Four species of mosquitoes which represent the Tonga group of the Aedes scutellaris complex (Ae. cooki, Ae. kesseli, Ae. tongae tabu and an undescribed Aedes sp. NUAOFO'OU) were tested for susceptibility to infection with Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. All tested strains were genetically fully (100%) susceptible to infection with both parasitic helminths. Higher survival of females harboring low quantities of infective larvae (1-9 L3/male) indicates a weak adaptation of the host to the parasite. Further analysis showed that in frequency distribution of infective larvae of B. malayi and B. pahangi, the most frequent category was 1-5 infective larvae per mosquito female. Distribution of te infective larvae into various parts of the mosquito body is a dynamic process. After development of L3 larvae in the thoracic muscles is completed, infective larvae migrate predominantly to the abdomen. From day 10 to 18 after an infective blood meal, L3 larvae migrate back to the thorax and head proboscis area. Low density of microfilariae in gerbils (5 mf/20 microliters) is sufficient for good infection in any of the tested mosquito species and strains. If a laboratory model with high susceptibility of mosquitoes to Brugia filarial worms is required, the autogenous group of mosquitoes of Tonga will serve as an excellent laboratory model. High susceptibility of the autogenous mosquito species to B. malayi and B. pahangi and absence of Brugian filariasis in the Polynesian region of the South Pacific is discussed.
Kumar, Ranjeet; Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Rathaur, Sushma
Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is a glycolytic enzyme present in many parasites. It has been reported as a candidate molecule for drug and vaccine developments. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the Brugia malayi 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (BmPGK) with an open reading frame of 1.3 kb was isolated and PCR amplified and cloned. The exact size of the BmPGK's ORF is 1377 bps. The BmPGK gene was subcloned into pET-28a (+) expression vector, the expressed enzyme was purified by affinity column and characterized. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed native molecular weight of recombinant Brugia malayi 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (rBmPGK) to be ∼45 kDa. The enzyme was found sensitive to temperature and pH, it showed maximum activity at 25 °C and pH 8.5. The Km values for PGA and ATP were 1.77 and 0.967 mM, respectively. The PGK inhibitor, clorsulon and antifilarial drugs albendazole and ivermectin inhibited the enzyme. The specific inhibitor of PGK, clorsulon, competitively inhibited enzyme with Ki value 1.88 μM. Albendazole also inhibited PGK competitively with Ki value 35.39 μM. Further these inhibitory studies were confirmed by docking and molecular simulation of drugs with enzyme. Clorsulon interacted with substrate binding site with glutamine 37 as well as in hinge regions with aspartic acid 385 and valine 387 at ADP binding site. On the other hand albendazole interacted with asparagine 335 residues. These effects were in good association with binding interactions. Thus current study might help in designing and synthesis of effective inhibitors for this novel drug target and understanding their mode of interaction with the potent anthelmintic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Canhui; Oliveira, Ana; Chauhan, Chitra; Ghedin, Elodie; Unnasch, Thomas R
Operons are a common mode of gene organization in Caenorhabditis elegans. Similar gene arrangements suggest that functional operons may exist in Brugia malayi. To definitively test this hypothesis, a bicistronic reporter vector consisting of an upstream firefly luciferase gene and a downstream renilla luciferase gene was constructed. The genome was then surveyed to identify 15 gene pairs that were likely to represent operons. Two of four domains upstream of the 5' gene from these clusters exhibited promoter activity. When constructs replicating the promoter and intergenic arrangement found in the native putative operon were transfected into embryos, both firefly and renilla activities were detected, while constructs with the promoter alone or intergenic region alone produced no activity from the downstream reporter. These data confirm that functional operons exist in B. malayi. Mutation of three U-rich element homologues present in one of the operons resulted in a decrease in downstream renilla reporter activity, suggesting that these were important in mRNA maturation. Hemi-nested reverse transcriptase-PCR assays demonstrated that while the mRNA encoding the native downstream open reading frame of one operon contained an SL1 spliced leader at its 5' end, the renilla gene mRNA produced from the corresponding transgenic construct did not. Copyright 2009 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shih, C M; Chen, C C
In order to determine whether the exsheathment patterns described in our previous study occurred in other microfilaria-mosquito systems, exsheathment of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi was studied in two species of mosquitoes. The results of the quantitative observation revealed that the microfilariae of Brugia pahangi tend to carry their sheaths into the haemocoel of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex quinquefasciatus within 4 hr after infected blood meals. The percentage of the sheathed microfilariae in the haemocoel progressively decreased to 0% at 24 hr post-ingestion. Microfilariae remaining in the midgut of both species of mosquitoes were recorded most frequently casting off their sheaths in the midgut 2 hr post-ingestion. The percentage of microfilariae exsheathed in the midgut progressively increased to about 100% and 40% 24 hr post-ingestion in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively. These results confirm that exsheathment of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi occurs both in the haemocoel and in the midgut of two species of mosquitoes.
Bahekar, Sandeep P; Hande, Sneha V; Agrawal, Nikita R; Chandak, Hemant S; Bhoj, Priyanka S; Goswami, Kalyan; Reddy, M V R
Keeping in mind the immense biological potential of chalcones and sulfonamide scaffolds, a library of sulfonamide chalcones has been synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antifilarial assay against human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Experimental evidence showcased for the first time the potential of some sulfonamide chalcones as effective and safe antifilarial lead molecules against human lymphatic filarial parasite B. malayi. Sulfonamide chalcones 4d, 4p, 4q, 4t and 4aa displayed the significantly wide therapeutic window. Particularly chalcones with halogen substitution in aromatic ring proved to be potent antifilarial agents against Brugia malayi. Sulphonamide chalcones with lipophilic methyl moiety (4q and 4aa) at para position of terminal phenyl rings of compounds were found to have remarkable antifilarial activities with therapeutic efficacy. Observed preliminary evidence of apoptosis by effective chalcone derivatives envisaged its fair possibility to inhibit folate pathway with consequent defect in DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Scott, Alan; Ghedin, Elodie
Filarial nematode parasites, the causative agents of elephantiasis and river blindness, undermine the livelihoods of over one hundred millions people in the developing world. Recently, the Filarial Genome Project reported the draft sequence of the ~95 Mb genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi - the first parasitic nematode genome to be sequenced. Comparative genome analysis with the prevailing model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans revealed similarities and differences in genome s...
Nayar, J K; Knight, J W; Vickery, A C
Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Aedes aegypti (Black-eyed Liverpool strain) were fed on jirds and nude mice (jird-jird infection, jird-mouse infection, and mouse-jird infection) infected with subperiodic Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. Microfilariae of B. malayi from jird-mouse and mouse-jird infections developed normally in An. quadrimaculatus, whereas those from jird-jird infections did not develop. Microfilariae of both species from jirds and nude mice developed normally in Ae. aegypti and those of B. pahangi developed normally in An. quadrimaculatus. It is suggested that microfilariae from nude mice are modified physiologically, immunologically, or both so that they can develop in refractory An. quadrimaculatus, thus indicating that susceptibility and refractoriness of An. quadrimaculatus to B. malayi also is influenced by factors relating to the vertebrate host in addition to mosquito genetic factors.
Conraths, F J; Hirzmann, J; Hobom, G; Zahner, H
The microfilarial sheaths of the filarial parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Litomosoides sigmodontis consist of several parasite proteins, probably ranging between 7 and 10. The gene encoding sheath protein 2 (shp2), which is the object of this study, is transcribed in embryos and in the uterine epithelium; at least in B. malayi, it is translated in both tissues. Apparently, shp2 is synthesized as a monomer, exported by the respective cells, and integrated into the microfilarial sheath. In the sheath, it exists as a highly polymerized molecule cross-linked by cysteine formation and other covalent bonds, presumably epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine links.
Mallawarachchi, Chandana H; Nilmini Chandrasena, T G A; Premaratna, Ranjan; Mallawarachchi, S M N S M; de Silva, Nilanthi R
Post-mass drug administration (MDA) surveillance during the lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination program in Sri Lanka, revealed the re-emergence of brugian filariasis after four decades. This study was done with the objectives of investigating the epidemiology and age-specific vulnerability to infection. Surveillance was done using night blood smears (NBS) and the Brugia rapid test (BRT), to detect microfilaria (MF) and anti-Brugia IgG4 antibodies in blood samples collected from an age-stratified population enrolled from two high-risk study areas (SA)s, Pubudugama and Wedamulla in the Gampaha District. The periodicity of the re-emergent Brugia spp. was characterized by quantitative estimation of MF in blood collected periodically over 24 h using nucleopore-membrane filtration method. Of 994 participants [Pubudugama 467 (47.9%) and Wedamulla 527 (53%)] screened by NBS, two and zero cases were positive for MF at Pubudugama (MF rate, 0.43) and Wedamulla (MF rate, 0), respectively, with an overall MF rate of 0.2. Of the two MF positives, one participant had a W. bancrofti while the other had a Brugia spp. infection. Of 984 valid BRT test readings [Pubudugama (n = 461) and Wedamulla (n = 523)], two and seven were positive for anti-brugia antibodies by BRT at Pubudugama (antibody rate 0.43) and Wedamulla (antibody rate 1.34), respectively, with an overall antibody rate of 0.91. Both MF positives detected from SAs and two of three other Brugia spp. MF positives detected at routine surveillance by the National Anti-Filariasis Campaign (AFC) tested negative by the BRT. Association of Brugia spp. infections with age were not evident due to the low case numbers. MF was observed in the peripheral circulation throughout the day (subperiodic) with peak counts occurring at 21 h indicating nocturnal sub-periodicity. There is the low-level persistence of bancroftian filariasis and re-emergence of brugian filariasis in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. The periodicity
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori, which are transmitted via the bites from infected mosquitoes. Once in the human body, the parasites develop into adult worms in the lymphatic vessels, causing severe damage and swelling of the affected tissues. According to the World Health Organization, over 1.2 billion people in 58 countries are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. Very few drugs are available to treat patients infected with these parasites, and these have low efficacy against the adult stages of the worms, which can live for 7-15 years in the human body. The requirement for annual treatment increases the risk of drug-resistant worms emerging, making it imperative to develop new drugs against these devastating diseases.We have developed a yeast-based, high-throughput screening system whereby essential yeast genes are replaced with their filarial or human counterparts. These strains are labeled with different fluorescent proteins to allow the simultaneous monitoring of strains with parasite or human genes in competition, and hence the identification of compounds that inhibit the parasite target without affecting its human ortholog. We constructed yeast strains expressing eight different Brugia malayi drug targets (as well as seven of their human counterparts, and performed medium-throughput drug screens for compounds that specifically inhibit the parasite enzymes. Using the Malaria Box collection (400 compounds, we identified nine filarial specific inhibitors and confirmed the antifilarial activity of five of these using in vitro assays against Brugia pahangi.We were able to functionally complement yeast deletions with eight different Brugia malayi enzymes that represent potential drug targets. We demonstrated that our yeast-based screening platform is efficient in identifying compounds that can discriminate between human and filarial enzymes. Hence, we are confident
Bilsland, Elizabeth; Bean, Daniel M; Devaney, Eileen; Oliver, Stephen G
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori, which are transmitted via the bites from infected mosquitoes. Once in the human body, the parasites develop into adult worms in the lymphatic vessels, causing severe damage and swelling of the affected tissues. According to the World Health Organization, over 1.2 billion people in 58 countries are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. Very few drugs are available to treat patients infected with these parasites, and these have low efficacy against the adult stages of the worms, which can live for 7-15 years in the human body. The requirement for annual treatment increases the risk of drug-resistant worms emerging, making it imperative to develop new drugs against these devastating diseases. We have developed a yeast-based, high-throughput screening system whereby essential yeast genes are replaced with their filarial or human counterparts. These strains are labeled with different fluorescent proteins to allow the simultaneous monitoring of strains with parasite or human genes in competition, and hence the identification of compounds that inhibit the parasite target without affecting its human ortholog. We constructed yeast strains expressing eight different Brugia malayi drug targets (as well as seven of their human counterparts), and performed medium-throughput drug screens for compounds that specifically inhibit the parasite enzymes. Using the Malaria Box collection (400 compounds), we identified nine filarial specific inhibitors and confirmed the antifilarial activity of five of these using in vitro assays against Brugia pahangi. We were able to functionally complement yeast deletions with eight different Brugia malayi enzymes that represent potential drug targets. We demonstrated that our yeast-based screening platform is efficient in identifying compounds that can discriminate between human and filarial enzymes. Hence, we are confident that we can
Nayar, J K; Knight, J W; Vickery, A C
Intracellular melanization responses to developing larvae of Brugia species (B. malayi (Buckley), B. pahangi (Buckley and Edeson), and B. patei (Buckley, Nelson, and Heisch] in the thoracic muscle fibers of eight strains of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say were first observed 48 to 72 h after an infective blood meal. Three to 4 d later, large numbers of melanized first-stage larvae were found within the thoracic muscle fibers. These intracellular responses were in addition to the extracellular responses to microfilariae and microfilarial sheaths of B. pahangi in the abdominal hemocoel of An. quadrimaculatus described in literature. Simultaneously, normal development of larvae of the three Brugia species also was observed in all eight strains of An. quadrimaculatus. Comparisons of melanized first-stage larvae and normally developing larvae of the three Brugia species in the thoracic muscle fibers of the eight strains of An. quadrimaculatus showed that there were distinct variations in numbers of melanized and developing larvae and percentage of females with melanized and developing larvae in different strains. Numbers of melanized first-stage larvae reflected the extent of refractoriness of An. quadrimaculatus strains. Fully melanized larvae showed no abnormalities in parasite organelles, indicating that refractoriness is due to an enhanced ability of the host to recognize the living parasite. Further comparison among the strains suggested that the mutants, Yellow Larvae and Vero Beach Colony were significantly more susceptible, and Red Stripe was the most refractory to all three Brugia species. Thus, the gene(s) controlling susceptibility and refractoriness to all three Brugia species probably occurs on the same autosomal chromosome as the mutations in these strains. The significance of intracellular melanization of filarial larvae is discussed with reference to the melanization responses to different parasites in other mosquitoes.
Full Text Available Filarial nematodes, including Brugia malayi, the causative agent of lymphatic filariasis, undergo molting in both arthropod and mammalian hosts to complete their life cycles. An understanding of how these parasites cross developmental checkpoints may reveal potential targets for intervention. Pharmacological evidence suggests that ecdysteroids play a role in parasitic nematode molting and fertility although their specific function remains unknown. In insects, ecdysone triggers molting through the activation of the ecdysone receptor: a heterodimer of EcR (ecdysone receptor and USP (Ultraspiracle.We report the cloning and characterization of a B. malayi EcR homologue (Bma-EcR. Bma-EcR dimerizes with insect and nematode USP/RXRs and binds to DNA encoding a canonical ecdysone response element (EcRE. In support of the existence of an active ecdysone receptor in Brugia we also cloned a Brugia rxr (retinoid X receptor homolog (Bma-RXR and demonstrate that Bma-EcR and Bma-RXR interact to form an active heterodimer using a mammalian two-hybrid activation assay. The Bma-EcR ligand-binding domain (LBD exhibits ligand-dependent transactivation via a GAL4 fusion protein combined with a chimeric RXR in mammalian cells treated with Ponasterone-A or a synthetic ecdysone agonist. Furthermore, we demonstrate specific up-regulation of reporter gene activity in transgenic B. malayi embryos transfected with a luciferase construct controlled by an EcRE engineered in a B. malayi promoter, in the presence of 20-hydroxy-ecdysone.Our study identifies and characterizes the two components (Bma-EcR and Bma-RXR necessary for constituting a functional ecdysteroid receptor in B. malayi. Importantly, the ligand binding domain of BmaEcR is shown to be capable of responding to ecdysteroid ligands, and conversely, ecdysteroids can activate transcription of genes downstream of an EcRE in live B. malayi embryos. These results together confirm that an ecdysone signaling system
Chikilian, M L; Bradley, T J; Nayar, J K; Knight, J W
Ultrastructural aspects of extracellular humoral encapsulation of microfilariae of Brugia malayi in the hemocoel of Anopheles quadrimaculatus were compared with those of intracellular encapsulation of first-stage larvae (L1) of the same parasite species, in the thoracic muscle cells of the same species of mosquito. The results showed that extracellular humoral encapsulation of microfilarial sheaths, and sheathed and exsheathed microfilariae, in the hemocoel of mosquitoes occurs around the parasite within the first 6 hr postingestion, apparently without initial participation of hemocytes. Hemocytes and their remnants were observed near the parasite during the first 6 hr postingestion. Within the next 24 hr, hemocytes attach to the initial humoral capsule. By contrast, intracellular encapsulation of L1S is initiated by the accumulation of a dense cytoplasmic layer derived from the infected thoracic muscle cell. Melanin deposits accumulate in this layer adjacent to the parasite cuticle, again without visible participation of hemocytes.
Wongkamchai, Sirichit; Monkong, Nuntiya; Mahannol, Pakpimom; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Loymak, Sumat; Foongladda, Suporn
Human lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial worms such as Brugia malayi for which the major reservoir is domestic cats. However, domestic cats or dogs also carry nonhuman filaria such as Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis. We have developed a single-tube, real-time PCR with a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis assay for detection and identification of B. malayi, B. pahangi, and D. immitis in blood samples. The designated primer pair in the PCR can amplify a 114-bp region of mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes of these filarial worms. Subsequently, the HRM assay showed a specific melting temperature for each species. The assay showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in comparison with DNA sequences after assessment with 34 cat and 14 dog blood samples. This assay could be helpful for epidemiological studies of reservoirs and vectors.
Full Text Available Aim: Currently available antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole and their combinations, are not able to control lymphatic filariasis. Therefore, a better antifilarial agent is urgently required for proper management of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antifilarial activity of gum extract of plant Moringa oleifera Lam. against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using adult worms and microfilariae (mf in two in vitro assays (motility and inhition in MTT reduction for viability and two animal models, primary (Meriones unguiculatus implanted with B. malayi adult worms in the peritoneal cavity and secondary (subcutaneous B. malayi infective larvae induced Mastomys coucha, the model closer to the natural human filarial infection screens. Results: The gum extract inhibited 100% motility (irreversible loss of motility of mf and inhibited more than 56% MTT reduction potential of the adult female worms. The extract was safe in cytotoxicity test using Vero cell line, therefore followed in vivo in primary and secondary screens. In primary screen, the extract (5×500 mg/kg caused 69% macrofilaricidal and 83% sterilization of female worms and 44% macrofilaricidal activity in secondary screen (5 × 1000 mg/kg by oral route. Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that the gum of the plant is macrofilaricidal in both in vitro and in vivo and may provide valuable leads for design and development of new antifilarial agents. This is the first ever report on the antifilarial efficacy of M. oleifera.
Streit, A; Li, W; Robertson, B; Schein, J; Kamal, I H; Marra, M; Wood, W B
The masculinizing gene her-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-her-1) encodes a novel protein, HER-1A, which is required for male development. To identify conserved elements in her-1 we have cloned and characterized two homologous nematode genes: one by synteny from the closely related free-living species C. briggsae (Cb-her-1) and the other, starting with a fortuitously identified expressed sequence tag, from the distantly related parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-her-1). The overall sequence identitie...
Khoo, T. K.
Full Text Available A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. One such kit, panLF RapidTM (commercialized by Malaysian BioDiagnostic Research Sdn. Bhd. had been developed in our laboratory for the detection of all species of filarial infections. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant Brugia malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. In this study, the growth of recombinant bacteria that produce BmSXP was optimized under shake flask fermentation for high yield of the recombinant antigen. The optimizations involved selection of suitable growth medium, IPTG concentration and induction time. The medium that yielded the highest biomass as well as total protein was Terrific Broth (TB medium, which is an undefined medium. Initiation of induction of protein expression was found to be best at mid-log phase (OD600 = 1.5, with IPTG concentration of 1.0 mM, and harvest time at 9 h post-induction. This study showed that under the optimized conditions, the shake flask culture produced 4 g/L biomass (dry cell weight of recombinant Escherichia coli BmSXP/pPROEXHTa/TOP10F’, which yielded 2.42 mg/L of purified BmSXP recombinant antigen. The purified antigen was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and the antigenicity of protein was confirmed by Western blot.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While we lack a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which parasites establish and achieve protection from host immune responses, it is accepted that many of these processes are mediated by products, primarily proteins, released from the parasite. Parasitic nematodes occur in different life stages and anatomical compartments within the host. Little is known about the composition and variability of products released at different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a deeper understanding on these aspects, we collected and analyzed through 1D-SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP of adult female, adult male and microfilariae of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, one of the etiological agents of human lymphatic filariasis. This proteomic analysis led to the identification of 228 proteins. The list includes 76 proteins with unknown function as well as also proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, such as protease inhibitors, cytokine homologues and carbohydrate-binding proteins. Larval and adult ESP differed in composition. Only 32 proteins were shared between all three stages/genders. Consistent with this observation, different gene ontology profiles were associated with the different ESP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparative analysis of the proteins released in vitro by different forms of a parasitic nematode dwelling in the same host is presented. The catalog of secreted proteins reflects different stage- and gender-specific related processes and different strategies of immune evasion, providing valuable insights on the contribution of each form of the parasite for establishing the host-parasite interaction.
Voronin, Denis; Bachu, Saheed; Shlossman, Michael; Unnasch, Thomas R; Ghedin, Elodie; Lustigman, Sara
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria found in the majority of arthropods and filarial nematodes of medical and veterinary importance. They have evolved a wide range of symbiotic associations. In filarial nematodes that cause human lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus), Wolbachia are important for parasite development, reproduction and survival. The symbiotic bacteria rely in part on nutrients and energy sources provided by the host. Genomic analyses suggest that the strain of Wolbachia found in B. malayi (wBm) lacks the genes for two glycolytic enzymes--6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase--and is thus potentially unable to convert glucose into pyruvate, an important substrate for energy generation. The Wolbachia surface protein, wBm00432, is complexed to six B. malayi glycolytic enzymes, including aldolase. In this study we characterized two B. malayi aldolase isozymes and found that their expression is dependent on Wolbachia fitness and number. We confirmed by immuno-transmission electron microscopy that aldolase is associated with the Wolbachia surface. RNAi experiments suggested that aldolase-2 plays a significant role in both Wolbachia survival and embryogenesis in B. malayi. Treatment with doxycycline reduced Wolbachia fitness and increased the amount of both glucose and glycogen detected in the filarial parasite, indicating that glucose metabolism and glycogen storage in B. malayi are associated with Wolbachia fitness. This metabolic co-dependency between Wolbachia and its filarial nematode indicates that glycolysis could be a shared metabolic pathway between the bacteria and B. malayi, and thus a potential new target for anti-filarial therapy.
