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Sample records for brueckner-gammel potential

  1. Fundamentals and Elementary Outline of the Many-Body Theory of Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Introduction; 2. Nuclear matter; 3. Fermi gas; 4. Perturbation theory; 5. Second quantization; 6. Calculation of ΔE with the help of Wick’s theorem; 7. Diagrams; 8. Linked-cluster theorem; 9. Momentum representation. Time integration; 10. Low-density approximation; 11. Hole self-energies; 12. Solution of the K-matrix equation; 13. The Brueckner-Gammel calculation; 14. The Q = 1 approximation; 15. Convergence of the theory; 16. Bethe's treatment of the three-body energy; 17. Review of nuclear-matter calculations. (author)

  2. Network Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Subhadip; Gilles, Robert Paul

    2005-01-01

    A network payoff function assigns a utility to all participants in a (social) network. In this paper we discuss properties of such network payoff functions that guarantee the existence of certain types of pairwise stable networks and the convergence of certain network formation processes. In particular we investigate network payoff functions that admit an exact network potential or an ordinal network potential. We relate these network potentials to exact and ordinal potentials of a non-cooper...

  3. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality...... today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can provide general insights that...... can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence....

  4. Quarkonia potential

    OpenAIRE

    Durnev, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Using the quark-antiquark interactions obtained in the framework of the bootstrap method we construct a potential model, investigate the possibility of describing of heavy quarkonia and calculate the bottomonium spectrum. The potential of the interaction was obtained as a nonrelativistic limit of the relativistic quark-antiquark amplitudes Q{\\bar Q} -> Q\\bar Q.

  5. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  6. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  7. Potential Cities_

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  8. Generalized Morse Potential Symmetry and Satellite Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Del Sol-Mesa, A; Smirnov, Yu F; Smirnov, Yu. F.

    1998-01-01

    We study in detail the bound state spectrum of the generalized Morse potential~(GMP), which was proposed by Deng and Fan as a potential function for diatomic molecules. By connecting the corresponding Schrödinger equation with the Laplace equation on the hyperboloid and the Schrödinger equation for the an $so(2,2)$ symmetry algebra, and obtain an explicit realization of the latter as $su(1,1) \\oplus su(1,1)$. We prove that some of the $so(2,2)$ generators connect among themselves wave functions belonging to different GMP's (called satellite potentials). The conserved quantity is some combination of the potential parameters instead of the level energy, as for potential algebras. Hence, $so(2,2)$ belongs to a new class of symmetry algebras. We also stress the usefulness of our algebraic results for simplifying the calculation of Frank-Condon factors for electromagnetic transitions between rovibrational levels based on different electronic states.

  9. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  10. Soils - Potential Runoff

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  11. Streaming potential in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, M.

    For the first time, QUINCKE found in 1859 the phenomenon of electric streaming potential. Twenty years later HELMHOLTZ published a mathematical expression for the streaming potential. In the following years a number of scientists studied the phenomenon. BIKERMAN (1932) showed that each electric streaming potential causes an electric current in the contrary direction. SWARTZENDRUBER postulated in 1967 that this electric field tries to stop the streaming potential as a result of the energy balance.

  12. Graphical Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Potential games, originally introduced in the early 1990's by Lloyd Shapley, the 2012 Nobel Laureate in Economics, and his colleague Dov Monderer, are a very important class of models in game theory. They have special properties such as the existence of Nash equilibria in pure strategies. This note introduces graphical versions of potential games. Special cases of graphical potential games have already found applicability in many areas of science and engineering beyond economics, including ar...

  13. Handbook of interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Handbook collects together interatomic potentials for a large number of metals. Most of the potentials describe the interactions of host metal atoms with each other, and these, in some cases, may be applied to solid and liquid metals. In addition, there are potentials (a) for a metallic impurity alloyed with the host, (b) for a small number of chemical impurities in the metal (eg H, O), and (c) for rare-gas impurities, notably He. The Handbook is intended to be a convenient source of potentials for bulk, surface and defect calculations, both static and dynamic. (author)

  14. On Relations between Bessel Potential Spaces and Riesz Potential Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Takahide

    2000-01-01

    We present a relation between the Bessel potential spaces and the Riesz potential spaces. The ideas of the proof are to characterize each potential spaces and to give a correspondence between individual Bessel potentials and Riesz potentials.

  15. Pumping potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electro collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma is considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  16. Nucleon-nucleon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general properties of the nucleon-nucleon potentials are reviewed. The comparison between experimental nucleon-nucleon phase shifts and deuteron properties and the theoretical ones derived with Hamada-Johnston, Reid, Paris and Bonn potentials is discussed. Also, Hartree-Fock calculations for several spherical nuclei using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction are presented systematically.(author)

  17. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  18. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The...... aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n...

  19. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horticultural Review allows extensive reviews of the state of the knowledge on certain topics or crops. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential, is outlined with an Introduction, Botany, Horticulture, Propagation, Uses and Conclusion sections. This review compiles literature from around the w...

  20. Relativistic gauge invariant potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global method characterizing the invariant connections on an abelian principal bundle under a group of transformations is applied in order to get gauge invariant electromagnetic (elm.) potentials in a systematic way. So, we have classified all the elm. gauge invariant potentials under the Poincare subgroups of dimensions 4, 5, and 6, up to conjugation. It is paid attention in particular to the situation where these subgroups do not act transitively on the space-time manifold. We have used the same procedure for some galilean subgroups to get nonrelativistic potentials and study the way they are related to their relativistic partners by means of contractions. Some conformal gauge invariant potentials have also been derived and considered when they are seen as consequence of an enlargement of the Poincare symmetries. (orig.)

  1. Exploring MICE Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ With commerce and entertainment increasingly intertwined and the Chinese economy becoming more internationally integrated, Meetings,Incentives, Conference and Exhibitions (MICE) travel, is regarded by many travel agencies as one of the most potentially profitable tourism trends of the future.

  2. The Hubble Effective Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, T. M.; Miao, S. P.; Prokopec, T.; Woodard, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationa...

  3. The Hubble effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times

  4. Exploiting the plasma potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of plasma potential arises from the interaction of a plasma with a boundary. Due to the high mobility of electrons, a potential difference develops between the two so that a positive space-charge region, the 'sheath', shields the plasma from the boundary. Losses of ions at the boundary, however, means that shielding is ineffective unless ions enter the sheath region with a sufficiently high velocity (the 'Bohm criterion'). Since this ion flux cannot be generated by thermal motion, there is a potential variation within the plasma itself (the 'presheath'), which accelerates the ions towards the plasma edge. The potential difference between a plasma and a boundary has been exploited in a wide variety of plasma surface engineering applications. The surface of a substrate immersed in a plasma will be subject to bombardment by ions accelerated across the sheath which will not only heat the substrate but can also sputter atoms out of the surface, modify the properties of films deposited onto the surface or result in bombarding species being incorporated into the surface. While energetic ion bombardment can be supplied by directed ion beams, it is more easily applied uniformly over complex surfaces by biasing a substrate immersed in a plasma with an appropriate negative potential, either DC or rectified rf. This is a feature of ion assisted deposition processes, both PVD and CVD, ion assisted thermochemical diffusion processes, such as plasma nitriding, and, in the limit of high bias potentials (10-100 kV), Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII or PI3 - Trade Mark). This paper reviews some of the interesting and intriguing aspects of the behaviour of low pressure rf plasmas when large perturbations occur to the potential distribution described above. These observations have been made as part of our work over the last ten years on the use of low pressure plasmas and high energy ion bombardment to extend the range of applicability of plasma nitriding, in

  5. Assessing offshore wind potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  6. Forecasting potential crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the Trend Analysis Program (TAP) of the American Council of Life Insurance commissioned the Futures Group of Glastonbury, Connecticut, to examine the potential for large-scale catastrophic events in the near future. TAP was specifically concerned with five potential crises: the warming of the earth's atmosphere, the water shortage, the collapse of the physical infrastructure, the global financial crisis, and the threat of nuclear war. We are often unprepared to take action; in these cases, we lose an advantage we might have otherwise had. This is the whole idea behind forecasting: to foresee possibilities and to project how we can respond. If we are able to create forecasts against which we can test policy options and choices, we may have the luxury of adopting policies ahead of events. Rather than simply fighting fires, we have the option of creating a future more to our choosing. Short descriptions of these five potential crises and, in some cases, possible solutions are presented

  7. Potential GDP in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleana C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic and financial crisis has hit Romania since the second half of 2008, causing a significant drop in production and household income. The consequences of this crisis include rising unemployment and falling household consumption expenditure. Thus, in June 2008, the unemployment rate was 3.7% and in March 2010 it reached 8.4% level. Final consumption expenditure of households fell by 9.2% in 2009 and by 3.3% in 2010. The slowly begun recovery in 2011 revealed that unemployment in the Romanian economy has a significant structural component. As a result, the potential GDP remains low. The paper presents a method for estimating the potential GDP to determine the gap between real GDP affected by cyclical factors and the productive potential of the economy, used in any circumstances.

  8. Potential energy for quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued on theoretical and phenomenological grounds that confinement of quarks is intrinsically a many-body interaction. The Born-Oppenheimer approximation to the bag model is shown to give rise to a static potential energy that consists of a sum of two-body Coulomb terms and a many-body confining term. Following the success of this potential in heavy Q anti Q systems it is being applied to Q2 anti Q2. Preliminary calculations suggest that dimeson bound states with exotic flavor, such as bb anti s anti s, exist. 13 refs., 5 figs

  9. Biomethanation and Its Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Batstone, Damien J.;

    2011-01-01

    potential is very important for design for optimal process design, configuration, and effective evaluation of economic feasibility. A wide variety of process applications for biomethanation of wastewaters, slurries, and solid waste have been developed. They utilize different reactor types (fully mixed......, plugflow, biofilm, UASB, etc.) and process conditions (retention times, loading rates, temperatures, etc.) in order to maximize the energy output from the waste and also to decrease retention time and enhance process stability. Biomethanation has strong potential for the production of energy from organic...... residues and wastes. It will help to reduce the use of fossil fuels and thus reduce CO2 emission....

  10. Robotics Potential Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lucero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This problem was to calculate the path a robot would take to navigate an obstacle field and get to its goal. Three obstacles were given as negative potential fields which the robot avoided, and a goal was given a positive potential field that attracted the robot. The robot decided each step based on its distance, angle, and influence from every object. After each step, the robot recalculated and determined its next step until it reached its goal. The robot's calculations and steps were simulated with Microsoft Excel.

  11. Potential for waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author focuses on wastes considered hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This chapter discusses wastes that are of interest as well as the factors affecting the quantity of waste considered available for waste reduction. Estimates are provided of the quantities of wastes generated. Estimates of the potential for waste reduction are meaningful only to the extent that one can understand the amount of waste actually being generated. Estimates of waste reduction potential are summarized from a variety of government and nongovernment sources

  12. Global isochronous potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Gorni, Gianluca; Zampieri, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    We present a geometric characterization of the nonlinear smooth functions $V: R\\to R$ for which the origin is a global isochronous center for the scalar equation $\\ddot x=-V'(x)$. We revisit Stillinger and Dorignac isochronous potentials $V$ and show a new simple explicit family. Implicit examples are easily produced.

  13. Iraq's Tourism Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Dabidian, Hooman; Al-Ani, Mohammed Wafaa; Francke, Christopher Hassaan; Redwan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    While it will require further political stability and security, tourism in Iraq stands to be a major growth sector. The Iraqi tourism sector is currently underdeveloped and in a state of neglect, due to decades of war, closed regimes and recurrent instability and insecurity. However, as Iraq continues to develop and stabilizes, it can begin to meet its tremendous potential as a global tour...

  14. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  15. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  16. Electrostatic potential molecular surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, P K; R. Langridge; Blaney, J M; Schaefer, R; Kollman, P A

    1982-01-01

    Color-coded computer graphics representations of the electrostatic potentials of trypsin, trypsin-inhibitor, prealbumin and its thyroxine complex, fragments of double-helical DNA, and a netropsin--DNA complex illustrate the electrostatic and topographic complementarity in macromolecule-ligand interactions. This approach is powerful in revealing intermolecular specificity and shows promise of having predictive value in drug design.

  17. Flood potential in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important floods in the rivers of Albania are caused mainly from the intensive rainfall during the period December-March. Occasionally snow melts have some contribution on flood magnitude. Based on the observed data in 54 hydrologic stations, the parameters of floods are calculated, using Gumbel and Pearson III distribution. Using these parameters and the floods factors, a multiple regional correlation between them is estimated. The specific discharge (module) of the peak, corresponding to a return period of 100 years and a surface of the catchment area of 100 km2 , was computed for other 50 small basins by means of the multiple regression aquation. This module was chosen as an indicator of the flood potential. A map of this indicator was established for the Albanian territory, serving as a flood potential indicator but also as a certain risk of inundation. (Author)

  18. Integrable Cosmological Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The problem of classification of the Einstein--Friedman cosmological Hamiltonians $H$ with a single scalar inflaton field $\\varphi$ that possess an additional integral of motion polynomial in momenta on the shell of the Friedman constraint $H=0$ is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of first, second, and third degree integrals are derived. These conditions have the form of ODEs for the cosmological potential $V(\\varphi)$. In the case of linear and quadratic integrals we find general solutions of the ODEs and construct the corresponding integrals explicitly. A new wide class of Hamiltonians that possess a cubic integral is derived. The corresponding potentials are represented in a parametric form in terms of the associated Legendre functions. Six families of special elementary solutions are described and sporadic superintegrable cases are discussed.

  19. Nonadiabatic Ponderomotive Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodin IY, Fisch NJ

    2005-10-03

    An approximate integral of the Manley-Rowe type is found for a particle moving in a high-frequency field, which may interact resonantly with natural particle oscillations. An effective ponderomotive potential is introduced accordingly and can capture nonadiabatic particle dynamics. We show that nonadiabatic ponderomotive barriers can trap classical particles, produce cooling effect, and generate one-way walls for resonant species. Possible atomic applications are also envisioned.

  20. Nonadiabatic Ponderomotive Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approximate integral of the Manley-Rowe type is found for a particle moving in a high-frequency field, which may interact resonantly with natural particle oscillations. An effective ponderomotive potential is introduced accordingly and can capture nonadiabatic particle dynamics. We show that nonadiabatic ponderomotive barriers can trap classical particles, produce cooling effect, and generate one-way walls for resonant species. Possible atomic applications are also envisioned

  1. Biodiesel potential in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowska, Swietlana, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    The importance of increasing the global share of biofuels in transportation goes without saying. Iceland, where the consumption of fossil fuels is considerable, has a viable potential for introducing biodiesel in its otherwise exceptional renewable overall energy portfolio. In this study, a full picture of the possibilities of biodiesel production in Iceland was provided. After the theoretical introduction of allmajor aspects of a biodiesel economy, an assessment of i...

  2. Microfluidics realizes potential

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Gould

    2004-01-01

    Advanced fabrication technologies are being used to make microscale tools for fluid manipulation. Interest in the development of microfluidic devices has been encouraged by the number of fluid-based processes that could benefit from miniaturization. A number of companies are now marketing fluidic ‘lab-on-a-chip’ systems for applications in biomedical research, environmental testing, and medical diagnostics. However, the full commercial potential of this technology has yet to be realized.

  3. Motor evoked potential polyphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Fahmida A.; Pawley, Adam D.; Ceronie, Bryan; Nashef, Lina; Robert D C Elwes; Richardson, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We compared the motor evoked potential (MEP) phases using transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), their relatives, and healthy controls, hypothesizing that patients and their unaffected relatives may share a subtle pathophysiologic abnormality. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we investigated 23 patients with IGE, 34 first-degree relatives, and 30 matched healthy controls. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed to produ...

  4. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  5. Unlocking Indonesia's Geothermal Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2015-01-01

    This report was produced jointly by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank and is based on a series of technical assistance activities conducted during 2013-2014. The study documents key issues that have constrained the development of Indonesia's geothermal power development sector, including tari?s, tendering processes, financial considerations, permitting, and inter-agency coordination. The report then makes a set of comprehensive recommendations to unlock the potential of the sector...

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSONALITY POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksey, Al

    2014-01-01

    The publication presents the analysis of the theoretical aspects of the model of socio-psychological personality in the context of the determinants of innovation. On the basis of provisions on socio-axiological characteristics of the person that has the potential-vector nature, the constructed formal scheme psychological «charge-discharge» in the chain of life manifestations of personality. In the framework of the psychological theories of personality, consciousness, activity developed the id...

  7. Potentials Unbounded Below

    CERN Document Server

    Curtright, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Continuous interpolates are described for classical dynamical systems defined by discrete time-steps. Functional conjugation methods play a central role in obtaining the interpolations. The interpolates corrrespond to particle motion in an underlying potential, V. Typically, V has no lower bound and can exhibit switchbacks wherein V changes form when turning points are encountered by the particle. The logistic map is used to illustrate these features.

  8. Bullying - transformative potentiality?

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Mathiassen

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that a person’s experience of having been bullied as a child can holdtransformative potentiality. This means that childhood exposure to bullying can both producenegative effects and provide fuel for transformative intention and actions. By exploring twoseparate narratives, I demonstrate how these individuals’ different ways of handling past incidentsare entangled with both present and future, as well as how they are closely connected to both thespecific situations and...

