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Sample records for brugia malayi larvae

  1. Brugia malayi: vaccination of jirds with /sup 60/cobalt-attenuated infective stage larvae protects against homologous challenge

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    Yates, J.A.; Higashi, G.I.

    1985-11-01

    Vaccination of inbred jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) with /sup 60/cobalt radiation-attenuated Brugia malayi infective stage larvae (L3) protected against homologous challenge given either subcutaneously (sc) or by the intraperitoneal (ip) route. Groups of jirds vaccinated once sc with 75, 15 Krad L3 showed from 69% to 91% reduction in recovered worms after ip challenge infection compared to infection in non-vaccinated control jirds, while 75% reduction in mean worm burden was seen in jirds receiving sc challenge infection. A single sc vaccination with 75, 10 or 20 Krad L3 produced no protection (10 Krad) and 64% reduction in recovered worms (20 Krad). Therefore the 15 Krad dose appeared to be best. A marked increase in anti-B. malayi antibody in vaccinated jirds was seen (by ELISA) immediately after challenge infection and an immunofluorescence assay showed that L3 incubated in serum from vaccinated jirds were completely and uniformly covered with specific antibody. Eosinophil-rich granulomas containing dead and moribund L3 were recovered from vaccinated jirds. This model of protective immunity in a Brugia-susceptible small rodent may provide a useful system for identification of molecularly defined filarial-protective immunogens.

  2. 蚊体内马来丝虫幼虫的基因检测%Studies on Gene Detection of Brugia malayi Larvae in Mosquito

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锡欣; 黄炳成; 刘慎良; 韩广东; 刘新

    2001-01-01

    目的:探索蚊体内马来丝虫幼虫基因检测的新方法,并用于丝虫病监测。方法:利用基因工程技术合成马来丝虫寡核苷酸片段,经32P标记后作为探针,以斑点杂交法检测蚊体内马来丝虫幼虫。结果:该探针可从多种标本中特异地检出马来幼丝虫DNA,敏感性为2ng靶DNA量,蚊体内含1条幼虫即可出现阳性杂交。结论:该技术具有良好的实用性,可用于蚊体内马来丝虫幼虫的基因检测。%Objective:To establish a new method for gene detection of Brugiamalayi larvae in mosquito and use it in filariasis surveillance. Methods:Oligonucleotide fragment of Brugia malayi synthesized by genetic engineering technique was labeled with 32P and used as probe. The B.malayi larvae in mosquito was detected with dot blot. Results: Brugia malayi larvae DNA could be specifically detected in different samples with this probe and the sensitivity was 2 ng target DNA of B.malayi. Even only one larvae in mosquito could be detected after hybridization. Conclusions:This method is practicable and reliable for gene detection of Brugia malayi larvae in mosquito.

  3. Distribution of Brugia malayi larvae and DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes: implications for molecular diagnostics

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    Christensen Bruce M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to extend prior studies of molecular detection of Brugia malayi DNA in vector (Aedes aegypti- Liverpool and non-vector (Culex pipiens mosquitoes at different times after ingestion of infected blood. Results Parasite DNA was detected over a two week time course in 96% of pooled thoraces of vector mosquitoes. In contrast, parasite DNA was detected in only 24% of thorax pools from non-vectors; parasite DNA was detected in 56% of midgut pools and 47% of abdomen pools from non-vectors. Parasite DNA was detected in vectors in the head immediately after the blood meal and after 14 days. Parasite DNA was also detected in feces and excreta of the vector and non-vector mosquitoes which could potentially confound results obtained with field samples. However, co-housing experiments failed to demonstrate transfer of parasite DNA from infected to non-infected mosquitoes. Parasites were also visualized in mosquito tissues by immunohistololgy using an antibody to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Parasite larvae were detected consistently after mf ingestion in Ae. aegypti- Liverpool. Infectious L3s were seen in the head, thorax and abdomen of vector mosquitoes 14 days after Mf ingestion. In contrast, parasites were only detected by histology shortly after the blood meal in Cx. pipiens, and these were not labeled by the antibody. Conclusion This study provides new information on the distribution of filarial parasites and parasite DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes. This information should be useful for those involved in designing and interpreting molecular xenomonitoring studies.

  4. Detection of Brugia malayi infected mosquitoes with a species specific DNA probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A species specific DNA probe (pβm15) was used in a field area where two filarial infections coexist: Brugia malayi in man and Brugia pahangi in cats. In our laboratory at Jakarta, this DNA probe proved to be sensitive enough to detect 500 pg of purified Brugia malayi microfilarial DNA. One to two infective larvae of Brugia malayi could be detected with ease. This DNA probe did not react with infective larvae of Brugia pahangi, Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria spp. Mosquitoes, which are vectors in Riau, were collected and fed on microfilaremic patients of Riau. The set of mosquitoes were tested in parallel with mosquitoes infected with Brugia pahangi from cats. All fed mosquitoes were tested after 10-12 days. Only mosquitoes infected with Brugia malayi reacted with the assay. This study shows that we have succeeded in applying the DNA probe technique in Jakarta. Further application in the field should be encouraged, with some modification of the DNA probing techniques for cheaper and easier implementation. 6 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  5. In vitro silencing of Brugia malayi trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase impairs embryogenesis and in vivo development of infective larvae in jirds.

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    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trehalose metabolic enzymes have been considered as potential targets for drug or vaccine in several organisms such as Mycobacterium, plant nematodes, insects and fungi due to crucial role of sugar trehalose in embryogenesis, glucose uptake and protection from stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP is one of the enzymes of trehalose biosynthesis that has not been reported in mammals. Silencing of tpp gene in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an indispensable functional role of TPP in nematodes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, functional role of B. malayi tpp gene was investigated by siRNA mediated silencing which further validated this enzyme to be a putative antifilarial drug target. The silencing of tpp gene in adult female B. malayi brought about severe phenotypic deformities in the intrauterine stages such as distortion and embryonic development arrest. The motility of the parasites was significantly reduced and the microfilarial production as well as their in vitro release from the female worms was also drastically abridged. A majority of the microfilariae released in to the culture medium were found dead. B. malayi infective larvae which underwent tpp gene silencing showed 84.9% reduced adult worm establishment after inoculation into the peritoneal cavity of naïve jirds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings suggest that B. malayi TPP plays an important role in the female worm embryogenesis, infectivity of the larvae and parasite viability. TPP enzyme of B. malayi therefore has the potential to be exploited as an antifilarial drug target.

  6. Identification of Brugia malayi in vectors with a species-specific DNA probe.

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    Sim, B K; Mak, J W; Cheong, W H; Sutanto, I; Kurniawan, L; Marwoto, H A; Franke, E; Campell, J R; Wirth, D F; Piessens, W F

    1986-05-01

    We evaluated the potential value of a cloned sequence of genomic DNA of Brugia malayi as a species-specific probe. Clone pBm 15 reacted with all stages of 8 different geographic isolates of B. malayi and cross-hybridized with microfilariae of B. timori. It did not hybridize with Wuchereria bancrofti or with B. pahangi, W. kalimantani, Dirofilaria repens, Breinlia booliati or Cardiofilaria species, animal filariids that can be sympatric with B. malayi. P32-labeled clone pBm 15 correctly identified mosquitoes infected even with 1 infective larva of B. malayi. This specific DNA probe should be an invaluable tool to monitor control programs of Brugian filariasis. PMID:3518507

  7. The Immunodominant Brugia malayi Paramyosin as a Marker of Current Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti Adult Worms

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    Langy, Sandra; Plichart, Catherine; Luquiaud, Patrick; Williams, Steven A.; Nicolas, Luc

    1998-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence encoding Brugia malayi L3 paramyosin has been isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library with a mouse antiserum raised against Wuchereria bancrofti L3 infective larvae. A recombinant truncated form of paramyosin was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and used to evaluate humoral responses of adults from a W. bancrofti-endemic area in French Polynesia according to their parasitological status. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) preferentially bound to p...

  8. Whole body lymphangioscintigraphy in ferrets chronically infected with Brugia malayi

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    Witte, M.; McNeill, G.; Crandall, C.; Case, T.; Witte, C.; Crandall, R.; Hall, J.; Williams, W.

    1988-12-01

    Whole body lymphangioscintigraphy was performed after intradermal injection of /sup 99m/technetium human serum albumin or antimony colloid in the distal hindlimbs and forelimbs of ferrets chronically infected with Brugia malayi. The findings were compared with control ferrets and those with surgical interruption of the iliac lymphatics. While only one infected ferret manifested chronic hindlimb lymphedema, all exhibited delayed transport of radioisotope from the hindpaw with obstruction in the groin, poor or absent visualization of central lymphatic channels and regional lymph nodes, a picture similar to that following surgically induced lymphatic obstruction. In control ferrets, there was prompt visualization of peripheral lymphatic channels and regional lymph nodes with sharper and more extensive channel visualization after radiolabeled albumin and more intense sustained nodal visualization after radiolabeled antimony colloid. This noninvasive technique provides a readily repeatable investigative tool adaptable to small animals to study the evolution of lymphatic filariasis and other conditions associated with lymphatic obstruction.

  9. The effect of chitin synthesis inhibitors on the development of Brugia malayi in Aedes aegypti.

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    Mohapatra, R; Ranjit, M R; Dash, A P

    1996-09-01

    Two chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) viz., triflumuron and hexaflumuron interfere++ with the development of Brugia malayi in Aedes aegypti (a black-eyed Liverpool strain). The development of B. malayi was slow in both the treated populations and the infection rate, infectivity rate and L3 load per mosquito decreased significantly (P triflumuron. PMID:8984113

  10. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

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    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  11. Dissection and PCR-based detection of Brugia malayi on Mansonia spp in Tanjung Jabung Timur District

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    Santoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a public health problem in East Tanjung Jabung. Eventhough that mass treatment had been carried out since 2002, there were still villages with microfilaria rate >1%. This study aims to detect filarial worm larvae in the mosquitoes with dissections and PCR method. The mosquitoes used in this study were Mansonia spp. The number of mosquitoes that examined was 450,133 and some of Mansonia mosquitoes were checked by PCR. The result showed that microscopic dissection did not found stage 3 (L3 of filarial worm larvae in the mosquitoes. The results from PCR test showed the presence of B. malayi DNA in 8 samples of Ma. indiana. Mansonia indiana is a potential vectors for Brugia malayi filariasis in East Tanjung Jabung. PCR method is more sensitive examination in detecting microfilaria compared with dissection method.

  12. Ultrastructural studies on the microfilaria of Brugia malayi

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    Tongu,Yasumasa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of microfilaria Brugia malayi was investigated with electron microscope. Microfilariae are covered by a sheath membrane with dense materials on its outer surfaces. The cuticle consists of 3 layers; namely, external cortical, internal cortical and fibrous layer. Beneath these cuticular layers, thin hypodermis is present and the muscle cells are arranged of 4 groups in a crosssection except for the head and tail. A pair of cephalic channel containing several cilial rods opens at the anterior end of the worm. A hook is situated on the anterior edge of one channel orifice, and several spines grow on the opposite side to the hook. Caudal channels paired laterally opening into the both sides of the posterior region differ from cephalic channels by the presence of a single cilial rod. A central canal runs from the buccal cavity to the inner body, and opens into the inner body cell through the filamentous apparatus. The inner body appears to consist of several cells having storage substances and a flat nucleus located on the periphery of the cell. An excretory apparatus, i. e., a cell, is composed of a nucleus and a large vesicle which has many microprojections on the luminal surfaces. The GI cell which occupies the whole width in a cross-section is larger than the R cell. R2-R4 cells appear to be in a close contact with the anal apparatus having many microprojections on the luminal surfaces. These microprojections differ from those of the excretory vesicle in their thickness and length. The characteristic patterns of these organs are compared with other microfilariae.

  13. A STUDY ON THE MICROFILARIAL PERIODICITY AT BIREUEN, THE TYPE LOCALITY OF BRUGIA MALAYI (BRUG, 1927

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    Menabu Sasa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brugia malayi ('Brug, 1927 adalah salah satu bibit penyakit filaría yang ditemukan di Indonesia yang dilaporkan pertama kali oleh Brug ditahun 1927 dari daerah endemis Bireuen, Aceh Utara. Walaupun akhir-akhir ini diketahui di Indonesia bahwa B. malayi ini mempunyai sifat periodisitas yang periodik nokturna dan juga sub-periodik nokturna, namun dari daerah endemis Bireuen dimana parasit ini pertama kali ditemukan dan dilaporkan belum jelas sifat periodisitasnya. Oleh sebab itulah dilakukan penyelidikan didaerah ini guna menentukan sifat periodisitas dari B. malayi didaerah endemis dimana pertama kali bibit penyakit dilaporkan. Dari hasil penyelidikan didaerah endemis Bireuen pada bulan Agustus tahun 1974 ini ternyata bahwa B. malayi yang ditemukan mempunyai sifat periodisitas yang periodik nokturna. Disamping itu ditemukan pula bibit penyakit filaría dari jenis Wuchereria bancrofti yang juga mempunyai sifat periodisitas yang periodik nokturna.

  14. Potential involvement of Brugia malayi cysteine proteases in the maintenance of the endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia

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    Sara Lustigman; Elena Melnikow; Setty Balakrishnan Anand; Aroha Contreras; Vijay Nandi; Jing Liu; Aaron Bell; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.; Rogers, Mathew B.; Elodie Ghedin

    2014-01-01

    Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis, harbors endosymbiotic intracellular bacteria, Wolbachia, that are required for the development and reproduction of the worm. The essential nature of this endosymbiosis led to the development of anti-Wolbachia chemotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of human filarial infections. Our study is aimed at identifying specific proteins that play a critical role in this endosymbiotic relationship leading to the identification...

  15. The genome of Brugia malayi – all worms are not created equal

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    Scott, Alan; Ghedin, Elodie

    2008-01-01

    Filarial nematode parasites, the causative agents of elephantiasis and river blindness, undermine the livelihoods of over one hundred millions people in the developing world. Recently, the Filarial Genome Project reported the draft sequence of the ~95 Mb genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi - the first parasitic nematode genome to be sequenced. Comparative genome analysis with the prevailing model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans revealed similarities and differences in genome s...

  16. A Proteomic Analysis of the Body Wall, Digestive Tract, and Reproductive Tract of Brugia malayi

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    Morris, C. Paul; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Kropp, Laura E.; Zweben, Jesse A.; Meng, Zhaojing; Taylor, Rebekah T.; Chan, King; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Nutman, Thomas B; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filarial worms are parasitic nematodes that cause devastating diseases such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. Filariae are nematodes with complex anatomy including fully developed digestive tracts and reproductive organs. To better understand the basic biology of filarial parasites and to provide insights into drug targets and vaccine design, we conducted a proteomic analysis of different anatomic fractions of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of LF. Approximately 500 adult fema...

  17. Modeling analysis of GST (glutathione-S-transferases) from Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi

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    Bhargavi, Rayavarapu; Vishwakarma, Siddharth; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana

    2005-01-01

    GST (glutathione S-transferases) are a family of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced GSH (glutathione) to xenobiotic (endogenous electrophilic) compounds. GST from Wb (Wuchereria bancrofti) and Bm (Brugia malayi) are significantly different from human GST in sequence and structure. Thus, Wb-GST and Bm-GST are potential chemotherapeutic targets for anti-filarial treatment. Comparison of modeled Wb and Bm GST with human GST show structural difference between them. An...

  18. Molecular evidence for a functional ecdysone signaling system in Brugia malayi.

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    George Tzertzinis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filarial nematodes, including Brugia malayi, the causative agent of lymphatic filariasis, undergo molting in both arthropod and mammalian hosts to complete their life cycles. An understanding of how these parasites cross developmental checkpoints may reveal potential targets for intervention. Pharmacological evidence suggests that ecdysteroids play a role in parasitic nematode molting and fertility although their specific function remains unknown. In insects, ecdysone triggers molting through the activation of the ecdysone receptor: a heterodimer of EcR (ecdysone receptor and USP (Ultraspiracle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report the cloning and characterization of a B. malayi EcR homologue (Bma-EcR. Bma-EcR dimerizes with insect and nematode USP/RXRs and binds to DNA encoding a canonical ecdysone response element (EcRE. In support of the existence of an active ecdysone receptor in Brugia we also cloned a Brugia rxr (retinoid X receptor homolog (Bma-RXR and demonstrate that Bma-EcR and Bma-RXR interact to form an active heterodimer using a mammalian two-hybrid activation assay. The Bma-EcR ligand-binding domain (LBD exhibits ligand-dependent transactivation via a GAL4 fusion protein combined with a chimeric RXR in mammalian cells treated with Ponasterone-A or a synthetic ecdysone agonist. Furthermore, we demonstrate specific up-regulation of reporter gene activity in transgenic B. malayi embryos transfected with a luciferase construct controlled by an EcRE engineered in a B. malayi promoter, in the presence of 20-hydroxy-ecdysone. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies and characterizes the two components (Bma-EcR and Bma-RXR necessary for constituting a functional ecdysteroid receptor in B. malayi. Importantly, the ligand binding domain of BmaEcR is shown to be capable of responding to ecdysteroid ligands, and conversely, ecdysteroids can activate transcription of genes downstream of an EcRE in live B. malayi embryos. These results together

  19. Mining predicted essential genes of Brugia malayi for nematode drug targets.

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    Sanjay Kumar

    Full Text Available We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression.

  20. Glucose and Glycogen Metabolism in Brugia malayi Is Associated with Wolbachia Symbiont Fitness.

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    Voronin, Denis; Bachu, Saheed; Shlossman, Michael; Unnasch, Thomas R; Ghedin, Elodie; Lustigman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria found in the majority of arthropods and filarial nematodes of medical and veterinary importance. They have evolved a wide range of symbiotic associations. In filarial nematodes that cause human lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus), Wolbachia are important for parasite development, reproduction and survival. The symbiotic bacteria rely in part on nutrients and energy sources provided by the host. Genomic analyses suggest that the strain of Wolbachia found in B. malayi (wBm) lacks the genes for two glycolytic enzymes--6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase--and is thus potentially unable to convert glucose into pyruvate, an important substrate for energy generation. The Wolbachia surface protein, wBm00432, is complexed to six B. malayi glycolytic enzymes, including aldolase. In this study we characterized two B. malayi aldolase isozymes and found that their expression is dependent on Wolbachia fitness and number. We confirmed by immuno-transmission electron microscopy that aldolase is associated with the Wolbachia surface. RNAi experiments suggested that aldolase-2 plays a significant role in both Wolbachia survival and embryogenesis in B. malayi. Treatment with doxycycline reduced Wolbachia fitness and increased the amount of both glucose and glycogen detected in the filarial parasite, indicating that glucose metabolism and glycogen storage in B. malayi are associated with Wolbachia fitness. This metabolic co-dependency between Wolbachia and its filarial nematode indicates that glycolysis could be a shared metabolic pathway between the bacteria and B. malayi, and thus a potential new target for anti-filarial therapy. PMID:27078260

  1. Insights into the structure-function relationship of Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK).

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    Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Verma, Pravesh; Verma, Anita; Rathaur, Sushma; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by lymph dwelling nematodal parasites like Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Thymidylate kinase of B. malayi is a key enzyme in the de novo and salvage pathways for thymidine 5'-triphosphate (dTTP) synthesis. Therefore, B. malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) is an essential enzyme for DNA biosynthesis and an important drug target to rein in filariasis. In the present study, the structural and functional changes associated with recombinant BmTMK, in the presence of protein denaturant GdnHCl, urea and pH were studied. GdnHCl and urea induced unfolding of BmTMK is non-cooperative and influence the functional property of the enzyme much lower than their Cm values. The study delineate that BmTMK is more prone to ionic perturbation. The dimeric assembly of BmTMK is an absolute requirement for enzymatic acitivity and any subtle change in dimeric conformation due to denaturation leads to loss of enzymatic activity. The pH induced changes on structure and activity suggests that selective modification of active site microenvironment pertains to difference in activity profile. This study also envisages that chemical moieties which acts by modulating oligomeric assembly, could be used for better designing of inhibitors against BmTMK enzyme. PMID:27044348

  2. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

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    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  3. UDP-galactopyranose mutase, a potential drug target against human pathogenic nematode Brugia malayi.

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    Misra, Sweta; Valicherla, Guru R; Mohd Shahab; Gupta, Jyoti; Gayen, Jiaur R; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a vector-borne neglected tropical disease affects millions of population in tropical and subtropical countries. Vaccine unavailability and emerging drug resistance against standard antifilarial drugs necessitate search of novel drug targets for developing alternate drugs. Recently, UDP-galactopyranose mutases (UGM) have emerged as a promising drug target playing an important role in parasite virulence and survival. This study deals with the cloning and characterization of Brugia malayi UGM and further exploring its antifilarial drug target potential. The recombinant protein was actively involved in conversion of UDP-galactopyranose (substrate) to UDP-galactofuranose (product) revealing Km and Vmax to be ∼51.15 μM and ∼1.27 μM/min, respectively. The purified protein appeared to be decameric in native state and its 3D homology modeling using Aspergillus fumigatus UGM enzyme as template revealed conservation of active site residues. Two specific prokaryotic inhibitors (compounds A and B) of the enzyme inhibited B. malayi UGM enzymatic activity competitively depicting Ki values ∼22.68 and ∼23.0 μM, respectively. These compounds were also active in vitro and in vivo against B. malayi The findings suggest that B. malayi UGM could be a potential antifilarial therapeutic drug target. PMID:27465638

  4. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi.

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    Zaridah, M Z; Idid, S Z; Omar, A W; Khozirah, S

    2001-11-01

    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum. PMID:11585692

  5. Suppression of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic larval development in Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain fed on blood of animals immunized with microfilariae

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    K Athisaya Mary

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the role of filarial specific antibodies, raised in an animal model against the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi (sub-periodic, in blocking their early development in an experimental mosquito host, Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain. In order to generate filarial specific antibodies, Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, were immunized either with live microfilariae (mf of B. malayi or their homogenate. Mf were harvested from the peritoneal cavity of Mongolian gerbils with patent infection of B. malayi and fed to A. aegypti along with the blood from immunized animals. Development of the parasite in infected mosquitoes was monitored until they reached infective stage larvae (L3. Fewer number of parasites developed to first stage (L1 and subsequently to L2 and L3 in mosquitoes fed with blood of immunized animals, when compared to those fed with blood of control animals. The results thus indicated that filarial parasite specific antibodies present in the blood of the immunized animals resulted in the reduction of number of larvae of B. malayi developing in the mosquito host.

  6. The genome of Brugia malayi - all worms are not created equal.

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    Scott, Alan L; Ghedin, Elodie

    2009-03-01

    Filarial nematode parasites, the causative agents of elephantiasis and river blindness, undermine the livelihoods of over one hundred million people in the developing world. Recently, the Filarial Genome Project reported the draft sequence of the ~95 Mb genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi - the first parasitic nematode genome to be sequenced. Comparative genome analysis with the prevailing model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans revealed similarities and differences in genome structure and organization that will prove useful as additional nematode genomes are completed. The Brugia genome provides the first opportunity to comprehensively compare the full gene repertoire of a free-living nematode species and one that has evolved as a human pathogen. The Brugia genome also provides an opportunity to gain insight into genetic basis for mutualism, as Brugia, like a majority of filarial species, harbors an endosybiotic bacterium (Wolbachia). The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the results of genomic analysis and how these observations provide new insights into the biology of filarial species. PMID:18952001

  7. Yeast-Based High-Throughput Screens to Identify Novel Compounds Active against Brugia malayi.

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    Elizabeth Bilsland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori, which are transmitted via the bites from infected mosquitoes. Once in the human body, the parasites develop into adult worms in the lymphatic vessels, causing severe damage and swelling of the affected tissues. According to the World Health Organization, over 1.2 billion people in 58 countries are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. Very few drugs are available to treat patients infected with these parasites, and these have low efficacy against the adult stages of the worms, which can live for 7-15 years in the human body. The requirement for annual treatment increases the risk of drug-resistant worms emerging, making it imperative to develop new drugs against these devastating diseases.We have developed a yeast-based, high-throughput screening system whereby essential yeast genes are replaced with their filarial or human counterparts. These strains are labeled with different fluorescent proteins to allow the simultaneous monitoring of strains with parasite or human genes in competition, and hence the identification of compounds that inhibit the parasite target without affecting its human ortholog. We constructed yeast strains expressing eight different Brugia malayi drug targets (as well as seven of their human counterparts, and performed medium-throughput drug screens for compounds that specifically inhibit the parasite enzymes. Using the Malaria Box collection (400 compounds, we identified nine filarial specific inhibitors and confirmed the antifilarial activity of five of these using in vitro assays against Brugia pahangi.We were able to functionally complement yeast deletions with eight different Brugia malayi enzymes that represent potential drug targets. We demonstrated that our yeast-based screening platform is efficient in identifying compounds that can discriminate between human and filarial enzymes. Hence, we are confident

  8. Brugia malayi excreted/secreted proteins at the host/parasite interface: stage- and gender-specific proteomic profiling.

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    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the filarial proteins that interact with the human host. Although the filarial genome has recently been completed, protein profiles have been limited to only a few recombinants or purified proteins of interest. Here, we describe a large-scale proteomic analysis using microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to identify the excretory-secretory (ES products of the L3, L3 to L4 molting ES, adult male, adult female, and microfilarial stages of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The analysis of the ES products from adult male, adult female, microfilariae (Mf, L3, and molting L3 larvae identified 852 proteins. Annotation suggests that the functional and component distribution was very similar across each of the stages studied; however, the Mf contributed a higher proportion to the total number of identified proteins than the other stages. Of the 852 proteins identified in the ES, only 229 had previous confirmatory expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the available databases. Moreover, this analysis was able to confirm the presence of 274 "hypothetical" proteins inferred from gene prediction algorithms applied to the B. malayi (Bm genome. Not surprisingly, the majority (160/274 of these "hypothetical" proteins were predicted to be secreted by Signal IP and/or SecretomeP 2.0 analysis. Of major interest is the abundance of previously characterized immunomodulatory proteins such as ES-62 (leucyl aminopeptidase, MIF-1, SERPIN, glutathione peroxidase, and galectin in the ES of microfilariae (and Mf-containing adult females compared to the adult males. In addition, searching the ES protein spectra against the Wolbachia database resulted in the identification of 90 Wolbachia-specific proteins, most of which were metabolic enzymes that have not been shown to be immunogenic. This proteomic analysis extends our knowledge of the ES and provides insight into the host-parasite interaction.

  9. Identification of a highly immunoreactive epitope of Brugia malayi TPx recognized by the endemic sera.

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    Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Gayatri, Subash Chellam; Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-12-01

    Filarial thiordoxin peroxidase is a major antioxidant that plays a crucial role in parasite survival. Although Brugia malayi TPx has been shown to be a potential vaccine candidate, it shares 63% homology with its mammalian counterpart, limiting its use as a vaccine or drug target. In silico analysis of TPx sequence revealed a linear B epitope in the host's nonhomologous region. The peptide sequence (TPx peptide(27-48)) was synthesized, and its reactivity with clinical sera from an endemic region was analyzed. The peptide showed significantly high reactivity (P patent infection. The high reactivity of the peptide with endemic immune sera equivalent to that of whole protein shows that it forms a dominant B epitope of TPx protein and thus could be utilized for incorporation into a multiepitope vaccine construct for filariasis. PMID:21158641

  10. Cloning and characterization of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi

    OpenAIRE

    Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Reddy, Maryada V.; RAMASWAMY, KALYANASUNDARAM

    2012-01-01

    A human homologue of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein was cloned and characterized from the human filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Sequence analysis showed that W. bancrofti HMGB1 (WbHMGB1) and B. malayi HMGB1 (BmHMGB1) proteins share 99 % sequence identity. Filarial HMGB1 showed typical architectural sequence characteristics of HMGB family of proteins and consisted of only a single HMG box domain that had significant sequence similarity to the pro-inflammat...

  11. The heme biosynthetic pathway of the obligate Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi as a potential anti-filarial drug target.

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    Bo Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filarial parasites (e.g., Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, and Wuchereria bancrofti are causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are among the most disabling of neglected tropical diseases. There is an urgent need to develop macro-filaricidal drugs, as current anti-filarial chemotherapy (e.g., diethylcarbamazine [DEC], ivermectin and albendazole can interrupt transmission predominantly by killing microfilariae (mf larvae, but is less effective on adult worms, which can live for decades in the human host. All medically relevant human filarial parasites appear to contain an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia. This alpha-proteobacterial mutualist has been recognized as a potential target for filarial nematode life cycle intervention, as antibiotic treatments of filarial worms harboring Wolbachia result in the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatments both in vitro and in vivo. Human trials have confirmed this approach, although the length of treatments, high doses required and medical counter-indications for young children and pregnant women warrant the identification of additional anti-Wolbachia drugs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genome sequence analysis indicated that enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis might constitute a potential anti-Wolbachia target set. We tested different heme biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in ex vivo B. malayi viability assays and report a specific effect of N-methyl mesoporphyrin (NMMP, which targets ferrochelatase (FC, the last step. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates evolutionarily significant divergence between Wolbachia heme genes and their human homologues. We therefore undertook the cloning, overexpression and analysis of several enzymes of this pathway alongside their human homologues, and prepared proteins for drug targeting. In vitro enzyme assays revealed a approximately 600-fold difference in drug sensitivities to succinyl acetone (SA between

  12. Detection and quantification of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi DNA in blood samples and mosquitoes using duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongthawin, Jurairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, is still a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Effective diagnostic tools are required for identification of infected individuals, for epidemiological assessment, and for monitoring of control programs. A duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was conducted to differentiate and quantify Wuchereria bancrofti DNA by targeting the long DNA repeat (LDR) element and Brugia malayi DNA by targeting the HhaI element in blood samples and mosquito vectors. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Our results indicated that the duplex ddPCR assay could differentiate and quantify W. bancrofti and B. malayi DNA from blood samples and mosquitoes. DNA from a single larva in 50 μl of a blood sample, or in one mosquito vector, could be detected. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for W. bancrofti are both 100 %. Corresponding values for B. malayi are 100 and 98.3 %, respectively. Therefore, duplex ddPCR is a potential tool for simultaneous diagnosis and monitoring of bancroftian and brugian filariasis in endemic areas. PMID:27085707

  13. Computational prediction of essential genes in an unculturable endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia of Brugia malayi

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    Carlow Clotilde KS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia (wBm is an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium of Brugia malayi, a parasitic filarial nematode of humans and one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. There is a pressing need for new drugs against filarial parasites, such as B. malayi. As wBm is required for B. malayi development and fertility, targeting wBm is a promising approach. However, the lifecycle of neither B. malayi nor wBm can be maintained in vitro. To facilitate selection of potential drug targets we computationally ranked the wBm genome based on confidence that a particular gene is essential for the survival of the bacterium. Results wBm protein sequences were aligned using BLAST to the Database of Essential Genes (DEG version 5.2, a collection of 5,260 experimentally identified essential genes in 15 bacterial strains. A confidence score, the Multiple Hit Score (MHS, was developed to predict each wBm gene's essentiality based on the top alignments to essential genes in each bacterial strain. This method was validated using a jackknife methodology to test the ability to recover known essential genes in a control genome. A second estimation of essentiality, the Gene Conservation Score (GCS, was calculated on the basis of phyletic conservation of genes across Wolbachia's parent order Rickettsiales. Clusters of orthologous genes were predicted within the 27 currently available complete genomes. Druggability of wBm proteins was predicted by alignment to a database of protein targets of known compounds. Conclusion Ranking wBm genes by either MHS or GCS predicts and prioritizes potentially essential genes. Comparison of the MHS to GCS produces quadrants representing four types of predictions: those with high confidence of essentiality by both methods (245 genes, those highly conserved across Rickettsiales (299 genes, those similar to distant essential genes (8 genes, and those with low confidence of essentiality (253 genes. These data facilitate

  14. Transcription profiling reveals stage- and function-dependent expression patterns in the filarial nematode Brugia malayi

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    Li Ben-Wen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brugia malayi is a nematode parasite that causes lymphatic filariasis, a disfiguring and disabiling tropical disease. Although a first draft genome sequence was released in 2007, very little is understood about transcription programs that govern developmental changes required for the parasite’s development and survival in its mammalian and insect hosts. Results We used a microarray with probes that represent some 85% of predicted genes to generate gene expression profiles for seven parasite life cycle stages/sexes. Approximately 41% of transcripts with detectable expression signals were differentially expressed across lifecycle stages. Twenty-six percent of transcripts were exclusively expressed in a single parasite stage, and 27% were expressed in all stages studied. K-means clustering of differentially expressed transcripts revealed five major transcription patterns that were associated with parasite lifecycle stages or gender. Examination of known stage-associated transcripts validated these data sets and suggested that newly identified stage or gender-associated transcripts may exercise biological functions in development and reproduction. The results also indicate that genes with similar transcription patterns were often involved in similar functions or cellular processes. For example, nuclear receptor family gene transcripts were upregulated in gene expression pattern four (female-enriched while protein kinase gene family transcripts were upregulated in expression pattern five (male-enriched. We also used pair-wise comparisons to identify transcriptional changes between life cycle stages and sexes. Conclusions Analysis of gene expression patterns of lifecycle in B. malayi has provided novel insights into the biology of filarial parasites. Proteins encoded by stage-associated and/or stage-specific transcripts are likely to be critically important for key parasite functions such as establishment and maintenance of

  15. A deep sequencing approach to comparatively analyze the transcriptome of lifecycle stages of the filarial worm, Brugia malayi.

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    Young-Jun Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing intervention strategies for the control of parasitic nematodes continues to be a significant challenge. Genomic and post-genomic approaches play an increasingly important role for providing fundamental molecular information about these parasites, thus enhancing basic as well as translational research. Here we report a comprehensive genome-wide survey of the developmental transcriptome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using deep sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of eggs and embryos, immature (≤3 days of age and mature microfilariae (MF, third- and fourth-stage larvae (L3 and L4, and adult male and female worms. Comparative analysis across these stages provided a detailed overview of the molecular repertoires that define and differentiate distinct lifecycle stages of the parasite. Genome-wide assessment of the overall transcriptional variability indicated that the cuticle collagen family and those implicated in molting exhibit noticeably dynamic stage-dependent patterns. Of particular interest was the identification of genes displaying sex-biased or germline-enriched profiles due to their potential involvement in reproductive processes. The study also revealed discrete transcriptional changes during larval development, namely those accompanying the maturation of MF and the L3 to L4 transition that are vital in establishing successful infection in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characterization of the transcriptional program of the parasite's lifecycle is an important step toward understanding the developmental processes required for the infectious cycle. We find that the transcriptional program has a number of stage-specific pathways activated during worm development. In addition to advancing our understanding of transcriptome dynamics, these data will aid in the study of genome structure and organization by facilitating

  16. Localization of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic) adults in different organs of Mastomys coucha and its influence on microfilaraemia and host antibody response

    OpenAIRE

    K Athisaya Mary; SL Hoti; Paily KP

    2006-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi is a spectral disease and produces wide range of immune responses and varying levels ofmicrofilaraemia in infected individuals. The relationship between the immune response of host and the developmental stage of the parasite as well as the microfilariae (mf) density and specific location of the adult worms is yet to be understood. As an experimental model, B. malayi adapted in the experimental animal Masto...

  17. Production of Brugia malayi BmSXP Recombinant Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

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    Khoo, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. One such kit, panLF RapidTM (commercialized by Malaysian BioDiagnostic Research Sdn. Bhd. had been developed in our laboratory for the detection of all species of filarial infections. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant Brugia malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. In this study, the growth of recombinant bacteria that produce BmSXP was optimized under shake flask fermentation for high yield of the recombinant antigen. The optimizations involved selection of suitable growth medium, IPTG concentration and induction time. The medium that yielded the highest biomass as well as total protein was Terrific Broth (TB medium, which is an undefined medium. Initiation of induction of protein expression was found to be best at mid-log phase (OD600 = 1.5, with IPTG concentration of 1.0 mM, and harvest time at 9 h post-induction. This study showed that under the optimized conditions, the shake flask culture produced 4 g/L biomass (dry cell weight of recombinant Escherichia coli BmSXP/pPROEXHTa/TOP10F’, which yielded 2.42 mg/L of purified BmSXP recombinant antigen. The purified antigen was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and the antigenicity of protein was confirmed by Western blot.

  18. Potential involvement of Brugia malayi cysteine proteases in the maintenance of the endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia

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    Sara Lustigman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis, harbors endosymbiotic intracellular bacteria, Wolbachia, that are required for the development and reproduction of the worm. The essential nature of this endosymbiosis led to the development of anti-Wolbachia chemotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of human filarial infections. Our study is aimed at identifying specific proteins that play a critical role in this endosymbiotic relationship leading to the identification of potential targets in the adult worms. Filarial cysteine proteases are known to be involved in molting and embryogenesis, processes shown to also be Wolbachia dependent. Based on the observation that cysteine protease transcripts are differentially regulated in response to tetracycline treatment, we focused on defining their role in symbiosis. We observe a bimodal regulation pattern of transcripts encoding cysteine proteases when in vitro tetracycline treated worms were examined. Using tetracycline-treated infertile female worms and purified embryos we established that the first peak of the bimodal pattern corresponds to embryonic transcripts while the second takes place within the hypodermis of the adult worms. Localization studies of the native proteins corresponding to Bm-cpl-3 and Bm-cpl-6 indicate that they are present in the area surrounding Wolbachia, and, in some cases, the proteins appear localized within the bacteria. Both proteins were also found in the inner bodies of microfilariae. The possible role of these cysteine proteases during development and endosymbiosis was further characterized using RNAi. Reduction in Bm-cpl-3 and Bm-cpl-6 transcript levels was accompanied by hindered microfilarial development and release, and reduced Wolbachia DNA levels, making these enzymes strong drug target candidates.

  19. The Effects of Ivermectin on Brugia malayi Females In Vitro: A Transcriptomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Burkman, Erica; Zaky, Weam I.; Xia, Jianguo; Moorhead, Andrew; Williams, Steven A.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases of major importance in developing countries. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where the diseases are co-endemic. Although ivermectin paralyzes somatic and pharyngeal muscles in many nematodes, these actions are poorly characterized in adult filariae. We hypothesize that paralysis of pharyngeal pumping by ivermectin in filariae could result in deprivation of essential nutrients, especially iron, inducing a wide range of responses evidenced by altered gene expression, changes in metabolic pathways, and altered developmental states in embryos. Previous studies have shown that ivermectin treatment significantly reduces microfilariae release from females within four days of exposure in vivo, while not markedly affecting adult worms. However, the mechanisms responsible for reduced production of microfilariae are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed transcriptomic profiles from Brugia malayi adult females, an important model for other filariae, using RNAseq technology after exposure in culture to ivermectin at various concentrations (100 nM, 300 nM and 1 μM) and time points (24, 48, 72 h, and 5 days). Our analysis revealed drug-related changes in expression of genes involved in meiosis, as well as oxidative phosphorylation, which were significantly down-regulated as early as 24 h post-exposure. RNA interference phenotypes of the orthologs of these down-regulated genes in C. elegans include “maternal sterile”, “embryonic lethal”, “larval arrest”, “larval lethal” and “sick”. Conclusion/Significance These changes provide insight into the mechanisms involved in ivermectin-induced reduction in microfilaria output and impaired fertility, embryogenesis, and larval development. PMID:27529747

  20. Immunization of Mastomys coucha with Brugia malayi recombinant trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase results in significant protection against homologous challenge infection.

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    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available Development of a vaccine to prevent or reduce parasite development in lymphatic filariasis would be a complementary approach to existing chemotherapeutic tools. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of Brugia malayi (Bm-TPP represents an attractive vaccine target due to its absence in mammals, prevalence in the major life stages of the parasite and immunoreactivity with human bancroftian antibodies, especially from endemic normal subjects. We have recently reported on the cloning, expression, purification and biochemical characterization of this vital enzyme of B. malayi. In the present study, immunoprophylactic evaluation of Bm-TPP was carried out against B. malayi larval challenge in a susceptible host Mastomys coucha and the protective ability of the recombinant protein was evaluated by observing the adverse effects on microfilarial density and adult worm establishment. Immunization caused 78.4% decrease in microfilaremia and 71.04% reduction in the adult worm establishment along with sterilization of 70.06% of the recovered live females. The recombinant protein elicited a mixed Th1/Th2 type of protective immune response as evidenced by the generation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and an increased production of antibody isotypes IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA. Thus immunization with Bm-TPP conferred considerable protection against B. malayi establishment by engendering a long-lasting effective immune response and therefore emerges as a potential vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis (LF.