Rao, U R; Zometa, C S; Vickery, A C; Kwa, B H; Nayar, J K; Sutton, E T
Athymic mice (C3H/HeN) parasitized by Brugia malayi develop massively dilated lymphatics. The lymphatic endothelial lining is perturbed, and numerous mononuclear and giant cells are closely apposed to the endothelium. The hyperplastic endothelial cells and low opening pressure of the lymphatics suggest abnormal multiplication of these cells may be important in the dilation. We studied the in vitro growth rate of human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured with adult worms and microfilariae of B. malayi. The tetrazolium salt reduction assays were used to quantify possible direct mitogenic or inhibitory effects. The growth factor-induced proliferation of endothelial cells was significantly suppressed by 44-51% on day 1, 46-81% on day 3, and 45-79% on day 5 in cultures containing adult female worms, which had greater suppressor activity on endothelial cell proliferation than male worms, microfilariae, or soluble adult worm extract. Culture supernatant containing female worm excretory-secretory products significantly inhibited the growth and multiplication of cells, suggesting that adult female worms release antigens or proteins that have inhibitory activity on growth factors necessary for endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Excess human recombinant epidermal growth factor and bovine brain extract partly reversed the inhibitory activity of worms in culture and restored the endothelial cell proliferation when incubated with worm culture supernatant. Indomethacin and BW 775Hcl failed to restore normal endothelial proliferation in the presence of female worms, suggesting that parasite-derived prostanoids and cyclooxygenase products did not cause the inhibition. Lymph from dilated lymphatics, but not serum from infected mice, increased the proliferation of cells in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that excretory-secretory products of B. malayi parasites suppress vascular endothelial proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, increases in the number of these cells
Poole, Catherine B.; Gu, Weifeng; Kumar, Sanjay; Jin, Jingmin; Davis, Paul J.; Bauche, David; McReynolds, Larry A.
Human filarial parasites infect an estimated 120 million people in 80 countries worldwide causing blindness and the gross disfigurement of limbs and genitals. An understanding of RNA-mediated regulatory pathways in these parasites may open new avenues for treatment. Toward this goal, small RNAs from Brugia malayi adult females, males and microfilariae were cloned for deep-sequencing. From ∼30 million sequencing reads, 145 miRNAs were identified in the B. malayi genome. Some microRNAs were validated using the p19 RNA binding protein and qPCR. B. malayi miRNAs segregate into 99 families each defined by a unique seed sequence. Sixty-one of the miRNA families are highly conserved with homologues in arthropods, vertebrates and helminths. Of those miRNAs not highly conserved, homologues of 20 B. malayi miRNA families were found in vertebrates. Nine B. malayi miRNA families appear to be filarial-specific as orthologues were not found in other organisms. The miR-2 family is the largest in B. malayi with 11 members. Analysis of the sequences shows that six members result from a recent expansion of the family. Library comparisons found that 1/3 of the B. malayi miRNAs are differentially expressed. For example, miR-71 is 5–7X more highly expressed in microfilariae than adults. Studies suggest that in C.elegans, miR-71 may enhance longevity by targeting the DAF-2 pathway. Characterization of B. malayi miRNAs and their targets will enhance our understanding of their regulatory pathways in filariads and aid in the search for novel therapeutics. PMID:24824352
Catherine B Poole
Full Text Available Human filarial parasites infect an estimated 120 million people in 80 countries worldwide causing blindness and the gross disfigurement of limbs and genitals. An understanding of RNA-mediated regulatory pathways in these parasites may open new avenues for treatment. Toward this goal, small RNAs from Brugia malayi adult females, males and microfilariae were cloned for deep-sequencing. From ∼ 30 million sequencing reads, 145 miRNAs were identified in the B. malayi genome. Some microRNAs were validated using the p19 RNA binding protein and qPCR. B. malayi miRNAs segregate into 99 families each defined by a unique seed sequence. Sixty-one of the miRNA families are highly conserved with homologues in arthropods, vertebrates and helminths. Of those miRNAs not highly conserved, homologues of 20 B. malayi miRNA families were found in vertebrates. Nine B. malayi miRNA families appear to be filarial-specific as orthologues were not found in other organisms. The miR-2 family is the largest in B. malayi with 11 members. Analysis of the sequences shows that six members result from a recent expansion of the family. Library comparisons found that 1/3 of the B. malayi miRNAs are differentially expressed. For example, miR-71 is 5-7X more highly expressed in microfilariae than adults. Studies suggest that in C.elegans, miR-71 may enhance longevity by targeting the DAF-2 pathway. Characterization of B. malayi miRNAs and their targets will enhance our understanding of their regulatory pathways in filariads and aid in the search for novel therapeutics.
Nayar, J K; Mikarts, L L; Chikilian, M L; Knight, J W; Bradley, T J
Binding patterns of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)- and gold-conjugated lectins to extracellularly melanized sheathed and exsheathed microfilariae of subperiodic Brugia malayi, isolated from and in situ in the abdominal hemocoel of Anopheles quadrimaculatus 72-hr postinfection, were examined. Five FITC-conjugated lectins [Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Arachis hypogaea (peanut agglutinin-PNA), Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin-WGA), Lens culinaris (lentil-LCH), and Concanavalin A (Con A)] with specificities for different carbohydrate moieties were tested for binding to isolated melanized microfilariae and observed with transmitted light and fluorescence microscopy. All five FITC-lectins bound strongly to the acellular material accompanying the melanin deposits on the surface of isolated melanized microfilariae. Significant inhibition of FITC-lectin binding occurred when lectins were preincubated with their complementary carbohydrates before testing. H. pomatia agglutinin binding was totally inhibited by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Other lectins were partially inhibited, such as PNA by galactose and lactose; WGA by N-acetylneuraminic acid; LCH by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, mannose, glucose, and methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside; and Con A by mannose and methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Three gold-conjugated lectins (HPA, PNA, and Con A), examined by using transmission electron microscopy, bound to the outer surface of the acellular material associated with the melanin deposits on isolated melanized microfilarial sheaths and melanized microfilariae and to the remnants of lysed hemocytes found in the proximity of the melanized deposits. Con A in the presence of gold-labeled horseradish peroxidase, examined by using transmission electron microscopy, showed random binding within the melanized capsule formed around the microfilarial sheath in situ. These results indicate that the acellular material accompanying melanin deposits on melanized
Full Text Available Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis, harbors endosymbiotic intracellular bacteria, Wolbachia, that are required for the development and reproduction of the worm. The essential nature of this endosymbiosis led to the development of anti-Wolbachia chemotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of human filarial infections. Our study is aimed at identifying specific proteins that play a critical role in this endosymbiotic relationship leading to the identification of potential targets in the adult worms. Filarial cysteine proteases are known to be involved in molting and embryogenesis, processes shown to also be Wolbachia dependent. Based on the observation that cysteine protease transcripts are differentially regulated in response to tetracycline treatment, we focused on defining their role in symbiosis. We observe a bimodal regulation pattern of transcripts encoding cysteine proteases when in vitro tetracycline treated worms were examined. Using tetracycline-treated infertile female worms and purified embryos we established that the first peak of the bimodal pattern corresponds to embryonic transcripts while the second takes place within the hypodermis of the adult worms. Localization studies of the native proteins corresponding to Bm-cpl-3 and Bm-cpl-6 indicate that they are present in the area surrounding Wolbachia, and, in some cases, the proteins appear localized within the bacteria. Both proteins were also found in the inner bodies of microfilariae. The possible role of these cysteine proteases during development and endosymbiosis was further characterized using RNAi. Reduction in Bm-cpl-3 and Bm-cpl-6 transcript levels was accompanied by hindered microfilarial development and release, and reduced Wolbachia DNA levels, making these enzymes strong drug target candidates.
Hirzmann, J; Schnaufer, A; Hintz, M; Conraths, F; Stirm, S; Zahner, H; Hobom, G
A microfilarial sheath protein gene (shp2) coding for the major constituent of the insoluble, cross-linked sheath remnant (SR) from Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi and Litomosoides carinii has been cloned and sequenced, based on peptide partial amino-acid sequences. All three closely related single-copy shp2 genes in the two genera carry a single intron in identical position; shp2 mRNAs are post-transcriptionally modified by both cis-splicing and trans-splicing. In accordance with their extracellular destinations the encoded proteins include signal peptide sequences; molecular masses of approx. 23 kDa are hence predicted for the mature secreted polypeptides. In their structures sheath matrix proteins shp2 may be regarded as extreme cases of a modular constitution, since these proteins largely consist of two different segments of multiple sequence repetitions, PAA and QYPQAP (or QYPQ), separated by elements of unique sequence. Extreme insolubility and cross-linking are likely to originate from these repetitive sequences within shp2, and to constitute the basic properties of a microfilarial matrix largely consisting of an shp2 network.
Gregory, William F.; Atmadja, Agnes K.; Allen, Judith E.; Maizels, Rick M.
Lymphatic filariasis is a major tropical disease caused by the mosquito-borne nematodes Brugia and Wuchereria. About 120 million people are infected and at risk of lymphatic pathology such as acute lymphangitis and elephantiasis. Vaccines against filariasis must generate immunity to the infective mosquito-derived third-stage larva (L3) without accentuating immunopathogenic responses to lymphatic-dwelling adult parasites. We have identified two highly expressed genes, designated abundant larval transcript-1 and -2 (alt-1 and alt-2), from each of which mRNAs account for >1% of L3 cDNAs. ALT-1 and ALT-2 share 79% amino acid identity across 125 residues, including a putative signal sequence and a prominent acidic tract. Expression of alt-1 and alt-2 is initiated midway through development in the mosquito, peaking in the infective larva and declining sharply following entry into the host. Humans exposed to Brugia malayi show a high frequency of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 antibodies to ALT-1 and -2, distinguishing them from adult-stage antigens, which are targeted by the IgG4 isotype. Immunization of susceptible rodents (jirds) with ALT-1 elicited a 76% reduction in parasite survival, the highest reported for a single antigen from any filarial parasite. ALT-1 and the closely related ALT-2 are therefore strong candidates for a future vaccine against human filariasis. PMID:10858234
Wahyuni, Sitti; van Ree, Ronald; Mangali, Andarias; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Sartono, Erliyani
The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgE antibodies to Brugia malayi was compared with the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for use in immunoepidemiological studies of lymphatic filariasis. Sera used were from individuals (aged 5-82 years) living in an area endemic for lymphatic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Filarial nematode parasites cause serious diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness in humans, and heartworm infections in dogs. Third stage filarial larvae (L3 are a critical stage in the life cycle of filarial parasites, because this is the stage that is transmitted by arthropod vectors to initiate infections in mammals. Improved understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with this transition may provide important leads for development of new therapies and vaccines to prevent filarial infections. This study explores changes in gene expression associated with the transition of Brugia malayi third stage larvae (BmL3 from mosquitoes into mammalian hosts and how these changes are affected by radiation. Radiation effects are especially interesting because irradiated L3 induce partial immunity to filarial infections. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of such vaccines are unkown. Results Expression profiles were obtained using a new filarial microarray with 18, 104 64-mer elements. 771 genes were identified as differentially expressed in two-way comparative analyses of the three L3 types. 353 genes were up-regulated in mosquito L3 (L3i relative to cultured L3 (L3c. These genes are important for establishment of filarial infections in mammalian hosts. Other genes were up-regulated in L3c relative to L3i (234 or irradiated L3 (L3ir (22. These culture-induced transcripts include key molecules required for growth and development. 165 genes were up-regulated in L3ir relative to L3c; these genes encode highly immunogenic proteins and proteins involved in radiation repair. L3ir and L3i have similar transcription profiles for genes that encode highly immunogenic proteins, antioxidants and cuticle components. Conclusion Changes in gene expression that normally occur during culture under conditions that support L3 development and molting are prevented or delayed by radiation. This may explain
C Paul Morris
Full Text Available Filarial worms are parasitic nematodes that cause devastating diseases such as lymphatic filariasis (LF and onchocerciasis. Filariae are nematodes with complex anatomy including fully developed digestive tracts and reproductive organs. To better understand the basic biology of filarial parasites and to provide insights into drug targets and vaccine design, we conducted a proteomic analysis of different anatomic fractions of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of LF. Approximately 500 adult female B. malayi worms were dissected, and three anatomical fractions (body wall, digestive tract, and reproductive tract were obtained. Proteins from each anatomical fraction were extracted, desalted, trypsinized, and analyzed by microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry. In total, we identified 4,785 B. malayi proteins. While 1,894 were identified in all three anatomic fractions, 396 were positively identified only within the digestive tract, 114 only within the body wall, and 1,011 only within the reproductive tract. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed a bias for transporters to be present within the digestive tract, suggesting that the intestine of adult filariae is functional and important for nutrient uptake or waste removal. As expected, the body wall exhibited increased frequencies of cytoskeletal proteins, and the reproductive tract had increased frequencies of proteins involved in nuclear regulation and transcription. In assessing for possible vaccine candidates, we focused on proteins sequestered within the digestive tract, as these could possibly represent "hidden antigens" with low risk of prior allergic sensitization. We identified 106 proteins that are enriched in the digestive tract and are predicted to localize to the surface of cells in the the digestive tract. It is possible that some of these proteins are on the luminal surface and may be accessible by antibodies ingested by the worm. A subset of 27 of these
Full Text Available Filarial parasites suppress, divert, or polarize the host immune response to aid their survival. However, mechanisms that govern the polarization of host MΦs during early filarial infection are not completely understood. In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3 and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. Results showed that MΦs displayed M2-phenotype by day 3 p.i. characterized by upregulated IL-4, but reduced IL-12 and Prostaglandin-D2 secretion. Increased arginase activity, higher arginase-1 but reduced NOS2 expression and poor phagocytic and antigen processing capacity was also observed. M2 MΦs supported T-cell proliferation and characteristically upregulated p-ERK but downregulated NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB-p50/105. Notably, Bm-L3 synergized with host regulatory T-cells (Tregs and polarized M2 MΦs to regulatory MΦs (Mregs by day 7 p.i., which secreted copious amounts of IL-10 and prostaglandin-E2. Mregs also showed upregulated expression levels of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86 and exhibited increased antigen-processing capacity but displayed impaired activation of NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB-p50/105. Neutralization of Tregs by anti-GITR + anti-CD25 antibodies checked the polarization of M2 MΦs to Mregs, decreased accumulation of regulatory B cells and inflammatory monocytes, and reduced secretion of IL-10, but enhanced IL-4 production and percentages of eosinophils, which led to Bm-L3 killing. In summary, we report hitherto undocumented effects of early Bm-L3 infection on the polarization of splenic MΦs and show how infective larvae deftly utilize the functional plasticity of host MΦs to establish themselves inside the host.
Full Text Available Blood samples from 43 humans and 14 cats positive with Brugia microfilariae were analyzed in a field study in Tanjung Pinang, Indonesia. The study used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to compare the sensitivity of radioactive and biotinylated species-specific oligonuleotide probes. The cloning characterization of the Hha I repeat DNA family found in filarial parasites of the genus Brugia, and the development of species-specific probes for B.malayi and B.pahangi based on these repeats has been described elsewhere (PNAS USA 83: 797-801; Mol.Biochem. Parasitol. 2$: 163-170. The use of radioisotopes for labelling DNA probes is both expensive and inconvenient. To replace these probes, biotinylated DNA probes have been designed for non- radioactive detection of B.malayi and B.pahangi. These oligonucleotide probes have long tails of biotinylated uridine residues added to their 5' end. As little as 100 pg of Brugia DNA can be detected on dot blot with these probes. Detection of the probes is based on an avidin-alkaline phosphatase colorimetric assay. In order to distinguish between infected from uninfected individuals, it is necessary to detect the amount of DNA in one microfilaria (about 60 pg. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a procedure in which a small amount of DNA can be amplified up to 1 million-fold. A part of each sample in this study was PCR amplified and compared with the unamplified portion using both the radioactive and biotinylated DNA probe. The PCR amplified samples were accurately identified by both the radioactive and biotinylated B.malayi and B.pahangi probes. Even samples with as few as two microfilariae per lOOul of blood were easily detected. The samples that were not PCR amplified were accurately identified after only long exposures (greater than one week to the radioactive probes. The biotinylated probes, were not sensitive enough for accurate identification of the non-PCR amplified samples. The polymerase chain
Hirzmann, Jörg; Hintz, Martin; Kasper, Martin; Shresta, Tilak R; Taubert, Anja; Conraths, Franz J; Geyer, Rudolf; Stirm, Stephan; Zahner, Horst; Hobom, Gerd
In several filarial genera the first stage larvae (microfilariae) are enclosed by an eggshell-derived sheath that provides a major interface between the parasite and the host immune system. Analysis of the polypeptide constituents of the microfilarial sheath from the cotton rat filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis identified two abundant surface glycoproteins: Shp3a and Shp3. The corresponding genes and the orthologues of the human parasite Brugia malayi and the rodent filaria Brugia pahangi were cloned and sequenced. They encode secreted, mucin-like proteins with N-terminal Ser/Thr-rich repeats and a C-terminal anchor domain rich in aromatic amino acids. About 75% of the protein molecular masses result from post-translational modifications. The Ser/Thr-rich motifs are supposed to serve as targets for dimethylaminoethanol-phosphate substitutions. These modifications were detected only on the sheaths of the late developmental stage of stretched microfilariae, corresponding with the expression of the proteins in the epithelium of the distal part of the uterus and the specific transcription of shp3 and shp3a in the anterior female worm segment. Genomic analysis of all three species demonstrated a conserved linkage of the two genes. Their transcripts undergo cis- and trans-splicing. The transcription start sites of the primary transcripts were determined for the L. sigmodontis genes. The core promoter regions are remarkably conserved between the paralogue genes Ls-shp3a and Ls-shp3 and their orthologues in Brugia, implicating conserved regulatory elements.
Full Text Available AbstrakFilariasis merupakan penyakit yang tidak mudah menular. Filariasis adalah penyakit yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk sebagai vector. Jenis nyamuk yang dapat berperan sebagai vector filariasis dipengaruhi oleh jenis cacing penyebab filaria. Brugia spp. umumnya ditularkan oleh nyamuk Mansonia spp dan Anopheles spp. Vektor dan hewan zoonosis merupakan salah satu factor yang dapat perlu mendapat perhatian dalam pengendalian filariasis. Penelitian terhadap vector dan hewan zoonosis telah dilakukan di Kabupaten Muaro Jambi untuk mengidentifikasi bionomik vektor dan kemungkinan adanya hewan zoonosis yang berperan sebagai penular filariasis. Desain penelitian adalah observasi, yaitu dengan melakukan penangkapan nyamuk dan pemeriksaan darah terhadap kucing. Jumlah kucing yang diperiksa sebanyak 18 ekor. Kucing yang positif microfilaria sebanyak 1 ekor. Jumlah nyamuk Mansonia spp. tertangkap sebanyak 1,167 ekor yang terdiri dari 6 species. Spesies nyamuk tertangkap paling banyak adalah Mansonia uniformis sebanyak 1.010 ekor dengan angka kekerapan 1,0. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, maka diperlukan peran serta masyarakat untuk mengurangi kepadatan nyamuk dengan membersihkan genangan air dan mencegah gigitan nyamuk. Selain itu diperlukan juga penanganan terhadap hewan yang bertindak sebagai zoonosis dengan memberikan pengobatan terhadap kucing agar tidak menjadi sumber infeksi.Keywords : filariasis, Mansonia, vektor, zoonosis, Muaro Jambi.AbstractFilariasisis noteasily transmitted diseases. Filariasisis transmitted by mosquito vectors. Various types of mosquitoes can act as vectors of filariasis, depending on the type of microfilaria. Brugia spp. are generally transmitted by Mansonia spp and Anopheles spp. Vector and zoonotic animal are the factors that can transmit filariasis and need to have attention for controlling filariasis. Research on vector and zoonotic had been done in Muaro Jambi to determine bionomic vector and the possibility of animals can
Fong, Mun-Yik; Noordin, Rahmah; Lau, Yee-Ling; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Idris, Zulkarnain Md
Brugia malayi is one of the parasitic worms which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. Its geographical distribution includes a large part of Asia. Despite its wide distribution, very little is known about the genetic variation and molecular epidemiology of this species. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nucleotide sequences of B. malayi from microfilaria-positive human blood samples in Northeast Borneo Island were determined, and compared with published ITS1 sequences of B. malayi isolated from cats and humans in Thailand. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that B. malayi ITS1 sequences from Northeast Borneo were more similar to each other than to those from Thailand. Phylogenetic trees inferred using Neighbour-Joining and Maximum Parsimony methods showed similar topology, with 2 distinct B. malayi clusters. The first cluster consisted of Northeast Borneo B. malayi isolates, whereas the second consisted of the Thailand isolates. The findings of this study suggest that B. malayi in Borneo Island has diverged significantly from those of mainland Asia, and this has implications for the diagnosis of B. malayi infection across the region using ITS1-based molecular techniques.
Liu, Canhui; Chauhan, Chitra; Unnasch, Thomas R
A 7-nt motif (the trans-splicing motif or TSM) was previously shown to be necessary and sufficient to direct trans-splicing of transgenic mRNAs in transgenic Brugia malayi embryos. Insertion of the TSM into two genes lacking a TSM homologue resulted in trans-splicing of transgenic mRNAs from one transgene but not the other, suggesting that local sequence context might affect TSM function. To test this hypothesis, constructs inserting the TSM into different positions of two B. malayi genes were tested for their ability to support trans-splicing of transgenic mRNAs. Transgenic mRNAs derived from constructs in which the insertion of the TSM did not result in a perturbation of the local predicted secondary structure were trans-spliced, while those in which the TSM perturbed the local secondary structure were not. These data suggest that local secondary structure plays a role in the ability of the TSM to direct trans-splicing.
Gomez-Escobar, Natalia; Gregory, William F.; Maizels, Rick M.
A novel member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family has been identified in the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi by searching the recently developed Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database produced by the Filarial Genome Project. Designated tgh-2, this new gene shows most similarity to a key product regulating dauer larva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans (DAF-7) and to the human down-modulatory cytokine TGF-β. Homology to DAF-7 extends throughout the length of the 349-am...
