view of many Iranian political authorities, “The international community’s tepid...agreed to launch the ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA). The FTA between China and six nations of ASEAN—Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia , the...also arranged the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI)—now called the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM)—with Thailand, Malaysia , Indonesia

  19. Report on metric study tour to Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laner, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The modernized metric system, known universally as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI under the French name) was renamed in 1960 by the world body on standards. A map shows 98 percent of the world using or moving toward adoption of SI units. Only the countries of Burma, Liberia, Brunei, and Southern Yemen are nonmetric. The author describes a two-week session in Pretoria and Johannesburg on metrication, followed by additional meetings on metrication in Rhodesia. (MCW)

  20. Q&A on Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2010-01-01

    China-ASEAN FTA, the world's largest free trade area in terms of population took effect on January 1, 2010, covering 13 million square kilometers and 1.9 billion people. Over 90 percent of the commodities traded between China and the six original ASEAN countries, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, now enjoy no tariffs from 2010. As a window to ASEAN countries, Beibu Gulf Economic Zone is in more limelight since the new year.

  1. Computational Intelligence in Information Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien-Wan; Omar, Saiful

    2017-01-01

    This book constitutes the Proceedings of the Computational Intelligence in Information Systems conference (CIIS 2016), held in Brunei, November 18–20, 2016. The CIIS conference provides a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and to present new research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications. The 26 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully selected from 62 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.

  2. When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.

    2007-07-01

    With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on students’ understanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the students’ understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

  3. Peru in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Benefits and Myths

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Mezarina, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is the first mega-regional trade agreement of the XXI century. It is composed of twelve economies of three continents, all members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).Peru’s participation in this exceptional agreement means winning five new markets in a single trade agreement: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, New Zealand, Malaysia and Vietnam. The potential increase in non-traditional Peruvian exports to those markets by the entry into fo...

  4. 90-miles is Only Half of a 100-mile Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao

    2010-01-01

    @@ How to enioy the tariff preference under the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area? On January 1,2010,China-ASEAN Free Trade Area ("China-ASEAN FTA")became effective.Nearly ten years have passed since the China-ASEAN Summit held on November 6,2001 in Bandar Seri Begawan,Brunei Darussalam.At such summit,an Important decision was made to create the framework on economic cooperation between China and the ASEAN and to further establish an China-ASEAN FTA in ten years.

  5. Susuk - black magic exposed "white" by dental radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F, Arishiya Thapasum; Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-07-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was "exposed" by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a "hidden secret" thereby avoiding misdiagnosis.

  6. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...... is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...

  7. Air & Space Power Journal (ASPJ). Volume 26, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    China. I can use a server in Malaysia or in Brunei.”36 The worldwide diffusion and geoambiguity of cyberspace complicate effective ISR, since there are... skin is the principal cause of its maintenance troubles, with unexpected shortcomings.”59 The service needs to maintain these coatings continu- ously...I don’t much care where—” said Alice. “Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,” said the Cat. “—so long as I get SOMEWHERE,” Alice added as an

  8. El interés geoestratégico de Estados Unidos en las disputas territoriales en el mar del sur de China (2001-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Camelo, Lina Paola

    2016-01-01

    En el Mar del Sur de China, se ha gestado una lucha por la soberanía de las islas Spratly y Paracelso, principalmente entre China, Vietnam, Filipinas, Brunei, Taiwán y Malasia. Desde el 2001, el problema se ha intensificado considerablemente por la incidencia de Estados Unidos en la zona. Por esta razón, el comportamiento de China se hace mucho más defensivo y expansivo. El interés geoestratégico de Estados Unidos incide en las disputas del Mar del Sur de China, por medio de tres factores: ...

  9. Microfungi on the Pandanaceae: Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov., L. siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. are described with a key to Linocarpon species from the Pandanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkantha, S; Lumyong, S; Lumyong, P; Whitton, S R; McKenzie, E H C; Hyde, K D

    2003-01-01

    Linocarpon species are reported from Pandanaceae in Australia, Brunei, Hong Kong, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Seychelles, Thailand and Vanuatu. Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov. were collected on decaying leaves of Pandanus tectorius in Hong Kong. Linocarpon siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. were collected from decaying leaves of P. penetrans in Thailand. These taxa are described, illustrated and compared with Linocarpon species with similar ascospore morphology and dimensions. Included are a synoptic table, which compares the new species to similar known species, and a dichotomous key to species of Linocarpon known from members of the Pandanaceae.

  10. U.S.-Vietnam Military Relations: Game Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ngan M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, China has been flexing its military power and strengthening its claim to the resource-rich Spratly and Paracel Islands in the South China Sea. These islands are also being claimed by five other countries Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Currently China claims the entire South China Sea as its territorial waters. The U.S. has great interest in this issue because its trade routes with the Asia-Pacific region go through the South China Sea. Throughout hist...

  11. 4th INNS Symposia Series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Fourth International Neural Network Symposia series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems, INNS-CIIS 2014, held in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei in November 2014. INNS-CIIS aims to provide a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and present the most current research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications in various domains. The 34 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.  

  12. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral and Dental Healthcare in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bamanikar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal child health clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, Brunei, Darussalam.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternal child health center in Brunei, Darussalam. The study group was comprised of 95 pregnant women attending the MCH clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, September 2010, using convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used, after it was pre-tested and validated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version16.Results: Of the total study group, 97.9% responded to the questionnaire and participated in the study. All the women brushed at least twice daily. However, only 40.9% flossed daily, 31.2% brushed after meals and 26.9% had a dental check-up at least twice a year. The knowledge related to dental care was also poor among the pregnant women. Though the majority of them (96.8% agreed that women should have a dental check-up during pregnancy, only 55.9% actually practiced this. This raises serious concern since pregnant women may need extra oral and dental care due to susceptibility to gum diseases during pregnancy, which may contribute to low birth weight babies and premature births.Conclusion: This study highlights important gaps in dental knowledge and practices related to oral and dental healthcare among pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. More intense dental health education, including oral health promotion in maternal child health centers can lead to

  13. Some introductory notes on the development and characteristics of Sabah Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Hoogervorst

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary description of the Malay variety used as a lingua franca in the Malaysian state of Sabah at the northernmost top of Borneo. The paper discusses a number of common linguistic features that distinguish Sabah Malay from other Malay varieties and analyses these features from a historical linguistic perspective. While it is argued that Sabah Malay has a close historical relation with other Malay dialects spoken in Borneo, especially Brunei Malay, the vernacular is also influenced phonologically and lexically by Sabah’s indigenous and immigrant speech communities. Words and sentences recorded or elicited during fieldwork in various parts of Sabah illustrate these points.

  14. China’s Forbearance Has Limits: Chinese Threat and Retaliation Signaling and Its Implications for a Sino-American Military Confrontation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    two categories , with Taiwan occupying a significantly different category from other cases. 7 China’s Forbearance Has Limits The summaries and...the Philippines claims 53 of its land features, and Malaysia claims 10 China Strategic Perspectives, No. 6 12. Brunei does not claim any of the...forbearance has limits”; X is “deluding itself in thinking we are weak and can be bullied ” ■■ If X does not cease its behavior, it “will meet the punishment

  15. Letter of Thanks by 2013 CAYCEF Participants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Editor’s note:The CPAFFC and the China National Committee for the Care of Children(CNCCC)hosted the fi rst China-ASEAN Youth Cultural Exchange Festival(CAYCEF)in Beijing from August 1st to 6th 2013,organized by CNCCC Public Service Center.Around 250 young delegates participated in the event.They came from 20 provinces or cities in China’s mainland and Taiwan as well as from 10 ASEAN countries including Brunei,Cambodia,Indonesi

  16. Environment and security in the South China Sea region : the role of experts, non-governmental actors and governments in regime building processes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Background: The Spratly islands in the South China Sea are today the focal point of a territorial dispute that represents a serious threat to the regional security in Southeast Asia. Six governments - China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei - have laid claims to all or some of the more than 230 islets, reefs and shoals in the Spratly area. The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a key player in the South China Sea conflict. However, the South China Sea is not jus...

  17. That mighty pantun river and its tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Choo Ming

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Known as pantun to the Malays in Brunei, Malaysia, Pattani, Riau, Singapore, and Southern Phillipines, it is called peparikan to the Javanese, sesindiran to the Sundanese and many other different names in different ethnic groups in the different parts of the Indo-Malay world, which is made up of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Pattani in southern Thailand, and Mindanao in the southern Philippines. In almost every settlement that sprang up along the major rivers and tributaries in the Indo-Malay world, the pantun blend well with their natural and cultural surroundings. In this article, the geographical extent of the pantun family in the Indo-Malay world is likened to a mighty river that has a complex network of tributaries all over the Indo-Malay world. Within the Indo-Malay world, it is the movement of the peoples help the spread of pantun from one area to the other and makes it an art form of immensely rich and intricate as can be seen from the examples given.

  18. DNA reveals long-distance partial migratory behavior in a cryptic owl lineage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keren R.Sadanandan; David J.X.Tan; Kolbj?rn Schj?lberg; Philip D.Round; Frank E.Rheindt

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Brown Hawk Owl complex is said to consist of three species,the Brown Boobook(Ninox scutulata),the Chocolate Boobook(Ninox randi) and the Northern Boobook(Ninox japonica),which includes the nominate migratory lineage Ninox japonica japonica and a mitochondrially distinct lineage of taxonomically uncertain status that has been recorded year-round at least in Taiwan.Overlap in ranges during migration and morphological similarity have led to difficulties in distinguishing the Brown Boobook from the Northern Boobook.Methods: PCR of cytochrome-b and Sanger sequencing of Ninox samples from Singapore and Brunei were used to determine sample identity.Results: Two out of four Singaporean samples and the Brunei sample were identified as Northern Boobooks.This is the first official record of this species in Singapore and represents a considerable range extension for the species.Further,the samples belong to the mitochondrially distinct lineage previously characterized in resident Taiwanese populations rather than to the well-known nominate migratory lineage.Conclusions: Our data show that the mitochondrial signature previously documented in resident Taiwanese populations of the Northern Boobook extends to migratory populations.This cryptic lineage may be more widespread in its breeding quarters,extending to the Chinese and Russian mainland,in which case the name florensis would apply to it.Further genetic and bioacoustic investigation is required to resolve the taxonomic status of this lineage.

  19. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.