  1. DETECTION OF BRUGIA MALAYI INFECTED MOSQUITOES WITH SPECIES SPECIFIC DNA PROBE pBm 15, IN RIAU, INDONESIA

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    L. Kurniawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A species specific DNA probe (pBm15 was used in a field area where 2 filarial infections coexist: B.malayi in man and B.pahangi in cats. In our laboratory in Jakarta, this DNA probe proved to be sensitive enough to detect 500 ng DNA. One to two infective larvae of B.malayi could be detected with ease. This DNA probe did not react with infective larvae of wuchereria bancrofti, B.pahangi, and Dirofilaria spp. Non specific binding caused by undefined mosquito components was overcome with proteinase K and chitinase treatment. This additional step, made it possible for whole body mosquitoes to be squashed directly onto nitrocellulose paper. A comparative study of experimental infections of laboratory bred mosquitoes infected with B.malayi, showed no difference in infection rate between the group examined by dissection or by DNA probing. Mosquitoes which are vectors in Riau were collected and fed on microfilaremic patients of Riau. The set of mosquitoes were tested in parallel with mosquitoes infected with B.pahangi from cats. All fed mosquitoes were tested after 10-12 days. Only mosquitoes infected with B.malayi reacted in the assay. This study shows a success in applying the DNA probe technique in Jakarta. Further application in the field should be encouraged, with some modification of the DNA probing technique, for cheaper and easier implementation.

  2. Treatment Follow-up of Brugia malayi Microfilaraemic and Amicrofilaraemic Individuals with Serological Evidence of Active Infection

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    Rahmah, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis caused by Brugia malayi and Brugia timori affects ~13 million Asians. In order to ensure elimination of these infections in the context of the Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF, assays which are more sensitive than night blood examination must be employed. IgG4 assay using BmR1 recombinant antigen has been shown to be highly specific and sensitive for diagnosis of brugian filariasis. To provide further evidence of the diagnostic value of this assay, treatment follow-up study was performed on B. malayi microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic individuals who were positive by the BmR1-based IgG4-ELISA. Group 1 comprised 22 treated microfilaraemic individuals; group 2A comprised 13 treated amicrofilaraemic individuals and group 2B (control group comprised 16 untreated amicrofilaraemic individuals. Group 1 individuals demonstrated decline in IgG4 levels with treatment and all participants were negative by the end of the 21 months study period. Group 2A also demonstrated IgG4 decline to negativity by 21 months, with re-treatment at 12 months performed on 3 individuals. In group 2B untreated individuals, at 21 months seven participants remained IgG4 positive while nine individuals were IgG4 negative, possibly through spontaneous death of adult worms. Significant difference (p=0.008 was observed when proportions between group 2A and group 2B were compared. This study showed decline of filaria-specific IgG4 post-treatment in both microfilaria positive and microfilaria negative individuals. In addition amicrofilaraemic IgG4 positive individuals were shown to be infected as evidenced by the significant difference between treated and untreated groups of individuals. Therefore, this study strengthened the reported findings that IgG4 assay based on BmR1 recombinant antigen is a good diagnostic tool for brugian filariasis.

  3. Are C. elegans receptors useful targets for drug discovery: Pharmacological comparison of tyramine receptors with high identity from Caenorhabditis elegans (TYRA-2) and Brugia malayi (Bm4)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Katherine A.; Rex, Elizabeth B.; Komuniecki, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    The biogenic amine, tyramine (TA), modulates a number of key processes in nematodes and a number of TA-specific receptors have been identified. In the present study we have identified a putative TA receptor (Bm4) in the recently completed Brugia malayi genome and compared its pharmacology to its putative C. elegans orthologue, TYRA-2, under identical expression and assay conditions. TYRA-2 and Bm4 are the most closely related C. elegans and B. malayi BA receptors and differ by only 14 aa in t...

  4. Rapid Detection and Identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B. pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in Mosquito Vectors and Blood Samples by High Resolution Melting Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Kaewkong, Worasak; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Choochote, Wej; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples was developed using a real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Amplicons of the 4 filarial species were generated from 5S rRNA and spliced leader sequences by the real-time PCR and their melting temperatures were determined by the HRM method. Melting of amplicons from W. ban...

  5. Host NK cells are required for the growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S; Porte, P; Klei, T R; Shultz, L D; Rajan, T V

    1998-08-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis, which afflicts an estimated 120 million people worldwide, is caused by the large nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Filarial nematodes require both an arthropod vector and a mammalian host to complete their life cycle. Within the definitive (mammalian) host, the lymphatic filarial parasites reside in the lymph nodes and lymphatics, a seemingly hostile environment for infectious agents, since the location exposes them to the immune defenses of the host. We present data here that suggest that the growth of B. malayi in the mammalian host is dependent on host NK cell function. Comparisons of worm survival and development in different strains of mice with varying levels of NK cell activity reveal that NOD/LtSz-scid/scid and NOD/LtSz-scid/scid B2m(null) mice (with diminished to absent NK cell activity respectively), are nonpermissive to worm growth, while C.B-17-scid/scid mice with normal NK cell activity are highly permissive. Depletion of NK cells in the permissive C57BL/6J-scid/scid mice renders them nonpermissive to B. malayi growth, whereas stimulation of NK cells in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice makes them permissive. Tg epsilon26 mice, which lack NK and T cells, are nonpermissive, but, when reconstituted with NK cells by adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells from C57BL16J-scid/scid mice, are rendered permissive. This requirement for NK cell activity may explain the site specificity of these parasites. Furthermore, these data suggest that the interaction of the host immune system with the filarial parasite is double edged, with both host protective and parasite growth-promoting activities emanating from the former. PMID:9686607

  6. Vaccination of Gerbils with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 Concurrently or as a Fusion Protein Confers Consistent and Improved Protection against Brugia malayi Infection.

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    Sridhar Arumugam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brugia malayi Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 proteins are orthologous to Onchocerca volvulus Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, and which were selected as the best candidates for the development of an O. volvulus vaccine. The B. malayi gerbil model was used to confirm the efficacy of these Ov vaccine candidates on adult worms and to determine whether their combination is more efficacious.Vaccine efficacy of recombinant Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 administered individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein were tested in gerbils using alum as adjuvant. Vaccination with Bm-103 resulted in worm reductions of 39%, 34% and 22% on 42, 120 and 150 days post infection (dpi, respectively, and vaccination with Bm-RAL-2 resulted in worm reductions of 42%, 22% and 46% on 42, 120 and 150 dpi, respectively. Vaccination with a fusion protein comprised of Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 resulted in improved efficacy with significant reduction of worm burden of 51% and 49% at 90 dpi, as did the concurrent vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2, with worm reduction of 61% and 56% at 90 dpi. Vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 as a fusion protein or concurrently not only induced a significant worm reduction of 61% and 42%, respectively, at 150 dpi, but also significantly reduced the fecundity of female worms as determined by embryograms. Elevated levels of antigen-specific IgG were observed in all vaccinated gerbils. Serum from gerbils vaccinated with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein killed third stage larvae in vitro when combined with peritoneal exudate cells.Although vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually conferred protection against B. malayi infection in gerbils, a more consistent and enhanced protection was induced by vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 fusion protein and when they were used concurrently. Further characterization and optimization of these filarial vaccines are warranted.

  7. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Brugia malayi Heavy Chain Myosin as Homologous DNA, Protein and Heterologous DNA/Protein Prime Boost Vaccine in Rodent Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Gupta

    Full Text Available We earlier demonstrated the immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant heavy chain myosin (Bm-Myo of Brugia malayi (B. malayi in rodent models. In the current study, further attempts have been made to improve this efficacy by employing alternate approaches such as homologous DNA (pcD-Myo and heterologous DNA/protein prime boost (pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo in BALB/c mouse model. The gene bm-myo was cloned in a mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+ and protein expression was confirmed in mammalian Vero cell line. A significant degree of protection (79.2%±2.32 against L3 challenge in pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunized group was observed which was much higher than that exerted by Bm-Myo (66.6%±2.23 and pcD-Myo (41.6%±2.45. In the heterologous immunized group, the percentage of peritoneal leukocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells marginally increased and their population augmented further significantly following L3 challenge. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunization elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses as compared to pcD-Myo and Bm-Myo groups as evidenced by an increased accumulation of CD4+, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in the mouse spleen and activation of peritoneal macrophages. Though immunized animals produced antigen-specific IgG antibodies and isotypes, sera of mice receiving pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo or Bm-Myo developed much higher antibody levels than other groups and there was profound antibody-dependent cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity (ADCC to B. malayi infective larvae (L3. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo as well as Bm-Myo mice generated a mixed T helper cell phenotype as evidenced by the production of both pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines. Mice receiving pcD-Myo on contrary displayed a polarized pro-inflammatory immune response. The findings suggest that the priming of animals with DNA followed by protein booster generates heightened and mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses that are capable of

  8. Sequences necessary for trans-splicing in transiently transfected Brugia malayi

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Canhui; Oliveira, Ana; Higazi, Tarig B.; Ghedin, Elodie; DePasse, Jay; Thomas R Unnasch

    2007-01-01

    Many genes in parasitic nematodes are both cis- and trans-spliced. Previous studies have demonstrated that a 7nt element encoded in the first intron of the B. malayi 70 kDa heat shock protein (BmHSP70) gene was necessary to permit trans-splicing of transgenic mRNAs in embryos transfected with constructs encoding portions of the BmHSP70 gene. Here we demonstrate that this element (the B. malayi HSP70 trans-splicing motif, or BmHSP70 TSM) is necessary and sufficient to direct trans-splicing of ...

  9. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D Farelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  10. Functional analysis of the cathepsin-like cysteine protease genes in adult Brugia malayi using RNA interference.

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    Louise Ford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathepsin-like enzymes have been identified as potential targets for drug or vaccine development in many parasites, as their functions appear to be essential in a variety of important biological processes within the host, such as molting, cuticle remodeling, embryogenesis, feeding and immune evasion. Functional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans cathepsin L (Ce-cpl-1 and cathepsin Z (Ce-cpz-1 has established that both genes are required for early embryogenesis, with Ce-cpl-1 having a role in regulating in part the processing of yolk proteins. Ce-cpz-1 also has an important role during molting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: RNA interference assays have allowed us to verify whether the functions of the orthologous filarial genes in Brugia malayi adult female worms are similar. Treatment of B. malayi adult female worms with Bm-cpl-1, Bm-cpl-5, which belong to group Ia of the filarial cpl gene family, or Bm-cpz-1 dsRNA resulted in decreased numbers of secreted microfilariae in vitro. In addition, analysis of the intrauterine progeny of the Bm-cpl-5 or Bm-cpl Pro dsRNA- and siRNA-treated worms revealed a clear disruption in the process of embryogenesis resulting in structural abnormalities in embryos and a varied differential development of embryonic stages. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that these filarial cathepsin-like cysteine proteases are likely to be functional orthologs of the C. elegans genes. This functional conservation may thus allow for a more thorough investigation of their distinct functions and their development as potential drug targets.

  11. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Geary, James F; Agnew, Dalen W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2015-12-01

    The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R) on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM-10 μM) for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. PMID:26288741

  12. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeghan O'Neill

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ, a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment.

  13. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeghan O'Neill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ, a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM–10 μM for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.

  14. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D; McCall, John W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2016-05-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  15. Detection of Brugia malayi in laboratory and wild-caught Mansonioides mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) using Hha I PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoti, S L; Vasuki, V; Lizotte, M W; Patra, K P; Ravi, G; Vanamail, P; Manonmani, A; Sabesan, S; Krishnamoorthy, K; Williams, S A

    2001-04-01

    An Hha 1 based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay developed for the detection of Brugia malayi, the causative agent of Brugian lymphatic filariasis, was evaluated for its sensitivity in the laboratory and for its usefulness in measuring changes in transmission of the disease in the field. Laboratory studies showed that the new assay was highly sensitive in comparison with the standard dissection and microscopy technique. The assay can detect as little as 4 pg of parasite DNA or a single microfilaria in pools of up to 100 mosquitoes. The optimum pool size for convenience was found to be 50 mosquitoes per pool. The efficacy of PCR assay was evaluated in filariasis control programmes in operation in endemic areas of Kerala State, South India. The infection rates obtained by the Hha I PCR assay and the conventional dissection and microscopy technique were 1.2% and 1.7% respectively in operational areas and 8.3% and 4.4% respectively, in check areas, which were not significantly different (P used as a new epidemiological tool for assessing parasite infection in field-collected mosquitoes. PMID:11260722

  16. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D.; McCall, John W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6–24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM—10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  17. Inflammatory mediator release byBrugia malayi from macrophages of susceptible hostMastomys coucha andTHP-1 andRAW 264.7 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiv Kumar Verma; Vikas Kushwaha; Vijaya Dubey; Kirti Saxena; Aakanksha Sharma; Puvvada Kalpana Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate which life stage of the parasite has the ability to stimulate release of pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators from macrophages.Methods: The human macrophage/monocyte cell lineTHP-1, the mouse macrophage cell lineRAW 264.7 and naive peritoneal macrophages(PM)from the rodent hostMastomys coucha (M. coucha)were incubated at37 ℃in 5% CO2atmosphere with extracts of microfilariae(Mf), third stage infective larvae(L3) and adult worms (Ad)ofBrugia malayi. After48 hr post exposure,IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and nitric oxide (NO) in cell-free supernatants were estimated.Results: Extracts of all the life stages of the parasite were capable of stimulating pro-(IL-1β, IL-6 andTNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10)cytokines in both the cell lines and peritoneal macrophages ofM. coucha. Mf was the strongest stimulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines followed by L3 and Ad; however, Ad was a strong stimulator ofIL-10 release. Mf was found to have potential to modulateLPS-inducedNO release inRAW cells. Ad-inducedNO release was concentration dependent with maximum at 20 μg/mL in bothRAW andPMs.Conclusions:The results show that parasites at all life stages were capable of stimulating pro- (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory(IL-10) cytokines andNO release from macrophages of susceptible hostM. coucha, human and mouse macrophage cell lines.Mf can suppress theLPS-inducedNO release inRAW cells. The findings also show that the two cell lines may provide a convenientin vitro system for assaying parasite-induced inflammatory mediator release.

  18. Rapid detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B. pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples by high resolution melting real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Kaewkong, Worasak; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Choochote, Wej; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples was developed using a real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Amplicons of the 4 filarial species were generated from 5S rRNA and spliced leader sequences by the real-time PCR and their melting temperatures were determined by the HRM method. Melting of amplicons from W. bancrofti, B. malayi, D. immitis, and B. pahangi peaked at 81.5±0.2℃, 79.0±0.3℃, 76.8±0.1℃, and 79.9±0.1℃, respectively. This assay is relatively cheap since it does not require synthesis of hybridization probes. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100%. It is a rapid and technically simple approach, and an important tool for population surveys as well as molecular xenomonitoring of parasites in vectors. PMID:24516268

  19. Localization of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic adults in different organs of Mastomys coucha and its influence on microfilaraemia and host antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Athisaya Mary

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi is a spectral disease and produces wide range of immune responses and varying levels ofmicrofilaraemia in infected individuals. The relationship between the immune response of host and the developmental stage of the parasite as well as the microfilariae (mf density and specific location of the adult worms is yet to be understood. As an experimental model, B. malayi adapted in the experimental animal Mastomys coucha has been used widely for various studies in filariasis. The present study was to assess microfilaraemia as well as the humoral immune response of M. coucha during various stages of B. malayi development and their localization in different organs. The result showed that the density of mf in the circulating blood of the experimental animal depended upon the number of female worms as well as the location and co-existence of male and female worms. The mf density in the blood increased with the increase in the number of females. The clearance of inoculated infective stage (L3 or single sex infection or segregation of male and female to different organs of infected host resulted in amicrofilaraemic condition. With respect to antibody response, those animals cleared L3 after inoculation and those with adult worm as well as mf showed low antibody levels. But those with developmental fourth stage and/or adult worms without mf showed significantly higher antibody levels.

  20. Are C. elegans receptors useful targets for drug discovery: Pharmacological comparison of tyramine receptors with high identity from Caenorhabditis elegans (TYRA-2) and Brugia malayi (Bm4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine A.; Rex, Elizabeth B.; Komuniecki, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The biogenic amine, tyramine (TA), modulates a number of key processes in nematodes and a number of TA-specific receptors have been identified. In the present study we have identified a putative TA receptor (Bm4) in the recently completed Brugia malayi genome and compared its pharmacology to its putative C. elegans orthologue, TYRA-2, under identical expression and assay conditions. TYRA-2 and Bm4 are the most closely related C. elegans and B. malayi BA receptors and differ by only 14 aa in the TM regions directly involved in ligand binding. Membranes from HEK-293 cells stably expressing Bm4 exhibited specific, saturable, high-affinity, [3H]LSD and [3H]TA binding with Kds of 18.1 ± 0.93 nM and 15.1 ± 0.2 nM, respectively. More importantly, both TYRA-2 and Bm4 TA exhibited similar rank orders of potencies for a number of potential tyraminergic ligands. However, some significant differences were noted. For example, chloropromazine exhibited an order of magnitude higher affinity for Bm4 than TYRA-2 (pKis of 7.6 ± 0.2 and 6.49 ± 0.1, respectively). In contrast, TYRA-2 had significantly higher affinity for phentolamine than Bm4. These results highlight the utility of the nearly completed B. malayi genome and the importance of using receptors from individual parasitic nematodes for drug discovery. PMID:17537528

  1. Protection against filarial infection by 45-49 kDa molecules of Brugia malayi via IFN-γ-mediated iNOS induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shiv K; Joseph, Sujith K; Verma, Richa; Kushwaha, Vikas; Parmar, Naveen; Yadav, Pawan K; Thota, Jagadeshwar Reddy; Kar, Susanta; Murthy, P Kalpana

    2015-01-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediated mechanisms have been implicated in killing of some life-stages of Brugia malayi/Wuchereria bancrofti and protect the host through type 1 responses and IFN-γ stimulated toxic mediators' release. However, the identity of NO stimulating molecules of the parasites is not known. Three predominantly NO-stimulating SDS-PAGE resolved fractions F8 (45.24-48.64 kDa), F11 (33.44-38.44 kDa) and F12 (28.44-33.44 kDa) from B. malayi were identified and their proteins were analyzed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Tropomyosin, calponin and de novo peptides were identified by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF in F8 and immunization with F8 conferred most significant protection against L3-initiated infection in Mastomys coucha. Immunized animals showed upregulated F8-induced NO, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β release, cellular proliferative responses and specific IgG and IgG1. Anti-IFN-γ, anti-TNF-α, and anti-IL-1β significantly reduced F8-mediated NO generation and iNOS induction at protein levels. Anti-IFN-γ treated cells showed maximum reduction (>74%) in NO generation suggesting a predominant role of IFN-γ in iNOS induction. In conclusion, the findings suggest that F8 which contains tropomyosin, calponin and de novo peptides protects the host via IFN-γ mediated iNOS induction and may hold promise as vaccine candidate(s). This is also the first report of identification of tropomyosin and calponin in B. malayi. PMID:25454090

  2. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti identifies a locus that confers resistance to Brugia malayi and alters the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-03-01

    Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait. PMID:25815506

  3. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti identifies a locus that confers resistance to Brugia malayi and alters the immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Juneja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

  4. Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response

    KAUST Repository

    Juneja, Punita

    2015-03-27

    Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

  5. A recombinant plasmid of composite cysteine proteinase inhibitor/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of periodic Brugia malayi functions on DNA immunity in the host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Both cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH play important roles in the pathogenesis of parasites and their relationship with the hosts. We constructed a new eukaryotic recombinant expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH of periodic Brugia malayi for investigation of the DNA vaccine-elicited immune responses. Materials and Methods: We cloned a gene encoding the CPIs and GAPDH from periodic B. malayi into vector pcDNA3.1. The composited plasmid or the control was injected into the tibialis anterior muscle of the hind leg in BALB/c mice, respectively. The target genes were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in muscle tissues. The stimulation index (SI of T-lymphocyte proliferation and the levels of interferon-gamma (INF-g and interleukin-4 ( IL-4 in serum were detected by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: The pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH was amplified from muscle tissues of the mice after immunisation. The SI of the immunised group was significantly higher than that of the two control groups (P < 0.05. The levels of INF-g and IL-4 of pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH group were both higher than those of the two control groups (P < 0.05. The level of INF-g of pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH group was significantly higher than that of pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/CpG group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: We conclude that the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH could elicit specific humoural and cellular immune responses in mice.

  6. Cloning, expression and characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA from Wolbachia endosymbiont of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahab

    Full Text Available Wolbachia, an endosymbiont of filarial nematode, is considered a promising target for treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Although functional characterization of the Wolbachia peptidoglycan assembly has not been fully explored, the Wolbachia genome provides evidence for coding all of the genes involved in lipid II biosynthesis, a part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA is one of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway enzymes and it has inevitably been recognized as an antibiotic target. In view of the vital role of MurA in bacterial viability and survival, MurA ortholog from Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi (wBm-MurA was cloned, expressed and purified for further molecular characterization. The enzyme kinetics and inhibition studies were undertaken using fosfomycin. wBm-MurA was found to be expressed in all the major life stages of B. malayi and was immunolocalized in Wolbachia within the microfilariae and female adults by the confocal microscopy. Sequence analysis suggests that the amino acids crucial for enzymatic activity are conserved. The purified wBm-MurA was shown to possess the EPSP synthase (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase like activity at a broad pH range with optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 37°C temperature. The apparent affinity constant (Km for the substrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine was found to be 0.03149 mM and for phosphoenolpyruvate 0.009198 mM. The relative enzymatic activity was inhibited ∼2 fold in presence of fosfomycin. Superimposition of the wBm-MurA homology model with the structural model of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi-MurA suggests binding of fosfomycin at the same active site. The findings suggest wBm-MurA to be a putative antifilarial drug target for screening of novel compounds.

  7. PENENTUAN JENIS NYAMUK MansoniaSEBAGAI TERSANGKA VEKTOR FILARIASIS Brugia malayi DAN HEWAN ZOONOSIS DI KABUPATEN MUARO JAMBI

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso Santoso; Yahya Yahya; Milana Salim

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakFilariasis merupakan penyakit yang tidak mudah menular. Filariasis adalah penyakit yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk sebagai vector. Jenis nyamuk yang dapat berperan sebagai vector filariasis dipengaruhi oleh jenis cacing penyebab filaria. Brugia spp. umumnya ditularkan oleh nyamuk Mansonia spp dan Anopheles spp. Vektor dan hewan zoonosis merupakan salah satu factor yang dapat perlu mendapat perhatian dalam pengendalian filariasis. Penelitian terhadap vector dan hewan zoonosis telah dilakuka...

  8. Cytokine production in BALB/c mice immunized with radiation attenuated third stage larvae of the filarial nematode, Brugia pahangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BALB/c mice immunized with radiation-attenuated third stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi are strongly immune to challenge infection. Investigation of the profile of cytokines secreted by spleen cells from immune mice stimulated in vitro with either parasite Ag or with Con A revealed high levels of IL-5 and IL-9 and moderate levels of IL-4. In contrast, secretion of IFN-γ by spleen cells from immune animals was negligible. Spleen cells from control mice secreted low levels of all cytokines assayed. Levels of parasite-specific IgE were significantly elevated in immune animals and a peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, which exhibited a biphasic distribution. Our results are consistent with the preferential expansion of Th2 cells in immune animals and provide the basis for dissecting the means by which radiation-attenuated larvae of filarial nematodes stimulate immunity. 5l refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Attempts at immunization against Malayan filariasis using X-irradiated infective larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies on immunity to helminthic infections have shown that some degree of protective immunity may be stimulated by inoculations of attenuated living worms or their metabolites. Although much on these lines has been done with several helminths, little if any has been done with filarial infections in general. Experiments were designed to observe the effects of attempted immunization in the rhesus monkey as well as the domestic cat by the use of attenuated infective larvae of Brugia malayi. The sub-periodic strain of Brugia malayi, the major filarial parasite of man in Malaysia, maintained in the laboratory on experimentally infected cats and rhesus monkeys were used for the preparation of X-irradiated vaccines as well as for challenge inoculations. Third-stage infective larvae of Brugia malayi were obtained from experimentally fed Aedes togoi mosquitoes. Infective larvae were irradiated by X-rays, using a Dermopan X-ray unit at exposures between 10 - 40 kR. Rhesus monkeys and cats were inoculated twice with 100 - 400 attenuated larvae per inoculation at 2 week intervals and challenged about a month later by inoculation of 100 normal larvae. Control animals for each vaccination dose as well as for challenge doses were maintained. In rhesus monkeys persistent immunity to challenge infections (expressed as failure to cause microfilaraemia) were obtained in animals vaccinated with 200 infective larvae attenuated by X-irradiation at 20000 R. Encouraged with the results obtained on rhesus monkeys, similar experiments on an enlarged scale using varying strengths of the vaccines were carried out on the domestic cat, which is a more receptive animal host for Brugia malayi. However, all cats vaccinated when challenged came down with patent infection indicating lack of any definite immunity. In all these experiments, results of vaccine control animals showed that inoculation of irradiated larvae was not followed by the infection of microfilaria in the blood, indicating

  10. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E I M Mouser

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62 from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs.

  11. A reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for detecting filarial infective larvae in mosquitoes.

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    Sandra J Laney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Existing molecular assays for filarial parasite DNA in mosquitoes cannot distinguish between infected mosquitoes that contain any stage of the parasite and infective mosquitoes that harbor third stage larvae (L3 capable of establishing new infections in humans. We now report development of a molecular L3-detection assay for Brugia malayi in vectors based on RT-PCR detection of an L3-activated gene transcript. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Candidate genes identified by bioinformatics analysis of EST datasets across the B. malayi life cycle were initially screened by PCR using cDNA libraries as templates. Stage-specificity was confirmed using RNA isolated from infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were collected daily for 14 days after feeding on microfilaremic cat blood. RT-PCR was performed with primer sets that were specific for individual candidate genes. Many promising candidates with strong expression in the L3 stage were excluded because of low-level transcription in less mature larvae. One transcript (TC8100, which encodes a particular form of collagen was only detected in mosquitoes that contained L3 larvae. This assay detects a single L3 in a pool of 25 mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This L3-activated gene transcript, combined with a control transcript (tph-1, accession # U80971 that is constitutively expressed by all vector-stage filarial larvae, can be used to detect filarial infectivity in pools of mosquito vectors. This general approach (detection of stage-specific gene transcripts from eukaryotic pathogens may also be useful for detecting infective stages of other vector-borne parasites.

  12. Novel drug designing rationale againstBrugia malayi microfilariae using herbal extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharmaRD; PetareS; ShindeGB; KalyanGoswami; ReddyMVR

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of herbal polyphenolics on filariasisin vitro.Methods: Two herbal extracts, methanolic extracts of roots ofVitex negundo Linn. (Nirgundi) and leaves ofAegle marmelos Juss. (Beal) in different concentrations ranging from40-80ng/mL were tested for their antifilarial activity either alone or in combination with diethyl carbonate (DEC)(300μg/mL) and/orH2O2 (0.5 mM).Results:Combination of DEC and each extract had significant anti-filarial effect. And fractions of both extracts were not effective as crude herbal extract.Conclusions:Such unique pharmacodynamics reported in this study might provide new drug development stratagem against filariasis.

  13. Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression by Murine Macrophages in Response to Brugia malayi Wolbachia Surface Protein

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    Chantima Porksakorn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium found in most species of filarial parasites, is thought to play a significant role in inducing innate inflammatory responses in lymphatic filariasis patients. However, the Wolbachia-derived molecules that are recognized by the innate immune system have not yet been identified. In this study, we exposed the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 to a recombinant form of the major Wolbachia surface protein (rWSP to determine if WSP is capable of innately inducing cytokine transcription. Interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF mRNAs were all upregulated by the rWSP stimulation in a dose-dependant manner. TNF transcription peaked at 3 hours, whereas IL-1β and IL-6 transcription peaked at 6 hours post-rWSP exposure. The levels of innate cytokine expression induced by a high-dose (9.0 μg/mL rWSP in the RAW 264.7 cells were comparable to the levels induced by 0.1 μg/mL E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharides. Pretreatment of the rWSP with proteinase-K drastically reduced IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF transcription. However, the proinflammatory response was not inhibited by polymyxin B treatment. These results strongly suggest that the major Wolbachia surface protein molecule WSP is an important inducer of innate immune responses during filarial infections.

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSI710 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TCTCAAATTTATAAAAATAA AAATAAAAAATAAATAAAAATCTATAAG Length of 3' end seq. 618 Connected seq. ID VSI710P Connect...3SZ45O17SK Brugia malayi infective larva cDNA (SAW94WL-BmL3) Brugia malayi cDNA clone...CTTGTTGCCAGTGATTTCATTGCCATCATTAAATCTGCTGTTCCAAAGAAATATTGAAT CTCAAATTTATAAAAATAAAAATAAAAAATAAATAAAAATCTATAAG Length of connect...w**invrifk*rne*is*k*rkc*y fhctiisifrifik*ir**kv*slftkll*ccqrcihr*nqc*yvg*frysir*slvivr eemylanqvs*lqrkqsm...lhslqk ngqrs*lpmnqfgqlvlvplqlhkklkilmfsfvnglvkrflkmlqrkprscmvvllmlt ivitfqsnlismvs*lvvlpllpvis

  15. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, Gary J; Curtis, Kurt C.; Fischer, Peter U.; Kimberly Y Won; Lammie, Patrick J; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2010-01-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded ...

  16. Effectiveness of two rounds of mass drug administration using DEC combined with albendazole on the prevalence of Brugia malayi

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso Santoso; Aprioza Yenni; Reni Oktarina; Tri Wurisastuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Filariasis mass drug administration carried out for 5 consecutive years aims to reduce the prevalence rate of < 1%. Evaluation of treatment needs to be done, one of them with a finger blood survey. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of mass treatment and factors that influence. Methods:The study design was cross-sectional study. Blood sampling performed at night in four selected villages with a number of samples for blood tests as many as 1,209 people. Results:The numb...

  17. Effectiveness of two rounds of mass drug administration using DEC combined with albendazole on the prevalence of Brugia malayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Santoso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Filariasis mass drug administration carried out for 5 consecutive years aims to reduce the prevalence rate of < 1%. Evaluation of treatment needs to be done, one of them with a finger blood survey. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of mass treatment and factors that influence. Methods:The study design was cross-sectional study. Blood sampling performed at night in four selected villages with a number of samples for blood tests as many as 1,209 people. Results:The number of microfilaria positive population of 10 people. The Village with the most number of cases (6 people with a microfilaria rate of 2.08% is Nibung Putih villages. History of fever, behavior taking medication, age and gender related to the incidence of filariasis. Regency East Tanjung Jabung is endemic filariasis because they found villages with Mf rate > 1%. Conclusions: Implementation of filariasis mass treatment was less effective because they can not derive filariasis endemicity. Recommendation: Implementation of filariasis mass treatment needs to be improved by increasing the participation of local community leaders in order to reach all levels of society, including isolated communities.

  18. Brugia lepori sp. n. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) from rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus, S. floridanus) in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, M L

    1984-08-01

    Brugia lepori sp. n., a filarial nematode from the abdominal lymphatics and subcutaneous tissues of rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus, S. floridanus), from St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, is described. Brugia lepori is of moderate size (males 12 to 19 mm, females 39 to 45 mm) and within the genus most closely resembles Brugia beaveri of the raccoon, from which it can be distinguished by its larger size, smaller spicules, and smaller microfilaria which has a shorter cephalic space. Brugia lepori is only the second species of Brugia described from North America and the third species reported from the Western Hemisphere. PMID:6502360

  19. Diagnosis of Brugian Filariasis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Catherine B.; Tanner, Nathan A.; Zhang, Yinhua; Thomas C Evans; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Brugian filariasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasites Brugia malayi or Brugia timori. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and produce large numbers of microfilariae that predominantly circulate in the blood at night. Bloodsucking mosquitoes spread the disease by ingesting microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. In rural areas, diagnosis still relies largely on microscopic examination of...

  20. Possible implication of oxidative stress in anti filarial effect of certain traditionally used medicinal plants in vitro against Brugia malayi microfilariae

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    R D Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tropical disease research scheme of World Health Organization has duly recognized traditional medicine as alternative for antifilarial drug development. Polyphenolic compounds present in traditionally used herbal medicines are natural antioxidants; however, paradoxically they may exert pro-oxidant effect. Popular drug diethyl carbamazine citrate harnesses the innate inflammatory response and the consequent oxidative assault to combat invading microbes. Methods: With this perspective, extracts of Vitex negundo L. (roots, Butea monosperma L. (leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr. (leaves, and Ricinus communis L. (leaves were selected to explore the possible role of oxidative rationale in the antifilarial effect in vitro. Results: Apart from the last, other three plant extracts were reported to have polyphenolic compounds. Dose-dependent increase was found in the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation for all the three plant extracts except Ricinus communis L. (leaves. Such increase in oxidative parameters also showed some degree of plant-specific predilection in terms of relatively higher level of particular oxidative parameter. High degree of correlation was observed between the antifilarial effect and the levels of corresponding oxidative stress parameters for these three plants. However, extracts of Ricinus communis L. (leaves which is relatively deficient in polyphenolic ingredients recorded maximum 30% loss of motility and also did not show any significant difference in various stress parameters from corresponding control levels. Conclusion: These results reveal that targeted oxidative stress might be crucial in the pharmacodynamics.

  1. Brugia timori INFECTION IN LEKEBAI, FLORES: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbain Joesoef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan filariasis pada penduduk Nualolo-Lekebai, Pulau Flores telah dilakukan pada bulan Februari 1975. Kampung Nualolo-Lekebai berpenduduk 680 jiwa, pekerjaan bertani dan menganut agama Nasrani. Kebiasaan hidup di antara penduduk di daerah ini adalah menyerahkan pelaksanaan pekerjaan berat pada kaum wanita, baik di rumah ataupun di kebun. Dalam perjalanan jauh baik ke kebun atau ke pasar, kaum wanitanya selalu berjalan kaki sedangkan kaum prianya menunggang kuda. Sejumlah 80% dari penduduk kampung ini telah diperiksa terhadap infeksi parasit filaria dan terhadap gejala filariasis. Dari hasil yang ditemukan ternyata penduduk kampung ini menderita infeksi Brugia timori dengan angka derajat infeksi sebesar 7.0% dan angka derajat elephantiasis sebesar 10.3%. Hal yang menarik yang ditemukan dalam pengamatan ini adalah tingginya angka derajat elephantiasis pada kaum wanita dibandingkan dengan pada kaum pria. Fenomena ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kebiasaan hidup kaum wanita di daerah ini sehari-hari yang bekerja lebih berat dan berjalan kaki lebih sering dan lebih jauh dibandingkan kaum prianya.

  2. Effect of cyclophosphamide on the immune responsiveness of jirds infected with Brugia pahangi.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, S P; Lammie, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro immune responsiveness of lymphocytes from Brugia pahangi-infected jirds was examined after serial administration of cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg). Cyclophosphamide had no effect on parasite burdens, anti-B. pahangi antibody titers, or suppressed spleen cell reactivity to B. pahangi antigens. Cyclophosphamide restored cellular responsiveness to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen.

  3. Brugia filariasis differentially modulates persistent Helicobacter pylori gastritis in the gerbil model

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Heather R.; Shakya, Krishna P.; MUTHUPALANI, SURESHKUMAR; Ge, Zhongming; Klei, Thomas R.; Whary, Mark T.; James G Fox

    2010-01-01

    In select Helicobacter pylori-infected populations with low gastric cancer, nematode coinfections are common and both helicobacter gastritis and filariasis are modeled in gerbils. We evaluated gastritis, worm counts, tissue cytokine gene expression levels and Th1/Th2-associated antibody responses in H. pylori and Brugia pahangi mono- and coinfected gerbils. H. pylori-associated gastritis indices were significantly lower 21 weeks post-infection in coinfected gerbils (p ≤ 0.05) and were inverse...

  4. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  5. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  6. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  7. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF MALAYAN FILARIASIS IN PUDING VILLAGE, JAMBI PROVINCE (SUMATERA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudomo M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa daerah di Propinsi Jambi akan dikembangkan menjadi daerah transmigrasi, satu di antara­nya adalah daerah Kumpeh yang terletak berdekatan dengan daerah endemik filariasis malayi. Desa yang paling dekat dengan lokasi transmigrasi tersebut adalah desa Puding. Penelitian pendahuluan tentang penyakit filariasis telah dikerjakan di desa Puding untuk mengetahui tingkat endemisitas, periodisitas B. malayi, fauna nyamuk, jenis nyamuk yang potensial menjadi vektor filariasis, hospes reservoir dan keadaan sosial-ekonomi-budaya penduduk setempat. Mf rate pada penduduk desa Puding adalah 18,7% dan dari B. malayi jenis subperiodiknokturna. Nyamuk yang tertangkap terdiri dari enam genera yaitu genus Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Coquilletidia, Mansonia dan Tripteroides. Dari enam genera tersebut yang potensial untuk menjadi vektor filariasis adalah genus Mansonia dan ini didukung dengan diketemukannyd larva stadium L3 (infektif Brugia sp di tubuh nyamuk tersebut. Keadaan sosial-ekonomi-budaya, khususnya menyangkut adat istiadat dan kebiasaan penduduk setempat, telah dipelajari.

  8. Key to marine arthropod larvae

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    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  9. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  10. GAMBARAN PERKEMBANGAN ANTIBODI TERHADAP KOMPONEN PROTEIN CACING MIKROFILARIA MALAYI DARI TRANSMIGRAN DI SULAWESI TENGGARA

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    Basundari Sri Utami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to microfilarial antigen in malayan filariasis was found more prominent in ami-crofilaremic individuals than in the micro filaremics. It has been shown that in amicrofilaremic individuals antibody plays a role in reducing micro filaremiae. The targets antigens of antibody (IgG were shown to be protein components of microfilariae with molecular weight of 75, 70 and 25 Kd. This prospective study was aimed at detecting IgG against microfilariae in transmigrats, who had settled into an filarial endemic area. Sera of 10 individuals at 8, 13, 26, 39 and 52 moths after settling, were examined by ELISA and Wes­tern Blott against microfilaria of B. malayi. Four out of 10 transmigrants showed IgG that recognized the protein components of 77, 70 and 31 Kd and were shown at 39, 52 and 8 months after settling respectively, The IgG against components of 77 and 70 Kd were revealed later than the one against 31 Kd.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0887 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0887 ref|XP_001902801.1| Transmembrane amino acid transporter protein ...[Brugia malayi] gb|EDP28347.1| Transmembrane amino acid transporter protein [Brugia malayi] XP_001902801.1 0.065 28% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1234 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1234 ref|YP_198404.1| 50S ribosomal protein L13 [Wolbachia endosymbiont... strain TRS of Brugia malayi] gb|AAW71162.1| Ribosomal protein L13 [Wolbachia endosymbiont strain TRS of Brugia malayi] YP_198404.1 3.4 26% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1342 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1342 ref|YP_198592.1| Predicted permease [Wolbachia endosymbiont strai...n TRS of Brugia malayi] gb|AAW71350.1| Predicted permease [Wolbachia endosymbiont strain TRS of Brugia malayi] YP_198592.1 2e-05 25% ...

  14. Macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal effects of Neurolaena lobata, a Guatemalan medicinal plant, on Brugia pahangi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Y; Kamachi, T; Yanagi, T; Cáceres, A; Maki, J; Aoki, Y

    2005-03-01

    Twelve extracts of 11 Guatemalan medicinal plants were initially screened in vitro for potential macrofilaricidal activity against Brugia pahangi, a lymphatic dwelling filarial worm, using concentrations from 125 to 1000 microg ml(-1) of each extract that could be dissolved in the culture medium. Of 12 extracts used, the ethanol extract of leaves of Neurolaena lobata showed the strongest activity against the motility of adult worms. Subsequently, the extract of N. lobata was extensively examined in vitro for macro- and micro-filaricidal effects using a series of concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50 and 10 microg ml(-1). The effects were assessed by worm motility, microfilarial release by female worms and a MTT assay. The effect on the motility of adult worms was observed in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The time required to stop motility of both sexes of adult worms was 6 h at 500 microg ml(-1), 24 h at 250 microg ml(-1), and 3 days for females and 4 days for males at 100 microg ml(-1). The movement of females ceased at 4 days at a concentration of 50 microg ml(-1) whereas the motility of males was only reduced. The loss of worm's viability was confirmed by the MTT assay and was similar to the motility results. These concentrations, including 10 microg ml(-1), prevented microfilarial release by females in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Concentrations higher than 100 microg ml(-1) even induced mortality of the microfilariae. The present study suggested that the ethanol extract of Neurolaena lobata has potential macro- and micro-filaricidal activities. PMID:15831109

  15. Disseminated Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Kaliaperumal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old male agricultural labourer presented with generalized itchy lesions over the back and extremities of 5 days duration. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple erythematous linear to serpentine lesions (numbering about 40 about 1-2 mm in width and ranging in length from 7 to 9 cm. The patient had eosinophilia and classical skin lesions, which responded very well to albendazole therapy. All these features supported the clinical diagnosis of dissenmintal cutaneous larva migrans.