Venugopal, Gopinath; Rao, Gopala B.; Lucius, Richard; Srikantam, Aparna; Hartmann, Susanne
Background Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive. Aim To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses. Methodology and principal findings Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf) lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10). IFN-γ responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner. Conclusions and significance Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic
Jeremiah D Farelli
Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.
Streit, A; Li, W; Robertson, B; Schein, J; Kamal, I H; Marra, M; Wood, W B
The masculinizing gene her-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-her-1) encodes a novel protein, HER-1A, which is required for male development. To identify conserved elements in her-1 we have cloned and characterized two homologous nematode genes: one by synteny from the closely related free-living species C. briggsae (Cb-her-1) and the other, starting with a fortuitously identified expressed sequence tag, from the distantly related parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-her-1). The overall sequence identities of the predicted gene products with Ce-HER-1A are only 57% for Cb-HER-1, which is considerably lower than has been found for most homologous briggsae genes, and 35% for Bm-HER-1. However, conserved residues are found throughout both proteins, and like Ce-HER-1A, both have putative N-terminal signal sequences. Ce-her-1 produces a larger masculinizing transcript (her-1a) and a smaller transcript of unknown function (her-1b); both are present essentially only in males. By contrast, Cb-her-1 appears to produce only one transcript, corresponding to her-1a; it is enriched in males but present also in hermaphrodites. Injection of dsRNA transcribed from Cb-her-1 into C. briggsae hermaphrodites (RNA interference) caused XO animals to develop into partially fertile hermaphrodites. Introducing a Cb-her-1 construct as a transgene under control of the C. elegans unc-54 myosin heavy chain promoter caused strong masculinization of both C. briggsae and C. elegans hermaphrodites. Introduction of a similar Bm-her-1 construct into C. elegans caused only very weak, if any, masculinization. We conclude that in spite of considerable divergence the Cb gene is likely to be a functional ortholog of Ce-her-1, while the function of the distantly related Bm gene remains uncertain.
Vincent, A L; Vickery, A C; Winters, A; Sodeman, W A
The development of Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) was studied in nude (congenitally athymic) mice C3H/HeN (nu/nu) and in their phenotypically normal littermates (nu/+). Nude mice were highly susceptible to this parasite. As in the natural host (the cat), the nematodes' third molt in nude mice occurred at 7 to 10 days. The final molt occurred at about 24 days for male worms and 33 days for female worms. Adult worms were smaller than those from other hosts, such as the cat. After inoculation of various numbers of infective larvae, recoveries of adult worms averaged about 15% of the inoculum. In long-term infections initiated with 100 larvae, about 75% of the worms localized in the heart or lungs. Patent infections were seen as early as day 50 PI. Microfilaremia developed in most nude mice given 100, 50, or 25 infective larvae, but was less frequent in those given only 10. Mean filaremias generally rose during the first 6 mo, but in individuals usually did not exceed 500-600/20 mm3 of blood. As in the Mongolian jird, intraperitoneal inoculations yielded large quantities of worms and microfilariae. Few worms could be recovered from normal mice after day 40, even when large (1,000 larvae) inocula were used. Microfilaremia was not detected in normal mice. Although recoveries of adult worms from some nude females were not as high as those from nude males, neither nude nor normal mice showed consistent evidence of a differential susceptibility based on sex. Given the strong, consistent dichotomy of response to B. pahangi between nude and normal mice, this system may be useful in studies of protective immune responses in filariasis.
Taylor, M J; Cross, H F; Bilo, K
The pathogenesis of filarial disease is characterized by acute and chronic inflammation. Inflammatory responses are thought to be generated by either the parasite, the immune response, or opportunistic infection. We show that soluble extracts of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi can induce potent inflammatory responses, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and nitric oxide (NO) from macrophages. The active component is heat stable, reacts positively in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and can be inhibited by polymyxin B. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and NO responses were not induced in macrophages from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-nonresponsive C3H/HeJ mice. The production of TNF-alpha after chemotherapy of microfilariae was also only detected in LPS-responsive C3H/HeN mice, suggesting that signaling through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is necessary for these responses. We also show that CD14 is required for optimal TNF-alpha responses at low concentrations. Together, these results suggest that extracts of B. malayi contain bacterial LPS. Extracts from the rodent filaria, Acanthocheilonema viteae, which is not infected with the endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria found in the majority of filarial parasites, failed to induce any inflammatory responses from macrophages, suggesting that the source of bacterial LPS in extracts of B. malayi is the Wolbachia endosymbiont. Wolbachia extracts derived from a mosquito cell line induced similar LPS-dependent TNF-alpha and NO responses from C3H/HeN macrophages, which were eliminated after tetracycline treatment of the bacteria. Thus, Wolbachia LPS may be one of the major mediators of inflammatory pathogenesis in filarial nematode disease.
Full Text Available Development of a vaccine to prevent or reduce parasite development in lymphatic filariasis would be a complementary approach to existing chemotherapeutic tools. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of Brugia malayi (Bm-TPP represents an attractive vaccine target due to its absence in mammals, prevalence in the major life stages of the parasite and immunoreactivity with human bancroftian antibodies, especially from endemic normal subjects. We have recently reported on the cloning, expression, purification and biochemical characterization of this vital enzyme of B. malayi. In the present study, immunoprophylactic evaluation of Bm-TPP was carried out against B. malayi larval challenge in a susceptible host Mastomys coucha and the protective ability of the recombinant protein was evaluated by observing the adverse effects on microfilarial density and adult worm establishment. Immunization caused 78.4% decrease in microfilaremia and 71.04% reduction in the adult worm establishment along with sterilization of 70.06% of the recovered live females. The recombinant protein elicited a mixed Th1/Th2 type of protective immune response as evidenced by the generation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and an increased production of antibody isotypes IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA. Thus immunization with Bm-TPP conferred considerable protection against B. malayi establishment by engendering a long-lasting effective immune response and therefore emerges as a potential vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis (LF.
Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the filarial proteins that interact with the human host. Although the filarial genome has recently been completed, protein profiles have been limited to only a few recombinants or purified proteins of interest. Here, we describe a large-scale proteomic analysis using microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to identify the excretory-secretory (ES products of the L3, L3 to L4 molting ES, adult male, adult female, and microfilarial stages of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The analysis of the ES products from adult male, adult female, microfilariae (Mf, L3, and molting L3 larvae identified 852 proteins. Annotation suggests that the functional and component distribution was very similar across each of the stages studied; however, the Mf contributed a higher proportion to the total number of identified proteins than the other stages. Of the 852 proteins identified in the ES, only 229 had previous confirmatory expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the available databases. Moreover, this analysis was able to confirm the presence of 274 "hypothetical" proteins inferred from gene prediction algorithms applied to the B. malayi (Bm genome. Not surprisingly, the majority (160/274 of these "hypothetical" proteins were predicted to be secreted by Signal IP and/or SecretomeP 2.0 analysis. Of major interest is the abundance of previously characterized immunomodulatory proteins such as ES-62 (leucyl aminopeptidase, MIF-1, SERPIN, glutathione peroxidase, and galectin in the ES of microfilariae (and Mf-containing adult females compared to the adult males. In addition, searching the ES protein spectra against the Wolbachia database resulted in the identification of 90 Wolbachia-specific proteins, most of which were metabolic enzymes that have not been shown to be immunogenic. This proteomic analysis extends our knowledge of the ES and provides insight into the host-parasite interaction.
Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Kaewkong, Worasak; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Choochote, Wej; Maleewong, Wanchai
A simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples was developed using a real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Amplicons of the 4 filarial species were generated from 5S rRNA and spliced leader sequences by the real-time PCR and their melting temperatures were determined by the HRM method. Melting of amplicons from W. bancrofti, B. malayi, D. immitis, and B. pahangi peaked at 81.5±0.2℃, 79.0±0.3℃, 76.8±0.1℃, and 79.9±0.1℃, respectively. This assay is relatively cheap since it does not require synthesis of hybridization probes. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100%. It is a rapid and technically simple approach, and an important tool for population surveys as well as molecular xenomonitoring of parasites in vectors.
Full Text Available Filarial parasites (e.g., Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, and Wuchereria bancrofti are causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are among the most disabling of neglected tropical diseases. There is an urgent need to develop macro-filaricidal drugs, as current anti-filarial chemotherapy (e.g., diethylcarbamazine [DEC], ivermectin and albendazole can interrupt transmission predominantly by killing microfilariae (mf larvae, but is less effective on adult worms, which can live for decades in the human host. All medically relevant human filarial parasites appear to contain an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia. This alpha-proteobacterial mutualist has been recognized as a potential target for filarial nematode life cycle intervention, as antibiotic treatments of filarial worms harboring Wolbachia result in the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatments both in vitro and in vivo. Human trials have confirmed this approach, although the length of treatments, high doses required and medical counter-indications for young children and pregnant women warrant the identification of additional anti-Wolbachia drugs.Genome sequence analysis indicated that enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis might constitute a potential anti-Wolbachia target set. We tested different heme biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in ex vivo B. malayi viability assays and report a specific effect of N-methyl mesoporphyrin (NMMP, which targets ferrochelatase (FC, the last step. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates evolutionarily significant divergence between Wolbachia heme genes and their human homologues. We therefore undertook the cloning, overexpression and analysis of several enzymes of this pathway alongside their human homologues, and prepared proteins for drug targeting. In vitro enzyme assays revealed a approximately 600-fold difference in drug sensitivities to succinyl acetone (SA between Wolbachia and human 5
Wolbachia lipoproteins: abundance, localisation and serology of Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6 from Brugia malayi and Aedes albopictus.
Voronin, Denis; Guimarães, Ana F; Molyneux, Gemma R; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark J
Lipoproteins are the major agonists of Wolbachia-dependent inflammatory pathogenesis in filariasis and a validated target for drug discovery. Here we characterise the abundance, localisation and serology of the Wolbachia lipoproteins: Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6. We used proteomics to confirm lipoprotein presence and relative abundance; fractionation, immunoblotting and confocal and electron immuno-microscopy for localisation and ELISA for serological analysis. Proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi adult female protein extracts confirmed the presence of two lipoproteins, previously predicted through bioinformatics: Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (wBmPAL) and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6 (wBmVirB6). wBmPAL was among the most abundant Wolbachia proteins present in an extract of adult female worms with wBmVirB6 only detected at a much lower abundance. This differential abundance was reflected in the immunogold-labelling, which showed wBmPAL localised at numerous sites within the bacterial membranes, whereas wBmVirB6 was present as a single cluster on each bacterial cell and also located within the bacterial membranes. Immunoblotting of fractionated extracts confirmed the localisation of wBmPAL to membranes and its absence from cytosolic fractions of C6/36 mosquito cells infected with wAlbB. In whole worm mounts, antibody labelling of both lipoproteins were associated with Wolbachia. Serological analysis showed that both proteins were immunogenic and raised antibody responses in the majority of individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. Two Wolbachia lipoproteins, wBmPAL and wBmVirB6, are present in extracts of Brugia malayi with wBmPAL among the most abundant of Wolbachia proteins. Both lipoproteins localised to bacterial membranes with wBmVirB6 present as a single cluster suggesting a single Type IV Secretory System on each Wolbachia cell.
K Athisaya Mary
Full Text Available Preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the role of filarial specific antibodies, raised in an animal model against the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi (sub-periodic, in blocking their early development in an experimental mosquito host, Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain. In order to generate filarial specific antibodies, Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, were immunized either with live microfilariae (mf of B. malayi or their homogenate. Mf were harvested from the peritoneal cavity of Mongolian gerbils with patent infection of B. malayi and fed to A. aegypti along with the blood from immunized animals. Development of the parasite in infected mosquitoes was monitored until they reached infective stage larvae (L3. Fewer number of parasites developed to first stage (L1 and subsequently to L2 and L3 in mosquitoes fed with blood of immunized animals, when compared to those fed with blood of control animals. The results thus indicated that filarial parasite specific antibodies present in the blood of the immunized animals resulted in the reduction of number of larvae of B. malayi developing in the mosquito host.
Nayar, J K; Knight, J W
Hemagglutinins in the salivary gland extract and in the body fluid from strains of the mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, susceptible and refractory to the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, had higher titers against Human A+, B- and O+, and sheep erythrocytes than against rabbit and jird erythrocytes. Hemagglutination activity in the body fluid was low in newly emerged females but increased and stabilized as they became older. Hemagglutination activity of the body fluid was not reduced by freezing at -20 degrees C, but it was destroyed following heating the body fluid to 60 degrees C and 100 degrees C for 45 min, indicating that the hemagglutinins are heat labile, and they are proteins or glycoproteins. Hemagglutinins in the salivary glands exhibited specificities for a broader range of carbohydrate moieties on the surface of Human A+ and sheep erythrocytes than those in the body fluid. Injections of specific carbohydrates in saline solution into B. malayi-infected females of the refractory strain of An. quadrimaculatus 24 hr after the infective blood meal showed that galactose, N-acetyl-D-galacto-samine, sorbose and mannose inhibited the increase in encapsulation (melanization) of L1 of B. malayi in the thoracic muscles of An. quadrimaculatus females when compared to those females injected with saline and other carbohydrates. The results suggest that hemagglutinins are present in the salivary gland extract and the body fluid of both strains of An. quadrimaculatus females and they may be involved in the immune response (encapsulation) to filarial parasites in An. quadrimaculatus.
Nayar, J K; Knight, J W
Comparisons were made of migration and encapsulation of ingested sheathed microfilariae of Brugia malayi from the midgut into the hemocoel between Anopheles quadrimaculatus (refractory and susceptible strains to B. malayi) and Aedes aegypti (Black-eyed, Liverpool strain susceptible to B. malayi). Encapsulation and melanization of microfilarial sheaths and microfilariae occurred in both strains of An. quadrimaculatus and in Ae. aegypti. In both strains of An. quadrimaculatus, by 4 hr and by 24 hr after the ingestion of sheathed microfilariae of B. malayi in the infected bloodmeal, significantly more sheathed microfilariae penetrated the midgut and reached the hemocoel and thoracic muscles compared with those in Ae. aegypti. During the same time periods significantly more encapsulated and melanized microfilarial sheaths and a larger percentage of encapsulated and melanized microfilariae were observed in the hemocoel of both strains of An. quadrimaculatus than in Ae. aegypti. The results suggest that differences observed in the numbers of encapsulated and melanized microfilarial sheaths and percentages of melanized microfilariae between An. quadrimaculatus (both strains) and Ae. aegypti are due to different rates of penetration of the sheathed microfilariae from the midgut to the hemocoel.
Nayar, J K; Knight, J W
The effects of nutritional factors and antimicrobials on the development of infective larvae of subperiodic Brugia malayi in susceptible Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) were investigated. Larvae of both species of mosquitoes were reared on brewers yeast or a 1:1 brewers yeast-liver powder mixture. After emergence, one-half of the adults from each rearing condition were maintained on a 10% sucrose solution and the other half on a 10% sucrose solution containing 0.1% p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Females of both species of mosquitoes that fed on B. malayi-infected jirds showed a significant increase in the ineffective rate and intensity of infectiveness when the mosquito larvae were reared on the brewers yeast-liver powder diet. The addition of 0.1% PABA to the adult diet increased numbers of infective larvae of B. malayi that developed in Ae. aegypti but not in An. quadrimaculatus. The intensity of infectiveness of B. malayi was significantly greater when An. quadrimaculatus females were provided with a second blood meal from an uninfected jird and when females of both species were maintained on different concentrations of an antimicrobial solution.
Misra, Namita; Sharma, Mithilesh; Raj, Kanwal; Dangi, Anil; Srivastava, Sudhir; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja
Lymphatic filariasis continues to be a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A macrofilaricidal agent capable of eliminating adult filarial parasites is urgently needed. In the present study, we report the antifilarial activity in the extract of stem portion of the plant Lantana camara. The crude extract at 1 g/kg for 5 days by oral route killed 43.05% of the adult Brugia malayi parasites and sterilized 76% of surviving female worms in the rodent model Mastomys coucha. A 34.5% adulticidal activity along with sterilization of 66% of female worms could be demonstrated in the chloroform fraction. Remarkable antifilarial activity was observed in the adult B. malayi transplanted gerbil model where up to 80% of the adult worms could be killed at the same dose and all the surviving female parasites were found sterilized. The extract was also found effective against a subcutaneous rodent filariid Acanthocheilonema viteae maintained in Mastomys coucha, where it exerted strong microfilaricidal (95.04%) and sterilization (60.66%) efficacy with mild macrofilaricidal action. Two compounds, oleanonic acid and oleanolic acid, isolated from hexane and chloroform fractions showed LC100 at 31.25 and 62.5 mug/ml, respectively, on B. malayi in vitro. This is the first ever report on the antifilarial efficacy of Lantana camara.
Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.
Background Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia spp. is a public health problem in developing countries. To monitor bancroftian filariasis infections, Circulating Filarial Antigen (CFA) test is commonly used, but for brugian infections only microfilariae (Mf) microscopy and indirect IgG4 antibody analyses are available. Improved diagnostics for detecting latent infections are required. Methods An optimized real-time PCR targeting the brugian HhaI repeat was validated with plasma from microfilariae negative Mongolian gerbils (jirds) infected with B. malayi. Plasma samples from microfilaremic patients infected with B. malayi or W. bancrofti were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. PCR results of plasma samples from a transmigrant population in a B. malayi endemic area were compared to those of life-long residents in the same endemic area; and to IgG4 serology results from the same population. To discriminate between active infections and larval exposure a threshold was determined by correlation and Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analyses. Results The PCR detected HhaI in pre-patent (56 dpi) B. malayi infected jirds and B. malayi Mf-positive patients from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. HhaI was also detected in 9/9 elephantiasis patients. In South Sulawesi 87.4% of the transmigrants and life-long residents (94% Mf-negative) were HhaI PCR positive. Based on ROC-curve analysis a threshold for active infections was set to >53 HhaI copies/μl (AUC: 0.854). Conclusions The results demonstrate that the HhaI PCR detects brugian infections with greater sensitivity than the IgG4 test, most notably in Mf-negative patients (i.e. pre-patent or latent infections). PMID:24685183
Foster, Jeremy M; Kumar, Sanjay; Ganatra, Mehul B; Kamal, Ibrahim H; Ware, Jennifer; Ingram, Jessica; Pope-Chappell, Jesse; Guiliano, David; Whitton, Claire; Daub, Jennifer; Blaxter, Mark L; Slatko, Barton E
The parasitic nematode, Brugia malayi, causes lymphatic filariasis in humans, which in severe cases leads to the condition known as elephantiasis. The parasite contains an endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterium of the genus Wolbachia that is required for normal worm development and fecundity and is also implicated in the pathology associated with infections by these filarial nematodes. Bacterial artificial chromosome libraries were constructed from B. malayi DNA and provide over 11-fold coverage of the nematode genome. Wolbachia genomic fragments were simultaneously cloned into the libraries giving over 5-fold coverage of the 1.1 Mb bacterial genome. A physical framework for the Wolbachia genome was developed by construction of a plasmid library enriched for Wolbachia DNA as a source of sequences to hybridise to high-density bacterial artificial chromosome colony filters. Bacterial artificial chromosome end sequencing provided additional Wolbachia probe sequences to facilitate assembly of a contig that spanned the entire genome. The Wolbachia sequences provided a marker approximately every 10 kb. Four rare-cutting restriction endonucleases were used to restriction map the genome to a resolution of approximately 60 kb and demonstrate concordance between the bacterial artificial chromosome clones and native Wolbachia genomic DNA. Comparison of Wolbachia sequences to public databases using BLAST algorithms under stringent conditions allowed confident prediction of 69 Wolbachia peptide functions and two rRNA genes. Comparison to closely related complete genomes revealed that while most sequences had orthologs in the genome of the Wolbachia endosymbiont from Drosophila melanogaster, there was no evidence for long-range synteny. Rather, there were a few cases of short-range conservation of gene order extending over regions of less than 10 kb. The molecular scaffold produced for the genome of the Wolbachia from B. malayi forms the basis of a genomic sequencing effort for
Wahyuni, Sitti; Van Ree, Ronald; Mangali, Andarias; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Sartono, Erliyani
The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgE antibodies to Brugia malayi was compared with the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for use in immunoepidemiological studies of lymphatic filariasis. Sera used were from individuals (aged 5-82 years) living in an area endemic for lymphatic filariasis in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The percentage of positive IgE ELISA reactions (52.6%) among the population was lower than the percentage of positive RAST (94.5%). Although an overall significant concordance was found between the two assays (P RAST result were negative in the ELISA, whereas only 6 (0.8%) subjects were positive by ELISA, yet negative by RAST. When the population was divided into those with active infection (positive for anti-filarial IgG4) and those not infected (mf-negative and negative for anti-filarial IgG4), the correlation between the two tests was higher in the IgG4-positive (rho = 0.70) than in the IgG4-negative (rho = 0.52) group. These results indicate that in assessment of B. malayi specific IgE antibody, RAST is superior to ELISA. However, given the use of radioactivity in the RAST method and given our results obtained in subjects with high anti-filarial IgG4, one could consider using the IgE-ELISA in areas with high endemicity for filariasis. In areas with low endemicity or where control programs are implemented, sera will have to be tested by RAST.
Melnikow, Elena; Xu, Shulin; Liu, Jing; Bell, Aaron J; Ghedin, Elodie; Unnasch, Thomas R; Lustigman, Sara
The human filarial parasite Brugia malayi harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. The Wolbachia represent an attractive target for the control of filarial induced disease as elimination of the bacteria affects molting, reproduction and survival of the worms. The molecular basis for the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and their filarial hosts has yet to be elucidated. To identify proteins involved in this process, we focused on the Wolbachia surface proteins (WSPs), which are known to be involved in bacteria-host interactions in other bacterial systems. Two WSP-like proteins (wBm0152 and wBm0432) were localized to various host tissues of the B. malayi female adult worms and are present in the excretory/secretory products of the worms. We provide evidence that both of these proteins bind specifically to B. malayi crude protein extracts and to individual filarial proteins to create functional complexes. The wBm0432 interacts with several key enzymes involved in the host glycolytic pathway, including aldolase and enolase. The wBm0152 interacts with the host cytoskeletal proteins actin and tubulin. We also show these interactions in vitro and have verified that wBm0432 and B. malayi aldolase, as well as wBm0152 and B. malayi actin, co-localize to the vacuole surrounding Wolbachia. We propose that both WSP protein complexes interact with each other via the aldolase-actin link and/or via the possible interaction between the host's enolase and the cytoskeleton, and play a role in Wolbachia distribution during worm growth and embryogenesis.