  20. Pattern of hospitalized-stroke patients in ASEAN countries an ASNA stroke epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Misbach

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understanding the demographic characteristics, admission time, clinical pattern, risk factors, stroke type, length of stay, and discharge outcome of hospitalized acute stroke patients in ASEAN member countries, ASEAN   Neurological Association (ASNA formed a Standing Commiltee for Stroke in 1996 and this is the first ASNA Stroke Epidemiological Study using the same stroke protocol. This prospective hospital based study was conducted in seven ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam by participating neurologists from October 1996 to March 1997. Of the 3723 consecutive hospitalized stroke patients (2030 males and 1660 females from 44 participating hospitals in this study ie Brunei (n=53, Indonesia (n=2065, Malaysia (n=300,Philippines (n=545,Singapore (n=232, Thailand (n=244 and Vietnam (n=284, the mean age was 59.0 ± 13,8 years 16% of patients were younger than 45 years and 37% of patients were older than 65 years. There were no significant differences in age at onset among stroke subjects except in Vietnam (younger and Singapore (older. The sex distribution showed a slight higher prevalence of women in Singapore and in the age group > 64 years. The mean adrnission time was 41.5 ± 87.0 hours, 19% of patients were admitted within 3 hours, 29% within 6 hours and 66% more than 6 hours (delayed admission especially in Malaysia and Singapore (80% and 77% respectively. Motor disability was the most prevalent clinical feature in all countries and carotid bruit was the rarest (1%. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (68% in all countries, followed by TIA (35%, smoking, diabetes mellitus, ischnemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia. CT scan was performed on 76% of subjects. The diagnostic classification was non lacunar anterior circulation (32%, lacunar infarction (14%, hemorrhagic stroke (26%, SAH (4%. Mean length of stay was 11.4 ± 11.8 days. Most of the patients

  1. Analisis Penerapan Value Creation Selling dalam Strategi Pemasaran Perusahaan Jasa Logistik: Studi Kasus di PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A company is a market-oriented when the culture of value creation superior customer systematically and comprehensively implemented on company concerned. Value can be defined as the ratio of benefit to cost, where customers expect a rate of return equal or exceed the costs they incurred to obtain the products they bought. From the case studies conducted on PT XYZ, then, in getting the project tender delivery of goods geophysical equipment for the Brunei Loon project, it has been implemented value selling creation, which includes three main components, ie customer portraits, the proposed value, and benefits to customers or total value of ownership. Overall, the efficiency given value is about 20% compared to its closest competitor, the safety shipping and on time, as well as the positive benefits of the profit margin, cash flow, return on investment, brand equity, market share and customers.

  2. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.. Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  3. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  4. Endothermy by flowers of Rhizanthes lowii (Rafflesiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S; Grace, J; Bänziger, H

    2000-08-01

    Rhizanthes lowii (Beccari) Harms (Rafflesia- ceae) is a parasitic plant that grows in the understory of the rainforest in South-East Asia. This plant does not have leaves, stems, or photosynthetic tissue and is characterised by the emission of a strong odour that attracts the natural pollinators, carrion flies. Flowers that volatilise odorous compounds and attract carrion flies, beetles and other insects are often thermogenic. Here we present evidence of both thermogenesis and thermoregulation in R. lowii from microclimate and tissue temperatures measured during different stages of flower development in R. lowii, in natural conditions in Brunei, Borneo. Endothermy was detected in young and mature buds as well as in blooming flowers and even in decaying tissues 3 or more days after blooming. Tissue temperatures were maintained at 7-9 K above air temperature, in both female and male flowers, at all stages of floral development.

  5. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S; Amoroso, Victor B

    2016-05-06

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the-for Nepenthes-unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  7. Comparision of Istanbul with Hong Kong and Singapore for Regional Treasury Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk DİZKIRICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is examining Istanbul to find out whether or not it has the ability to become an appropriate location to host regional treasury centers. Hence; Simkova’s 11 location criteria are compared across Istanbul additionally Hong Kong and Singapore, being already attractive locations in South East Asia for multinational corporations to set up their regional finance offices, to specify Istanbul’s weaker facilities even if it is not regarded as a rival for Hong Kong and Singapore. The study contributes to the understanding of Simkova’s location criteria assessment before establishing a regional treasury center in any location, as it is applied to some European countries and three Asian countries: Brunei, Hong Kong and Singapore, previously. Lastly, it is concluded that Istanbul is not as superior as Hong Kong and Singapore but it has reasonable conditions to become an attractive location for regional treasury centers.

  8. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    2004-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL would like to remind you of the entry formalities applicable to those travelling to the United States. Nationals of Switzerland and of the following countries : Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, entering the United States under the Visa Waiver Program (no visa requirement), must be in possession of an machine-readable passport that is valid for at least six months after the date of the return trip. Children, including infants, must have their own passport. An entry in the parents' passport is not sufficient. For entry into the United States, an e-ticket (fax or e-mail confirmation or passenger receipt) or a return ticket to the departure point or a ticket to a subsequent onward destination (valid for 90 days) must be presented together with the green ...

  9. New lucinid bivalves from shallow and deeper water of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four new species and a new genus of lucinid bivalves are described from shallow and deeper waters in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. The new genus Scabrilucina (subfamily Lucininae includes the little-known S. victorialis (Melvill, 1899 from the Arabian Sea and S. vitrea (Deshayes, 1844 from the Andaman Sea as well as a new species S. melvilli from the Torres Strait off northeastern Australia. Ferrocina brunei new species (Lucininae was recovered from 60 m near oil drilling activities off Borneo; its anatomy confirmed the presence of symbiotic bacteria. Two unusual deeper water species of Leucosphaerinae are described, both species included in on-going molecular analyses; Gonimyrtea ferruginea from 400–650 m in the southwest Pacific and Myrtina reflexa from 200–825 m off Zanzibar and Madagascar.

  10. The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries may utilize a long coastline in relation to their landmass as a resource to develop their maritime economy. This paper argues that ASEAN countries differ in utilizing their maritime potential. As a basis for further comparative studies the Center for Policy Research and International Studies (CenPRIS in Penang developed a set of indicators to measure the maritime potential of nations, the state of their maritime industries, and the degree to which the maritime potential has actually been utilized. Using the CenPRIS Ocean Index (COI shows that Brunei and the Philippines have underutilized their maritime potentials, whereas Singapore and Thailand have made full use of it. Malaysia still has the potential to further develop its maritime economy.

  11. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.Keywords: educational quality, medical education, quality control, quality assessment, quality management models

  12. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntra Suwantarat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and multidrug-resistant glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters, have emerged and spread throughout Southeast Asia. Methods We reviewed and summarized current critical knowledge on the epidemiology and molecular characterization of MDRGN in Southeast Asia by PubMed searches for publications prior to 10 March 2016 with the term related to “MDRGN definition” combined with specific Southeast Asian country names (Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Brunei. Results There were a total of 175 publications from the following countries: Thailand (77, Singapore (35, Malaysia (32, Vietnam (23, Indonesia (6, Philippines (1, Laos (1, and Brunei (1. We did not find any publications on MDRGN from Myanmar and Cambodia. We did not include publications related to Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp. and non-human related studies in our review. English language articles and abstracts were included for analysis. After the abstracts were reviewed, data on MDRGN in Southeast Asia from 54 publications were further reviewed and included in this study. Conclusions MDRGNs are a major contributor of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of ESBLs has been a major problem since 2005 and is possibly related to the development of carbapenem resistant organisms in this region due to the overuse of carbapenem therapy. Carbapenem–resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the most common pathogen associated with nosocomial infections in this region followed by carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although Southeast Asia is not an endemic area for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, recently, the rate of CRE detection has been increasing. Limited infection control measures, lack of antimicrobial control, such as the presence of

  13. Are Pyrodinium blooms in the Southeast Asian region recurring and spreading? A view at the end of the millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, R V; Taylor, F J

    2001-09-01

    Pyrodinium bahamense (var. compressum) has been the only dinoflagellate species that has caused major public health and economic problems in the Southeast Asian region for more than 2 decades now. It produces saxitoxin, a suite of toxins that cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP). A serious toxicological problem affecting many countries of the world, mild cases of this poisoning can occur within 30 minutes while in extreme cases, death through respiratory paralysis may occur within 2-24 hrs of ingestion of intoxicated shellfish. Blooms of the organism have been reported in Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, the Philippines and Indonesia. The ASEAN-Canada Red Tide Network has recorded 31 blooms of the organism in 26 areas since 1976 when it first occurred in Sabah, Malaysia. As of 1999, the most hard hit country has been the Philippines which has the greatest number of areas affected (18) and highest number of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) cases (about 1995). Malaysia has reported a total of 609 PSP cases and 44 deaths while Brunei has recorded 14 PSP cases and no fatalities. Indonesia, on the other hand has a record of 427 PSP cases and 17 deaths. Studies on ecological/environmental impacts of these blooms have not been done in the region. Estimates of economic impacts have shown that the loss could be up to USD 300,000 day-1. Most of the data and information useful for understanding Pyrodinium bloom dynamics have come from harmful/toxic algal monitoring and research that have developed to different degrees in the various countries in the region affected by the organism's bloom. Regional collaborative research and monitoring efforts can help harmonize local data sets and ensure their quality and availability for comparative analysis and modeling. Temporal patterns of the blooms at local and regional scales and possible signals and trends in the occurrence/recurrence and spread of Pyrodinium blooms could be investigated. Existing descriptive and simple

  14. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L A Gaveau

    Full Text Available The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2 of Borneo's area (737,188 km2 was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2% in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%. We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km-2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km-2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8% of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo.

  15. Psychiatric morbidity and socio-occupational dysfunction in residents of a drug rehabilitation centre: challenges of substance misuse management in a Bruneian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hilda; Adanan, Anddy Maz; Omar, Radiah

    2015-10-01

    Aims and method In 2011, a psychiatric clinic was started in Pusat Al-Islah, a drug rehabilitation centre. Our aim was to record self-reported socio-occupational dysfunction and patterns of drug misuse and to evaluate the usefulness of a psychiatric screening tool. A two-phased approach using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to examine the rates of psychiatric diagnoses. Results Methamphetamine was the most commonly misused substance in 94.5% of residents. High levels of socio-occupational dysfunction were reported. In total, 5.5% met criteria for major depressive disorder, 4.8% for lifetime psychotic disorder and 11.5% for suicidal ideation. In addition, 13.3% reported previous untreated mental health problems. Clinical implications A screening tool such as the SRQ can be used to identify those needing further psychiatric assessment. Interventions to address amphetamine misuse and associated socio-occupational dysfunction are required. Societal views and legislation influence the management of substance misuse problems in Brunei.

  16. Description of two final stadium platystictid larvae from Borneo, including that of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, identified using DNA barcoding (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Albert G; Dow, Rory A

    2015-07-14

    The final stadium larva of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, is described and illustrated based on a single male specimen collected at Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, Brunei. The larva was identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens. The larva presented a good match with both D. attala and D. barbatula Lieftinck in this gene, but as adults of only the former species had been collected at the locality, it is presumed more likely to be that species. Another, unidentified platystictid larva, Platystictidae A, collected at the same general locality is also described. The two larvae show significant differences from each other and from D. sundana Krüger, the only other Oriental region member of the family for which larval morphology is known. The three species are also compared with the larvae of the Neotropical genus Palaemnema, which they closely resemble, despite being currently placed in different subfamilies. Based on this known material, Oriental and Neotropical forms differ significantly in details of mandibular morphology, especially the armature of the molar field.