  16. STATUS OF BRUGIAN FILARIASIS RESEARCH IN INDONESIA AND FUTURE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyebab penyakit filariasis di Indonesia adalah Brugia malayi dan B. timori. Penyebaran kedua jenis parasit tersebut, serta berbagai masalah perbedaan geografis dari B. malayi, baik pengobatannya dengan chemotherapy maupun immunodiagnosisnya telah diketahui. B. pahangi yang bersumber pada binatang juga telah dilaporkan. Nyamuk-nyamuk sebagai vector untuk B. malayi dan B. timori telah pula disebut. Binatang-binatang liar juga telah dilaporkan sebagai sumber penularan yang sangat potensial melalui subperiodic B. malayi.

  17. Microgavage of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L; Rawls, John F

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development(1-5), physiology(6-11), disease(12-16), and host-microbe interactions(17-25). Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae(26). Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results. We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be

  18. Midgut barrier imparts selective resistance to filarial worm infection in Culex pipiens pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Michalski

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens vector in the Nile Delta, however it is refractory to infection with Brugia spp. Here we report that the infectivity barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens is the mosquito midgut, which inflicts internal and lethal damage to ingested microfilariae. Following per os Brugia exposures, the prevalence of infection is significantly lower in Cx. p. pipiens compared to susceptible mosquito controls, and differs between parasite species with <50% and <5% of Cx. p. pipiens becoming infected with B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. When Brugia spp. mf were inoculated intrathoracically to bypass the midgut, larvae developed equally well as in controls, indicating that, beyond the midgut, Cx. p. pipiens is physiologically compatible with Brugia spp. Mf isolated from Cx. p. pipiens midguts exhibited compromised motility, and unlike mf derived from blood or isolated from the midguts of Ae. aegypti, failed to develop when inoculated intrathoracically into susceptible mosquitoes. Together these data strongly support the role of the midgut as the primary infection barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens. Examination of parasites recovered from the Cx. p. pipiens midgut by vital staining, and those exsheathed with papain, suggest that the damage inflicted by the midgut is subcuticular and disrupts internal tissues. Microscopic studies

  19. Larva therapy in wound management.

    OpenAIRE

    Courtenay, M; Church, J C; Ryan, T J

    2000-01-01

    The use of maggots for wound debridement has a long history and has lately gained ground in several countries. We collected prospective data to examine the current use of larva therapy (LT) in the UK. Quantitative information was collected on 70 patients treated in nine hospitals. LT is used primarily to treat leg ulcers and generally involves three applications of larvae at two to three day intervals. This method is judged effective in wound debridement and promotes the growth of granulation...

  20. Nitric Oxide Limits the Expansion of Antigen-Specific T Cells in Mice Infected with the Microfilariae of Brugia pahangi

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard A.; Devaney, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Infection of BALB/c mice with the microfilariae (Mf) of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi results in an antigen-specific proliferative defect that is induced by high levels of NO. Using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimydl ester and cell surface labeling, it was possible to identify a population of antigen-specific T cells from Mf-infected BALB/c mice that expressed particularly high levels of CD4 (CD4hi). These cells proliferated in culture only when inducible NO synthase was inhibited and accounted for almost all of the antigen-specific proliferative response under those conditions. CD4hi cells also expressed high levels of CD44, consistent with their status as activated T cells. A similar population of CD4hi cells was observed in cultures from Mf-infected gamma interferon receptor knockout (IFN-γR−/−) mice. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining revealed that the CD4+ T cells from Mf-infected wild-type mice were preferentially susceptible to apoptosis compared to CD4+ T cells from IFN-γR−/− mice. These studies suggest that the expansion of antigen-specific T cells in Mf-infected mice is limited by NO. PMID:12379675

  1. The uptake in vitro of dyes, monosaccharides and amino acids by the filarial worm Brugia pahangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of D-glucose and L-leucine by B. pahangi was demonstrated using autoradiographic and scintillation counting techniques and incorporation into worm tissues was detected. Glucose was found to be readily incorporated in the apical, glycogen-rich areas of the myocytes of worms of all ages studied and in the uterine epithelium of the adult female. In contrast, a lower incorporation of D-glucose was found in the eggs, embryos and vas deferens and especially in the gut. The incorporation of L-leucine occurred throughout the tissue of the worms during a 30 min incubation. Labelling was also located over the surface of the cuticle of the worms, when incubated for a period of 15 to 60 min in L-[3H]leucine. Scintillation counting techniques demonstrated that there was no uptake of 14C-labelled L-glucose or sucrose by B. pahangi. The data presented on the uptake in vitro of nutrients or other compounds by infective larvae and adult stages of B. pahangi did not demonstrate an intestinal route of uptake but indicated that the transcuticular route of uptake may be employed. (author)

  2. Bacterial endosymbionts of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several groups of bacteria have been reported as endosymbionts of various orders of nematodes including the filarial nematodes (Brugia malayi, Wucheria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus (Spiruida)), the entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp., and Heterorhabditis spp. (Rhabditida)), and plant-p...

  3. Cutaneous larva migrans--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L L

    2005-04-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption is an uncommon parasitic skin infection caused by the filariform larvae of dog or cat hook worms. We report a case of larva migrans on the anterior abdominal wall, in a 52 year old lady, who did gardening as a hobby. PMID:15928447

  4. Cutaneous Larva Migrans - A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy L; Rao L

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption is an uncommon parasitic skin infection caused by the filariform larvae of dog or cat hook worms. We report a case of larva migrans on the anterior abdominal wall, in a 52 year old lady, who did gardening as a hobby.

  5. Cutaneous Larva Migrans - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption is an uncommon parasitic skin infection caused by the filariform larvae of dog or cat hook worms. We report a case of larva migrans on the anterior abdominal wall, in a 52 year old lady, who did gardening as a hobby.

  6. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  7. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  8. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x103 spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5±0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D10 (3.1±0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  9. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  10. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens. PMID:27394713

  11. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  12. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  13. Molecular Characterization of Ancylostoma braziliense Larvae in a Patient with Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    OpenAIRE

    Joncour, Alexandre Le; Lacour, Sandrine A.; Lecso, Gabriel; Regnier, Stéphanie; Guillot, Jacques; Caumes, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans diagnosed microscopically. Viable hookworm larvae were found by microscopic examination of a skin scraping from follicular lesions. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 allowed the specific identification of the larvae as Ancylostoma braziliense.

  14. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Christina A; Bidlow, Chelsea M; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Alberto A; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K C; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R; Knudsen, Giselle M; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A

    2015-02-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  15. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Bulman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC, and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode.

  16. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  17. Directional flow sensing by passively stable larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Christman, Adam J; Gerbi, Gregory P; Hunter, Elias J; Diez, F Javier

    2015-09-01

    Mollusk larvae have a stable, velum-up orientation that may influence how they sense and react to hydrodynamic signals applied in different directions. Directional sensing abilities and responses could affect how a larva interacts with anisotropic fluid motions, including those in feeding currents and in boundary layers encountered during settlement. Oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to simple shear in a Couette device and to solid-body rotation in a single rotating cylinder. Both devices were operated in two different orientations, one with the axis of rotation parallel to the gravity vector, and one with the axis perpendicular. Larvae and flow were observed simultaneously with near-infrared particle-image velocimetry, and behavior was quantified as a response to strain rate, vorticity and centripetal acceleration. Only flows rotating about a horizontal axis elicited the diving response observed previously for oyster larvae in turbulence. The results provide strong evidence that the turbulence-sensing mechanism relies on gravity-detecting organs (statocysts) rather than mechanosensors (cilia). Flow sensing with statocysts sets oyster larvae apart from zooplankters such as copepods and protists that use external mechanosensors in sensing spatial velocity gradients generated by prey or predators. Sensing flow-induced changes in orientation, rather than flow deformation, would enable more efficient control of vertical movements. Statocysts provide larvae with a mechanism of maintaining their upward swimming when rotated by vortices and initiating dives toward the seabed in response to the strong turbulence associated with adult habitats. PMID:26333930

  18. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to th...

  19. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  20. Habitat selection by emperor fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Y; Shibuno, T.; Lecchini, David; Watanabe, Y.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great puzzles of coral reef fish ecology is how pelagic larvae locate the habitat in which they settle. The present study explored whether offshore emperor fish (Lethrinidae) larvae selected a specific reef and/or habitat at settlement. Although older juveniles are known to use back-reef seagrass beds as a potential nursery habitat, information is scarce regarding pre-settlement larvae. Using light traps anchored on the reef slopes at seagrass-replete and seagrass-free reefs (lshig...

  1. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. PMID:26179750

  2. Visceral larva migrans caused by Trichuris vulpis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakano, T; Hamamoto, K.; Kobayashi, Y; Sakata, Y; Tsuji, M.; Usui, T.

    1980-01-01

    Two brothers with visceral larva migrans caused by Trichuris vulpis were diagnosed after they had been investigated for an eosinophilia. Both patients were almost asymptomatic. The diagnosis of visceral larva migrans was based on the results of immunoelectrophoretic studies and no liver biopsy was performed. After administration of thiabendazole, the number of eosinophils and serum total IgE levels gradually decreased, and the patients have remained well.

  3. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  4. Attraction to and learning from social cues in fruitfly larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2013-01-01

    We examined the use of social information in fruitfly larvae, which represent an ideal model system owing to their robust learning abilities, small number of neurons and well-studied neurogenetics. Focal larvae showed attraction to the distinct odour emanating from food occupied by other larvae. In controlled learning experiments, focal larvae preferred novel odours previously paired with food occupied by other larvae over novel odours previously paired with unoccupied food. When we gave grou...

  5. Late presentation of cutaneous larva migrans: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous larva migrans is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas. A history of recent travel to the tropics is usually elicited. Case presentation A case of cutaneous larva migrans is described in which symptoms did not appear until five months after travel to Tanzania. Conclusion Although the lesion of cutaneous larva migrans may appear immediately, the larvae may lie dormant for many months and presentation may therefore occur a long time a...

  6. Dicty_cDB: SSK644 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n*iikslkfvhkivivlpkvhsqvksvlicwli*vfhtlslvivreem ylanqvs*lqrkqsmqfh*vsqlsyv*vnf*qtenqi...riosephosphate isomerase; Short... 511 e-143 FN357296_92( FN357296 |pid:none) Schistosoma mansoni genome seq...slated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: iy*iik*tnk*ink*ik*qelelfllveiik*mvvnqc*nl*vke*mnqlkikkmlifsl hhhihi*nfyqi...ayi infective larva cDNA (SAW94WL-BmL3) Brugia malayi cDNA clone BSBmL3SZ08K6SK 5', mRNA sequence. 46 5e-07 3 E17071 |E17071.1 Can...: 0.00 rib: 0.00 bac: 0.00 m1a: 0.00 m1b: 0.00 m2 : 0.00 mNt: 0.00 m3a: 0.00 m3b: 1.00 m_ : 0.00 32.0 %: plasma membran

  7. Effect of gamma rays on the larvae of Rhipicephalus bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhipicephalus bursa larvae were exposed to a single acute gamma-irradiation from cobalt 60 source in doses from 0.5 to 40 kiloroentgen (kr). Doses higher than 20 kr rilled the larvae, lower than 10 kr produced disturbances in tick development, dependent on radiation; larvae irradiated with 2 to 3 kr started sucking blood as larvae ordinarily do, but could not undergo metamorphosis; larvae irradiated with lower doses (0.5 and 1 kr) had a prolonged metamorphosis, the onset of oviposition was delayed and the percentage of hatched second generation larvae was reduced. (A.B.)

  8. Dispersal strategies in sponge larvae: integrating the life history of larvae and the hydrologic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Simone; Uriz, María-J; Turon, Xavier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2006-08-01

    While known to be uniformly non-feeding, short-lived, and potentially short dispersing, sponge larvae display different behaviours (swimming ability and taxis). Our aim was to show whether sponge larvae with different behaviours exhibit different dispersal strategies under variable intensity of water movements. We first assessed the distribution of larvae of six taxa: Dictyoceratida spp., Dysidea avara, Crambe crambe, Phorbas tenacior, Scopalina lophyropoda, and Cliona viridis, collected through plankton sampling, and the abundance of the corresponding adult sponges across three hard bottom communities and a sandy bottom from a north-west Mediterranean rocky shore. We then tested adult-larvae couplings (abundance of larvae vs abundance of adults) under increasing levels of water movements (surge) to assess the importance of this environmental factor in driving differences in dispersal strategies. Adults of Dictyoceratida spp., D. avara, and P. tenacior were most abundant in semi-dark caves (SDC), C. crambe and C. viridis in communities of sciaphilic algae (SA), whereas the distribution of S. lophyropoda was extremely patchy, being present almost only in the SA community of one of the five stations studied. Larvae of Dictyoceratida spp. and P. tenacior were more abundant in the SDC, whereas D. avara and C. crambe were homogeneously distributed across the communities. The larvae of C. viridis were more abundant in the SA communities and the S. lophyropoda larvae were mostly present in one station and one community (SA). Increased water movement did not modify the adult-larvae coupling for Dictyoceratida spp., D. avara, and C. crambe, whereas it broke up the positive association for P. tenacior and to some extent S. lophyropoda. For C. viridis, possible variability in adult-larvae coupling was not tested because the larvae were collected on only one day under calm sea conditions. We confirm that efficient-swimming larvae with some cue response can actively counteract

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names TF to U

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  11. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    the Indian Ocean, their regional, seasonal as well as diurnal variations. Engyprosopon grandisquamis dominated contributing to 23.2% of the total larvae. Numerically the incidence of bothid larvae suggested a uniform pattern of distribution during the two...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  13. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  14. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species....

  15. Image Enhancement for Tracking the Translucent Larvae of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Sukant; Li, Wen-Ke; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-di...

  16. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  17. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz de la Rosa, D; Pérez de la Rosa, J J; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Miranda-Miranda, E; Lozano, L; Bravo-Díaz, M A; Rocha-Martínez, M K; Sachman-Ruiz, B

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). PMID:26316636

  19. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  20. Cutaneous Larva Migrans - a Typical Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, G.; João, A

    2013-01-01

    A larva migrans cutânea é frequente em regiões tropicais e sub-tropicais e é causada pela migração de larvas de nemátodos na pele. O diagnóstico é efectuado essencialmente pelas características epidemiológicas da dermatose e pela sua semiologia clínica. Geralmente o tratamento é bem sucedido com albendazol ou ivermectina. Descreve-se o caso clínico de uma mulher de 54 anos que regressou de férias na Jamaica há cerca de 15 dias. A doente iniciou no local, uma pápula eritematosa, bem deli...

  1. The Biology of Decapod Crustacean Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    About 90% of the extant species of the Decapoda live in oceans and adjacent coastal and estuarine regions, and most of them pass through a complex life history comprising a benthic (juvenile-adult) and a planktonic (larval) phase. The larvae show a wide array of adaptations to the pelagic environment, including modifications in functio-nal morphology, anatomy, the molting cycle, nutrition, growth, chemical composi-tion, meta-bo-lism, energy partitioning, ecology, and behavior. Due to these ad...

  2. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental. PMID:26968620

  3. Microbiology and immunology of fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Vadstein, Olav; Bergh, Øivind; Gatesoupe, François-Joel; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Mulero, Victoriano; Picchietti, Simona; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Makridis, Pavlos; Olsen, Yngvar; Dierckens, Kristof; Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For most marine aquaculture species, one of the main bottlenecks is the stable production of high quality juveniles. The high and unpredictable mortality in the first weeks after hatching of marine fish larvae remains a challenging problem that needs to be solved. The severity of the problem differs between species, but cannot be considered adequately solved for any species. Both scientific evidence and experience in hatcheries for a variety of fish, shrimp and shellfish species are accumulat...

  4. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  5. Requirements for in vitro germination of Paenibacillus larvae spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Israel; Phui, Andy; Elekonich, Michelle M; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease affecting honey bee larvae. First- and second-instar larvae become infected when they ingest food contaminated with P. larvae spores. The spores then germinate into vegetative cells that proliferate in the midgut of the honey bee. Although AFB affects honey bees only in the larval stage, P. larvae spores can be distributed throughout the hive. Because spore germination is critical for AFB establishment, we analyzed the requirements for P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We found that P. larvae spores germinated only in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid under physiologic pH and temperature conditions. This suggests that the simultaneous presence of these signals is necessary for spore germination in vivo. Furthermore, the germination profiles of environmentally derived spores were identical to those of spores from a biochemically typed strain. Because l-tyrosine and uric acid are the only required germinants in vitro, we screened amino acid and purine analogs for their ability to act as antagonists of P. larvae spore germination. Indole and phenol, the side chains of tyrosine and tryptophan, strongly inhibited P. larvae spore germination. Methylation of the N-1 (but not the C-3) position of indole eliminated its ability to inhibit germination. Identification of the activators and inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination provides a basis for developing new tools to control AFB. PMID:23264573

  6. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  7. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  8. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Robert Scott; Lopez, Dawn; Evans, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and a general immunity is achieved by larvae as they age, the basis of which has not been identified. To quickly identify a pool of candidate genes responsive to P. larvae infection, we sequenced transcripts from larvae inoculated with P. larvae at 12 hours post-emergence and incubated for 72 hours, and compared expression levels to a control cohort. We identified 75 genes with significantly higher expression and six genes with significantly lower expression. In addition to several antimicrobial peptides, two genes encoding peritrophic-matrix domains were also up-regulated. Extracellular matrix proteins, proteases/protease inhibitors, and members of the Osiris gene family were prevalent among differentially regulated genes. However, analysis of Drosophila homologs of differentially expressed genes revealed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with developmental asynchrony as a likely confounder of our results. We therefore used qPCR to measure the consistency of gene expression changes for a subset of differentially expressed genes. A replicate experiment sampled at both 48 and 72 hours post infection allowed further discrimination of genes likely to be involved in host response. The consistently responsive genes in our test set included a hymenopteran-specific protein tyrosine kinase, a hymenopteran specific serine endopeptidase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP9Q1), and a homolog of trynity, a zona pellucida domain protein. Of the known honey bee antimicrobial peptides, apidaecin was responsive at both time-points studied whereas hymenoptaecin was more consistent in its level of change between biological replicates and had the greatest increase in expression by RNA-seq analysis

  9. Immune response studies with Wuchereria bancrofti vespid allergen homologue (WbVAH) in human lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Setty Balakrishnan; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam; Thangadurai, Mani; Prabhu, Prince R.; Kaliraj, Perumal; RAMASWAMY, KALYANASUNDARAM

    2007-01-01

    A homologue of Brugia malayi venom allergen (BmVAH) was cloned from the infective stages (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti. Sequence analysis showed 90% sequence identity between WbVAH and BmVAH. Recombinant WbVAH was then expressed and purified. VAH from other nematode parasites is being evaluated as potential vaccine candidates. Because W. bancrofti infections are more prevalent than B. malayi, it will significantly benefit using W. bancrofti antigens for vaccine development. In this study, we h...

  10. Immunization with Wuchereria bancrofti Glutathione-S-transferase Elicits a Mixed Th1/Th2 Type of Protective Immune Response Against Filarial Infection in Mastomys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andure, Dhananjay; Pote, Kiran; Khatri, Vishal; Amdare, Nitin; Padalkar, Ramchandra; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2016-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic infection and can severely affect the normal working ability of an individual. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent this infection and the development of a potential vaccine could effectively support the on-going mass drug administration program by World Health Organization (WHO). Filarial parasites have complex mechanisms to modulate the host immune responses against them. The glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are the important enzymes effectively involved to counteract the oxidative free radicals produced by the host. In the present study, we have shown that the mastomys which are fully permissible rodents for Brugia malayi when immunized with Wuchereria bancrofti recombinant GST (rWbGST) could induce 65.5 % in situ cytotoxicity against B. malayi infective (L3) larvae. There was a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response in the vaccinated animals, characterized by higher levels of WbGST-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and pronounced IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 cytokines production by the spleen cells. PMID:27605739

  11. Nutritional components affecting skeletal development in fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Cahu, Chantal; Zambonino, Jose-luis; Takeuchi, Toshio

    2003-01-01

    Marine fish larvae undergo major functional and morphological changes during the developmental stages and several factors can interfere with the normal development of larvae and affect fry quality. Skeletal malformations, such as spinal malformation-scoliosis, lordosis, coiled vertebral column-, missing or additional fin rays, bending opercle or jaw malformations, are frequently observed in hatchery-reared larvae. This paper reviews the effects of some nutritional components on skeletal devel...

  12. Diversity of parasitoid Lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    FENI YUSMARIKA; YAHERWANDI; RUSDI RUSLI; NOVRI NELLY

    2010-01-01

    Nelly N, Rusli R, Yaherwandi, Yusmarika F (2010) Diversity of parasitoid Lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae. Biodiversitas 11: 93-96. Diversity of parasitoid lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae was conducted in several Brassicaceae areas in West Sumatra. The objective of the research was to study the diversity of parasitoid lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae. Sampling was conducted on Brassicaceae plants: cabbage, cauliflower, petsai and sawi. It was taken five samples in every plot, by ...

  13. Identification of West African estuarine shrimp and crab larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan, G.E.; Powell, C. B.; A.I. Hart

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with the decapod crustacean larvae likely to be found in fresh and brackish waters in tropical west Africa. It summarizes results from an ongoing program of describing larvae hatched directly from adults of known species, to provide the identification keys necessary for applied research on nursery grounds, plankton ecology and pollution effects. A preliminary key to stage - 1 larvae is given for approximately 40 species. In includes all the genera, and nearly all the species, ...

  14. Larva migrans cutanea: reporte de cuatro casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvis Vivian Pérez Ruch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la larva migrans cutánea es una parasitosis que constituye una zoonosis frecuente en zonas tropicales, producida por la penetración y desplazamiento a través de la piel de larvas de nemátodos, como Ancylostoma brazilensis y Ancylostoma caninum. El cuadro clínico es característico y se diagnostica mediante la observación macroscópica de las lesiones serpiginosas debajo de la piel. Los antecedentes están dados por contacto con tierra o arena contaminadas como ocurre en niños que juegan en esos lugares. Objetivo: reportar los hallazgos de esta parasitosis en infantes pertenecientes a dos áreas de salud del municipio Camagüey, durante el período 2010 - 2013. Caso Clínico: en el laboratorio de Microbiología de la policlínica de especialidades pediátricas, se diagnosticaron cuatro niños con larva migrans cutánea de 1, 2, 7 y 11 años de edad, el primero con localización perineal, el segundo, en la espalda, el tercero en glúteos, miembros inferiores y superiores y el cuarto en región glútea y vulvar. En los cuatro casos las lesiones fueron características y se observó el trayecto ondulado del parásito a través de la piel. Los cuatros pacientes evolucionaron satisfactoriamente con tratamiento antiparásito. Conclusiones: dada la molestia, e irritabilidad que ocasiona esta parasitosis, así como la posible evolución tórpida de la misma es importante que en las áreas de 218 salud se tenga en cuenta para su oportuno diagnóstico y tratamiento satisfactorio en bien de los pacientes afectados.

  15. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  16. Learning and Memory in Zebrafish Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Christopher Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory.

  17. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (pesticides into the environment. PMID:27177134

  18. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    OpenAIRE

    MANAN EFENDI; EDWI MAHAJOENO; ARDIANSYAH

    2001-01-01

    Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net) in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m ...

  19. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  20. BACTERIAL FLORA OF RAINBOW TROUT LARVAE AND FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no information in available literature about the structure of bacterial flora in rainbow trout larvae and fry in the first days of their lives. The objective of our work has been to follow bacteroflora between the third and the eighth week of their lives. During 35 days of experiment bacteroflora of rainbow trout has been examined, along with following physico–chemical characteristics of water quality as well as it’s influence on health. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from gill, heart and kidney areas and innoculated on the plates. Bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, slides with Gram staining, and afterwords biochemical tests were performed. For identification, APILAB Plus programme (bio Mérieux, France was used. Bacterial population of rainbow trout larvae and fry changed in dependence with their age. Physico–chemical characteristics of water ranged within optimal values. Most of bacterial colonies originated from gill isolates (64,4 %, than from heart (21,8 % and kidney areas (13,8 %. The bacterial flora of larvae in incubator was composed mostly of Gram–positive bacteria (75,1 %, genera: Renibacterium (25 %, Lactobacillus (16,7 %, Staphilococcus (16,7 % and Corynebacterium (16,7 %. The transfer of larvae from incubator into the pools resulted in reducing bacterial flora (–66,7 % after 45 minute stay in the pool. Gram–negative bacteria, which have been represented in larvae in incubator with low percent (24, 9 %, after the transfer of larvae to the pools became dominant and represented more than 95 % of rainbow trout larvae and fry bacterial flora. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram–negative genera in larvae in incubator, whereas Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Pasteurella were the main isolates from rainbow trout larvae and fry until the end of experiment. Bacterial flora of larvae in incubator mostly consists of Gram–positive bacteria

  1. Effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on gnathostoma spinigerum larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnathostoma spinigerum infective larvae were found to be very resistant to gamma ray. The larvae were still viable, motile and capable to infect white mice with no observable abnormality in both internal and external structures and their sizes after exposure to 0-7.0 KGy of gamma ray. At doses of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 KGy, the infective rates were 72%, 78%, 64%, 54%, 28%, 42%, 26%, 14% and 5% respectively. The infective rates of the irradiated larvae exposed to 8 KGy and 10 KGy of irradiation in mice became zero. The reduction of motility and infectivity was first observed after exposure of larvae to 1.5 KGy of gamma ray. It was also found that motility and infectivity decreased in relationship to the higher doses of gamma ray. At 10.0 KGy of irradiation which was the highest dose used in this experiment could not devitalize the larvae but inhibit infectivity. Irradiation of the larvae mixed in food prepared from fishes at 8 KGy was proved to inhibit the infectivity. On the study, the dose of 8.0 KGy was suggested to be the minimum effective dose that inhibited the infectivity of the infective stage. To confirm the effective dose, the mixture of the infective larvae and Somfuk, a local food, was treated by 8 KGy and these irradiated larvae precisely lost their infectivity in mice

  2. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheflo, Michael A; Gardner, Adam V; Merrill, Bryan D; Fisher, Joshua N B; Lunt, Bryce L; Breakwell, Donald P; Grose, Julianne H; Burnett, Sandra H

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is a pathogen of honeybees that causes American foulbrood (AFB). We isolated bacteriophages from soil containing bee debris collected near beehives in Utah. We announce five high-quality complete genome sequences, which represent the first completed genome sequences submitted to GenBank for any P. larvae bacteriophage. PMID:24233582

  4. Bacteria Present in Comadia redtenbacheri Larvae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, L; Llanderal-Cázares, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Aranda-Ocampo, S

    2015-09-01

    The external and internal culturable bacterial community present in the larvae of Comadia redtenbacheri Hammerschmidt, an edible insect, was studied. Characterization of the isolates determined the existence of 18 morphotypes and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the existence of Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus pseudomycoides, Corynebacterium variabile, Enterococcus sp., Gordonia sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cereus. Greater diversity of bacteria was found in those larvae obtained from vendors than in those directly taken from Agave plants in nature. Many of the larvae obtained from vendors presented signs of potential disease, and after the analysis, results showed a greater bacterial community compared with the larvae with a healthy appearance. This indicates that bacterial flora can vary in accordance with how the larvae are handled during extraction, collection, and transport. PMID:26336239

  5. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  6. Evaluation of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) exotrophic larvae as live feed for marine decapod crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Repolho, Tiago Filipe Baptista da Rosa, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Marinha e Aquacultura), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 In the present study, we have evaluated 4‐arm exotrophic larvae of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) as live feed in marine decapod crustacean larviculture, in comparison to Artemia spp. naupliar stages, a commonly used live prey in marine hatcheries. We therefore investigated several key parameters to assess the potential of P. lividus plutei as l...

  7. How to kill the honey bee larva: genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Marvin; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Fünfhaus, Anne; Voss, Jörn; Gollnow, Kathleen; Poppinga, Lena; Liesegang, Heiko; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Genersch, Elke; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen, causes American Foulbrood (AFB), which is the most serious infectious disease of honey bees. In order to investigate the genomic potential of P. larvae, two strains belonging to two different genotypes were sequenced and used for comparative genome analysis. The complete genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25430 (genotype ERIC II) consisted of 4,056,006 bp and harbored 3,928 predicted protein-encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25719 (genotype ERIC I) comprised 4,579,589 bp and contained 4,868 protein-encoding genes. Both strains harbored a 9.7 kb plasmid and encoded a large number of virulence-associated proteins such as toxins and collagenases. In addition, genes encoding large multimodular enzymes producing nonribosomally peptides or polyketides were identified. In the genome of strain DSM 25719 seven toxin associated loci were identified and analyzed. Five of them encoded putatively functional toxins. The genome of strain DSM 25430 harbored several toxin loci that showed similarity to corresponding loci in the genome of strain DSM 25719, but were non-functional due to point mutations or disruption by transposases. Although both strains cause AFB, significant differences between the genomes were observed including genome size, number and composition of transposases, insertion elements, predicted phage regions, and strain-specific island-like regions. Transposases, integrases and recombinases are important drivers for genome plasticity. A total of 390 and 273 mobile elements were found in strain DSM 25430 and strain DSM 25719, respectively. Comparative genomics of both strains revealed acquisition of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer and provided insights into evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:24599066

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of surface proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Cui, Jing; Liu, Xiao Lin; Jiang, Peng; Sun, Ge Ge; Zhang, Xi; Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2015-10-01

    The critical step for Trichinella spiralis infection is that muscle larvae (ML) are activated to intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and invade intestinal epithelium to further develop. The IIL is its first invasive stage, surface proteins are directly exposed to host environment and are crucial for larval invasion and development. In this study, shotgun LC-MS/MS was used to analyze surface protein profiles of ML and IIL. Totally, 41 proteins common to both larvae, and 85 ML biased and 113 IIL biased proteins. Some proteins (e.g., putative scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain protein and putative onchocystatin) were involved in host-parasite interactions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that proteins involved in generation of precursor metabolites and energy; and nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process were enriched in IIL at level 4. Some IIL biased proteins might play important role in larval invasion and development. qPCR results confirmed the high expression of some genes in IIL. Our study provides new insights into larval invasion, host-Trichinella interaction and for screening vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:26184560

  9. Larva migrans within scalp sebaceous gland Larva migrans em glândula sebácea do couro cabeludo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Calheiros Guimarães

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of larva migrans or serpiginous linear dermatitis on the scalp of a teenager is reported. An ancylostomid larva was found within a sebaceous gland acinus. The unusual skin site for larva migrans as well as the penetration through the sebaceous gland are highlighted. The probable mechanism by which the parasite reached the skin adnexa is discussed.Relata-se caso de larva migrans ou dermatite linear serpiginosa no couro cabeludo de adolescente, no qual o ancilostomídeo foi encontrado no interior de glândula sebácea. Destaca-se a possibilidade do helminto sediar-se em locais pouco usuais, das glândulas sebáceas serem via de penetração de larvas na pele e discute-se o provável mecanismo pelo qual o agente implantou-se no anexo cutâneo.

  10. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANAN EFENDI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m asl., Mrutu (1875 m asl., and Air Terjun (1600 m asl.. The screened insect-larvae were grouped its family and counted their individual number. The diversity was counted using Shanon-Weiner diversity indices. In this research was found 12 families of insect-larvae consisted of two families of Odonata order, 3 families of Coleopteran order, and a family of Lepidoptera. Nine families identified, while the three insect-larvae i.e. 2 of Coleoptera and 1 of Lepidoptera were not identified yet. The Parkiran station indicated the highest diversity index of 0.1436.

  11. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented

  12. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  13. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  14. Anguilliform larvae collected off North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.W.; Casazza, T.L.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distinctive larval stage of eels (leptocephalus) facilitates dispersal through prolonged life in the open ocean. Leptocephali are abundant and diverse off North Carolina, yet data on distributions and biology are lacking. The water column (from surface to 1,293 m) was sampled in or near the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and Cape Fear, North Carolina during summer through fall of 1999-2005, and leptocephali were collected by neuston net, plankton net, Tucker trawl, and dip net. Additional samples were collected nearly monthly from a transect across southern Onslow Bay, North Carolina (from surface to 91 m) from April 2000 to December 2001 by bongo and neuston nets, Methot frame trawl, and Tucker trawl. Overall, 584 tows were completed, and 224 of these yielded larval eels. The 1,295 eel leptocephali collected (combining all methods and areas) represented at least 63 species (nine families). Thirteen species were not known previously from the area. Dominant families for all areas were Congridae (44% of individuals, 11 species), Ophichthidae (30% of individuals, 27 species), and Muraenidae (22% of individuals, ten species). Nine taxa accounted for 70% of the overall leptocephalus catches (in order of decreasing abundance): Paraconger caudilimbatus (Poey), Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz complex, Ariosoma balearicum (Delaroche), Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau), Callechelys muraena Jordan and Evermann, Letharchus aliculatus McCosker, Rhynchoconger flavus (Goode and Bean), Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode and Bean), Rhynchoconger gracilior (Ginsburg). The top three species represented 52% of the total eel larvae collected. Most leptocephali were collected at night (79%) and at depths > 45 m. Eighty percent of the eels collected in discrete depth Tucker trawls at night ranged from mean depths of 59-353 m. A substantial number (38% of discrete depth sample total) of larval eels were also collected at the surface (neuston net) at night. Daytime leptocephalus

  15. The larvae of decapods and fishes of Amba estuary, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Govindan, K.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.

    Larvae of fishes and decapods found in zooplankton collections from two stations (Mankule and Patalganga) in Amba estuary adjoining Mumbai harbour were studied during 1989-90 covering three seasons. The percentage contributions of decapods and fish...

  16. Microbial modulation of behavior and stress responses in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gillespie, Catherine H; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2016-09-15

    The influence of the microbiota on behavior and stress responses is poorly understood. Zebrafish larvae have unique characteristics that are advantageous for neuroimmune research, however, they are currently underutilized for such studies. Here, we used germ-free zebrafish to determine the effects of the microbiota on behavior and stress testing. The absence of a microbiota dramatically altered locomotor and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, characteristic responses to an acute stressor were also obliterated in larvae lacking exposure to microbes. Lastly, treatment with the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was sufficient to attenuate anxiety-related behavior in conventionally-raised zebrafish larvae. These results underscore the importance of the microbiota in communicating to the CNS via the microbiome-gut-brain axis and set a foundation for using zebrafish larvae for neuroimmune research. PMID:27217102

  17. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; de Schryver, P.

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. However, the rearing of larvae suffers from high larval mortalities, and water quality might be a crucial factor for...... larval survival in rearing systems. By applying antibiotic treatment as a research tool, it was possible to determine the extent of microbial interference in the production of high numbers of good quality larvae. By controlling microbiota during egg and larval incubation, the egg hatching success and...

  18. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  19. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sang G. Purnama; Tri Baskoro

    2012-01-01

    South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic ...

  20. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO) - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato; Henrique Queiroga

    2014-01-01

    Berlengas Biosphere Reserve of UNESCO (BBR) is located on the west coast of Portugal and is an important hotspot of biodiversity that needs to be described and monitored. Despite that, few or none studies had focus on decapod larvae populations. The present study intends to evaluate spatial and temporal dynamics of decapod larvae and its relation with oceanographic features. Sampling campaigns were performed between June 2010 and August 2012. Zooplankton samples were collected on a Bongo...

  1. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  2. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen,; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; De Schryver, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. Howe...

  3. Recording Field Potentials From Zebrafish Larvae During Escape Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Monesson-Olson, Bryan D.; Troconis, Eileen L.; Trapani, Josef G.

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, startle responses are a ubiquitous method for alerting, and avoiding or escaping from alarming or dangerous stimuli. In zebrafish larvae, fast escape behavior is easily evoked through either acoustic or tactile stimuli. For example, a light touch to the head will excite trigeminal neurons that in turn excite a large reticulospinal neuron in the hindbrain called the Mauthner cell (M-cell). The M-cell action potential then travels down the contralateral trunk of the larva exc...

  4. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  5. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L.; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remar...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L. B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  7. MID TERM ASSESSMENT OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF DAMOH AND SAGAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan; Yash; Ankur

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Filariasis is a major social and the fourth most common cause of disability all over the globe. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection...

  8. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  9. Differential immunological responses induced by infection with female muscle larvae and newborn larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Asano, K; Liu, M Y; Takahashi, Y

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella pseudospiralis infection can modulate the immunological response of autoimmune and allergic diseases leading to the amelioration of these diseases. The present study was undertaken to compare immunity induced by adult worms and muscle larvae. Higher eosinophilia was observed from newborn larva (NBL) infection than from adult females while higher levels of IgE were observed in adult female infections over those induced by NBL. The IgG1 response to ES antigen was more prominent in infections with adult females. The IgG2 responses to larval crude antigen were prominent against NBL. The Th2 cytokine, IL-4 cytokine was elevated in adult female infection following re-stimulation with adult crude antigen and ES. Both infections induced strong IFN-γ responses. The present study demonstrates that adult female worms induced stronger Th2 responses (IgG1, IgE and IL-4 responses) than NBL. Further examination of the mechanisms involved in immune modulation may be helpful for identifying Trichinella-derived molecules responsible for regulating autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:23433605

  10. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera) as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae), an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera) Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae), um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Fabio Laurindo da Silva; Francisco Valente-Neto

    2012-01-01

    First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera) as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae), an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera). This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes) were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalop...

  11. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.

  12. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  13. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  14. Descrição da larva de Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius, 1775 is described and figured based on exuviae of last instar of reared specimes collected on still waters in São João river, Silva Jardim (22º38' - 42º18', Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The relationship among the larva of D. obscura and larvae of Celithemis are discussed.

  15. Unexpected high losses of Anopheles gambiae larvae due to rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krijn P Paaijmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immature stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae experience high mortality, but its cause is poorly understood. Here we study the impact of rainfall, one of the abiotic factors to which the immatures are frequently exposed, on their mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that rainfall significantly affected larval mosquitoes by flushing them out of their aquatic habitat and killing them. Outdoor experiments under natural conditions in Kenya revealed that the additional nightly loss of larvae caused by rainfall was on average 17.5% for the youngest (L1 larvae and 4.8% for the oldest (L4 larvae; an additional 10.5% (increase from 0.9 to 11.4% of the L1 larvae and 3.3% (from 0.1 to 3.4% of the L4 larvae were flushed away and larval mortality increased by 6.9% (from 4.6 to 11.5% and 1.5% (from 4.1 to 5.6% for L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, compared to nights without rain. On rainy nights, 1.3% and 0.7% of L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, were lost due to ejection from the breeding site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that immature populations of malaria mosquitoes suffer high losses during rainfall events. As these populations are likely to experience several rain showers during their lifespan, rainfall will have a profound effect on the productivity of mosquito breeding sites and, as a result, on the transmission of malaria. These findings are discussed in the light of malaria risk and changing rainfall patterns in response to climate change.