Full Text Available The Brugia malayi Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 proteins are orthologous to Onchocerca volvulus Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, and which were selected as the best candidates for the development of an O. volvulus vaccine. The B. malayi gerbil model was used to confirm the efficacy of these Ov vaccine candidates on adult worms and to determine whether their combination is more efficacious.Vaccine efficacy of recombinant Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 administered individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein were tested in gerbils using alum as adjuvant. Vaccination with Bm-103 resulted in worm reductions of 39%, 34% and 22% on 42, 120 and 150 days post infection (dpi, respectively, and vaccination with Bm-RAL-2 resulted in worm reductions of 42%, 22% and 46% on 42, 120 and 150 dpi, respectively. Vaccination with a fusion protein comprised of Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 resulted in improved efficacy with significant reduction of worm burden of 51% and 49% at 90 dpi, as did the concurrent vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2, with worm reduction of 61% and 56% at 90 dpi. Vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 as a fusion protein or concurrently not only induced a significant worm reduction of 61% and 42%, respectively, at 150 dpi, but also significantly reduced the fecundity of female worms as determined by embryograms. Elevated levels of antigen-specific IgG were observed in all vaccinated gerbils. Serum from gerbils vaccinated with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein killed third stage larvae in vitro when combined with peritoneal exudate cells.Although vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually conferred protection against B. malayi infection in gerbils, a more consistent and enhanced protection was induced by vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 fusion protein and when they were used concurrently. Further characterization and optimization of these filarial vaccines are warranted.
Gupta, Jyoti; Pathak, Manisha; Misra, Sweta; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja
We earlier demonstrated the immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant heavy chain myosin (Bm-Myo) of Brugia malayi (B. malayi) in rodent models. In the current study, further attempts have been made to improve this efficacy by employing alternate approaches such as homologous DNA (pcD-Myo) and heterologous DNA/protein prime boost (pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo) in BALB/c mouse model. The gene bm-myo was cloned in a mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+) and protein expression was confirmed in mammalian Vero cell line. A significant degree of protection (79.2%±2.32) against L3 challenge in pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunized group was observed which was much higher than that exerted by Bm-Myo (66.6%±2.23) and pcD-Myo (41.6%±2.45). In the heterologous immunized group, the percentage of peritoneal leukocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells marginally increased and their population augmented further significantly following L3 challenge. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunization elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses as compared to pcD-Myo and Bm-Myo groups as evidenced by an increased accumulation of CD4+, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in the mouse spleen and activation of peritoneal macrophages. Though immunized animals produced antigen-specific IgG antibodies and isotypes, sera of mice receiving pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo or Bm-Myo developed much higher antibody levels than other groups and there was profound antibody-dependent cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity (ADCC) to B. malayi infective larvae (L3). pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo as well as Bm-Myo mice generated a mixed T helper cell phenotype as evidenced by the production of both pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines. Mice receiving pcD-Myo on contrary displayed a polarized pro-inflammatory immune response. The findings suggest that the priming of animals with DNA followed by protein booster generates heightened and mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses that are capable of providing
Halliday, Alice; Turner, Joseph D; Guimarães, Ana; Bates, Paul A; Taylor, Mark J
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens, and are the target of new vaccine adjuvants. TLR2 plays a role in parasite recognition and activation of immune responses during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection, suggesting that TLR2 could be targeted by adjuvants for use in Leishmania vaccines. We therefore explored using Pam2CSK4 (Pam2) and Pam3CSK4 (Pam3) lipopeptide adjuvants, which activate TLR2/6 and TLR2/1 heterodimers respectively, in vaccine models for parasitic infections. The use of lipopeptide adjuvants was explored using two vaccine models. For cutaneous leishmaniasis, the lipopeptide adjuvants Pam2 and Pam3 were compared to that of the Th1-driving double-stranded DNA TLR9 agonist CpG for their ability to improve the efficacy of the autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) vaccine to protect against L. major infection. The ability of Pam2 to enhance the efficacy of a soluble Brugia malayi microfilariae extract (BmMfE) vaccine to protect against filarial infection was also assessed in a peritoneal infection model of B. malayi filariasis. Parasite antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed post-challenge. The use of lipopeptides in ALM-containing vaccines did not provide any protection upon infection with L. major, and Pam2 exacerbated the disease severity in vaccinated mice post-challenge. Pam2, and to a lesser extent Pam3, were able to elevate antigen-specific immune responses post-challenge in this model, but these responses displayed a skewed Th2 phenotype as characterised by elevated levels of IgG1. In the B. malayi vaccine model, the use of Pam2 as an adjuvant with BmMfE induced significant protective immunity to the same level as inclusion of an Alum adjuvant. Here, both Pam2 and Alum were found to enhance antigen-specific antibody production post-challenge, and Pam2 significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 produced by splenocytes. These
Full Text Available We earlier demonstrated the immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant heavy chain myosin (Bm-Myo of Brugia malayi (B. malayi in rodent models. In the current study, further attempts have been made to improve this efficacy by employing alternate approaches such as homologous DNA (pcD-Myo and heterologous DNA/protein prime boost (pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo in BALB/c mouse model. The gene bm-myo was cloned in a mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+ and protein expression was confirmed in mammalian Vero cell line. A significant degree of protection (79.2%±2.32 against L3 challenge in pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunized group was observed which was much higher than that exerted by Bm-Myo (66.6%±2.23 and pcD-Myo (41.6%±2.45. In the heterologous immunized group, the percentage of peritoneal leukocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells marginally increased and their population augmented further significantly following L3 challenge. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunization elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses as compared to pcD-Myo and Bm-Myo groups as evidenced by an increased accumulation of CD4+, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in the mouse spleen and activation of peritoneal macrophages. Though immunized animals produced antigen-specific IgG antibodies and isotypes, sera of mice receiving pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo or Bm-Myo developed much higher antibody levels than other groups and there was profound antibody-dependent cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity (ADCC to B. malayi infective larvae (L3. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo as well as Bm-Myo mice generated a mixed T helper cell phenotype as evidenced by the production of both pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines. Mice receiving pcD-Myo on contrary displayed a polarized pro-inflammatory immune response. The findings suggest that the priming of animals with DNA followed by protein booster generates heightened and mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses that are capable of
Genomes of parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita, Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi) have a reduced complement of small RNA interference pathway genes: knockdown can reduce host infectivity of M. incognita.
Iqbal, Sadia; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Jones, Michael G K
The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) as an endogenous mechanism of gene regulation in a range of eukaryotes has resulted in its extensive use as a tool for functional genomic studies. It is important to study the mechanisms which underlie this phenomenon in different organisms, and in particular to understand details of the effectors that modulate its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to identify and compare genomic sequences encoding genes involved in the RNAi pathway of four parasitic nematodes: the plant parasites Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita and the animal parasites Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi because full genomic sequences were available-in relation to those of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The data generated was then used to identify some potential targets for control of the root knot nematode, M. incognita. Of the 84 RNAi pathway genes of C. elegans used as model in this study, there was a 42-53 % reduction in the number of effectors in the parasitic nematodes indicating substantial differences in the pathway between species. A gene each from six functional groups of the RNAi pathway of M. incognita was downregulated using in vitro RNAi, and depending on the gene (drh-3, tsn-1, rrf-1, xrn-2, mut-2 and alg-1), subsequent plant infection was reduced by up to 44 % and knockdown of some genes (i.e. drh-3, mut-2) also resulted in abnormal nematode development. The information generated here will contribute to defining targets for more robust nematode control using the RNAi technology.
Emily E I M Mouser
Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62 from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most filarial parasite species contain Wolbachia, obligatory bacterial endosymbionts that are crucial for filarial development and reproduction. They are targets for alternative chemotherapy, but their role in the biology of filarial nematodes is not well understood. Light microscopy provides important information on morphology, localization and potential function of these bacteria. Surprisingly, immunohistology and in situ hybridization techniques have not been widely used to monitor Wolbachia distribution during the filarial life cycle. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A monoclonal antibody directed against Wolbachia surface protein and in situ hybridization targeting Wolbachia 16S rRNA were used to monitor Wolbachia during the life cycle of B. malayi. In microfilariae and vector stage larvae only a few cells contain Wolbachia. In contrast, large numbers of Wolbachia were detected in the lateral chords of L4 larvae, but no endobacteria were detected in the genital primordium. In young adult worms (5 weeks p.i., a massive expansion of Wolbachia was observed in the lateral chords adjacent to ovaries or testis, but no endobacteria were detected in the growth zone of the ovaries, uterus, the growth zone of the testis or the vas deferens. Confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that numerous Wolbachia are aligned towards the developing ovaries and single endobacteria were detected in the germline. In inseminated females (8 weeks p.i. Wolbachia were observed in the ovaries, embryos and in decreasing numbers in the lateral chords. In young males Wolbachia were found in distinct zones of the testis and in large numbers in the lateral chords in the vicinity of testicular tissue but never in mature spermatids or spermatozoa. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistology and in situ hybridization show distinct tissue and stage specific distribution patterns for Wolbachia in B. malayi. Extensive multiplication of Wolbachia occurs in the lateral chords of L4 and young adults adjacent to germline cells.
Full Text Available etical protein [Brugia malayi] gb|EDP38806.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Brugia malayi] 2e-19 32% MAWLAGWLGRLGWLAGLAGLVGWLAW...MAWLAGWLGWLGWQAFSAGLAGLAGRVAWLAWLAGWLGWLGWLGGLAGLAGWLAWLAGSRGWLPGLAGLAVWLAWVAWLAWLAGWLA...GLAGWVAGWLGWLGGFARLAVWAAWLPWVAGWLGWLGWLGWPAGLAGLAGLAGLAGRLAWLAWLAAWLGWLGWMASWLAWLAVWLGWLRWLAGLAGLGGSLAW
Ritchie, Ryan; Goundry, Amy; O’Neill, Kerry; Marchesi, Francesco; Devaney, Eileen
Helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. Treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. A lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. This is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a complex cycle of development. In this paper, we describe attempts to visualise the immune response elicited by filarial parasites in infected mice using a non-invasive bioluminescence imaging reagent, luminol, our aim being to determine whether such a model could be developed to discriminate between live and dead worms for in vivo compound screening. We show that while imaging can detect the immune response elicited by early stages of infection with L3, it was unable to detect the presence of adult worms or, indeed, later stages of infection with L3, despite the presence of worms within the lymphatic system of infected animals. In the future, more specific reagents that detect secreted products of adult worms may be required for developing screens based upon live imaging of infected animals. PMID:27992545
Full Text Available Helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. Treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. A lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. This is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a complex cycle of development. In this paper, we describe attempts to visualise the immune response elicited by filarial parasites in infected mice using a non-invasive bioluminescence imaging reagent, luminol, our aim being to determine whether such a model could be developed to discriminate between live and dead worms for in vivo compound screening. We show that while imaging can detect the immune response elicited by early stages of infection with L3, it was unable to detect the presence of adult worms or, indeed, later stages of infection with L3, despite the presence of worms within the lymphatic system of infected animals. In the future, more specific reagents that detect secreted products of adult worms may be required for developing screens based upon live imaging of infected animals.
Liu, Canhui; Chauhan, Chitra; Unnasch, Thomas R.
A 7nt motif (the trans-splicing motif or TSM) was previously shown to be necessary and sufficient to direct trans-splicing of transgenic mRNAs in transgenic B. malayi embryos. Insertion of the TSM into two genes lacking a TSM homologue resulted in-trans splicing of transgenic mRNAs from one transgene but not the other, suggesting that local sequence context might affect TSM function. To test this hypothesis, constructs inserting the TSM into different positions of two B. malayi genes were tested for their ability to support trans-splicing of transgenic mRNAs. Transgenic mRNAs derived from constructs in which the insertion of the TSM did not result in a perturbation of the local predicted secondary structure were trans-spliced, while those in which the TSM perturbed the local secondary structure were not. These data suggest that local secondary structure plays a role in the ability of the TSM to direct trans-splicing. PMID:19852985
Jawaharlal, Jeya Prita Parasurama; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Rajaiah Prabhu; Kaliraj, Perumal
Transmission of lymphatic filariasis is mediated through microfilariae (L1 stage of the parasite) which is encased in an eggshell called sheath. The sheath protein Shp-1 stabilizes the structure due to the unique repeat region with Met-Pro-Pro-Gln-Gly sequences. Microfilarial proteins could be used as transmission blocking vaccines. Since the repeat region of Shp-1 was predicted to carry putative B epitopes, this region was used to analyze its reactivity with clinical samples towards construction of peptide vaccine. In silico analysis of Shp-1 showed the presence of B epitopes in the region 49-107. The polypeptide epitopic region Shp-149-107 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Antibody reactivity of the Shp-149-107 construct was evaluated in filarial endemic population by ELISA. Putatively immune endemic normals (EN) showed significantly high reactivity (P similar to that of whole protein proving that this region carries B epitopes responsible for its humoral response in humans. Thus this can be employed for inducing anti-microfilarial immunity in the infected population that may lead to reduction in transmission intensity and also it could be used along with other epitopes from different stages of the parasite in order to manage the disease effectively.
Full Text Available The trehalose metabolic enzymes have been considered as potential targets for drug or vaccine in several organisms such as Mycobacterium, plant nematodes, insects and fungi due to crucial role of sugar trehalose in embryogenesis, glucose uptake and protection from stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP is one of the enzymes of trehalose biosynthesis that has not been reported in mammals. Silencing of tpp gene in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an indispensable functional role of TPP in nematodes.In the present study, functional role of B. malayi tpp gene was investigated by siRNA mediated silencing which further validated this enzyme to be a putative antifilarial drug target. The silencing of tpp gene in adult female B. malayi brought about severe phenotypic deformities in the intrauterine stages such as distortion and embryonic development arrest. The motility of the parasites was significantly reduced and the microfilarial production as well as their in vitro release from the female worms was also drastically abridged. A majority of the microfilariae released in to the culture medium were found dead. B. malayi infective larvae which underwent tpp gene silencing showed 84.9% reduced adult worm establishment after inoculation into the peritoneal cavity of naïve jirds.The present findings suggest that B. malayi TPP plays an important role in the female worm embryogenesis, infectivity of the larvae and parasite viability. TPP enzyme of B. malayi therefore has the potential to be exploited as an antifilarial drug target.
Full Text Available AW179914 |AW179914.1 SWYD25CAU05D03SK Brugia malayi young adult day 25 cDNA (SAW99MLW-BmYD25) Brugia malayi...BE132434 |BE132434.1 SWYACAL09G02SK Brugia malayi young adult cDNA (SAW99MLW-BmYA) Brugia malayi cDNA clone
Full Text Available fti Brugia malayi [GN:bmy] Brugia timori ... Diethylcarbamazine [DG:DG01024] Ivermectin [DR:D00804] Albendazo...20 million infected, especially in tropical regions. Wuchereria bancrofti accounts for 91% of the cases whil...e Brugia malayi and B. timori (which has a distribution restricted to South and S
Full Text Available DV316421 |DV316421.1 NABOI60TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABOI60...DV316420 |DV316420.1 NABOI60T1O Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABOI60...DV298771 |DV298771.1 NABPS65TR Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABPS65
Full Text Available DV316421 |DV316421.1 NABOI60TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABOI60...DV316420 |DV316420.1 NABOI60T1O Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABOI60...DV298771 |DV298771.1 NABPS65TR Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABPS65...DV298769 |DV298769.1 NABPS65TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABPS65
Full Text Available chia ... endosymbiont strain TRS of Brugia malayi] ... Length = 74 ... Query: 12 DIEAKIKKIVLEHISKD...VEKFNNSSKLSEHGADSLDAVEIIMAAEEEFGIEIPDEDAQKM 71 ... DIEAKIKKIVLEHISKDVEKFNNS...SKLSEHGADSLDAVEIIMAAEEEFGIEIPDEDAQKM Sbjct: 1 ... DIEAKIKKIVLEHISKDVEKFNNSSKLSEHGADSLDAVEIIMAAEEEFGIEIPDEDAQKM 60 ...
Full Text Available 48 0.17 1 AY330618 |AY330618.1 Brugia malayi independent phosphoglycerate mutase isoform 2 (iPGM) mRNA...48 0.17 1 AY330617 |AY330617.1 Brugia malayi independent phosphoglycerate mutase isoform 1 (iPGM) mRNA
Full Text Available 48 0.25 1 AY330618 |AY330618.1 Brugia malayi independent phosphoglycerate mutase isoform 2 (iPGM) mRNA...48 0.25 1 AY330617 |AY330617.1 Brugia malayi independent phosphoglycerate mutase isoform 1 (iPGM) mRNA
Full Text Available DV363639 |DV363639.1 NACAR32TR Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NACAR32...DV363638 |DV363638.1 NACAR32TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NACAR32
Full Text Available DV363639 |DV363639.1 NACAR32TR Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NACAR32...DV363638 |DV363638.1 NACAR32TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NACAR32
Grobusch, M. P.; Kombila, M.; Autenrieth, I.; Mehlhorn, H.; Kremsner, P. G.
Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria from different filarial species, including major pathogens of humans such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus, seem to play an important role in the development, viability and fertility of these worms. Wolbachia trigger inflammatory host
Full Text Available NACNF91TOB Aedes aegypti infected with Plasmodium... 48 0.57 1 ( DV370383 ) NACMT23TO Aedes aegypti infected...NACA702TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mala... 48 0.57 1 ( DV359197 ) NACA876TR Aedes aegypti infected...NACA876TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mala... 48 0.57 1 ( DV348537 ) NABW894TR Aedes aegypti infected...NABW894TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mala... 48 0.57 1 ( DV321882 ) NABRI39TO Aedes aegypti infected...NABOI81TR Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mala... 48 0.57 1 ( DV316490 ) NABOI81TF Aedes aegypti infected
Full Text Available 1 DW189601 |DW189601.1 EST05871 Larval Stage 1 Aedes aegypti cDNA clone AEMR-LS1-006-D08-U.AB1 5', mRNA...DV299090 |DV299090.1 NABNN04TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABNN04...DV299012 |DV299012.1 NABNN04TRB Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABNN04
Full Text Available |DV396246.1 NADDZ32TR Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue virus Pool library Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NADDZ32...DV362177 |DV362177.1 NACAI42TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NACAI42...DV362149 |DV362149.1 NACAI42TR Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NACAI42...DV306367 |DV306367.1 NABMX90TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABMX90...|DV329097.1 NABTE46TF Aedes aegypti infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABTE46
Full Text Available NADVT17TR Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue viru... 46 0.25 1 ( DV400290 ) NADVT17TF Aedes aegypti infected...NABWS46TR Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mala... 46 0.25 1 ( DV346605 ) NABWS46TF Aedes aegypti infected...NABSE69TO Aedes aegypti infected with Plasmodium ... 46 0.25 1 ( DV316694 ) NABO578TRB Aedes aegypti infected...NABND07TRB Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mal... 46 0.25 1 ( DV301213 ) NABND07TF Aedes aegypti infected...NABNQ66TRB Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mal... 46 0.25 1 ( DV294243 ) NABNQ66TF Aedes aegypti infected
Full Text Available |DV406802.1 NADV458TR Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue virus Pool library Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NADV458...|DV406800.1 NADV458TF Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue virus Pool library Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NADV458...DV305807 |DV305807.1 NABMV02TRB Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABMV02...DV305761 |DV305761.1 NABMV01TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABMV01
Full Text Available 36 2.3 tr|A8P3K7|A8P3K7_BRUMA Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-lik... 35 3.... 92 FGGGGN 97 >tr|A8P3K7|A8P3K7_BRUMA Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-like protein OS=Brugia malayi GN
Abstract. Introduction: Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia Malayi is endemic in the tropics. In Nigeria, 25% of the population is infected. Lymph edema and elephantiasis are the predominant manifestations. Its infrequent manifestation is in the breast. This paper discusses the ...
Full Text Available ( AC229965 ) Choloepus hoffmanni clone CH281-86B11, WORKING DR... 48 1.2 1 ( AC22...nis familiaris STS g... 48 1.2 1 ( AJ508355 ) Brugia malayi ORF1, ORF2, ORF3 and ORF4 DNA and a... 48 1.2 1
Catherine B Poole
Full Text Available In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.
Christina A Bulman
Full Text Available Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC, and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode.
Morphological and molecular characteristics of Malayfilaria sofiani Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the common treeshrew Tupaia glis Diard & Duvaucel (Mammalia: Scandentia) in Peninsular Malaysia.
Uni, Shigehiko; Mat Udin, Ahmad Syihan; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Junker, Kerstin; Ramli, Rosli; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Sivanandam, Sinnadurai; Lefoulon, Emilie; Martin, Coralie; Belabut, Daicus Martin; Kasim, Saharul; Abdullah Halim, Muhammad Rasul; Zainuri, Nur Afiqah; Bhassu, Subha; Fukuda, Masako; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Harada, Masashi; Low, Van Lun; Chen, Chee Dhang; Suganuma, Narifumi; Hashim, Rosli; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Azirun, Mohd Sofian
The filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877), Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) and B. timori Partono, Purnomo, Dennis, Atmosoedjono, Oemijati & Cross, 1977 cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, while B. pahangi (Buckley & Edeson, 1956) infects carnivores and causes zoonotic diseases in humans in Malaysia. Wuchereria bancrofti, W. kalimantani Palmieri, Pulnomo, Dennis & Marwoto, 1980 and six out of ten Brugia spp. have been described from Australia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India. However, the origin and evolution of the species in the Wuchereria-Brugia clade remain unclear. While investigating the diversity of filarial parasites in Malaysia, we discovered an undescribed species in the common treeshrew Tupaia glis Diard & Duvaucel (Mammalia: Scandentia). We examined 81 common treeshrews from 14 areas in nine states and the Federal Territory of Peninsular Malaysia for filarial parasites. Once any filariae that were found had been isolated, we examined their morphological characteristics and determined the partial sequences of their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and 12S rRNA genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region were then cloned into the pGEM-T vector, and the recombinant plasmids were used as templates for sequencing. Malayfilaria sofiani Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka, n. g., n. sp. is described based on the morphological characteristics of adults and microfilariae found in common treeshrews from Jeram Pasu, Kelantan, Malaysia. The Kimura 2-parameter distance between the cox1 gene sequences of the new species and W. bancrofti was 11.8%. Based on the three gene sequences, the new species forms a monophyletic clade with W. bancrofti and Brugia spp. The adult parasites were found in tissues surrounding the lymph nodes of the neck of common treeshrews. The newly described species appears most closely related to Wuchereria spp. and Brugia spp., but differs from these in
Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.