  17. Teaching English in ASEAN: The voices of English teachers in ASEAN nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Waterworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective teaching of the English language is regarded as an essential element in the creation of a culturally vibrant, economically sound and socially stable ASEAN community. The ASEAN region is populated by a culturally diverse collection of peoples with very different and complex linguistic histories, some of which included a strong English component. This paper examines the opinions and understandings of teachers of English in eight of the ten ASEAN nations. It arose out of a research study of English teaching in ASEAN being conducted jointly by Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia and CfBT Brunei. Although the teachers differed in their levels of competence in English and in their experience of local, national and international culture, they shared a remarkably similar story in attempting to provide the best instruction they possibly could to their students. As non-native speakers of English, they shared the responsibility of representing not only the English language but also the culture of first language English speakers to their non-native speaking students. The conflicts and tensions of their roles were identified and examined. The study concluded that teachers need support in their intercultural role as well as in their pedagogical responsibilities. Teachers reported that their students had little knowledge or appreciation of the ASEAN community or of the importance of their own capacity to speak English in it.

  18. CRM 2.0 within E-Health Systems: Towards Achieving Health Literacy & Customer Satisfaction

    CERN Document Server

    Anshari, Muhammad; Low, Patrick Kim Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) within healthcare organization can be viewed as a strategy to attract new customers and retaining them throughout their entire lifetime of relationships. At the same time, the advancement of Web technology known as Web 2.0 plays a significant part in the CRM transition which drives social change that impacts all institutions including business and healthcare organizations. This new paradigm has been named as Social CRM or CRM 2.0 because it is based on Web 2.0. We conducted survey to examine the features of CRM 2.0 in healthcare scenario to the customer in Brunei Darussalam. We draw the conclusion that the CRM 2.0 in healthcare technologies has brought a possibility to extend the services of e-health by enabling patients, patient's families, and community at large to participate more actively in the process of health education; it helps improve health literacy through empowerment, social networking process, and online health educator. This paper is based on our works pre...

  19. Three-dimensional Simulations of the Mean Air Transport During the 1997 Forest Fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia Using a Mesoscale Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswintiarti, O.; Raman, S.

    - This paper describes the meteorological processes responsible for the mean transport of air pollutants during the ENSO-related forest fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia from 00 UTC 21 September to 00 UTC 25 September, 1997. The Fifth Generation of the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) is used to simulate three-dimensional winds at 6-hourly intervals. A nonhydrostatic version of the model is run using two nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 45 km and 15 km. From the simulated wind fields, the backward and forward trajectories of the air parcel are investigated using the Vis5D model.The results indicate that the large-scale subsidence over Indonesia, the southwest monsoon low-level flows (2-8 m s-1), and the shallow planetary boundary layer height (400-800 m) play a key role in the transport of air pollutants from Kalimantan to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei.

  20. Travel to the United States under the Visa Waiver Program

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The following information has been taken from the Web site of the United States Embassy in Paris, which shall be the only authentic text in the matter: http://www.amb-usa.fr/consul/niv_vwpfr.htm With effect from 15 May 2003, Belgian citizens wishing to travel to the United States (for business or pleasure for a maximum of 90 days) shall be eligible for admission without a visa only if they are in possession of a valid MACHINE-READABLE passport. However, they may still travel to the United States with a valid old-style passport after this date provided that they obtain a visa. This visa waiver for those holding a valid MACHINE-READABLE passport will also apply to the citizens of the following countries with effect from 1st October 2003: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Citizens not in poss...

  1. Integrating virtual manipulative with the use of iPad in the teaching and learning of fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajah Nadzirah Fatin Mohammad Malik Finti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have suggested that students have difficulties in understanding the concepts of fraction, particularly on fraction equivalence and addition of fractions that involved unlike denominators. It is envisaged that the implementation of Virtual Manipulative using iPad would enhance students’ conceptual understanding. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Virtual Manipulative with the use of iPads in teaching equivalence and addition of fractions. The target groups were two Year 7 classes in one of the secondary schools in Brunei, one class comprising high-achieving students, while the other consist of low-achieving students. An action research design that included quantitative and qualitative data analyses was conducted. The findings revealed that the implementation of Virtual Manipulative using iPad has significant effect on students’ performance in-group activities, and it has significant effect for students with low abilities. The study also revealed that students’ motivation to learn fractions increased as they found the use of iPads to be fun and interesting. However, the results also revealed that the use of iPads as a teaching tool appeared to be challenging for teachers.

  2. Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Borneo: A Review of Current Knowledge with Emphasis on Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Gianna; Zulkifli Poh, Anna Norliza; Peter, Cindy; Porter, Lindsay; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along Borneo's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan, Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei. Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. chinensis, and that of Sousa sahulensis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are frequently documented. Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive. The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus.

  3. Diversity of Begonia (Begoniaceae in Borneo – how many species are there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 126 species are currently named and described from Borneo (Brunei - 16 species, Kalimantan – 5 species, Sabah – 41 species and Sarawak – 72 species. However, based on our survey of the Begonia collection in the Sarawak Herbarium, the un-named taxa (about 110 species significantly outnumber the 72-named species. The situation is probably the same for Sabah, so with many more new species than the 41 named ones at a conservative estimate the Sabah Begonia flora can be expected to exceed 100 species. For Kalimantan (5 named species, the total number of un-named species is likely to be even higher considering that Kalimantan occupies a  larger land area, its begonia-rich mountains and limestone areas are hardly collected, and the Begonia flora has hardly been studied at all. We can therefore expect the Begonia flora of Borneo to exceed 600 species. In view of the high level of narrow endemism (80% of species are known from a single locality, expeditions to unexplored areas are  necessary to document, in particular, areas that are experiencing irreversible land-use change. Alpha-taxonomy on a large scale is needed to tackle the backlog of literally hundreds of new undescribed species. 

  4. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ASEAN CURRENCIES USING A COPULA APPROACH AND A DYNAMIC COPULA APPROACH

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    CHUKIAT CHAIBOONSRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC will be shaped developing to be a single market and production base in 2015, moving towards regional Economic Integration, 2009. These developments in international financial markets do lead to some adverse cost for AEC country borrowers. The specific objective aims to investigate the dependent measures and the co-movement among selected ASEAN currencies. A Copula Approach was used to examine dependent measures of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. Also, a Dynamic Copula Approach was tested to investigate the co-movement of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. The results of the study based on a Pearson linear correlation coefficient confirmed that Thai Baht exchange rate and each of selected ASEAN currencies have a linear correlation during the specific period excluding Vietnam exchange rate. Furthermore, based on empirical Copula Approach, Thai Baht exchange rate had a dependent structure with each of the selected in ASEAN currencies including Brunei exchange rate, Singapore exchange rate, Malaysia exchange rate, Indonesia exchange rate, Philippine exchange rate, and Vietnam exchange rate respectively. The results of Dynamic Copula estimation indicated that Thai Baht exchange rate had a co-movement with selected ASEAN currencies. The research results provide an informative and interactive ASEAN financial market to all users, including Global financial market.

  5. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  6. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesan UK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complications in the specialty of orthodontics. Despite their infrequent occurrence, the morbidity from a single incident and the amount of specialty medical care that may be needed to manage such incidents is too high to ignore. There is also the associated risk of malpractice litigation given the fact that these incidents are preventable. At present, no clear guidelines exist regarding prevention of this emergency in practice. This article attempts to review relevant literature and aims to formulate certain recommendations based on best available evidence to minimize the incidence of such events, while also suggesting guidelines toward making their management more effective. A flow chart outlining management options and strategies to aid the clinician in the event of such an emergency is also presented.Keywords: foreign bodies, ingestion, orthodontics, respiratory aspiration, orthodontic appliances

  7. Mobile Health (mHealth) Services and Online Health Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshari, Muhammad; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology enables health-care organizations to extend health-care services by providing a suitable environment to achieve mobile health (mHealth) goals, making some health-care services accessible anywhere and anytime. Introducing mHealth could change the business processes in delivering services to patients. mHealth could empower patients as it becomes necessary for them to become involved in the health-care processes related to them. This includes the ability for patients to manage their personal information and interact with health-care staff as well as among patients themselves. The study proposes a new position to supervise mHealth services: the online health educator (OHE). The OHE should be occupied by special health-care staffs who are trained in managing online services. A survey was conducted in Brunei and Indonesia to discover the roles of OHE in managing mHealth services, followed by a focus group discussion with participants who interacted with OHE in a real online health scenario. Data analysis showed that OHE could improve patients' confidence and satisfaction in health-care services.

  8. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: challenges for Australian health and medicine policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A; Townsend, Ruth

    2011-01-17

    Four formal rounds of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations took place in 2010. They involved over 200 officials from Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Chile, Singapore, Brunei, Peru, Vietnam and Malaysia. Future negotiations officially are set to include three issues with public health and medicines policy implications for Australia and our region: ways to approach regulatory coherence and transparency; how to benefit multinational and small-medium enterprises; and multilateral investor-state dispute settlement. US-based multinational pharmaceutical companies are lobbying for TPPA provisions like those in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, which reduce government cost-effectiveness regulatory control of pharmaceuticals, threatening equitable access to medicines. They also advocate increased TPPA intellectual monopoly privilege protection, which will further limit the development of Australian generic medicine enterprises and restrict patient access to cheap, bioequivalent prescription drugs. Of particular concern is that proposed TPPA multilateral investor-state dispute settlement procedures would allow US corporations (as well as those of other TPPA nations) to obtain damages against Australian governments through international arbitral proceedings if their investments are impeded by Australian public health and environment protection legislation.

  9. Optimal management of chronic osteomyelitis: current perspectives

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    Pande KC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ketan C Pande Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Chronic osteomyelitis is a challenging condition to treat. It is seen mostly after open fractures or in implant-related infections following treatment of fractures and prosthetic joint replacements. Recurrence of infection is well known, and successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach with surgical debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapy as the cornerstone of treatment. Staging of the disease and identification of the causative microorganism is essential before initiation of treatment. Important surgical steps include radical debridement of necrotic and devitalized tissue, removal of implants, management of resultant dead space, soft-tissue coverage, and skeletal stabilization or management of skeletal defects. The route of administration and duration of antimicrobial therapy continues to be debated. The role of biofilm is now clearly established in the chronicity of bone infection, and newer modalities are being developed to address various issues related to biofilm formation. The present review addresses various aspects of chronic osteomyelitis of long bones seen in adults, with a review of recent developments. Keywords: osteomyelitis, infection, biofilm, bone, therapy, treatment

  10. The burden of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Norman, Rosana; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the most recent data on cancer rates and the burden of cancer in the ASEAN region. Epidemiological data were sourced from GLOBOCAN 2008 and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost were estimated using the standard methodology developed within the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease study. Overall, it was estimated there were over 700,000 new cases of cancer and 500,000 cancer deaths in ASEAN in the year 2008, leading to approximately 7.5 million DALYs lost in one year. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (98,143), breast (86,842) and liver cancers (74,777). The most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (85,772), liver cancer (69,115) and colorectal cancer (44,280). The burden of cancer in terms of DALYs lost was highest in Laos, Viet Nam and Myanmar and lowest in Brunei, Singapore and the Philippines. Significant differences in the patterns of cancer from country to country were observed. Another key finding was the major impact played by population age distribution on cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer rates in ASEAN are expected to increase with ageing of populations and changes in lifestyles associated with economic development. Therefore, ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place cancer-control health care policies, focussed on strengthening the health systems to cope with projected increases in cancer prevention, treatment and management needs.