  9. A crafting of potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilbourn, Kyle

    In the movement from understanding the past towards creating the future design anthropology, as a discipline, will turn from one with archival qualities to one endowed with potentials for change. One challenge facing design anthropology is how to show relevance for theory generation while also...... incorporating critique as a way to open up the design space in meaningful ways. To consider theory as a form of practice is to explore how one practices theory. Instead of a textual form that reframes our perceptions, theory becomes experiential and in this way changes our actions. The Schönian notion of seeing...

  10. The static baryon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using state of the art lattice techniques we investigate the static baryon potential. We employ the multi-hit procedure for the time links and a variational approach to determine the ground state with sufficient accuracy that, for distances up to ∼ 1.2 fm, we can distinguish the Y- and Δ- Ansaetze for the baryonic Wilson area law. Our analysis shows that the Δ-Ansatz is favoured. This result is also supported by the gauge-invariant nucleon wave function which we measure for the first time

  11. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  12. On quantum potential dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-relativistic de Broglie–Bohm theory describes particles moving under the guidance of the wave function. In de Broglie's original formulation, the particle dynamics is given by a first-order differential equation. In Bohm's reformulation, it is given by Newton's law of motion with an extra potential that depends on the wave function—the quantum potential—together with a constraint on the possible velocities. It was recently argued, mainly by numerical simulations, that relaxing this velocity constraint leads to a physically untenable theory. We provide further evidence for this by showing that for various wave functions the particles tend to escape the wave packet. In particular, we show that for a central classical potential and bound energy eigenstates the particle motion is often unbounded. This work seems particularly relevant for ways of simulating wave function evolution based on Bohm's formulation of the de Broglie–Bohm theory. Namely, the simulations may become unstable due to deviations from the velocity constraint. (paper)

  13. The potentialities of terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential hazard of terrorists obtaining plutonium and building a nuclear device is examined within the perspective of other terrorist activities. Various sources are quoted on the possibility of a terrorist group having the resources, including skilled personnel, to build a bomb. The potential damage engendered by such a device is hypothesized to be less than that of many other terrorist actions which could be easily accomplished. Other activities, poison or nerve gas, gasoline dropped on a football stadium, destruction of a large dam, poisoning food or water supply and armed action against a tanker carrying liquefied natural gas, are cited as examples of terrorist incidents more devastating than building a crude plutonium bomb. Resistance to blackmail strategies is seen as the only reliable way to thwart their activities in the long run. Although plutonium must be guarded carefully, it is demonstrated as being far from the only or most devastating means of blackmail. It is concluded that the threat of terrorist activities is being used by anti-nuclear groups to support emotionally based dislike of nuclear power. (J.T.A.)

  14. Industrial potential of lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshof, Ruud; de Graaff, Leo H; Villaverde, Juan J; Silvestre, Armando J D; Haarmann, Thomas; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Buchert, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are iron- or manganese-containing oxidative enzymes found in plants, animals, bacteria and fungi. LOXs catalyze the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the corresponding highly reactive hydroperoxides. Production of hydroperoxides by LOX can be exploited in different applications such as in bleaching of colored components, modification of lipids originating from different raw materials, production of lipid derived chemicals and production of aroma compounds. Most application research has been carried out using soybean LOX, but currently the use of microbial LOXs has also been reported. Development of LOX composition with high activity by heterologous expression in suitable production hosts would enable full exploitation of the potential of LOX derived reactions in different applications. Here, we review the biological role of LOXs, their heterologous production, as well as potential use in different applications. LOXs may fulfill an important role in the design of processes that are far more environmental friendly than currently used chemical reactions. Difficulties in screening for the optimal enzymes and producing LOX enzymes in sufficient amounts prevent large-scale application so far. With this review, we summarize current knowledge of LOX enzymes and the way in which they can be produced and applied. PMID:25641326

  15. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  16. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  17. Schwanniomyces: a potential superyeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingledew, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1977, when our quest to determine the industrial potential of the genus Schwanniomyces began, little was known about this microbe. The genus was first described by Kloecker in 1909, after the isolation in the Antilles of Schwanniomyces occidentalis. A number of biological descriptions (see Ferreira and Phaff) and other species were also described. In addition, it was known that close to 100 yeasts were able to assimilate at least part of the starch molecule. Then, Augustin et al. and Costamagna et al. reported the ability of Schwanniomyces spp. to produce extracellular alpha-amylase and utilize starch. Later discoveries would indicate that both alpha-amylase and glucoamylase were present, and from then on, research with the yeast Schwanniomyces would become very competitive - especially in Canada and Europe. (Refs. 53).

  18. Bullying - transformative potentiality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Mathiassen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I argue that a person’s experience of having been bullied as a child can holdtransformative potentiality. This means that childhood exposure to bullying can both producenegative effects and provide fuel for transformative intention and actions. By exploring twoseparate narratives, I demonstrate how these individuals’ different ways of handling past incidentsare entangled with both present and future, as well as how they are closely connected to both thespecific situations and contexts in which the person lives and his/her movements across suchsituations and contexts. The concept of dynamic effectuality is introduced to describe thisphenomenon. Furthermore, I claim that, by analysing the dynamic effectuality of individuals’ pastexperiences with bullying and their present adult lives, certain processes can be found – includingrevenge, transformative intention and collective transformative actions.

  19. Astrocytes Potentiate Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2005-03-01

    A recent experimental study shows that astrocytes, a subtype of glia, are able to influence the spontaneous activity in the brain via calcium dependent glutamate release. We model the coupling mechanism between an astrocyte and a neuron based on experimental data. This coupling is dynamic and bi-directional, such that the modulations in intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes affect neuronal excitability and vice versa via a glutamatergic pathway. We demonstrate through simple neural-glial circuits that increases in the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes nearby can enhance spontaneous activity in a neuron, a significant mechanism said to be involved in plasticity and learning. The pattern of this marked increase in spontaneous firing rate in our model quantitatively follows that observed in the experiment. Further, depending on the type of synaptic connections diverging from the neuron, it can either inhibit or excite the ensuing dynamics and potentiate synaptic transmission, thus reinstating the integral role played by astrocytes in normal neuronal dynamics.

  20. Not utilized learning potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

    not-conscious disjuncture, in development of the concept pseudo-everyday life activities and in a categorizing mo­del for and a theory about student nurses' learning processes. The theory includes relations between 4 types of  disjuncture, 3 types of content in the learning processes, and factors that...... provoke transformation from one type of disjuncture to another.      Students and mentors are not aware that students are in potential learning situations when they interact on their own with patients, and that it is non-routine for students to act with patients in pseudo-everyday life activities. It may......  When the Danish Nursing Education in 2002 became a Bachelor Degree the clinical part of the education was reduced. Therefore, it was necessary to optimize learning in practice.       I made a qualitative investigation to describe student nurses' learning processes in non-routine situations where...

  1. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  2. Power and Biological Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, T. M.; Som, S. M.; Kempes, C.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Habitability, biomass abundance, growth rates, and rates of evolution are constrained by the availability of biologically accessible energy through time -- power. It is well understood that life requires energy not only to grow, but also to support standing biomass without new growth. Quantifying this "maintenance energy" requirement is critical for understanding the biological potential of low energy systems, including many systems of astrobiological interest, but field- and culture-based estimates differ by as much as three orders of magnitude. Here, we evaluate and compare these estimates to environmental energy supply in two examples: methanogenic metabolism in serpentinizing systems and a hypothetical "thermotrophic" metabolism. In both cases, evaluation of the power budget introduces constraint and resolution beyond that provided by evaluation of Gibbs energy change for metabolic reactions.

  3. Intrinsic anion oxidation potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Patrik

    2006-11-01

    Anions of lithium battery salts have been investigated by electronic structure calculations with the objective to find a computational measure to correlate with the observed (in)stability of nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes vs oxidation often encountered in practice. Accurate prediction of intrinsic anion oxidation potentials is here made possible by computing the vertical free energy difference between anion and neutral radical (Delta Gv) and further strengthened by an empirical correction using only the anion volume as a parameter. The 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set, the VSXC functional, and the C-PCM SCRF algorithm were used. The Delta Gv calculations can be performed using any standard computational chemistry software. PMID:17078600

  4. Potential vorticity in magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Mace, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    A version of Noether's second theorem using Lagrange multipliers is used to investigate fluid relabelling symmetries conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We obtain a new generalized potential vorticity type conservation equation for MHD which takes into account entropy gradients and the J × B force on the plasma due to the current J and magnetic induction B. This new conservation law for MHD is derived by using Noether's second theorem in conjunction with a class of fluid relabelling symmetries in which the symmetry generator for the Lagrange label transformations is non-parallel to the magnetic field induction in Lagrange label space. This is associated with an Abelian Lie pseudo algebra and a foliated phase space in Lagrange label space. It contains as a special case Ertel's theorem in ideal fluid mechanics. An independent derivation shows that the new conservation law is also valid for more general physical situations.

  5. Corrosion potential analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  6. Geothermal potential of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Chandler A.; Morgan, Paul; Boulos, F. K.

    1983-04-01

    One hundred and sixty samples of groundwater from nearly all parts of Egypt have been collected and chemically analyzed in order to assess the country's geothermal potential. The samples considered to be thermal include 20 wells ( T > 35° C), 4 springs ( T > 30° C) and 1 spring not included in the present inventory. The remaining samples, together with data from the literature, establish background chemistry. The hottest springs are located along the east shore of the Gulf of Suez: Uyun Musa (48°C) and 'Ain Hammam Faraoun (70°C). Additional warm springs are located along both shores of the Gulf of Suez and this region is the most promising for geothermal development. The Eastern Desert of Egypt, particularly the coastal area adjacent to the Red Sea has above normal heat flow ( ~ 72.0 Egypt can be considered thermal including several reported "hot springs." Application of the silica, NaKCa. and NaKCaMg geothermometers does not indicate the presence of a high temperature geothermal resource at any area we visited.

  7. ASTAXANTHIN: A POTENTIAL CAROTENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Dhankhar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the green algae haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses unusual antioxidant property which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market of the encapsulated products. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.

  8. Bioremedication: Potentials and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three main types of marine oil spill bioremediation involve fertilizers, seeding, and open-water applications. Fertilizers contain nutrients that trigger the growth of indigenous oil-degrading microorganisms. Seeding involves adding exogenous microbes to an oiled environment to promote increased biodegradation rates. The effectiveness of using either seeding or fertilizers in the open ocean has not been well established and most of the scientific community and many oil professionals remain skeptical about the utility of bioremediation at sea because rigorously controlled and documented experiments have not yet been done. Several companies have advocated using bioremediation for open ocean oil spills, but they have not yet produced convincing evidence that their products work as claimed. A potentially significant problem at sea is keeping the microorganisms in contact with the oil long enough for degradation to occur. The jury is still out regarding regulatory and public acceptance of bioremediation as a technique to clean up oil spills in general. Commercialization of bioremediation products is hindered by lack of protocols for testing and approval, although efforts are underway to devise such mechanisms

  9. Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Phani Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is a major health problem in the 21st century, and many neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer′s Disease dementia, cerebrovascular impairment, seizure disorders, head injury and Parkinsonism, can be severly functionally debilitating in nature. In course of time, a number of neurotransmitters and signaling molecules have been identified which have been considered as therapeutic targets. Conventional as well newer molecules have been tried against these targets. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants play a vital role in maintaining the brain′s chemical balance by influencing the function of receptors for the major inhibitory neurotransmitters. In traditional practice of medicine, several plants have been reported to treat cognitive disorders. In this review paper, we attempt to throw some light on the use of medicinal herbs to treat cognitive disorders. In this review, we briefly deal with some medicinal herbs focusing on their neuroprotective active phytochemical substances like fatty acids, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes etc. The resistance of neurons to various stressors by activating specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors are also discussed. It was observed in the review that a number of herbal medicines used in Ayurvedic practices as well Chinese medicines contain multiple compounds and phytochemicals that may have a neuroprotective effect which may prove beneficial in different neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Though the presence of receptors or transporters for polyphenols or other phytochemicals of the herbal preparations, in brain tissues remains to be ascertained, compounds with multiple targets appear as a potential and promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of diseases with a multifactorial etiology.

  10. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  11. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  12. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level of the...

  13. COMPETITIVENESS OF POTENTIAL INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    САБАДИРЬОВА, А.Л.; Одеський державний економічний університет; САЛАВЕЛІС, Д.Є.; Одеський державний економічний університет

    2011-01-01

     In the article the considered tendencies of forming of competitiveness of potential of enterprises industrial, factors of competitiveness of potential of enterprises at processing industry on the terms of modern market environment.

  14. Nonlinear potentials in function spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Murali; Vondraček, Zoran

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a framework for a nonlinear potential theory without a kernel on a reflexive, strictly convex and smooth Banach space of functions. Nonlinear potentials are defined as images of nonnegative continuous linear functionals on that space under the duality mapping. We study potentials and reduced functions by using a variant of the Gauss-Frostman quadratic functional. The framework allows a development of other main concepts of nonlinear potential theory such as capa...

  15. Instantons and the interquark potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the contributions to the interquark potential from instantons of all scale sizes may be calculated in a consistent, cut-off-independent manner using the dilute-gas approximation; and that an interquark potential dominated at intermediate distances by these contributions is similar to already successful phenomenological potentials. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of proton autoneutralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton space charge having multi-MeV kinetic energy was injected through a thin ground plane to extract electrons and produce a time-dependent autoneutralization space potential. An electon-emitting floating-potential resistive divider was used to measure the space potential during 20 ns of the proton current pulse. During this time, proton kinetic energy fell from 10.6 MeV to 8.5 MeV and thus the space potential (taken as 1.09 x the floating potential) fell from 5.8 kV to 4.6 kV

  17. Potential energy of dinuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective calculation method of the dinuclear system potential energy is proposed. The analytical expressions are obtained to calculate the nuclear part of the nucleus-nucleus potential in the double folding form. The relationship of this potential with proximity potential is found. The influence of deformation and orientation of the nuclei on the interaction potential is investigated. Due to the balance in binding energies the excited states of some nuclei can be imagined as dinuclear or trinuclear systems. (author). 27 refs.; 8 figs

  18. Isospectral Potentials from Modified Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Micheal S

    2010-01-01

    Factorization of quantum mechanical potentials has a long history extending back to the earliest days of the subject. In the present paper, the non-uniqueness of the factorization is exploited to derive new isospectral non-singular potentials. Many one-parameter families of potentials can be generated from known potentials using a factorization that involves superpotentials defined in terms of excited states of a potential. For these cases an operator representation is available. If ladder operators are known for the original potential, then a straightforward procedure exists for defining such operators for its isospectral partners. The generality of the method is illustrated with a number of examples which may have many possible applications in atomic and molecular physics.

  19. Isospectral potentials from modified factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Micheal S.; Ussembayev, Nail S.

    2010-08-01

    Factorization of quantum-mechanical potentials has a long history extending back to the earliest days of the subject. In the present article, the nonuniqueness of the factorization is exploited to derive new isospectral nonsingular potentials. Many one-parameter families of potentials can be generated from known potentials using a factorization that involves superpotentials defined in terms of excited states of a potential. For these cases an operator representation is available. If ladder operators are known for the original potential, then a straightforward procedure exists for defining such operators for its isospectral partners. The generality of the method is illustrated with a number of examples which may have many possible applications in atomic and molecular physics.

  20. Perfect Actions with Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We show how to include a chemical potential \\mu in perfect lattice actions. It turns out that the standard procedure of multiplying the quark fields \\Psi, an example, the case of free fermions with chemical potential is worked out explicitly. Even after truncation, cut-off effects in the pressure and the baryon density are small. Using a (quasi-)perfect action, numerical QCD simulations for non-zero chemical potential become more powerful, because coarse lattices are sufficient for extracting continuum physics.

  1. Career Potential of Future Expert

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Petrovna Tsaritsentseva

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to description and analysis of individual career potential. Topicality of the problem andthe degree of its readiness in the modern science are stated at the beginning of the article.Notions of “career”, career factors, career potential and inner resources of personality being a part of careerpotential structure due to their essence and structure are exposed and analyzed in represented work. Diagnosticprogram which gives an opportunity to study individual career potenti...

  2. Orbits in a logarithmic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooverman, R. H.

    2014-04-15

    The characteristics of charged particle orbits in the logarithmic electrostatic potential field surrounding a straight conducting wire at a fixed potential are investigated. The equations of motion of an electron in a logarithmic potential are derived, the limiting cases are considered, and the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion are presented along with sketches of a few representative orbits. (C.E.S.)