Full Text Available DV318303 |DV318303.1 NABNX32TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABNX32...DV311931 |DV311931.1 NABOR34TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABOR34...DV288069 |DV288069.1 NAAHW80TF Aedes aegypti - Fat Bodies Normalized (NAFFB2) Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NAAHW80...DV284077 |DV284077.1 NAAG583TR Aedes aegypti - Fat Bodies Normalized (NAFFB2) Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NAAG583...DV284076 |DV284076.1 NAAG583TF Aedes aegypti - Fat Bodies Normalized (NAFFB2) Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NAAG583
Full Text Available |DV320266.1 NABRB33TF Aedes aegypti infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABRB33...|DV427212.1 NADX646TF Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue virus Pool library Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NADX646...DV314546 |DV314546.1 NABOO34TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABOO34...|DV396885.1 NADE310TR Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue virus Pool library Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NADE310...DV312022 |DV312022.1 NABOR89TRB Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Malayi Aedes aegypti cDNA clone NABOR89
genome.wus erm-like Brugia malayi merlin-like 316.m00022 http://www.tigr.or Schistosoma japonicum JF2 AAB49033 http://www.nhm.a Taenia saginata myosin-like...value of 100. Although the ERM-like proteins have been identified in Taenia saginata , Schistosoma japonicum, Echinococcus granu- losus, and...like proteins of parasites Taenia saginata , Echinococcus granulo- sus, and Echinococcus multilocularis contain an Arg76 resi- due, which is also a basic
Full Text Available NADZ896TR Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue viru... 44 2.5 1 ( DV409095 ) NADZ896TF Aedes aegypti infected...NADC836TR Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue viru... 44 2.5 1 ( DV385897 ) NADC836TF Aedes aegypti infected...Dengue viru... 44 2.5 1 ( DV362033 ) NACAH51TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mala... 44 2.5 1 (
Aljayyoussi, Ghaith; Tyrer, Hayley; Ford, Louise; Sjoberg, Hanna; Pionnier, Nicolas; Waterhouse, David; Davies, Jill; Gamble, Joanne; Metugene, Haelly; Cook, Darren A. N.; Steven, Andrew; Sharma, Raman; Guimaraes, Ana F.; Clare, Rachel H.; Cassidy, Andrew
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are priority neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination. The only safe drug treatment with substantial curative activity against the filarial nematodes responsible for LF (Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus) is doxycycline. The target of doxycycline is the essential endosymbiont, Wolbachia. Four to six weeks doxycycline therapy achieves >90% depletion of Wolbachia in worm tissues leading to blockad...
Full Text Available AMP1 v2 Brugia malayi cDNA 5' similar to TR:O01849 O01849 SIMILARITY TO RAT AND MOUSE SPERM OUTER DENSE FIBER...1849 O01849 SIMILARITY TO RAT AND MOUSE SPERM OUTER DENSE FIBER PROTEIN.  ;, m...milar to TR:O01849 O01849 SIMILARITY TO RAT AND MOUSE SPERM OUTER DENSE FIBER PROTEIN.  ;, mRNA sequence.... cDNA 5' similar to TR:O01849 O01849 SIMILARITY TO RAT AND MOUSE SPERM OUTER DENSE FIBER PROTEIN.  ;, mRN...lar to TR:O01849 O01849 SIMILARITY TO RAT AND MOUSE SPERM OUTER DENSE FIBER PROTE
Full Text Available NACNR17TO Aedes aegypti infected with Plasmodium ... 50 0.090 1 ( DV379215 ) NACNR17TF Aedes aegypti infected...NACMF65TO Aedes aegypti infected with Plasmodium ... 50 0.090 1 ( DV372545 ) NACMF65TF Aedes aegypti infected...NABWH09TF Aedes aegypti infected with Brugia Mala... 50 0.090 1 ( DV337309 ) NABUO92TO Aedes aegypti infected...NABV180TO Aedes aegypti infected with Plasmodium ... 50 0.090 1 ( DV335702 ) NABV180TF Aedes aegypti infected...NABSF38TF Aedes aegypti infected with Plasmodium ... 50 0.090 1 ( DV328204 ) NABR716TF Aedes aegypti infected
R. Irpan Pahlepi
Full Text Available AbstrakFilariasis atau penyakit kaki gajah adalah golongan penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh cacing filaria yang ditularkan melalui berbagai jenis nyamuk. Penyebaran filariasis hampir meliputi seluruh wilayah di Indonesia termasuk Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu (OKU Timur. Angka kesakitan filarisis di Kabupaten OKU Timur tahun 2007 sebesar 1,05%. Kegiatan pengobatan massal di Kabupaten OKU Timur belum pernah dilakukan sampai saat ini, sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat penyebaran penyakit filariasis. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survei dengan desain potong lintang. Pengambilan dan pemeriksaan sediaan darah jari dilakukan pada malam hari dimulai pukul 19.00 WIB. Jumlah penduduk yang diperiksa sebanyak 502. Hasil pemeriksaan diperoleh 4 orang positif mikrofilaria (Mf_ rate 0,8% dengan spesies Brugia malayi dan kepadatan rata-rata 200mf/ml. Seluruh kasus yang ditemukan merupakan kasus baru. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penularan filariasis masih terjadi di Kabupaten OKU Timur sehingga perlu adanya pengobatan massal untuk mencegah penularan lebih lanjut.Kata kunci : Filariasis, Brugia malayi, Survei darah jari, OKU TimurAbstractFilariasis or elephantiasis is an infectious diseases caused by filarial worms that transmitted by various species of mosquitoes. Filariasis distributions almost covers all districts in Indonesia including East Ogan Komering Ulu (OKU. Filarisais morbidity in East OKU regency in 2007 was 1.05 %. Mass treatment in the district of East OKU have not been done yet, so it is necessary to do a research that aim to determine the prevalen of filariasis. This study is a cross-sectional survey design. Collection and examination of finger’s blood was done at night starting at 19:00. Number of people examined were 502. Examination results obtained 4 positive microfilariae (Mf_ rate 0.8 % of Brugia malayi and the average density of 200
Sanpool, Oranuch; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Maleewong, Wanchai
Lymphatic filariasis is principally caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi. The other two filarial nematode species, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis, possibly cause human zoonotic diseases. We propose the development of a PCR assay linked with DNA pyrosequencing as a rapid tool to identify W. bancrofti, B. malayi, B. pahangi, and D. immitis in blood samples and mosquitoes. Primers targeting the fragment of the 5S ribosomal RNA and spliced leader sequences were newly designed and developed to identify these four filarial nematodes. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Pyrosequencing determination of nucleotide variations within 36 nucleotides for B. malayi and B. pahangi, and 32 nucleotides for W. bancrofti and D. immitis is sufficient for differentiation of those filarial nematodes, and for detection of intraspecies genetic variation of B. malayi. This analysis could detect a single B. malayi, B. pahangi, W. bancrofti, and D. immitis microfilaria in blood samples. Overall, the PCR-linked pyrosequencing-based method was faster than direct sequencing and less expensive than real-time PCR or direct sequencing. This is the possibility of choice that can be applied in a high-throughput platform for identification and surveillance of reservoirs and vectors infected with lymphatic filaria in endemic areas.
E. E. Stafford
Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.
Full Text Available In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool is employed. In the present communication, we report the detection of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of W. bancrofti parasites collected from geographically distant locations of India, such as Pondicherry (Union Territory, Calicut (Kerala, Jagadalpur (Madhya Pradesh, Thirukoilur (TamilNadu, Chinnanergunam (TamilNadu, Rajahmundry (Andhra Pradesh, and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, using Wolbachia specific 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction.
Full Text Available Beberapa daerah di Propinsi Jambi akan dikembangkan menjadi daerah transmigrasi, satu di antaranya adalah daerah Kumpeh yang terletak berdekatan dengan daerah endemik filariasis malayi. Desa yang paling dekat dengan lokasi transmigrasi tersebut adalah desa Puding. Penelitian pendahuluan tentang penyakit filariasis telah dikerjakan di desa Puding untuk mengetahui tingkat endemisitas, periodisitas B. malayi, fauna nyamuk, jenis nyamuk yang potensial menjadi vektor filariasis, hospes reservoir dan keadaan sosial-ekonomi-budaya penduduk setempat. Mf rate pada penduduk desa Puding adalah 18,7% dan dari B. malayi jenis subperiodiknokturna. Nyamuk yang tertangkap terdiri dari enam genera yaitu genus Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Coquilletidia, Mansonia dan Tripteroides. Dari enam genera tersebut yang potensial untuk menjadi vektor filariasis adalah genus Mansonia dan ini didukung dengan diketemukannyd larva stadium L3 (infektif Brugia sp di tubuh nyamuk tersebut. Keadaan sosial-ekonomi-budaya, khususnya menyangkut adat istiadat dan kebiasaan penduduk setempat, telah dipelajari.
Full Text Available YMU001_000012_G09 402 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000012_G09. BP9...12078 CL2513Contig1 Show BP912078 Clone id YMU001_000012_G09 Library YMU01 Length 402 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000012_G09. Accession BP912078 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...LAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9...ein DDB_G0280... 30 3.7 sp|P90689|ACT_BRUMA Actin OS=Brugia malayi PE=1 SV=1 30 4.9 sp|Q7MG94|MALT_VIBVY HTH
Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A
Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.
Marcellino, Chris; Gut, Jiri; Lim, K C; Singh, Rahul; McKerrow, James; Sakanari, Judy
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage) of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.
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Full Text Available Abstract Filariasis endemicity research in District Pemayung, Batanghari Regency Post-Mass Drug Administration Phase III has been implemented. The study aims to determine the prevalence of filariasis, microfilaria worm species, the periodicity, reservoir determination and evaluate the results of mass treatment activities that have been 3 times. The number of people who checked their blood preparation for the examination as many as 538. Blood sampling for the periodicity of the parasite examinations performed on 4 persons, each carried out blood sampling every 2 hours for 24 hours. People microfilariae with microfilariae positive number as many as 8 people to rate microfilariae (Mf rate 1.5%.. The highest parasite density of 17.493 per 20 cu mm of blood occurred at 1:00 am and decresing to 0,415 per 20 cu mm of blood at 07.00 am. The parasite was found in sub periodic nokturna 3 subjects and 1 subject was found only be found in the morning and afternoon. The results of examination of 12 cats and two monkeys were found two positive cats with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Cats that were examined and the positive was one house cat and one stray cat. The conclusion from this study showed that filariasis was still endemic with periodicity of microfilariae was sub periodic nokturna and was zoonotic. Recommendations of this study was that mass treatment was done by giving the drug directly and took medicine in front of the officers, examination and treatment of microfilariae positive cats. Key words: microfilariae rate, periodicity, Brugia malayi, reservoir. Abstrak Submit : 28-03-2012 Review : 04-04-2012 Review : 11-06-2012 revisi : 29–08-2012Penelitian untuk menentukan tingkat endemisitas filariasis di wilayah Kecamatan Pemayung, Kabupaten Batanghari Pasca Pengobatan Massal Tahap III telah dilaksanakan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi filariasis, mengetahui spesies cacing mikrofilaria, periodisitas mikrofilaria dan pemeriksaan
Liu, C T; Hou, R F; Chen, C C
The encapsulation of microfilariae in the haemocoels of mosquitoes combines both humoral and cellular reactions: the microfilariae are first encased in an acellular layer of melanin, followed by a cellular encapsulation by plasmatocytes. In this study, we demonstrated that cellular encapsulation of Brugia pahangi microfilariae in the haemocoel of the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus was terminated by the formation of a basement membrane-like structure on the outermost surface of the cellular capsule. This structure occurred in the early stage of cellular encapsulation and was evident on the exterior surface of the plasmatocyte, when the active haemocytes were attaching to the already melanized microfilariae. The termination structure appears to be laid down by releasing the vesicle inclusions of haemocytes and has similarities in ultrastructure and cationic colloidal gold staining properties with that of mosquito basement membranes.
Full Text Available dites Sch... 54 6e-07 2 ( FF740063 ) XABT52113.fwd Gateway compatible cien cDNA l...ibrar... 50 6e-07 2 ( DN295094 ) PL03018B2H02 cDNA from sexually mature hermaphodi... 54 6e-07 2 ( FF778302 ) XABT78423.fwd Gateway...n of useful proteins deri... 48 1e-04 3 ( FF740070 ) XABT52118.fwd Gateway compatible cien cDNA librar... 42... 1e-04 2 ( FK194466 ) XABT207464.b1 Gateway compatible cien cDNA librar... 42 1e-04 2 ( DY583009 ) B028-G8 A...ected with Brugia Mala... 44 5e-04 2 ( FF755607 ) XABT62666.fwd Gateway compatible cien cDNA librar... 42 5e
Full Text Available YMU001_000026_G09 514 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000026_G09. BP91313...0 CL4114Contig1 Show BP913130 Clone id YMU001_000026_G09 Library YMU01 Length 514 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000026_G09. Accession BP913130 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP91313...t_id A8QDS6 Definition tr|A8QDS6|A8QDS6_BRUMA Peptidase C13 family protein OS=Brugia malayi Align length 84
Chu, Brian K.; Deming, Michael; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Bougma, Windtaré R.; Dorkenoo, Améyo M.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Fischer, Peter U.; Gass, Katherine; Gonzalez de Peña, Manuel; Mercado-Hernandez, Leda; Kyelem, Dominique; Lammie, Patrick J.; Flueckiger, Rebecca M.; Mwingira, Upendo J.; Noordin, Rahmah; Offei Owusu, Irene; Ottesen, Eric A.; Pavluck, Alexandre; Pilotte, Nils; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Samarasekera, Dilhani; Schmaedick, Mark A.; Settinayake, Sunil; Simonsen, Paul E.; Supali, Taniawati; Taleo, Fasihah; Torres, Melissa; Weil, Gary J.; Won, Kimberly Y.
Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained even in the absence of drug intervention. Guidelines advanced by WHO call for a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine if MDA can be stopped within an LF evaluation unit (EU) after at least five effective rounds of annual treatment. To test the value and practicality of these guidelines, a multicenter operational research trial was undertaken in 11 countries covering various geographic and epidemiological settings. Methodology The TAS was conducted twice in each EU with TAS-1 and TAS-2 approximately 24 months apart. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) formed the basis of the TAS survey design but specific EU characteristics defined the survey site (school or community), eligible population (6–7 year olds or 1st–2nd graders), survey type (systematic or cluster-sampling), target sample size, and critical cutoff (a statistically powered threshold below which transmission is expected to be no longer sustainable). The primary diagnostic tools were the immunochromatographic (ICT) test for W. bancrofti EUs and the BmR1 test (Brugia Rapid or PanLF) for Brugia spp. EUs. Principal Findings/Conclusions In 10 of 11 EUs, the number of TAS-1 positive cases was below the critical cutoff, indicating that MDA could be stopped. The same results were found in the follow-up TAS-2, therefore, confirming the previous decision outcome. Sample sizes were highly sex and age-representative and closely matched the target value after factoring in estimates of non-participation. The TAS was determined to be a practical and effective evaluation tool for stopping MDA although its validity for longer-term post-MDA surveillance
Matthew T Aliota
Full Text Available Armigeres subalbatus is a natural vector of the filarial worm Brugia pahangi, but it kills Brugia malayi microfilariae by melanotic encapsulation. Because B. malayi and B. pahangi are morphologically and biologically similar, comparing Ar. subalbatus-B. pahangi susceptibility and Ar. subalbatus-B. malayi refractoriness could provide significant insight into recognition mechanisms required to mount an effective anti-filarial worm immune response in the mosquito, as well as provide considerable detail into the molecular components involved in vector competence. Previously, we assessed the transcriptional response of Ar. subalbatus to B. malayi, and now we report transcriptome profiling studies of Ar. subalbatus in relation to filarial worm infection to provide information on the molecular components involved in B. pahangi susceptibility.Utilizing microarrays, comparisons were made between mosquitoes exposed to B. pahangi, B. malayi, and uninfected bloodmeals. The time course chosen facilitated an examination of key events in the development of the parasite, beginning with the very start of filarial worm infection and spanning to well after parasites had developed to the infective stage in the mosquito. At 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h post infection and 2-3, 5-6, 8-9, and 13-14 days post challenge there were 31, 75, 113, 76, 54, 5, 3, 13, and 2 detectable transcripts, respectively, with significant differences in transcript abundance (increase or decrease as a result of parasite development.Herein, we demonstrate that filarial worm susceptibility in a laboratory strain of the natural vector Ar. subalbatus involves many factors of both known and unknown function that most likely are associated with filarial worm penetration through the midgut, invasion into thoracic muscle cells, and maintenance of homeostasis in the hemolymph environment. The data show that there are distinct and separate transcriptional patterns associated with filarial worm susceptibility
Full Text Available Os resultados obtidos com o uso de esquemas terapêuticos simples, como dose única anual ou bianual de Ivermectina (IV, Dietilcarbamazina (DEC sozinhas ou combinadas, têm sido surpreendentemente promissores na redução da infecção linfática causada pela Wuchereria bancrofti e Brugia malayi. Assim, perspectivas existem de eliminar a doença dos países endêmicos, se programas de controle forem empregados usando-se o tratamento em massa, complementado ou não pelo controle do vetor. Uma breve revisão é feita sobre cada droga em relação à eficácia e às reações adversas causadas pela morte dos diversos estágios do parasita no homem infectado.The recent demonstration that single-dose ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, or a combination of these drugs can profoundly suppress Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi microfilaremia for periods of six months to two years has led to renewed hope that transmission can be interrupted and lymphatic filariasis eradicated. Based in part on the availability of these new chemotherapeutic tools, the International Task Force for Disease Eradication recently identified lymphatic filariasis as one of the few diseases that could potentially be eradicated. Thus, control programs based on mass treatment (whether supplemented or not by vector control have begun to be implemented in some endemic areas. We provide a brief review of available anti-filarial drugs for use in humans, including their tolerance and efficacy.
Sara M Erickson
Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.
Matthew T Aliota
Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an
Yazdanbakhsh, M; Paxton, W A; Brandenburg, A; Van Ree, R; Lens, M; Partono, F; Maizels, R M; Selkirk, M E
Lymphatic filarial infection in humans is associated with a strong skewing of the immune response towards the TH2 arm, with prominent interleukin 4-producing cells and elevated levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgE antibodies in peripheral blood. To determine how such a generalized TH2 imbalance governs responses to individual parasite antigens, the profiles of isotypes of antibodies to two recombinant proteins of Brugia spp. were studied. One molecule was the C-terminal portion of the filarial heat shock protein 70 (Bpa-26), representative of a cytoplasmic protein, and the second antigen was a single unit of the tandem repeats of a Brugia polypeptide (BpL-4), a secreted product which is prominently exposed to the immune system. Serum samples from 146 individuals resident in areas in which brugian filariasis is endemic were used, and it was found that whereas the levels of IgG1 and IgG3 responses to both Bpa-26 and BpL-4 were high, IgG4 and IgE antibodies to only BpL-4, not to Bpa-26, were prominent. Thus, an antigen which is chronically exposed to the immune system elicited a TH2-dependent isotype switch, as manifested by increased IgG4 and IgE responses. Moreover, IgG4 and IgE responses to BpL-4 showed a strong negative association, suggesting that mediators other than interleukin 4 must be responsible for such differential regulation of these two isotypes. When the data were analyzed as a function of clinical status, a striking association between elevated levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 and manifestation of chronic obstructive disease was found; elephantiasis patients showed significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 than microfilaremics and asymptomatic amicrofilaremics. This indicates that an imbalance of isotypes of antibodies to particular filarial antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic disease. PMID:7558279
Full Text Available Filariasis merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat terutama di Indonesia Timur antara lain di Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya (SBD. Untuk mengeliminasi filariasis, WHO membuat program PemberianObat Pencegahan Masal (POPM dengan dietilkarbamazin sitrat dan albendazol setiap tahun selama 5tahun berturut-turut. Untuk mengetahui keberhasilan POPM, perlu dilakukan evaluasi cakupan POPM setiaptahun. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui cakupan POPM di SBD pada tahun 2012-2013. Penelitanini menggunakan data POPM Dinas Kesehatan SBD pada tahun 2012 dan 2013. Cakupan POPM filariasisdihitung berdasarkan jumlah penduduk minum obat dibagi penduduk total dan jumlah penduduk sasaran.Target cakupan pengobatan penduduk sasaran adalah >85% dan dari penduduk total adalah > 65%. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan cakupan POPM filariasis berdasarkan penduduk total pada tahun 2012 adalah 1,96%dan tahun 2013 sebesar 1,13%. Cakupan POPM filariasis berdasarkan penduduk sasaran pada tahun 2012adalah 2,51% dan tahun 2013 adalah 1,35%. Disimpulkan bahwa cakupan POPM filariasis berdasarkanpenduduk sasaran dan penduduk total di SBD sangat rendah dan cakupan tahun 2013 lebih rendahdibandingkan tahun 2012. Kata kunci: W. bancrofti, B.malayi, B.timori, pemberian obat masal pencegahan, Sumba Barat Daya Coverage of Mass Drugs Administration (MDA for Filariasis inSouth West Sumba on 2012-2013 AbstractFilariasis is a disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. It is transmitted by mosquitos. It cause defect in patient’s physical condition, decrease social life, and increase health spending.WHO concepts a program to eliminate filariasis by Massal Drugs Administration (MDA of filariasis. It hasto be evaluated each year in five years by counting the coverage of MDA of filariasis in total population andtargeted population. This research used secondary data from Dinas Kesehatan in SBD to know the coverageof MDA of filariasis in SBD on 2012-2013. The coverage
Nazeh M. Al-Abd
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic infection that causes a devastating public health and socioeconomic burden with an estimated infection of over 120 million individuals worldwide. The infection is caused by three closely related nematode parasites, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, which are transmitted to human through mosquitoes of Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes genera. The species have many ecological variants and are diversified in terms of their genetic fingerprint. The rapid spread of the disease and the genetic diversification cause the lymphatic filarial parasites to respond differently to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This in turn prompts the current challenge encountered in its management. Furthermore, most of the chemical medications used are characterized by adverse side effects. These complications urgently warrant intense prospecting on bio-chemicals that have potent efficacy against either the filarial worms or thier vector. In lieu of this, we presented a review on recent literature that reported the efficacy of filaricidal biochemicals and those employed as vector control agents. In addition, methods used for biochemical extraction, screening procedures, and structure of the bioactive compounds were also presented.