  11. A survey of ASEAN instruments relating to peatlands, mangroves and other wetlands: The REDD+ context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng-Lian Koh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 13th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Summit in November 2007, held in Singapore, ASEAN has accelerated its response to climate change issues, including REDD+ as a mechanism for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to enhance conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. There are many wetlands in ASEAN including more than 25 million ha of peatlands spread over Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Philippines, Vietnam and Lao PDR. The peatlands account for 60 per cent of global tropical peatland resources. They are of significance for sequestration of carbon. However, degraded wetlands, including peatlands, are also a major source of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. Of the types of wetlands, ASEAN has focused attention predominantly on peatlands in relation to REDD+, mainly because of the ‘Indonesian Haze’. The Asia-Pacific Centre for Environmental Law (APCEL organised a Workshop titled, REDD+ and Legal Regimes of Mangroves, Peatland and Other Wetlands: ASEAN and the World, in Singapore from 15-16 November 2012. The articles contained in this special themed edition of the International Journal of Rural Law and Policy (IJRLP contains a selection of the papers presented. This editorial will provide a brief background to some aspects of REDD+. Included in this issue of IJRLP is a summary of the proceedings of the workshop as interpreted by the assigned rapporteur and editors of APCEL. These summaries were reviewed and approved by the presenters.

  12. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

  13. Contribution of the Heart of Borneo (HoB initiative towards botanical exploration in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Sabran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Heart of   Borneo (HoB declaration is a conservation agreement initiated by WWF and signed by three countries, i.e., Brunei       Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia in Bali, Indonesia on 12th February 2007 to protect more than 23 million hectares of forested region on Borneo Island. These forested areas could be well protected when conservation management plan is in place. One of the crucial activities to facilitate the planning and formulation of conservation plan is to conduct  scientific expeditions that include botanical exploration. The primary objective of the expedition is to identify the key conservation targets within the forest reserves. For the past five years, several expeditions have been conducted by the Sabah Forestry Department under the auspices of the HoB project to explore various forest reserves with conservation issues within the Heart of Borneo area. This paper will present the findings which include plant richness, endemism and plant conservation status in each forest reserves that has been explored. 

  14. Application of Intelligent Agents in Wireless Prepaid Energy Meter

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    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepaid meter (PM is getting very popular especially in developing countries. There are many advantages to use prepaid meter as opposed to postpaid meter both to the utility provider and to the consumer. Brunei has adopted PM but it is not intelligent and not wireless enabled. Reading meters and topping up balance are still done manually. Utility provider does not have information on the usage statistics and has only limited functionalities in the grid control. So accordingly an intelligent agent based wireless prepaid energy meter been developed using JADE-LEAP Agent development kit allowing agent from utility provider to query wireless energy meter for energy values for every household. These statistics can be used for statistical computation of the power consumed and for policy and future planning. Agent from consumers’ mobile devices can query the energy meter to study the power consumed and for topping up the balance. When the meter reaches the threshold, agent at energy meter would also send messages to alert consumers for topping up through mobile handset and failing to do so will lead to power being cut automatically

  15. ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance while emphasizing social, economic, and cultural cooperation and development. Its member states include Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. ASEAN encompasses a population of 321.2 million, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Its gross domestic product was US$196 billion in 1987, with a per capita GDP of $621 and an annual growth rate of 5.8%. A striking characteristic of ASEAN is its wide diversity in terms of race (Malay, Thai, Chinese, Indian), culture, languages, and religion. Although ASEAN has gradually developed a number of formal consultative meetings and committees, it has only a limited permanent structure. Decisions are made by consensus or through informal, ad hoc consultations. The periodic meetings of the 6 foreign ministers constitute the principal decision-making body. The ASEAN nations are mainly committed to market and export-oriented economic growth strategies. Except for Singapore, the ASEAN economies are heavily agricultural, producing primarily rice. In the modern sector, all of the economies (except for Singapore's) are heavily reliant on basic industries, but high-technology manufacturing (e.g., electronic components) is becoming more important. ASEAN has demonstrated a remarkable ability to put aside historical disputes and limited economic complementarity to concentrate on issues of common interest. All 6 member nations have made preservation and enhancement of regional cohesion through ASEAN a foreign policy priority.

  16. The Use of MBIM/MABBIM Glossary in the Translation of Agricultural Science Books by the Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Masittah Raja Ariffin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation is a process of transfer from a source language to the target language. Through translation readers who are not familiar with the source language will be able to gain knowledge through the target language. In other words, the translated texts can help broaden readers’ knowledge and ways of thinking. During the translation process, a translator has to identify and use the appropriate term in the target language in order to ensure that the translated text will be accurate and effective. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which translators have utilised the terms produced by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP/Majlis Bahasa Indonesia-Malaysia (MBIM/ Majlis Bahasa Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia (MABBIM in the translation of Agricultural Science books from English into Malay, with particular focus on the accuracy and effectiveness of the translated terms. This study also seeks to identify the problems often faced by the translators in choosing and using the translated terms for texts related to the field of agricultural science. The data for this study is obtained from six Agricultural Science books as well as from interviews with the translators. 332 terms have been gathered from the books and it is found that almost 32% of them are different from the terminologies produced by the DBP/MBIM/MABBIM. This may be due to the internal and external factors that are related to the attitude of the translators as well as the lack of agricultural terminologies when the books were being translated.

  17. The political economy of tobacco and poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia: contradictions in the role of the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2010-03-01

    Of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), all but Indonesia have embraced the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and all endorse some form of tobacco control policy. Nevertheless, except for Brunei, all these states are, to varying degrees, complicit in investing in or promoting the tobacco industry, often using the justification of poverty alleviation. Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of illness and death among the populations of these countries. Claims that tobacco alleviates poverty in developing countries have increasingly been discredited: thus continuing state support for the industry represents a fundamental paradox. Using primary documents from governments and the tobacco industry, and published studies investigating tobacco and poverty, this article explores the contradictions inherent in the state seeking to prevent tobacco use in the interests of health, while actively promoting tobacco for the economic benefit of its citizens. These contradictions result in both symbolic and substantial harm to tobacco control efforts: tobacco production is legitimized, rational policy principles are violated, direct cooperation between the state and multinational tobacco corporations is made possible with associated opportunities for mollifying control policies, and different state agencies work at cross purposes. Although tobacco exports within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also threaten the group's health solidarity, it is argued that divestiture of state ownership of capital in tobacco corporations and a commitment by states not to promote tobacco are urgently required if the Convention is to have full effect both in the countries of the region and in other states that have ratified it.

  18. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  19. Overview of the Sustainable Uses of Peat Soil in Malaysia with Some Relevant Geotechnical Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidah Adon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is an important ecosystem that provides a significant contribution to the global climate stability. In Malaysia, peat soils are considered as a soil with little economic benefit, apart from it being used for agricultural activity. The total world coverage of peat soil is about thirty million hectares with Canada and Russia having the largest distribution of peat (Zainorabiddin,2010. More than sixty percent of the world’s tropical peat lands are found in South-East Asia (Lette,2006. Most notable are the large peat land on the islands of Borneo (belonging to Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei and Sumatra (Indonesia. However, there are also significant occurrences in other parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines. The main contributory functions and benefits of peat soil are within the engineering disciplines of hydrology, agriculture, social-economics, biodiversity habitats and carbon sequestration. Peat was used in temperate climates (especially in Finland, Ireland, Sweden and UK as a fuel to generate electricity and heat. Therefore peat can be considered as a renewable energy source but this will be very detrimental to the market of genuine renewables. The western coastal lowlands of Malaysia (such as Kukup are mangroves that represent the initiation of peat soil formation. Such areas provide the natural habitat of mangrove forests. It also fixes more carbon from the atmosphere than is released and approximately one-quarter of the carbon stored in land plants and soils. On the other hand, peat is one of the problematic or challenging foundation soil of poor quality due to it’s very high water content, high compressibility and low shear strength. Peat consists of decomposed plant fragments and the unfavourable characteristics of peat soil deposits make them unsuitable for making sustainable infrastructure development for varied engineering projects. This paper therefore gives an overview of the pros and cons

  20. Simulation of Smoke-Haze Dispersion from Wildfires in South East Asia with a Lagrangian Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, D.; Burgin, L.; Gan, C.; Hort, M.; Jones, A. R.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning, often related to agricultural deforestation, not only affects local pollution levels but periodically deteriorates air quality in many South East Asian megacities due to the transboundary transport of smoke-haze. In June 2013, Singapore experienced the worst wildfire related air-pollution event on record following from the escalation of peatland fires in Sumatra. An extended dry period together with anomalous westerly winds resulted in severe and unhealthy pollution levels in Singapore that lasted for more than two weeks. Reacting to this event, the Met Office and the Meteorological Service Singapore have explored how to adequately simulate haze-pollution dispersion, with the aim to provide a reliable operational forecast for Singapore. Simulations with the Lagrangian particle model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment), running on numerical weather prediction data from the Met Office and Meteorological Service Singapore and emission data derived from satellite observations of the fire radiative power, are validated against PM10 observations in South East Asia. Comparisons of simulated concentrations with hourly averages of PM10 measurements in Singapore show that the model captures well the severe smoke-haze event in June 2013 and a minor episode in March 2014. Different quantitative satellite-derived emissions have been tested, with one source demonstrating a consistent factor of two under-prediction for Singapore. Confidence in the skill of the model system has been substantiated by further comparisons with data from monitoring sites in Malaysia, Brunei and Thailand. Following the validation study, operational smoke-haze pollution forecasts with NAME were launched in Singapore, in time for the 2014 fire season. Real-time bias correction and verification of this forecast will be discussed.

  1. Environmental externalities: An ASEAN application to coal-based power generation. Extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Significant benefits to human health that result from emissions control programs may justify the costs of pollution control policies. Many scientists, economists, risk analysts, and policymakers believe that comparisons of the benefits with the costs of pollution control demonstrate that the US stationary source, air emissions control program is justified. This justification is based upon pronounced benefits to human health, especially from controlling suspended particulates and sulfur compounds. Market decisions are usually made on the basis of a consideration of traditional costs such as capital, operating and maintenance, fuel costs, and fixed charges. Social costs, which could be significant, are not incorporated explicitly into such decisions. These social costs could result in a net reduction in the welfare of individuals, and of society as a whole. Because these social costs and their effects are not represented in the price of energy, individual have no way to explicitly value them; hence, they remain unaccounted for in market decisions. By accounting for external costs, the selection of energy sources and production of energy products can lead to and equilibrium, where the total cost of energy and energy products, together with resulting social costs, can be brought to an economic minimum. The concept of an air emissions control program is of interest to the ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) and their governments, especially if such a program could be justified in cost-benefit terms and shown to be directly applicable to ASEAN conditions. It is the intent of the effort described herein to demonstrate that technical options are available to control emissions from coal-based, electric power plants and that that costs of these options may be justified in cost-benefit terms.