  3. Potential turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopic potential turbulence in tokamak plasmas are investigated by a multi-sample-volume heavy ion beam probe. The wavenumber/frequency spectra S(k,ω) of the plasmas potential fluctuation as well as density fluctuation are obtained for the first time. The instantaneous turbulence-driven particle flux, calculated from potential and density turbulence has oscillations of which amplitude is about 100 times larger than the steady-state outwards flux, showing sporadic behaviours. We also observed large-scale coherent potential oscillations with the frequency around 10-40 kHz. (author)

  4. Hydel power: potential and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On paper the potential India has for generating hydroelectricity is immense - estimated at 84,044 MW (at 60% plant load factor). This too is based on actual assessed exploitable hydro electric potential and it translates into annual energy generation of 600 billion kWh. However, only 12,436 MW or 14.8% of the total assessed potential was developed at the end of March 1995. Add to this another 5,917 MW of hydel capacity which is under development. This leaves almost 65,691 MW or 78% of unexploited potential

  5. Theoretical Optical Potential Derived From Nucleon-Nucleon Chiral Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Vorabbi, M; Giusti, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elastic scattering is probably the main event in the interactions of nucleons with nuclei. Even if this process has been extensively studied in the last years, a consistent description starting from microscopic two- and many-body forces is still missing. Purpose: In this work we study the domain of applicability of microscopic chiral potentials in the construction of an optical potential. Methods: We basically followed the KMT approach to build a microscopic complex optical potential and then we performed some test calculations on $^{16}$O at different energies. Results: Our conclusion is that a particular set of potentials (with spectral function regularization and a cut-off for the Lippmann-Schwinger equation at relatively high energies $\\sim 600$ MeV) has the best performances reproducing the scattering observables. Conclusions: Our work shows that building an optical potential within Chiral Perturbation Theory is a promising approach to the description of elastic proton scattering, in particul...

  6. Two loop effective Kaehler potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk we study the renormalization of the effective Kaehler potential at one and two loops for general four dimensional (non-renormalizable) N = 1 supersymmetric theories described by arbitrary Kaehler potential, superpotential and gauge kinetic function. We consider the Wess-Zumino model as an example. (author)

  7. Nested potentials and robust equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    UNO, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of nested best-response potentials for complete in- formation games. It is shown that a unique maximizer of such a potential is a Nash equilibrium that is robust to incomplete information in the sense of Kajii and Morris (1997, mimeo).

  8. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  9. Supermodular games and potential games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and two-person Cournot games.

  10. Ambipolar potential formation in TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TMX experimental data on ambipolar potential control and on the accompanying electrostatic confinement are reported. New results on the radial dependence of the central-cell confining potential are given. Radial and axial particle losses as well as scaling of the central-cell axial confinement are discussed

  11. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: The age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section is significant in regard to fertility potential, and a value of 1% or less (approximately Sertoli cells only) may predict low fertility potential. To our knowledge Sertoli cells only have not been observed before 15 months of life...

  12. Potential flow through channel constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Potential flow through an eccentric, normal constriction of zero thickness in an infinitely long, straight channel of constant width and unit depth is studied by use of a Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The transformation is integrated by a direct approach. Parametric equations for streamlines are obtained and used to compute an average streamline length for a potential-flow field. -from ASCE Publications Information

  13. Brain potential changes in voluntary and passive movements in humans: readiness potential and reafferent potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Hans H; Deecke, Lüder

    2016-07-01

    A method of chronological data storage and reverse computation is described by which bio-electrical phenomena preceding 'spontaneous' events within the nervous system can be analysed if these events appear repeatedly and are capable of triggering a computer.Slow brain potentials accompanying voluntary and passive movements of the limbs were analysed by this method. These potentials were recorded from different points of the scalp from 12 healthy subjects in 94 experiments with more than 100 movements in each record. At times artifacts were superimposed upon cerebral potentials. The former were identified, and, as far as possible, eliminated.Voluntary hand or foot movements are preceded by a slowly increasing surface-negative cortical potential of 10-15 μV, called readiness potential. This potential is maximal over the contralateral precentral region, but shows bilateral spread and is larger over the frontal than over the occipital areas. The readiness potential increases with intentional engagement and is reduced by mental indifference of the subject.Voluntary movements are followed by a complex potential with an early positive phase that begins 30-90 msec after the onset of movement. The late potentials following voluntary movements are similar to those after passive movements. Both resemble the late bilateral components of the evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves. Some variable differences between the early components of the potentials after the onset of active and passive movements require further investigation.No relation between the onset of voluntary movements and the phase of the alpha rhythm could be detected.Further applications of reverse computation are addressed. Similarities between the readiness potential and G. WALTER'S expectancy wave in conditioned reflexes, and the sources of artifacts through eye movements etc. are discussed. PMID:27392465

  14. Imagined Potentialities of Healthcare Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on health care technologies and initiatives, particularly, Electronic Health Records (EHRs). These technologies are ascribed various potentialities, attributing them the capacity to do a wide range of things, from improving efficiency to saving medical costs and even saving...... actions taken toward, these technologies. To better understand the material and discursive processes that are at play in shaping our present and future understanding of EHR technologies, the paper offers the analytical notion of imagined potentialities, whereby a technology is imagined to possess an...... inherent capacity to produce a change. The term potentiality has a long history in Western philosophy, in particularly in Aristotle’s metaphysics where he distinguishes between potentiality and actuality. Potentiality refers to the capacity that a thing can be said to have; the capacity to come into...

  15. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...... and high degree of predictability of the theory developed....

  16. Potential theory on infinite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Soardi, Paolo M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a unified approach to new developments in discrete potential theory and infinite network theory. The author confines himself to the finite energy case, but this does not result in loss of complexity. On the contrary, the functional analytic machinery may be used in analogy with potential theory on Riemann manifolds. The book is intended for researchers with interdisciplinary interests in one of the following fields: Markov chains, combinatorial graph theory, network theory, Dirichlet spaces, potential theory, abstract harmonic analysis, theory of boundaries.

  17. The reconstruction of inflationary potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianmang; Gao, Qing; Gong, Yungui

    2016-07-01

    The observational data on the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background constraints the scalar spectral tilt ns and the tensor to scalar ratio r which depend on the first and second derivatives of the inflaton potential. The information can be used to reconstruct the inflaton potential in the polynomial form up to some orders. However, for some classes of potentials, ns and r behave as ns(N) and r(N) universally in terms of the number of e-folds N. The universal behaviour of ns(N) can be used to reconstruct a class of inflaton potentials. By parametrizing one of the parameters ns(N), ɛ(N) and φ(N), and fitting the parameters in the models to the observational data, we obtain the constraints on the parameters and reconstruct the classes of the inflationary models which include the chaotic inflation, T-model, hilltop inflation, s-dual inflation, natural inflation and R2 inflation.

  18. Soliton dynamics in complex potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliton propagation dynamics under the presence of a complex potential are investigated. Cases of both symmetric and non-symmetric potentials are studied in terms of their effect on soliton dynamics. The existence of an invariant of soliton propagation under specific symmetry conditions for the real and the imaginary part of the potential is shown. The rich set of dynamical features of soliton propagation include dynamical trapping, periodic and nonperiodic soliton mass variation and non-reciprocal dynamics. These features are systematically investigated with the utilization of an effective particle phase space approach which is shown in remarkable agreement with direct numerical simulations. The generality of the results enables the consideration of potential applications where the inhomogeneity of the gain and loss is appropriately engineered in order to provide desirable soliton dynamics

  19. Potential Theory for Directed Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qian-Ming; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering mechanisms underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values on all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, we deduce that the Bi-fan consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favoured local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis get positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contributions are twofold: (i) We propose a new mechanism for the organization of directed networ...

  20. Quantum chaos in multiwell potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till the present time signatures of quantum chaos were studied mostly for the billiard-type systems, for dumped one-dimensional systems or for two-dimensional systems with potential energy surface of simple geometry. Almost nothing is known about the quantum chaos for generic Hamiltonian systems, including multiwell potentials, though those are the models describing the dynamics of transition between different states, for example, nuclear isomeric transitions and decay of superdeformed states of nuclei. An important feature of classical dynamics in generic multiwell potentials is the so-called mixed state, namely: regular and chaotic regimes coexist at the same energy, being localized in different local minima of the potential. The aim of our work is to show that studies of quantum chaos in the mixed state are promising and in many cases optimal. (author)

  1. Operational schedule 2011 & potential performance

    CERN Document Server

    Meddahi, M

    2011-01-01

    The assumed LHC beam parameters for 2011 are summarised. The overview of the 2011 schedule is presented and including hardware commissioning, beams re-commissioning, re-validation, scrubbing, technical stops, MD, ions and special physics run requests. A strategy for stepping up in intensity is proposed and potential issues are described together with possible actions. Finally, the potential peak and integrated luminosity are given.

  2. Triton photodisintegration with realistic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Schadow, W.; Sandhas, W.

    1997-01-01

    The photodisintegration of $^{3}$H is treated by means of coupled integral equations using separable versions of the Paris and the Bonn potentials in their kernel. The differential cross section for the inverse reaction is obtained via detailed balance. For the latter process good agreement with the data is found when including final-state interaction, meson exchange currents, higher partial waves in the potential, and electric quadrupole contributions in the electromagnetic interaction.

  3. CENTRAL ASIA: ECONOMIC COOPERATION POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The Central Asian republics are rich in energy resources: three of them (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan) can boast of oil and gas deposits, while the other two (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have vast hydropower potential. This means that harmonized energy policy designed to meet their demands in energy, energy exports, and stronger positions in ensuring international energy security makes sense. By the same token, these countries can, potentially, develop metallurgy, machine building,...

  4. ANALYSIS OF ENTERPRISE MARKETING POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Krіvoruchko, О.; Pіpenko, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methodological fundamentals of enterprise marketing potential analysis have been devised on the basis of substantiation of the main activities, content, sequence and direction, means and methods of their implementation. The introduced fundamentals stipulate determining the changing level of marketing potential with time, ascertaining the influence of the structure of factors, which form them correspondence between an enterprise supply and demand of market entities considering the importance o...

  5. Propagator for finite range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Schroedinger equation in integral form is applied to the one-dimensional scattering problem in the case of a general finite range, nonsingular potential. A simple expression for the Laplace transform of the transmission propagator is obtained in terms of the associated Fredholm determinant, by means of matrix methods; the particular form of the kernel and the peculiar aspects of the transmission problem play an important role. The application to an array of delta potentials is shown

  6. Potential of Ecotourism in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pöyhönen, Annukka

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the potential and the potential of ecotourism in Finland. The research focuses on different dimensions of ecotourism business as well as the stage we are at in Finland when it comes to ecotourism business. One of the main points was also to clarify the meanings of and the differences between ecotourism, nature-based tourism and sustainable tourism. Desktop research was chosen as the main research method. The intention was use it to survey existi...

  7. STUDENTS’ POTENTIAL FOR AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Djurdja Solesa-Grijak; Dragan Solesa; Nedjo Kojic

    2015-01-01

    To know yourself and to act accordingly has been seen as a moral imperative throughout history. The aim of this research was to determine potential of students for authentic leadership and relation between their authentic personality and potential for authentic leadership. The sample consisted of students (N=133) from Serbia (male – 59% and female – 41%). The average age of students was M=21.9. Instruments used were Authenticity Scale (Wood et al., 2008) and Authentic Leadership Self-Assessme...

  8. Scalar potentials in extended supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on scalar potentials in extended supergravities is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. It is shown that in extended supergravities the overall scalar potentials can be written as a sum of squares of boosted structure constants of the gauge group K, which is a subgroup of the isometry group G of the corresponding σ-model over G/H (H is a subgroup of G). (U.K.)

  9. Molecular potentials and relaxation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of empirical pseudopotentials, in evaluating interatomic potentials, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for obtaining highly accurate potential curves and permits the modeling of core-valence correlation, and the inclusion of relativistic effects when these are significant. Recent calculations of the X1Σ+ and a3Σ+ states of LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH and the X2Σ+ states of their anions are discussed. Pseudopotentials, including core polarization terms, have been used to replace the core electrons, and this has been coupled with the development of compact, higly-optimized basis sets for the corresponding one- and two-electron atoms. Comparisons of the neutral potential curves with experiment and other ab initio calculations show good agreement (within 1000 cm-1 over most of the potential curves) with the difference curves being considerably more accurate. In the method of computer molecular dynamics, the force acting on each particle is the resultant of all interactions with other atoms in the neighborhood and is obtained as the derivative of an effective many-body potential. Exploiting the pseudopotential approach, in obtaining the appropriate potentials may be very fruitful in the future. In the molecular dynamics example considered here, the conventional sum-of-pairwise-interatomic-potentials (SPP) approximation is used with the potentials derived either from experimental spectroscopic data or from Hartree-Fock calculations. The problem is the collisional de-excitation of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen at an Fe surface. The calculations have been carried out for an initial vibrotational state v = 8, J = 1 and a translational temperature corresponding to a gas temperature of 5000K. Different angles of approach and different initial random impact points on the surface have been selected. For any given collision with the wall, the molecule may pick up or lose vibrotatonal and translational energy

  10. Estimation of potential uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential estimates, like reserves, are limited by the information on hand at the time and are not intended to indicate the ultimate resources. Potential estimates are based on geologic judgement, so their reliability is dependent on the quality and extent of geologic knowledge. Reliability differs for each of the three potential resource classes. It is greatest for probable potential resources because of the greater knowledge base resulting from the advanced stage of exploration and development in established producing districts where most of the resources in this class are located. Reliability is least for speculative potential resources because no significant deposits are known, and favorability is inferred from limited geologic data. Estimates of potential resources are revised as new geologic concepts are postulated, as new types of uranium ore bodies are discovered, and as improved geophysical and geochemical techniques are developed and applied. Advances in technology that permit the exploitation of deep or low-grade deposits, or the processing of ores of previously uneconomic metallurgical types, also will affect the estimates

  11. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  12. Alpha Ni optical model potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, M. M.; Abdullah, M. N. A.; Das, S. K.; Uddin, M. A.; Basak, A. K.; Reichstein, I.; Sen Gupta, H. M.; Malik, F. B.

    2005-11-01

    The present work reports the analyses of the experimental differential cross-sections of α elastic scattering on 58,60,62,64Ni, over a wide range of incident energies, in terms of four types of optical potentials, namely shallow (molecular), deep non-monotonic, squared Woods-Saxon and semi-microscopic folding. All the four potentials produce a reasonable description of the experimental data. The potential parameters, calculated from the energy density functional theory using a realistic two-nucleon interaction, resemble closely the molecular potential parameters, which produce the best description of the experimental data for the four isotopes. The volume integrals and the energy variation of the parameters indicate the effect of the shell-model structure on the potentials. The folding potentials, without any need for renormalization, are found to describe reasonably well the elastic scattering cross-section data for the four isotopes within the energy range considered. In conformity with the previous observation on Ca isotopes, the number of nucleons, 4A=49, existing in α-like clusters in the target nucleus, is the same for the four isotopes, considered herein.

  13. Active Spacecraft Potential Control Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Tajmar, M.; Scharlemann, C.; Jeszenszky, H.; Laky, G.; Fremuth, G.; Escoubet, C. P.; Svenes, K.

    2016-03-01

    In tenuous plasma the floating potential of sunlit spacecraft reaches tens of volts, positive. The corresponding field disturbs measurements of the ambient plasma by electron and ion sensors and can reduce micro-channel plate lifetime in electron detectors owing to large fluxes of attracted photoelectrons. Also the accuracy of electric field measurements may suffer from a high spacecraft potential. The Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics. New features include the use of capillaries instead of needles, new materials for the emitters and their internal thermal insulators, an extended voltage and current range of the electronics, both for ion emission and heating purposes, and a more capable control software. This enables lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Results from on-ground testing demonstrate compliance with requirements. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. Finally, the various operating modes to adapt to changing boundary conditions are described along with the main data products.

  14. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents

  15. Microscopic optical potential from Argonne inter-nucleon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work we describe our results concerning the calculation of equation of state of symmetric zero temperature nuclear matter and the microscopic optical potential using the soft-core Argonne inter-nucleon potentials in first order Brueckner–Hartree–Fock (BHF) theory. The nuclear matter saturates at a density 0.228 nucleon/fm3 with 17.52 MeV binding energy per nucleon for Argonne av-14 and at 0.228 nucleon/fm3 with 17.01 MeV binding energy per nucleon for Argonne av-18. As a test case we present an analysis of 65 and 200 MeV protons scattering from 208Pb. The Argonne av-14 has been used for the first time to calculate nucleon optical potential in BHF and analyze the nucleon scattering data. We also compare our reaction matrix results with those using the old hard-core Hamada–Johnston and the soft-core Urbana uv-14 and Argonne av-18 inter-nucleon potentials. Our results indicate that the microscopic potential obtained using av-14 gives marginally better agreement with the experimental data than the other three Hamiltonians used in the present work. (author)

  16. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  17. Visualizing motion in potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pratibha; Zollman, Dean; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Dimitrova, Albena

    1998-01-01

    The concept of potential-energy diagrams is of fundamental importance in the study of quantum physics. Yet, students are rarely exposed to this powerful alternative description in introductory classes and thus have difficulty comprehending its significance when they encounter it in beginning-level quantum courses. We describe a learning unit that incorporates a sequence of computer-interfaced experiments using dynamics or air-track systems. This unit is designed to make the learning of potential-energy diagrams less abstract. Students begin by constructing the harmonic or square-well potential diagrams using either the velocity data and assuming conservation of energy or the force-displacement graph for the elastic interaction of an object constrained by springs or bouncing off springy blocks. Then, they investigate the motion of a rider magnet interacting with a configuration of field magnets and plot directly the potential-energy diagrams using a magnetic field sensor. The ease of measurement allows exploring the motion in a large variety of potential shapes in a short duration class.