The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait. © 2014 Juneja et al.
Lagatie, Ole; Merino, Michelle; Batsa Debrah, Linda; Debrah, Alexander Y; Stuyver, Lieven J
Diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of infection with the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus are currently based on the microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin biopsies. Alternative approaches based on amplification of parasitic DNA in these skin biopsies are currently being explored. Mostly this is based on the detection of the O-150 repeat sequence using PCR based techniques. An isothermal, loop-mediated amplification method has been designed using the mitochondrial O. volvulus cox1 gene as a target. Analysis of dilution series of synthetic DNA containing the targeted sequence show a non-linear dose-response curve, as is usually the case for isothermal amplification methods. Evaluation of cross-reactivity with the heterologous sequence from the closely related parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Loa loa and Brugia malayi demonstrated strong specificity, as none of these sequences was amplified. The assay however amplified both O. volvulus and O. ochengi DNA, but with a different melting point that can be used to discriminate between the species. Evaluation of this assay in a set of skin snip biopsies collected in an endemic area in Ghana showed a high correlation with O-150 qPCR and also demonstrated a similar sensitivity. Compared to qPCR, LAMP had a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 99.2%. We have developed a sensitive and specific loop-mediated amplification method for detection of O. volvulus DNA in skin biopsies that is capable of providing results within 30 min.
Erttmann, Klaus D; Büttner, Dietrich W
Paramyosin is a muscular protein exclusively found in invertebrate species, which has been proposed as a vaccine candidate against infections with Schistosoma mansoni and Brugia malayi. Here, we report the studies on the distribution of Onchocerca volvulus paramyosin, designated OvPmy, in different O. volvulus stages by immunohistochemistry using rabbit antibodies raised against the recombinant OvPmy protein as well as the induction of the human humoral immune response to OvPmy. To conduct the studies, OvPmy was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein to raise the rabbit antibodies. The recombinant OvPmy was tested in immunoblots using sera from individuals living in an area hyperendemic for onchocerciasis in Liberia, West Africa. The antibodies used here localised paramyosin exclusively in the muscle tissue of O. volvulus as well as Onchocerca ochengi. No extracellular compartments, such as the cuticle or the lumina of the pseudocoeloma cavity, were labelled; however, labelling was seen in microfilarial fragments taken up by host immune cells, such as giant cells. It was recognised by anti-paramyosin antibodies of a group of onchocerciasis patients.
Korten, Simone; Büttner, Dietrich W; Schmetz, Christel; Hoerauf, Achim; Mand, Sabine; Brattig, Norbert
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a highly conserved cytokine that has a well-known regulatory role in immunity, but also in organ development of most animal species including helminths. Homologous tgf-b genes and mRNA have been detected in the filaria Brugia malayi. The in situ protein expression is unknown for filariae. Therefore, we examined several filariae for the expression and localization of latent (stable) TGF-beta in adult and larval stages. A specific goat anti-human latency associated protein (LAP, TGF-beta 1) antibody, purified by affinity chromatography, was used for light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. Adult Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca gibsoni, Onchocerca ochengi, Onchocerca armillata, Onchocerca fasciata, Onchocerca flexuosa, Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria sp., B. malayi, and infective larvae of W. bancrofti reacted with the antibody. Labeling of worm tissues varied between negative and all degrees of positive reactions. Latent TGF-beta was strongly expressed adjacent to the cell membranes of the hypodermis, epithelia, and muscles and adjacent to many nuclei in all organs. TGF-beta was well expressed in worms without Wolbachia endobacteria eliminated by doxycycline treatment. Pleomorphic neoplasms in O. volvulus were also labeled. We conclude that latent TGF-beta protein is expressed by filariae independently of Wolbachia, possibly regulating worm tissue homeostasis.
Sharma, Raman; Jayoussi, Ghaith Al; Tyrer, Hayley E.; Gamble, Joanne; Hayward, Laura; Guimaraes, Ana F.; Davies, Jill; Waterhouse, David; Cook, Darren A. N.; Myhill, Laura J.; Clare, Rachel H.; Cassidy, Andrew; Steven, Andrew; Johnston, Kelly L.; Ford, Louise; Turner, Joseph D.; Ward, Stephen A.; Taylor, Mark J.
Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are parasitic helminth diseases, which cause severe morbidities such as elephantiasis, skin disease and blindness, presenting a major public health burden in endemic communities. The anti-Wolbachia consortium (A·WOL: http://www.a-wol.com/) has identified a number of registered antibiotics that target the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia, delivering macrofilaricidal activity. Here we use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis to rationally develop an anti-Wolbachia chemotherapy by linking drug exposure to pharmacological effect. We compare the pharmacokinetics and anti-Wolbachia efficacy in a murine Brugia malayi model of minocycline versus doxycycline. Doxycycline exhibits superior PK in comparison to minocycline resulting in a 3-fold greater exposure in SCID mice. Monte-Carlo simulations confirmed that a bi-daily 25–40 mg/Kg regimen is bioequivalent to a clinically effective 100–200 mg/day dose for these tetracyclines. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that minocycline depletes Wolbachia more effectively than doxycycline (99.51% vs. 90.35%) after 28 day 25 mg/Kg bid regimens with a more potent block in microfilarial production. PK/PD analysis predicts that minocycline would be expected to be 1.7 fold more effective than doxycycline in man despite lower exposure in our infection models. Our findings warrant onward clinical investigations to examine the clinical efficacy of minocycline treatment regimens against lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. PMID:26996237
Qian, Wenfeng; Zhang, Jianzhi
Operons are widespread in prokaryotes, but are uncommon in eukaryotes, except nematode worms, where approximately 15% of genes reside in over 1100 operons in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. It is unclear how operons have become abundant in nematode genomes. The "one-way street" hypothesis asserts that once formed by chance, operons are very difficult to break, because the breakage would leave downstream genes in an operon without a promoter, and hence, unexpressed. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the presence and absence of C. elegans operons in Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis remanei, and Caenorhabditis brenneri, using Pristionchus pacificus and Brugia malayi as outgroups, and identified numerous operon gains and losses. Coupled with experimental examination of trans-splicing patterns, our comparative genomic analysis revealed diverse molecular mechanisms of operon losses, including inversion, insertion, and relocation, but the presence of internal promoters was not found to facilitate operon losses. In several cases, the data allowed inference of mechanisms by which downstream genes are expressed after operon breakage. We found that the rate of operon gain is approximately 3.3 times that of operon loss. Thus, the evolutionary dynamics of nematode operons is better described as "easy come, slow go," rather than a "one-way street." Based on a mathematic model of operon gains and losses and additional assumptions, we projected that the number of operons in C. elegans will continue to rise by 6%-18% in future evolution before reaching equilibrium between operon gains and losses.
Full Text Available Abstract The majority of filarial nematodes harbour Wolbachia endobacteria, including the major pathogenic species in humans, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. These obligate endosymbionts have never been demonstrated unequivocally in any non-filariid nematode. However, a recent report described the detection by PCR of Wolbachia in the metastrongylid nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm, a leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. To address the intriguing possibility of Wolbachia infection in nematode species distinct from the Family Onchocercidae, we used both PCR and immunohistochemistry to screen samples of A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis for the presence of this endosymbiont. We were unable to detect Wolbachia in either species using these methodologies. In addition, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses of the Wolbachia gene sequences reported previously from A. cantonensis indicate that they most likely result from contamination with DNA from arthropods and filarial nematodes. This study demonstrates the need for caution in relying solely on PCR for identification of new endosymbiont strains from invertebrate DNA samples.
Omar, Noorsharmimi; Hamidon, Nurul Hamizah; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Noordin, Rahmah; Choong, Yee Siew; Lim, Theam Soon
Phage display has been applied successfully as a tool for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Naive antibody libraries are unique as they are able to overcome several limitations associated with conventional mAb generation methods like the hybridoma technology. Here, we performed an in vitro selection and generation of Fab antibodies against Brugia malayi SXP protein (BmSXP), a recombinant antigen for the detection of lymphatic filariasis. We developed a naïve multi ethnic Fab antibody library with an estimated diversity of 2.99 × 10 9 . The antibody library was used to screen for mAbs against BmSXP recombinant antigen. Soluble monoclonal Fab antibodies against BmSXP were successfully isolated from the naïve library. The Fab antibodies obtained were expressed and analyzed to show its binding capability. The diversity obtained from a pool of donors from various ethnic groups allowed for a diverse antibody library to be generated. The mAbs obtained were also functional in soluble form, which makes it useful for further downstream applications. We believe that the Fab mAbs are valuable for further studies and could also contribute to improvements in the diagnosis of filariasis. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Kacy L Gordon
Full Text Available Gene regulatory information guides development and shapes the course of evolution. To test conservation of gene regulation within the phylum Nematoda, we compared the functions of putative cis-regulatory sequences of four sets of orthologs (unc-47, unc-25, mec-3 and elt-2 from distantly-related nematode species. These species, Caenorhabditis elegans, its congeneric C. briggsae, and three parasitic species Meloidogyne hapla, Brugia malayi, and Trichinella spiralis, represent four of the five major clades in the phylum Nematoda. Despite the great phylogenetic distances sampled and the extensive sequence divergence of nematode genomes, all but one of the regulatory elements we tested are able to drive at least a subset of the expected gene expression patterns. We show that functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements have no more extended sequence similarity to their C. elegans orthologs than would be expected by chance, but they do harbor motifs that are important for proper expression of the C. elegans genes. These motifs are too short to be distinguished from the background level of sequence similarity, and while identical in sequence they are not conserved in orientation or position. Functional tests reveal that some of these motifs contribute to proper expression. Our results suggest that conserved regulatory circuitry can persist despite considerable turnover within cis elements.
Full Text Available During metamorphosis of the insect brain, the optic lobe anlagen generate the proliferation centers for the visual cortices. We show here that, in the moth Manduca sexta, an 80 kDa Golgi complex protein (Ms-golgin80 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the optic lobe anlagen and proliferation centers. The predicted amino acid sequence for Ms-golgin80 is similar to that of several members of the GM130 subfamily of Golgi-associated proteins, including rat GM130 and human golgin-95. Homologs of Ms-golgin80 from Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Brugia malayi were identified through homology sequence search. Sequence similarities are present in three regions: the N-terminus, an internal domain of 89 amino acids, and another domain of 89 amino acids near the C-terminus. Structural similarities further suggest that these molecules play the same cellular role as GM130. GM130 is involved in the docking and fusion of coatomer (COP I coated vesicles to the Golgi membranes; it also regulates the fragmentation and subsequent reassembly of the Golgi complex during mitosis. Abundant expression of Ms-golgin80 in neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells and its reduced expression in the neuronal progeny of these cells suggest that this protein may be involved in the maintenance of the proliferative state.
Guiliano, David B; Blaxter, Mark L
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique among model animals in that many of its genes are cotranscribed as polycistronic pre-mRNAs from operons. The mechanism by which these operonic transcripts are resolved into mature mRNAs includes trans-splicing to a family of SL2-like spliced leader exons. SL2-like spliced leaders are distinct from SL1, the major spliced leader in C. elegans and other nematode species. We surveyed five additional nematode species, representing three of the five major clades of the phylum Nematoda, for the presence of operons and the use of trans-spliced leaders in resolution of polycistronic pre-mRNAs. Conserved operons were found in Pristionchus pacificus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum. In nematodes closely related to the rhabditine C. elegans, a related family of SL2-like spliced leaders is used for operonic transcript resolution. However, in the tylenchine S. ratti operonic transcripts are resolved using a family of spliced leaders related to SL1. Non-operonic genes in S. ratti may also receive these SL1 variants. In the spirurine nematodes B. malayi and A. suum operonic transcripts are resolved using SL1. Mapping these phenotypes onto the robust molecular phylogeny for the Nematoda suggests that operons evolved before SL2-like spliced leaders, which are an evolutionary invention of the rhabditine lineage.
David B Guiliano
Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique among model animals in that many of its genes are cotranscribed as polycistronic pre-mRNAs from operons. The mechanism by which these operonic transcripts are resolved into mature mRNAs includes trans-splicing to a family of SL2-like spliced leader exons. SL2-like spliced leaders are distinct from SL1, the major spliced leader in C. elegans and other nematode species. We surveyed five additional nematode species, representing three of the five major clades of the phylum Nematoda, for the presence of operons and the use of trans-spliced leaders in resolution of polycistronic pre-mRNAs. Conserved operons were found in Pristionchus pacificus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum. In nematodes closely related to the rhabditine C. elegans, a related family of SL2-like spliced leaders is used for operonic transcript resolution. However, in the tylenchine S. ratti operonic transcripts are resolved using a family of spliced leaders related to SL1. Non-operonic genes in S. ratti may also receive these SL1 variants. In the spirurine nematodes B. malayi and A. suum operonic transcripts are resolved using SL1. Mapping these phenotypes onto the robust molecular phylogeny for the Nematoda suggests that operons evolved before SL2-like spliced leaders, which are an evolutionary invention of the rhabditine lineage.
Pedamallu Chandra Sekhar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are crucially important for cellular processes. Knowledge of these interactions improves the understanding of cell cycle, metabolism, signaling, transport, and secretion. Information about interactions can hint at molecular causes of diseases, and can provide clues for new therapeutic approaches. Several (usually expensive and time consuming experimental methods can probe protein - protein interactions. Data sets, derived from such experiments make the development of prediction methods feasible, and make the creation of protein-protein interaction network predicting tools possible. Methods Here we report the development of a simple open source program module (OpenPPI_predictor that can generate a putative protein-protein interaction network for target genomes. This tool uses the orthologous interactome network data from a related, experimentally studied organism. Results Results from our predictions can be visualized using the Cytoscape visualization software, and can be piped to downstream processing algorithms. We have employed our program to predict protein-protein interaction network for the human parasite roundworm Brugia malayi, using interactome data from the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Availability The OpenPPI_predictor source code is available from http://tools.neb.com/~posfai/.
Full Text Available Filariasis atau kaki gajah adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan karena infeksi cacing filaria yang hidup disaluran dan kelenjar getah bening (limfe serta menyebabkan gejala akut, kronis. Filariasis mulai dikenal di Indonesia tahun 1889 sejak Haga dan Van Eecke menemukan kasus pembesaran scrotum di Jakarta. Penyakit tersebut dapat menular kepada orang lain dengan perantara gigitan nyamuk. Seluruh wilayah Indonesia berpotensi untuk terjangkitnya penyakit tersebut, hal ini mengingat cacing sebagai penyebabnya dan nyamuk penularnya tersebar luas. Keadaan ini didukung oleh kerusakan lingkungan, seperti banjir, penebangan hutan dan lainnya yang memperluas tempat berkembangbiaknya nyamuk. Meskipun filariasis tidak mematikan secara langsung, dengan adanya demam dan bisul-bisul (abses yang hilang timbul, dan gejala menahun berupa pembesaran/elefantiasis yang merupakan cacat menetap akan sangat mengganggu. Secara ekonomis keadaan tersebut sangat merugikan, karena mengurangi produktivitas masyarakat, serta diperlukan biaya pengobatan dan perawatan yang tidak mudah dan tidak murah.Di Indonesia filariasis limfatik di sebabkan oleh tiga spesies cacing filaria yaitu Brugia malayi,B.timori dan Wuchereria bancrofti, yang terbagi lagi menjadi 6 tipe secara epidemiologi.Tiap parasit mempunyai siklus hidup yang kompleks dan infeksi pada manusia tidak akan berhasil kecuali jika terjadi pemaparan larva infektif untuk waktu yang lama. Setelah terjadi pemaparan, dibutuhkan waktu bertahun-tahun sebelum timbulnya perubahan patologis yang nyata pada manusia. Periodisitas dalam sirkulasi setiap mikrofilaria akan berbeda, tergantung dari spesiesnya.
Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329
Jones, Robert T
Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a major tropical disease caused by mosquito born nematodes Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. Vaccine against filariasis must generate immunity to infective mosquito derived L3 stage. Two highly expressed genes designated abundant larval transcript-1 and -2 (alt-1 and alt-2. ALT-1 and ALT-2 represent closely related protein (79% it. Now, expression of this alt gene in E. coli BL21plysS for the production of vaccine is major challenge as no vaccine is available against this disease. Work was carried out to express this protein at laboratory scale bioreactor. At first optimization of different parameter like suitability of media, inducer concentration, induction time was done for getting maximum amount of recombinant protein. In shake flask studies, after induction (max cell density and max specific growth rate stage good expression of ALT-2 protein was found. However, at laboratory scale production done in bioreactor, expression level drastically decreased. Plasmid stability analysis was done in reactor and was found to be cause for decreased productivity. The stability was improved by increasing antibiotic concentration in the medium and also by pulsing antibiotic during induction. This led to better plasmid stability and increased expression levels in reactor similar to expression levels in shake flask studies.
Paul J Brindley
Full Text Available More than two billion people (one-third of humanity are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings.
Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Ghedin, Elodie; Lustigman, Sara
More than two billion people (one-third of humanity) are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings. PMID:19855829
Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P
Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of proteins released from filariae is an important step in addressing many of the needs in the diagnosis and treatment of these clinically important parasites, as well as contributing to a clearer understanding of their biology. This report describes findings on the proteins released during in vitro cultivation of adult Dirofilaria immitis , the causative agent of canine and feline heartworm disease. Differences in protein secretion among nematodes in vivo may relate to the ecological niche of each parasite and the pathological changes that they induce. Methods The proteins in the secretions of cultured adult worms were run on Tris-Glycine gels, bands separated and peptides from each band analysed by ultra mass spectrometry and compared with a FastA dataset of predicted tryptic peptides derived from a genome sequence of D. immitis. Results This study identified 110 proteins. Of these proteins, 52 were unique to D. immitis . A total of 23 (44% were recognized as proteins likely to be secreted. Although these proteins were unique, the motifs were conserved compared with proteins secreted by other nematodes. Conclusion The present data indicate that D. immitis secretes proteins that are unique to this species, when compared with Brugia malayi. The two major functional groups of molecules represented were those representing cellular and of metabolic processes. Unique proteins might be important for maintaining an infection in the host environment, intimately involved in the pathogenesis of disease and may also provide new tools for the diagnosis of heartworm infection.
Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait.
Hormaeche, Marta; Carretón, Elena; González-Miguel, Javier; Gussoni, Stefania; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Simón, Fernando; Morchón, Rodrigo
Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis habitually develops as a chronic disease affecting pulmonary arteries, lung parenchyma and heart. Other organs like kidneys can also be involved. Renal pathology is a consequence of glomerulonephritis whose main sign is proteinuria. The aim of the present work is to identify proteins excreted in the urine of D. immitis infected dogs showing proteinuria, and the possible contribution of their loss to heartworm disease. Proteinuria is higher in microfilaremic (mf+) than in amicrofilaremic (mf-) dogs. Using bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry 9 different proteins from Canis lupus familiaris in the urine of both mf- and mf+ dogs were identified (serotransferrin isoform 6, serum albumin precursor, albumin, immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain D, apolipoprotein A-I, immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5-like, arginine esterase precursor, inmunoglobulin gamma heavy chain B and hemoglobin subunit alpha). Furthermore, 3 additional proteins were identified only in the urine of mf+ dogs, corresponding to dog fibrinogen alpha chain and immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain A and actin 2 homologous to a protein of Brugia malayi. The loss of these proteins and other in the urine of D. immitis infected dogs could affect the general condition of parasitized dogs through the interference in the cholesterol metabolism and O₂ transport, among other mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, which also infects a wide range of wild mammals and humans. The complex life cycle of D. immitis with several developmental stages in its invertebrate mosquito vectors and its vertebrate hosts indicates the importance of miRNA in growth and development, and their ability to regulate infection of mammalian hosts. This study identified the miRNA profiles of D. immitis of zoonotic significance by deep sequencing. A total of 1063 conserved miRNA candidates, including 68 anti-sense miRNA (miRNA*) sequences, were predicted by computational methods and could be grouped into 808 miRNA families. A significant bias towards family members, family abundance and sequence nucleotides was observed. Thirteen novel miRNA candidates were predicted by alignment with the Brugia malayi genome. Eleven out of 13 predicted miRNA candidates were verified by using a PCR-based method. Target genes of the novel miRNA candidates were predicted by using the heartworm transcriptome dataset. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in D. immitis, which will contribute to a better understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic filarial nematode and the molecular regulation roles of miRNA involved. Our findings may also become a useful resource for small RNA studies in other filarial parasitic nematodes. PMID:23331513
Background The characterization of proteins released from filariae is an important step in addressing many of the needs in the diagnosis and treatment of these clinically important parasites, as well as contributing to a clearer understanding of their biology. This report describes findings on the proteins released during in vitro cultivation of adult Dirofilaria immitis , the causative agent of canine and feline heartworm disease. Differences in protein secretion among nematodes in vivo may relate to the ecological niche of each parasite and the pathological changes that they induce. Methods The proteins in the secretions of cultured adult worms were run on Tris-Glycine gels, bands separated and peptides from each band analysed by ultra mass spectrometry and compared with a FastA dataset of predicted tryptic peptides derived from a genome sequence of D. immitis. Results This study identified 110 proteins. Of these proteins, 52 were unique to D. immitis . A total of 23 (44%) were recognized as proteins likely to be secreted. Although these proteins were unique, the motifs were conserved compared with proteins secreted by other nematodes. Conclusion The present data indicate that D. immitis secretes proteins that are unique to this species, when compared with Brugia malayi. The two major functional groups of molecules represented were those representing cellular and of metabolic processes. Unique proteins might be important for maintaining an infection in the host environment, intimately involved in the pathogenesis of disease and may also provide new tools for the diagnosis of heartworm infection. PMID:22781075
Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh
Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in.