  16. REARING CARP LARVAE (Cyprinus carpio IN CLOSED RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Opačak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Postembryonic rearing of carp larvae in closed recirculatory system was conducted in 2009 at the fish farm Ribnjak LLC, Donji Miholjac, Croatia. The research was conducted in two test groups (A and B with three iterations in each with a control group (C. Test group A (3 tanks x 250 l consisted of 150 000 larvae (density of 200 larvae•l-1, test group B (3 tanks x 500 l consisted of 600 000 larvae (density of 400 larvae•l-1, and the control group (C was a mud fish pond T-6 which was stocked by 800 000 larvae•ha-1 under standard production conditions. In this research, basic physical and chemical water parameters were controlled (temperature, oxygen, pH, total ammonia and nitrites. Initial measuring of carp larvae total length (TL was conducted prior to their placement into tanks (N=120. On the fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth day of research 20 larvae (N=140 were taken out of every tank as well as out of control group and measured. Feeding with live feed began on the third day after hatching (larval TL 6.00±0.36 mm. Ten minutes after feeding live feed to larvae for the first time, 20 larvae (N=120 were taken out of every tank and a high portion of larvae that accepted live feed (89.17±3.76% was determined by a magnifying glass. Feeding artificial feed began on the seventh day after the hatching. After ten minutes, a high portion of larvae who accepted artificial feed (96.67±2.58% was determined. Since the end of the research, the determined length increment (ITL per day was 0.41±0.04 mm, a very high survival rate was established (group A: 96%, group B: 93%. Feeding frequency was four times a day in five-hour intervals (at 06:00, 11:00,16:00 and 21:00 hours. The research was terminated after ten feeding days due to deteriorating condition of zoohygienic filter. The total of 3807 g of live feed and 1080 g of artificial feed was used.

  17. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  18. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467

  19. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60 000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28 days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group of uninfec...... in the pig. However, the importance of the pig as a paratenic host is probably minor, because of the relatively early death of most of the larvae....... uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around the...... recovered from the brain on days 14 and 21, with a maximum on day 14 p.i. No larvae were found in the eyes. Severe pathological changes were observed in the liver and lungs, especially on day 14 p.i.; also, development of granulomas was observed in the kidneys. Finally, a strong specific antibody response...

  20. Larva migrans in India: veterinary and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Singh, B B; Gill, J P S

    2015-12-01

    Despite an important public health problem in developing world like India, larva migrans remains a neglected zoonosis. Cutaneous larva migrans, Visceral larva migrans, and Ocular larva migrans are the important clinical manifestations seen in humans in India. Although many nematode parasites have the ability to cause the infection, the disease primarily occurs due to Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis. Presence of the infection in dogs is an indirect indication of its incidence in humans in endemic regions. In India, sporadic cases of this neglected but important parasitic zoonosis are the main implications of lack of diagnostic methods and under-reporting of human cases. Tropical climate in addition to overcrowding, poor hygiene and sanitation problems, stray dogs, open defecation by dogs and improper faecal disposal are the important factors for persistence of this disease in the country. Sanitary and hygienic measures, improved diagnostic techniques and surveillance programme in dogs as well as humans should be adopted for its effective control. Comprehensive collaborative efforts by physicians and veterinarians are required to tackle this problem in order to attain optimal health for humans, animals and the environment. Moreover, recognition of larva migrans as an important public health problem is the most important step to combat this neglected disease in developing countries like India. PMID:26688621

  1. Comparative analysis of Paenibacillus larvae genotypes isolated in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Douglas W

    2015-08-01

    Ninety-six strains of Paenibacillus larvae, causative agent of American foulbrood in honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae, collected from Connecticut, USA (CT), honey bees, and 12 P. larvae strains not from CT, were genotyped via ERIC-PCR and XbaI-RFLP analysis. All CT-isolates, five strains isolated in South America, three strains from North America (not CT), and one strain isolated in Australia grouped into the ERIC I genotype. Three P. larvae formerly subsp. pulvifaciens strains grouped into ERIC III and IV genotypes. XbaI-RFLP genotyping showed three genotypes within the CT-isolates, and two were identified as XbaI-RFLP Type I and III. The third XbaI-RFLP genotype (Type Ib) represented one of four new XbaI-RFLP genotypes identified. Comparison of genotype results for the P. larvae strains tested was used to develop a correlation between ERIC-PCR genotyping and XbaI-RFLP genotyping. Sixteen CT-isolates were tetracycline-resistant and demonstrated PCR amplification using oligonucleotide primers for tetL. All 16 isolates grouped within XbaI-RFLP Type Ib, suggesting limited introduction of a tetracycline-resistant strain into CT. PMID:25929327

  2. Developmental arrest in Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae causes high expression of enzymes involved in thymidylate biosynthesis, similar to that found in Trichinella muscle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, P; Gołos, B; Cieśla, J; Zieliński, Z; Fraczyk, T; Wałajtys-Rode, E; Rode, W

    2005-08-01

    Crude extract specific activities of thymidylate synthase, dUTPase, thymidine kinase and dihydrofolate reductase were high during the development of Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer larva activities being similar to those previously determined in Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae (with the exception of thymidine kinase, not detected in Trichinella). High thymidylate synthase expression in developmentally arrested larvae, demonstrated also at the mRNA and protein levels, is in agreement with a global cell cycle arrest of dauer larvae and indicates this unusual cell cycle regulation pattern can be shared by developmentally arrested larvae of C. elegans and the two Trichnella species. Hence, the phenomenon may be characteristic for developmentally arrested larvae of different nematodes, rather than specific for the parasitic Trichinella muscle larvae. Endogenous C. elegans thymidylate synthase was purified and its molecular properties compared with those of the recombinant protein, expression of the latter in E. coli cells confirming the NCBI database sequence identity. PMID:16145941

  3. Paenibacillus larvae-Directed Bacteriophage HB10c2 and Its Application in American Foulbrood-Affected Honey Bee Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beims, Hannes; Wittmann, Johannes; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Rohde, Christine; Günther, Gabi; Rohde, Manfred; von der Ohe, Werner; Steinert, Michael

    2015-08-15

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most serious honey bee brood bacterial disease. We isolated and characterized P. larvae-directed bacteriophages and developed criteria for safe phage therapy. Whole-genome analysis of a highly lytic virus of the family Siphoviridae (HB10c2) provided a detailed safety profile and uncovered its lysogenic nature and a putative beta-lactamase-like protein. To rate its antagonistic activity against the pathogens targeted and to specify potentially harmful effects on the bee population and the environment, P. larvae genotypes ERIC I to IV, representatives of the bee gut microbiota, and a broad panel of members of the order Bacillales were analyzed for phage HB10c2-induced lysis. Breeding assays with infected bee larvae revealed that the in vitro phage activity observed was not predictive of the real-life scenario and therapeutic efficacy. On the basis of the disclosed P. larvae-bacteriophage coevolution, we discuss the future prospects of AFB phage therapy. PMID:26048941

  4. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening-closing net were used for describing fish larval horizontal and vertical distributions, while a submersible pump was used for describing vertical distributions of copepods. Hydrographic profiles and current velocity measurements were used to outline variability in temperature, salinity and current structure. Measurements demonstrated a distinct bottom front at the southern slope of the Trench with deepening isopycnals and high chlorphyll a concentrations. Abundances of both gadoid fish larvae and copepods peaked in vicinity of the front around mid-depth, and findings points to an inter-connection between the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone encompasses specific ecological niches to which each species of fish larvae is adapted.

  5. Nutrient effects of broodstocks on the larvae in Patinopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yucen; Zhang, Tao; Qiu, Tianlong; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Xiaofang

    2015-07-01

    Patinopecten yessoensis is a commercial valuable species. This study deals with the effect of nutrient effects of the broodstock (mainly ovaries) on the larvae. Concentrations of total carbohydrate, total protein and total lipid in the gonads of P. yessoensis from three Hatcheries (Hatchery 1, Hatchery 2, and Hatchery 3) were determined before and after spawning. The relationship between the nutrient concentration in ovaries before spawning (BC) and that of larvae (LC) was assessed as well as the change in nutrient levels in ovaries after spawning (DC). Results indicate that the BC of total carbohydrate (7.66%) and total lipid (14.48%) in ovaries were significantly higher than in testes (5.20%, 5.20% respectively), whereas the BC of total protein in the ovaries was lower (61.76%) than in the testes (81.67%). The different gonadal composition suggests the different nutrient demands between male and female broodstocks in breeding season. Patinopecten yessoensis gonads contained a higher proportion of lipids, in comparison to other bivalves, which might be a response to the low ambient water temperatures. Further analysis of fatty acids showed that the concentrations of n-3PUFA, EPA and DHA in larvae (LC) were positively correlated with BC and DC, indicating the significant nutrient influence of broodstocks on the larvae. As these fatty acids are important in metabolism, and have been demonstrated to be influential to the viability of the larvae, larval growth and the settlement, spat growth, and juvenile survival in many bivalves, they could possibly be used as indexes to evaluate, and predict condition of broodstocks and larvae.

  6. Culture of Eriocheir sinensis Larvae in Ponds in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang RUAN; Liangcheng HU; Hai ZHOU; Dawen MA; Yabin TANG

    2016-01-01

    A total of 15 pools were selected from a greenhouse, and they were randomly and evenly divided into three groups. In each group, one stocking density of Eriocheir sinensis was arranged. The results showed that after 45-d culture, the crab number per kilogram reached about 300 with survival rate of about 20%; the initial stocking density had significantly effect on the body size of E. sinensis on sel , instead on the survival rate of E. sinensis larvae. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct the culture of E. sinensis larvae in a pool in greenhouse.

  7. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Bava; Lucia G Gonzalez; Celeste M Seley; Gisela P Lpez; Alcides Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis. CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion, intense itching and history of foreign travel. CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing 'protective' footwear. A case of CLM is described in this article.

  8. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Faillettaz; Agathe Blandin; Claire B. Paris; Philippe Koubbi; Jean-Olivier Irisson

    2015-01-01

    Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history , larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode , to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence of coast-related cues o...

  9. Catching large herring larvae: Gear applicability and larval distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1988-01-01

    third when speed was increased by one knot. The efficiency of the MIK did not change in the speed range investigated, and this gear was in every case more efficient than the IKMT. Larvae were found to be patchily distributed at the scale of sampling, and the degree of patchiness did not increase when...... stations 5 nm apart were compared. At night, herring larvae are confined to the 20-40-metre water layer, whereas a migration to upper water layers at dawn and dusk was observed....

  10. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Bava; Lucia; G; Gonzalez; Celeste; M; Seley; Gisela; P; Lopez; Alcides; Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans(CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis.CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas,and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it.The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion,intense itching and history of foreign travel.CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing ’protective’ footwear.A case of CLM is described in this article.

  11. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    BAVA Javier; Gonzalez, Lucia G; Seley, Celeste M; López, Gisela P; Troncoso, Alcides

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis. CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion, intense itching and history of foreign travel. CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can ...

  12. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  13. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera. Este estudo constitui o primeiro registro de Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte em larvas de Megaloptera, como um possível predador de larvas de Chironomidae. Vinte e oito larvas de Corydalidae (Corydalus e Protochauliodes foram examinadas sobre estereomicroscópio na busca por Temnocephala e larvas de Chironomidae, das quais cinco larvas de Megaloptera continham 24 Temnocephala sp. associadas. Além disso, oito Temnocephala possuíam em seu conteúdo estomacal larvas de Chironomidae, uma interação desconhecida anteriormente. A análise do conteúdo estomacal revelou Corynoneura como o quironomídeo mais abundante, e também algumas larvas de Larsia, Rheotanytarsus e Tanytarsus. Este estudo inclui Corydalus e Protochauliodes como hospedeiros de Temnocephala, os quais podem ser importantes

  14. Phage Therapy is Effective in Protecting Honeybee Larvae from American Foulbrood Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani-Nezami, Sara; LeBlanc, Lucy; Yost, Diane G; Amy, Penny S

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood disease has a major impact on honeybees (Apis melifera) worldwide. It is caused by a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae. The disease can only affect larval honeybees, and the bacterial endospores are the infective unit of the disease. Antibiotics are not sufficient to combat the disease due to increasing resistance among P. larvae strains. Because of the durability and virulence of P. larvae endospores, infections spread rapidly, and beekeepers are often forced to burn beehives and equipment. To date, very little information is available on the use of bacteriophage therapy in rescuing and preventing American foulbrood disease, therefore the goal of this study was to test the efficacy of phage therapy against P. larvae infection. Out of 32 previously isolated P. larvae phages, three designated F, WA, and XIII were tested on artificially reared honeybee larvae infected with P. larvae strain NRRL B-3650 spores. The presence of P. larvae DNA in dead larvae was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification. Survival rates for phage-treated larvae were approximately the same as for larvae never infected with spores (84%), i.e., the phages had no deleterious effect on the larvae. Additionally, prophylactic treatment of larvae with phages before spore infection was more effective than administering phages after infection, although survival in both cases was higher than spores alone (45%). Further testing to determine the optimal combination and concentration of phages, and testing in actual hive conditions are needed. PMID:26136497

  15. Low-molecular-weight metabolites secreted by Paenibacillus larvae as potential virulence factors of American foulbrood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Hedwig-Annabell; Fuchs, Sebastian W; Bode, Helge B; Grünewald, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae causes a severe and highly infective bee disease, American foulbrood (AFB). Despite the large economic losses induced by AFB, the virulence factors produced by P. larvae are as yet unknown. To identify such virulence factors, we experimentally infected young, susceptible larvae of the honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica, with different P. larvae isolates. Honeybee larvae were reared in vitro in 24-well plates in the laboratory after isolation from the brood comb. We identified genotype-specific differences in the etiopathology of AFB between the tested isolates of P. larvae, which were revealed by differences in the median lethal times. Furthermore, we confirmed that extracts of P. larvae cultures contain low-molecular-weight compounds, which are toxic to honeybee larvae. Our data indicate that P. larvae secretes metabolites into the medium with a potent honeybee toxic activity pointing to a novel pathogenic factor(s) of P. larvae. Genome mining of P. larvae subsp. larvae BRL-230010 led to the identification of several biosynthesis gene clusters putatively involved in natural product biosynthesis, highlighting the potential of P. larvae to produce such compounds. PMID:24509920

  16. Monthly variations of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera: Oestridae larvae infesting donkeys in Egypt: Morphological and molecular identification of third stage larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosaad A. Hilali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and monthly intensity of Rhinoestrus (R spp. among donkeys slaughtered at Giza Zoo abattoir, Egypt. A total of 144 donkeys were examined at postmortem through two visits per month from January 2010 to December 2010. All donkeys were infested with one or more larval stages during all months of the examination period (100%. The 1st and 2nd stage larvae (L1 and L2 were mostly observed in the turbinate bones and seldom in the nasal passages, whereas the 3rd stage larvae (L3 were observed mostly in ethmoid and lamina cribrosa and rarely in nasal passages and pharynx. The highest monthly intensity of infestation with the total number of larval stages was recorded in January and August, while the lowest occurred in September. L1 was observed during all months with two peaks in January and June. L2 occurred from February to April, July, and August. L3 was present from March to May, August, and September. The ranked size of infestation with the total number of the 3 larval stages of Rhinoestrus spp. showed that a total of 107 donkeys had 1–10 larvae; 34 had 11–30 larvae; and 3 harbored 31–50 larvae. The morphology and molecular characterization of the third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. were investigated. Morphologically, two morphotypes (1 and 2 of Rhinoestrus spp. (R. usbekistanicus like and the other R. purpureus like were reported. Whereas molecular sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase subunit I showed 99% homology with those of R. usbekistanicus. In conclusion, Rhinoestrus spp. present in Egypt is mainly R. usbekistanicus, which includes two morphotypes, R. usbekistanicus like and R. purpureus like.

  17. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Stoicescu, Kristen; Reddy, Maryada Venkatarami; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL), a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3) and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple filarial infections

  18. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajalakshmi Dakshinamoorthy

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL, a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3 and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple

  19. The Blue Neck Syndrome : Nematode Larvae in Skin Scrapings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugathan P

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-inflammatory type of pigmentation of the neck associated with nematode larvae on affected skin is described. The name ′Blue neck syndrome′ is suggested for this condition because of the characteristic clinical appearance. Antinematode agents such as albendazole and neem oil have been found to be effective in the treatment.

  20. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  1. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Qin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl by a single dose of exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory condition were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. Exposure of enantiopure R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae exhibited significant enantiomerization, with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa, which might be attributed to the chiral pesticide catalyzed by a certain enzyme in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 d. In addition, bioaccumulation of rac-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-metalaxyl. These results showed that enantioselectivity was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of metalaxyl enantiomers. PMID:24302540

  2. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  3. CHIRONOMUS PLUMOSUS LARVAE - A SUITABLE NUTRIENT FOR FRESHWATER FARMED FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bogut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude protein, fat, water, ash, dry matter and essential amino and fatty acids were analyzed from freshly collected Chironomus plumosus larvae in order to evaluate their suitability as a component for farmed fish diet. The analyses were performed in intact living organisms and in the dry matter. Essential amino acids were determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer, while fatty acids were determined by Chronopack CP 9000 chromatograph with flame ionization detector. Crude protein content was 7.6% and 55.7% in fresh larvae and dry matter, respectively, being a value adequate for growth needs of all freshwater fish sorts and categories. Most essential amino acids in fresh larvae and dry matter are present in quantities adequate for feeding majority of omnivorous and carnivorous freshwater fish species. Crude fat content was 1.3% and 9.7% in fresh larvae and dry matter, respectively, being energetically sufficient for all warm-water living fish. The crude fat contains 26.12% saturated, 30.42% monounsaturated and 34.03% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Among the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, the most abundant is linolenic (7.21%, followed by eicosapentanoic (4.36%, docosahexaenoic (2.49% and docosapentaenoic (1.16% acid. The measured quantity of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids (essential for omnivorous fish, as well as ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratio (0.81, completely meets nutritional requirements of carp and tench.

  4. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  5. Nonlinear ecological processes driving the distribution of marine decapod larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M.; Carbonell, A.; Tor, A.; Alvarez-Berastegui, D.; Balbín, R.; dos Santos, A.; Alemany, F.

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of the natural processes lead to many nonlinear interacting factors that influence the distribution and survival of marine pelagic species, particularly in their larval phase. The management of these ecosystems requires techniques that unveil those interactions by studying the system globally, including all relevant variables and combining both community and environmental data in a single step. Specifically, we apply an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organising Map (SOM), to a combined dataset of environmental and decapod larvae community data from the Balearic sea, obtained in two years with contrasting environmental scenarios, as an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) technique that provides a global and more detailed view of both the environmental processes and their influence on the distribution of such planktonic community. We examine the parental influence on the initial larval distribution by aggregating data by adult habitat, which also increments the signal to noise ratio (mean data patterns over noise due to outliers or measurement errors), and consider the distribution of larvae by development stage (as a proxy of age and hence of potential dispersion). The joined study of parental effect, drifting or concentration events determined by dynamical processes in the whole water column, and lifespan, draws the possible paths followed by larvae, and highlights the more influencing variables in their distribution. Investigation of the different aspects of dynamic height (absolute values, gradients or edges and correlations) clarified the effect of the oceanographic processes on decapods' larvae.

  6. Skeletogenesis in sea urchin larvae under modified gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthy, H.-J.; Gasset, G.; Tixador, R.; Eche, B.; Schatt, P.; Dessommes, A.; Marthy, U.; Bacchieri, R.

    From many points of view, skeletogenesis in sea urchins has been well described. Based on this scientific background and considering practical aspects of sea urchin development (i.e. availability of material, size of larvae, etc.), we wanted to know whether orderly skeletogenesis requires the presence of gravity. The objective has been approached by three experiments successfully performed under genuine microgravity conditions (in the STS-65 IML-2 mission of 1994; in the Photon-10 IBIS mission of 1995 and in the STS-76 S/MM-03 mission of 1996). Larvae of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis were allowed to develop in microgravity conditions for several days from blastula stage onwards (onset of skeletogenesis). At the end of the missions, the recovered skeletal structures were studied with respect to their mineral composition, architecture and size. Live larvae were also recovered for post-flight culture. The results obtained clearly show that the process of mineralisation is independent of gravity: that is, the skeletogenic cells differentiate correctly in microgravity. However, abnormal skeleton architectures were encountered, particularly in the IML-2 mission, indicating that the process of positioning of the skeletogenic cells may be affected, directly or indirectly, by environmental factors, including gravity. Larvae exposed to microgravity from blastula to prism/early pluteus stage for about 2 weeks (IBIS mission), developed on the ground over the next 2 months into normal metamorphosing individuals.

  7. Genome Sequences of Six Paenibacillus larvae Siphoviridae Phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Susan; Bruff, Emily; DeFoor, William; Dums, Jacob; Groth, Adam; Hatfield, Taylor; Iyer, Aruna; Joshi, Kalyani; McAdams, Sarah; Miles, Devon; Miller, Delanie; Oufkir, Abdoullah; Raynor, Brinkley; Riley, Sara; Roland, Shelby; Rozier, Horace; Talley, Sarah; Miller, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Six sequenced and annotated genomes of Paenibacillus larvae phages isolated from the combs of American foulbrood-diseased beehives are 37 to 45 kbp and have approximately 42% G+C content and 60 to 74 protein-coding genes. Phage Lily is most divergent from Diva, Rani, Redbud, Shelly, and Sitara. PMID:26089405

  8. The Colonization Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Tilapia Larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giatsis, C.; Sipkema, D.; Smidt, H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an e

  9. Insect Larvae: A New Platform to Produce Commercial Recombinant Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targovnik, Alexandra M; Arregui, Mariana B; Bracco, Lautaro F; Urtasun, Nicolas; Baieli, Maria F; Segura, Maria M; Simonella, Maria A; Fogar, Mariela; Wolman, Federico J; Cascone, Osvaldo; Miranda, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    In Biotechnology, the expression of recombinant proteins is a constantly growing field and different hosts are used for this purpose. Some valuable proteins cannot be produced using traditional systems. Insects from the order Lepidoptera infected with recombinant baculovirus have appeared as a good choice to express high levels of proteins, especially those with post-translational modifications. Lepidopteran insects, which are extensively distributed in the world, can be used as small protein factories, the new biofactories. Species like Bombyx mori (silkworm) have been analyzed in Asian countries to produce a great number of recombinant proteins for use in basic and applied science and industry. Many proteins expressed in this larva have been commercialized. Several recombinant proteins produced in silkworms have already been commercialized. On the other hand, species like Spodoptera frugiperda, Heliothis virescens, Rachiplusia nu, Helicoverpa zea and Trichoplusia ni are widely distributed in both the occidental world and Europe. The expression of recombinant proteins in larvae has the advantage of its low cost in comparison with insect cell cultures. A wide variety of recombinant proteins, including enzymes, hormones and vaccines, have been efficiently expressed with intact biological activity. The expression of pharmaceutically proteins, using insect larvae or cocoons, has become very attractive. This review describes the use of insect larvae as an alternative to produce commercial recombinant proteins. PMID:26956108

  10. The potential for ontogenetic vertical migration by larvae of bathyal echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Cm; Devin, Mg; Jaeckle, Wb; Ekaratne, Suk; George, Sb

    1996-01-01

    Planktotrophy is a relatively common developmental mode among bathyal and abyssal echinoderms, but the sources of food used by deep-sea planktotrophic larvae remain generally unknown. Very few deep-sea echinoderm larvae have been collected in plankton samples, so we do not know whether larvae migrate to the euphotic zone to feed or if they rely on bacteria or detritus at greater depths. We approached this question indirectly by investigating whether larvae of bathyal echinoids can tolerate th...

  11. S1 guideline diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous larva migrans (creeping disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunderkötter, C.; von Stebut, E.; Schöfer, H.; Mempel, M; Reinel, D; Wolf, G.; Meyer, V.; Nast, A; Burchard, GD

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans is a skin infection with a typical clinical appearance caused by active penetration of nematode larvae and their subsequent epidermal migration. The typical clinical appearance is caused by hookworm larvae, usually Ancylostoma braziliense but sometimes other canine or feline types of hookworm.This guideline aims to enhance patient care by optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of infections due to creeping disease (cutaneous larva migrans) and to raise awareness among ...

  12. Interrelationships among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics in Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus

    OpenAIRE

    Rajab Mohammad Nazari; Mohammad Reza Ghomi; Laura Aquiloni

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe the correlations among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics of Persian sturgeon. A total of 41 females were used and the variables including fertilization rate, incubation survival rate, larvae survival rate during yolk sac absorption (before feeding), and larvae survival rate after first feeding were determined. As a result, fertilization rate was positively correlated with three variables: incubation survival, larvae survival during yolk sac absorption, a...

  13. Predation on anchovy larvae by a pelagic chaetognatha, Sagitta nagae in the Sagami Bay, central Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Terazaki, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Anchovy larvae were detected in the gut of Sagitta nagae collected near Oshima Island in Sagami Bay during the night on 23 May 1996. S. nagae attacked the anchovy larvae actively when they encountered the aggregation of larvae. Generally, large animals consumed larger prey and there is a good correlation between body length of S. nagae and their prey size. Many S. nagae caught anchovy larvae from tail.

  14. Molecular expression and characterization of a homologue of host cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Trichinella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Boonmars, T; Nagano, I; Nakada, T; Takahashi, Y

    2003-06-01

    A homologue of cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) from complementary DNA (cDNA) of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The sequence analysis indicated that the predicted amino acid sequence has an identity of 57 and 44% with the MIF of nematodes Trichuris trichiura and Brugia malayi respectively, and 41 and 40% with that of a human and a mouse, respectively. The identity in sequences of cDNA and amino acids between T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis was 91 and 86%, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that anti-MIF antibodies positively stained proteins from the extracts of adult worms or muscle larvae migrating at about 12.5 kDa (3 isoforms with isoelectric point 5.23, 5.72, and 6.29). Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the gene was expressed in various developmental stages, including in adult worms, newborn larvae, precyst muscle larvae, and postcyst muscle larvae, although there was difference in the expression level among these stages. The immunohistochemical analysis showed the MIF exists in the muscle cells of the body wall and some stichocytes of larvae. Histopathology of T. spiralis-infected muscles revealed an accumulation of mononuclear cells around the worms, and immunocytochemical staining showed these cells were not macrophages. Mononuclear cells, including macrophages, were, however, observed in cardiac muscles where the parasite did not encyst. Macrophages accumulated around the Sephadex beads transplanted in mice subcutaneously, but this accumulation was profoundly inhibited when the beads were pretreated with MIF recombinant protein. PMID:12880250

  15. Monitoring tectal neuronal activities and motor behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2013-09-01

    To understand how visuomotor behaviors are controlled by the nervous system, it is necessary to monitor the activity of large populations of neurons with single-cell resolution over a large area of the brain in a relatively simple, behaving organism. The zebrafish larva, a small lower vertebrate with transparent skin, serves as an excellent model for this purpose. Immediately after the larva hatches, it needs to catch prey and avoid predators. This strong evolutionary pressure leads to the rapid development of functional sensory systems, particularly vision. By 5 d postfertilization (dpf), tectal cells show distinct visually evoked patterns of activation, and the larvae are able to perform a variety of visuomotor behaviors. During the early larval stage, zebrafish breathe mainly through the skin and can be restrained under the microscope using a drop of low-melting-point agarose, without the use of anesthetics. Moreover, the transparency of the skin, the small diameter of the neurons (4-5 µm), and the high-neuronal density enable the use of in vivo noninvasive imaging techniques to monitor neuronal activities of up to ∼500 cells within the central nervous system, still with single-cell resolution. This article describes a method for simultaneously monitoring spontaneous and visually evoked activities of large populations of neurons in the optic tectum of the zebrafish larva, using a synthetic calcium dye (Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM) and a conventional confocal or two-photon scanning fluorescence microscope, together with a method for measuring the tail motor behavior of the head-immobilized zebrafish larva. PMID:24003199

  16. Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Coleoptera, Megalopodidae, Megalopodinae: morfologia da larva e do adulto Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Coleoptera, Megalopodidae, Megalopodinae: larva and adult morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Carvalho

    Full Text Available A larva de Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Klug, 1824, coletada em Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae, é descrita e ilustrada. A redescrição do adulto inclui caracteres das peças bucais, venação da asa, endosternitos e terminálias masculina e feminina. Pela primeira vez uma larva da subfamília Megalopodinae é descrita.The larva of Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Klug, 1824, collected in Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae, is described and illustrated. The adult redescription includes characters of mouthparts, wing venation, endosternites and male and female terminalia. For the first time a larva of subfamily Megalopodinae is described.

  17. Feeding habits of Pacific cod larvae and juveniles in Mutsu Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsu, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Toshikuni; MUTOH, Takashi; Takahashi, Toyomi

    1995-01-01

    The diets and prey widths of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) larvae and juveniles were examined in Mutsu Bay. In early March, 11 yolk-sac larvae were caught in midwater of the bay mouth. Five of 11 larvae captured had not opened their mouths, and the remaining six had not fed. Post-larvae ≤ 7mm in total length (TL) fed on copepod nauplii, particularly Pseudocalanus nauplii. Prey items of post-larvae >7mm TL were chiefly crustacean eggs, and Pseudocalanus spp. copepodites and adults. From Ap...

  18. Age of Atlantic halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) at first feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Harboe, Torstein; Næss, Tore Håkon; Naas, Kjell Emil; Rabben, Håvard; Skjolddal, Lillian

    1990-01-01

    Halibut larvae at different age (150 to 315 day-degrees) were transferred to outdoor startfeeding tanks each with two internal plastic bags (100 litre). The larvae were fed wild zooplankton. One bag was sampled after 24 hours, and the other after nine days. Numbers of larvae with food in the gut, without food in gut and dead larvae, were counted for each larval age tested. The results showed that some larvae captured prey at an age of 150 day-degrees. However, at this age few ...

  19. [Ingestion and digestion of seven species of microalgae by larvae of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Súarez, V; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    The potential nutritional value of seven microalgal diets as measured by their ingestibility and digestibility to queen conch Strombus gigas larvae was tested with 30 day old larvae reared at 28 degrees C and fed at 1000 cells x ml(-1). The algae were Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Isochrysis aff. galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas coccoides, Chaetoceros sp. and Thalassiosira fluviatilis. Ingestion and digestion were measured by the four nutritional stages studied with epifluorescence microscopy with live larvae. Temporal and absolute indices showed that larvae fed Chaetoceros sp. and T. fluviatilis had lower ingestion and digestion levels. The other algae are recommend to feed S. gigas larvae. PMID:15266796

  20. Reduction of muscle larvae burden in rats experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machnicka-Rowinska B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats infected with 500 to 2,500 Trichinella spiralis larvae the muscle larvae intensity (larvae per gram-l.p.g. was measured from 20 to 180 day post infection (d.p.i. The l.p.g. increased to day 40-50 p.i. and decreased thereafter. The highest reduction took place between 6 0 and 120 d.p.i. with intermediate inoculum of T. spiralis larvae. The mechanism of the reduction of T. spiralis larvae in muscles is suggested to depend on pericapsular-intercapsular host cells infiltrations attracted by parasite antigens.

  1. Validation and efficacy of transgenerational mass marking of otoliths in viviparous fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, M; Buckley, R M; Leclair, L L; Hauser, L

    2010-07-01

    Transgenerational mass marking of viviparous fish larvae in vivo was validated by intra-muscular injection of elemental strontium chloride (SrCl(2)) in gestating females and detection of the Sr in the otoliths of developing larvae. All otoliths of brown rockfish Sebastes auriculatus larvae produced from SrCl(2)-injected females showed enriched Sr:Ca ratios near the otolith edges, and the signatures did not appear to be affected by the anterior, centre and posterior positions of larvae within the ovary. Results from the present study indicate that transgenerational marking is a highly reliable technique for marking large numbers of extremely small viviparous fish larvae. PMID:20646154

  2. Description of the larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys, 1891 (Odonata: Aeshnidae) from Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Prosenjit; Chandra, Kailash

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys is described here from female larvae and male and female exuviae collected from Chhattisgarh, India. Unlike other Gynacantha larvae known so far, G. millardi has 7 palpal setae almost equal in length; in other species, the palpal setae are of different lengths. The larvae lack a tooth on each side of the median cleft and have a distinct blunt tooth on the inner margin corner of each labial palp. The larvae were found in a semi-stagnant forest pool with enormous growth of aquatic vegetation. PMID:27395672

  3. Starving honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae signal pheromonally to worker bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu Jiang; Zhang, Xue Chuan; Jiang, Wu Jun; Barron, Andrew B.; Zhang, Jian Hui; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative brood care is diagnostic of animal societies. This is particularly true for the advanced social insects, and the honey bee is the best understood of the insect societies. A brood pheromone signaling the presence of larvae in a bee colony has been characterised and well studied, but here we explored whether honey bee larvae actively signal their food needs pheromonally to workers. We show that starving honey bee larvae signal to workers via increased production of the volatile pheromone E-β-ocimene. Analysis of volatile pheromones produced by food-deprived and fed larvae with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that starving larvae produced more E-β-ocimene. Behavioural analyses showed that adding E-β-ocimene to empty cells increased the number of worker visits to those cells, and similarly adding E-β-ocimene to larvae increased worker visitation rate to the larvae. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis identified 3 genes in the E-β-ocimene biosynthetic pathway that were upregulated in larvae following 30 minutes of starvation, and these genes also upregulated in 2-day old larvae compared to 4-day old larvae (2-day old larvae produce the most E-β-ocimene). This identifies a pheromonal mechanism by which brood can beg for food from workers to influence the allocation of resources within the colony. PMID:26924295

  4. Starving honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae signal pheromonally to worker bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu Jiang; Zhang, Xue Chuan; Jiang, Wu Jun; Barron, Andrew B; Zhang, Jian Hui; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative brood care is diagnostic of animal societies. This is particularly true for the advanced social insects, and the honey bee is the best understood of the insect societies. A brood pheromone signaling the presence of larvae in a bee colony has been characterised and well studied, but here we explored whether honey bee larvae actively signal their food needs pheromonally to workers. We show that starving honey bee larvae signal to workers via increased production of the volatile pheromone E-β-ocimene. Analysis of volatile pheromones produced by food-deprived and fed larvae with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that starving larvae produced more E-β-ocimene. Behavioural analyses showed that adding E-β-ocimene to empty cells increased the number of worker visits to those cells, and similarly adding E-β-ocimene to larvae increased worker visitation rate to the larvae. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis identified 3 genes in the E-β-ocimene biosynthetic pathway that were upregulated in larvae following 30 minutes of starvation, and these genes also upregulated in 2-day old larvae compared to 4-day old larvae (2-day old larvae produce the most E-β-ocimene). This identifies a pheromonal mechanism by which brood can beg for food from workers to influence the allocation of resources within the colony. PMID:26924295

  5. Enhanced ammonia content in compost leachate processed by black soldier fly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrence R; Popa, Radu

    2012-03-01

    Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens), feeding on leachate from decaying vegetable and food scrap waste, increase ammonia (NH (4) (+) ) concentration five- to sixfold relative to leachate unprocessed by larvae. NH (4) (+) in larva-processed leachate reached levels as high as ∼100 mM. Most of this NH (4) (+) appears to have come from organic nitrogen within the frass produced by the larvae as they fed on leachate. In nitrate-enriched solutions, BSF larvae also facilitate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. The markedly higher concentration of NH (4) (+) recovered in leachates processed with BSF larvae and concomitant diversion of nutrients into insect biomass (itself a valuable feedstock) indicate that the use of BSF larvae in processing leachate of decaying organic waste could be advantageous in offsetting capital and environmental costs incurred in composting. PMID:22238016

  6. VISCERAL LARVA MIGRANS AND TROPICAL PYOMYOSITIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tropical pyomyositis in a boy who presented with a severe febrile illness associated with diffuse erythema, and swelling in many areas of the body which revealed on operation extensive necrotic areas of various muscles that required repeated débridement. The patient gave a history of contact with dogs, and an ELISA test for Toxocara canis was positive. He also presented eosinophilia and high serum IgE levels. Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacteria isolated from the muscles affected. We suggest that tropical pyomyositis may be caused by the presence of migrating larvae of this or other parasites in the muscles. The immunologic and structural alterations caused by the larvae, in the presence of concomitant bacteremia, would favour seeding of the bacteria and the development of pyomyositis.

  7. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure. PMID:27405123

  8. Tracking radioactive larvae of Strongyloides ratti in the host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infective larvae of homogonic Strongyloides ratti grown in faecal culture with 32P or 75Se acquired a significant amount of radioactivity which was firmly attached to them. Heating removed most of the 32P but left 75Se in place. Subcutaneous injection of virgin and nursing mother rats with living and heat-killed ratioactive larvae resulted in a pattern of labelling in the small intestine of injected animals and, in the case of 75Se, those of suckling pups, which can only be explained if labelled worms follow the natural migratory routes. The use of this tool in migratory studies is discussed, with precautions to allow for flaws in the technique. (author)

  9. Identification of common excitatory motoneurons in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Eiji; Komatsu, Akira; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2007-05-01

    In insects, four types of motoneurons have long been known, including fast motoneurons, slow motoneurons, common inhibitory motoneurons, and DUM neurons. They innervate the same muscle and control its contraction together. Recent studies in Drosophila have suggested the existence of another type of motoneuron, the common excitatory motoneuron. Here, we found that shakB-GAL4 produced by labels this type of motoneuron in Drosophila larvae. We found that Drosophila larvae have two common excitatory motoneurons in each abdominal segment, RP2 for dorsal muscles and MNSNb/d-Is for ventral muscles. They innervate most of the internal longitudinal or oblique muscles on the dorsal or ventral body wall with type-Is terminals and use glutamate as a transmitter. Electrophysiological recording indicated that stimulation of the RP2 axon evoked excitatory junctional potential in a dorsal muscle. PMID:17867850

  10. Immunogenic effects of irradiated Haemonchus contortus larvae in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against parasitic disease has been reported in literature. Use of irradiated larvae as vaccines enables advantage to be taken of the special immunological properties of living parasites; radiation treatment can largely suppress the pathogenic effects of the vaccines and the reproductive capacity of the parasites involved. Attempts to produce a radiation-attenuated vaccine against Haemonchus contortus infection in adult goats are discussed here. H. contortus infection in ruminants is prevalent in the Philippines, especially among cattle and goats. The results presented indicate that a certain degree of resistance against H. contortus infection can be induced in adult goats immunized with irradiated larvae. The shelf-life of the vaccine was also determined. (author)

  11. Microvascular system forming in skeletal muscle near trichinella larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure and dynamics of formation of the microcirculatory system about the larvae of the two Trichinella species, providing for the rapid entry of nutrient substances to the larvae, were investigated in the muscles of white mice. Hitological, hitochemical, autoradiographic, and electron-microscopic methods were used in the investigation. At a certain period of the experiment, the greatest quantity of RNA was found in the endotheliocyte cytoplasm, tritium-thymidine label was incorporated into the nuclei, and mitoses were visible. The transition to tissue parasitism was accompanied by a complication of the relationships with the host and the formation of a more complex independent microcirculatory system, which ensures a more intensive influx of blood

  12. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang G. Purnama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic with case-control design. Data was collected through interviews and field observations to 150 respondents. The survey entomologist with indicators maya index, house index (HI, container index (CI, breteau index (BI and pupa index (PI to see the density of larvae and pupae in survey area. Dengue transmission risk was categorized mild, moderate and severe based on density figure. Water storage containers inspected in 1215 containers that as many as 675 containers in the case and 540 containers in control. Water reservoirs (TPA that the most larvae was tub (29.27%, dispenser (18.29%, container tirta (10.98%, wells (10.98%. Maya index status was lower in the case (24% smaller thancontrols (37.33%. Value of HI = 23.33; CI=10.69; BI=55; PI=15.33. Based on HI and CI indicator South Denpasar District means have moderate the risk of transmission spread of dengue disease. Based on the BI, have a high risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease. Based on the maya index showed house cases have highest risk as breeding place compare than control house. House index, Breteau index, container index, pupa index and maya index have correlation with dengue infection. Kind of breeding place have the high risk is bath tub

  13. What do barnacle larvae feed on ? Implications in biofouling ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Anil, A.C.

    (Figure 5). Analysis of variance also indicated a significant variation in barnacle recruitment among different sampling months (ANOVA: p≤0.05). DISCUSSION The mode of nutrition in larval forms plays an important role in their capability..., though the larvae raised in the microcosm experienced nutritional stress which was shown by lower ratios of RNA: DNA (Desai & Anil, 2002). This study further indicates their capability to feed on food materials other than diatoms. As the fecal...

  14. CHIRONOMUS PLUMOSUS LARVAE - A SUITABLE NUTRIENT FOR FRESHWATER FARMED FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Rajković; Zdeněk Adámek; Elizabeta Has-Schön; Ivan Bogut; Dalida Galović

    2007-01-01

    Crude protein, fat, water, ash, dry matter and essential amino and fatty acids were analyzed from freshly collected Chironomus plumosus larvae in order to evaluate their suitability as a component for farmed fish diet. The analyses were performed in intact living organisms and in the dry matter. Essential amino acidswere determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer, while fatty acids were determined by Chronopack CP 9000 chromatograph with flame ionization detector. Crude protein content was...