  18. Lethal, potentially lethal lesion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1983-07-01

    A theoretical framework to describe the formation of lethal mutations by radiation is presented. Lesions that are repaired (and misrepaired) in each type of experiment described (delayed plating and split dose) are assumed to be the same. In this model the same (potentially lethal) lesions cause both sublethal and potentially lethal damage. Potentially lethal damage is defined as damage which may be modified by alterations in postirradiation conditions. Sublethal damage is cellular damage whose accumulation may lead to lethality. A crucial consideration in the expression of the damage is the kind of medium in which the cells are placed during the repair period. Fresh or growth medium (F-medium) is assumed to cause fixation of damage after about 3 hours, while no fixation (only misrepair) occurs in conditioned medium (C-medium).

  19. Accelerating cosmologies from exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is learnt that exponential potentials of the form V ∼ exp(-2cφ/Mp) arising from the hyperbolic or flux compactification of higher-dimensional theories are of interest for getting short periods of accelerated cosmological expansions. Using a similar potential but derived for the combined case of hyperbolic-flux compactification, we study a four-dimensional flat (or open) FRW cosmologies and give analytic (and numerical) solutions with exponential behavior of scale factors. We show that, for the M-theory motivated potentials, the cosmic acceleration of the universe can be eternal if the spatial curvature of the 4d spacetime is negative, while the acceleration is only transient for a spatially flat universe. We also briefly discuss about the mass of massive Kaluza-Klein modes and the dynamical stabilization of the compact hyperbolic extra dimensions. (author)

  20. Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  1. Imagined Potentialities of Healthcare Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    This paper will focus on health care technologies and initiatives, particularly, Electronic Health Records (EHRs). These technologies are ascribed various potentialities, attributing them the capacity to do a wide range of things, from improving efficiency to saving medical costs and even saving...... lives. These complex and often conflicting imagined potentialities lead to inflicted burden on designers, policy makers and healthcare practitioners who are faced with different realities on the ground. The conflicting notions have real life effects as these impact our present understanding of, and...... actions taken toward, these technologies. To better understand the material and discursive processes that are at play in shaping our present and future understanding of EHR technologies, the paper offers the analytical notion of imagined potentialities, whereby a technology is imagined to possess an...

  2. Neutron and proton optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron and proton optical model potentials (OMP) are discussed in terms of microscopic (MOMP) and phenomenological (POMP) models. For the MOMP, two approaches are discussed, the nucleus matter approach [Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux (JLM) and Brieva-Rook-von Geramb (BRVG), potentials] and the finite nuclei approach (Osterfeld and Madsen). For the POMP, the Lane charge-exchange potential and its validity over a wide mass range is reviewed. In addition to the Lane symmetry term, the Coulomb correction to both the real and imaginary parts of the OMP is discussed for the above models. The use of the OMP to calculate collective inelastic scattering and observed differences between the neutron- and proton-deformation parameters is also illustrated. 25 refs., 3 figs

  3. The potential of biogas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas technology has been known about for a long time, but in recent years the interest in it has significantly increased, especially due to the higher costs and the rapid depletion of fossil fuels as well as their environmental considerations. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of biogas energy in the 15 European Union (EU) countries and in Turkey, which is seeking admission to the EU and is trying to meet EU environmental standards. Biogas energy potential of the 15 EU countries is estimated to be about 800 PJ. Besides this, Turkey's annual animal waste potential is obtained to be about 11.81 million tons with a biogas energy equivalent of 53.6 PJ. It is expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies towards the optimum utilization of biogas energy. (author)

  4. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated whether adult fertility potential was better when unilateral orchiopexy was done at ages 2 to 6 years or later, and we identified those at risk for infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral orchiopexy was performed simultaneously with testicular biopsy in 11 patients 2...... statistically similar fertility potentials were found in adulthood. Five of the 65 patients (7.7%, 95% confidence limits 2.5 to 17%) may experience infertility, representing 33% of both groups with less than 1% of the age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular transverse section (approximately no germ...... cells) in the biopsy specimen at orchiopexy. CONCLUSIONS: Between ages 2 and 12 years the timing of unilateral orchiopexy may vary without an effect on subsequent fertility potential. When biopsy at surgery lacks germ cells, there is an approximately 33% age independent risk of subsequent infertility...

  5. Wind energy potential in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, wind characteristic and wind energy potential in Bulgaria were analyzed using the wind speed data. The wind energy potential at different sites in Bulgaria has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The wind speed distribution curves were obtained by using the Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from three wind turbines having capacity of (60, 200, and 500 kW). The yearly energy output capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the three different turbines were calculated

  6. Handbook methane potential; Handbok metanpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB (Sweden)); Schnurer, Anna (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    Before using a organic material for biogas production it is essential to evaluate the methane production potential. The methane potential is one important tool possible to use during planning of new plants but also when new materials are considered for already running biogas plants. The chemical composition of different organic material varies extensively and this will have an impact on both the degradability and the methane potential. Information about the methane potential of a specific material can sometimes be found in the literature or can be calculated after a chemical/ physical or biological characterization. Here, the BMP test (Biochemical Methane Potential) is a commonly used method. Today the BMP test is a commonly used method to determine the methane potential. Many national and international research groups, consultants as well as personal at biogas plants are using this method and there is a lot of data available in the literature from such tests. In addition there are several protocols giving guidelines on how to execute a BMP-test. The BMP-test is performed in many different ways, not always under optimized conditions, and there is a lack of information on how to interpret the obtained data. This report summarizes knowledge from the literature and the experience from a Swedish referee group, consisting of persons being active performers of BMP-tests. The report does not include a standardized protocol as the procedure can be performed in different ways depending on available equipment and on the type of material to be tested. Instead the report discusses different factors of great importance for a successful test giving reliable results. The report also summarizes important information concerning the interpretation and how to present results in order to allow comparison of data from different test.

  7. Biowaste energy potential in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the energy crisis through innovative use of the available but underutilised biowaste such as organic residues from maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane. Biogas technology is assumed to have the capacity to economically and sustainably convert these vast amounts of biowaste into renewable energy, thereby replacing the unsustainable fossil energy sources, and reducing dependency on fossil fuels. However, the total energy potential of biogas production from crop residues available in Kenya has never been evaluated and quantified. To this end, we selected five different types of residues (maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane) from Kenya and evaluated their energy potential through biomethane potential analysis at 30 C and a test time of 30 days. The specific methane yields for maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane residues obtained under batch conditions were respectively 363, 271, 365, 67 and 177 m3 per tonne volatile solids. In terms of energy potential, maize, cotton and barley residues were found to be better substrates for methane production than tea and sugarcane residues and could be considered as potential substrates or supplements for methane production without compromising food security in the country. The evaluated residues have a combined national annual maximum potential of about 1313 million cubic meters of methane which represent about 3916 Gigawatt hour (GWh) of electricity and 5887 GWh of thermal energy. The combined electrical potential is equivalent to 73% of the country's annual power production of 5307 GWh. Utilization of the residues that are readily available on a 'free on site' basis for energy production could substitute the fossil fuels that

  8. Neurotechnology premises, potential, and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, James

    2012-01-01

    New technologies that allow us to investigate mechanisms and functions of the brain have shown considerable promise in treating brain disease and injury. These emerging technologies also provide a means to assess and manipulate human consciousness, cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, bringing with them the potential to transform society. Neurotechnology: Premises, Potential, and Problems explores the technical, moral, legal, and sociopolitical issues that arise in and from today,s applications of neuroscience and technology and discusses their implications for the future. Some of the issues r

  9. Hertz potentials in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalise the Hertz potentials to all spacetime dimensions D ≥4 and to all antisymmetric tensor fields. We show that the Whittaker-Debye-Bromwich reduction of the Hertz potential can be successfully exploited in all dimensions and for all antisymmetric tensor fields if the underlying spacetime is a warped product manifold. We illustrate the Hertzian approach by constructing the multipole expansions of all antisymmetric tensor fields on a D-dimensional Schwarzschild solution. A no-hair theorem for the D-dimensional black holes follows from these multipole expansions. (author)

  10. Brane Potentials and Moduli Spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the supergravity moduli spaces of D1-D5 and D2-D6 brane systems coincide with those of the Coulomb branches of the associated non-abelian gauge theories. We further discuss situations in which worldvolume brane actions include a potential term generated by probing certain supergravity backgrounds. We find that in many cases, the appearance of the potential is due to the application of the Scherk-Schwarz mechanism. We give some examples and discuss the existence of novel supersymmetric brane configurations. (author)

  11. Biowaste energy potential in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nzila, Charles; Dewulf, Jo; van Langenhove, Herman [Laboratory for Environmental and Organic Chemistry, Gent University, Copure Links 653 - B9000 Gent (Belgium); Spanjers, Henri [Lettinga Associates Foundation, Wageningen, P.O Box 500 - 6700 AM Wageningen (Netherlands); Kiriamiti, Henry [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Moi university, P.O. Box 3900, 30100 Eldoret (Kenya)

    2010-12-15

    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the energy crisis through innovative use of the available but underutilised biowaste such as organic residues from maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane. Biogas technology is assumed to have the capacity to economically and sustainably convert these vast amounts of biowaste into renewable energy, thereby replacing the unsustainable fossil energy sources, and reducing dependency on fossil fuels. However, the total energy potential of biogas production from crop residues available in Kenya has never been evaluated and quantified. To this end, we selected five different types of residues (maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane) from Kenya and evaluated their energy potential through biomethane potential analysis at 30 C and a test time of 30 days. The specific methane yields for maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane residues obtained under batch conditions were respectively 363, 271, 365, 67 and 177 m{sup 3} per tonne volatile solids. In terms of energy potential, maize, cotton and barley residues were found to be better substrates for methane production than tea and sugarcane residues and could be considered as potential substrates or supplements for methane production without compromising food security in the country. The evaluated residues have a combined national annual maximum potential of about 1313 million cubic meters of methane which represent about 3916 Gigawatt hour (GWh) of electricity and 5887 GWh of thermal energy. The combined electrical potential is equivalent to 73% of the country's annual power production of 5307 GWh. Utilization of the residues that are readily available on a 'free on site' basis for energy production could substitute

  12. Effective potential models for hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Lucha, Wolfgang; Schoberl, Franz F

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these lectures is to give a self-contained introduction to nonrelativistic potential models, to their formulation as well as to their possible applications. At the price of some lack of (in a mathematical sense) rigorous derivations, we try to give a feeling and understanding for the simplest conceivable method to extract the explicit form of the forces acting between quarks from the interplay between experimental observations and theoretical considerations. According to this spirit, we demonstrate, in detail, how to obtain the underlying Hamiltonian and how to determine the Lorentz structure of the quark--(anti-)quark interaction potential from well-established experimental facts.

  13. Effective potential models for hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these lectures is to give a self-contained introduction to nonrelativistic potential models, to their formulation as well as to their possible applications. At the price of some lack of (in a mathematical sense) rigorous derivations, we try to give a feeling and understanding for the simplest conceivable method to extract the explicit form of the forces acting between quarks from the interplay between experimental observations and theoretical considerations. According to this spirit, we demonstrate, in detail, how to obtain the underlying Hamiltonian and how to determine the Lorentz structure of the quark-(anti-)quark interaction potential from well-established experimental facts. (author)

  14. Diatomic interaction potential theory applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodisman, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Diatomic Interaction Potential Theory, Volume 2: Applications discusses the variety of applicable theoretical material and approaches in the calculations for diatomic systems in their ground states. The volume covers the descriptions and illustrations of modern calculations. Chapter I discusses the calculation of the interaction potential for large and small values of the internuclear distance R (separated and united atom limits). Chapter II covers the methods used for intermediate values of R, which in principle means any values of R. The Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction schemes des

  15. Anisotropic Inflation with General Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Jiaming; Qiu, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies in recent observational data indicate that there might be some "anisotropic hair" generated in an inflation period. To obtain general information about the effects of this anisotropic hair to inflation models, we studied anisotropic inflation models that involve one vector and one scalar using several types of potentials. We determined the general relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the fraction of the vector and scalar fields, and concluded that the anisotropies behave independently of the potentials. We also generalized our study to the case of multi-directional anisotropies.

  16. Bitcoin's Potential for Going Mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream. In so doing, it elaborates the potential and obstacles of the Bitcoin system and what it would take for it to go mainstream. A cross-cutting discussion provides a helicopter view and encompasses the technical, economic, soci

  17. High Potentials: A CEO Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Jeanine

    2007-01-01

    Finding high potentials has been identified as one of the major challenges for society and for higher education. But how does one find the talented individuals who will design the future of society? Can and should universities cooperate or compete with business and industry for these talents? Three CEOs reflect on this worldwide competition for…

  18. Ionization Potentials for Isoelectronic Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Noam

    1988-01-01

    Presents a quantitative treatment of ionization potentials of isoelectronic atoms. By looking at the single-electron view of calculating the total energy of an atom, trends in the screening and effective quantum number parameters are examined. Approaches the question of determining electron affinities. (CW)

  19. EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL AND ITS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л.І. ВОРОТІНА

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  In the article the basic problems of the use of labor potential and certain directions are considered in relation to development of strategic plans of defense of social interests of workers in the conditions of passing of Ukraine to the market relations. This article, summarizing the row of researches of author, is devoted the question of the use most mass from «on-the-road» resources – labor potential. In it the terms of injury of conformities to law are analyzed recreations of this potential, which, providing the current survival of economy, create limitation its stable development. This process is considered similarly as disparity of market transformations to social interests of most workers, as they unlike the financial factors of production are his conscious and active element. This foreshortening of recreation of labor potential within the framework of paradigm of reforms is still ignored, although neglect of nature of man and taking of it to the «aggregate which reflektiruet» can have investigation disintegration of his creative energy and by its transformation in social rejections.

  20. LHC Physics Potential versus Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u{bar d}, and qq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes.

  1. Smartphones: A Potential Discovery Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Starkweather, Wendy; Stowers, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The anticipated wide adoption of smartphones by researchers is viewed by the authors as a basis for developing mobile-based services. In response to the UNLV Libraries’ strategic plan’s focus on experimentation and outreach, the authors investigate the current and potential role of smartphones as a valuable discovery tool for library users.

  2. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-04-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  3. Variational approach for quarkonium potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variational method based on Coulomb and harmonic oscillator trial functions has been investigated in the context of single and superposition of power potentials which are commonly used for quarkonium systems. Ground state energies being upper bounds are calculated and emerge surprisingly close to their exact values considering the simplicity of the method

  4. Local optical potentials for mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Local optical models are very useful to describe many nuclear reactions, with the parameters often determined from fits to data. Elastic meson-nucleus scattering can be described by such potentials, but there is a strong ambiguity in the parameters [1], making the model hard to apply. Consideration of meson-nucleus inelastic scattering to collective states can be described in the local DWBA, built on local optical models. If the parameters of the optical potential are varied so as to find simultaneous agreement with both elastic and inelastic scattering, the ambiguity is removed, and a unique local optical potential can be defined for mesons [2,3]. The methods used to determine these parameters, examples of the fits and the meaning of the results will be explained. The result is a widely usable set of parameters in a simple local optical potential for pion and kaon interactions with nuclei, found to describe these reactions over a wide range of beam energies and nuclear masses. This accomplishment should allow a wider range of nuclear reaction models to include mesons in a simple way

  5. New potentials for conformal mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find under some mild assumptions that the most general potential of one-dimensional conformal systems with time-independent couplings is expressed as V = V0 + V1, where V0 is a homogeneous function with respect to a homothetic motion in configuration space and V1 is determined from an equation with source a homothetic potential. Such systems admit at most an SL(2,R) conformal symmetry which, depending on the couplings, is embedded in Diff(R) in three different ways. In one case, SL(2,R) is also embedded in Diff(S1). Examples of such models include those with potential V = αx2 + βx−2 for arbitrary couplings α and β, the Calogero models with harmonic oscillator couplings and nonlinear models with suitable metrics and potentials. In addition, we give the conditions on the couplings for a class of gauge theories to admit a SL(2,R) conformal symmetry. We present examples of such systems with general gauge groups and global symmetries that include the isometries of AdS2 × S3 and AdS2 × S3 × S3 which arise as backgrounds in AdS2/CFT1. (paper)

  6. Revisiting double Dirac delta potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zafar; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Mayank; Sharma, Vibhu

    2016-07-01

    We study a general double Dirac delta potential to show that this is the simplest yet still versatile solvable potential to introduce double wells, avoided crossings, resonances and perfect transmission (T = 1). Perfect transmission energies turn out to be the critical property of symmetric and anti-symmetric cases wherein these discrete energies are found to correspond to the eigenvalues of a Dirac delta potential placed symmetrically between two rigid walls. For well(s) or barrier(s), perfect transmission (or zero reflectivity, R(E)) at energy E=0 is non-intuitive. However, this has been found earlier and called the ‘threshold anomaly’. Here we show that it is a critical phenomenon and we can have 0≤slant R(0)\\lt 1 when the parameters of the double delta potential satisfy an interesting condition. We also invoke a zero-energy and zero curvature eigenstate (\\psi (x)={Ax}+B) of the delta well between two symmetric rigid walls for R(0)=0. We resolve that the resonant energies and the perfect transmission energies are different and they arise differently.

  7. Health Educational Potentials of Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising and...... analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented....

  8. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  9. Health Educational Potentials of Technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising and analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented.