  2. Environmental externalities: An ASEAN application to coal-based power generation. [Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Significant benefits to human health that result from emissions control programs may justify the costs of pollution control policies. Many scientists, economists, risk analysts, and policymakers believe that comparisons of the benefits with the costs of pollution control demonstrate that the US stationary source, air emissions control program is justified. This justification is based upon pronounced benefits to human health, especially from controlling suspended particulates and sulfur compounds. Market decisions are usually made on the basis of a consideration of traditional costs such as capital, operating and maintenance, fuel costs, and fixed charges. Social costs, which could be significant, are not incorporated explicitly into such decisions. These social costs could result in a net reduction in the welfare of individuals, and of society as a whole. Because these social costs and their effects are not represented in the price of energy, individual have no way to explicitly value them; hence, they remain unaccounted for in market decisions. By accounting for external costs, the selection of energy sources and production of energy products can lead to and equilibrium, where the total cost of energy and energy products, together with resulting social costs, can be brought to an economic minimum. The concept of an air emissions control program is of interest to the ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) and their governments, especially if such a program could be justified in cost-benefit terms and shown to be directly applicable to ASEAN conditions. It is the intent of the effort described herein to demonstrate that technical options are available to control emissions from coal-based, electric power plants and that that costs of these options may be justified in cost-benefit terms.

  3. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  4. Second-chance university admission, the theory of planned behaviour and student achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Yabit; Anshari, Muhammad; Sabtu, Norakmarul Ihsan; Yunus, Norazmah

    2016-06-01

    The theory of planned behaviour attempts to explain factors which influence behaviour. One of these factors is intention. Positive or negative intentions are formed by a person's impression of the way other people would perceive similar behaviour (external forces). The authors of this study used the theory of planned behaviour to examine, compare and interpret the academic performance of students entering a university either via direct intake or via a bridging programme. This study focuses on the UniBridge programme offered by Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), which is an intensive one-semester course that prepares students for undergraduate-level study. While direct-intake applicants pass minimum requirements for entry and are able to enrol directly into an undergraduate programme, applicants who do not meet these minimum requirements can join this bridging programme which is designed to be a "second-chance" entry option. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors subjected student performance data of both direct-intake and bridge-programme undergraduates to statistical analyses, carried out interviews and then used the theoretical framework of planned behaviour to pinpoint individual attitudes and social pressures which form an intention to prepare for entry examinations. The results were mostly consistent and showed that the two groups were competitive in terms of undergraduate academic achievement, thus proving the second-chance programme to be effective in enabling students with poor A-Level results to experience academic confidence at university level. On the strength of these findings, the authors conclude their paper with recommendations for tertiary institutions to support lifelong learning initiatives through the use of multiple channels of entry.

  5. KONDISI KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN DI INDONESIA DAN ANGKA KEMATIAN BAYI, ANGKA KEMATIAN ANAK BALITA SERTA ANGKA KEMATIAN BALITA MENURUT DATA SUSENAS 1998, 2001 DAN 2003 (Environmental Health and Child Mortality in Indonesia Based on Susenas Data of 1998, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptini Supraptini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Health and Child Mortality in Indonesia Based on Susenas Data of 1998, 2001 and 2003.Environmental health related disease are still problem in Indonesia and these factors are importence in the public daily life. Childhood mortality rate which include Infant Mortality Rate (IMR, Child Mortality Rate (CMR and Under five Mortality Rate have been used as social welfare and public health indicators. Registration system for death in lndonesia not good enough, so we count number of death using indirect methode so we used data survey. National Social and Economics Survey (NSES/Susenas as one of data survey which every year collected can used to analysis and count the environmental health related with number of death include childhood mortality rate. Data used for this analysis is NSES Modul 1998, 2001 and 2003 and the analysis unit is house hold. The scoring of healthy housing based upon the total scoring of 8 parameters and divided into 3 categories e.g good, moderate, and bad. The result showed that the factor of environment health 'bad' categories produced IMR, CMR, and Under live Mortality rate was higest. Environmental health 'good' categories in Indonesia contributed for decreasing CMR (age 1-4 years, in Java Bali especially to decreasing for Under five Mortality Rate (age 1-59 months. But in East Indonesian Area for five years (1998-2003 or 'good' categories there are increasing tor IMR, CMR, and Under five Mortality Rate. In urban or rural area there are not different environmental health 'good' categories will be contributed for decreasing death, exepted for CMR (age 1-4 years in urban area there are the same for 'good' categories or 'moderate' categories. The trend of IMR,CMR and Under five Mortality Rate increasing in 2001 but decreasing in 2003. Indonesian IMR in 2001 at seven grade in ASEAN after Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Thailand, The Philippines, and Vietnam.Keywords: Enviromental health, Infant Mortality Rate

  6. Management of liver trauma in RIPAS Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Yuh Yen KOK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The management of blunt and penetrating liver trauma continues to pose a tremendouschallenge to surgeons. This study reviews the pattern of liver trauma and its management, bothoperative and non-operative, in RIPAS Hospital, the only tertiary referral center in Brunei Darussalam.Material and Methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted with liver trauma, with and withoutother associated injuries between January 2002 and December 2006 to RIPAS Hospital was undertaken.The patients’ case records were retrieved. Details on age, sex, mode of injury, pre-operativeimaging, severity of liver injury based on the Liver Injury Scale (LIS, grades I to VI, presence of otherassociated injuries, overall management, complications and outcome were collected and analysed. Results:Twenty patients (male, n = 12 with a mean age of 36 years old (range 20 to 75 were treatedfor liver trauma (median LIS grade of III, range I to V during the study period. Road traffic accidentsaccounted for 75% of the injuries. Thirteen (65% had high grade injuries (6 LIS grade III. Seventeen(85% patients underwent surgical procedures for liver and other associated injuries. Four patients(20% had non-operative management with one failure (5%. This patient subsequently requiredsurgery. There were six post-operative deaths (mortality 30%. There were three major morbidities(15%: right hepatic artery aneurysm, a right hepatic duct bile leak and left hemiplegia secondaryto cerebrovascular accident. Conclusions: In our local setting, blunt liver trauma is often due toroad traffic accidents and is associated with a high mortality rate. A majority was of high grades andrequired urgent surgical interventions. Non-operative management is an option for those with lowgrade injuries and who are stable.

  7. WATER TABLE AND REDOX CONDITIONS IN DEEP TROPICAL PEAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajah Dulima Jali

    2007-01-01

    Redox potential in the well developed tropical peat swamp in Brunei was studied for a year. Generally the redox potential measurements showed a large variation, ranging from -234 mV to 727 mV. The expected rise in redox values did not take place following the drop of water table during the dry months of June to September. The redox value at 100 cm depth indicated that the soil remained reduced throughout the year in spite of the lowering of water table below 150 cm in all sites during dry period. Similarly the redox values did not decrease rapidly following flooding when the water table rose to the surface. This phenomenon could be attributed to the topography of the peat dome which facilitated the fast lateral movement of water and thus promoted oxygen supply down the peat profile, though not great enough to reach the 100 cm depth. The rapid lateral flow of water in the outer Alan batu site facilitated aeration, but in the inner sites remained which was reduced because of the slower water movement. The slower initiation of the reducing condition was likely due to the presence of nitrate which has accumulated as a result of ammonium oxidation during the relatively long aerobic period. Differences in the distribution of redox potential with depth are possibly explained by the different permeability of peat affecting flow patterns and residence time of water. The nature and compactibility of the peat might have slowed the diffusion rates of O2 into the lower layer. Though the bulk density of the peat was low, the composition of the peat might influence the peat permeability and hydraulic conductivity. The tree trunks are not decomposed or large branches must have lowered permeability compared to the other peat material.

  8. Some observations on the hydrocarbon habitat of basins in the CIS countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, P.E.R.; Lijmbach, G.W.M. (Shell Internationale, Hague (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    In comparison with many basins in the West, the habitat of oil and gas in the basins of the former Soviet Union is poorly known (to non-Russian geologists) and until recently, virtually inaccessible. The situation now has changed, and the prospect of adding the data on these basins to the worldwide knowledge base is an exciting one. Although much data on source rock distribution, maturity, and correlations are still unavailable, it is useful to summarize what is know and what remains to be done. Better understanding of these parameters has more often than not led to the discovery of significant new reserves in old basins. Although Paleozoic and Mesozoic organic shales are easily identified in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) basins, Cenozoic source rocks seem to be as elusive as they are in many other Tertiary basins worldwide. The distribution of rich organic layers in the Maikop sequence in the north Caucasus (late Oligocene-early Miocene) is poorly documented, and the role of the organic-rich diatomites in providing the bulk of the charge in the Sakhalin province also has not been demonstrated analytically until now. Such problems recall the difficulty of identifying sources of charge in many other Tertiary delta provinces (Nigeria, Brunei, etc.). Time-temperate modeling applied to documented or potential source rock intervals allows insights to be gained into the origin of oil and gas accumulations in several of the large complex basins of the CIS, such as Timan Pechora and the East Barents Sea, the Volga-Urals, West Siberia, the pre-Caspian, the north Caucasus group and the Sakhalin province. The results will be used to emphasize the areas of current habitat uncertainty and the scope for new hydrocarbon plays.

  9. New pseudo-skin model for flow convergence to perforations in competent formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonkwo, F.C. [University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Onyekonwu, M.O. [Laser Engineering Consultants/Uniport, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    1997-05-01

    Existing models for calculating pseudo-skin due to perforations give values that do not agree with observed values. In this paper we discuss a new analytical model that can be used for calculating pseudo-skin due to flow convergence to perforations. The model was developed by combining Bernoulli and Forchheimer equations. Geertsma`s (1974) correlation was introduced to account for the inertia coefficient {beta}. We used our model to calculate skin factors and productivity ratios (PR) for several perforation parameters. The results were compared with results obtained using existing models. In terms of trend, results from all the models, including our model, agree. For example, the models show that the productivity index increases with increase in perforation length and shot density. Also, our model agrees with Locke`s (1981) finding that if all perforation parameters remain the same, a 90 phasing will give the maximum productivity while 0 phasing will give minimum productivity. Quantitatively, results from our model differ (in some cases significantly) from results from other models. For example, some models predict that for 4 shots/ft (13 shots/m) and 90 phasing, a perforated well will have same productivity as an open-hole completion if the perforation depth is between 4 and 6 in (0.1016-0.1524 m). With our model we predicted that this equivalence will occur if the perforation depth is between 14 and 16 in (0.3556-0.4064 m). We validated our model with field data from Brunei and experimental data published by Muskat and McDowell (1950) and Howard and Watson (1952). Our model applies to wells with perforations in competent (consolidated) formations and for modified Reynold`s number of up to 1000

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcom W. Mintz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Simone Prodolliet, Händlerinnen, Goldgr��ber und Staatsbeamte; Sozialgeschichte einer Kleinstadt im Hochland Südwestsumatras. Berlin: Reimer, 1996, 372 pp. [Berner Sumatra-Forschungen.] - Richard Chauvel, Antje van der Hoek, Religie in Ballingschap; Institutionalisering en Leiderschap onder Christelijke en Islamitische Molukkers in Nederland. Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij, 1994, 297 pp. - J.E. Lelijveld, Kees Groeneboer, Weg tot het Westen; Het Nederlands voor Indië 1600-1950. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1993, xii + 580 pp. - Bernd Nothofer, P.W. Martin, Language Use & Language Change in Brunei Darussalam, Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1996, xvi + 373 pp. [Monographs in International Studies 100.], C. Ozog, G. Poedjosoedarmo (eds. - Anton Ploeg, Pamela Swadling, Plumes from Paradise; Trade cycles in outer Southeast Asia and their impact on New Guinea and nearby islands until 1920. With contributions by Roy Wagner and Billai Laba. Boroko/Coorparoo (Qld: Papua New Guinea National Museum in association with R. Brown & Ass. (Qld, 1996, 352 pp. Plates, maps, index. - Bernard Sellato, Traude Gavin, The women’s warpath; Iban ritual fabrics from Borneo, Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1996, 99 pp. - Jyh Wee Sew, Malcom W. Mintz, A course in conversational Indonesian (with equivalent Malay vocabulary. Singapore: EPB Publishers, 1994, 558 pp. - Kees Snoek, Liesbeth Dolk, Twee Zielen, Twee Gedachten; Tijdschriften en Intellectuelen op Java (1900-1957, Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1993, 220 pp. - Nicholas Tarling, Paul H. Kratoska, Malaya and Singapore during the Japanese Occupation. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995, xii + 175 pp. [Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Special Publications Series 3.