Jai B Mullerpattan
Full Text Available Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE is a syndrome of wheezing, fever and eosiniphilia seen predominantly in the Indian subcontinent and other tropical areas. Its etiological link with Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi has been well established. The pathogenesis is due to an exaggerated immune response to the filarial antigens which includes type I, type III and type IV reactions with eosinophils playing a pivotal role. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is usually striking with levels over 3000/΅l being common. High serum levels of IgE and filarial-specific IgE and IgG are also found. The pathology may vary from an acute eosinophilic alveolitis to histiocytic infiltration depending on the stage of the disease. While earlier studies had suggested that the disease runs a benign course, more recent work has shown that untreated TPE could result in a fair degree of respiratory morbidity. Pulmonary function tests may show a mixed restrictive and obstructive abnormality with a reduction in diffusion capacity. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL eosinophil count has a negative correlation with the diffusion capacity. Treatment consists of diethylcarbamazine (DEC for at least three weeks. Despite treatment with DEC, about 20 per cent of patients may relapse. Steroids have shown to have a beneficial effect but the exact dose and duration is yet to be confirmed by randomized controlled trials. A specific and easily available marker is required for TPE in order to distinguish it from other parasitic and non-parasitic causes of pulmonary eosinophilia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus, mounts a distinctively robust innate immune response when infected with the nematode Brugia malayi, a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis. In order to mine the transcriptome for new insight into the cascade of events that takes place in response to infection in this mosquito, 6 cDNA libraries were generated from tissues of adult female mosquitoes subjected to immune-response activation treatments that lead to well-characterized responses, and from aging, naïve mosquitoes. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs from each library were produced, annotated, and subjected to comparative analyses. Results Six libraries were constructed and used to generate 44,940 expressed sequence tags, of which 38,079 passed quality filters to be included in the annotation project and subsequent analyses. All of these sequences were collapsed into clusters resulting in 8,020 unique sequence clusters or singletons. EST clusters were annotated and curated manually within ASAP (A Systematic Annotation Package for Community Analysis of Genomes web portal according to BLAST results from comparisons to Genbank, and the Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster genome projects. Conclusion The resulting dataset is the first of its kind for this mosquito vector and provides a basis for future studies of mosquito vectors regarding the cascade of events that occurs in response to infection, and thereby providing insight into vector competence and innate immunity.
Full Text Available Malaria at present is still one of the important mosquito-borne diseases in Indonesia. The disease is widespread all over the country and involves nearly all islands. Sixteen Anopheles species have been reconfirmed as malaria vectors. They were distributed geographically as follows: Coastal areas and lagoons ------------------------------------- An sundaicus and An.subpictus Cultivated ricefields and swampy areas -------------------- An.aconitus, An.barbirostris, An.nigerrimus and An.sinensis Forest inland areas in shaded temporary pools, muddy animal wallows and hoof-prints -------------------------------------------------------- An.balabacensis, An.bancrofti, An.farauti, An.koliensis and An.punctulatus Swamp forest edge in ditches with vegeta- ---------------- An.letifer and An.ludlowae don Hilly areas in seepages, streams and clear moving water ---------------------------------------------- Anflavirostris, An.maculatus and Anminimus. The species (of most general importance is An.sundaicus, which is restricted by its preference for brackish water and is prevalent in coastal areas of Java. Their types in behaviour of An.sundaicus appear as follows : 1. An.sundaicus in South Coast of Java in general. This species is essentially anthropophilic, exophagic and rests outdoor. It shows susceptible to DDT. 2. An.sundaicus in Cilacap, Central Java. This mosquito is a pure anthropophilic form. It bites man in houses and outdoors, rests indoors and is known resistant to DDT. 3. An.sundaicus in Yogyakarta and Purworejo, Central Java. This mosquito is a strong zoophilic species. It rests and prefers to bite outdoors and shows tolerance to DDT. Human filariasis in Indonesia is the result of infection by three endemic species, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori.W.bancrofti infection is found in both urban and rural areas. Twenty species of mosquitoes are confirmed as filariasis vectors. The urban type bancroftian filariasis
Full Text Available The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate parasite that causes significant damage to a broad range of host plants. Infection is associated with secretion of proteins surrounded by proliferating cells. Many parasites are known to secrete effectors that interfere with plant innate immunity, enabling infection to occur; they can also release pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, e.g., flagellin that trigger basal immunity through the nematode stylet into the plant cell. This leads to suppression of innate immunity and reprogramming of plant cells to form a feeding structure containing multinucleate giant cells. Effectors have generally been discovered using genetics or bioinformatics, but M. incognita is non-sexual and its genome sequence has not yet been reported. To partially overcome these limitations, we have used mass spectrometry to directly identify 486 proteins secreted by M. incognita. These proteins contain at least segmental sequence identity to those found in our 3 reference databases (published nematode proteins; unpublished M. incognita ESTs; published plant proteins. Several secreted proteins are homologous to plant proteins, which they may mimic, and they contain domains that suggest known effector functions (e.g., regulating the plant cell cycle or growth. Others have regulatory domains that could reprogram cells. Using in situ hybridization we observed that most secreted proteins were produced by the subventral glands, but we found that phasmids also secreted proteins. We annotated the functions of the secreted proteins and classified them according to roles they may play in the development of root knot disease. Our results show that parasite secretomes can be partially characterized without cognate genomic DNA sequence. We observed that the M. incognita secretome overlaps the reported secretome of mammalian parasitic nematodes (e.g., Brugia malayi, suggesting a common parasitic behavior and a possible
Chehayeb, James F; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J; Geary, Timothy G
Strategies employed by parasites to establish infections are poorly understood. The host-parasite interface is maintained through a molecular dialog that, among other roles, protects parasites from host immune responses. Parasite excretory/secretory products (ESP) play major roles in this process. Understanding the biology of protein secretion by parasites and their associated functional processes will enhance our understanding of the roles of ESP in host-parasite interactions. ESP was collected after culturing 10 adult female Ascaris suum. Perienteric fluid (PE) and uterine fluid (UF) were collected directly from adult females by dissection. Using SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS, we identified 175, 308 and 274 proteins in ESP, PE and UF, respectively. Although many proteins were shared among the samples, the protein composition of ESP was distinct from PE and UF, whereas PE and UF were highly similar. The distribution of gene ontology (GO) terms for proteins in ESP, PE and UF supports this claim. Comparison of ESP composition in A. suum, Brugia malayi and Heligmosoides polygyrus showed that proteins found in UF were also secreted by males and by larval stages of other species, suggesting that multiple routes of secretion may be used for homologous proteins. ESP composition of nematodes is both phylogeny- and niche-dependent. Analysis of the protein composition of A. suum ESP and UF leads to the conclusion that the excretory-secretory apparatus and uterus are separate routes for protein release. Proteins detected in ESP have distinct patterns of biological functions compared to those in UF. PE is likely to serve as the source of the majority of proteins in UF. This analysis expands our knowledge of the biology of protein secretion from nematodes and will inform new studies on the function of secreted proteins in the orchestration of host-parasite interactions.
Catherine B Poole
Full Text Available Accurate detection of filarial parasites in humans is essential for the implementation and evaluation of mass drug administration programs to control onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Determining the infection levels in vector populations is also important for assessing transmission, deciding when drug treatments may be terminated and for monitoring recrudescence. Immunological methods to detect infection in humans are available, however, cross-reactivity issues have been reported. Nucleic acid-based molecular assays offer high levels of specificity and sensitivity, and can be used to detect infection in both humans and vectors. In this study we developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP tests to detect three different filarial DNAs in human and insect samples using pH sensitive dyes for enhanced visual detection of amplification. Furthermore, reactions were performed in a portable, non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification (NINA device that provides a stable heat source for LAMP. The efficacy of several strand displacing DNA polymerases were evaluated in combination with neutral red or phenol red dyes. Colorimetric NINA-LAMP assays targeting Brugia Hha I repeat, Onchocerca volvulus GST1a and Wuchereria bancrofti LDR each exhibit species-specificity and are also highly sensitive, detecting DNA equivalent to 1/10-1/5000th of one microfilaria. Reaction times varied depending on whether a single copy gene (70 minutes, O. volvulus or repetitive DNA (40 min, B. malayi and W. bancrofti was employed as a biomarker. The NINA heater can be used to detect multiple infections simultaneously. The accuracy, simplicity and versatility of the technology suggests that colorimetric NINA-LAMP assays are ideally suited for monitoring the success of filariasis control programs.
Wagner, Ulrike; Hirzmann, Jörg; Hintz, Martin; Beck, Ewald; Geyer, Rudolf; Hobom, Gerd; Taubert, Anja; Zahner, Horst
Juv-p120 is an excretory-secretory 160 kDa glycoprotein of juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis and exhibits features typical for mucins. 50% of its molecular mass is attributed to posttranslational modifications with the unusual substituent dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE). By that Juv-p120 corresponds to the surface proteins of the microfilarial sheath, Shp3 and Shp3a. The secreted protein consists of 697 amino acids, organized in two different domains of repeat elements separated by a stretch of polar residues. The N-terminal domain shows fourteen P/S/T/F-rich repeat elements highly modified with phospho-DMAE substituted O-glycans confering a negative charge to the protein. The C-terminal domain is extremely rich in glutamine (35%) and leucine (25%) in less organized repeats and may play a role in oligomerization of Juv-p120 monomers. A protein family with a similar Q/L-rich region and conserved core promoter region was identified in Brugia malayi by homology screening and in Wuchereria bancrofti and Loa loa by database similarity search. One of the Q/L-rich proteins in each genus has an extended S/T-rich region and due to this feature is supposed to be a putative Juv-p120 ortholog. The corresponding modification of Juv-p120 and the microfilarial sheath surface antigens Shp3/3a explains the appearance of anti-sheath antibodies before the release of microfilariae. The function of Juv-p120 is unknown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural acquisition of novel genes from other organisms by horizontal or lateral gene transfer is well established for microorganisms. There is now growing evidence that horizontal gene transfer also plays important roles in the evolution of eukaryotes. Genome-sequencing and EST projects of plant and animal associated nematodes such as Brugia, Meloidogyne, Bursaphelenchus and Pristionchus indicate horizontal gene transfer as a key adaptation towards parasitism and pathogenicity. However, little is known about the functional activity and evolutionary longevity of genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer and the mechanisms favoring such processes. Results We examine the transfer of cellulase genes to the free-living and beetle-associated nematode Pristionchus pacificus, for which detailed phylogenetic knowledge is available, to address predictions by evolutionary theory for successful gene transfer. We used transcriptomics in seven Pristionchus species and three other related diplogastrid nematodes with a well-defined phylogenetic framework to study the evolution of ancestral cellulase genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer. We performed intra-species, inter-species and inter-genic analysis by comparing the transcriptomes of these ten species and tested for cellulase activity in each species. Species with cellulase genes in their transcriptome always exhibited cellulase activity indicating functional integration into the host's genome and biology. The phylogenetic profile of cellulase genes was congruent with the species phylogeny demonstrating gene longevity. Cellulase genes show notable turnover with elevated birth and death rates. Comparison by sequencing of three selected cellulase genes in 24 natural isolates of Pristionchus pacificus suggests these high evolutionary dynamics to be associated with copy number variations and positive selection. Conclusion We could demonstrate functional integration of acquired
Slatko Barton E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by filarial nematodes. Disease pathogenesis is induced by inflammatory responses following the death of the parasite. Wolbachia endosymbionts of filariae are potent inducers of innate and adaptive inflammation and bacterial lipoproteins have been identified as the ligands that bind toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and TLR6. Lipoproteins are important structural and functional components of bacteria and therefore enzymes involved in Wolbachia lipoprotein biosynthesis are potential chemotherapeutic targets. Results Globomycin, a signal peptidase II (LspA inhibitor, has activity against Gram-negative bacteria and a putative lspA gene has been identified from the Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi (wBm. The amino acids required for function are strictly conserved and functionality was verified by complementation tests in a temperature-sensitive Escherichia coli lspA mutant. Also, transformation of wild type E. coli with Wolbachia lspA conferred significant globomycin resistance. A cell-based screen has been developed utilizing a Wolbachia-containing Aedes albopictus cell line to assay novel compounds active against Wolbachia. Globomycin was screened using this assay, which resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in Wolbachia load. Furthermore, globomycin was also effective in reducing the motility and viability of adult B. malayi in vitro. Conclusions These studies validate lipoprotein biosynthesis as a target in an organism for which no genetic tools are available. Further studies to evaluate drugs targeting this pathway are underway as part of the A-WOL drug discovery and development program.
Full Text Available Filarial nematodes cause chronic and profoundly debilitating diseases in both humans and animals. Applications of novel technology are providing unprecedented opportunities to improve diagnosis and our understanding of the molecular basis for host-parasite interactions. As a first step, we investigated the presence of circulating miRNAs released by filarial nematodes into the host bloodstream. miRNA deep-sequencing combined with bioinformatics revealed over 200 mature miRNA sequences of potential nematode origin in Dirofilaria immitis-infected dog plasma in two independent analyses, and 21 in Onchocerca volvulus-infected human serum. Total RNA obtained from D. immitis-infected dog plasma was subjected to stem-loop RT-qPCR assays targeting two detected miRNA candidates, miR-71 and miR-34. Additionally, Brugia pahangi-infected dog samples were included in the analysis, as these miRNAs were previously detected in extracts prepared from this species. The presence of miR-71 and miR-34 discriminated infected samples (both species from uninfected samples, in which no specific miRNA amplification occurred. However, absolute miRNA copy numbers were not significantly correlated with microfilaraemia for either parasite. This may be due to the imprecision of mf counts to estimate infection intensity or to miRNA contributions from the unknown number of adult worms present. Nonetheless, parasite-derived circulating miRNAs are found in plasma or serum even for those species that do not live in the bloodstream.
R. M. Maizels
Full Text Available A range of surface, secreted and somatic antigens from filarial parasites have been studies in order to analyse the response of human infected with these pathogens, and to develop reliable diagnostic and prophylactic agents. Diagnostic procedures, which are urgently required for targetting chemotherapy, are being developed by two techniques. Firstly, detection of host antibody is carried out using selected, specific parasite antigens in the form of recombinant peptides from a filarial DNA library. Secondly, measurement of parasite by a monoclonal antibody "antigen-capture" assay. In addition, a longer-term objective of our collaborative study is to isolate molecules which may stimulate the immune system to mount a protective immune response against filarial parasites. A major focus has been a parasite surface glycoprotein known to be closely conserved between adult worms of Brugia malayi, B. timori and Wuchereria bancrofti. This antigen has been cloned from a cDNA library, and its primary sequence established; in addition to being a constant feature of the adult surface, it is expressed by developing larvae and represents an attractive target for vaccine production. Finally, one of the most intriguing questions in filariasis relates to the genesis of pathological reactions. Although this is a difficult problem, we are now beginning to compare the immune responses of individuals of differing clinical status to certain defined parasite antigens, in an attempt to correlate disease development with particular categories of immune response in infected patients. In this way there is hope to advance the basic understanding of filarial disease, while providing practical means for controlling filariasis at the individual and community levels.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FILARIAL DETECTION BY MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION AND SEROLOGICAL ASSAY UTILIZING BMR1 AND BMXSP RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR EVALUATION OF FILARIASIS ELIMINATION PROGRAM AT KAMPUNG SAWAH AND PAMULANG, SOUTH TANGERANG DISTRICT, BANTEN, INDONESIA
Silvia F. Nasution
Full Text Available South Tangerang district is one of the endemic areas for filariasis; and based on an evaluation study in 2008-2009 which covered several subdistricts, the prevalence of microfilaria was between 1–2.4%. Nevertheless, the evaluation by serological assay has never been reported. A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the microfilaremia and anti-filarial IgG4 antibody status in Kp Sawah and Pamulang subdistricts. Cluster sampling was performed in Kp Sawah by collecting finger-prick blood (FPB and venous blood samples from inhabitants who lived with and nearby the four elephantiasis subjects in the area. The FPB were only collected in Pamulang area by consecutive sampling method. The detection method included microscopic evaluation of FPB and serological detection using recombinant antigens BmR1 and BmSXP by ELISA and lateral flow rapid tests. Symptomatic patients who had 2nd and 3rd degree of elephantiasis were clinically determined in 10% (4/40 subjects. Among those with elephantiasis, 2 were positive serologically but their microscopic results were all negative (40/40. Meanwhile, the microscopic result for 107 subjects from Pamulang were all negative. The results of the rapid tests showed that 15% (6/40 of the positive cases were detected by Brugia Rapid and 27.5% (11/40 by PanLF. Meanwhile, the ELISA showed that 20% (8/40 of the cases were positive with BmSXP, whereas only 2.5% or 1/40 sample was found to be positive with BmR1. Even though the sensitivity of the Rapid test was lower when compared to microscopic examination for these samples, the assay showed good specificity ranging from 72.5 to 97.5%. The optical density (OD values of ELISA has ranged between 0.3–3.045.
Emma T Cadman
Full Text Available Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1, during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL, we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.
Vinogradov Serge N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globin isoforms with variant properties and functions have been found in the pseudocoel, body wall and cuticle of various nematode species and even in the eyespots of the insect-parasite Mermis nigrescens. In fact, much higher levels of complexity exist, as shown by recent whole genome analysis studies. In silico analysis of the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an unexpectedly high number of globin genes featuring a remarkable diversity in gene structure, amino acid sequence and expression profiles. Results In the present study we have analyzed whole genomic data from C. briggsae, C. remanei, Pristionchus pacificus and Brugia malayi and EST data from several other nematode species to study the evolutionary history of the nematode globin gene family. We find a high level of conservation of the C. elegans globin complement, with even distantly related nematodes harboring orthologs to many Caenorhabditis globins. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis resolves all nematode globins into two distinct globin classes. Analysis of the globin intron-exon structures suggests extensive loss of ancestral introns and gain of new positions in deep nematode ancestors, and mainly loss in the Caenorhabditis lineage. We also show that the Caenorhabditis globin genes are expressed in distinct, mostly non-overlapping, sets of cells and that they are all under strong purifying selection. Conclusion Our results enable reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the globin gene family in the nematode phylum. A duplication of an ancestral globin gene occurred before the divergence of the Platyhelminthes and the Nematoda and one of the duplicated genes radiated further in the nematode phylum before the split of the Spirurina and Rhabditina and was followed by further radiation in the lineage leading to Caenorhabditis. The resulting globin genes were subject to processes of subfunctionalization and diversification leading to cell
Gregory J Crowther
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased sequencing of pathogen genomes and the subsequent availability of genome-scale functional datasets are expected to guide the experimental work necessary for target-based drug discovery. However, a major bottleneck in this has been the difficulty of capturing and integrating relevant information in an easily accessible format for identifying and prioritizing potential targets. The open-access resource TDRtargets.org facilitates drug target prioritization for major tropical disease pathogens such as the mycobacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; the kinetoplastid protozoans Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi; the apicomplexan protozoans Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Toxoplasma gondii; and the helminths Brugia malayi and Schistosoma mansoni. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present strategies to prioritize pathogen proteins based on whether their properties meet criteria considered desirable in a drug target. These criteria are based upon both sequence-derived information (e.g., molecular mass and functional data on expression, essentiality, phenotypes, metabolic pathways, assayability, and druggability. This approach also highlights the fact that data for many relevant criteria are lacking in less-studied pathogens (e.g., helminths, and we demonstrate how this can be partially overcome by mapping data from homologous genes in well-studied organisms. We also show how individual users can easily upload external datasets and integrate them with existing data in TDRtargets.org to generate highly customized ranked lists of potential targets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the datasets and the tools available in TDRtargets.org, we have generated illustrative lists of potential drug targets in seven tropical disease pathogens. While these lists are broadly consistent with the research community's current interest in certain specific proteins, and suggest
Mayer, Werner E; Schuster, Lisa N; Bartelmes, Gabi; Dieterich, Christoph; Sommer, Ralf J
Natural acquisition of novel genes from other organisms by horizontal or lateral gene transfer is well established for microorganisms. There is now growing evidence that horizontal gene transfer also plays important roles in the evolution of eukaryotes. Genome-sequencing and EST projects of plant and animal associated nematodes such as Brugia, Meloidogyne, Bursaphelenchus and Pristionchus indicate horizontal gene transfer as a key adaptation towards parasitism and pathogenicity. However, little is known about the functional activity and evolutionary longevity of genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer and the mechanisms favoring such processes. We examine the transfer of cellulase genes to the free-living and beetle-associated nematode Pristionchus pacificus, for which detailed phylogenetic knowledge is available, to address predictions by evolutionary theory for successful gene transfer. We used transcriptomics in seven Pristionchus species and three other related diplogastrid nematodes with a well-defined phylogenetic framework to study the evolution of ancestral cellulase genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer. We performed intra-species, inter-species and inter-genic analysis by comparing the transcriptomes of these ten species and tested for cellulase activity in each species. Species with cellulase genes in their transcriptome always exhibited cellulase activity indicating functional integration into the host's genome and biology. The phylogenetic profile of cellulase genes was congruent with the species phylogeny demonstrating gene longevity. Cellulase genes show notable turnover with elevated birth and death rates. Comparison by sequencing of three selected cellulase genes in 24 natural isolates of Pristionchus pacificus suggests these high evolutionary dynamics to be associated with copy number variations and positive selection. We could demonstrate functional integration of acquired cellulase genes into the nematode's biology as predicted by theory
Full Text Available Blood-feeding and autogenous sub-colonies were selected from a laboratory, stock colony of Aedes togoi, which was originally collected from Koh Nom Sao, Chanthaburi province, Southeast Thailand. Comparative biology and filarial susceptibility between the two sub-colonies (blood-feeding: F11, F13; autogeny: F38, F40 were investigated to evaluate their viability and vectorial capacity. The results of comparison on biology revealed intraspecific differences, i.e., the average egg deposition/gravid female (F11/F38; F13/F40, embryonation rate (F13/F40, hatchability rate (F11/F38; F13/F40, egg width (F11/F38, wing length of females (F13/F40, and wing length and width of males (F11/F38 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly greater than that in the autogenous sub-colony; and egg length (F11/F38 and width (F13/F40, and mean longevity of adult females (F11/F38 and males (F13/F40 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly less than that in the autogenous sub-colony. The results of comparison on filarial susceptibility demonstrated that both sub-colonies yielded similar susceptibilities to Brugia malayi [blood-feeding/autogeny = 56.7% (F11/53.3%(F38, 60%(F13/83.3%(F40] and Dirofilaria immitis [blood-feeding/autogeny = 85.7%(F11/75%(F38, 45%(F13/29.4%(F40], suggesting autogenous Ae. togoi sub-colony was an efficient laboratory vector in study of filariasis.