  15. Endogenous Dopamine Suppresses Initiation of Swimming in Prefeeding Zebrafish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Thirumalai, Vatsala; Cline, Hollis T.

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulator of locomotory circuits, yet the role that dopamine plays during development of these circuits is less well understood. Here, we describe a suppressive effect of dopamine on swim circuits in larval zebrafish. Zebrafish larvae exhibit marked changes in swimming behavior between 3 days postfertilization (dpf) and 5dpf. We found that swim episodes were fewer and of longer durations at 3 than at 5dpf. At 3dpf, application of dopamine as well as bupropion, a dopamin...

  16. Recording field potentials from zebrafish larvae during escape responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monesson-Olson, Bryan D; Troconis, Eileen L; Trapani, Josef G

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, startle responses are a ubiquitous method for alerting, and avoiding or escaping from alarming or dangerous stimuli. In zebrafish larvae, fast escape behavior is easily evoked through either acoustic or tactile stimuli. For example, a light touch to the head will excite trigeminal neurons that in turn excite a large reticulospinal neuron in the hindbrain called the Mauthner cell (M-cell). The M-cell action potential then travels down the contralateral trunk of the larva exciting motoneurons, which subsequently excite the entire axial musculature, producing a large amplitude body bend away from the source of the stimulus. This body conformation is known as the "C-bend" due to the shape of the larva during the behavior. As a result of the semi-synchronized activation of the M-cell, the population of motor neurons, and the axial trunk muscles, a large field potential is generated and can be recorded from free-swimming or fixed-position larvae. Undergraduate laboratories that record field potentials during escape responses in larval zebrafish are relatively simple to setup and allow students to observe and study the escape reflex circuit. Furthermore, by testing hypotheses, analyzing data and writing journal-style laboratory reports, students have multiple opportunities to learn about many neuroscience topics including vertebrate reflexes; sensory transduction; synaptic-, neuro-, and muscle-physiology; the M-cell mediated escape response; and the zebrafish as a model organism. Here, we detail the equipment, software, and recording setup necessary to observe field potentials in an undergraduate teaching lab. Additionally, we discuss potential advanced laboratory exercises and pedagogical outcomes. Finally, we note possible low-cost alternatives for recording field potentials. PMID:25565920

  17. Larva currens in a case of Organophosphorous poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old healthy farmer consumed organophosphorous poison. On third day he developed diarrhoea and on fourth day linear serpiginous ulcers appeared on both buttocks. Clinically lesions were considered as decubitus ulcers. By stool examination and other laboratory investigations it was diagnosed as cutaneous larva currens due to S trongyloides stercoralis in a case of organophosphorus poisoning. Patient responded very well to a course of albendazole.

  18. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  19. KARAKTERISTIK TEMPAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN DAN DENSITAS LARVA ANOPHELES SUBPICTUS KABUPATEN BULUKUMBA

    OpenAIRE

    Faatimah, Dewi; Ishak, Hasanuddin; Selomo, Makmur

    2015-01-01

    Kabupaten Bulukumba merupakan salah satu daerah endemis malaria yang ada di Sulawesi Selatan dengan angka kesakitan (api) per 1.000 penduduk dengan 11 kasus (API 0,47???) tahun 2013. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengatahui gambaran densitas larva Anopheles subpictus dan Anopheles barbirostis berdasarkan suhu, pH, salinitas, dan jenis vegetasi air yang ada. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian observasional dengan pendekatan deskritif. Sampel tempat perindukan dalam penelitian ini termasu...

  20. Suscetibilidade de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus a diferentes inseticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stênio Nunes Alves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a suscetibilidade de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus a dois piretróides (Cipermetrina e Deltametrina, dois derivados da Avermectina (ivermectina e abamectina e a um organofosforado (Temefós. MÉTODOS: Larvas de 3º e 4º instares de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a diferentes concentrações destes (onze repetições seguindo o protocolo da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Uma hora após a exposição, as larvas foram lavadas em água desclorada, transferidas para recipientes plásticos contendo água sem cloro, alimentadas e observadas por períodos de 24h, até se transformarem em adultos. Para a determinação das concentrações letais, os valores foram submetidos à análise de regressão usando o modelo probit pelo programa Minitab 15. RESULTADOS: Diferenças entre as estimativas da CL50 e CL90 justificaram que a população de mosquitos testada apresenta heterogeneidade em resposta aos inseticidas, sendo a maior concentração utilizada para a CL50, a partir da análise de probit para o Temefós. Todos os inseticidas avaliados causaram mortalidade mais acentuada nas primeiras 24h exceto quando expostas à ivermectina. CONCLUSÕES: As larvas são suscetíveis a todos os inseticidas testados e há uma necessidade de um monitoramento dos inseticidas utilizados.

  1. The Colonization Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Tilapia Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that sha...

  2. Effects of dietary vitamin C on fish and crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary needs for ascorbic acid (AA) at startfeeding, the AA content in the various live diets currently applied in aquaculture (algae, rotifers, Artemia ) was studied. Application of boosting techniques using ascorbyl palmitate (AP) as the vitamin C source enabled the transfer of elevated levels of bioactive vitamin C (up to 2500µg AA.g DW-1) via the live food chain into larvae of fish (Clarias gariepinus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Scophthalmus maximus), shrimp (Pennaeus v...

  3. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukant Khurana; Mohammed Bin AbuBaker; Obaid Siddiqi

    2009-10-01

    Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) and long term (LTM) as a function of training cycles. The same method of analysis when applied to learning mutants dunce, amnesiac, rutabaga and radish reveals memory deficits characteristic of the mutant strains.

  4. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass. PMID:22606806

  5. Chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity in Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider 1799) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, M R; Bandara, M G D K; Ratnasooriya, W D; Lakraj, G P

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of continuous exposure to a widely used organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, on survival, growth, development, and activity of larvae of the Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider 1799. Larvae were continuously exposed to six different concentrations (1-1,500 μg l(-1)) of commercial-grade chlorpyrifos for 14 days and monitored for 1 additional week. Chlorpyrifos at ≥1,000 μg l(-1) caused significantly high and dose-dependent mortality, and the weekly LC50(7 day-21 day) values ranged from 3,003 to 462 μg l(-1). Larvae surviving exposure to ≥500 μg l(-1) chlorpyrifos showed significant growth impairment, delays in metamorphosis, and decreased swimming activity. Tail abnormalities were the most common morphologic deformity at concentrations of 1,000 and 1,500 μg l(-1) chlorpyrifos. The findings of the present study highlight the need to recognize the potential risk that agrochemicals pose to amphibians inhabiting agricultural landscapes in Sri Lanka and other Asian countries. PMID:20669016

  6. Ecophysiology of dorsal versus ventral cuticle in flattened sawfly larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevé, Jean-Luc; Angeli, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Platycampus larvae are highly cryptic leaf feeders characterised by a dorso-ventrally flattened body, the dorsal integument resembling a shield. Dorsal and ventral cuticles from Platycampus luridiventris were compared by histology and gel electrophoresis. By Azan-staining, a red and a blue layer were distinguished in the dorsal cuticle, while the ventral cuticle showed one, almost uniform blue layer, as in both cuticles of control species. The two cuticles from P. luridiventris had similar amounts and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of soluble proteins, but not insoluble proteins. One insoluble protein (MW ≈ 41 kDa) was visible as a large band in the ventral cuticle only. It is likely that this protein renders the cuticle elastic, and that the dorsal, red layer is the exocuticle, mainly composed of insoluble proteins. We discuss eco-physiological implications of the exocuticle in insects. Further, data from the literature indicate that the defence strategy in P. luridiventris larvae relies on being visually cryptic towards avian predators and tactically cryptic towards arthropod predators and parasitoids. Crypsis in both senses is favoured by the shield effect, itself based on an abnormally thick dorsal exocuticle. Although the larvae are external feeders, they may be considered as hidden from an ecological perspective.

  7. The larva of Drusus vinconi Sipahiler, 1992 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Waringer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Drusus vinconi Sipahiler, 1992. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of D. vinconi keys together with D. annulatus (Stephens, 1837, D. biguttatus (Pictet, 1834, D. ingridae Sipahiler, 1993, Hadimina torosensis Sipahiler, 2002 and Leptodrusus budtzi (Ulmer, 1913. These species differ in the contours of the pronotum in lateral view, the presence/absence of the pronotal transverse groove, the shape of the median notch of the pronotum (in anterior view, pronotal sculpturing, presence/absence of the lateral carina of the head capsule, the number of proximo-dorsal setae on the mid-and hind femora, where the lateral fringe starts on the abdomen, and in geographic distribution. With respect to zoogeography, Drusus vinconi is a (micro-endemic of the Western Pyrenees. The species prefers stony substratum in springs and springbrooks of the montane and subalpine region (Graf et al. 2008; Sipahiler 1992, 1993. As a grazer, the larvae of D. vinconi feed on biofilm and epilithic algae.

  8. Prevalence of American Foulbrood and Paenibacillus Larvae Genotypes in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina V. RUSENOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the prevalence of American foulbrood and Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in Bulgaria. For this purpose, data concerning American foulbrood outbreaks were used. Also, available data on the number of destroyed bee families covering a twenty-five-year period (1989 - 2013 was collected from the register of Bulgarian Food Safety Agency. In addition, Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in 15 apiaries were established by rep - PCR with BOXA1R and MBOREP1 primers. Results showed broad incidence of the disease, particularly at the beginning of the analysed period, with a tendency to reduction of affected apiaries and bee families at the end of the period. A statistically significant prevalence of American foulbrood in South Bulgaria compared to the northern regions was observed. Genotyping of Paenibacillus larvae revealed two genotypes: ab and AB, with the preponderance of the more virulent AB in South Bulgaria. The obtained results showed the need for conducting regular mandatory screening of bee colonies for early diagnostics of the disease and the implementation of relevant measures for American foulbrood prevention and control.

  9. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study. PMID:26580574

  10. Utilization of computer processed high definition video imaging for measuring motility of microscopic nematode stages on a quantitative scale: “The Worminator”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Storey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A major hindrance to evaluating nematode populations for anthelmintic resistance, as well as for screening existing drugs, new compounds, or bioactive plant extracts for anthelmintic properties, is the lack of an efficient, objective, and reproducible in vitro assay that is adaptable to multiple life stages and parasite genera. To address this need we have developed the “Worminator” system, which objectively and quantitatively measures the motility of microscopic stages of parasitic nematodes. The system is built around the computer application “WormAssay”, developed at the Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. WormAssay was designed to assess motility of macroscopic parasites for the purpose of high throughput screening of potential anthelmintic compounds, utilizing high definition video as an input to assess motion of adult stage (macroscopic parasites (e.g. Brugia malayi. We adapted this assay for use with microscopic parasites by modifying the software to support a full frame analysis mode that applies the motion algorithm to the entire video frame. Thus, the motility of all parasites in a given well are recorded and measured simultaneously. Assays performed on third-stage larvae (L3 of the bovine intestinal nematode Cooperia spp., as well as microfilariae (mf of the filarioid nematodes B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis, yielded reproducible dose responses using the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin, doramectin, and moxidectin, as well as the nicotinic agonists, pyrantel, oxantel, morantel, and tribendimidine. This new computer based-assay is simple to use, requires minimal new investment in equipment, is robust across nematode genera and developmental stage, and does not require subjective scoring of motility by an observer. Thus, the “Worminator” provides a relatively low-cost platform for developing genera- and stage-specific assays with high efficiency and

  11. Dual RNA-seq of parasite and host reveals gene expression dynamics during filarial worm-mosquito interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun Choi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasite biology, by its very nature, cannot be understood without integrating it with that of the host, nor can the host response be adequately explained without considering the activity of the parasite. However, due to experimental limitations, molecular studies of parasite-host systems have been predominantly one-sided investigations focusing on either of the partners involved. Here, we conducted a dual RNA-seq time course analysis of filarial worm parasite and host mosquito to better understand the parasite processes underlying development in and interaction with the host tissue, from the establishment of infection to the development of infective-stage larva. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Brugia malayi-Aedes aegypti system, we report parasite gene transcription dynamics, which exhibited a highly ordered developmental program consisting of a series of cyclical and state-transitioning temporal patterns. In addition, we contextualized these parasite data in relation to the concurrent dynamics of the host transcriptome. Comparative analyses using uninfected tissues and different host strains revealed the influence of parasite development on host gene transcription as well as the influence of the host environment on parasite gene transcription. We also critically evaluated the life-cycle transcriptome of B. malayi by comparing developmental stages in the mosquito relative to those in the mammalian host, providing insight into gene expression changes underpinning the mosquito-borne parasitic lifestyle of this heteroxenous parasite. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented herein provide the research community with information to design wet lab experiments and select candidates for future study to more fully dissect the whole set of molecular interactions of both organisms in this mosquito-filarial worm symbiotic relationship. Furthermore, characterization of the transcriptional program over the complete life cycle of

  12. Development and functional morphology of the mouthparts and foregut in larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cristina Pantoja; Souza, Adelson Silva de; Maciel, Murilo; Maciel, Cristiana R; Abrunhosa, Fernando Araújo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the mouthparts and foregut of the larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated to determine their functional roles in feeding, in order to understand the larval feeding behaviour and the changes that occur during its development. The mouthparts and foregut of the zoea I and II are morphologically similar, rudimentary and non-functional in feeding. Only in the final larval stage, zoea III, do the external mouthparts and foregut become structurally more complex and thus likely to play a potential role in feeding. Two behavioral trials (point of no return, point of reserve saturation) evaluated the resistance to starvation in zoea I, II, and III. The results indicate that they have sufficient nutritional reserves to permit them to complete metamorphosis without feeding. Overall, our results suggest that the zoea I and II of Macrobrachium jelskii engage in obligate lecithotrophy and zoea III in facultative lecithotrophy. PMID:26899315

  13. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  14. Mananoligossacarídeo em dietas para larvas de tilápia Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for tilapia larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kalko Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar níveis crescentes de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS na dieta de larvas de tilápias-do-nilo (linhagem Supreme® na fase de reversão sexual durante 30 dias. Larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (n=1500, P=0,01 g ± 0,001 g foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 30 tanques de 100 litros. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. A dieta controle (isenta de MOS foi elaborada para conter aproximadamente 35% de proteína bruta e 3.100 kcal de ED/kg. As demais foram suplementadas com 0; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% de MOS em substituição ao milho da dieta controle. Com o aumento nos níveis de MOS nas dietas, foi observado aumento linear sobre o comprimento do intestino, a altura das vilosidades intestinais e a densidade dos vilos. Não houve diferença na composição corporal, no ganho em peso, no peso final, no comprimento final, no fator de condição, na taxa de sobrevivência e no número de células caliciformes do intestino das larvas. Os níveis de MOS tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar, cujos melhores resultados foram obtidos com 0,34% de MOS. A utilização de MOS no nível de 0,34% em dietas para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo melhora a conversão alimentar e promove aumento do comprimento do intestino, da altura das vilosidades e da densidade de vilos intestinal.This experiment was conducted to evaluate increasing levels of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS in the diet of Nile tilapia larvae (Supreme® at the sex reversal stage for 30 days. Nile tilapia larvae (n = 1500, p = 0.01 ± 0.001 g, were randomly distributed in 30 tanks of 100 liters each, for 30 days. The fish were distributed in a randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. The control diet (no MOS was elaborated to contain approximately 35% of crude protein and 3,100 kcal DE/kg. Mannanoligosaccharides were included in the other diets

  15. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [75Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [75Se]selenomethionine. When the 75Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  16. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadulina Albina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Results Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2’-thiodiethanol (TDE, which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4’6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental

  17. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira Lanna; Alaor Maciel Junior; Juarez Lopes Donzele; Clóvis Andrade Neves; Eliane Menin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849) (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae), during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm). The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the ...

  18. Exposure to lead induces hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, T.M.; Blackstone, B.J.; Nixdorf, W.L.; Taylor, D.H.

    1999-10-01

    Amphibians collected around mining sites, areas with extensive automobile traffic, and shooting ranges have been documented to contain high levels of lead. Lead-exposed amphibians might respond as if in hypoxic conditions because exposure is known to decrease hemoglobin levels, damage erythrocytes, and alter respiratory surfaces. Therefore, the authors exposed bullfrog larvae to either 0 or 780 {micro}g/L Pb and either 3.50 or 7.85 mg/L oxygen for 7 d and monitored activity, trips to the surface, and buccal ventilation rates. Activity was significantly decreased in larvae exposed to low oxygen, Pb, or both compared to activity of larvae in high oxygen with no Pb. Larvae exposed to both Pb and low oxygen displayed higher buccal ventilation rates than larvae exposed to either treatment separately. Lead-exposed larvae surfaced significantly more often than unexposed larvae even under high-oxygen conditions. Lead-exposed larvae decreased in mass during the exposure period, whereas unexposed larvae increased in mass. Lead exposure could decrease survival of larvae in the field not only because of physiological problems due to decreased oxygen uptake but also because of greater predation pressure due to increased presence at the surface and reduced growth rates.

  19. Production of the catechol type siderophore bacillibactin by the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Gillian; Müller, Sebastian; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Poppinga, Lena; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Genersch, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood. This bacterial infection of honey bee brood is a notifiable epizootic posing a serious threat to global honey bee health because not only individual larvae but also entire colonies succumb to the disease. In the recent past considerable progress has been made in elucidating molecular aspects of host pathogen interactions during pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Especially the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome of P. larvae was a major step forward and revealed the existence of several giant gene clusters coding for non-ribosomal peptide synthetases which might act as putative virulence factors. We here present the detailed analysis of one of these clusters which we demonstrated to be responsible for the biosynthesis of bacillibactin, a P. larvae siderophore. We first established culture conditions allowing the growth of P. larvae under iron-limited conditions and triggering siderophore production by P. larvae. Using a gene disruption strategy we linked siderophore production to the expression of an uninterrupted bacillibactin gene cluster. In silico analysis predicted the structure of a trimeric trithreonyl lactone (DHB-Gly-Thr)3 similar to the structure of bacillibactin produced by several Bacillus species. Mass spectrometric analysis unambiguously confirmed that the siderophore produced by P. larvae is identical to bacillibactin. Exposure bioassays demonstrated that P. larvae bacillibactin is not required for full virulence of P. larvae in laboratory exposure bioassays. This observation is consistent with results obtained for bacillibactin in other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25237888

  20. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larvae of this species. In a second experiment, the gut contents of the fish larvae fed were calculated as they changed during development. In a third experiment, the gut evacuation rate of fish larvae ...

  1. Viral encephalitis of tilapia larvae: primary characterization of a novel herpes-like virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlapobersky, Mark; Sinyakov, Michael S; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Sarid, Ronit; Don, Jeremy; Avtalion, Ramy R

    2010-04-10

    We report here an outbreak of an acute disease that caused high mortality rate in laboratory-reared tilapia larvae. The disease was initially observed in inbred gynogenetic line of blue tilapia larvae (Oreochromis aureus) and could be transmitted to larvae of other tilapia species. Based on the clinical manifestation (a whirling syndrome), we refer to the disease as viral encephalitis of tilapia larvae. The disease-associated DNA virus is described and accordingly designated tilapia larvae encephalitis virus (TLEV). A primary morphological, biophysical and molecular characterization of TLEV is presented. By virtue of these properties, the newly discovered virus is a herpes-like virus. Phylogenetic analysis, albeit limited, confirms this assumption and places TLEV within the family of Herpesviridae and distantly from the families Alloherpesviridae and Iridoviridae. By using PCR with virus-specific primers, diseased larvae and adult TLEV carriers were also identified in tilapia delivered from external hatcheries. PMID:20117816

  2. A behavioral method for separation of house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae from processed pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicková, Helena; Kozánek, Milan; Morávek, Ivan; Takác, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A behavioral method applicable in biodegradation facilities for separation of house fly (Musca domestica L.) larvae from processed pig manure is presented. The method is based on placing a cover over the larval rearing tray, while escaping larvae are collected in collection trays. Separation units must be placed in a dark room to avoid negative phototactic responses of the larvae. After 24 h of separation, over 70% of the larvae escaped from processed manure and were collected in collection trays. Most of the larvae pupated within 48 h after separation. Mean weight of pupae recovered from manure residue was not significantly different from mean weight of pupae of separated individuals. Eclosion rate of pupae recovered from manure residue was significantly lower than eclosion of separated individuals, and was strongly related to separation success. Factors responsible for escape behavior of larvae are discussed. PMID:22420256

  3. Effect of electronic beam irradiation on last instar larvae of lasioderma serricorne fabricius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic beam irradiation effects on the last instar larvae of cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius) in tobacco were studied, and the mortality in 42 days, lethal time, pupation rate, emergence rate and reproductive capacity after irradiation were measured. The results showed that the mortality increased with the increase of irradiation dosage, but the larvae did not dead immediately. The last instar larvae irradiated by the dosages higher than 480 Gy could prevent the development of larvae to adults. No new generation was found after 300 Gy treatment of the last instar larvae. So 300 Gy irradiation could be considered as a suitable dose to prevent the reproduction of cigarette beetle of the last instar larvae in the tobacco. (authors)

  4. Drosophila melanogaster larvae control amylase secretion according to the hardness of food

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Honami; Suzuki, Masataka G.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae excrete amylase and perform external digestion of their food. In this study, to investigate whether their external digestion ability varies in response to changes in the external environment, we measured the relative amount of amylase excreted by larvae using a new method: the iodine starch agar method (ISAM). Analysis using this method revealed that the amount of amylase excreted by larvae increased in accordance with the increase in the agar concentration. In ...

  5. Kaolin as a possible treatment against lepidopteran larvae and mites in organic fruit production

    OpenAIRE

    Jaastad, G.; Røen, D.; Hovland, B.; Opedal, O.

    2006-01-01

    Few control methods are available in Norwegian organic fruit production that can prevent damage by early and late larvae. Also phytophagous mites are difficult to control without harming the beneficial mites. Proc-essed kaolin function by coating trees and thus creating a physical barrier to infestation, impeding move-ment, feeding and egg-laying. Kaolin may reduce feeding and movement of over-wintering tortricide larvae and other larvae that hatch early in spring and have a repellent effect ...

  6. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    of collection. All other species exhibited different degree of preference to day or night in different regions. This may be due to the ecological factors prevailing in such regions which may have influence in their growth and distribution. BOTHID LARVAE - GULF... water movements but not with strong currents. The effect and pattern of the prevailing current is one of the important factors that decides the distribution of the larvae. The abundance of bothid larvae in the Gulf of Thailand compared to the South...

  7. Rearing of catfish (Clarias batrachus Lin.) larvae with live and prepared feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin, A.; Mollah, M.F.A; Haylor, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    Provision or live feed (Tubificid worms) attributed significantly better weight gain in the five days old Clarias batrachus larvae when reared for another 28 days compared to those fed mixed feed (live and artificial) and artificial feed only. Larvae fed mixed feed showed significantly better weight gain compared to those fed only artificial feed and the survival rate was similar to those fed only live feed. Both the weight gain and survival rate were the lowest for the larvae reared only on ...

  8. Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Cryopreserved Larvae from a Marine Invertebrate, the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Suquet, Marc; Labbé, Catherine; Puyo, Sophie; Mingant, Christian; Quittet, Benjamin; Boulais, Myrina; Queau, Isabelle; Ratiskol, Dominique; Diss, Blandine; Haffray, Pierrick

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first demonstration of successful post-thawing development to reproduction stage of diploid cryopreserved larvae in an aquatic invertebrate. Survival, growth and reproductive performances were studied in juvenile and adult Pacific oysters grown from cryopreserved embryos. Cryopreservation was performed at three early stages: trochophore (13 +/- 2 hours post fertilization: hpf), early D-larvae (24 +/- 2 hpf) and late D-larvae (43 +/- 2 hpf). From the beginning (88 days) at th...

  9. Effect og bioactive products on innate immunity and development of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Rut Hermannsdóttir

    2008-01-01

    Halibut larvae were treated with various bioactive products and the effects on selected components of the innate immune system investigated. Effects on growth, survival and normal development of larvae were also studied. The bioactive products which were tested were chitosan and protein hydrolysates from cod, blue whiting and pollock. The larvae where treated with bioactive products from the onset of feeding or from 4-5 weeks after the onset of feeding and throughout the first feeding period....

  10. Screening alternative antibiotics against oxytetracycline-susceptible and -resistant Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kochansky, Jan; Knox, David; Feldlaufer, Mark; Pettis, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    International audience Since resistance of the causative organism of American foulbrood, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, to oxytetracycline (OTC) is becoming widespread in the United States, we began a search for effective alternative antibiotics. We investigated the sensitivity of P. l. larvae to 27 antibiotics, which were primarily ones already registered with the US Food and Drug Administration for agricultural uses. Bacterial resistance to OTC also conferred resistance to other tet...

  11. KERENTANAN LARVA AEDES AEGYPTI TERHADAP TEMEFOS DI TIGA KELURAHAN ENDEMIS DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE KOTA SUKABUMI

    OpenAIRE

    Hubullah Fuadzy; Dewi Nur Hodijah; Asep Jajang; Mutiara Widawati

    2015-01-01

    AbstractResistance of Aedes aegypti larvae against temephos influeneed the efforts of Dengue Fever vector control . The purpose of this study was to determine the status of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti larvae against temephos in three Dengue Fever endemic areas in Sukabumi. Design laboratory experiment with random design. approach group. Sample of Ae. aegypti larvae instar 3 and 4 had been taken from Subdistrict Baros, Sriwedari, Nangeleng. Susceptibility test, in performed according to Worl...

  12. On the edge: pharmacological evidence for anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Richendrfer, H.; Pelkowski, S.D.; Colwill, R.M.; Creton, R.

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae are ideally suited for high-throughput analyses of vertebrate behavior. The larvae can be examined in multiwell plates and display a range of behaviors during early development. Previous studies have shown that zebrafish larvae display a preference for the edge of the well and several lines of evidence suggest this edge preference (thigmotaxis) may be a measure of anxiety. In the present study, we further examined the relation between edge preference and anxiety by imaging ze...

  13. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Sacchi L.; Corona S.; Gajadhar A.A.; Pozio E.

    2001-01-01

    The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear), T. spiralis (horses and humans), T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse) and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse) were examined. Analysi...

  14. Dynamic of decapod crustacean larvae on the entrance of Guanabara bay

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Lohengrin Dias de Almeida; Bonecker Sérgio Luiz Costa; Valentin Jean Louis

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we observed seasonal variations in the density of decapod larvae as well as changes in density related to diurnal and tidal cycles. Among the decapod larvae collected, portunids and grapsids were the most abundant, especially during nocturnal ebb tides and near the surface. The same results were obtained in late winter (September) and late summer (March). These results demonstrated a flow of decapod larvae from Guanabara Bay to adjacent coastal waters. Luciferid (Lucifer...

  15. Humidity Detection and Hygropreference Behavior in Larvae of the Tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, Marc; Hanson, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Water is a critical resource for any terrestrial animal, especially for a soft-bodied insect such as larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Strategies for coping with a dry environment might include seeking out regions of high relative humidity that reduce desiccative stress, or to find and imbibe liquid water. Desiccated larvae placed in a linear arena with a humidity gradient preferred the humid end, whereas un-desiccated larvae did not. This behavior wa...

  16. Jenis – Jenis Larva Nyamuk di Kelurahan Baru–Ladang Bambu, Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasegaran, Logeswaran

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the cause of some dangerous disease to humans. Larvae is an important stage in mosquitoes life cycle and it is important to identify its presence and stop its development. This study aims to identify the type of mosquito larvaes which are found in Kelurahan Baru – Ladang Bambu, Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan . Sample mosquito larvaes collected in Kelurahan Baru – Ladang Bambu, Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan and examined under microscope to identify the species with the help of identifica...

  17. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  18. Differences in vertical and horizontal distribution of fish larvae and zooplankton, related to hydrography

    OpenAIRE

    Höffle, Hannes; Nash, Richard D. M.; Falkenhaug, Tone; Munk, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Planktonic fish larvae have little influence on their horizontal distribution, while they are able to control their vertical position in the water column. While prey and light are among the factors with an apparent influence on the vertical distribution, the effects of other factors are less clear. Notably, distributional differences between larvae of different fish species are poorly understood. Information on the horizontal distribution of larvae of 27 species and the vertical distribution ...

  19. Descrição da larva de Erythemis mithroides (Brauer e notas sobre outras larvas conhecidas do gênero (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Erythemis mithroides (Brauer and notes on other known larvae of the genus (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Costa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of Erythemis mithroides (Brauer, 1900 is described and figured based on exuviae of reared specimens. A comparative analysis of this immature stage and the known larvae of the genus are furnished according to the data available in the literature and of specimens of E credula (Hagen, 1861 and E. vesiculosa (Fab., 1775 permiting a diagnose for the larvae of the genus Erylhemis Hagen, 1861.

  20. Thyroid endocrine disruption of acetochlor on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Hu, Jingjin; Li, Shuying; Ma, Youning; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide acetochlor is widely used and detected in the environment and biota, and has been suspected to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system, but underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. In the present study, zebrafish larvae (7 days post-fertilization) were exposed to a series concentration of acetochlor (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 µg l(-1) ) within a 14-day window until 21 days post-fertilization. Thyroid hormones and mRNA expression profiles of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were analyzed. Exposure to the positive control, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ), altered the mRNA expression, suggesting that the HPT axis in the critical window of zebrafish responded to chemical exposure and could be used to evaluate the effects of chemicals on the thyroid endocrine system. The mRNA expressions of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (tshβ, slc5a5 and tpo) were upregulated significantly with acetochlor treatment, which might be responsible for the increased thyroxine concentrations. The downregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (dio1 and ugt1ab) and transport (ttr) in zebrafish larvae exposed to acetochlor might further explain the increased thyroxine levels and decreased T3 levels. The mRNA expression of the thyroid hormone receptor (trα) was also upregulated upon acetochlor exposure. Results suggested that acetochlor altered mRNA expression of the HPT axis-related genes and changed the whole body thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish larvae. It demonstrated that acetochlor could cause endocrine disruption of the thyroid system by simulating the biological activity of T3 . Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26397822

  1. "Filarial dance sign" real-time ultrasound diagnosis of filarial oophoritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panditi, Surekha; Shelke, Ashwini G; Thummalakunta, Laxmi Narasimha Praveen

    2016-10-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by Filarial nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori) that commonly causes lymphatic obstruction resulting in edema and increase in the size of the affected organ. Filariasis is diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stain. The immunochromatographic card test is diagnostic. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for detecting adult filarial worms/microfilaria in the lymphatic system, which are responsible for the classic "filarial dance sign" caused by twirling movements of the microfilariae. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:500-501, 2016. PMID:27130361

  2. Volatiles induced by the larvae of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.

  3. Catching large herring larvae: Gear applicability and larval distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1988-01-01

    given to the influence of gear speed on catching effectiveness. An additional objective was to investigate larval distributional patterns of potential importance to sampling strategy. Gear speed had a pronounced influence on the efficiency of the IKMT. Catches per unit volume filtered decreased to one...... third when speed was increased by one knot. The efficiency of the MIK did not change in the speed range investigated, and this gear was in every case more efficient than the IKMT. Larvae were found to be patchily distributed at the scale of sampling, and the degree of patchiness did not increase when...

  4. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species.

  5. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species. (Auth.)

  6. A linear model for the dynamics of fish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ghouali

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a linear model for the growth and the dispersion of fish larvae of certain species. Dispersion is modeled as entailed by the combination of transport and vertical diffusion. We generalize the work of Boushaba, Arino and Boussouar [5,6] in the sense that horizontal velocities are uniform throughout the water column; but we deal with vertical component velocity and vertical diffusion depending on the space variables and on time, which was not the case in [5,6]. This new vision leads us to non-autonomous problems, the aim of this work is to show the existence, uniqueness, and positivity of solutions.

  7. Feeding rates of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita on fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    prey captured by A. aurita during 2.5 h of feeding at extremely high prey concentration (> 200 prey l(-1)). Clearance rate in darkness scaled with jellyfish diameter to a power of similar to 1.7 for jellyfish 3.9-9.5 cm in diameter. The jellyfish did not alter their umbrella pulse frequency in response...... to presence of fish larvae. There were no significant differences between A. aurita feeding rates in light and darkness for yolk sac prey ages 0-7 days (at 7.5 degrees C). Although prey vision and escape abilities of fish may develop rapidly during early larval ontogeny, these factors apparently have...

  8. Drosophila melanogaster larvae make nutritional choices that minimize developmental time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marisa A; Martins, Nelson E; Balancé, Lara F; Broom, Lara N; Dias, António J S; Fernandes, Ana Sofia D; Rodrigues, Fábio; Sucena, Élio; Mirth, Christen K

    2015-10-01

    Organisms from slime moulds to humans carefully regulate their macronutrient intake to optimize a wide range of life history characters including survival, stress resistance, and reproductive success. However, life history characters often differ in their response to nutrition, forcing organisms to make foraging decisions while balancing the trade-offs between these effects. To date, we have a limited understanding of how the nutritional environment shapes the relationship between life history characters and foraging decisions. To gain insight into the problem, we used a geometric framework for nutrition to assess how the protein and carbohydrate content of the larval diet affected key life history traits in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In no-choice assays, survival from egg to pupae, female and male body size, and ovariole number - a proxy for female fecundity - were maximized at the highest protein to carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (1.5:1). In contrast, development time was minimized at intermediate P:C ratios, around 1:2. Next, we subjected larvae to two-choice tests to determine how they regulated their protein and carbohydrate intake in relation to these life history traits. Our results show that larvae targeted their consumption to P:C ratios that minimized development time. Finally, we examined whether adult females also chose to lay their eggs in the P:C ratios that minimized developmental time. Using a three-choice assay, we found that adult females preferentially laid their eggs in food P:C ratios that were suboptimal for all larval life history traits. Our results demonstrate that D. melanogaster larvae make foraging decisions that trade-off developmental time with body size, ovariole number, and survival. In addition, adult females make oviposition decisions that do not appear to benefit the larvae. We propose that these decisions may reflect the living nature of the larval nutritional environment in rotting fruit. These studies illustrate the

  9. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vera Diaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  10. The Effects of Shrimp Gut Probiotic Bacteria on the Shrimp Larvae (Penaeus Chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The survival rates of shrimp larvae in different stage are higher than those of control groups when probiotic bacteria strains X4B-1 and X1B-1 which are isolated from gut of adult shrimp are added into the little volume rearing sea water of shrimp larvae. The effects of probiotic bacteria are evaluated by challenge test (pathogenic bacteria Z3G2 isolated from disease shrimp larvae in the hatchery of Jimo town) and low salinity stress resistance tests on shrimp larvae, the survival rate and lengths of the shrimp larvae in the experiment are determined. Results indicate that 1. The survival rate, ability of resistant to low salinity, lengths of the delivered shrimp larvae are improved after the strains of probiotic bacteria, X4B-1 or X1B-1, are added into the rearing sea water of hatchery. 2. The addition of the probiotic bacteria could not influence the change of the bacteria number, NH3-N and COD value in the rearing sea water. 3. The probiotic bacteria used in the experiment have many enzymes such as Lipase, Amylase, Gelatinase and Lecithinase. These enzymes may help the probiotic bacteria to digest the food components fed to shrimp larvae and increase the digestive efficiency of post larvae. This may be one of the reasons why these probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the shrimp larvae.

  11. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present. PMID:24318779

  12. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates. A souvenir of your dream vacation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelglass, J.W.; Douglass, M.C.; Stiefler, R.; Tessler, M.

    1982-09-01

    Three young women recently returned to the metropolitan Detroit area with cutaneous larva migrans. All three had vacationed at a popular club resort on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Cutaneous larva migrans is frequently seen in the southern United States, Central and South America, and other subtropical areas but rarely in northern climates. Several organisms can cause cutaneous larva migrans, or creeping eruption. The larvae of the nematode Ancylostoma braziliense are most often the causative organisms. Travel habits of Americans make it necessary for practitioners in northern climates to be familiar with diseases contracted primarily in warmer locations. The life cycle of causative organisms and current therapy are reviewed.

  13. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honeybee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Evans, Jay D; Zunino, Pablo

    2010-03-24

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae during larval infection. The aim of the present work was to perform a first approach to the identification and characterization of P. larvae secretome. P. larvae secreted proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF. Protein toxicity was evaluated using an experimental model based on feeding of A. mellifera larvae and immunogenicity was evaluated by Western blot, using an antiserum raised against cells and spores of P. larvae. Ten different proteins were identified among P. larvae secreted proteins, including proteins involved in transcription, metabolism, translation, cell envelope, transport, protein folding, degradation of polysaccharides and motility. Although most of these proteins are cytosolic, many of them have been previously detected in the extracellular medium of different Bacillus spp. cultures and have been related to virulence. The secreted proteins resulted highly toxic and immunogenic when larvae were exposed using an experimental model. This is the first description of proteins secreted by the honeybee pathogen P. larvae. This information may be relevant for the elucidation of bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. PMID:19781868

  14. Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Morón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico. Larvae of four species of Cyclocephala are described for the first time based on specimens collected in Mexican localities: C. barrerai Martínez, 1969 from Puebla, C. sinaloae Howden & Endrödi, 1966 from Sinaloa, C. fasciolata Bates, 1888 from Veracruz, and C. jalapensis Casey, 1915 from Hidalgo. Larva of C. lunulata Burmeister, 1847, is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Diagnostic structures are illustrated and the differences and similarities of each species with other previously described larvae of the genus are commented.

  15. Paenilarvins: Iturin family lipopeptides from the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sakshi; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Beims, Hannes; Mohr, Kathrin I; Stadler, Marc; Djukic, Marvin; von der Ohe, Werner; Steinert, Michael; Daniel, Rolf; Müller, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The bacterium Paenibacillus larvae has been extensively studied as it is an appalling honey bee pathogen. In the present work, we screened crude extracts derived from fermentations of P. larvae genotypes ERIC I and II for antimicrobial activity, following the detection of four putative secondary metabolite gene clusters that show high sequence homology to known biosynthetic gene clusters for the biosynthesis of antibiotics. Low molecular weight metabolites produced by P. larvae have recently been shown to have toxic effects on honey bee larvae. Moreover, a novel tripeptide, sevadicin, was recently characterized from laboratory cultures of P. larvae. In this study, paenilarvins, which are iturinic lipopeptides exhibiting strong antifungal activities, were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation from cultures of P. larvae, genotype ERIC II. Their molecular structures were determined by extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and other methods. Paenilarvins are the first antifungal secondary metabolites to be identified from P. larvae. In preliminary experiments, these lipopeptides also affected honey bee larvae and might thus play a role in P. larvae survival and pathogenesis. However, further studies are needed to investigate their function. PMID:25069424

  16. Electrophoretic protein pattern of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata larvae untreated and treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the variation induced in electrophoretic protein pattern of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata (first and third instar larvae) irradiated with 30, 45, 60 and 75 Gy comparing with unirradiated larvae. SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) showed a variable number of 14 electrophoretic protein bands in the whole body tissue of first instar larvae with molecular weight ranged between 80.439 to 10.542 kDa .In control (unirradiated larvae) the number of detected bands was 12 bands, while in larvae irradiated with 30 and 45 Gy the number of detected bands was 13 bands. Two new bands were detected and one band was disappeared as compared with control. Irradiation of larvae with 60 and 75 Gy led to the appearance of 12 bands; a new band was appeared and another one was disappeared as compared with control. So, there were 11 monomorphic bands, two poly morphic bands and one unique band. The electrophoretic protein bands of the whole body tissue of the third instar larvae showed also a variable No. of 14 bands with molecular weight ranged between 79.932 to 12.077 kDa. In control (unirradiated larvae) the number of detected bands was 13 bands. In larvae irradiated with 30,45 and 60 Gy the number of bands was 14 bands, one new band was detected in larvae irradiated with 30, 45, 60 and 75 Gy and one band disappeared in larvae irradiated with 75 Gy. Also, the number of detected bands was 13 bands comparing with control. So, there are 12 monomorphic band and two polymorphic band comparing with the polymorphism of protein bands in first and third instar larvae of Sbullata it was noticed that in first instar larvae, there were 11 monomorphic bands compared to 12 bands in third instar larvae. One unique band was appeared in first instar larvae and disappeared in third ones. The percentage of polymorphism was 21.429% and 14.286% in the 1st and 3rd instar larvae, respectively. The quantitative analysis also clearly indicated

  17. Uptake and metabolism of dissolved amino acids by larvae and embryos of three gastropod species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved organic matter is a potential nutritional resource for soft-bodied marine invertebrates. Experiments were done with developmental stages of three gastropod species to examine uptake kinetics and metabolism of dissolved amino acids. Free-swimming larvae of Crepidula fornicata and Thais-haemastoma were fed before experiments or starved for 48 hours before experiments to see whether nutritional state affected uptake of 14C-glycine of 14C-alanine. Time course of amino acid uptake was linear from 0-100 minutes for fed and starved larvae of both species. Uptake rates of starved T. haemastoma larvae were similar to or greater than rates for fed larvae, while uptake rates of starved C. fornicata larvae are similar to or less than rates for fed larvae. Starvation may enhance uptake by T. haemastoma larvae. 14CO2 was detected 10 minutes after larval exposure to labeled amino acids began, indicating rapid catabolism of amino acids. Label was found in protein extracted from larvae, indicating that absorbed glycine and alanine can be used for protein synthesis. A greater percent of glycine and alanine was converted to CO2 by starved larvae of both species. Encapsulated embryos of Nucella lapillus were used to study uptake and metabolism of amino acids because encapsulated embryos are in a bacteria-free environment. Uptake by embryos was linear from 10-90 minutes. Because capsules were bacteria-free embryos were the agents responsible for uptake and metabolism of labeled amino acids

  18. BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHITINSYNTHESIS INHIBITOR (TRIFLUMURON) ON ANOPHELINE LARVAE

    OpenAIRE

    E. Farashiani; H. Ladonni

    1999-01-01

    Triflumuron (Bay sir 8514) is one of many benzoylated ureas, which inhibit chitin synthesis during insect molting and are commonly referred to as insect growth regulators or I. G. Rs. The post emergence efficacy of triflumuron (SC 48%) was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles stephensi. The first instar larvae were exposed to tirflumuron at LC50 level (0.0001 mg/l) in a continues exposure time. Among 1000 larvae listed 570 were passed to pupal stage (43% morality at the larvae of stage). The...