  11. Economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA. Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources--surveillance data, World Health Organization (WHO, and published studies--and adjusted for underreporting using expansion factors from previous literature. We obtained unit costs per episode through a systematic literature review, and completed missing data using linear regressions. We excluded costs such as prevention and vector control, and long-term sequelae of dengue. Over the decade of 2001-2010, we obtained an annual average of 2.9 million (m dengue episodes and 5,906 deaths. The annual economic burden (with 95% certainty levels was US$950m (US$610m-US$1,384m or about US$1.65 (US$1.06-US$2.41 per capita. The annual number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, based on the original 1994 definition, was 214,000 (120,000-299,000, which is equivalent to 372 (210-520 DALYs per million inhabitants. CONCLUSION: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in SEA with a DALY burden per million inhabitants in the region. This burden is higher than that of 17 other conditions, including Japanese encephalitis, upper respiratory infections, and hepatitis B.

  12. Antimicrobial efficacy and phytochemical analysis of Indigofera trita Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raju Senthil; Moorthy, Kannaiyan; Vinodhini, Raja; Punitha, Thambidurai

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of various extracts of Indigofera trita L. viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts were carried out. A total of 21 microorganisms (19 bacteria and 2 fungal strains) were used for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and a standard procedure was used to identify the phytochemical constituents. Petroleum ether extract showed moderate inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (14.40 mm), S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), Salmonella paratyphi A (12.80 mm), Streptococcus mutans (12.20 mm), Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, S. typhi and Burkholderia cepacia (12.00 mm). The chloroform extract also showed antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), S. typhimurium (12.60 mm), S. paratyphi A, S. brunei and Yersinia enterocolitica (12.00 mm). The acetone extract of I. trita showed considerable inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (18.20 mm), S. typhimurium (14.60 mm), S. infantis (13.80 mm), S. aureus (13.40 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.00 mm) and Enterobacter aerogenes (12.00 mm) were documented. Ethanol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (18.60 mm), S. paratyphi A (14.60 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.40 mm), S. typhi (12.40 mm), S. aureus, E. aerogenes, S. typhimurium and S. infantis (12.00 mm). Aqueous extract of I. trita considerably inhibited S. epidermidis (13.80 mm), S. paratyphi A and Y. enterocolitica (12.20 mm), E. aerogenes and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus (12.00 mm). All the five extracts showed a minimal antifungal activity when compared to antibacterial activity. The result revealed that the antimicrobial properties of I. trita might be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols and alkaloids.

  13. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  14. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  15. The role of tree-fall dynamics in long-term carbon storage of tropical peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Cobb, A.; Joosten, H.; Glaser, P. H.; Chua, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F. M.; Noren, A. J.; Kamariah, A. S.; Su'ut, N. S.; Harvey, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    The forested peatlands of the Earth's tropical belt represent a major terrestrial carbon pool that may contain over 90 petagram C. However, the mechanisms that led to the build-up of this significant pool of carbon are poorly understood. Moreover, the rates of carbon uptake by peat accumulation in these tropical settings have rarely been quantified and natural variations in uptake on decadal to millennial scales are not well constrained. We studied carbon accumulation dynamics on these timescales of a peat swamp forest dominated by the dipterocarp Shorea albida - a unique forest type that, until recently, widely covered the lowlands of northwest Borneo. The impressive Shorea albida trees may reach heights of 70 m and are therefore strongly susceptible to windthrow and lightning. Such natural disturbances cause these trees to fall and uproot - excavating over 1 m deep holes into the peat that fill with water to become tip-up pools. The analysis of high-resolution aerial photographs and radiocarbon dated peat cores from our field site in Brunei together with the construction of a simulation model of peat accumulation allowed us to determine the role of tree-fall and tip-up pools in carbon storage. In a hectare of Shorea albida forest four tip-up pools form per decade. A pool completely fills with organic matter within 200 years according to our pollen record and a dated pool deposit stored 40 kg C m-2 of the total 110 kg C m-2 large local peat carbon pool. The carbon accumulation rates in these pools reach over 800 g C m-2 yr-1 - within the range of annual litterfall in dipterocarp forests. The simulation model indicates that up to 60% of the peat deposits under Shorea albida forests could be derived from infilled pools. Tip-up pools are therefore local hotspots for carbon storage in tropical forested peatlands.

  16. Competitiveness in tourism economies of the APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna María Ibáñez Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that by 2030 the influx of tourists worldwide scope 1. 7 billion people. For such figures become a reality, timely in formation that can be taken as a reference for the generation of strategies aimed at harnessing the tourism potential of the various destinations in the world is required, plus a coordinated work between different economies, blocks and organizations. Here, in this article, an overview of the situation and development of tourism competitiveness of nations that make up the Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC is provided. The methodology consisted of review of specialized search and sta tistical information influx, income and tourism competitiveness globally and literature APEC member country. The main results indicate that globally between 2010 and 2013, APEC countries experienced an increase in tourism revenues of 25%, a figure that exceeds global trends. In 2013, the level of tourism competitiveness presented by APEC, ranged between 6 and 82 position globally and only 53% of the 19 APEC economies that were evaluated by the World Economic Forum (WEF, improved their level of competitiveness. In relation to the regulatory framework linked to tourism, nations like Peru, Brunei and Russia reached the lowest ratings of the block thus have enormous work to do to improve your score in this category. In business environment and infrastructure, highlighted America. While in human and cultural resources, proved to be the issue in which APEC economies outperformed. Finally, results for APEC economies, evidence that critical areas are those concerning regulation and policies; and particularly sustainability issue, which can become a bottleneck in terms of competitiveness in the area of APEC therefore must strengthen and design better strategies for joint efforts in relation to such matters.

  17. 东北亚区域旅游协同发展制度构建研究--基于与东南亚区域之比较%On the System Construction of Synergetic Development for Regional Tourism in Northeast Asia--- Based on Comparison with Southeast Asia Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 黄朕

    2016-01-01

    In general ,there are two of the most important tourist areas in Northeast Asia [China (Chinese mainland ,Hong Kong ,Macao and Taiwan) ,South Korea ,North Korea ,Japan ,Mongolia and the Russian Far East] and Southeast Asia (including Singapore ,Malaysia ,Thailand ,Cambodia , Vietnam ,Indonesia ,the Philippines ,Myanmar ,Brunei and Laos) ,which are due to the important status and role in the whole Asia or even the world .This paper makes a tentative comparison of the two areas by comparative method ,field observation and literature study ,in the hope of getting some inspiration from the tourist development in Southeast Asia and getting some reference and practical significance for the system construction of regional tourist synergetic development and intercultural communication in Northeast Asia .%在世界旅游热点区域之一的亚洲,东盟国家(ASEAN)地区和由中(主要是中国的东北三省和环渤海以及京津冀地区)、日、韩、朝、蒙以及俄远东地区构成的东北亚地区尤为重要,在世界范围内都有着举足轻重的地位和作用。本文将运用比较研究法和实地考察法以及文献研究法对上述两个区域的相关方面和旅游现状做一个尝试性的比较,希望从东南亚国家的旅游发展研究中找出东北亚区域能够得到的相关启示,从而对东北亚区域旅游协同发展制度构建和跨文化交流有借鉴作用和实践意义。

  18. 20世纪50年代以来东南亚闽籍华人数量的估算%Fujianese Population in Southeast Asia since the 1950s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓丽

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to estimate the population of overseas Chinese, and the circumstance in Southeast Asia is especially complicated due to various reasons. Based on statistical data published in China as well as census data,yearbooks,statistical publications and internal publications by Chinese communities in Southeast Asia,this research examines the population change and distribution of Fujianese in Southeast Asia and estimates the Fujianese population in Singapore,Malaysia,Philippines, Indonesia,Thailand,Cambodia,Vietnam,Myanmar,Laos,Brunei and East Timor. It estimates that there are more than 12 million Fujianese in Southeast Asia in total.%海外华侨华人数量的不确定一直是学术研究中的难题,东南亚地区由于各国复杂的情况这一问题更为明显。多种因素导致东南亚闽籍华侨华人规模估算的困难。论文在参考国内统计数据的基础上,汇总东南亚各国的人口普查数据、年鉴、统计公报和华社会刊等一手资料,并在此基础上参考相关机构和学者研究的二手资料,梳理和分析了东南亚闽籍华人数量的历史变迁与地区分布,并对东南亚地区的新加坡、马来西亚、菲律宾、印度尼西亚、泰国、柬埔寨、越南、缅甸,以及老挝、文莱、东帝汶等国家的闽籍华人数量分别进行了统计和估算。据保守估计,东南亚闽籍华人的总体规模超过1200万。

  19. Statistics of Stacked Strata on Experimental Shelf Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A. M.; Straub, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margin deposits provide the most complete record on Earth of paleo-landscapes, but these records are complex and difficult to interpret. To a seismic geomorphologist or stratigrapher, mapped surfaces often present a static diachronous record of these landscapes through time. We present data that capture the dynamics of experimental shelf-margin landscapes at high-temporal resolution and define internal hierarchies within stacked channelized and weakly channelized deposits from the shelf to the slope. Motivated by observations from acoustically-imaged continental margins offshore Brunei and in the Gulf of Mexico, we use physical experiments to quantify stratal patterns of sub-aqueous slope channels and lobes that are linked to delta-top channels. The data presented here are from an experiment that was run for 26 hours of experimental run time. Overhead photographs and topographic scans captured flow dynamics and surface aggradation/degradation every ten minutes. Currents rich in sediment built a delta that prograded to the shelf-edge. These currents were designed to plunge at the shoreline and travel as turbidity currents beyond the delta and onto the continental slope. Pseudo-subsidence was imposed by a slight base-level rise that generated accommodation space and promoted the construction of stratigraphy on the delta-top. Compensational stacking is a term that is frequently applied to deposits that tend to fill in topographic lows in channelized and weakly channelized systems. The compensation index, a metric used to quantify the strength of compensation, is used here to characterize deposits at different temporal scales on the experimental landscape. The compensation timescale is the characteristic time at which the accumulated deposits begins to match the shape of basin-wide subsidence rates (uniform for these experiments). We will use the compensation indices along strike transects across the delta, proximal slope and distal slope to evaluate the