Storey, Bob; Marcellino, Chris; Miller, Melissa; Maclean, Mary; Mostafa, Eman; Howell, Sue; Sakanari, Judy; Wolstenholme, Adrian; Kaplan, Ray
A major hindrance to evaluating nematode populations for anthelmintic resistance, as well as for screening existing drugs, new compounds, or bioactive plant extracts for anthelmintic properties, is the lack of an efficient, objective, and reproducible in vitro assay that is adaptable to multiple life stages and parasite genera. To address this need we have developed the “Worminator” system, which objectively and quantitatively measures the motility of microscopic stages of parasitic nematodes. The system is built around the computer application “WormAssay”, developed at the Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. WormAssay was designed to assess motility of macroscopic parasites for the purpose of high throughput screening of potential anthelmintic compounds, utilizing high definition video as an input to assess motion of adult stage (macroscopic) parasites (e.g. Brugia malayi). We adapted this assay for use with microscopic parasites by modifying the software to support a full frame analysis mode that applies the motion algorithm to the entire video frame. Thus, the motility of all parasites in a given well are recorded and measured simultaneously. Assays performed on third-stage larvae (L3) of the bovine intestinal nematode Cooperia spp., as well as microfilariae (mf) of the filarioid nematodes B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis, yielded reproducible dose responses using the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin, doramectin, and moxidectin, as well as the nicotinic agonists, pyrantel, oxantel, morantel, and tribendimidine. This new computer based-assay is simple to use, requires minimal new investment in equipment, is robust across nematode genera and developmental stage, and does not require subjective scoring of motility by an observer. Thus, the “Worminator” provides a relatively low-cost platform for developing genera- and stage-specific assays with high efficiency and reproducibility, low
Full Text Available A major hindrance to evaluating nematode populations for anthelmintic resistance, as well as for screening existing drugs, new compounds, or bioactive plant extracts for anthelmintic properties, is the lack of an efficient, objective, and reproducible in vitro assay that is adaptable to multiple life stages and parasite genera. To address this need we have developed the “Worminator” system, which objectively and quantitatively measures the motility of microscopic stages of parasitic nematodes. The system is built around the computer application “WormAssay”, developed at the Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. WormAssay was designed to assess motility of macroscopic parasites for the purpose of high throughput screening of potential anthelmintic compounds, utilizing high definition video as an input to assess motion of adult stage (macroscopic parasites (e.g. Brugia malayi. We adapted this assay for use with microscopic parasites by modifying the software to support a full frame analysis mode that applies the motion algorithm to the entire video frame. Thus, the motility of all parasites in a given well are recorded and measured simultaneously. Assays performed on third-stage larvae (L3 of the bovine intestinal nematode Cooperia spp., as well as microfilariae (mf of the filarioid nematodes B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis, yielded reproducible dose responses using the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin, doramectin, and moxidectin, as well as the nicotinic agonists, pyrantel, oxantel, morantel, and tribendimidine. This new computer based-assay is simple to use, requires minimal new investment in equipment, is robust across nematode genera and developmental stage, and does not require subjective scoring of motility by an observer. Thus, the “Worminator” provides a relatively low-cost platform for developing genera- and stage-specific assays with high efficiency and
Full Text Available Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequenced over 70 kb of the genome of wOvo, a Wolbachia from the human-parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, and compared the genes identified to orthologues in other sequenced Wolbachia genomes. In comparisons of conserved local synteny, we find that wBm, from the nematode Brugia malayi, and wMel, from Drosophila melanogaster, are more similar to each other than either is to wOvo. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes on the sequenced fragments supports reciprocal monophyly of nematode and arthropod Wolbachia. The nematode Wolbachia did not arise from within the A clade of arthropod Wolbachia, and the root of the Wolbachia clade lies between the nematode and arthropod symbionts. Using the wOvo sequence, we identified a lateral transfer event whereby segments of the Wolbachia genome were inserted into the Onchocerca nuclear genome. This event predated the separation of the human parasite O. volvulus from its cattle-parasitic sister species, O. ochengi. The long association between filarial nematodes and Wolbachia symbionts may permit more frequent genetic exchange between their genomes.
Fischer, Kerstin; Beatty, Wandy L; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U
Wolbachia α-proteobacteria are essential for growth, reproduction and survival for many filarial nematode parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Endobacteria were discovered in filarial parasites by transmission electron microscopy in the 1970's using chemically fixed specimens. Despite improvements of fixation and electron microscopy techniques during the last decades, methods to study the Wolbachia/filaria interaction on the ultrastructural level remained unchanged and the mechanisms for exchange of materials and for motility of endobacteria are not known. We used high pressure freezing/freeze substitution to improve fixation of Brugia malayi and its endosymbiont, and this led to improved visualization of different morphological forms of Wolbachia. The three concentric, bilayer membranes that surround the endobacterial cytoplasm were well preserved. Vesicles with identical membrane structures were identified close to the endobacteria, and multiple bacteria were sometimes enclosed within a single outer membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy using a monoclonal antibody directed against Wolbachia surface protein-1 labeled the membranes that enclose Wolbachia and Wolbachia-associated vesicles. High densities of Wolbachia were observed in the lateral chords of L4 larvae, immature, and mature adult worms. Extracellular Wolbachia were sometimes present in the pseudocoelomic cavity near the developing female reproductive organs. Wolbachia-associated actin tails were not observed. Wolbachia motility may be explained by their residence within vacuoles, as they may co-opt the host cell's secretory pathway to move within and between cells. High pressure freezing/freeze substitution significantly improved the preservation of filarial tissues for electron microscopy to reveal membranes and sub cellular structures that could be crucial for exchange of materials between Wolbachia and its host.
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As part of our drug discovery program for anti-filarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of an anti-filarial agent, ursolic acid (UA as a major constituent. Antifilarial activity of UA against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using in vitro and in vivo assays, and in silico docking search on glutathione-s-transferase (GST parasitic enzyme were carried out. The UA was lethal to microfilariae (mf; LC100: 50; IC50: 8.84 µM and female adult worms (LC100: 100; IC50: 35.36 µM as observed by motility assay; it exerted 86% inhibition in MTT reduction potential of the adult parasites. The selectivity index (SI of UA for the parasites was found safe. This was supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock scores for UA (-8.6 with respect to the standard antifilarial drugs, ivermectin (IVM -8.4 and diethylcarbamazine (DEC-C -4.6 on glutathione-s-transferase enzyme. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that UA possesses drug-like properties. Furthermore, UA was evaluated in vivo in B. malayi-M. coucha model (natural infection, which showed 54% macrofilaricidal activity, 56% female worm sterility and almost unchanged microfilaraemia maintained throughout observation period with no adverse effect on the host. Thus, in conclusion in vitro, in silico and in vivo results indicate that UA is a promising, inexpensive, widely available natural lead, which can be designed and developed into a macrofilaricidal drug. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-filarial potential of UA from E. tereticornis, which is in full agreement with the Thomson Reuter's 'Metadrug' tool screening predictions.
Johnathan J Dalzell
Full Text Available While RNA interference (RNAi has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (dsRNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii The Argonautes (AGOs responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research
Full Text Available Abstract Background The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis infects a broad range of arthropod and filarial nematode hosts. These diverse associations form an attractive model for understanding host:symbiont coevolution. Wolbachia's ubiquity and ability to dramatically alter host reproductive biology also form the foundation of research strategies aimed at controlling insect pests and vector-borne disease. The Wolbachia strains that infect nematodes are phylogenetically distinct, strictly vertically transmitted, and required by their hosts for growth and reproduction. Insects in contrast form more fluid associations with Wolbachia. In these taxa, host populations are most often polymorphic for infection, horizontal transmission occurs between distantly related hosts, and direct fitness effects on hosts are mild. Despite extensive interest in the Wolbachia system for many years, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that mediate its varied interactions with different hosts. We have compared the genomes of the Wolbachia that infect Drosophila melanogaster, wMel and the nematode Brugia malayi, wBm to that of an outgroup Anaplasma marginale to identify genes that have experienced diversifying selection in the Wolbachia lineages. The goal of the study was to identify likely molecular mechanisms of the symbiosis and to understand the nature of the diverse association across different hosts. Results The prevalence of selection was far greater in wMel than wBm. Genes contributing to DNA metabolism, cofactor biosynthesis, and secretion were positively selected in both lineages. In wMel there was a greater emphasis on DNA repair, cell division, protein stability, and cell envelope synthesis. Conclusion Secretion pathways and outer surface protein encoding genes are highly affected by selection in keeping with host:parasite theory. If evidence of selection on various cofactor molecules reflects possible provisioning, then both insect as
Full Text Available Given the continued successes of the world's lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination programs and the growing successes of many malaria elimination efforts, the necessity of low cost tools and methodologies applicable to long-term disease surveillance is greater than ever before. As many countries reach the end of their LF mass drug administration programs and a growing number of countries realize unprecedented successes in their malaria intervention efforts, the need for practical molecular xenomonitoring (MX, capable of providing surveillance for disease recrudescence in settings of decreased parasite prevalence is increasingly clear. Current protocols, however, require testing of mosquitoes in pools of 25 or fewer, making high-throughput examination a challenge. The new method we present here screens the excreta/feces from hundreds of mosquitoes per pool and provides proof-of-concept for a practical alternative to traditional methodologies resulting in significant cost and labor savings.Excreta/feces of laboratory reared Aedes aegypti or Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes provided with a Brugia malayi microfilaria-positive or Plasmodium vivax-positive blood meal respectively were tested for the presence of parasite DNA using real-time PCR. A titration of samples containing various volumes of B. malayi-negative mosquito feces mixed with positive excreta/feces was also tested to determine sensitivity of detection. Real-time PCR amplification of B. malayi and P. vivax DNA from the excreta/feces of infected mosquitoes was demonstrated, and B. malayi DNA in excreta/feces from one to two mf-positive blood meal-receiving mosquitoes was detected when pooled with volumes of feces from as many as 500 uninfected mosquitoes.While the operationalizing of excreta/feces testing may require the development of new strategies for sample collection, the high-throughput nature of this new methodology has the potential to greatly reduce MX costs. This will prove
McNulty Samantha N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of filarial nematodes depend on Wolbachia endobacteria to carry out their life cycle. Other species are naturally Wolbachia-free. The biological mechanisms underpinning Wolbachia-dependence and independence in filarial nematodes are not known. Previous studies have indicated that Wolbachia have an impact on mitochondrial gene expression, which may suggest a role in energy metabolism. If Wolbachia can supplement host energy metabolism, reduced mitochondrial function in infected filarial species may account for Wolbachia-dependence. Wolbachia also have a strong influence on mitochondrial evolution due to vertical co-transmission. This could drive alterations in mitochondrial genome sequence in infected species. Comparisons between the mitochondrial genome sequences of Wolbachia-dependent and independent filarial worms may reveal differences indicative of altered mitochondrial function. Results The mitochondrial genomes of 5 species of filarial nematodes, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Chandlerella quiscali, Loa loa, Onchocerca flexuosa, and Wuchereria bancrofti, were sequenced, annotated and compared with available mitochondrial genome sequences from Brugia malayi, Dirofilaria immitis, Onchocerca volvulus and Setaria digitata. B. malayi, D. immitis, O. volvulus and W. bancrofti are Wolbachia-dependent while A. viteae, C. quiscali, L. loa, O. flexuosa and S. digitata are Wolbachia-free. The 9 mitochondrial genomes were similar in size and AT content and encoded the same 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. Synteny was perfectly preserved in all species except C. quiscali, which had a different order for 5 tRNA genes. Protein-coding genes were expressed at the RNA level in all examined species. In phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial protein-coding sequences, species did not cluster according to Wolbachia dependence. Conclusions Thus far, no discernable differences were detected between the mitochondrial
Neil C Devoe
Full Text Available The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2 protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a to synonymous (K(s mutation frequencies (ω were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001 diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa indicated significant (P<0
Mahalakshmi, Natarajan; Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Ansel Vishal, Lawrance; Kaliraj, Perumal
Filarial parasites infected nearly 160 million of the global population with onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and further, a billion of people are estimated to be at risk of infection, rendering them among the most prevalent infectious agents in the world today. Given the complexity of their life cycle and the immune evasion mechanisms of these organisms, development of a vaccine remains to be a long-term challenge. Though a number of immunodominant antigens have been characterized, the presence of homologous proteins in humans or the allelic variants are some of the major drawbacks. One of the extensively studied vaccine candidates is abundant larval transcripts (ALT) family of proteins for the following properties: highly regulated expression, abundance, excreted-secreted product of infective stage larvae, and essentially for parasite establishment and survival in the host. In the present study, stage-specific expression of secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) was identified; an ALT orthologue from Onchocerca volvulus was cloned, expressed, and purified as a recombinant protein. Immunogenicity of OvSLAP1 was demonstrated with sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from endemic regions of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. OvSLAP1 antibodies were predominated by IgG1 and IgG2 in endemic normal (EN) and chronic pathology (CP) subjects. It has also induced marked cellular response as observed by lymphoproliferation assay. The study revealed that OvSLAP1 can segregate humoral (EN mean optical density (OD) = 0.87 ± 0.035, CP mean OD = 0.59 ± 0.029) and cellular (EN mean stimulation index (SI) = 5.87 ± 0.167, CP mean SI = 3.5 ± 0.134) immune responses between EN and CP individuals (P < 0.001), signifying its prophylactic ability and vitality for protection from filarial infections in endemic population.
Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis
Screening of the âOpen Scaffoldsâ collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber's pole worm and other parasitic nematodes
Full Text Available The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the âOpen Scaffoldsâ collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the âOpen Scaffoldsâ collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility byÂ â¥Â 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, âcoiledâ xL3 phenotype (IC50Â =Â 3.46â5.93Â Î¼M, inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50Â =Â 0.31â12.5Â Î¼M and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s inÂ vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes inÂ vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50Â =Â 3â50Â Î¼M adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm and eventually kill (>90% these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50â100Â Î¼M as well as microfilariae of both B.Â malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm. Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H.Â contortus and A.Â ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D.Â immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected
Screening of the 'Open Scaffolds' collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber's pole worm and other parasitic nematodes.
Preston, Sarah; Jiao, Yaqing; Baell, Jonathan B; Keiser, Jennifer; Crawford, Simon; Koehler, Anson V; Wang, Tao; Simpson, Moana M; Kaplan, Ray M; Cowley, Karla J; Simpson, Kaylene J; Hofmann, Andreas; Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B
The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the 'Open Scaffolds' collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the 'Open Scaffolds' collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s) of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility by ≥ 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, "coiled" xL3 phenotype (IC50 = 3.46-5.93 μM), inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50 = 0.31-12.5 μM) and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s in vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes in vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50 = 3-50 μM) adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm) and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm) and eventually kill (>90%) these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50-100 μM) as well as microfilariae of both B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm). Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily) distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H. contortus and A. ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D. immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected tropical diseases, optimising analogs with improved biological activities and characterising their targets
Background Microsatellites are the most popular source of molecular markers for studying population genetic variation in eukaryotes. However, few data are currently available about their genomic distribution and abundance across the phylum Nematoda. The recent completion of the genomes of several nematode species, including Meloidogyne incognita, a major agricultural pest worldwide, now opens the way for a comparative survey and analysis of microsatellites in these organisms. Results Using MsatFinder, the total numbers of 1-6 bp perfect microsatellites detected in the complete genomes of five nematode species (Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, M. hapla, M. incognita, Pristionchus pacificus) ranged from 2,842 to 61,547, and covered from 0.09 to 1.20% of the nematode genomes. Under our search criteria, the most common repeat motifs for each length class varied according to the different nematode species considered, with no obvious relation to the AT-richness of their genomes. Overall, (AT)n, (AG)n and (CT)n were the three most frequent dinucleotide microsatellite motifs found in the five genomes considered. Except for two motifs in P. pacificus, all the most frequent trinucleotide motifs were AT-rich, with (AAT)n and (ATT)n being the only common to the five nematode species. A particular attention was paid to the microsatellite content of the plant-parasitic species M. incognita. In this species, a repertoire of 4,880 microsatellite loci was identified, from which 2,183 appeared suitable to design markers for population genetic studies. Interestingly, 1,094 microsatellites were identified in 801 predicted protein-coding regions, 99% of them being trinucleotides. When compared against the InterPro domain database, 497 of these CDS were successfully annotated, and further assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Conclusions Contrasted patterns of microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in five nematode genomes, even in the case of two closely related
Zarlenga, Dante; Wang, Zhengyuan; Mitreva, Makedonka
Publication of the genome from the clade I organism, Trichinella spiralis, has provided us an avenue to address more holistic problems in parasitology; namely the processes of adaptation and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitism among nematodes has evolved in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and adaptation in nematodes; however, data is now coming available to investigate adaptation, host switching and parasitism at the genomic level. Herein we compare proteomic data from the clade I parasite, Trichinella spiralis with data from Brugia malayi (clade III), Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita (clade IV), and free-living nematodes belonging to the genera Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus (clade V). We explore changes in protein family birth/death and expansion/reduction over the course of metazoan evolution using Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as outgroups for the phylum Nematoda. We further examine relationships between these changes and the ability and/or result of nematodes adapting to their environments. Data are consistent with gene loss occurring in conjunction with nematode specialization resulting from parasitic worms acclimating to well-defined, environmental niches. We observed evidence for independent, lateral gene transfer events involving conserved genes that may have played a role in the evolution of nematode parasitism. In general, parasitic nematodes gained proteins through duplication and lateral gene transfer, and lost proteins through random mutation and deletions. Data suggest independent acquisition rather than ancestral inheritance among the Nematoda followed by selective gene loss over evolutionary time. Data also show that parasitism and adaptation affected a broad range of proteins
Robinson, Kelly M.; Hawkins, Aziah S.; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Adkins, Ricky S.; Shetty, Amol C.; Nagaraj, Sushma; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Tallon, Luke J.; Rasko, David A.; Fraser, Claire M.; Mahurkar, Anup; Silva, Joana C.
As sequencing technologies have evolved, the tools to analyze these sequences have made similar advances. However, for multi-species samples, we observed important and adverse differences in alignment specificity and computation time for bwa- mem (Burrows–Wheeler aligner-maximum exact matches) relative to bwa-aln. Therefore, we sought to optimize bwa-mem for alignment of data from multi-species samples in order to reduce alignment time and increase the specificity of alignments. In the multi-species cases examined, there was one majority member (i.e. Plasmodium falciparum or Brugia malayi) and one minority member (i.e. human or the Wolbachia endosymbiont wBm) of the sequence data. Increasing bwa-mem seed length from the default value reduced the number of read pairs from the majority sequence member that incorrectly aligned to the reference genome of the minority sequence member. Combining both source genomes into a single reference genome increased the specificity of mapping, while also reducing the central processing unit (CPU) time. In Plasmodium, at a seed length of 18 nt, 24.1 % of reads mapped to the human genome using 1.7±0.1 CPU hours, while 83.6 % of reads mapped to the Plasmodium genome using 0.2±0.0 CPU hours (total: 107.7 % reads mapping; in 1.9±0.1 CPU hours). In contrast, 97.1 % of the reads mapped to a combined Plasmodium–human reference in only 0.7±0.0 CPU hours. Overall, the results suggest that combining all references into a single reference database and using a 23 nt seed length reduces the computational time, while maximizing specificity. Similar results were found for simulated sequence reads from a mock metagenomic data set. We found similar improvements to computation time in a publicly available human-only data set. PMID:29114401
Leang, Rithea; Socheat, Duong; Bin, Boravong; Bunkea, Tol; Odermatt, Peter
We assessed the filariasis disease burden in four northeastern provinces of Cambodia by using and validating a key-informant questionnaire, consisting of four questions, with pictures of patients with leg elephantiasis and hydrocoele. The questionnaire was distributed and collected through the school, health and administrative systems. Validation surveys included clinical examination, a card test for W. bancrofti (ICT Filariasis card test, AMRAD) and night blood finger prick examination of patients reported with clinical elephantiasis. Only 48.0% of questionnaires were returned. A total of 220 patients were reported, mostly from Stung Treng (36.8%) and Rattanakiri provinces (35.0%). Key-informants reported patients with lymphatic filariasis with a sensitivity of 85.7% for leg and 97.0% for scrotum morbidity, and with a specificity of 95.6%. However, substantial over-reporting resulted in very low positive predictive values for elephantiasis of 19.4% for legs and of 23.7% for the scrotum. As 97.4% of patients with clinical lymphatic filariasis were older than 40 years, the diagnostic performance of the questionnaire would be improved by restricting its use to that age group. About 0.7% of 3490 W. bancrofti card tests were positive; the prevalence was 1.94% (12/618) in Rattanakiri, 0.38% (4/1055) in Stung Treng and 0.22% (2/919) in Preah Vihear. W. bancrofti microfilaria were identified in blood from two patients in Rattanakiri (0.32%) and from one patient in Stung Treng (0.09%). Brugia malayi microfilaria were identified in blood from five patients in Rattanakiri (0.81%) only. No patients with microfilariaemia were identified in Preah Vehear. In Mondulkiri province all investigations (card test, night blood examination, clinical examination) for lymphatic filariasis were negative. Our findings confirm the usefulness of key-informant questionnaire for the identification of filariasis patients provided that high adherence can be achieved. Lymphatic filariasis
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL, a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3 and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple
. Kegiatan pengobatan massal telah dilakukan sejak tahun 2003, namun tidak meliputi semua daerah dalam waktu bersamaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai efektifitas pengobatan massal filariasis. Desain penelitian adalah studi potong lintang, lokasi penelitian adalah delapan desa dengan kasus filariasis tinggi. Pengambilan sampel dengan cara pemeriksaan darah jari pada malam hari dimulai jam 19.00 sampai 24.00 WIB terhadap seluruh penduduk desa yang datang pada waktu kegiatan survei darah. Hasil pemeriksaan darah terhadap 3.350 orang ditemukan sebanyak 30 orang yang positif mikrofilaria dengan spesies Brugia malayi yang berasal dari 4 desa. Jumlah kasus tertinggi ditemukan di Desa Sarang Elang sebanyak 13 orang dengan angka mirofilaria (Microfilaria rate/Mf rate sebesar 2,9%. Angka mikrofilaria tertinggi ditemukan di Desa Manis Mato sebesar 6,3%. Hasil wawancara singkat terhadap penderita mikrofilaria menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar (68% penderita tidak pernah minum obat pada saat kegiatan pengobatan massal. Setelah pengobatan massal masih ditemukan kasus positif di daerah dengan endemisitas yang masih tinggi, Mf rate>1%. Disarankan kegiatan pengobatan massal hendaknya melibatkan tokoh masyarakat dan lintas sektor terkait dalam rangka membantu memberikan penyuluhan tentang pentingnya minum obat.Kata kunci : Filariasis, Pengobatan Massal, Efektifitas.