  19. Larva migrans cutânea: ocorrência de casos humanos e identificação de larvas de Ancylostoma spp em parque público do município de Taciba, São Paulo Cutaneous larva migrans: reports of pediatric cases and contamination by Ancylostoma spp larvae in public parks in Taciba, São Paulo State

    OpenAIRE

    Vamilton Alvares Santarém; Rogério Giuffrida; Gabriel Arantes Zanin

    2004-01-01

    Descreve-se a ocorrência de larva migrans cutânea em crianças de Taciba, São Paulo, Brasil, pelo contato com areia de parques públicos, onde observou-se larvas de Ancylostoma spp. A enfermidade foi controlada após adotar-se medidas educacionais sanitárias, desativação e isolamento dos locais para reduzir acesso de animais e troca de areia.Cutaneous larva migrans in children from Taciba, São Paulo, Brazil, was related to contact with sand in public squares, where Ancylostoma spp larvae were de...

  20. Unusual pseudomyiasis with Musca domestica (housefly) larvae in a child with chronic otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar Iqbal; Satish Chandra Sharma; Hiba Sami; Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a disease caused by fly larvae and aural myiasis is a rare clinic condition often occurring in children or mentally retarded people. We report the case of an unusual presentation of a unilateral aural myiasis in a 3-year-old female child patient belonging to a slum with unilateral chronic otitis media caused by Musca domestica (housefly) larvae. Eight larvae were removed from the external auditory canal while five more larvae were located in the middle ear cavity and were removed t...

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5th instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5th instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  3. Prospects, drawbacks and future needs of xenomonitoring for the endpoint evaluation of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie, Patricia N; de Souza, Dziedzom K

    2016-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori parasitic worms and transmitted by Culex, Anopheles, Aedes and Mansonia mosquitoes. Mass drug administration (MDA) to reduce the infection levels in the human population is the key component of LF elimination programs. However, the potential of the use of vector control is gaining recognition as a tool that can complement MDA. The method of monitoring the parasites in mosquito vectors is known as xenomonitoring. Monitoring of vectors for filarial larvae is an important assessment tool for LF elimination programs. Xenomonitoring has the advantage of giving a real-time estimate of disease, because the pre-patent period may take months after infection in humans. It is a non-invasive sensitive tool for assessing the presence of LF in endemic areas. The aim of this review is to discuss the prospects, challenges and needs of xenomonitoring as a public health tool, in the post-MDA evaluation activities of national LF elimination programs. PMID:26822601

  4. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:26179420

  5. Seasonal variation in toxicity of citral against Fasciola larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumari Sunita; Pradeep Kumar; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test whether the larvicidal activity of citral against Fasciola varies by season. Methods:Mortality of Fasciola larva in different month of year (2011-2012) in in vitro and in vivo condition were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 8 h exposure of citral. Results:In vitro toxicity of citral against redia was highest in between the June to August (8 h LC50: 2.58-2.62 mg/L), whereas against cercaria 8 h LC50 was in between 3.44-2.62 mg/L. Highest in vivo toxicity against redia was noted in between June to August (8h LC50: 4.20-5.09 mg/L). The lowest toxicity was observed from November to April. The highest temperature, free carbon dioxide, and lowest pH, dissolved oxygen were observed from June to August. Conclusions:The present study conclusively shows that varying a biotic factor can significantly alter the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of citral against sporocyst redia and cercaria larva.

  6. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report the first comprehensive insecticide susceptibility status ofAedes aegypti (L.) larvae from Singapore. The study indicated that Ae. aegypti is susceptible to temephos, although resistance (RR50 = 1.29-4.43-fold) couldbe developing. Of high concern is the detection of moderate to high resistance to permethrin (RR50 = 29-47-fold) and etofenprox (RR50 = 14-34-fold). Biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) remains effective. The insecticide susceptibility profile of Ae. aegypti larvae was found to be homogenous among the different sites studied across the island city. The addition of synergists piperonyl butoxide, S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, and triphenyl phosphate generally failed to enhance the toxicity of the insecticides investigated, suggesting an insignificant role of metabolic-based resistance, and a possible involvement of target site resistance. Further biochemical investigation of specific metabolic enzyme activities suggested that detoxifying enzymes, mono-oxygenases, esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and altered acetylcholinesterases, generally did not contribute to the resistance observed. This study clearly demonstrated that pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Ae. aegypti population and lowered susceptibility to organophosphates is developing. PMID:24605467

  7. Pathogenicity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes Species to G. mellonella Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hyrsl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate and lethal insect parasites. In last decade they are widely used as biological control agents for pest insects of commercial crops, therefore research in this area is directly linked to agriculture. In this study, the pathogenicity of four nematode species (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema scarabaei and Steinernema feltiae was tested against Galleria mellonella larvae. Infective stage of EPNs together with their symbiotic bacteria kills insect host within 48 hours. The results show that mortality of insect host correlates with number of invaded infective juveniles (IJs. The invasion process is very fast, IJs enters insect host within a few hours. The importance of digestive tract as entering site was clearly demonstrated, larvae with empty gut are much more sensitive to nematode infection. Nemato-bacterial complex is very effective system overcoming insect immune defences. Encapsulation as the only one cellular reaction is activated, but in very low rate and was detected only during infection of H. bacteriophora.

  8. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  9. Otolith geochemistry does not reflect dispersal history of clownfish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, M. L.; Walsh, H. J.; Raventos, N.; Planes, S.; Jones, G. P.; Starczak, V.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    Natural geochemical signatures in calcified structures are commonly employed to retrospectively estimate dispersal pathways of larval fish and invertebrates. However, the accuracy of the approach is generally untested due to the absence of individuals with known dispersal histories. We used genetic parentage analysis (genotyping) to divide 110 new recruits of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, from Kimbe Island, Papua New Guinea, into two groups: “self-recruiters” spawned by parents on Kimbe Island and “immigrants” that had dispersed from distant reefs (>10 km away). Analysis of daily increments in sagittal otoliths found no significant difference in PLDs or otolith growth rates between self-recruiting and immigrant larvae. We also quantified otolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios during the larval phase using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Again, we found no significant differences in larval profiles of either element between self-recruits and immigrants. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting otolith dispersal histories based on natural geochemical tags in the absence of water chemistry data or known-origin larvae with which to test the discriminatory ability of natural tags.

  10. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz's EPAH model was not applicable to the authors' results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed

  11. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO - Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato

    2014-05-01

    Total decapoda abundance ranged from 0,06 ind.m-3 in May 2011 to 64,28ind.m-3 in August 2012, and significantly different between summer/winter and winter/spring months (P(perm≤0,05. The data obtained on this study revealed that Infraorders Brachyura, Anomura and Caridea are the most common. All three are significantly different between months (P(perm≤0,05 but not between sampling stations (P(perm>0,05. Brachyuran abundance was significantly affected by the Oceanograhic Conditions (P(perm≤0,05. Abundances were higher in spring and summer months, when Chlorophyl a values (mg.m-3, Temperature (ºC and Salinity (ppt were also higher. Decapoda community is directly affected by the surrounding environmental conditions in Berlengas Biosphere Reserve and abundance might also be related with specific larvae release throughout the year. Each sampling station was considered a replica from the study area. The ecological importance of Berlengas was also verified by the presence of non-frequent larvae of Achelata and Stomatopoda.

  12. Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavighi, Sherma; Saadatfar, Zohreh; Shojaei, Bahador; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general histological studies using light microscope. According to the results, on 1 and 3-days-old, no nerve was observed. The terminal nerve and their dendrites were observed around the nasal cavity and the axons projected to different areas in forebrain especially around olfactory bulb diffusely, on 6-day-old fish. Also, olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, lateral line and vagus nerves were detected on 6-day-old fish, however two parts of lateral line nerve were separated on 54-day-old. Three nerves, profundus, facial and octaval were observed on 54-day-old, however, up to this age, epiphysial nerve was not observed. PMID:27482355

  13. The colonization dynamics of the gut microbiota in tilapia larvae.

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    Christos Giatsis

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS or active suspension tanks (AS. Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS. Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable.

  14. The colonization dynamics of the gut microbiota in tilapia larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) or active suspension tanks (AS). Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS). Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable. PMID:25072852

  15. Otolith geochemistry does not reflect dispersal history of clownfish larvae

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2010-07-01

    Natural geochemical signatures in calcified structures are commonly employed to retrospectively estimate dispersal pathways of larval fish and invertebrates. However, the accuracy of the approach is generally untested due to the absence of individuals with known dispersal histories. We used genetic parentage analysis (genotyping) to divide 110 new recruits of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, from Kimbe Island, Papua New Guinea, into two groups: "self-recruiters" spawned by parents on Kimbe Island and "immigrants" that had dispersed from distant reefs (>10 km away). Analysis of daily increments in sagittal otoliths found no significant difference in PLDs or otolith growth rates between self-recruiting and immigrant larvae. We also quantified otolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios during the larval phase using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Again, we found no significant differences in larval profiles of either element between self-recruits and immigrants. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting otolith dispersal histories based on natural geochemical tags in the absence of water chemistry data or known-origin larvae with which to test the discriminatory ability of natural tags. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  16. How did indirect development with planktotrophic larvae evolve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2009-06-01

    The two main types of theories for the evolution of the biphasic life cycles in marine invertebrates are discussed. The "intercalation" theories propose that the larval stages (planktotrophic or lecithotrophic) have evolved as specializations from the ancestral, direct life cycle. The opposing "terminal addition" theories propose that the ancestor was holopelagic and that the adult stage was added to the life cycle with the pelagic stage retained as a planktotrophic larva. It is emphasized that theories based on hypothetical ancestors that were unable to feed must be rejected. This applies to planula theories based on a compact planula. Various arguments against the theories that consider the feeding larvae as ancestral in the major eumetazoan lineages and in particular against the trochaea theory are discussed and found untenable. It is suggested that the "Cambrian explosion" was actually a rapid Ediacaran radiation of the eubilaterians that was made possible by the evolution of a tubular gut with all the resulting possibilities for new body plans. PMID:19556589

  17. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The co-operation of specialized organ systems in complex multicellular organisms depends on effective chemical communication. Thus, body fluids (like blood, lymph or intraspinal fluid contain myriads of signaling mediators apart from metabolites. Moreover, these fluids are also of crucial importance for immune and wound responses. Compositional analyses of human body fluids are therefore of paramount diagnostic importance. Further improving their comprehensiveness should increase our understanding of inter-organ communication. In arthropods, which have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of chemical communication and defense in animals. Therefore we used an extensive protein fractionation workflow in combination with a discovery-driven proteomic approach to map out the detectable protein composition of hemolymph isolated from Drosophila larvae. Combined mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 700 proteins extending far beyond the previously known Drosophila hemolymph proteome. Moreover, by comparing hemolymph isolated from either fed or starved larvae, we provide initial provisional insights concerning compositional changes in response to nutritional state. Storage proteins in particular were observed to be strongly reduced by starvation. Our hemolymph proteome catalog provides a rich basis for data mining, as exemplified by our identification of potential novel cytokines, as well as for future quantitative analyses by targeted proteomics.

  18. Sorghum, Miscanthus & Co: Energy crops as potential host plants of western corn rootworm larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloyna, Kai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of greenhouse experiments the host status and quality of 49 biofuel plants for the larvae of WCR were evaluated. The plants tested (18 species and varieties of Sorghum, 16 forage grasses, 6 Miscanthus genotypes, 6 Panicum varieties and 3 broadleaf species were grown for at least three weeks before they were used in the bioassays. The insects used in the experiments were obtained from a non diapausing laboratory strain originally from the US and maintained by BTL since 2006. Only neonate larvae (not older than 24 hours were used in the bioassays. In each experiment up to six species or varieties of plants were tested each with 10 replicates (containers. A susceptible maize variety was used as a positive control in each experiment. Each plant container was infested with ten neonate WCR larvae using a fine art brush. After inoculation the plants were not watered for at least 24 hours to facilitate the establishment of the larvae. The experiments were terminated after 18 days. To extract surviving larvae the soil and roots of test plants were carefully examined by hand and then transferred to a modified MacFadyen heat extractor with an extraction temperature of 45 °C. To assess the host quality the number of larvae recovered, the widths of their head capsules and dry weights were recorded. The larvae were dried at 40 °C for at least 72 hours and then weighed on an electronic micro balance. Of the 21 forage and switch grasses examined 16 hosted WCR larvae. However, the percentage of larvae that survived for 18 days, their dry weights and head capsule widths were significantly less than that recorded for larvae that developed on maize roots. The roots of most (i.e. 15 of the 18 Sorghum species or varieties tested were unsuitable for the development of WCR larvae. For the remaining three Sorghum species a maximum of only two larvae (of 100 inoculated were recovered. These results indicate that species of Sorghum are very poor quality

  19. Effects of copper sulfate on ion balance and growth in tilapia larvae (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S M; Jong, K J; Kuo, S Y

    2003-10-01

    Newly hatched tilapia larvae were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cu2+ (0, 30, 50, and 100 microg/L) and lethal concentrations of Cu2+ (200 and 400 microg/L) for 24-96 h. The interaction of the exposure dose and time was related to the Cu2+ accumulation rate, which showed a higher accumulation rate with sublethal concentrations of Cu2+ within 24 h compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, Cu2+ contents in the whole body of larvae significantly increased following Cu2+ exposure times up to 96 h. Cu2+ in the medium produced a dose-response effect on Na+ and K+ contents in larvae after 96 h of exposure time. Changes in Ca2+ contents statistically significantly decreased and were shown to be dose-responsive for larval exposure times exceeding 72 h. Changes of Ca2+ contents were more sensitive than those of Na+ and K+ with Cu2+ treatment of early larvae. Notably Na+ and K+ contents showed significant increases of 17-23% in larvae exposed to low concentrations of Cu2+ (30-50 microg/L) for 24-72 h as compared to control larvae. Cu2+ caused no significant effect on body Cl- content or osmolality except at 100 microg/L Cu2+ for 24 h in tilapia larvae as compared to the control. However, there was a restoration phenomenon in larvae exposed to 100 microg/L Cu2+ for longer than 72 h. The water content of larvae exposed to Cu2+ for 96 h significantly decreased. The yolk absorption rate of tilapia larvae was significantly suppressed when they were exposed to Cu2+ medium containing 30, 50, 100, 200, or 400 Cu2+ microg/L from 72 h post transfer. These results obviously show that larvae are sensitive to Cu2+ during early development. PMID:14674589

  20. Comparative analysis of hemolymph proteome maps in diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Hedo Meritxell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesamia nonagrioides is a noctuid that feeds on maize, sugar cane and sorghum in North Africa and Southern Europe. Larvae reared under long day conditions pupate after 5 or 6 larval instars, whereas larvae reared under short day conditions enter diapause and undergo up to 12 molts before dying or pupating. To better understand the mechanism of larval development and diapause, we identified proteins with different expressions in the sixth instar of diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Results A total of 52 differentially regulated proteins were detected in the hemolymph of the diapausing or non-diapausing larvae at the beginning or end of the sixth instar. From these proteins, 11 were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS: 5 were upregulated in the hemolymph of non-diapausing larvae and 6 in the hemolymph of the diapausing larvae. Interestingly, some proteins were expressed only in non-diapausing larvae but none was expressed only in the hemolymph of diapausing larvae. The possible functions of some of these proteins related to diapause maintenance or to larval-pupal metamorphosis are discussed. Conclusions The 2-DE proteomic map of S. nonagrioides hemolymph shows differential protein expression in diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Some proteins that showed higher expression in the diapausing larvae at the end of the sixth instar could be involved in JH level maintenance thus in the diapause status maintenance. On the contrary, other proteins that showed the highest expression or that were expressed only in the non-diapausing larvae could be involved in larval-pupal metamorphosis.

  1. Helminths Parasite Larvae collected from Arabian Gulf Fish. 4. Description of four Larvae including two Metacercarae, one Didymozoid and one Acanthocephalan from Emirati Coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four helminth larvae from different fish hosts caught from Emirate coasts are described. Two are metacercariae related to genus Southampton's, type (I) and (II). Type (I) was found encysted in body cavities of the Indian halibut Psettodes erumei and the areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatusu and type (II) in the golden stripped goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus. The third larva is related to Acanthocephala and identified as Serrasentis sagittifer. It was collected from the body cavity of the spotted lizard fish Saurida undosquamius. The fourth larva belongs to the didymozoid trematodes, and was found infecting the kidneys of different hosts, such as Saurida undosquamis, the Jack pomfret Parastromateus niger and mackerel tuna Euthynnus affins. The larva related to Stephanostomum type (I) and type (II) and the dydimozoid type are described for the first time in the Arabian Gulf. (author)

  2. Effect of bodily fluids from honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae on growth and genome-wide transcriptional response of the causal agent of American Foulbrood disease (Paenibacillus larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Lina; De Koker, Dieter; Hawley, Alyse K; Foster, Leonard J; De Vos, Paul; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood disease (AFB), affects honey bee health worldwide. The present study investigates the effect of bodily fluids from honey bee larvae on growth velocity and transcription for this Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium. It was observed that larval fluids accelerate the growth and lead to higher bacterial densities during stationary phase. The genome-wide transcriptional response of in vitro cultures of P. larvae to larval fluids was studied by microarray technology. Early responses of P. larvae to larval fluids are characterized by a general down-regulation of oligopeptide and sugar transporter genes, as well as by amino acid and carbohydrate metabolic genes, among others. Late responses are dominated by general down-regulation of sporulation genes and up-regulation of phage-related genes. A theoretical mechanism of carbon catabolite repression is discussed. PMID:24586572

  3. Hyaluronidase from infective Ancylostoma hookworm larvae and its possible function as a virulence factor in tissue invasion and in cutaneous larva migrans.

    OpenAIRE

    Hotez, P. J.; Narasimhan, S; HAGGERTY, J; Milstone, L; Bhopale, V; Schad, G A; Richards, F F

    1992-01-01

    During skin penetration, infective hookworm larvae encounter hyaluronic acid as they migrate between epidermal keratinocytes and through the ground substance of the dermis. A hyaluronidase would facilitate passage through the epidermis and dermis during larval invasion. Zoonotic hookworm larvae of the genus Ancylostoma were shown to contain a hyaluronidase activity that migrated on modified sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) hyaluronic acid gels with an appar...

  4. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%), with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%). The larval lipid content (37.87%) was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%). The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel. PMID:27031500

  5. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845, which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%, with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%. The larval lipid content (37.87% was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%. The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel.

  6. INDEKS ENTOMOLOGI DAN KERENTANAN LARVA Aedes aegypti TERHADAP TEMEFOS DI KELURAHAN KARSAMENAK KECAMATAN KAWALU KOTA TASIKMALAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Hubullah Fuadzy; Joni Hendri

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakSalah satu upaya pengendalian vektor nyamuk Aedes aegypti adalah menggunakan larvasida sintetis seperti temefos. Pemanfaatan temefos secara terus menerus dan berulang merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya resistensi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan indeks entomologi dan status kerentanan larva Ae. aegypti terhadap temefos di Kelurahan Karsamenak Kecamatan Kawalu Kota Tasikmalaya. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimen dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Populasi adalah larva nyamuk A...

  7. Xenodiagnóstico na Habronemose dos Equídeos: estudo das larvas do Helminto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônio F. de Sales

    1945-02-01

    Full Text Available Xenodiagnosis for habronemosis was 96,6% positive in 87 stud horses at Instituto Oswaldo Cuz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July-November, 1944. The A A. were unable to identify the Habronema larvae obtained from parasitider fly maggots. Measurements and drawings of the larvae are presented.

  8. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  9. The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2011-05-01

    As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds. PMID:21267722

  10. Larvae of North American Eukiefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Robert W.

    "Eukiefferiella" and "Tvetenia" are closely related genera belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae within the Chironomidae, a family of non-biting midges. All known larvae in these genera are aquatic, being found predominantly in running water. Most species prefer cold, swift-flowing, well-oxygenated streams. Although larvae and pupae of these…

  11. Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Liu, Sanzhen; Wang, Haiyan; Cheng, Xiaoyan; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Whitworth, R. Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. In this study, we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants through RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant versus susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively, after larvae had reached the feeding site. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5401, 6902, 8457, and 5202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the respective paired comparisons. Overall, genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants, indicating that resistant plants inhibited nutrient metabolism and protein production in larvae. Interestingly, the numbers of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants were comparable to, or higher than those with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that were expressed at early stage of 1st instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors with important roles in plant manipulation. PMID:27529231

  12. The larva of Tricholeon relictus Hölzel & Monserrat, 2002 a synanthropic antlion (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Fernando; Badano, Davide; Monserrat, Víctor J

    2014-01-01

    The larva of Tricholeon relictus, a Spanish endemic antlion of Afrotropical affinities, is described and illustrated for the first time also providing a comparison with the only other European member of the tribe Dendroleontini, Dendroleon pantherinus. The larva of this species is synanthropic but probably originally lived in cave-like habitats. PMID:25081458

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi disturbed the larval growth and feeding performance of Ocinara varians (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Hussain; Ming-Yi Tian; Yu-Rong He; Sohail Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Feeding experiments using three strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea were conducted with newly moulted 3rd-5th instar Ocinara varians Walker larvae in the laboratory. The mortality of larvae immersed individually in spore suspension (1×10~7 spores/mL) of all the strains was > 80% except 5th instar larvae treated with M. anisopliae which transformed into pupae, but did not result in adult emergence. The growth (total body mass), consumption, relative consumption rate and relative growth rate, were reduced at all three larval stages, while developmental time was extended in infected larvae with concurrent significant increase in approximate digestibility in infected larvae. Conversion of digested food (ECD) and ingested food (ECI) values declined in infected larvae as compared to the healthy larvae (control). The 5th instar larvae treated with M. anisopliae showed higher ECD and ECI values than control. Based on mortality and growth inhibition it can be suggested that all the studied fungal strains have a high potential for biocontrol and could be developed into biocontrol agents against O. varians.

  14. The potential for cryopreserving larvae of the sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Serean L; Hessian, Paul A; Mladenov, Philip V

    2006-02-01

    Larvae of the sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus, at varying stages of development, were assessed for their potential to survive cryopreservation. Ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO), at concentrations of 1-2 M, were evaluated as cryoprotectants (CPAs) in freezing regimes initially based on methods established for freezing larvae of other sea urchin species. Subsequent work varied cooling rate, holding temperature, holding time, and plunge temperature. Ethylene glycol was less toxic to larvae than Me2SO. However, no larvae survived freezing and thawing in EG. Larvae frozen in Me2SO at the gastrula stage and 4-armed pluteus stage regained motility post-thawing. The most successful freezing regime cooled straws containing larvae in 1.5 M Me2SO from 0 to -35 degrees C at 2.5 degrees C min(-1), held at -35 degrees C for 5 min, then plunged straws into liquid nitrogen. Motility was high 2-4 h post-thawing using this regime but decreased markedly within 24 h. Some 4-armed pluteus larvae that survived beyond this time developed through to metamorphosis and settled. Different Me2SO concentrations and supplementary trehalose did not improve long-term survival. Large variation in post-thaw survival was observed among batches of larvae produced from different females. PMID:16321369

  15. Multi-year survival of sugarbeet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) larvae in cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbeet root maggots (Tetanops myopaeformis), as third-instar larvae have been successfully maintained in cold (6 ± 1ºC) storage for up to six years. To test the hypothesis that this long term survival in storage is facilitated by larvae undergoing prolonged diapause, comparative studies on respir...

  16. Internal Lipids of Sugarbeet Root Maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) Larvae: Effects of Multi-year Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbeet root maggots, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder), survive more than five years of laboratory cold (6oC) storage as mature third-instar larvae. To quantify energy costs associated with prolonged storage, internal lipids of larvae stored for 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were compared and characterized wi...

  17. [Otic myiasis in a newborn caused by Calliphoridae larvae of the genus Phaenicia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe Douglas, L; Amaro Trapaga, E; Sotolongo Guerra, F; Alonso Bermudez, P

    1977-01-01

    A 55-day-old newborn with an intense otitis haemorrhagica caused by a Calliphoridae larva of the genus Phaenicia is presented. During an ear lavage the larva was removed. The patient was admitted and once the genus was known he underwent a specific treatment and was discharged completely cured. PMID:356136

  18. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    We have studied larvae of the freshwater ctenostome Hislopia malayensis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and LM of serial sections. Some additional observations on larvae of M. membranacea using SEM and CLSM are also reported. The overall configu...

  19. Estimating reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in honey bee colonies by trapping emigrating larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Richard T; Torto, Baldwyn; Willms, Steve; Fombong, Ayuka T; Duehl, Adrian; Teal, Peter E A

    2012-02-01

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) is a scavenger and facultative predator in honey bee colonies, where it feeds on pollen, honey, and bee brood. Although a minor problem in its native Africa, it is an invasive pest of honey bees in the United States and Australia. Adult beetles enter bee hives to oviposit and feed. Larval development occurs within the hive, but mature larvae leave the hive to pupate in soil. The numbers leaving, which can be estimated by trapping, measure the reproductive success of adult beetles in the hive over any given period of time. We describe a trap designed to intercept mature larvae as they reach the end of the bottom board on their way to the ground. Trap efficiency was estimated by releasing groups of 100 larvae into empty brood boxes and counting the numbers trapped. Some larvae escaped, but mean efficiency ranged from 87.2 to 94.2%. We envision the trap as a research tool for study of beetle population dynamics, and we used it to track numbers of larvae leaving active hives for pupation in the soil. The traps detected large increases and then decreases in numbers of larvae leaving colonies that weakened and died. They also detected small numbers of larvae leaving strong European and African colonies, even when no larvae were observed in the hives. PMID:22525070

  20. Contest-Behavior of Maize Weevil Larvae when Competing within Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food limitation induces severe competition for obligate seed-feeding insect larvae that are unable to leave the seed selected by their mother. The number of eggs laid per seed and the number of larvae hatched from the eggs determine whether larval behavior within the seed will be of the scramble or ...

  1. Comparison of in vitro methods for the production of Paenibacillus larvae endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Israel; Elekonich, Michelle M; Abel-Santos, Ernesto; Wing, Helen J

    2015-09-01

    Paenibacillus larvae endospores are the infectious particles of the honey bee brood disease, American Foulbrood. We demonstrate that our previously published protocol (Alvarado et al., 2013) consistently yields higher numbers and purer preparations of P. larvae endospores, than previously described protocols, regardless of the strain tested (B-3650, B-3554 or B-3685). PMID:26130193

  2. Proteome analysis of Paenibacillus larvae reveals the existence of a putative S-layer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2012-04-01

    Honey bee pathology has attracted much interest recently due to the problems with honey bee declines in many regions of the world. American Foulbrood (AFB) caused by Paenibacillus larvae is the most devastating bacterial brood disease of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) causing considerable economic losses to beekeepers worldwide. AFB outbreaks are mainly caused by two differentially virulent genotypes of P. larvae, P. larvae ERIC I and ERIC II. To better understand AFB pathogenesis and to complement already existing data from the genetic level we aimed at obtaining expression data from the protein level. We successfully developed a protocol for two-dimensional proteome analysis of P. larvae with subsequent mass-spectrometry based protein sequencing. Based on the obtained master protein maps of P. larvae genotypes ERIC I and II we identified the dominantly expressed cytosolic proteins of both genotypes, some of them presumably linked to pathogenesis and virulence. Comparing the master maps of both genotypes revealed differentially expressed proteins, i.e. a putative S-layer protein which is expressed by P. larvae ERIC II but absent from the proteome of P. larvae ERIC I. The implications of our findings for pathogenesis of AFB and virulence of P. larvae will be discussed. PMID:23757273

  3. Protocols to test the activity of antimicrobial peptides against the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Jasmin C; Wing, Helen J

    2015-10-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causal agent of the honey bee disease American Foulbrood. Two enhanced protocols that allow the activity of antimicrobial peptides to be tested against P. larvae are presented. Proof of principle experiments demonstrate that the honey bee antimicrobial peptide defensin 1 is active in both assays. PMID:26210039

  4. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honey bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae dur...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06423-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 48 0.27 1 ( BH767753 ) BMBAC371C10T7_PSU Brugia malayi Genom...ic Bac Libra... 46 1.1 1 ( BH763790 ) BMBAC314A05T7_PSU Brugia malayi Genomic Bac Libra... 46 1.1 1 ( AG4739...... 44 4.2 1 ( BX571873 ) Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TTO1 co... 44...main contai... 46 4e-04 BT057353_1( BT057353 |pid:none) Salmo salar clone ssal-ev...e-04 BT044947_1( BT044947 |pid:none) Salmo salar clone ssal-rgf-508-088... 45 6e-04 CR926036_1( CR926036 |pi

  6. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  7. Molecular endocrine changes of Gh/Igf1 axis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed to different environmental salinities during larvae to post-larvae stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Yúfera, Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The influence of acclimation of the euryhaline gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae/post-larvae to brackish water on growth, energetic contents, and mRNA levels of selected hormones and growth-regulating hypothalamic neurohormones was assessed. Specimens from 49 days post-hatching were acclimated during 28 days to two different environmental salinities: 38 and 20 psu (as brackish water). Both groups were then transferred to 38 psu and acclimated for an additional week. Early juveniles were sampled after 28 days of acclimation to both salinities and one week after transfer to 38 psu. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (adcyap1; pacap), somatostatin-I (sst1), growth hormone (gh1), insulin-like growth factor-I (igf1), and prolactin (prl) mRNA expression were all studied by QPCR. Post-larvae acclimated to 20 psu showed better growth performance and body energetic content than post-larvae maintained at 38 psu. prl, adcyap1, and igf1 mRNA expression levels increased in 20-psu-acclimated post-larvae but decreased upon transfer to 38 psu. GH1 expression did not show significant changes under both experimental conditions. Our results suggested an enhanced general performance for post-larvae in brackish water, supported by the actions of adcyap1, igf1, and prl. PMID:26947706

  8. Larvae of gryporhynchid cestodes (Cyclophyllidea) from fish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; Bray, Rodney A; Kuchta, Roman; Repová, Radmila

    2004-06-01

    Larvae (metacestodes) of tapeworms of the cyclophyllidean family Gryporhynchidae (previously included in the Dilepididae) occur in different internal organs of fresh- and brackish water fish (110 fish species of 27 families in 12 orders reported), which serve as the second intermediate hosts. The species composition, spectrum of fish hosts, sites of infection, and geographical distribution of gryporhynchids recorded from fish are reviewed here on the basis of literary data and examination of extensive material from helminthological collections. Metacestodes of the following genera have been found in fish: Amirthalingamia Bray, 1974 (1 species), Ascodilepis Guildal, 1960 (1), Cyclustera Fuhrmann, 1901 (4), Dendrouterina Fuhrmann, 1912 (1), Glossocercus Chandler, 1935 (3), Neogryporhynchus Baer et Bona, 1960 (1), Paradilepis Hsü, 1935 (5), Parvitaenia Burt, 1940 (2), and Valipora Linton, 1927 (3). However, most published records concern only three species, namely Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) from the intestinal lumen, Paradilepis scolecina (Rudolphi, 1819) from the liver and mesenteries, and Valipora campylancristrota (Wedl, 1855) from the gall bladder of cyprinids and other fish in the Palaearctic Region. Data on other species as well as reports from other regions are very scarce and almost no information is available from Australia, tropical Asia and South America. A recent study of gryporhynchid metacestodes from Mexico (Scholz and Salgado-Maldonado 2001), which reported 13 species, suggested that they may be more common than indicated by records in the literature. Although only a few cases of pathogenic influence of larvae on fish hosts have been reported, the veterinary importance of gryporhynchids remains to be assessed on the basis of more detailed studies. The data available indicate a strict host and site specificity of some species whereas others occur in a wide spectrum of fish hosts and are not strictly site-specific. Evaluation of

  9. Evaluation of a Multivalent Vaccine against Lymphatic Filariasis in Rhesus macaque Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; von Gegerfelt, Agneta; Andersen, Hanne; Lewis, Mark; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects 120 million people worldwide and another 1.2 billion people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Chemotherapy with mass drug administration is substantially reducing the incidence of the infection. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is needed to prevent the infection and eradicate the disease. Previously we reported that a multivalent fusion protein vaccine (rBmHAT) composed of small heat shock proteins 12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and large extracellular domain of tetraspanin (TSP LEL) could confer >95% protection against the challenge infection with Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in mouse and gerbil models. In this study we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of rBmHAT fusion protein vaccine in a rhesus macaque model. Our results show that rBmHAT is highly immunogenic in rhesus macaques. All the vaccinated monkeys developed significant titers of antigen-specific IgG antibodies against each of the component antigens (16,000 for rBmHSP12.6), (24,000 for rBmALT-2) and (16,000 for rBmTSP-LEL). An in vitro antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay performed using the sera samples from vaccinated monkeys showed that the anti-rBmHAT antibodies are functional with 35% killing of B. malayi L3s. Vaccinated monkeys also had antigen responding cells in the peripheral blood. Vaccine-induced protection was determined after challenging the monkeys with 500 B. malayi L3. Following challenge infection, 3 out of 5 vaccinated macaques failed to develop the infection. These three protected macaques had high titers of IgG1 antibodies and their PBMC secreted significantly high levels of IFN-γ in response to the vaccine antigens. The two vaccinated macaques that picked the infection had slightly low titers of antibodies and their PBMC secreted high levels of IL-10. Based on these findings we conclude that the rBmHAT vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe and can confer significant protection against

  10. Nematodes parasitic in fishes of cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Part 2. Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Mendoza-Franco, E; Schmitter-Soto, J J; González-Solís, D

    1995-01-01

    This paper comprises a systematic survey of larval nematodes collected from fishes from cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, southern Mexico, in 1993-1994. Larvae of the following nine species were recorded: Physocephalus sexalatus, Acuariidae gen. sp., Spiroxys sp., Falcaustra sp., Hysterothylacium cenotae, Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Contracaecum sp. Type 2, Goezia sp., and Eustrongylides sp. Larvae of P. sexalatus are recorded from fishes (Rhamdia guatemalensis) for the first time. The larvae are briefly described and illustrated and problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. Adults of these larvae are parasitic in piscivorous fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals (definitive hosts). Fishes harbouring the larvae of these parasites serve as paratenic hosts, being mostly an important source of infection for the definitive hosts. PMID:8774773

  11. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms. PMID:12568452

  12. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present...... study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure and...... C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk of...

  13. Prey attraction as a possible function of bioluminescence in the larvae of Pyrearinus termitilluminans (Coleoptera: Elateridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent H. Redford

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Elaterid beetle larvae. Pyrearinus termitilluminans (sp.n., Costa, 1982. live in termite mounds in central Brazil. Each larva produces light in the segment immediately behind its head. Larvae were observed to luminesce only during the first weeks of the rainy season, the same times as the ant and termite alate flights. Alates, apparently attracted to P. termitilluminans larval lights, serve as an important food source for the larvae. The prey-catching and food-storing behavior and the phenomenon of bioluminescence are apparently an evolutionary response by P. termitilluminans larvae to a short, rich pulse of food. Prey attraction as a probable cause for luminescence has been suggested only twice before.

  14. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  15. Influence of low temperature on rate of development of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, T C; Barker, K R; Holtzman, G I

    1978-04-01

    Development of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla larvae in clover roots was studied at 20, 16, 12, and 8 C in growth chambers and in the field from fall through spring, in North Carolina. Larvae of both species invaded roots and developed at 20, 16, and 12 C, but not at 8 C. The time necessary to complete the larval stages at each temperature was determined. The minimal temperature for development of M. incognita larvae was 10.08 C and 8.8 C for M. hapla larvae. In the field, soil temperature at 10 cm deep was favorable for development of larvae until the end of November, and again from February on. All stages of the nematodes survived freezing temperatures in the roots. Reproduction of both species was evident in March or Apri1 after inoculation and accumulation of 8,500 to 11,250 degree-hours. PMID:19305832

  16. Immunization of lambs against Oesophagostomum columbianum, using irradiated third-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 40- and 50 kR on the development of third-stage larvae of Oesophagostomum columbianum and the protection conferred by these irradiated larvae against the nematode, was studied in 6-8 week old male Kashmir Merino lambs. At 40- and 50 kR doses, the third-stage larvae failed to develop to the adult stage in the intestine. Though single vaccination with 2000, 50 kR irradiated larvae failed to protect the animals against the infection, vaccination with the same number of 40 kR irradiated larvae conferred a partial protection. The presence of adult worms of O. columbianum in sites outside the intestine of 6-8 week old lambs have been demonstrated for the first time. (orig.)

  17. Comparative study of cultivation of feces in vermiculite or charcoal to obtain larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steveen Rios Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We compared feces culturing in charcoal or vermiculite to obtain Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae. Methods Feces (5g from infected rats was mixed with vermiculite (10g or coal (10g in plastic cups and incubated at 28°C for 48h. Larvae were recovered using Baermann-Moraes method. Results Significantly higher number of positive larval cultures were recovered from vermiculite than from charcoal (15/17 and 4/17, respectively; p < 0.001; 990.6 ± 307.5 and 215 ± 78.1 larvae, p = 0.027. Conclusions Vermiculite yields more larvae and provides cleaner pellets, improving larvae identification and facilitating their use for other purposes.

  18. Differences in vertical and horizontal distribution of fish larvae and zooplankton, related to hydrography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Nash, Richard D.M.; Falkenhaug, Tone; Munk, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Planktonic fish larvae have little influence on their horizontal distribution, while they are able to control their vertical position in the water column. While prey and light are among the factors with an apparent influence on the vertical distribution, the effects of other factors are less clea...... conditions. Hence, larvae differed in their distributional patterns, but the relative depth distributions among the species in the larval community generally remained constant......Planktonic fish larvae have little influence on their horizontal distribution, while they are able to control their vertical position in the water column. While prey and light are among the factors with an apparent influence on the vertical distribution, the effects of other factors are less clear....... Notably, distributional differences between larvae of different fish species are poorly understood. Information on the horizontal distribution of larvae of 27 species and the vertical distribution of seven species of Gadidae, two Pleuronectidae and one Scophthalmidae, was compiled from one survey in the...

  19. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  20. Seasonal fluctuation in the distribution of eggs and larvae of flat fishes (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    Attempts have been made to correlate the abundance of eggs and larvae of flat fishes belonging to families Cynoglossidae and Soleidae with the hydrographical parameters of the environment, particularly the salinity. The eggs and larvae were found...