  20. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is

  1. ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Focus in this discussion of the 6 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) is on the following: georgraphy; the people; history; institutions (foreign ministers' meetings, economic ministers' meetings, the ASEAN Secretariat, and the Task Force on the Future of ASEAN cooperation): the economy; defense; external relations; and relations between the US and the ASEAN nations. In mid-1985 the population totaled 289.5 million with an average (unweighted) annual growth rate of 2.2%. Located on the Southeast Asian peninsula and the islands to the south and east in the South China Sea, the 6 ASEAN states guard some of the most important sealanes in the world. The ASEAN states lie astride the Equator and extend from roughly 1600 km north to 804 km south. 1 of the most striking characteristics of ASEAN is its wide diversity in race, language, culture, and religion; many ethnic groups coexist. Malayo-Polyneian make up the majority in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia (and thus in ASEAN), although Malaysia and Indonesia have significant numbers of other groups. Thailand is 75% Thai. Ethnic Chinese make up 77% of the population of Singapore, and sizable Chinese minorities are found in each of the other ASEAN nations. ASEAN founded officially on August 8, 1967, was created to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance through economic, social, and cultural cooperation. The organization developed slowly during its 1st decade, due in part to differing economic interests, varied historical experience, and the initially fragile political ties among the 5 original states. The Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, starting in December 1978, was a further stimulus to collaboration. The ASEAN nations successfully managed passage of UN resolutions condemning Vietnam and were the chief sponsors in the July 1981 International Conference on Kampuchea. Although ASEAN was established with primarily economic and

  2. The ASEAN economic community and medical qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jathurong Kittrakulrat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the regional movement toward ASEAN Economic Community (AEC, medical professions including physicians can be qualified to practice medicine in another country. Ensuring comparable, excellent medical qualification systems is crucial but the availability and analysis of relevant information has been lacking. Objective: This study had the following aims: 1 to comparatively analyze information on Medical Licensing Examinations (MLE across ASEAN countries and 2 to assess stakeholders’ view on potential consequences of AEC on the medical profession from a Thai perspective. Design: To search for relevant information on MLE, we started with each country's national body as the primary data source. In case of lack of available data, secondary data sources including official websites of medical universities, colleagues in international and national medical student organizations, and some other appropriate Internet sources were used. Feasibility and concerns about validity and reliability of these sources were discussed among investigators. Experts in the region invited through HealthSpace.Asia conducted the final data validation. For the second objective, in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Thai stakeholders, purposely selected based on a maximum variation sampling technique to represent the points of view of the medical licensing authority, the medical profession, ethicists and economists. Results: MLE systems exist in all ASEAN countries except Brunei, but vary greatly. Although the majority has a national MLE system, Singapore, Indonesia, and Vietnam accept results of MLE conducted at universities. Thailand adopted the USA's 3-step approach that aims to check pre-clinical knowledge, clinical knowledge, and clinical skills. Most countries, however, require only one step. A multiple choice question (MCQ is the most commonly used method of assessment; a modified essay question (MEQ is the next most common. Although both tests assess

  3. Smoke over Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At least once a year for a period lasting from a week to several months, northern Sumatra is obscured by smoke and haze produced by agricultural burning and forest fires. These data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer document the presence of airborne particulates on March 13, 2002, during Terra orbit 11880. On the left is an image acquired by MISR's 70-degree backward-viewing camera. On the right is a map of aerosol optical depth, a measure of the abundance of atmospheric particulates. This product utilized a test version of the MISR retrieval that incorporates an experimental set of aerosol mixtures. The haze has completely obscured northeastern Sumatra and part of the Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatra and the Malaysian Peninsula. A northward gradient is apparent as the haze dissipates in the direction of the Malaysian landmass. Each panel covers an area of about 760 kilometers x 400 kilometers.Haze conditions had posed a health concern during late February (when schools in some parts of North Sumatra were closed), and worsened considerably in the first two weeks of March. By mid-March, local meteorology officials asked residents of North Sumatra's provincial capital, Medan, to minimize their outdoor activities and wear protective masks. Poor visibility at Medan airport forced a passenger plane to divert to Malaysia on March 14, and visibility reportedly ranged between 100 and 600 meters in some coastal towns southeast of Medan.The number and severity of this year's fires was exacerbated by dry weather conditions associated with the onset of a weak to moderate El Nino. The governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei have agreed to ban open burning in plantation and forest areas. The enforcement of such fire bans, however, has proven to be an extremely challenging task.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by

  4. Relationship between stakeholders' information value perception and information security behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Sharul; Olphert, Wendy; Doherty, Neil

    2015-02-01

    security behaviours. This study seeks to address this gap in the research. Data will be presented from a pilot study consisting of interviews with 6 participants from public organisations in Brunei Darussalam which illustrate the nature of the value assignment process, together with an initial model of the relationship between perceived information value and information security behaviours.

  5. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  6. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of South East Asia: history of exploration, taxon richness and notes on zoogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai M. Korovchinsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of Cladocera studies in South-East Asia is reviewed, beginning from the early start of explorations in the end of the 19th century by J. Richard and T. Stingelin. In the first half of the 20th century, extensive research was carried out by V. Brehm, who investigated material collected by the Wallacea-Expedition and the Deutschen Limnologischen Sunda-Expedition. Later, in the 1970-1980s, C.H. Fernando and collaborators, besides a few other researchers, provided a new series of regional studies of the cladoceran faunas together with the systematic revisions of some taxa from tropical Asia. Then and up to present, investigations of the Cladocera have concentrated in Thailand and many species have been revised and described as new to science. In total, 298 taxa of species rank have been recorded in SE Asia but only comparatively few of them (67 taxa; 22.5% can be regarded good species, of which the valid status has been confirmed by recent studies, while others are synonyms (68; 22.8% or taxa of uncertain taxonomic status, including those which definitely represent complexes of species (163; 54.7%. Most total taxa of species level and good species are known from Thailand (155 and 54, respectively, followed by Malaysia (plus Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia in this respect (70-119 total taxa and 23-33 good species respectively. Laos, Burma (Myanmar and Brunei remain practically unexplored. Only good species were used for the zoogeographic analysis. Of them, about a quarter is known only in SE Asia but more species are distributed in tropical/subtropical/temperate Asia and Australia, others in tropics/subtropics of the eastern hemisphere (17.9% or even wider. Tropical species, constituting the primary part of the cladoceran fauna of SE Asia, can penetrate the neighboring subtropical and southern temperate zones to a different degree. Only a small fraction of species (7 or 10.5% here are of more or less northern

  7. 广东珠海市2007年登革病毒分子流行病学分析%Phylogenetic analysis on dengue viruses in Zhuhai outbreak during 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泉德; 张如胜; 李红霞; 谭爱军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the Dengue virus type Ⅰ /Ⅱ strain ZH1067/07 and ZH1340/07 in Zhuhai city and explore the possible viral origin. Methods The primers used for amplification and sequencing of Dengue virus type I and Dengue virus type Ⅱ genomic sequences were designed separately based on strains AB178040 and M29095. The amplification fragments were sequenced on both strand by using these primers. The sequencing results were assembled into a viral complete genomic sequence by spliced the terminals overlapped each other. The viral genomic sequences were submitted to the CenBank (Accession No: Eu359008 and Eu359009). The genetic distances were calculated and the phylogenetic trees were constructed by compared the genomic sequences with present sequences available on GenBank. Results The complete genome of Dengue virus type I strain of ZH1067/07 was composed of 10735bp and comprised a large open reading frame (ORF). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that it was closest to AB178040 and Fj231/04 (99% identity, 10638/ 10735). The epidemic evidence supported that Dengue virus type I strain caused outbreak in zhuhai 2007 was originated from FJ231/04. The genom sequence of Dengue virus type II strain of ZH1340/07 was composed of 10723bp. It consisted of 96bp and 454bp at The 3' terminal and 5' terminal non-coding region separately and an open reading frame (ORF)locating in 97-10269 nucleotides. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that it was closest to EU179857 and EU179858 strains from Brunei. The epidemic investigation showed that the 2 input cases from Macao were no relationship with outbreak in Zhuhai of 2007. Conclusion Dengue virus type I .which genetically closest to Japan strains (AB178040 from Micronesia),was input from Fujian province of China and caused outbreak in Zhuhai of 2007. Dengue virus type Ⅱ nearest to Brunei strain EU179857,meanwhile inputed cases from Macao,had no relationship with Zhuhai outbreak of 2007.%目的 了解2007年珠

  8. CENOZOIC BASIN-CONTROLLING FAULTS AND THEIR BEARING ON BASIN GROUPS FORMAION IN THE SOUTHERN SOUTH CHINA SEA%南海南部新生代控盆断裂特征及盆地群成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊莉娟; 马云; 王霄飞; 李三忠; 索艳慧; 刘鑫; 余珊; 程世秀; 薛友辰; 安慧婷; 戴黎明

    2012-01-01

    There are many small and medium-sized Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the southern South China Sea, such as the Nanweixi Basin, the Beikang Basin, the Liyue Basin, the Zengmu Basin, the Nansha Trough, the Brunei-Sabah Basin, the Northwest Palawan Basin and other basins from north to south. In general, NE-trending faults control the formation of the half grabens with faulting in the north and overlapping in the south. However, single grabens are mainly developed in the northern continental slope, while two-layered basins developed in the south of the region, of which the lower layer is the graben and the upper layer the imbricated nappes. According to the nature of main controlling faults and the transition of the basins at different evolutionary stages, these basins can be divided into three groups: the rift basin group (the Nanweixi, Beikang and Liyue basins), the rift-pull-apart-foreland superimposed basin group (the Zengmu basin) and the rift-foreland basin group (the Nansha Trough, Brunei-Sabah, the Northwest Palawan basins). The formation of these basin groups is closely related to major marginal faults of the basins and secondary faults in the sub-basins. Based on the nature of the faults, the basin-controlling fault belts can be subdivided into three types: tensile, shear and compressional, including the extensional fault belt in the northern edge of the Nansha Trough, the strike-slip fault belts at the west edge of the Wanan Basin and the Lupar and the Tingjia-Lee Jun Fault belts, and the thrust fault belt in the southern edge of the Nansha Trough. Tectonic events which happened in southern South China Sea, such as the South China Sea Movement in Oligocene and the Nansha Movement in the Middle Miocene, affected the basins to various degrees. As the result, there was the inversion from a rift basin/pull-apart basin to a marine foreland basin, as well as the inversion of fault belts from normal faults to reverse faults or strike-slip faults. The kinetic