  10. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

    2014-09-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  11. Zika: Fighting a Potential Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-01-01

    As Zika became an emerging threat, Texas scrambled to coordinate a prevention-and-response strategy against potential local transmission. TMA urged lawmakers in Washington, D.C., to agree on a funding package to combat the spread of Zika. PMID:27532808

  12. Geothermal heat. Potential, danger, efficiency; Erdwaerme. Potential, Gefahr, Nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbuero Timmer Reichel GmbH, Haan (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the potential, danger and utilization of geothermal heat. Geothermal heat promises the solution of numerous energy problems. From the use of near-surface layers which substantially are affected by enviromental impacts such as solar radiation up to the depth use of the heat flow from the interior of the earth, there exist very different energy sources which are to be considered separately for each application.

  13. The hydrogeothermal potential of Southern Hesse; Das hydrogeothermische Potential Suedhessens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzer, C.; Fluhrer, S.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    The paper investigates rock series suited as storage media and the temperature distribution in the subsurface of Southern Hesse. It gives an idea of the possibilities for hydrogeothermal energy use in the area. The densily populated Rhein-Main-region provides a good demand potential for geothermal heat. A substantially elevated geothermal gradient of about 60 K/km as compared to the continental average of 30 K/km could be demonstrated in the northern part of the Upper Rhine Graben. Thermal anomalies could be localised. The Rotliegend-layers (Perm) provide the highest geothermal ressources in the region. In more shallow depth, the Hydrobia layers (Teritary) show reasonable values. To the north, the potential of these series decreases. Hence hydrogeothermal energy use should not be considered in the northern part of Southern Hesse. The highest potential can be expected from the Rotliegend layers in the area of Stockstadt and Biebesheim. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung geht auf die moeglichen Speichergesteine und die Temperaturverteilung im Untergrund Suedhessens ein und gibt einen ersten Eindruck von den Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie in der Region. Fuer geothermische Waerme besteht im dicht besiedelten Rhein-Main-Gebiet eine gute Abnehmerstruktur. Im noerdlichen Oberrheingraben konnte im Mittel ein deutlich erhoehter Temperaturgradient von etwa 60 K/km gegenueber dem kontinentalen Krustendurchschnittswert von 30 K/km nachgewiesen werden. Waemeanomalien wurden lokalisiert. Die Rotliegendschichten weisen im untersuchten Gebiet eindeutig die hoechsten Ressourcen auf. In geringerer Tiefenlage erzielen die Hydrobienschichten noch beachtliche Werte. Nach Norden nimmt das Potential der Schichten ab. Daher ist von einer Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie im noerdlichen Bereich Suedhessens eher abzuraten. Die hoechsten Ressourcen in Suedhessen sind im Bereich von Stockstadt und Biebesheim in den Rotliegenschichten zu erwarten. (orig.)

  14. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariño Arturo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity of a country; (b the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a identifying

  15. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    industrial paradigm of standardization, have been put forward. This development is carried forward by computers and digital fabrication, but has yet to find its way into the production of building components. With regards to concrete casting, however, existing research do offer advancement towards an...... increased customisation of casting moulds. The hypothesis of this research is that the techniques used in this research do not fully address the tectonic potentials of concrete which gives rise to the primary research question: Is it possible to enhance existing or develop new concrete casting techniques...... which allows for individualisation and resource optimisation, while matching or enhancing the tectonic potentials found in existing, repetitive concrete casting techniques? The research is comprised of two modes of inquiry: an empirical study of contemporary casting methods and subsequently six case...

  16. Linear inflation from quartic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti

    2016-01-01

    We show that linear inflation appears as an attractor solution in the Coleman-Weinberg inflation provided the inflaton has a non-minimal coupling to gravity and the Planck scale is dynamically generated. Thus linear inflation appears in the context of a well-defined quantum field theory framework from quartic potentials without introducing any {\\it ad hoc} interaction or unbounded scalar potential by hand. The minimal scenario has only one free parameter -- the inflaton's non-minimal coupling to gravity -- that determines all physical parameters such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the reheating temperature of the Universe. Should the more precise future measurements of inflationary parameters point towards linear inflation, the dynamical origin of inflation would be strongly supported.

  17. The potential of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigus, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

  18. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  19. Translating barriers into potential improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Hansen, Karina Birch; Valsdottir, Thora;

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore potential barriers to seafood consumption by The aim of this study is to explore potential barriers to seafood consumption by young adults and the parents of young children. Knowledge of these barriers will be used to assist the development of new....... Practical implications: Inputs for NPD related to convenience, attractiveness, quality, Inputs for NPD related to convenience, attractiveness, quality, trustworthiness, knowledge and requirements about seafood preparation are discussed. Originality/value: The present study combines qualitative methods to...... lead to practical input The present study combines qualitative methods to lead to practical input for NPD focusing on overcoming the barriers that keep consumers from choosing existing healthy seafood products. The importance of the consumers' confidence in their ability to successfully prepare a...

  20. In plant corrosion potential monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of in plant redox and corrosion potential monitoring in light water reactors are given. All examples are from reactors in Sweden. The measurements have either been performed in side-stream autoclaves connected to the reactor systems by sampling lines, or in-situ in the system piping itself. Potential monitoring can give quite different results depending upon the experimental method. For environments with small concentrations of oxidants sampling lines can introduce large errors. During such circumstances in-situ measurements are necessary. Electrochemical monitoring is a valuable technique as a complement to conventional water chemistry follow-up in plants. It can be used for water chemistry surveillance and can reveal unintentional and harmful water chemistry transients. (author). 15 figs

  1. Action Principle for Potential Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Frønsdal, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The restriction of hydrodynamics to non-viscous, potential (gradient, irrotational) flows is a theory both simple and elegant; a favorite topic of introductory textbooks. It is known that this theory (under the stated limitations) can be formulated as an action principle. It finds its principle application to adiabatic systems and cannot account for viscosity or dissipation. However, it can be generalized to include non-potential flows, as this paper shows. The new theory is a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian hydrodynamics, with an extension to thermodynamics. It describes adiabatic phenomena but does not account for viscosity or dissipation. Nevertheless, it is an approach within which quasi-static processes can be described. In the adiabatic context it appears to be an improvement of the Navier-Stokes equation, the principal advantage being a natural concept of energy in the form of a first integral of the motion, conserved by virtue of the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  2. Biomarkers of silicosis: Potential candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica dust is widely prevalent in the atmosphere and more common than the other types of dust, thus making silicosis the most frequently occurring pneumoconiosis. In India also, studies carried out by National Institute of Occupational Health have shown high prevalence of silicosis in small factories and even in nonoccupational exposed subjects. The postero-anterior chest radiographs remain the key tool in diagnosing and assessing the extent and severity of interstitial lung disease. Although Computed Tomography detects finer anatomical structure than radiography it could not get popularity because of its cost. On the basis of histological features of silicosis many potential biomarkers such as Cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 1, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Serum Copper, Fas ligand (FasL, etc. have been tried. However, further studies are needed to establish these potential biomarkers as true biomarker of silicosis.

  3. Introduction: Translating Potential into Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Emerging markets trigger great expectations. Many foreign multinationals are eager to exploit the entrepreneurial opportunities potentially related to less developed but fast growing markets. This is not a new phenomenon. Multinationals from more developed countries have for long searched for...... opportunities in less developed markets and have dealt with the related challenges. Foreign environments with different needs and capabilities, unstable institutions and policies, stark fluctuations in the macroeconomic environment and unrealistic expectations are just some of the obstacles for ‘turning...... potential into profits.’ The history of multinational enterprises (MNEs) knows many examples of economies with these characteristics similar to modern understandings of ‘emerging markets.’ This special issue analyzes foreign multinationals in emerging markets from a historical perspective. It seeks to...

  4. Lacasse with high redox potential

    OpenAIRE

    Maté, Diana M.; Valdivieso, Malena; Fernández, Layla; Alcalde Galeote, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to the directed evolution of a lacasse with high redox potential, functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, which has a high production rate, high activity and high heat stability. The invention relates to the amino acid sequence of the lacas se and to the nucleotide sequence that codes for said lacas se. The lacasse of the invention is suitable for use in different sectors: nano-biotechnology, the paper industry, bioremediation, the textile industry, the fo...

  5. Ethical potential in the enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis follows the importance of ethics in today's business environment. It examines what is the understanding of ethical principles and then their implementation in business. At the same time it critically assesses the impact of ethical perspectives on the example of a specific company. The aim of the study is to evaluate ethical potentials in the company from the perspective of the student's University of Economics. The bachelor thesis is divided into two main parts. The first...

  6. SRS Controlled-Potential Coulometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Savannah River Site has the analytical measurement capability to perform high-precision plutonium concentration measurements by controlled-potential coulometry. State-of-the-art controlled-potential coulometers were fabricated by the SRS Engineered Equipment and Systems Department and installed in the Analytical Laboratories'' process control laboratory. The Analytical Laboratories uses coulometry for routine accountability measurements of pure plutonium from the PUREX process and for verification of standard preparations used to calibrate other plutonium measurement systems routinely applied to process control, nuclear safety, and other accountability applications. The SRS Coulometer has a demonstrated measurement reliability of approximately 0.05 percent for 10 mg samples. The system has also been applied to the characterization of neptunium standard solutions with a comparable reliability. The SRS coulometer features: a patented current integration system; continuous electrical calibration versus Faraday''s Constants and Ohm''s Law; the control-potential adjustment technique for enhanced application of the Nernst Equation; a wide operating room temperature range; and a fully automated instrument control and data acquisition capability. The system has been operated for 10 years with minimal equipment failures and downtime. The coulometer and instrument controller have been periodically upgraded to remain current with available high-precision potential control and current integration components. A stability of 261 0.0015 percent RSD for the electronic calibration factor has been demonstrated. Most recently the system was converted from an Hewlett Packard computer platform to an IBM Computer Windows-based system. SRS Coulometers were installed at the Tokai-mura Reprocessing Facility in Japan in February 1999 and at the Mayak Production Association in Ozersk Russia in October 1998.'

  7. Value distribution and potential theory

    OpenAIRE

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    We describe some results of value distribution theory of holomorphic curves and quasiregular maps, which are obtained using potential theory. Among the results discussed are: extensions of Picard's theorems to quasiregular maps between Riemannian manifolds, a version of the Second Main Theorem of Nevanlinna for curves in projective space and non-linear divisors, description of extremal functions in Nevanlinna theory and results related to Cartan's 1928 conjecture on holomorphic curves in the ...

  8. Mismatch Negativity: Translating the Potential

    OpenAIRE

    JuanitaTodd

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with it...

  9. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnert B.

    2013-01-01

    The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by ...

  10. Hydropower potential of the Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Kosiński

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses hydropower potential of the Vistula River in view of the formal conditions for power generation in Poland. Having compared different sources, it is shown that the Vistula hydropower infrastructure and the social/economic/environmental benefits thereof and public safety, ought to be given priority in government operations. Their neglect not only violates the Water Law provisions but also runs contrary to the national interest.

  11. Hydropower potential of the Vistula

    OpenAIRE

    Jędrzej Kosiński; Wacław Zdulski

    2013-01-01

    The present article discusses hydropower potential of the Vistula River in view of the formal conditions for power generation in Poland. Having compared different sources, it is shown that the Vistula hydropower infrastructure and the social/economic/environmental benefits thereof and public safety, ought to be given priority in government operations. Their neglect not only violates the Water Law provisions but also runs contrary to the national interest.

  12. Beautiful, but also potentially invasive

    OpenAIRE

    Lipták Boris; Vitázková Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of non-indigenous exotic species to new areas, where they may establish viable populations and become invasive, is a considerable problem in the protection of nature worldwide, as these species may alter the indigenous species population structure and potentially even decrease the biodiversity. The European fauna underwent through major negative changes on the continent and nowadays, it experiences another new treat, represented by the expanding aquarium pet trade, and with it, a...

  13. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage. PMID:22932387

  14. Dirac solutions for quaternionic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the quaternionic Dirac equation is solved for quaternionic potentials, iV0+jW0. The study shows two different solutions. The first solution contains particles and anti-particles and leads to the diffusion, tunneling and Klein energy zones. The complex limit is recovered from this solution. The second solution, which does not have a complex counterpart, can be seen as a V0-antiparticle or |W0|-particle.

  15. ADVERGAMES: CHARACTERISTICS, LIMITATIONS AND POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Advergames represent a new advertising concept that uses Internet technology to implement viral marketing campaigns. Despite the potential of this interactive advertising method, very few academic studies have been initiated to investigate the characteristics of advergames, and their influence on consumers’ perceptions and behaviour. Using secondary data, this paper attempts to evaluate the characteristics of effective advergames, and to analyse the effect of advergames on players’ perceptions and behaviour.

  16. Study of Nonlocal Optical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally known that nuclear optical potentials are theoretically expected to be non-local.The non-locality arises from the exchange of particles between the projectile and target and from coupling tonon-elastic channels.This non-locality was first introduced by Frahn and Lemmer,and developed further by Perey and Buck(PB).The kernel is of the form

  17. Amplitude recruitment of cochlear potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingqi; SUN Wei; SUN Jianhe; YU Ning; JIANG Sichang

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from outer hair cells (OHC) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were recorded from scala media (SM) in three turn of guinea pig cochlea,the compound action potential (CAP) were recorded at the round window (RW) before and after the animal were exposed to white noise. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties with “saduration” of Input/output (I/O) function of OHC AC recepter potential and CM were founded; the nonlinear properties with “Low”, “Platean” and “high” of CAP also were investigated. After explosion, the threshold shift of CAP has about 10 dB. The I/O of OHC responses and CM were changed in a linearizing (i.e., nonlinearity loss), the “platean” of I/O CAP disappeared and the growth rate of CAP amplitude were larger than before explosion. The response amplitude recruitment of OHC appears to result from reduction in gain (i.e., hearing loss); It was due to the nonlinear growth function of OHC receptor potentials was changed in linearzing that the basilar membrance motion was changed in linearizing. Since intensity coding in the inner ear depends on an interactions of nonlinear basilar membrance and nerve fibers. So that it must lead to a linearizing of CAP as input responses.

  18. Neuronal avalanches and coherence potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenz, D.

    2012-05-01

    The mammalian cortex consists of a vast network of weakly interacting excitable cells called neurons. Neurons must synchronize their activities in order to trigger activity in neighboring neurons. Moreover, interactions must be carefully regulated to remain weak (but not too weak) such that cascades of active neuronal groups avoid explosive growth yet allow for activity propagation over long-distances. Such a balance is robustly realized for neuronal avalanches, which are defined as cortical activity cascades that follow precise power laws. In experiments, scale-invariant neuronal avalanche dynamics have been observed during spontaneous cortical activity in isolated preparations in vitro as well as in the ongoing cortical activity of awake animals and in humans. Theory, models, and experiments suggest that neuronal avalanches are the signature of brain function near criticality at which the cortex optimally responds to inputs and maximizes its information capacity. Importantly, avalanche dynamics allow for the emergence of a subset of avalanches, the coherence potentials. They emerge when the synchronization of a local neuronal group exceeds a local threshold, at which the system spawns replicas of the local group activity at distant network sites. The functional importance of coherence potentials will be discussed in the context of propagating structures, such as gliders in balanced cellular automata. Gliders constitute local population dynamics that replicate in space after a finite number of generations and are thought to provide cellular automata with universal computation. Avalanches and coherence potentials are proposed to constitute a modern framework of cortical synchronization dynamics that underlies brain function.

  19. Potentiality, Actuality, and Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Koznjak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a possible interpretative value of Aristotle’s fundamental ontological doctrine of potentiality (δύναµις and actuality (ἐνέργεια is considered in the context of operationally undoubtedly the most successful but interpretatively still controversial theory of modern physics – quantum mechanics – especially regarding understanding the nature of the world, the phenomena of which it describes and predicts so successfully. In particular, beings of the atomic world are interpreted as real potential beings (δυνάµει ὄντα actualized by the measurement process in appropriate experimental arrangement, and the problem of actual beings (ἐνεργείᾳ ὄντα of the atomic world (better known as the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered in the context of Aristotle’s threefold requirement for the priority of actuality over potentiality – in time (χρόνος, definition or knowledge (λόγος, and substantiality (οὐσία.