  1. Impact of ultraviolet-B radiation on planktonic fish larvae: Alteration of the osmoregulatory function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucre, Elliott, E-mail: elliott.sucre@univ-montp2.fr [AEO Team (Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc092, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Vidussi, Francesca [RESEAUX Team (Reseaux Planctoniques et Changement Environnemental), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc093, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Mostajir, Behzad [RESEAUX Team (Reseaux Planctoniques et Changement Environnemental), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc093, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Centre d' ecologie marine experimentale MEDIMEER (Mediterranean centre for Marine Ecosystem Experimental Research), Universite Montpellier 2-CNRS (UMS 3301), Station Mediterraneenne de l' Environnement Littoral, MEDIMEER, 2 Rue des Chantiers, 34200 Sete (France); Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine [AEO Team (Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc092, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France)

    2012-03-15

    Coastal marine ecosystems are submitted to variations of several abiotic and biotic parameters, some of them related to global change. Among them the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (UVBR: 280-320 nm) may strongly impact planktonic fish larvae. The consequences of an increase of UVBR on the osmoregulatory function of Dicentrarchus labrax larvae have been investigated in this study. In young larvae of D. labrax, as in other teleosts, osmoregulation depends on tegumentary ion transporting cells, or ionocytes, mainly located on the skin of the trunk and of the yolk sac. As early D. labrax larvae passively drift in the top water column, ionocytes are exposed to solar radiation. The effect of UVBR on larval osmoregulation in seawater was evaluated through nanoosmometric measurements of the blood osmolality after exposure to different UV-B treatments. A loss of osmoregulatory capability occured in larvae after 2 days of low (50 {mu}W cm{sup -2}: 4 h L/20 h D) and medium (80 {mu}W cm{sup -2}: 4 h L/20 h D) UVBR exposure. Compared to control larvae kept in the darkness, a significant increase in blood osmolality, abnormal behavior and high mortalities were detected in larvae exposed to UVBR from 2 days on. At the cellular level, an important decrease in abundance of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells was observed after 2 days of exposure to UVBR. In the ionocytes, two major osmoeffectors were immunolocalized, the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/2Cl{sup -} cotransporter. Compared to controls, the fluorescent immunostaining was lower in UVBR-exposed larvae. We hypothesize that the impaired osmoregulation in UVBR-exposed larvae originates from the lower number of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells. This alteration of the osmoregulatory function could negatively impact the survival of young larvae at the surface water exposed to UVBR.

  2. Impact of ultraviolet-B radiation on planktonic fish larvae: Alteration of the osmoregulatory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coastal marine ecosystems are submitted to variations of several abiotic and biotic parameters, some of them related to global change. Among them the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (UVBR: 280–320 nm) may strongly impact planktonic fish larvae. The consequences of an increase of UVBR on the osmoregulatory function of Dicentrarchus labrax larvae have been investigated in this study. In young larvae of D. labrax, as in other teleosts, osmoregulation depends on tegumentary ion transporting cells, or ionocytes, mainly located on the skin of the trunk and of the yolk sac. As early D. labrax larvae passively drift in the top water column, ionocytes are exposed to solar radiation. The effect of UVBR on larval osmoregulation in seawater was evaluated through nanoosmometric measurements of the blood osmolality after exposure to different UV-B treatments. A loss of osmoregulatory capability occured in larvae after 2 days of low (50 μW cm−2: 4 h L/20 h D) and medium (80 μW cm−2: 4 h L/20 h D) UVBR exposure. Compared to control larvae kept in the darkness, a significant increase in blood osmolality, abnormal behavior and high mortalities were detected in larvae exposed to UVBR from 2 days on. At the cellular level, an important decrease in abundance of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells was observed after 2 days of exposure to UVBR. In the ionocytes, two major osmoeffectors were immunolocalized, the Na+/K+-ATPase and the Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter. Compared to controls, the fluorescent immunostaining was lower in UVBR-exposed larvae. We hypothesize that the impaired osmoregulation in UVBR-exposed larvae originates from the lower number of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells. This alteration of the osmoregulatory function could negatively impact the survival of young larvae at the surface water exposed to UVBR.

  3. Integrative neuromechanics of crawling in D. melanogaster larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlevan, Cengiz; Paoletti, Paolo; Mahadevan, L

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion in an organism is a consequence of the coupled interaction between brain, body and environment. Motivated by qualitative observations and quantitative perturbations of crawling in Drosophila melanogaster larvae, we construct a minimal integrative mathematical model for its locomotion. Our model couples the excitation-inhibition circuits in the nervous system to force production in the muscles and body movement in a frictional environment, thence linking neural dynamics to body mechanics via sensory feedback in a heterogeneous environment. Our results explain the basic observed phenomenology of crawling with and without proprioception, and elucidate the stabilizing role that proprioception plays in producing a robust crawling phenotype in the presence of biological perturbations. More generally, our approach allows us to make testable predictions on the effect of changing body-environment interactions on crawling, and serves as a step in the development of hierarchical models linking cellular processes to behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11031.001

  4. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  5. Cellular and genetic analysis of wound healing in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Galko

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available To establish a genetic system to study postembryonic wound healing, we characterized epidermal wound healing in Drosophila larvae. Following puncture wounding, larvae begin to bleed but within an hour a plug forms in the wound gap. Over the next couple of hours the outer part of the plug melanizes to form a scab, and epidermal cells surrounding the plug orient toward it and then fuse to form a syncytium. Subsequently, more-peripheral cells orient toward and fuse with the central syncytium. During this time, the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathway is activated in a gradient emanating out from the wound, and the epidermal cells spread along or through the wound plug to reestablish a continuous epithelium and its basal lamina and apical cuticle lining. Inactivation of the JNK pathway inhibits epidermal spreading and reepithelialization but does not affect scab formation or other wound healing responses. Conversely, mutations that block scab formation, and a scabless wounding procedure, provide evidence that the scab stabilizes the wound site but is not required to initiate other wound responses. However, in the absence of a scab, the JNK pathway is hyperinduced, reepithelialization initiates but is not always completed, and a chronic wound ensues. The results demonstrate that the cellular responses of wound healing are under separate genetic control, and that the responses are coordinated by multiple signals emanating from the wound site, including a negative feedback signal between scab formation and the JNK pathway. Cell biological and molecular parallels to vertebrate wound healing lead us to speculate that wound healing is an ancient response that has diversified during evolution.

  6. Biochemistry and molecular biology of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical and molecular techniques have been used to study the formation and recovery of the developmentally arrested, non-feeding dauer stage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. While investigating developmental transitions in energy metabolism, a major metabolite isolated from perchloric acid extracts has been identified as a modified uridine nucleotide. The compound was isolated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography and its structure was determined by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. This compound is the most abundant metabolite detected in 31PMR spectra of perchloric acid extracts from growing larvae. In the absence of phosphoarginine or phosphocreatine, this modified nucleotide may have an important function in the nematode's energy metabolism, and it may also be found in several other invertebrates. During recovery from the dauer stage, metabolic activation is accompanied by a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi). Although metabolic activation has been associated with an alkaline pHi shift in other organisms, in vivo 31P NMR analysis of recovering dauer larvae shows a pHi decrease from ∼7.3 to ∼6.3 within 3 hr after the animals encounter food. This shift occurs before feeding begins, and coincides with, or soon follows, the development commitment to recover from the dauer stage, suggesting that control of pHi may be important in the regulation of larval development in nematodes. A library enriched for sequences expressed specifically during the L2d (predauer) stage was made by selecting plaques from a genomic lambda library that hybridized to subtracted L2d cDNA probes. Ultimately, three clones that were shown to hybridize only to L2d RNA were selected

  7. Composition of agarose substrate affects behavioral output of Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Aristomenis Apostolopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the Drosophila larva has evolved into a simple model organism offering the opportunity to integrate molecular genetics with systems neuroscience. This led to a detailed understanding of the functional neuronal networks for a number of sensory functions and behaviors including olfaction, vision, gustation and learning and memory. Typically, behavioral assays in use exploit simple Petri dish setups with either agarose or agar as a substrate. However, neither the quality nor the concentration of the substrate is generally standardized across these experiments and there is no data available on how larval behavior is affected by such different substrates. Here, we have investigated the effects of different agarose concentrations on several larval behaviors. We demonstrate that agarose concentration is an important parameter, which affects all behaviors tested: preference, feeding, learning and locomotion. Larvae can discriminate between different agarose concentrations, they feed differently on them, they can learn to associate an agarose concentration with an odor stimulus and crawl faster on a substrate of higher agarose concentration. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of agarose concentration on three quinine based behaviors: preference, feeding and learning. We show that in all cases examined the behavioral output changes in an agarose concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that comparisons between experiments performed on substrates differing in agarose concentration should be done with caution. It should be taken into consideration that the agarose concentration can affect the behavioral output and thereby the experimental outcomes per se potentially due to an increased escape response on more rigid substrates.

  8. Description of the final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936 (Odonata, Libellulidae), using rearing and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Butler, Stephen G; Dow, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region. PMID:27394221

  9. Effect of stocking density on growth and survival of spotted sand bass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus larvae in a closed recirculating system

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez González, Carlos; Ortiz Galindo, José Luis; Dumas, Silvie; Martínez Díaz, Sergio Francisco; Hernández Ceballos, Dora Esther; Grayeb del Alamo, Tanos; Moreno Lagorreta, Manuel; Peña Martínez, Renato; Civera Cerecedo, Roberto

    2001-01-01

    The effect on growth and survival of the initial stocking density (50, 100, 150, and 200 larvae/ L) in larval rearing of spotted sand bass was evaluated over 30 d in a closed recirculating system. Larvae were fed with rotifers, copepods, nauplii and adult Artemia, and spotted sand bass yolk-sac larvae. Water quality was monitored daily. The notochordal or standard length of sampled larvae was measured by image analysis. Specific growth rates at each density were compared by covariance analysi...

  10. Multiplex Bead Assay for Serum Samples from Children in Haiti Enrolled in a Drug Study for the Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Delynn M.; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Boyd, Alexis; Weinkopff, Tiffany; Kucerova, Zuzana; Beach, Michael J.; Lammie, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    A multiplex bead assay (MBA) was used to analyze serum samples collected longitudinally from children enrolled in a drug trial for treatment of filariasis in Leogane, Haiti. Recombinant antigens Bm14 and Bm33 from Brugia malayi, third polar tube protein (PTP3) from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and merozoite surface protein-119 (MSP-119) from Plasmodium falciparum were coupled to carboxylated polystyrene microspheres. IgG responses to PTP3 and MSP-119 were not affected by albendazole (ALB), dieth...

  11. AcEST: DK947308 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU02A01NGRL0015_H19 543 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0015_H19. 5' end seq ... P91850 Definition sp|P91850|MIFH_BRUMA Macrophage migration ... inhibitory factor homolog OS=Brugia malayi Align l ... ents: (bits) Value sp|P91850|MIFH_BRUMA Macrophage migration ... inhibitory factor homo... 94 4e-19 sp|O44786|MIFH_ ...

  12. AcEST: DK944624 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU02A01NGRL0006_K18 551 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0006_K18. 5' end seq ... P91850 Definition sp|P91850|MIFH_BRUMA Macrophage migration ... inhibitory factor homolog OS=Brugia malayi Align l ... ents: (bits) Value sp|P91850|MIFH_BRUMA Macrophage migration ... inhibitory factor homo... 94 4e-19 sp|O44786|MIFH_ ...

  13. Genomics of Loa loa, a Wolbachia-free filarial parasite of humans

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins, Christopher A.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Hotopp, Julie C Dunning; Haas, Brian J.; Zucker, Jeremy; Ribeiro, Jose’ M.C.; Saif, Sakina; Levin, Joshua Z.; Fan, Lin; Zeng, Qiandong; Russ, Carsten; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Fink, Doran L.; Birren, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    Loa loa, the African eyeworm, is a major filarial pathogen of humans. Unlike most filariae, Loa loa does not contain the obligate intracellular Wolbachia endosymbiont. We describe the 91.4 Mb genome of Loa loa, and the genome of the related filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti, and predict 14,907 Loa loa genes based on microfilarial RNA sequencing. By comparing these genomes to that of another filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, and to several other nematode genomes, we demonstrate synteny am...

  14. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing filarial arm cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Nishi; Bansal, Cherry; Sharma, Richa; Irfan, Sumaiya

    2013-01-01

    Filariasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas and is endemic in regions of India. Lymphatic filariasis in India is caused mainly by two species of nematodes: Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, which invade the human lymphatic system. We report two cases of superficial cystic lesions of the upper limb revealed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) to be clinically unsuspected filariasis. Despite similar aetiologies, both cases revealed variations in aspirate nature, smear morphology...

  15. ROLE OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY (FNAC) IN DIAGNOSIS OF ASYMPTOMATIC MICROFILARIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Reena; Rajesh; Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria Bancrofti and Brugia Malayi and transmitted by Culex mosquito. Lymphatic Filariasis is a major health problem in countries like India, China, Indonesia, and Africa. Diagnosis of Filari a is done by conventional methods like peripheral blood smear examination, Fluorescent capillary method and filarial antigen detection by Rapid card method. Here we present four unusual cases with swellings presented in surg...

  16. A review of the complexity of biology of lymphatic filarial parasites

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Paily; Hoti, S. L.; Das, P K

    2009-01-01

    There are about five more common, including Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, and four less common filarial parasites infecting human. Genetic analysis of W. bancrofti populations in India showed that two strains of the species are prevalent in the country. The adult filarial parasites are tissue specific in the human host and their embryonic stage, called microfilariae (mf), are found in the blood or skin of the host, depending upon the species of the parasite. Three genetically determ...

  17. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for differentiation between Thai and Myanmar strains of Wuchereria bancrofti

    OpenAIRE

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Junpee, Alisa; Poovorawan, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by mosquito-transmitted filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. The Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program in Thailand has reduced the prevalence of nocturnally subperiodic W. bancrofti (Thai strain), mainly transmitted by the Ochlerotatus (Aedes) niveus group in Thailand to 0.57/100,000 population. However, it is estimated that more than one million Myanmar migrants with high prevalence of...

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti from three geographic isolates provides evidence of complex demographic history

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Akshaya; Small, Scott T; Kloos, Zachary A.; Kazura, James W; Nutman, Thomas B.; Serre, David; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences have enabled comparison of population genetics and evolution for numerous free-living and parasitic nematodes. Here we define the complete mt genome of Wuchereria bancrofti through analysis of isolates from Papua New Guinea, India and West Africa. Sequences were assembled for each isolate and annotated with reference to the mt genome sequence for Brugia malayi. The length of the W. bancrofti mt genome is approximately 13,637 nucleotides, contains 2 ribosoma...

  19. Presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) from different geographical regions in India

    OpenAIRE

    Hoti SL; Sridhar A.; PK Das

    2003-01-01

    In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool...

  20. Plasmodium knowlesi and Wuchereria bancrofti: Their Vectors and Challenges for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Vythilingam, Indra

    2012-01-01

    Malaria and filariasis still continue to pose public health problems in developing countries of the tropics. Although plans are in progress for the elimination of both these parasitic vector borne diseases, we are now faced with a daunting challenge as we have a fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite affecting humans. Similarly in peninsular Malaysia, filariasis was mainly due to Brugia malayi. However, we now see cases of Wuchereria bancrofti in immigrant workers coming...

  1. Host protective immunity and vaccine development studies in lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. V. R.; Alli, R.; Harinath, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused mainly by infection fromWuchereria bancrofti andBrugia malayi remains as the major cause of clinical morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. Development of vaccine against filarial infection can act as additional measure to the existing therapeutic and vector control methods in the control of this disease. The main hurdles in the development of anti-filarial vaccine are the strict primate specificity ofWuchereria bancrofti, the paucity of parasite material...

  2. Repurposing Auranofin as a Lead Candidate for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, Christina A.; Bidlow, Chelsea M.; Sara Lustigman; Fidelis Cho-Ngwa; David Williams; Rascón, Alberto A; Nancy Tricoche; Moses Samje; Aaron Bell; Brian Suzuki; K C Lim; Nonglak Supakorndej; Prasit Supakorndej; Wolfe, Alan R.; Knudsen, Giselle M.

    2015-01-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infe...

  3. Single multivalent vaccination boosted by trickle larval infection confers protection against experimental lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, SK; Ramaswamy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The multivalent vaccine BmHAT, consisting of the Brugia malayi infective larval (L3) antigens heat shock protein12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and tetraspanin large extra cellular loop (TSP-LEL), was shown to be protective in rodent models from our laboratory. We hypothesize that since these antigens were identified using protective antibodies from immune endemic normal individuals, the multivalent vaccine can be augmented by natural L3 infections providing protection to...

  4. Characterizing Ancylostoma caninum transcriptome and exploring nematode parasitic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hawdon John; Wilson Richard K; Martin John; Abubucker Sahar; Wang Zhengyuan; Mitreva Makedonka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hookworm infection is one of the most important neglected diseases in developing countries, with approximately 1 billion people infected worldwide. To better understand hookworm biology and nematode parasitism, the present study generated a near complete transcriptome of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to a very high coverage using high throughput technology, and compared it to those of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasite Brugia malayi....

  5. Diagnostic deoxyribonucleic acid probes for infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Tenover, F C

    1988-01-01

    Virtually all microorganisms contain some unique nucleotide sequences which can be the target of deoxyribonucleic acid probes. Probes have been used successfully to identify a wide variety of pathogens from the simple ribonucleic acid-containing polioviruses to the complex filarial worms Brugia malayi. Probe technology offers the clinical laboratory the potential both to extend the types of pathogens that can be readily identified and to reduce significantly the time associated with the ident...

  6. Filarial and Wolbachia genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, A.L.; Ghedin, E.; Nutman, T B; McReynolds, L A; C. B. Poole; Slatko, B E; Foster, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Filarial nematode parasites, the causative agents for a spectrum of acute and chronic diseases including lymphatic filariasis and river blindness, threaten the well-being and livelihood of hundreds of millions of people in the developing regions of the world. The 2007 publication on a draft assembly of the 95-Mb genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi – representing the first helminth parasite genome to be sequenced – has been followed in rapid succession by projects that have res...

  7. Intravascular filarial parasites inhibit platelet aggregation. Role of parasite-derived prostanoids.

    OpenAIRE

    L. X. Liu; Weller, P F

    1992-01-01

    The nematode parasites that cause human lymphatic filariasis survive for long periods in their vascular habitats despite continual exposure to host cells. Platelets do not adhere to blood-borne microfilariae, and thrombo-occlusive phenomena are not observed in patients with circulating microfilariae. We studied the ability of microfilariae to inhibit human platelet aggregation in vitro. Brugia malayi microfilariae incubated with human platelets caused dose-dependent inhibition of agonist-indu...

  8. Dietary fatty acid composition affects food intake and gut-brain satiety signaling in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae and post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacic, Kruno; Campoverde, Cindy; Gómez-Arbonés, Javier; Gisbert, Enric; Estevez, Alicia; Morais, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    Little is known how dietary lipids affect food intake during larval development of fish, especially with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition. In fact, very little work has been done on appetite regulation and food intake in fish larvae in general, due to biological and technical difficulties associated with this type of studies. A new method using fluorescent microspheres as markers was developed in this study to evaluate food intake and prey selectivity of Senegalese sole larvae and post-larvae. Food intake was quantified in fish fed Artemia metanauplii enriched with oils differing in FA profile: cod liver oil (CLO), linseed oil (LSO), soybean oil (SBO) or olive oil (OO). The fish did not preferentially ingest a specific diet when presented with a choice. However, pre-metamorphic larvae from the CLO treatment ingested more metanauplii per g body weight, while differences in post-larvae were not significant. These findings were developed further by analyzing mRNA levels of a range of putative anorexigenic (pyya, pyyb, glp1, cckl, cart1a, cart1b, cart2a, cart4, pomca, pomcb, crf) and orexigenic (gal, npy, agrp2) genes, to identify those which are significantly affected by feeding and/or dietary FA composition. The variety of expression patterns observed highlighted the complexity of appetite regulatory mechanisms. In general, fish fed the CLO diet tended to show gene expression patterns most dissimilar to the remaining treatments. Expression in pre-metamorphic larvae was generally less in accordance with the putative function of the genes than in post-larvae, which could suggest a yet underdeveloped regulatory system. PMID:26851305

  9. Acceptability of irradiated larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, by a parasitoid, Venturia canescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of releases of mass-produced natural enemies is to control a pest. In this context the aim of quality control should be to determine whether a natural enemy is still in a condition to properly control the pest. Formulated in this way we do not deal with terms like maximal or optimal quality, but something like acceptable quality. The aim of this study was to assess suitability and acceptability of irradiated host larvae of stored product moths by a parasitoid, Venturia canescens. Criteria for quality control were: (a) fertility of V. canescens adults emerged from irradiated moth larvae; (b) longevity of parasitoid adults emerged from irradiated moth larvae; and (c) weight (in mg) of parasitoid adults emerged from irradiated moth larvae, as compared to adults developed in nonirradiated host larvae. Adults of V. canescens emerged from moth larvae irradiated with a dose of 400 or 600 Gy were as fertile as the adults that emerged from untreated hosts (control). In all treatments, similar numbers of adults of the next generation were obtained. Also, the period of storage of irradiated and parasitised larvae of Ephestia kuehniella at low temperatures (5 Co) does not inhibit the development of parasitoids, and does not increase their mortality rates after the exposure to ambient temperature (25 deg. C). Finally, the fertility of emerged adults of V. canescens was not affected by the period of storage at lowered temperature. Longevity of V. canescens adults emerged from host larvae irradiated with a dose of 400 or 600 Gy was similar to that of the adults that emerged from untreated hosts (control). In all treatments, parasitoid adults were dead on day 13 after the emergence from host larvae. However, mortality rates of parasitoid adults emerged from non-irradiated larvae were somewhat lower than those developed in irradiated larvae. Weight of V. canescens adults emerged from moth larvae irradiated with a dose of 400 or 600 Gy of gamma radiation was very

  10. Large-scale expression of recombinant cardiac sodium-calcium exchange in insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C C; Zimmerschied, J A; Bliler, S; Price, E M

    1999-02-01

    Recombinant bovine cardiac sodium-calcium exchange (NCX1) in a baculovirus construct was used to infect cabbage looper larvae (Trichoplusia ni). Infected larvae were homogenized and larvae membrane vesicles were purified. Western blot analysis indicated the presence of recombinant NCX1 protein in vesicles from infected larvae but not in controls. Vesicles from infected larvae expressed high levels of NCX1 activity (1.7 nmol Ca2+/mg protein/s) while vesicles from control larvae had no activity. NCX1 in larvae vesicles was bidirectional. Kinetic analysis yielded a Vmax of 3.6 nmol Ca2+/mg protein/s and a Km for Ca of 4.2 microM. NCX1 activity was inhibited by the exchange inhibitory peptide with an IC50 of 4 microM. These data demonstrate a novel and efficient method for the expression of large amounts of active recombinant NCX1 protein that has general application for expression and analysis of recombinant membrane proteins. PMID:10024479

  11. Distribution of Lepidopteran Larvae on Norway Spruce: Effects of Slope and Crown Aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulfan, Ján; Dvořáčková, Katarína; Zach, Peter; Parák, Michal; Svitok, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Lepidoptera associated with Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten, play important roles in ecosystem processes, acting as plant pests, prey for predators, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Their distribution patterns in spruce crowns and forests are only poorly understood. We examined how slope and crown aspect affect the occurrence and abundance of moth larvae on solitary spruce trees in a montane region in Central Europe. Moth larvae were collected from southern and northern crowns of trees growing on south- and north-facing slopes (four treatments) using emergence boxes at the end of winter and by the beating method during the growing season. Species responses to slope and crown aspect were not uniform. Treatment effects on moth larvae were stronger in the winter than during the growing season. In winter, the abundance of bud-boring larvae was significantly higher in northern than in southern crowns regardless of the slope aspect, while both slope and aspect had marginally significant effects on abundance of miners. During the growing season, the occurrence of free-living larvae was similar among treatments. Emergence boxes and beating spruce branches are complementary techniques providing valuable insights into the assemblage structure of moth larvae on Norway spruce. Due to the uneven distribution of larvae detected in this study, we recommend adoption of a protocol that explicitly includes sampling of trees from contrasting slopes and branches from contrasting crown aspect in all seasons. PMID:26795212

  12. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-β-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC50) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds

  13. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  14. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors involved in honeybee larval infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Schlapp, Geraldine; Evans, Jay D; Zunino, Pablo

    2009-10-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae secretes proteases that could be involved in the pathogenicity. In the present article, we present the secretion of different proteases by P. larvae. Inhibition assays confirmed the presence of metalloproteases. Two different proteases patterns (PP1 and PP2) were identified in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographic origin. Forty nine percent of P. larvae isolates showed pattern PP1 while 51% exhibited pattern PP2. Most isolates belonging to genotype ERIC I - BOX A presented PP2, most isolates belonging to ERIC I - BOX C presented PP1 although relations were not significant. Isolates belonging to genotypes ERIC II and ERIC III presented PP2. No correlation was observed between the secreted proteases patterns and geographic distribution, since both patterns are widely distributed in Uruguay. According to exposure bioassays, isolates showing PP2 are more virulent than those showing PP1, suggesting that difference in pathogenicity could be related to the secretion of proteases. PMID:19638278

  15. Predation of Fruit Fly Larvae Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae by Ants in Grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence that ants are population regulatory agents, we examined their efficiency in predation of fruit fly larvae Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae. Hence, we considered the differences among species of fruit trees, the degree of soil compaction, and the content of soil moisture as variables that would explain predation by ants because these variables affect burying time of larvae. We carried out the experiment in an orchard containing various fruit bearing trees, of which the guava (Psidium guajava Linn., jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell. Berg., and mango trees (Mangifera indica Linn. were chosen for observations of Anastrepha. We offered live Anastrepha larvae on soil beneath the tree crowns. We observed for 10 min whether ants removed the larvae or the larvae buried themselves. Eight ant species were responsible for removing 1/4 of the larvae offered. The Pheidole Westwood, 1839 ants were the most efficient genus, removing 93% of the larvae. In compacted and dry soils, the rate of predation by ants was greater. Therefore, this study showed that ants, along with specific soil characteristics, may be important regulators of fruit fly populations and contribute to natural pest control in orchards.

  16. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  17. Pathology of Yersinia entomophaga MH96 towards Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Mark Robin Holmes; van Koten, Chikako; Jackson, Trevor Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Yersinia entomophaga was isolated from larvae of the New Zealand grass grub, Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), found in soil. Following ingestion of a lethal dose of bacteria, larvae of C. zealandica reduced feeding activity and movement. After approximately 4h infected larvae convulsed and regurgitated dark digestive fluid and expelled frass pellets leaving the midgut empty and the larva amber in appearance. In the initial stages of infection, ingested bacteria were mostly contained within the peritrophic membrane and expelled with the gut fluid or transferred into the hind gut. While few Y. entomophaga were associated with the midgut epithelial cells, by 24h cells were swelling and bursting with vesicles being expelled into the midgut lumen. By 48h, bacteria had entered the haemocoel and the midgut cells had further deteriorated. After 72h, the cellular remnants were totally detached from the basal membrane the infected insects were filled with bacteria and moribund or dead with septicaemia. Mortality was directly proportional to dose and time after infection. By applying a range of doses, the LD50 was determined as 2.9×10(4)Y. entomophaga per C. zealandica larva, with an LT50 of 2.94days for doses of>1×10(5) per larva. Ingestion of low doses of bacteria did not inhibit feeding activity but led more slowly to death. By time of death, Y. entomophaga had multiplied, approximately 500 fold, in the cadavers of the infected larvae. PMID:24291403

  18. Behaviour of damselfly larvae (Enallagma cyathigerum) (Insecta, Odonata) after long-term exposure to PFOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossum, Hans van [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.vangossum@ua.ac.be; Bots, Jessica [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: jessica.bots@ua.ac.be; Snijkers, Tom [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: tom.snijkers@gmail.com; Meyer, Johan [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: izak.meyer@ua.ac.be; Van Wassenbergh, Sam [Laboratory for Functional Morphology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: sam.vanwassenbergh@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: wim.decoen@ua.ac.be; De Bruyn, Luc [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: luc.debruyn@ua.ac.be

    2009-04-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been detected in organisms worldwide. Here, we evaluate whether long-term (1 and 4 months) exposure to PFOS contamination affects the behavioural performance of freshwater larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Our results show reduced behavioural performance with increasing PFOS concentration. In 1 month exposed larvae, no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 100 {mu}g/L for general activity. In 4 months exposed larvae, NOECs were 10 {mu}g/L, for each behavioural trait, except swimming acceleration of male larvae where the NOEC was 100 {mu}g/L. When faced with PFOS concentrations above the NOEC, E. cyathigerum larvae were less active, less capable to escape a simulated predator attack and less efficient in foraging. Together, our results show that damselfly larvae suffer reduced survival-related behavioural performance. - Long-term laboratory exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid decreases behavioural performance of damselfly larvae (Insecta: Odonata)

  19. GC-MS investigation of the chemical composition of honeybee drone and queen larvae homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidorov Valery A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee larva homogenate appears to be underrated and insufficiently explored but this homogenate is an exceptionally valuable honeybee product. Drone larva homogenate is very nutritional due to its high content of proteins, free amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Moreover, the biological characteristics of honeybee larvae indicate the presence of chemical substances that may be pharmacologically active. In spite of the above, the chemical composition of honeybee larva has not gained as much attention as that of other bee products. In this study, the chemical composition of honeybee brood homogenate has been investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. As a result, it was possible to isolate as many as 115 extractive organic compounds from 6 samples of crude queen and 9 samples of drone homogenate. The main groups of substances extracted from either type of homogenate were composed of free amino acids and carbohydrates. The relative content of amino acids in queen homogenate as well as the share of essential amino acids were found to be higher than in the drone homogenate. Disaccharide trehalose was the dominant sugar in the queen larvae, whilst glucose prevailed in the drone larvae. Comparative chemical analyses of honeybee queen and drone larva homogenates have allowed us to make a preliminary inference about a higher overall value of the former.

  20. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  1. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-10-01

    Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method using laboratory-reared barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite) fed with mono-algal diet Chaetoceros calcitrans, a unicellular diatom at a cell concentration of 2 × 105 cells ml-1. The gut fluorescence of IV-VI instar nauplii was found to be 370(±12) ng chlorophyll a larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 224(±63) ng chlorophyll a larva-1. A phaeopigment concentration in larval gut was found to be 311(±13) ng larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 172(±61) ng larva-1. The study also analysed larval samples collected from the field during different seasons from a tropical environment influenced by monsoons (Dona Paula bay, Goa, west coast of India), with characteristic temporal variations in phytoplankton abundance and diversity. Gut fluorescence of larvae obtained during the post-monsoon season was consistently higher when compared to the pre-monsoon season, suggesting the predominance of autotrophic forms in the larval gut during the post-monsoon season. Whereas, the low gut fluorescence obtained during the pre-monsoon season indicated the ingestion of food sources other than autotrophs. Such differences observed in the feeding behaviour of larvae could be due to differential availability of food for the larvae during different seasons and indicate the capability of larvae to feed on wide range of food sources. This study shows the value of the fluorescence method in feeding studies of planktotrophic organisms and in the evaluation of ecosystem dynamics.

  2. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Siew Yoong; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Tan, Chew Khun

    2016-01-01

    Hermetia illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52±0.02 and 0.23±0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04±0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production. PMID:25872864

  3. Descrição da larva de último estádio de Micrathyria pseudeximia Westfall (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schmidt Dalzochio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A larva de último estádio de Micrathyria pseudeximia Westfall, 1992 é descrita e ilustrada a partir de material procedente de Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil. A caracterização do gênero com base nas larvas é ampliada.Description of the Ultimate Stadium Larva of Micrathyria pseudeximia Westfall(Odonata, Libellulidae.Abstract. The larva of ultimate stadium of Micrathyria pseudeximia Westfall, 1992 is described and illustrated based on material collected in Cascavel Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. The generic concept based on the larvae is amplified.

  4. Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Duygu; Pekmezci, Didem; Meral, Yücel; Gokalp, Güvenç; Acici, Mustafa

    2008-04-01

    With this case report, we describe Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) which was brought to our clinics by the Directorship of Environmental and Forestry authorities of Samsun, Turkey in April, 2007. The male Little Bittern (I. minutus), with a black back and crown, and black wings with a large white patch on each wing, had thick Trombiculidae larvae infestation both on its legs. There were neither dermatological nor general conditional changes observed, except its superficial larval attachments to the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Trombiculidae larvae (N. autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (I. minutus) in Turkey. PMID:18266010

  5. Validation of otolith increment formation and the growth rate of fat greenling larvae

    OpenAIRE

    JOH, Mikimasa; Joh, Takashi; Matsu-ura, Teppei; Takatsu, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    We validated the daily formation 0f otolith increments of reared fat greenling Hexagrammos otakii larvae and examined the growth patterns of wild lavae. The mean notochord Length and otolith radius of newly hatched larvae were 8.31 mm and 273μm, respectively. Newly hatched larvae had some increments on their lapilli and a check was formed at hatching (hatch check). The relattonship between age and the number of increments formed outside the hatch chcck (NI)was linear regression (Nl=0.99Age-0....

  6. Jenis-jenis dan Kepadatan Larva Nyamuk di Kelurahan Gedung Johor, Kecamatan Medan Johor, Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Masy’ab, Nadiah

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are living organisms in all around the world which is a disease vector for human . To know the area of mosquito’s spreading in one place, we need to do a larvae survey which measures the density of mosquito larvae in an area by observing directly into water reservoirs. This study aims to determine the type of species and the level of larvae density in Kelurahan Gedung Johor, Kecamatan Medan Johor, Medan. This is a descriptive study and collection of samples is don...

  7. INDEKS ENTOMOLOGI DAN KERENTANAN LARVA Aedes aegypti TERHADAP TEMEFOS DI KELURAHAN KARSAMENAK KECAMATAN KAWALU KOTA TASIKMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubullah Fuadzy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalah satu upaya pengendalian vektor nyamuk Aedes aegypti adalah menggunakan larvasida sintetis seperti temefos. Pemanfaatan temefos secara terus menerus dan berulang merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya resistensi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan indeks entomologi dan status kerentanan larva Ae. aegypti terhadap temefos di Kelurahan Karsamenak Kecamatan Kawalu Kota Tasikmalaya. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimen dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Populasi adalah larva nyamuk Ae. aegypti yang diperoleh dari 289 rumah penduduk di Kelurahan Karsamenak, dan sampel adalah 700 larva Ae. aegypti strain Karsamenak. Bioassay menggunakan metode Elliot dan Polson dengan konsentrasi diagnostik WHO sebesar 0,02 ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa House Index (HI 24,9; Container Index (CI 9,05; Breteau Index (BI 29,07; dan Density Figure (DF 4. Larva Ae. aegypti umumnya ditemukan di Bak Mandi penduduk. Kemudian untuk membunuh 95% larva Ae. aegypti dibutuhkan konsentrasi temefos sebesar (LC95 0,02416 ppm (0,01917 ­ 0,03330 ppm dan RR95 3,02. Kelurahan Karsamenak termasuk wilayah yang potensial untuk penularan penyakit Demam Berdarah Dengue, dan larva Ae. aegypti terindikasi telah resisten terhadap temefos.Kata Kunci : Resisten, Aedes aegypti, temefos, kerentananAbstractOne effort for controlling Aedes aegypti as dengue vector is using synthetic larvacide such as temephos. Utilization of temephos continuously and repeatedly a risk factor for resistance. The objective of this study were to determine the entomology index and susceptibility of Ae. aegypti larvae against temephos in endemic areas of dengue fever in the Karsamenak District Kawalu of Tasikmalaya. The research was a true experimental study with a complete randomized design. The population were the larvae of Ae. aegypti were derived from 289 houses of resident in the Village Karsamenak and the sample was 700 larvae of Ae. aegypti strains Karsamenak. The Bioassay used Elliot and

  8. Jenis-Jenis Larva Nyamuk di Kelurahan Tanjung Rejo, Kecamatan Medan Sunggal, Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Xin Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoe is a kind of animal that plays a role in transmitting various types of diseases. There are 4 stages of mosquito life cycle (egg-larva-pupa-adult) and the most effective prevention methode is from the larvae stage from mosquito because they have not been able to move freely and require water to survive. The present descriptive study was aimed to determine the types of mosquito larvae and what could promote the development of mosquito, thus mosquito control in Tanjung Rejo village, su...

  9. Influence of caffeine on sparing effect of dose fractionation in housefly larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeine, given during interfraction interval, abolishes the sparing effect of dose fractionation observed for delay of pupariation in Musca domestica larvae. When given as postirradiation treatment after single exposure, caffeine increases the delay in a synergistic manner. Pretreatment of the larvae with ascorbic acid for 3 h protects from radiation-induced delay whereas pretreatment with caffeine does not have any effect. Combination of ascorbic acid and caffeine pretreatment protects the larvae only at low concentration (0.05%) and not at high concentration (0.1%). (orig.)

  10. Metamorfosis del aparato digestivo de larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Leptodactylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa Kreisel, Zandra E.

    2000-01-01

    Las larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli presentan un tubo digestivo más corto que la mayoría de las larvas de anuros, tiene 6 veces la longitud del cuerpo del renacuajo y se caracteriza también por tener un estómago larval. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el determinar el grado de transformaciones en la cavidad bucofaríngea y tubo digestivo en larvas de esta especie durante la metamorfosis y comparar las estructuras digestivas estudiadas en otras especies de Leptodactylidae de ...

  11. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in a Mexican population of high marginalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac Aguirre Maldonadoa; Silvia Cruz Duartea; Felipe Gonzlez Velzqueza; Alfonso Alexander Aguilerab

    2014-01-01

    The creeping verminous dermatitis or cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitosis caused by percutaneous penetration and migration of larval nematode parasites characterized by producing one or more serpiginous erythematous, indurated, raised and pruritic lesion. The most common cause of cutaneous larva migrans is the Ancylostoma braziliense located in warm climate zones. In the present study, authors reported a case of cutaneous larva migrans with a characteristic clinical picture: erythematous-papular and vesicular lesion and serpiginous path, with progressive, and pruritic growth and it shown that a living area with immigration, tropical weather conditions and poverty may lead to this common infection.

  12. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in a Mexican population of high marginalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac; Aguirre; Maldonadoa; Silvia; Cruz; Duartea; Felipe; Gonzlez; Velzqueza; Alfonso; Alexander; Aguilerab

    2014-01-01

    The creeping verminous dermatitis or cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitosis caused by percutaneous penetration and migration of larval nematode parasites characterized by producing one or more serpiginous erythematous,indurated,raised and pruritic lesion.The most common cause of cutaneous larva migrans is the Ancytostoma braziliensc located in warm climate zones.In the present study,authors reported a case of cutaneous larva migrans with a characteristic clinical picture:erythematous-papnlar and vesicular lesion and serpiginous path,with progressive,and pruritic growth and it shown that a living area with immigration,tropical weather conditions and poverty may lead to this common infection.

  13. The effect of BmNPV infection on protein metabolism in silkworm (Bombyx mori) larva

    OpenAIRE

    K Etebari; L Matindoost; SZ Mirhoseini; MW Turnbull

    2007-01-01

    Grasseri is one of the most important diseases of silkworm with significant yield loss, which is caused by nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPV). In the present research the effect of this disease on changes of biochemical compounds which are related to protein metabolism in 5th instar larvae were studied. The larvae that showed the grasseri symptoms after contamination with 5.5×10-4 polyhedral/ml were assumed as infected treatment. The hemolymph of infected and uninfected larvae in 3 and 5 days...

  14. Interespecific competition between Peckia chrysostoma and Adiscochaeta ingens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) larvae reared in laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Vianna Ferraz

    1993-01-01

    Groups of 10 and 20 first instar larvae of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830) were combined in a proteic source media with groups of the same number of first instar larvae of Adiscochaeta ingens (Walker, 1849) under the environmental conditions of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. P. chrysostoma and A. ingens obtained average competitive potentials of 94.0 ± 2.0% and 31.0 ± 5.0% respectively. In the second experiment, larvae of P. chrysostoma were introduced approximately 15 hr after the introduc...