  9. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw

  10. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  11. Research on Efficiency and Potential of China’ s Agricultural Products Export to ASEAN Based on Stochastic Frontier Gravity Model%我国对东盟农产品出口效率及潜力研究--基于随机前沿引力模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽红; 朱智洺

    2016-01-01

    We apply Stochastic frontier gravity model to systematically research the efficiency and potential of China ’ s agri-cultural products export to the ASEAN countries .The results of empirical analysis show that:( 1) The trade non-efficiency factors are the main factors that reduce the efficiency of China ’ s agricultural products export.If the ASEAN countries increase technical trade barriers, join in APEC, or become the members of FTA, these will be helpful to the improvement of the export efficiency .If the ASEAN countries increase the import tariff level, it will inhibit the export efficiency.(2) Among the ASEAN countries, the efficiency of China’ s agricultural products export to Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam is higher, so the corresponding export po-tential promotion is smaller;the efficiency and potential of China ’ s agricultural products export to Thailand , Philippines and Sin-gapore are moderate;the efficiency of China’s agricultural products export to Laos, Brunei, Burma and Cambodia is lower, thus the corresponding export potential promotion is larger.Finally, some corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are given.%运用随机前沿引力模型,系统分析了我国对东盟国家的农产品出口效率及潜力。实证分析显示:(1)贸易非效率因素是降低我国农产品出口效率的主要因素。东盟国家增加技术性贸易壁垒、加入APEC、与我国成立FTA均有助于提高我国农产品出口效率,其加重进口关税水平,则会对我国农产品出口效率起到抑制作用。(2)东盟国家中,我国对马来西亚、印度尼西亚、越南的农产品出口效率最高,对应的出口潜力提升空间较为狭小;对泰国、菲律宾、新加坡的农产品出口效率及出口潜力提升空间属于居中位置;而对老挝、文莱、缅甸、柬埔寨4国的农产品出口效率低下,对应的出口潜力提升空间较为广阔。最后提出了相应的对策和建议。

  12. Systematics of Old World Odontacolus Kieffer s.l. (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.: parasitoids of spider eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valerio

    2013-07-01

    known from India, is here recorded from Brunei, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The relationships, distribution and biology of Odontacolus are discussed, and a key is provided to identify all species.

  13. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km

  14. A consensus plan for action to improve access to cancer care in the association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    consists of Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It, thus, includes low- and middle-income countries where the double whammy of infectious and chronic diseases will pose an enormous challenge in allocating limited resources to competing health issues. Cancer statistics, even at the sub-national level, only tell part of the story. Many individuals who contract cancer in poor countries have no medical insurance and no, or limited, expectation of public assistance. Whilst any person who has a family member with cancer can expect to bear some consequential burden of care or expense, in a poor family in a poor environment the burden will surely be greater. This additional burden from cancer is rarely considered, and even more rarely quantified, even in developed nations.

  15. The analysis of information on fruit flies from ASEAN intercepted at chinese ports%我国口岸截获东盟实蝇疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兴莉; 刘海军; 李志红; 胡学难; 陈克

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,due to the increase of the fruit and vegetable trade between China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN),a great number of fruit flies are intercepted at chinese ports from imported fruits and vegetables and goods carried by incoming travelers from ASEAN.In this paper,we analyzed the information on ASEAN fruit flies intercepted at chinese ports from 2004 to 2010 according to the following characteristics: enter data,origin nation,Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau name,goods category,goods name,etc.The results show that the smallest number of batches of fruit flies were intercepted at chinese ports is 128 in 2004,however,the largest number of batches of fruit flies were intercepted is 1789 in 2005,in other years,about 600 batches of fruit flies were intercepted;In the nine ASEAN’s countries,exclusive of Brunei,we intercepted 3411 batches of fruit flies from cargos and goods carried by incoming travelers coming from Thailand,it’s the maximum number,followed by 538 batches from Vietnamese,431 batches from Malaysia and 378 batches from Myanmar;Altogether 15 Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureaus had intercepted the fruit fly pests in cargos and goods carried by incoming travelers from ASEAN,in which,Guangdong,Shenzhen and Yunnan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureaus have intercepted the most batches of fruit flies,followed by Shanghai,Fujian,Xiamen,and Guangxi.With higher numbers of batches of fruit flies intercepted from cargos are Bactrocera correcta,B.dorsalis,and B.tau respectively.With higher numbers of batches of fruit flies intercepted from goods carried by incoming travelers are B.latifrons,B.dorsalis,B.correcta and B.tau respectively;fruit flies were intercepted from more than 60 kinds of goods.Therefore,it is imperative to enhance inspection and quarantine to protect the safety of our agricultural and forestry production.%近年来,随着我国和东盟果蔬贸易额逐年攀升,我国口岸从东盟进

  16. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied, Rethinking Raffles; A study of Stamford Raffles’ discourse on religions amongst Malays. (Nathan Porath Walter Angst, Wayang Indonesia; Die phantastische Welt des indonesischen Figurentheaters/The fantastic world of Indonesian puppet theatre. (Dick van der Meij Adrienne Kappler and others, James Cook and the exploration of the Pacific. (H.J.M. Claesen Aurel Croissant, Beate Martin and Sascha Kneip (eds, The politics of death; Political violence in Southeast Asia. (Freek Colombijn Frank Dhont, Kevin W. Fogg and Mason C. Hoadley (eds, Towards an inclusive democratic Indonesian society; Bridging the gap between state uniformity and multicultural identity patterns. (Alexander Claver Bronwen Douglas and Chris Ballard (eds, Foreign bodies; Oceania and the science of race, 1750-1940. (H.J.M. Claesen Ricky Ganang, Jay Crain, and Vicki Pearson-Rounds, Kemaloh Lundayeh-English dictionary and bibliographic list of materials relating to the Lundayeh-Lun Bawang-Kelabit and related groups of Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei and East Kalimantan. (Michael Boutin Jeffrey Hadler, Muslims and matriarchs; Cultural resilience in Indonesia through Jihad and Colonialism. (Franz von Benda-Beckmann Uli Kozok, Kitab undang-undang Tanjung Tanah: Naskah Melayu yang tertua. (Arlo Griffiths Alfonds van der Kraan, Murder and mayhem in seventeenth-century Cambodia; Anthony van Diemen vs. King Ramadhipati I. (Jeroen Rikkerink Jean Michaud, ‘Incidental’ ethnographers; French Catholic missions on the Tonkin-Yunnan frontier, 1880-1930. (Nicholas Tapp M.C. Ricklefs, Polarising Javanese society; Islamic and other visions (c. 1830-1930. (Matthew Isaac Cohen Stuart Robson, Arjunawiwāha; The marriage of Arjuna of Mpu Ka?wa. (Andrea Acri László Székely and István Radnai, Dit altijd alleen zijn; Verhalen over het leven van planters en koelies in Deli (1914-1930. (Adrienne Zuiderweg Patricia Tjiook-Liem (Giok Kiauw

  17. Key trends of climate change in the ASEAN countries. The IPAT decomposition analysis 1980-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, J.; Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Allievi, F.

    2012-07-01

    change in CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion in eight ASEAN member countries: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Analyses for Cambodia and Lao PDR are not provided due to data limitations and unreliability concerning the analysed time period 1980-2005. The applied decomposition analysis is introduced in section 2. Section 3 gives the essential background information for the analysis, i.e. trends of CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion and gross domestic product (GDP) during the studied period. In section 4, results of the decomposition analysis are presented and preliminary interpretations given for each analysed country. Sections 5, 6 and 7 present the benchmarking results from the decomposition analyses of China and India (section 5), United States, OECD Europe and Japan (section 6), and the World total (section 7). Finally, section 8 presents the conclusions. Special references are made to the policy analyses related to the Bali agreement and zero-carbon strategies of the ASEAN countries.

  18. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P. H.

    2004-09-01

    There is a new tradition in England called Apple Day which is held on some day in October. The actual day varies from place to place. For instance, in 2003, 23 October was Apple Day at Woolsthorpe Manor, the house where Isaac Newton was born and where, during the Plague, he is said to have developed the theory of gravity. (For information on future Apple Days see, for example, http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/thingstodo.) Last year in our garden we picked an apple which weighed one pound, thirteen and a half ounces (1 lb 13 1/2 oz or 29 1/2 oz). The following day we went to an Apple Day event where there were many exotic apples on display, varieties which are not sold in shops. One of the varieties there was called 'Twenty Ounce'. By now you may be wondering what all this has to do with the book being reviewed. We shall return to this later. This entertaining book is ostensibly about units, in particular about Imperial and metric units, but there are numerous informative digressions. The author reminds us that almost every country 'with the exception of the United States, North and South Yemen, Burma and Brunei' has gone metric. He points out that the United States (US) became officially metric in 1893. However, as early as 1866, the US legal definition of the metre was 39.370000 inches. He tells us that after World War II the (US) inch was rounded down (from 25.400051) to 25.4 mm. There is no mention that the Imperial (British) inch was simultaneously rounded up from 25.399956 mm to 25.4 mm. The author frequently digresses, covering such matters as the trisection of angles and Eratosthenes' graphic solution for duplicating the cube. There is an informative discussion on the length of the day: appropriately 25 December, which lasts for 24 h and 30 s, is the longest day. He shows how with cycles and epicycles one can construct an ellipse. Ptolemy did not realize the importance of the focus of the ellipse. The author discusses various topics in the development of

  19. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the volume 15 number: 1 of TOJDE, In this issue, 18 articles of 34 authors from 9 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are arrived to the tojde from, bBangladesh, Brunei, Greece, India, Indonasia, Malaysia, Republic Of Korea, Turkey and USA. The 1st article is arrived from Grecee written by Evangelos Bebetsos and Dimitrios Goulimaris from Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Democritus University Of Thrace Komotini, Hellas, on “Personal Outcome And Leadership As Defining Factors Of Satisfaction In The Context Of The Course “Arts II: Overview Of Greek Music And Dance” of The Hellenic Open University”. The purpose of this study was twofold: to assess the construct validity of the modified greek version of the “scale of athlete satisfaction” presented by Theodorakis and Bebetsos (2003 in the broader academic research sector and specifically in the field of open and distance learning, and to examine if variables such as sex, age, marital status and prior experience, influence the levels of students’ satisfaction. Participants were 144 students (55 men and 89 women of the Hellenic Open University who participated in the course “arts ii: review of the Greek music and dance”, between the ages of 25 up to 67 years of age (μage=42, sd=7.62. The scale consists of two factors: a personal outcome and b leadership. Results from factor analysis provided evidence for the construct validity of the scale developed by Theodorakis and Bebetsos (2003. Additionally, results indicated differences between the age groups on the factor of “personal outcome” were the youngest age group had the lowest scores among all three and also, results indicated differences on the factor of “leadership”, were men had higher scores than women. Overall, the study underlines the necessity of adaptation and usage of such an instrument in order to inform and educate