  20. Prodigiosin and its potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darshan, N; Manonmani, H K

    2015-09-01

    Since a decade, there has been a strong consumer demand for more natural products. This has augmented inclination towards substitution of synthetic colorants with natural pigments. Natural pigments not only have the capacity to increase the marketability of products, they also demonstrate valuable biological activities as antioxidants and anticancer agents. There is a long history of exploitation of natural products produced by bacteria as sources of pharmaceutically important, bioactive compounds. Among natural pigments, pigments from microbial sources are potentially suitable alternatives to synthetic pigments. The red pigment prodigiosin (PG) has unusual properties, which have long been documented. The red-pigmented prodiginines are bioactive secondary metabolites produced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Prodigiosins are characterized by a common pyrrolyl pyrromethene skeleton, and the biological role of these pigments in the producer organisms remains unclear. Bacterial prodigiosins and their synthetic derivatives are effective proapoptotic agents against various cancer cell lines, with multiple cellular targets including multi-drug resistant cells with little or no toxicity towards normal cell lines. However, research into the biology of pigment production will stimulate interest in the bioengineering of strains to synthesize useful prodiginine derivatives. This review article highlights the characteristics and potential applications of prodigiosin pigment from Serratia as prodigiosins are real potential therapeutic drugs. PMID:26344956

  1. Cannabinoids and their medicinal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Tikoo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L preparations have been used therapeutically since many years. Inspite of their medicinal value, the danger of its abusive potential led to the ban on its use in clinical practice in many countries. The recent research and in depth knowledge about the cannabinoid system which throw a light on their disease management potential has paved way for the cannabinoids to become a new therapeutic focus of attention. Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors which include CB1, predominantly expressed in the brain and CB2 which is primarily found in the cells of the immune system. Despite the addictive properties of cannabis, the therapeutic value of cannabinoids is too high to be put aside. Numerous diseases such as anorexia, pain, inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, hepatic disorders, skin related diseases, respiratory disorders like asthma and eye diseases like glaucoma have suggested cannabinoid agonists/ antagonists/ cannabinoids related compounds as potential treatment options. Developments of new specific ligands for the cannabinoid receptors are now underway and it needs to be seen, if in future, they can prove to be a boon for the medical world. The paper reviews the current understanding of the cannabinoid receptors, their ligands and their possible role in various diseases supported by preclinical and clinical studies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 48-59

  2. The electrostatic potential of a periodic lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Vaman, G.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the electrostatic potential of a periodic lattice of arbitrary extended charges by using the Cartesian multipole formalism. This method allows the separation of the long-range potential from the contact potential (potential on the source). We write both the electrostatic potential and the interaction energy as convergent sums in the reciprocal space.

  3. New methods in potential theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyev, B. P.

    2011-09-01

    A theory of equigravitating bodies by which external force fields of volumetric axially symmetric figures can be represented by unitary integrals is developed. This theory is being developed in three directions. The first is connected with the proof of the existence of equigravitating line segments. Such line segments can have both real and imaginary distributions of density; however, the mass and external potential remain real values. The ends of line segments coincide with special points (these are cusp points on the surfaces or special points of the analytical continuation of the external potential inside the body). At two special points, the body has only one line equigravitating segment, otherwise the line segments are compound or form equigravitating "skeletons." At the isolated special points, external gravitational fields can be presented by a set of line segments and mass points. The second direction is based on a representation of the external gravitational field of volumetric axially symmetric figures with an equator plane by means of potentials of flat round disks. Such disks are obtained on the line segments with symmetric density distributions. The return is always true: for homogeneous or any nonuniform round disk, it is possible to find an equigravitating line segment. It manages to construct chains of "spheroid-disk-line segment" equigravitating bodies. The third direction of this theory is connected with the development and expansion on the scope of the method of confocal transformations. This method is modified and applied not only to continuous homogeneous ellipsoids, but also to non-uniform stratified ellipsoids with a stratification of the general type, as well as to homogeneous and nonuniform shells. Any elementary or thick ellipsoidal shells (and continuous nonuniform stratified ellipsoids) connected by special confocal transformations equigravitate each other.

  4. Cosmology and the Sinusoidal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2006-06-01

    The nature of dark matter (and dark energy) remains a mystery. An alternative is being explored by several scientists: changing Newton's (and Einstein's) field equations. The sinusoidal potential is the latest attempt[1]. Here the gravitational law is alternately attractive and repulsive:φ = -GM cos(kor)/r, where λo=2π/ko = 1/20 of the distance from the sun to the center of the Milky Way. The proposal accommodates several structural features of the Milky Way including, paradoxically, its spiral shape and flat rotation curve. The sinusoidal potential's unique feature is strong galactic tidal forces (dg/dr). These may explain why the new planetoid Sedna is securely between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud and why distant comets are more influenced by galactic tides that are in the r, rather than the z-direction.At this meeting I discuss the consequences of the sinusoidal potential for cosmology. Here the alternation of attraction and repulsion gives (i) an open universe, and (ii) gravitational lensing which is usually weak, but occasionally very strong. An open universe is one that, asymptotically, has a size R which varies directly as time t. The open universe conflicts both with the old Einstein-deSitter model (R α t2/3} and the new accelerating one. The evidence for an accelerating universe decisively rejects the Einstein-deSitter model. The rejection of an open (or empty) universe is less secure. This rejection is influenced by the different ways the groups studying the brightness of supernovae use the HST. Surprising additional inputs include neutrino masses, the equivalence principle, LSB galaxies, and "over-luminous" Sn1a. I thank Mostafa Jon Dadras and Patrick Motl for early help and John Cumalat for continual support. [1] D.F. Bartlett, "Analogies between electricity and gravity", Metrologia 41, S115-S124 (2004).

  5. Potential neuroprotective effects of cinnamon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Crews Stavinoha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases involves complex interactions between multiple mechanisms, including but not limited to oxidative stress, inflammation, and proteotoxicity, which have yet to be ameliorated by pharmaceutical drugs with single targets. Natural products have been recognized for their health promoting effects for thousands of years. Plants produce a vast collection of secondary products, such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and terpenes that have shown health benefits in a variety of conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the search for more effective and safe treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases, several dietary sources of phytochemicals have been investigated. Historical usage in traditional medicine, along with modern research has identified several key products with potential benefits in neurodegenerative diseases. Among the dietary sources, cinnamon shows particular merit as a therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence suggesting neuroprotective effects via modulation of various risk factors relevant to neurodegeneration has been reviewed here. Industrial relevance. Cinnamon has been cherished for its health-promoting effects for thousands of years. Today, while modern medicine provides critical pharmaceutical agents that have assisted in ameliorating many diseases and extended the average lifespan significantly in the past century, these agents are associated with many side effects and expenses. As such, the search for efficient therapies with limited side effects is a significant target of research. Cinnamon, as a rich source of phytochemicals and long history in traditional medicine, has been a popular spice in recent decades for investigations elucidating its health-promoting effects. This review evaluates the therapeutic potential of cinnamon in ameliorating the risk factors responsible for the development

  6. Energy intensities: Prospects and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous chapter, the author described how rising activity levels and structural change are pushing toward higher energy use in many sectors and regions, especially in the developing countries. The extent to which more activity leads to greater energy use will depend on the energy intensity of end-use activities. In this chapter, the author presents an overview of the potential for intensity reductions in each sector over the next 10-20 years. It is not the author's intent to describe in detail the various technologies that could be employed to improve energy efficiency, which has been done by others (see, for example, Lovins ampersand Lovins, 1991; Goldembert et al., 1987). Rather, he discusses the key factors that will shape future energy intensities in different parts of the world, and gives a sense for the changes that could be attained if greater attention were given to accelerate efficiency improvement. The prospects for energy intensities, and the potential for reduction, vary among sectors and parts of the world. In the majority of cases, intensities are tending to decline as new equipment and facilities come into use and improvements are made on existing stocks. The effect of stock turnover will be especially strong in the developing countries, where stocks are growing at a rapid pace, and the Former East Bloc, where much of the existing industrial plant will eventually be retired and replaced with more modern facilities. While reductions in energy intensity are likely in most areas, there is a large divergence between the technical and economic potential for reducing energy intensities and the direction in which present trends are moving. In the next chapter, the author presents scenarios that illustrate where trends are pointing, and what could be achieved if improving energy efficiency were a focus of public policies. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussavi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  8. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  9. "Human potential" and progressive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child’s human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault’s notion of ‘dispositifs’ and the ‘elements of history’, encircling a complex transformation...... of continuity and discontinuity of progressive pedagogy. The Danish context is identified as being part of an international and scientific enlightenment movement circulating in, e.g., the New Education Fellowship (NEF). The cultural constructs embedded in progressivism are clarified in the article...

  10. Scientific Potential of Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B; Acernese, F; Andersson, P Amaro-Seoane N; Arun, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsuglia, M; Beveridge, M Beker N; Birindelli, S; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Bulik, T; Calloni, E; Cella, G; Mottin, E Chassande; Chelkowski, S; Chincarini, A; Clark, J; Coccia, E; Colacino, C; Colas, J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S; Danzmann, K; Salvo, R De; Dent, T; Rosa, R De; Fiore, L Di; Virgilio, A Di; Doets, M; Fafone, V; Falferi, P; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Friedrich, D; Fulda, P; Gair, J; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Glampedakis, K; Gräf, C; Granata, M; Grote, H; Guidi, G; Gurkovsky, A; Hammond, G; Hannam, M; Harms, J; Heinert, D; Hendry, M; Heng, I; Hennes, E; Hild, S; Hough, J; Husa, S; Huttner, S; Jones, G; Khalili, F; Kokeyama, K; Kokkotas, K; Krishnan, B; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Lück, H; Majorana, E; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Martin, I; Michel, C; Minenkov, Y; Morgado, N; Mosca, S; Mours, B; Müller--Ebhardt, H; Murray, P; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Oshaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Palomba, C; Paoli, A; Parguez, G; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pinard, L; Plastino, W; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Prato, M; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabeling, D; Racz, I; Rapagnani, P; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Rezzolla, L; Ricci, F; Richard, F; Rocchi, A; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Santamaría, L; Sassolas, B; Schnabe, R; Schwarz, C; Seidel, P; Sintes, A; Somiya, K; Speirits, F; Strain, K; Strigin, S; Sutton, P; Tarabrin, S; Thüring, A; Brand, J van den; Veggel, M van; Broeck, C van den; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Vyatchanin, S; Willke, B; Woan, G; Yamamoto, K

    2011-01-01

    Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope (ET) is a design study funded by the European Commission to explore the technological challenges of and scientific benefits from building a third generation gravitational wave detector. The three-year study, which concluded earlier this year, has formulated the conceptual design of an observatory that can support the implementation of new technology for the next two to three decades. The goal of this talk is to introduce the audience to the overall aims and objectives of the project and to enumerate ET's potential to influence our understanding of fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  11. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  12. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Bounty Paul M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis, the detoxification of ammonia, and its conversion to glucose as well as being catabolized to produce energy. In addition to these physiological functions, arginine has been purported to have ergogenic potential. Athletes have taken arginine for three main reasons: 1 its role in the secretion of endogenous growth hormone; 2 its involvement in the synthesis of creatine; 3 its role in augmenting nitric oxide. These aspects of arginine supplementation will be discussed as well as a review of clinical investigations involving exercise performance and arginine ingestion.

  13. Potential Routes for Thermochemical Biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    García Haro, Pedro; Ollero de Castro, Pedro Antonio; Vidal-Barrero, José Fernando; Villanueva Perales, Ángel Luis

    2013-01-01

    This critical review focuses on potential routes for the multi-production of chemicals and fuels in the framework of thermochemical biorefineries. The up-to-date research and development in this field has been limited to BTL/G (biomass-to-liquids/gases) studies, where biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas) is converted into a single product with/without the co-production of electricity and heat. Simultaneously, the interest on biorefineries is growing but mostly refers to the biochemical proc...

  14. Potential blood biomarkers for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Carlos M; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Akerstrom, Finn; Padial, Luis R; Vivanco, Fernando; Gil-Dones, Felix; Barderas, Maria G

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and a major cause of acquired disability in adults. Despite advances in research during the last decade, prevention and treatment strategies still suffer from significant limitations, and therefore new theoretical and technical approaches are required. Technological advances in the proteomic and metabolomic areas, during recent years, have permitted a more effective search for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may allow for effective risk stratification and early diagnosis with subsequent rapid treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest candidate proteins and metabolites proposed as new potential biomarkers in stroke. PMID:22967080

  15. Multipole moments for embedding potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Morten Steen; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    and RNA/DNA, and of molecules in solution. Our aim is to develop a computational methodology for distributed multipole moments and their associated multipole polarizabilities which is accurate, computationally efficient, and with smooth convergence with respect to multipole order. As the first step...... toward this goal, we herein investigate different ways of obtaining distributed atom-centered multipole moments that are used in the construction of the electrostatic part of the embedding potential. Our objective is methods that not only are accurate and computationally efficient, but which can be...

  16. The cool potential of gluons

    CERN Document Server

    Peshier, Andre

    2015-01-01

    We put forward the idea that the quark-gluon plasma might exist way below the usual confinement temperature $T_c$. Our argument rests on the possibility that the plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions could reach a transient quasi-equilibrium with `over-occupied' gluon density, as advocated by Blaizot et al. Taking further into account that gluons acquire an effective mass by interaction effects, they can have a positive chemical potential and therefore behave similarly to non-relativistic bosons. Relevant properties of this dense state of interacting gluons, which we dub serried glue, can then be inferred on rather general grounds from Maxwell's relation.

  17. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...... reactions demonstrated an excellent operation stability and reusability of Lipozyme 435 and Lipozyme NS-40044 TLL with the developed process. This work indicated that the industrially refined waste DODs can be directly subjected to an enzymatic process for high efficacy recovery of phytosterol without any...

  18. POTENTIAL SYSTEM AS AN ECONOMIC CATEGORY

    OpenAIRE

    Babyna, O.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarized scientific approaches to the definition of «potential», defined and systematized potential components of the enterprise for its species and identified factors that shape potential.

  19. Bessel potential spaces in Beurling's distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Byung Keun

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the generalized Bessel potential spaces in the Beurling’s distributions. We give the topological characterizations of the generalized Bessel potential spaces and consider multiplication and convolution operations in the generalized Bessel potential spaces.

  20. Immunotherapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eZhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles or EVs is a term that encompasses all classes of secreted lipid membrane vesicles. Despite being scientific novelties, EVs are gaining importance as a mediator of important physiological and pathological intercellular activities possibly through the transfer of their cargo of protein and RNA between cells. In particular, exosomes the currently best characterized EVs have been notable for their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. Exosomes are nanometer-sized endosome-derived vesicles secreted by many cell types and their immunomodulatory potential is independent of their cell source. Besides immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, cancer and stem cells also secrete immunologically active exosomes that could influence both physiological and pathological processes. The immunological activities of exosomes affect both innate and adaptive immunity and include antigen presentation, T cell activation, T cell polarisation to Tregs, immune suppression and anti-inflammation. As such, exosomes carry much immunotherapeutic potential as a therapeutic agent and a therapeutic target.

  1. Potential-driven Galileon inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the models of inflation driven by the potential energy of an inflaton field φ, the covariant Galileon Lagrangian (∂φ)2□φ generally works to slow down the evolution of the field. On the other hand, if the Galileon self-interaction is dominant relative to the standard kinetic term, we show that there is no oscillatory regime of inflaton after the end of inflation. This is typically accompanied by the appearance of the negative propagation speed squared cs2 of a scalar mode, which leads to the instability of small-scale perturbations. For chaotic inflation and natural inflation we clarify the parameter space in which inflaton oscillates coherently during reheating. Using the WMAP constraints of the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio as well, we find that the self coupling λ of the potential V(φ) = λφ4/4 is constrained to be very much smaller than 1 and that the symmetry breaking scale f of natural inflation cannot be less than the reduced Planck mass Mpl. We also show that, in the presence of other covariant Galileon Lagrangians, there are some cases in which inflaton oscillates coherently even for the self coupling λ of the order of 0.1, but still the instability associated with negative cs2 is generally present

  2. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P J

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines. The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology. In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders. PMID:24006213

  3. Safety assessments for potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety Assessment of potential exposures have been carried out in major practices, namely: industrial radiography, gamma irradiators and electron accelerators used in industry and research, and radiotherapy. This paper focuses on reviewing safety assessment methodologies and using developed software to analyse radiological accidents, also review, and discuss these past accidents.The primary objective of the assessment is to assess the adequacy of planned or existing measures for protection and safety and to identify any additional measures that should be put in place. As such, both routine use of the source and the probability and magnitude of potential exposures arising from accidents or incidents should be considered. Where the assessment indicates that there is a realistic possibility of an accident affecting workers or members of the public or having consequences for the environment, the registrant or licensee should prepare a suitable emergency plan. A safety assessment for normal operation addresses all the conditions under which the radiation source operates as expected, including all phases of the lifetime of the source. Due account needs to be taken of the different factors and conditions that will apply during non-operational phases, such as installation, commissioning and maintenance. (author)

  4. Telemedicine in neurology: Underutilized potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra U

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in telecommunication which started with telephone lines, FAX, integrated service digital network (ISDN lines and now internet have provided an unprecedented opportunity for transfer of knowledge and sharing of information. The information can be used for overlapping applications in patient care, teaching and research. In medicine there is increasing utilization of telemedicine; radiology and pathology being regarded as mature specialties and emergency medicine as maturing specialties compared to other evolving specialties which include psychiatry, dermatology, cardiology and ophthalmology. Of the emergencies, status epilepticus and stroke have high potential for improving patient management. Administration of tPA was more frequent when carried out under telemedicine guidance. Telemedicine has great potential for medical education. The principles of education are in congruence with those of telemedicine and can be closely integrated in the existing medical education system. Our experience of telemedicine as a medical education tool is based on video conferencing with SCB Medical College, Cuttack. We had 30 sessions during 2001 to 2004 in which 2-3 cases were discussed in each session. The patients′ details, radiological and neurophysiological findings could be successfully transmitted. These conferences improved the knowledge of participants, provided an opportunity for a second opinion as well as modified the treatment decisions in some cases. The advances in telemedicine should be utilized more extensively in neurology, especially in emergency management, epilepsy and stroke patients as well, as it may have a role in neurophysiology and movement disorders.