  15. Annotated records of scombroid eggs and larvae distribution in northeastern Mediterranean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VASSILOPOULOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of eggs and larvae of scombroid fish in northeastern Greek waters were studied during the summer of three consecutive years(1992-1994 to determine spawning, time of spawning peaks, and the possible preferred spawning grounds. Among eggs only those of Xiphias gladius were successfully identified. Larvae of Thunnus alalunga, Euthynnus alleteratus, X. gladius and Auxis rochei were recorded, the latter species being encountered more frequently than the rest. Most scombroid larvae were collected in the Sporades Islands’ basin and their abundance, particularly that of A. rochei, was relatively increased at the end of the summer, possibly suggesting increased spawning activities during that period.

  16. Identification of entomopathogenic Bacillus isolated from Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae larvae and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavados CFG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from Simulium larvae and adults from breeding sites in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as 18 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and one of B. sphaericus. Most of these strains were serotyped according to their flagellar antigens. However, nine of the B. thuringiensis samples, could not be serotyped and were designated as "autoagglutinating"; they were also shown to be toxic in preliminary tests against Aedes aegypti larvae. Additionally, B. sphaericus was also shown to be toxic towards Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  17. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using χ2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the

  18. Metabolomic Analysis of Diapausing and Noni-diapausing Larvae of the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purać, Jelena; Kojić, Danijela; Popović, Željko D; Vukašinović, Elvira; Tiziani, Stefano; Günther, Ulrich L; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an (1)H-NMR -based metabolomic approach was used to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of diapause and cold hardiness in diapausing larvae of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. Metabolomic patterns in polar hemolymph extracts from non-diapausing and diapausing larvae of O. nubilalis were compared. Analysis indicated 13 metabolites: 7 amino acids, glycerol, acetate, citrate, succinate, lactate and putrescine. Results show that diapausing larvae display different metabolomic patterns compared to active non-diapausing larvae, with predominant metabolites identified as glycerol, proline and alanine. In specific diapausing larvae initially kept at 5 °C then gradually chilled to –3 °C and –16 °C, alanine , glycerol and acetate were predominant metabolites. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy provides new insight into the metabolomic patterns associated with cold resistance and diapause in O. nubilalis larvae, suggesting distinct metabolomes function in actively developing and diapausing larvae. PMID:26680702

  19. Xenobiotics Produce Distinct Metabolomic Responses in Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Susie S Y; Benskin, Jonathan P; Chandramouli, Bharat; Butler, Heather; Helbing, Caren C; Cosgrove, John R

    2016-06-21

    Sensitive and quantitative protocols for characterizing low-dose effects are needed to meet the demands of 21st century chemical hazard assessment. To test the hypothesis that xenobiotic exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations produces specific biochemical fingerprints in organisms, metabolomic perturbations in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo/larvae were measured following 24 h exposures to 13 individual chemicals covering a wide range of contaminant classes. Measured metabolites (208 in total) included amino acids, biogenic amines, fatty acids, bile acids, sugars, and lipids. The 96-120 h post-fertilization developmental stage was the most appropriate model for detecting xenobiotic-induced metabolomic perturbations. Metabolomic fingerprints were largely chemical- and dose-specific and were reproducible in multiple exposures over a 16-month period. Furthermore, chemical-specific responses were detected in the presence of an effluent matrix; importantly, in the absence of morphological response. In addition to improving sensitivity for detecting biological responses to low-level xenobiotic exposures, these data can aid the classification of novel contaminants based on the similarity of metabolomic responses to well-characterized "model" compounds. This approach is clearly of use for rapid, sensitive, and specific analyses of chemical effect on organisms, and can supplement existing methods, such as the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity assay (OECD TG236), with molecular-level information. PMID:27232715

  20. Parasitic infection protects wasp larvae against a bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Fabio; Beani, Laura; Taormina, Mauro; Vannini, Laura

    2010-09-01

    Host antibacterial defense after Strepsiptera parasitization is a complex and rather unexplored topic. The way how these parasites interact with bacteria invading into the host insect during an infection is completely unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that larvae of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus are more efficient at eliminating bacteria when they are parasitized by the strepsipteran insect Xenos vesparum. We looked at the expression levels of the antimicrobial peptide defensin and we screened for the activity of other hemolymph components by using a zone of inhibition assay. Transcription of defensin is triggered by parasitization, but also by mechanical injury (aseptic injection). Inhibitory activity in vitro against the Gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is not influenced by the presence of the parasite in the wasp or by a previous immune challenge, suggesting a constitutive power of killing this bacterium by wasp hemolymph. Our results suggest either direct involvement of the parasite or that defensin and further immune components not investigated in this paper, for example other antimicrobial peptides, could play a role in fighting off bacterial infections in Polistes. PMID:20546915

  1. Seasonal variation of vitamin and sterol content of chironomidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Tuba

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, seasonal variation of vitamin and sterol content of Chironomidae larvae were determined by using HPLC. As the result of vitamin analysis, we found alpha-tocopherol, retinol, K1, K2, D2 and D3. When the seasonal variation of vitamin groups were compared, a significant increase was observed in vitamin K1, K2, D2 and alpha-tocopherol in all seasons. A significant increase was observed in vitamin D3 in spring. And also vitamin A level high in autumn and winter, alpha-tocopherol level was significantly high among vitamins. When vitamin groups were compared statistically, differences were detected between seasons (p < 0.001). Analyzing the content of sterol, we found ergosterol, cholesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol in all seasons. Cholesterol level was found to be significantly high in sterols. When sterol contents were compared statistically, differences were detected between seasons (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the reasons for these differences are larval development feature and the variety of food in different seasons. PMID:24511704

  2. Chronic Wounds, Biofilms and Use of Medicinal Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Cowan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds are a significant health problem in the United States, with annual associated costs exceeding $20 billion annually. Traditional wound care consists of surgical debridement, manual irrigation, moisture retentive dressings, and topical and/or systemic antimicrobial therapy. However, despite progress in the science of wound healing, the prevalence and incidence of chronic wounds and their complications are escalating. The presence & complexity of bacterial biofilms in chronic wounds has recently been recognized as a key aspect of non-healing wounds. Bacterial biofilms are sessile colonies of polymicrobial organisms (bacteria, fungus, etc. enclosed within a self-produced exopolymeric matrix that provides high levels of tolerance to host defenses, antibiotics and antiseptics. Thus, there is a need for alternative therapies to reduce biofilms in chronic wounds. In this report, we present initial findings from in vitro experiments which show that larval debridement therapy with disinfected blow fly larvae (Phaenicia sericata reduced total CFUs (6-logs of planktonic and mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus grown on dermal pig skin explants by 5-logs after 24 hours of exposure, and eliminated biofilms (no measurable CFUs after 48 hours of exposure.

  3. Enzymatic properties of phenoloxidase from Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO-BIN XUE; WAN-CHUN LUO; QING-XI CHEN; QIN WANG; LI-NA KE

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of partially purified phenoloxidase (PO, EC. 1.14.18.1) from the 5th instar larvae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) were determined, using L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as substrate. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme for the oxidation of L-DOPA were determined to be at pH 7.0 and at 42℃,respectively. The enzyme was stable between pH 6.5 and 7.4 and at temperatures lower than 37℃. At pH 6.8 and 37℃, the Michaelis constant (Km) and maximal velocity (Vm) of the enzyme for the oxidation of L-DOPA were determined to be 0.80 mmol/L and 1.84 μmol/ L/min, respectively. Tetra-hexylresorcinol and 4-dodecylresorcinol effectively inhibited activity of phenoloxidase and this inhibition was reversible and competitive, with the IC50 of 1.50 and 1.12μmol/L, respectively. The inhibition constants were estimated to be 0.50 and 0.47μmol/L, respectively.

  4. Effect of Irradiation on Anisakis Larvae in Salted Herring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe experiments to test the practicability of using irradiation to kill Anisakis marina larvae in lightly salted herring (Clupea harengus), The lower salt concentration used since the second world war for the preservation of gibbed herring is insufficient to kill the parasites that may be harmful to the consumer. The nematodes were subjected to irradiation, either in water or saline suspension, or pressed between salted herring fillets or in situ in salted gibbed herring. The results were disappointing. In aqueous suspensions, a salt concentration of 6% and a dose of 1.0 Mrad resulted in 100% kill, but appreciable numbers survived (although many of these were inactive) at lower irradiation dosages and at lower salt concentrations. It was noted that for doses of either 0 or 0.3 Mrad the highest proportion of survivals occurred in 3% salt solutions. In testing the effect of irradiation on parasites in the fish or placed between fillets the dosages were limited, because of flavour and colour changes, to 0.3 Mrad for salted ripened herring, and 0.6 Mrad for 5-day-old lightly salted herring. Substantial numbers of nematodes survived these doses. (author)

  5. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  6. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho, E-mail: leeinho1974@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, 33 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 301-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae, E-mail: st7.kim@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dae Kun, E-mail: odk6464@nate.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin, E-mail: hyungkim@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha, E-mail: somatom@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Pyoung, E-mail: drpjeon@gmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik, E-mail: byun5474@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  7. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Catherine B; Tanner, Nathan A; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis. PMID:23272258

  8. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B Poole

    Full Text Available In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.

  9. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  10. Toxic effects of coastal and marine plant extracts on mosquito larvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Solimabi; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    (Halophila ovalis, Syringodium isoetifolium), and a lichen (Umbilicaria aprine) were studied for their toxicity against larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Petroleum-ether fractions (PE) were more effective than chloroform fractions (C) in all...

  11. Viviparity of larvae, a new type of development in phoronids (Lophophorata: Phoronida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temereva, E N; Malakhov, V V

    2016-03-01

    A new type of phoronid development, viviparity of larvae, has been discovered in a new phoronid species that lives as a commensal of digging sand shrimps in Vostok Bay, the Sea of Japan. The embryos develop in the mother's trunk coelom up to the young larva stage. During development, embryos increase in size twice and probably obtain nutriment from the mother's coelomic fluid. Spawning occurs by young larvae, which are released through nephridiopores. The new type of development is described in a phoronid that has a small body size but a high fertility, producing large amounts of extremely small eggs. The combination of viviparity and large number of eggs increases the number of competent larvae that can undergo metamorphosis in the burrows of shrimps. PMID:27193880

  12. Vertical and horizontal transmission of tilapia larvae encephalitis virus: the bad and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyakov, Michael S; Belotsky, Sandro; Shlapobersky, Mark; Avtalion, Ramy R

    2011-02-01

    Impairment of innate immunity in tilapia larvae after vertical and horizontal infection with the newly characterized tilapia larvae encephalitis virus (TLEV) was accessed by evaluation of cell-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in affected fish with the use of horseradish peroxidase-amplified luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The priming in-vivo infection with TLEV resulted in downregulation of ROS response in both vertically- and horizontally-infected fish; this suppression was further exacerbated by specific in-vitro booster infection with the same virus. Application of Ca ionophore and phorbol myristate acetate as alternative nonspecific boosters enabled restoration of ROS release in vertically-infected but not in horizontally-infected larvae. The results indicate severe TLEV-imposed phagocyte dysfunction in affected larvae. The difference in restoration potential of ROS production after vertical and horizontal virus transmission is interpreted in the frame of principal distinctions between the two modes. PMID:21131016

  13. Effect of Exogenous MJA Treatment of Tea Plants on the Growth of Geometrid Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Lian-you; CHEN Zong-mao; LIU Shu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The effect of tea plant Camellia sinensis induced by exogenous methyl jasmonate (MJA) on lipoxygenase (LOX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and proteinase inhibitor (PI) activity in the leaves of tea plants, as well as the growth and midgut proteinase activity of the geometrid Ectropis obliqua larvae were studied. MJA significantly induced LOX, PPO and PI activity in leaves of tea plants. When geometrid larvae have fed on leaves of tea plants treated with MJA, the activities of the high alkaline trypsin-like enzyme and chymotrypsin-like enzyme in their midgut were significantly inhibited, but the activities of the low alkaline trypsin-like enzyme in their midgut were unaffected, leading to imbalance between different types of proteinase activity in the midgut of the larvae and in turn, the growth were inhibited. These chains of response may be an important mechanism of the direct resistance induced by MJA-treatment of tea plant on geometrid larvae.

  14. Consequences of physical disturbance by tadpoles and snails on chironomid larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Gargi; Aditya, Gautam; Hazra, Niladri

    2014-01-01

    Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction of selected above mentioned organisms. The direct effects of non-predator organisms on the midge larvae are due to physical disturbance that destroys their tubes. This may result in vulnerability of midge larvae to predators in the wild. So the community structure may be altered by indirect effects, where one or more species, through their direct disturbance, indirectly change the abundance of other species. PMID:24672384

  15. Consequences of Physical Disturbance by Tadpoles and Snails on Chironomid Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck, and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction of selected above mentioned organisms. The direct effects of non-predator organisms on the midge larvae are due to physical disturbance that destroys their tubes. This may result in vulnerability of midge larvae to predators in the wild. So the community structure may be altered by indirect effects, where one or more species, through their direct disturbance, indirectly change the abundance of other species.

  16. Quantification of the energy required for the destruction of Balanus Amphitrite larva by ultrasonic treatment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Seth, N.; Chakravarty, P.; Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Pandit, A.B.

    organism. Since the power used and treatment time for disinfection are economically, and practically, the most important parameters, the energy required to pulverize the larvae into pieces less than equal to 30 mm was determined as a function...

  17. Expanding the locomotion repertoire of the eigenfish: Study of wildtype zebrafish larva escape response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Jones, Maria; Girdhar, Kiran; Chemla, Yann; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The zebrafish larva is a thoroughly studied and an extensively used model for behavioral and biomedical research. The Zebrafish Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has applied a mathematical method to describe quantitatively the larva's swimming behavior. With this method, the 98% of the larva's free-swimming behavior is described by its simplifiedeigen-fish model, which is a linear combination of its three characteristic components, or three eigen-modes. This presentation focuses on the quantification of a different swimming behavior called escape response in wildtype (WT) zebrafish larvae. Although more data is required before assuming certainty in our results, the escape response of the WT was also described up to 98% by three eigen-modes. This REU program is supported by NSF Grant PHY-1062690.

  18. Organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted an ecological risk assessment to characterize organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife...

  19. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing dataset for conventionalized and conventionally raised zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gillespie, Catherine H; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2016-09-01

    Data presented here contains metagenomic analysis regarding the sequential conventionalization of germ-free zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos that underwent a germ-free sterilization process immediately after fertilization were promptly exposed to and raised to larval stage in conventional fish water. At 6 days postfertilization (dpf), these "conventionalized" larvae were compared to zebrafish larvae that were raised in conventional fish water never undergoing the initial sterilization process. Bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from homogenates of the larvae revealing distinct microbiota variations between the two groups. The dataset described here is also related to the research article entitled "Microbial modulation of behavior and stress responses in zebrafish larvae" (Davis et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27508247

  20. Identification of Balanus amphitrite larvae from field zooplankton using species-specific primers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.C.; Khandeparker, L.; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.

    Identification of marine invertebrate larvae using morphological characters is laborious and complicated by phenotypic plasticity. Balanus amphitrite is a dominant barnacle, important in the context of intertidal ecology and biofouling of manmade...

  1. Identification of Nanopillars on the Cuticle of the Aquatic Larvae of the Drone Fly (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew J; Levine, Timothy P; Wilson, Roger H

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax(L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection. PMID:27030395

  2. Drosophila melanogaster larvae control amylase secretion according to the hardness of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Honami; Suzuki, Masataka G

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae excrete amylase and perform external digestion of their food. In this study, to investigate whether their external digestion ability varies in response to changes in the external environment, we measured the relative amount of amylase excreted by larvae using a new method: the iodine starch agar method (ISAM). Analysis using this method revealed that the amount of amylase excreted by larvae increased in accordance with the increase in the agar concentration. In addition, we investigated the effect on the larval growth rate of adding amylase to the diet. Pupation occurred 24 h later in food containing 1% amylase than in food containing no amylase. These results suggest that the larvae adjust their amylase excretion in response to changes in the external environment, and that its level has a marked influence on the larval growth rate. PMID:23964241

  3. Drosophila melanogaster larvae control amylase secretion according to the hardness of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HonamiSakaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae excrete amylase and perform external digestion of their food. In this study, to investigate whether their external digestion ability varies in response to changes in the external environment, we measured the relative amount of amylase excreted by larvae using a new method: the iodine starch agar method (ISAM. Analysis using this method revealed that the amount of amylase excreted by larvae increased in accordance with the increase in the agar concentration. In addition, we investigated the effect on the larval growth rate of adding amylase to the diet. Pupation occurred 24 h later in food containing 1% amylase than in food containing no amylase. These results suggest that the larvae adjust their amylase excretion in response to changes in the external environment, and that its level has a marked influence on the larval growth rate.

  4. Dynamic of decapod crustacean larvae on the entrance of Guanabara bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Lohengrin Dias de Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we observed seasonal variations in the density of decapod larvae as well as changes in density related to diurnal and tidal cycles. Among the decapod larvae collected, portunids and grapsids were the most abundant, especially during nocturnal ebb tides and near the surface. The same results were obtained in late winter (September and late summer (March. These results demonstrated a flow of decapod larvae from Guanabara Bay to adjacent coastal waters. Luciferid (Lucifer faxoni was the only group with high densities during flood tides and we suggest this is an evidence of L. faxoni larvae entering Guanabara Bay in late winter. Probably these changes in distribution of Lucifer faxoni among winter and summer were related to reproductive cycle in the bay. For the portunids, grapsids and ocypodids, a similar dispersion strategy was observed towards adjacent coastal waters in the surface during nocturnal ebb tides.

  5. The effect of BmNPV infection on protein metabolism in silkworm (Bombyx mori larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Etebari

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Grasseri is one of the most important diseases of silkworm with significant yield loss, which is caused by nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPV. In the present research the effect of this disease on changes of biochemical compounds which are related to protein metabolism in 5th instar larvae were studied. The larvae that showed the grasseri symptoms after contamination with 5.5×10-4 polyhedral/ml were assumed as infected treatment. The hemolymph of infected and uninfected larvae in 3 and 5 days after 4th molting were collected and its total protein, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured. The results showed that the amount of all the compounds except urea were considerably different in both groups. Total protein had decreased in infected larvae but activity level of two aminotransferases significantly increased. Therefore, grasseri has a considerable effect on protein metabolism.

  6. Structure of recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 isolated from whole cabbage looper larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 have been produced in an economical whole insect larvae system. The crystal structure of this enzyme is essentially identical to that produced by cell culture techniques. The use of whole insect larvae as a source of recombinant proteins offers a more cost-effective method of producing large quantities of human proteins than conventional cell-culture approaches. Human carboxylesterase 1 has been produced in and isolated from whole Trichoplusia ni larvae. The recombinant protein was crystallized and its structure was solved to 2.2 Å resolution. The results indicate that the larvae-produced enzyme is essentially identical to that isolated from cultured Sf21 cells, supporting the use of this expression system to produce recombinant enzymes for crystallization studies

  7. [Last instar larva and pupa of Melipotis cellaris (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2010-01-01

    The last instar larva and pupa of Melipotis cellaris (Guenée) are described and illustrated, based on specimens collected in northern Chile, associated with Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae). PMID:21120382

  8. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented. PMID:18575693

  9. Some factors influencing the immunization of sheep with irradiated Haemonchus contortus larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last six years, a number of experiments in which sheep were successfully immunized with two doses of 10,000 Haemonchus contortus larvae, irradiated at 60 kR in a gamma source, have been performed by the authors. The failure of such a regimen of immunization with the same strain of larvae is reported in the paper, together with an investigation of the possible causes. From experiments using both irradiated and normal larvae, it was postulated that the strain had lost its original degree of immunogenicity. Subsequently, it was shown that irradiation of the larvae at 40 kR was successful in restoring immunogenicity and producing a degree of protection against challenge similar to that previously reported with 60 kR. It was concluded that, for the strain of H. contortus used, 60 kR was too high a level of irradiation to produce a consistently high degree of protection against challenge. (author). 12 refs, 6 tabs

  10. A Laboratory Practical on the House Building Behaviour of Caddis Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a laboratory practical on animal behavior suitable for senior secondary school or university biology classes. Several separate exercises relating to the house building behavior of caddis fly larvae are detailed, together with the time required for preparation. (JR)

  11. Distribution of decapod larvae in the Bombay Harbour-Thana-Bassein Creek regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Abbas, M.S.; Nair, V.R

    Variations in the abundance and composition of larval decapods were studied from 90 km stretch of the Bombay Harbour-Thana Creek-Bassein Creek (BHTCBC) system for a period of 15 months. The larvae belonged to Penacidea, Caridea, Anomura...

  12. Unusual pseudomyiasis with Musca domestica (housefly larvae in a child with chronic otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a disease caused by fly larvae and aural myiasis is a rare clinic condition often occurring in children or mentally retarded people. We report the case of an unusual presentation of a unilateral aural myiasis in a 3-year-old female child patient belonging to a slum with unilateral chronic otitis media caused by Musca domestica (housefly larvae. Eight larvae were removed from the external auditory canal while five more larvae were located in the middle ear cavity and were removed through perforation of the tympanic membrane. Management of ear myiasis is based on removal of the maggots and cleansing of the ear with ethanol, chloroform, or physiological saline. Physiological saline is preferred in patients who have tympanic membrane perforation. Myiasis is related to personal hygiene. Therefore, to decrease the incidence of these infestations, care, and hygiene standards should be carried out for those at risk through information, education, and communication.

  13. Description of two final stadium Onychogomphus larvae from Thailand (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainthong, Damrong; Boonsoong, Boonsatien

    2016-01-01

    The final stadium larvae of Onychogomphus castor Lieftinck and O. duaricus Fraser are described and illustrated for the first time based on reared specimens from Thailand. The taxonomic characteristics of the larvae of the genus Onychogomphus are discussed and summarized. The larva of O. castor differs from other Southeast Asian species in having distinct mid-dorsal spines on S2-9, divergent wing pads reaching S5, and lateral spines on S6-9. The larva of O. duaricus has a weakly swollen third antennal segment, with short blunt mid-dorsal spines on S2-9, divergent wing sheaths reaching the middle of S4, and lateral spines present on S7-9. PMID:27395854

  14. Probiotic effects on cobia Rachycentron canadum larvae reared in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angélica Garrido-Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobia (Rachycentron canadum is a marine finfish with good potential for mariculture. This study analyzes the effects of probiotic Bacillus spp. on the performance of cobia larvae reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. Larvae were stocked into two independent RAS for 26 days after hatching. One of the systems (Probiotic treatment received the addition of a commercial probiotic consisting of B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus directly into the water and by live feed. Survival, final weight and water quality were not affected by probiotics. Results showed larvae of the probiotic treatment demonstrated a greater resistance to salinity stress. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a higher expression of CD4 in probiotic treatment. These results suggest that Bacillus spp. probiotics used in RAS have a potential stimulating impact on immune system differentiation and increases salinity stress resistance of cobia larvae.

  15. Larvae of fouling organisms and macrofouling at New Mangalore Port, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, D.C.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.

    Polychaetes, bryozoans, barnacles and ascidians were the dominant groups in the fouling community at New Mangalore Port. Polychaete and cirripede larvae were encountered throughout the year. Even though bivalve were present in the planktonic hauls...

  16. Description of the larva of Argia chelata Calvert, 1902 (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    The larva of Argia chelata is described and figured. It falls into the group of Argia larvae with a moderately prominent ligula and two palpal seta, but it differs from its closest relatives by having labial palp with 2 setae plus one basal setella; the length of the ligula is 30% of its maximum width; basal tergites (1-5) lacking long, fine setae, mainly on midline; S8-10 mostly dark brown; paraprocts with spiniform setae on basal 0.25 and 0.55 of dorsal and ventral borders, respectively. Larvae were found in 2nd to 4th order shallow streams in cloud forest, crawling among debris, fine sand and mud where the water flow is slow or still, close to the shoreline. The larva is compared with A. lacrimans (Hagen), A. pima Garrison, and A. tonto Calvert, species apparently closely related.  PMID:25113363

  17. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Manna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  18. A complex of genes involved in adaptation of Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae to induced potato defense

    OpenAIRE

    Petek, Marko; Jongsma, Maarten Anthonie; Turnšek, Neža; Slapar, Nina; Popovič, Tatjana; Pompe Novak, Maruša; Štrukelj, Borut; Buh Gašparič, Meti; Gruden, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is the most important pest of potato in many areas of the world. One of the main reasons for its success lies in the ability of its larvae to counteract plant defense compounds. Larvae adapt to protease inhibitors (PIs) produced in potato leaves through substitution of inhibitor-sensitive digestive cysteine proteases with inhibitor-insensitive cysteine proteases. To get a broader insight into the basis of larval adaptation to plant defens...

  19. Abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Animut Abebe; Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Lindtjørn Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The sites included Hobe (1817 m.a.s.l), Diram...

  20. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Ariana Vieira Alves; Eliana Janet Sanjinez Argandoña; Adelita Maria Linzmeier; Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso; Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to boca...

  1. Influence of UV-irradiation on the nauplius larvae of the barnacle Chthamalus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of UV-irradiation on the nauplius larvae of the barnacle and to use this as the basis for researching the possibility of UV-irradiation as a new method for anti-macrofouling control. The nauplius larvae in the petri dishes were exposed to UV-irradiation (λ max = 253.7 nm), then the larval states and behaviour were observed. UV-intensisties were 3.0 mW·cm-2 -7.0 mW·cm-2 and the exposure time was 15 sec -10 min. The water in the petri dishes was changed intermittently but the larvae were not fed. The results were as follows: 1) UV-irradiation may have a delayed lethal effect and metamorphosis-inhibitory effect on the nauplius larvae. 2) The lethal effect of the sum of the dosages of UV on the larvae may nearly equate each other despite differences in each UV-intensity. 3) Within ca. 72 hr, 100 % of UV-irradiated larvae were dead with the dosage of at least 672 mW·sec·cm-2 and were incapable of swimming with the dosage of at least 168 mW·sec·cm-2. 4) UV-irradiated larvae could not exuviate with the dosage of at least 246 mW·sec·cm-2 and could only exuviate with the dosage of 45 mW·sec·cm-2. 5) After UV-irradiation even the 'actively swimming' larvae may have suffered some sort of physiological damage. (author)

  2. Ontogeny and physiology of the digestive system of marine fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Zambonino, Jose-luis; Gisbert, E.; Sarasquete, C.; Navarro, I.; J. Gutiérrez; Cahu, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract of marine fish larvae has been the subject of many studies these last twenty years. Beyond the scientific interest for such animal species, particularly for developmental aspects, most of these studies aimed to come up with the expectations of commercial hatcheries by reducing the bottlenecks in larvae culture and weaning processes (switch from live preys to compound diet feeding sequence). Consequently, the profile and dietary adaptation of digestive enzym...

  3. Transformation and Mineralization of Organic Matter by the Humivorous Larva of Pachnoda ephippiata (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangzhen

    2004-01-01

    Scarabaeidae beetle larvae are widely distributed in various ecosystems, which numerous species that either co-operate in soil processes or at least live in soil at some stage in their development, and play important roles in organic matter transformation and soil development. The larvae of Scarabaeidae have been mainly considered in the context of fiber degradation, e.g., the digestion of plant biomass in various stages of decomposition. However, their food spectrum is apparently much broade...

  4. Ingestion by Japanese Eel Anguilla japonica Larvae on Various Minute Zooplanktons

    OpenAIRE

    Wullur, Stenly; Yoshimatsu, Takao; Tanaka, Hideki; Ohtani, Masataka; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We observed the feeding incidence of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica larvae of 6, 7, 8 and 14 days after hatching (DAH) using various minute zooplanktons such as rotifer (Proales similis, Synchaeta sp., Keratella sp., Brachionus rotundiformis, B. angularis) and nauplii of copepod Paracyclopina nana, and compared those results to slurry type diets (i.e., shark eggs for control) to evaluate the usability of these planktons as primary food source for the mass culture of eel larvae. Feeding incid...

  5. Metalloproteases of infective Ancylostoma hookworm larvae and their possible functions in tissue invasion and ecdysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hotez, P; HAGGERTY, J; Hawdon, J.; Milstone, L; Gamble, H R; Schad, G.; Richards, F

    1990-01-01

    To infect their hosts, hookworm larvae must exsheath and migrate through connective tissue. A modified in vitro skin chamber was used to show that the human hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale and the zoonotic canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum penetrate epidermis, basement membrane, and dermis in similar ways. These similarities in tissue invasion properties reflect the observed biochemical similarities in parasite protease composition. The larvae of both species contain protease activity that i...

  6. Consequences of Physical Disturbance by Tadpoles and Snails on Chironomid Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gargi Pal; Gautam Aditya; Niladri Hazra

    2014-01-01

    Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction...

  7. Seasonal and Topographical Factors Affecting Breeding Sites of Culex Larvae in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Warabhorn PREECHAPORN; Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE; Krisanadej JAROENSUTASINEE; Jirawat SAETON

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how the seasons affect the key breeding sites of Culex larvae in three topographical areas: mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas. We examined how the number of Culex larvae varied in different types of water containers. Water containers were categorised into the following groups: indoor/outdoor containers, artificial/natural containers, earthen/plastic containers, containers with/without lids and dark/light coloured containers. Samples were collected from 300 hou...

  8. Haemolymph electrophoretic pattern of Ascia monuste orseis larvae (Lepidoptera: pieridae parasitized by Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scaglia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotesia glomerata is a natural enemy of the vegetable plague Ascia monuste orseis and preferably parasites 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae. Parasitism effects on the haemolymph protein profile of Ascia monuste orseis larvae from the 2nd to 7th days were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively by SDS-PAGE and Coomassie-Blue binding methods. Quantitative analysis showed a progressive increase in the protein content of about 6.5 and 12.5 times in parasitized and non-parasitized larvae from the 2nd to 5th days, respectively. On the 6th day, a decrease in protein content was observed in both groups, although this decrease was significantly less than the control group that continued to metamorphosis. Meanwhile, parasitized larvae had one more day (7th day in their larval period to complete parasitoid development, justified by the fact that parasitoid is koinobiont and allows host feeding. On this day, a drastic increase in protein content was detected when the parasitoids left the host. The SDS-PAGE showed proteins of high molecular weight (>120 kDa on the 5th day of the non-parasitized larvae when they entered pre-pupa stage and on the 7th day of parasitized larvae. Proteins with MW lower than 62 kDa and higher than 27 kDa were absent on the 5th day in control larvae (pre-pupa phase, but present in parasitized larvae. This could indicate a possible relation between these proteins and the host juvenile hormone. Therefore, the presence of C. glomerata influences Ascia monuste orseis development, but its own physiological development is apparently independent of the host, which tends to die when parasitism succeeds.

  9. The Study Of The Insecticidal Effect Of Nigella Sativa Essential Oil Against Tuta Absoluta Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Benchouikh Adil; Allam Tarik; Abderrahim Kribii; Khadija Ounine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To contribute to the development of an integrated strategy of pests associated with the tomato crop the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Nigella sativa was evaluated on larvae of Tuta absoluta which is considered the most destructive insect in the production of tomato Solanum lycopersicum and which causes serious damages in invaded areas. Rearing larvae of Tuta absoluta and the testing of toxicity were conducted in laboratory conditions in petri dishes at a temperature ...

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel phage lysin active against Paenibacillus larvae, a honeybee pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, Lucy; Nezami, Sara; Yost, Diane; Tsourkas, Philippos; Amy, Penny S.

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease which affects early larval stages during honeybee development. Due to its virulence, transmissibility, capacity to develop antibiotic resistance, and the inherent resilience of its endospores, Paenibacillus larvae is extremely difficult to eradicate from infected hives which often must be burned. AFB contributes to the worldwide decline of honeybee populations, which are crucial for pollination and the food supply...

  11. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    OpenAIRE

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larva...

  12. Feeding chickens fly larvae (Musca domestica) protein improves gut health and performances

    OpenAIRE

    Nordentoft, Steen; Engberg, Ricarda M

    2014-01-01

    In a feeding trial 450 layer chickens were fed either of 3 isoenergetic diets supplemented with different fish meal, grounded fly meal (Musca domestica) or fly meal and fresh fly larvae. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of feeding grounded fly larva to layer chickens as an alternative protein source for fish meal in organic poultry. Parameters investigated were weight gain, food consumption, animal behavior and study whether it would have effect on intestinal health.

  13. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti larvae to the insecticide temephos in the Federal District, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho, M.D.S.; Caldas, E.D.; Dégallier, Nicolas; Vilarinhos, P.D.T.; de Souza, L.; Amelia, M.; Yoshizawa, C.; M. B. KNOX; Oliveira, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti to the organophosphate insecticide temephos. Methods: Samples of Ae. aegypti larvae were obtained, using ovitraps, from eight cities of the Federal District, central Brazil, in 2000 and 2001. Larvae were submitted to the diagnostic dose of 0.012 mg/l temephos, as recommended by standard World Health Organization methodology. Field populations were tested in parallel with reference strains Rockefeller and DIVAL, from the Environmen...

  14. Distribution of oyster Ostrea edulis, mussel Mytilus edulis and Anomiid larvae in Bertraghboy Bay, Co. Galway

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J H

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations and shell lengths of Mytilus edulis, Ostrea edulis and Anomiid larvae were recorded from April to October 1985 in Bertaghboy Bay, Co. Galway. The gamete volume fraction off eggs in female mussels was recorded in an introduced cultivated population of mussels in the inner bay during 1985. Oyster larvae were commonest in July and September, but were concentrated in the upper bay. Mussel and Anomiid distributions were more variable. While the commercial stocks of mussels in the ba...

  15. Clash of kingdoms or why Drosophila larvae positively respond to fungal competitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohlfs Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Competition with filamentous fungi has been demonstrated to be an important cause of mortality for the vast group of insects that depend on ephemeral resources (e.g. fruit, dung, carrion. Recent data suggest that the well-known aggregation of Drosophila larvae across decaying fruit yields a competitive advantage over mould, by which the larvae achieve a higher survival probability in larger groups compared with smaller ones. Feeding and locomotor behaviour of larger larval groups is assumed to cause disruption of fungal hyphae, leading to suppression of fungal growth, which in turn improves the chances of larval survival to the adult stage. Given the relationship between larval density, mould suppression and larval survival, the present study has tested whether fungal-infected food patches elicit communal foraging behaviour on mould-infected sites by which larvae might hamper mould growth more efficiently. Results Based on laboratory experiments in which Drosophila larvae were offered the choice between fungal-infected and uninfected food patches, larvae significantly aggregated on patches containing young fungal colonies. Grouping behaviour was also visible when larvae were offered only fungal-infected or only uninfected patches; however, larval aggregation was less strong under these conditions than in a heterogeneous environment (infected and uninfected patches. Conclusion Because filamentous fungi can be deadly competitors for insect larvae on ephemeral resources, social attraction of Drosophila larvae to fungal-infected sites leading to suppression of mould growth may reflect an adaptive behavioural response that increases insect larval fitness and can thus be discussed as an anti-competitor behaviour. These observations support the hypothesis that adverse environmental conditions operate in favour of social behaviour. In a search for the underlying mechanisms of communal behaviour in Drosophila, this study highlights

  16. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 μg L-1). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  17. Feeding strategy of Downs herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.) in the English Channel and North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Jeremy; Vallet, Carole; Courcot, Lucie; Lefebvre, Valérie; Caboche, Josselin; Antajan, Elvire; Marchal, Paul; Loots, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize the larval feeding strategy of the Downs sub-population of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus L.). Diet composition, vacuity rate and prey selectivity of larvae from 8 to 15 mm collected during the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) - MIK sampling from 2008 to 2013 were assessed by direct observation of their gut contents using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The high contribution of protists and small zooplanktonic prey observed in the gut contents proved the relevance of SEM to study the diet of first feeding larvae. The relatively low vacuity rate of 45% suggests that food may not be a limiting factor for Downs herring larvae in winter. These larvae appeared to be omnivorous and there was a clear shift in term of prey composition at a size of 13 mm. Smaller larvae (8-12 mm) fed on a higher diversity of small prey, mainly small copepods (Oncaea spp. and Euterpina acutifrons), invertebrate eggs, diatoms (Psammodicthyon panduriforme and Coscinodiscus spp.) and dinoflagellates (Dinophysis acuminate and Prorocentrum micans) whereas bigger larvae (13-15 mm) fed on a lower diversity of larger prey, mainly copepods (Temora longicornis and Paracalanus parvus) and dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax spp.). Downs herring larvae had clear prey preferences as some dinoflagellates (Pyrophacus spp., Gonyaulax spp., P. micans and Porocentrum lima), invertebrate eggs, copepods (Oncaea spp. and nauplii) and diatoms (Thalassiosira curviseriata) were positively selected and other diatoms (Nitzschia spp., Thalassiosira tenera, Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros spp.) and copepods (Pseudocalanus elongatus, T. longicornis and Unidentified calanoid) were negatively selected. We argue that this shift in term of prey preferences occurring at a size of 13 mm constitutes the critical period for Downs herring larvae.

  18. Quality of Blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Larvae from Domesticated Broodstock

    OpenAIRE

    Trijuno, Dody; Fujaya, Yushinta; Agviranti; Marhama, Syamsurya

    2015-01-01

    Blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) is the important world fishery resource, but the crab larval rearing faces high mortality problem. The aim of the research was to compare survival and growth rate of larvae resulted from wild and domesticated broodstock blue swimming crab. Domesticated and wild broodstock were used to produce larvae. Domesticated broodstock was selected from repeated reared crab until third generation. Selection of the broodstock mainly based on the survival and gro...

  19. Nosema ceranae Can Infect Honey Bee Larvae and Reduces Subsequent Adult Longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren M Eiri

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae causes a widespread disease that reduces honey bee health but is only thought to infect adult honey bees, not larvae, a critical life stage. We reared honey bee (Apis mellifera larvae in vitro and provide the first demonstration that N. ceranae can infect larvae and decrease subsequent adult longevity. We exposed three-day-old larvae to a single dose of 40,000 (40K, 10,000 (10K, zero (control, or 40K autoclaved (control N. ceranae spores in larval food. Spores developed intracellularly in midgut cells at the pre-pupal stage (8 days after egg hatching of 41% of bees exposed as larvae. We counted the number of N. ceranae spores in dissected bee midguts of pre-pupae and, in a separate group, upon adult death. Pre-pupae exposed to the 10K or 40K spore treatments as larvae had significantly elevated spore counts as compared to controls. Adults exposed as larvae had significantly elevated spore counts as compared to controls. Larval spore exposure decreased longevity: a 40K treatment decreased the age by which 75% of adult bees died by 28%. Unexpectedly, the low dose (10K led to significantly greater infection (1.3 fold more spores and 1.5 fold more infected bees than the high dose (40K upon adult death. Differential immune activation may be involved if the higher dose triggered a stronger larval immune response that resulted in fewer adult spores but imposed a cost, reducing lifespan. The impact of N. ceranae on honey bee larval development and the larvae of naturally infected colonies therefore deserve further study.

  20. Detection of Sindbis and Inkoo Virus RNA in Genetically Typed Mosquito Larvae Sampled in Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingström, Olov; Wesula Lwande, Olivia; Näslund, Jonas; Spyckerelle, Iris; Engdahl, Cecilia; Von Schoenberg, Pontus; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Mosquito-borne viruses have a widespread distribution across the globe and are known to pose serious threats to human and animal health. The maintenance and dissemination of these viruses in nature are driven through horizontal and vertical transmission. In the temperate climate of northern Sweden, there is a dearth of knowledge on whether mosquito-borne viruses that occur are transmitted transovarially. To gain a better understanding of mosquito-borne virus circulation and maintenance, mosquito larvae were sampled in northern Sweden during the first and second year after a large outbreak of Ockelbo disease in 2013 caused by Sindbis virus (SINV). Materials and Methods: A total of 3123 larvae were sampled during the summers of 2014 and 2015 at multiple sites in northern Sweden. The larvae were homogenized and screened for viruses using RT-PCR and sequencing. Species identification of selected larvae was performed by genetic barcoding targeting the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Results and Discussion: SINV RNA was detected in mosquito larvae of three different species, Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis, Oc. punctor, and Oc. diantaeus. Inkoo virus (INKV) RNA was detected in Oc. communis larvae. This finding suggested that these mosquitoes could support transovarial transmission of SINV and INKV. Detection of virus in mosquito larva may serve as an early warning for emerging arboviral diseases and add information to epidemiological investigations before, during, and after outbreaks. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the relevance of genetic barcoding as an attractive and effective method for mosquito larva typing. However, further mosquito transmission studies are needed to ascertain the possible role of different mosquito species and developmental stages in the transmission cycle of arboviruses. PMID:27159120