  5. The effective crystal field potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mulak, J

    2000-01-01

    As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...

  6. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  7. Unleashing the Potential of SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption in the...... 500 largest Danish enterprises. The study is based on telephone interviews with ERP managers in 88.4 % of the "top 500" enterprises in Denmark. Based on the survey, the paper suggests the following four propositions: (i) ERP has become the pervasive infrastructure; (ii) ERP has become a contemporary...... technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP...

  8. Recycling potential of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines just how long one must contain radioactive titanium before it can be safely reprocessed. It was assumed that the spent first wall and blanket structural material would be completely reprocessed in a standard manufacturing facility capable of both primary and secondary fabrication. It was found that reprocessing could occur when the chemical hazard associated with inhalation was greater than the hazard associated with inhalating the same amount of radioactive species. This conclusion allowed the use of the threshold limiting value (TLV) to set a limit on the airborne concentration of the elements. Then by calculating the time required for that amount of material to decay to the same diluent factor indicated by the biological hazard potential (BHP) in air, the time for reprocessing was determined. Based on these assumptions, it was determined that it is feasible to think of titanium, and some of its alloying elements as being recyclable in a relatively short time period

  9. KOKILAKSHA: A POTENTIAL AYURVEDIC HERB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikam Dattatrya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology as well as pathology of diseases and also their treatments. Since, Ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant extracts based on traditional medicine. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants thus valuable on two parts-one of them is source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and second one is as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The whole plant of Astercantha longifolia is used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of sexual disorders, inflammatory disorders and urinary disorders.Astercantha longifolia mainly contains lupeol, stigmasterol, an isoflavone glycoside, an alkaloid and small quantities of uncharacterized bases. This paper explains the evidence based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethno botanical as well as ethno medicinal properties.

  10. Wind energy potential, Whitehorse, Yukon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion is presented of the nature of wind energy compared to other energy sources, and the potential for wind energy development in the Yukon. The energy density of wind is compared to that for hydraulic power water, and diesel fuel, illustrating that wind has an exceptionally low energy density in comparison with these sources. Recent development of wind power industry in Denmark is described. Merits of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are: ability to meet some of the increasing demand for energy; unaffected by fuel price increases; environmental superiority to hydroelectric projects; and increased reliability and economics. Negative aspects relate to the large size of WECS installations, need for storage media, and aesthetic concerns. Details are presented of boreal wind research including the Haeckel Hill wind recording station, data analysis and computer simulation, and financial analyses. While the immediate cost analysis is not favourable for wind power, it should become increasingly favourable with time. 3 refs., 1 tab

  11. Sustainability Potentials of Housing Refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sodagar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of choosing refurbishment over new build have recently been brought into focus for reducing environmental impacts of buildings. This is due to the fact that the existing buildings will comprise the majority of the total building stocks for years to come and hence will remain responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector. This paper investigates the total potentials of sustainable refurbishment and conversion of the existing buildings by adopting a holistic approach to sustainability. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and questionnaires have been used to analyse the environmental impact savings (Co2e, improved health and well-being, and satisfaction of people living in refurbished homes. The results reported in the paper are based on a two year externally funded research project completed in January 2013.

  12. Two-phase potential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Graham B.

    1989-01-01

    Some features of two recent approaches of two-phase potential flow are presented. The first approach is based on a set of progressive examples that can be analyzed using common techniques, such as conservation laws, and taken together appear to lead in the direction of a general theory. The second approach is based on variational methods, a classical approach to conservative mechanical systems that has a respectable history of application to single phase flows. This latter approach, exemplified by several recent papers by Geurst, appears generally to be consistent with the former approach, at least in those cases for which it is possible to obtain comparable results. Each approach has a justifiable theoretical base and is self-consistent. Moreover, both approaches appear to give the right prediction for several well-defined situations.

  13. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 ''Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work

  14. Scalar Potential Model of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John

    2008-04-01

    Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a particle--like model. A model of light is proposed wherein Newton's and Democritus's speculations are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). The SPM was tested by confrontation with observations of galaxy HI rotation curves (RCs), asymmetric RCs, redshift, discrete redshift, galaxy central mass, and central velocity dispersion; and with observations of the Pioneer Anomaly. The resulting model of light will be tested by numerical simulation of a photon behaving in a wave-like manner such as diffusion, interference, reflection, spectrography, and the Afshar experiment. Although the SPM light model requires more work, early results are beginning to emerge that suggest possible tests because a few predictions are inconsistent with both the current particle and wave models of light and that suggest a re-interpretation of the equations of quantum mechanics.

  15. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.

  16. The potential of the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jamie J; McDowell, Sarah E

    2012-06-01

    The internet and the World Wide Web have changed the ways that we function. As technologies grow and adapt, there is a huge potential for the internet to affect drug research and development, as well as many other aspects of clinical pharmacology. We review some of the areas of interest to date and discuss some of the potential areas in which internet-based technology can be exploited. Information retrieval from the web by health-care professionals is common, and bringing evidence-based medicine to the bedside affects the care of patients. As a primary research tool the web can provide a vast array of information in generating new ideas or exploring previous research findings. This has facilitated systematic reviewing, for example. The content of the web has become a subject of research in its own right. The web is also widely used as a research facilitator, including enhancement of communication between collaborators, provision of online research tools (such as questionnaires, management of large scale multicentre trials, registration of clinical trials) and distribution of information. Problems include information overload, ignorance of early data that are not indexed in databases, difficulties in keeping web sites up to date and assessing the validity of information retrieved. Some web-based activities are viewed with suspicion, including analysis by pharmaceutical companies of drug information to facilitate direct-to-consumer advertising of novel pharmaceuticals. Use of these technologies will continue to expand in often unexpected ways. Clinical pharmacologists must embrace internet technology and include it as a key priority in their research agenda. PMID:22360652

  17. Cusp relation for the Pauli potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levämäki, H.; Nagy, Á.; Kokko, K.; Vitos, L.

    2014-12-01

    In orbital-free density functional theory, only a Schrödinger-like equation has to be solved for the square root of the electron density. In this equation, however, there is an extra potential in addition to the Kohn-Sham potential, the so-called Pauli potential. Cusp relations are now presented for this Pauli potential for spherically symmetric systems.

  18. The phenomenon of retarded potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logic simulation of process of time delay of potential on a moved body - recipient resulted in the deduction about cyclic irregularity of time delay, that means, that the moved body makes longitudinal vibrations. A conclusion is drawn that length of longitudinal vibrations depending from three variable: the law of interaction, spacing interval between bodies of interaction and phase velocity looks like: λ=Hvph/R·F(R) (1), where λ- length of oscillations; H- factor of proportionality; vph - phase velocity of a body; R - distance between test and central bodies R(t); F(R) - law of interaction. So far as λ=vph/v, and R·F(R)=∫∞RF(R)dR=Emove, then formula (1) will be transformed into: Emove=Hvpv/λ=Hv. Thus, the energy of radiating having the similar law is only reflex of motion of a matter. The energy of oscillating motion can be expressed through linear maximal velocity. It is established, that different expressions of the same energy, result in the law of a view of a proportion for lengths of de Broglie's waves: It shows that de Broglie's waves - the actual oscillating motions of bodies, as demonstrate interference and diffraction pictures at a dissipation of the accelerated particles on crystalline gratings. This deduction has far-reaching consequences for finding - out of the cause bases of the laws of a nature. So, the quantum mechanics becomes partition of mechanics of solids and is comprises all interactions. The nuclear energy is not 'defect of mass', but is 'defect' of energy of oscillating motion: ΔE=Hv1-Hv2. Definition of real cause of nuclear energy is very important for construction of model of nuclei and for development of physics as the whole. The interconnection of the phenomenon of longitudinal vibrations of moved bodies, as result of irregularity of time delay of potential, with many other natural phenomena is looked through. By such, as: motion of planets and electrons on elliptical orbits, oscillating of dipping drips of a rain, gusts

  19. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  20. Natural factors as potential insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce environmental pollution, it is of great interest to find alternative methods for controlling insect pests. With the progress made in the isolation and identification of peptides and endogenous toxins from insects, the question can be raised whether or not these natural factors are potentially useful as insecticides. The aim of the present study was to test certain toxins and myotropic peptides isolated from insects for their usefulness as insecticides. Over twenty neuropeptides isolated from different insect species have been isolated and identified in the laboratory. To date, tests have been carried out on the influence of four neuropeptides on the food intake of L1 larvae of Mamestra brassicae. Also, the crude haemolymph, as well as some of the purified fractions of the Colorado potato beetle, have been tested. At least one of the neuropeptides and some of the compounds present in the haemolymph and the purified fraction D have a negative influence on the development of L1 larvae of M. brassicae after oral intake. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  1. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH3CCl3 and of CHF2Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  2. POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Amit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

  3. PAPERMAKING POTENTIAL OF CANOLA STALKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Enayati

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental study was carried out to explore the properties of canola stalks with regards to pulp and paper production. In this study the morphological properties, chemical composition, and soda pulping properties of canola stalks were investigated. The mean values of length, diameter, and cell wall thickness of canola stalks fibers were measured as 1.17 mm, 23.02 m, and 5.26 m, respectively. The morphological properties analysis indicated that despite the thicker cell wall, the morphological properties of canola stalks fibers were comparable to those of non-woods and hardwoods fibers. The holocelluloses, alpha-cellulose, lignin, and ash contents of canola stalks were determined to be 73.6, 42.0, 17.3, and 8.2 wt%, respectively. The hot water and dilute alkali extractives of canola stalks were determined as 18 and 46.1 wt%. In comparison to most other non-wood papermaking raw materials, soda pulping of canola stalks required higher chemical charge and cooking time. Soda pulping of canola stalks gave a low yield bleachable grade pulp. The strength properties of bleached canola stalks soda pulp appeared to be similar to those of common non-wood papermaking resources. The overall results showed that canola has a promising potential to be used in pulp and paper production.

  4. Topological insulators in random potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Andreas; Fehske, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities on the two-dimensional surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs). Modeling weak and strong TIs using a generic four-band Hamiltonian, which allows for a breaking of inversion and time-reversal symmetries and takes into account random local potentials as well as the Zeeman and orbital effects of external magnetic fields, we compute the local density of states, the single-particle spectral function, and the conductance for a (contacted) slab geometry by numerically exact techniques based on kernel polynomial expansion and Green's function approaches. We show that bulk disorder refills the surface-state Dirac gap induced by a homogeneous magnetic field with states, whereas orbital (Peierls-phase) disorder preserves the gap feature. The former effect is more pronounced in weak TIs than in strong TIs. At moderate randomness, disorder-induced conducting channels appear in the surface layer, promoting diffusive metallicity. Random Zeeman fields rapidly destroy any conducting surface states. Imprinting quantum dots on a TI's surface, we demonstrate that carrier transport can be easily tuned by varying the gate voltage, even to the point where quasibound dot states may appear.

  5. Photovoltaic energy potential of Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from a study concerning the potential of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Quebec to the year 2010. The different PV applications which are or will be economically viable in Quebec for the study period are identified and evaluated in comparison with the conventional energy sources used for these applications. Two penetration scenarios are proposed. One considers little change at the level of policies established for commercialization of PV sources, and the other considers certain measures which accelerate the implementation of PV technology in certain niches. While the off-grid market is already motivated to adopt PV technology for economic reasons, it is forecast that all encouragement from lowering costs would accelerate PV sales, offering a larger purchasing power to all interested parties. Above all, lowered PV costs would open up the network market. Photovoltaics would have access to a much larger market, which will accelerate changes in the very nature of the industry and bring with it new reductions in the costs of producing PV systems. 5 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  6. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Population research potentials in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, G

    1980-01-01

    There is a need in Africa to test prevailing theories and concepts in population studies to see how they apply to this culture. Most of the prevailing perspective on population issues can be influenced by development strategies and policies affecting demographic variables. So research designed to determine the longterm consequences of rural settlement policies on subsequent access to family planning or family planning policies are also needed, as are studies which zero in on the work and results of specific population projects. The following issues are considered worth special consideration in Africa, where the vast majority of women live in rural areas where family planning services will not reach for some time. The areas of investigation which seem most pertinent in sub-saharan Africa are: side effect of contraceptive devices and agents; infertility assessments, social and medical consequences of adolescent pregnancies, the means of offering effective population education in rural African areas, the possible effects of fertility control programs on demographic transition, and potential funding sources. PMID:12336771

  8. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  10. Potential biomonitors for atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undesirable influence of air pollution on the human health and the ecosystem has led to an increased interest in toxic emission monitoring programs. To fingerprint the countrywide and regional transboundary pollution profiles, extensive direct monitoring network is needed, which is very expensive and laborious. Plant leaves. Mosses and epiphytic lichens are regarded as potential alternate tools for monitoring levels of atmospheric pollution. Mosses and epiphytic lichens, unlike higher plants have no roots and waxy cuticle nor stomata; hence for mineral nutrition they are largely dependent on wet or dry deposition from the atmosphere. This unique feature has been exploited to predict the pollution levels of the areas in which they are grown by analyzing the embodied toxic elements. Sampling of such naturally growing bioindicators is relatively easier and no sophisticated equipment are needed. The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the response of such plants, when exposed in the vicinity of highly polluted areas and subsequently to confirm the agreement between elemental levels in bioindicators and those measured in atmospheric deposition collected directly with air samplers. INAA and AAS techniques were employed for multielement analysis of exposed samples. Definite influence of pollution on the studied bioindicators was observed for some of the heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Results obtained in this work indicate the feasibility of using Broussonetia Papyrifera levels and moss as bioindicators for environmental pollution monitoring. This pattern was also confirmed by analyzing the air particulate matters (APM) collected on filters using Gent air sampler. (author)

  11. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA

    2006-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  12. Potential doses from geological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many Geology departments in Universities and many private collectors have geological samples which contain examples of Uranium and Thorium salts. Many of these are from old collections and were collected from areas where the Uranium and Thorium content of the samples is very high. Aberdeen University holds such a collection which was having to be relocated and concentrated into a small room. During measurements taken during the introduction of measures to control the radon problem arising from the samples (which was not insignificant) it also became clear that a problem existed with regard to the potential finger dose to researchers w ho were to handle these samples frequently and possibly as a whole body dose to persons who were working adjacent to the radioactive samples on some of the non active rock samples. The paper will describe the dose rates measured round a wide variety of geological specimens. As well as the geological description of these samples a gamma spectral analysis has been carried out and the principle radionuclides present identified. These dose rates have been used to calculate the doses received during exposure scenarios of a variety of persons ranging from research workers handling the sources on a daily basis to people who may be keeping samples in a display cabinet in their homes. Suggested strategies for restricting these doses have been identified. The methodology of the measurement of the dose rates will be described and the dose rates measured presented. The gamma spectral analysis of the samples against the geological type will be shown. Under the different exposure scenarios maximum finger doses of sever al tens of mSv/y are easily achievable and it would be possible to get substantial doses from samples held in a display cabinet in a private home. These doses will be presented. (authors)

  13. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  14. Application potential of conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) represent a special class of weak materials with electronic and ionic conductivity. Chemical and physical properties are dependent on their redox state. These properties allow a wide application as functional coatings. At constant film conditions, ICPs can be used in the dry or wet state due to their electronic conductivity, due to their porous structure or due to their processibility in microstructuring processes. The production of conducting electrodes on electrolyte condensers and the through hole plating of printed circuit boards (PCBs) represent typical examples. In sensors and membranes, the pore structure is applied. The application of variable properties, however, is of much greater interest. It is based on the change of charge, electronic states, chemical composition and mechanical properties during the reversible redox process. In contrast to original expectations, small intercalation factors hinder the application in batteries or supercaps. For OLEDs, however, most problems seem to be solved. Application of switching hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties is proved for offset printing but not yet applied. Usually, the anodic doping is investigated. The correspondent cathodic doping opens additional applications. The application of ICPs in functional coatings requires special properties such as fast response (e.g. in ms), stability for 103 cycles for batteries and 106 switches for displays, and a constant potential of discharge for batteries. Moreover, the stability against corrosion, overoxidation and delamination has to be guaranteed. Chemical modification of the monomer allows wide variations of properties, but economic requirements limit the price of the monomer and, thereby, the thickness or quality of the coating

  15. Beautiful, but also potentially invasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipták Boris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of non-indigenous exotic species to new areas, where they may establish viable populations and become invasive, is a considerable problem in the protection of nature worldwide, as these species may alter the indigenous species population structure and potentially even decrease the biodiversity. The European fauna underwent through major negative changes on the continent and nowadays, it experiences another new treat, represented by the expanding aquarium pet trade, and with it, associated species (and disease introductions. Exotic freshwater crustaceans are one of the taxa widely incorporated in the business, counting a remarkable number of species. Recent records of the exotic marbled crayfish or Marmorkrebs (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis in German in open ecosystems in Slovakia pointed to human-mediated introductions associated with aquarium pet trade in the country. In this regard, a study of the aquarium pet trade both in expositions and shops and online was assessed. Several crustacean taxa are available both in pet trade exhibitions and online through the Internet. Altogether 26 different species were identified in the aquarium trade in Slovakia. These are Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii, P. alleni, Cherax quadricarinatus, C. destructor, C. holthuisi, C. peknyi, Cambarellus patzcuarensis and C. diminutus occurring in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia (n = 9. Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii and C. patzuarensis are the most common in this regard. There is also a quantity of other related taxa in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia, mainly Caridina spp. (n = 5, Neocaridina spp. (n = 4, Atyopsis moluccensis, Atya gabonensis, Arachnochium kulsiense and several taxa of exotic crabs (n = 5 belonging to three different genera (Cardiosoma, Geosesarma and Gecarinus present. Neocaridina davidi is identified as the most frequent in this regard. As some of the species can become established and form viable

  16. Therapeutic potential of atmospheric neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in humans. It has a very poor prognosis despite multi-modality treatments consisting of open craniotomy with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Recently, a new treatment has been proposed - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) - which exploits the interaction between Boron-10 atoms (introduced by vector molecules) and low energy neutrons produced by giant accelerators or nuclear reactors. Methods: The objective of the present study is to compute the deposited dose using a natural source of neutrons (atmospheric neutrons). For this purpose, Monte Carlo computer simulations were carried out to estimate the dosimetric effects of a natural source of neutrons in the matter, to establish if atmospheric neutrons interact with vector molecules containing Boron-10. Results: The doses produced (an average of 1 micro Gy in a 1 g tumour) are not sufficient for therapeutic treatment of in situ tumours. However, the non-localised yet specific dosimetric properties of 10B vector molecules could prove interesting for the treatment of micro-metastases or as (neo)adjuvant treatment. On a cellular scale, the deposited dose is approximately 0.5 Gy/neutron impact. Conclusion: It has been shown that BNCT may be used with a natural source of neutrons, and may potentially be useful for the treatment of micro-metastases. The atmospheric neutron flux is much lower than that utilized during standard NBCT. However the purpose of the proposed study is not to replace the ordinary NBCT but to test if naturally occurring atmospheric neutrons, considered to be an ionizing pollution at the Earths surface, can be used in the treatment of a disease such as cancer. To finalize this study, it is necessary to quantify the biological effects of the physically deposited dose, taking into account the characteristics of the incident particles (alpha particle and Lithium

  17. Potential wine ageing during transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, wineries have to satisfy the demand of consumers who wish to drink high quality wines from countries all over the world. To fulfill this request wines have to be transported, crossing thereby great distances from the place of production to the consumer country. At the Institute of Enology of Hochschule Geisenheim University examinations with White-, Rosé- and Red-Wines of different origins which had been transported over longer distances within Europe (Portugal, France, Italy to Germany by trucks were carried out. Shipping of wines was simulated in a climatized cabinet to analyze the influence on wine quality during this way and conditions of transportation. Time and temperature profiles were based on real transport situtations which were recorded during shipping from Germany to Japan using data loggers. White, Rosé and Red wines were transported during 6 to 8 weeks and then were analytically and sensorically compared to those which were stored at a constant temperature of 15 ∘C. Besides the effect of temperature, the movements and vibrations encountered by the wines were also examined. Analytically wines were analyzed for general analytical parameters with Fourier-Transformation-Infrared-Spectroscopie (FTIR, Colour differences (Spectralphotometrie and free and total sulfuric acid with Flow-Injection-Analysis (FIA. Sensory examinations with a trained panel were performed in difference tests in form of rankings and triangular tests. Summarizing the results from the different tests it could be found that transportation had an influence on the potential ageing of wines depending on the wine matrix. Especially high and varying temperatures during transportations over a longer distance and time had negative influences on wine quality. Also the movement of wine at higher temperatures had showed a negative effect whereas transport at cool temperatures even below 0 ∘C did not influence wine characteristics. Sophisticated

  18. Photon Physics Potential at ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Hisayuki

    2009-10-01

    The ALICE detector has been designed to study the strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In heavy-ion collisions, it is very critical to measure thermal photons, which are known to carry the temperature information of hot created matter. The thermal photon measurements at RHIC are suggesting the systematic study with better photon detectors at LHC. Furthermore, the suppression of high pT hadrons has provided the first strong signature of hot and dense partonic matter created in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. Therefore, the suppression behavior of various particle species, including photons, up to LHC energy, is a key observable for the study of the hot matter dynamics. The ALICE PHOton Spectrometer (PHOS) consists of 17920 PWO crystals and Avalanche Photo Diode (APD) covering a rapidity range of ±0.3 and an azimuthal range of 100^o. The fine segment structure and small Moliere radius allow to separate two photons from 0̂ decay at pT=30GeV/c with about 100% efficiency and at even higher pT with smaller efficiency. The decay photons from lower pT 0̂ is the largest background in measuring the thermal photons and can be tagged in a very efficient way with a good energy resolution (3%/√E(GeV)). The ALICE EMCAL consists of shashlik lead-scintillator sampling units covering a rapidity range of ±0.7 and an azimuthal range of 110^ o and sits in the opposite coverage azimuthally to PHOS. The jet measurements by EMCAL and other tracking detectors, especially when tagged by a direct photon in the opposite PHOS detector, represent a key probe for investigating jet quenching effects. In this presentation, physics potential with photon detectors at ALICE during the first physics run of LHC will be discussed. The construction and installation status of the photon detectors as well as their expected physics will be presented.

  19. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  20. Numerical path integration with Coulomb potential

    OpenAIRE

    Myrheim, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for quantum Monte Carlo simulation is presented, based on discretization of the action in the path integral, and a Gaussian averaging of the potential, which works well e.g. with the Coulomb potential.

  1. Lanczos potential and Jordan theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hamiltonian formulation of Jordan's theory of gravity is presented by means of the Lanczos' potential. The consequences of using this potential in gravity and in its interactions with other fields are discussed. (Author)

  2. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  3. A black potential for spin less particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatak, Ananya, E-mail: gananya04@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Hasan, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammadhasan786@gmail.com [ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore 560017 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani@bhu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-07-03

    We consider the most general non-Hermitian Hulthen potential to study the scattering of spin-less relativistic particles. The conditions for CC, SS and CPA are obtained analytically for this potential. We show that almost total absorption occurs for entire range of incidence energy for certain parameter ranges of the potential and hence term this as ‘black potential’. Time reversed of the same potential shows perfect emission for the entire range of particle energy. We also present the classical analog of this potential in terms of waveguide cross section. - Highlights: • Relativistic scattering properties of a spin zero particle due to most general non-Hermitian Hulthen potential are discussed. • Analytical conditions for CC, CPA and SS are obtained. • Broadband CPA is obtained for entire range of incidence energy. • Non-Hermitian Hulthen potential is parametrized in such a way to show broadband CPA and/or CC. • Waveguide analog of such potential is presented.

  4. Analytic three-loop static potential

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Roman N; Smirnov, Vladimir A; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We present analytic results for the three-loop static potential of two heavy quarks. The analytic calculation of the missing ingredients is outlined and results for the singlet and octet potential are provided.

  5. Coulomb Potentials between Spherical and Deformed Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gao-Long; LE Xiao-Yun; LIU Zu-Hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coulomb potentials for spherical-deformed reaction partners are calculated in terms of the double folding model as well as the conventional formulas. Our results show that the Coulomb potentials calculated with different approaches have quite different behaviours in the internal region of the potential. Because fusion process is sensitive to the barrier height and the internal part of the potential, the fusion excitation function, especially the fusion barrier distribution, should provide a strict test of the interaction potentiaLs. Therefore, we calculate the fusion excitation function and barrier distribution for the 16O+154 Sm system with different versions of the Coulomb potentials, in comparison with the experimental results. It is found that the fusion excitation function and barrier distribution of 16 O+154 Sm are obviously different for the different versions of the Coulomb potentials.By means of this comparison, we may conclude that the double folding model with the accurate approximate form can provide rather reasonable Coulomb potentials.

  6. Dexmedetomidine infusion and somatosensory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M; Beric, A; Bekker, A

    2001-10-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring requires information on the effects of anesthetic drugs because these drugs can directly alter evoked potentials, thus interfering with monitoring. We report on our evaluation of the effect of the recently introduced alpha2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, on the somatosensory evoked potentials in two patients undergoing cervico-occipital fusion. Our results suggest that, although dexmedetomidine can affect the later cortical peaks of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), consistent and reproducible potentials can be recorded. PMID:11733664

  7. Dynamics in Near-Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Candogan, Ozan; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Parrilo, Pablo A.

    2011-01-01

    Except for special classes of games, there is no systematic framework for analyzing the dynamical properties of multi-agent strategic interactions. Potential games are one such special but restrictive class of games that allow for tractable dynamic analysis. Intuitively, games that are "close" to a potential game should share similar properties. In this paper, we formalize and develop this idea by quantifying to what extent the dynamic features of potential games extend to "near-potential" ga...

  8. Potentiality States: Quantum versus Classical Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Diederik; D'Hooghe, Bart

    2012-01-01

    We identify emergence with the existence of states of potentiality related to relevant physical quantities. We introduce the concept of 'potentiality state' operationally and show how it reduces to 'superposition state' when standard quantum mechanics can be applied. We consider several examples to illustrate our approach, and define the potentiality states giving rise to emergence in each example. We prove that Bell inequalities are violated by the potentiality states in the examples, which,...

  9. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-01-01

    Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which de...

  10. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

  11. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  12. Effective pair potentials for spherical nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective description for rigid spherical nanoparticles in a fluid of point particles is presented. The points inside the nanoparticles and the point particles are assumed to interact via spherically symmetric additive pair potentials, while the distribution of points inside the nanoparticles is taken to be spherically symmetric and smooth. The resulting effective pair interactions between a nanoparticle and a point particle, as well as between two nanoparticles, are then given by spherically symmetric potentials. If overlap between particles is allowed, as can occur for some forms of the pair potentials, the effective potential generally has non-analytic points. It is shown that for each effective potential the expressions for different overlapping cases can be written in terms of one analytic auxiliary potential. Even when only non-overlapping situations are possible, the auxiliary potentials facilitate the formulation of the effective potentials. Effective potentials for hollow nanoparticles (appropriate e.g. for buckyballs) are also considered and shown to be related to those for solid nanoparticles. For hollow nanoparticles overlap is more physical, since this covers the case of a smaller particle embedded in a larger, hollow nanoparticle. Finally, explicit expressions are given for the effective potentials derived from basic pair potentials of power law and exponential form, as well as from the commonly used London–van der Waals, Morse, Buckingham, and Lennard-Jones potentials. The applicability of the latter is demonstrated by comparison with an atomic description of nanoparticles with an internal face centered cubic structure

  13. Deuteron potential using the noncritical holographic model

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Litao; Liu, Yongxin; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Deuteron has been studied using a noncritical holographic quantumchromodynamics model constructed in the six-dimensional Anti-de-Sitter supergravity background. The nucleus potential energy is calculated. The binding energy has been estimated as the minimum of the potential energy. The roles of various mesons in producing the deuteron potential energy are discussed in details.

  14. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  15. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H

    1983-01-01

    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  16. Global alpha-particle optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for a global optical potential for alpha-particles is described. It did not prove possible to find such a potential valid for a wide range of energies and nuclei, even treating the absorbing potential as an adjustable parameter for each nucleus. For practical purposes the best that can be done is to define an average potential, and such a potential is compared with a wide range of experimental data. Its energy variation is determined by fitting the total reaction cross-section. (author). 7 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  17. Polarization potentials in heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polarization potential is defined in terms of the Feshbach projection operator formalism to represent the effect upon the elastic channel of the coupling to non-elastic channels in heavy-ion scattering. The polarization potential represents coupling to specific surface degrees of freedom of the particular reaction considered and it is contrasted to the complementary global approaches for the volume potential such as the folding model and the proximity potential. The coupled channels method is used both as a source of exact model solutions for comparison with the various approximate potential forms and also as a numerical means of constructing trivially equivalent local potentials. The imaginary Coulomb polarization potential is due in lowest order to quadrupole coupling to the lowest collective 2+ state of a nucleus. It is considered in detail since it provides the insight of closed analytical forms in various approximations. Multistep coupling to higher states, energy loss and off-energy shell effects are also considered analytically. The real Coulomb polarization potential due to the virtual excitation of multipole giant resonances, and the polarization potential arising from relativistic corrections, are investigated in detail. Polarization potential components due to nuclear coupling are investigated numerically. Analytical cross section approaches are contrasted with the polarization potential approach and with coupled channels. (orig.)

  18. Effect of different potentials on anisotropic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two decades heavy ion collision (HIC) has became the most intensively developing field of nuclear physics to study the nuclear properties. One of the observable used to understand this kind of behavior is collective flow. At low energies, due to the dominance of attractive mean field collective flow becomes negative, which changes to some positive value with the increase in incident energy. The value of intermediate incident energy at which the flow vanishes and attains a zero is called the balance energy (Ebal). In the past few years collective flow and its disappearance has been studied widely. In the present paper, the effect of different potentials on Ebal is studied by using IQMD model, where the total interaction potential of a HIC is combination of Skyrme potential, Yukawa potential, Coulomb potential, momentum dependent potential and density dependent symmetry potential

  19. Quantum mechanics of potentials unbounded below

    CERN Document Server

    Dutt, Avik; Kar, Sayan; Parwani, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Quantum mechanics in one dimension, with potentials unbounded below, is studied using the asymptotic iteration method. After a brief introduction and a summary of known results, we focus on the cosh-sech potential, for which, we numerically obtain the eigen-spectrum and its variation with respect to the potential parameters. Thereafter, we look at the parametric variation of the transition wavelength between a bound state lying inside the valley of the potential and another appearing above the potential maximum. The purpose of this exercise is to suggest an experimentally viable method of confirming the existence of such unusual, above--maximum bound states. Finally, we construct a modified potential which is bounded or unbounded below, depending on the value of a parameter in the potential. We show how the spacing between certain energy levels gradually decrease as we tune the parameter to approach the value for which unboundedness arises. The link between degeneracy and unboundedness is thus established in ...

  20. Programmable Potentials: Approximate N-body potentials from coarse-level logic

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Gunjan S; Mezić, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic method for constructing an N-body potential, approximating the true potential, that accurately captures meso-scale behavior of the chemical or biological system using pairwise potentials coming from experimental data or ab initio methods. The meso-scale behavior is translated into logic rules for the dynamics. Each pairwise potential has an associated logic function that is constructed using the logic rules, a class of elementary logic functions, and AND, OR, and NOT gates. The effect of each logic function is to turn its associated potential on and off. The N-body potential is constructed as linear combination of the pairwise potentials, where the "coefficients" of the potentials are smoothed versions of the associated logic functions. These potentials allow a potentially low-dimensional description of complex processes while still accurately capturing the relevant physics at the meso-scale. We present the proposed formalism to construct coarse-grained potential models for three...

  1. Indoor radon risk potential of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of Hawaii indicates that the potential for Hawaii is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in Hawaii. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in Hawaii, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. (author)

  2. On transparent potentials: a Born approximation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the scattering inverse problem at fixed energy, a class of potentials transparent in Born approximation is obtained. All these potentials are spherically symmetric and are oscillating functions of the reduced radial variable. Amongst them, the Born approximation of the transparent potential of the Newton-Sabatier method is found. In the same class, quasi-transparent potentials are exhibited. Very general features of potentials transparent in Born approximation are then stated. And bounds are given for the exact scattering amplitudes corresponding to most of the potentials previously exhibited. These bounds, obtained at fixed energy, and for large values of the angular momentum, are found to be independent on the energy

  3. Enterprise Potential: Essence, Classification and Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turylo Anatolii M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers existing approaches to classification of the enterprise potential as an economic notion. It offers own vision of classification of enterprise potential, which meets modern tendencies of enterprise development. Classification ensures a possibility of a wider description and assessment of enterprise potential and also allows identification of its most significant characteristics. Classification of the enterprise potential is developed by different criteria: by functions, by resource support, by ability to adapt, by the level of detection, by the spectrum of taking into account possibilities, by the period of coverage of possibilities and by the level of use. Analysis of components of the enterprise potential allows obtaining a complete and trustworthy assessment of the state of an enterprise. Adaptation potential of an enterprise is based on principles systemacy and dynamism, it characterises possibilities of adjustment of an enterprise to external and internal economic conditions.

  4. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  5. One parameter model potential for noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenological one parameter model potential which includes s-d hybridization and core-core exchange contributions is proposed for noble metals. A number of interesting properties like liquid metal resistivities, band gaps, thermoelectric powers and ion-ion interaction potentials are calculated for Cu, Ag and Au. The results obtained are in better agreement with experiment than the ones predicted by the other model potentials in the literature. (author)

  6. Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthen potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gönül, B

    2000-01-01

    We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulth\\'{e}n potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated superymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of theHulth\\'{e}n potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.

  7. Visual evoked potentials in the horse

    OpenAIRE

    Ström, L.; Ekesten, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Electrical potentials generated in the central nervous system in response to brief visual stimuli, flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs), can be recorded non-invasively over the occipital cortex. FVEPs are used clinically in human medicine and also experimentally in a number of animal species, but the method has not yet been evaluated in the horse. The method would potentially allow the ophthalmologist and equine clinician to evaluate visual impairment caused by disorders affectin...

  8. Search for Tracker Potentials in Quintessence Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Johri, Vinod B.

    2001-01-01

    We report a significant finding in Quintessence theory that the the scalar fields with tracker potentials have a model-independent scaling behaviour in the expanding universe. So far widely discussed exponential,power law or hyperbolic potentials can simply mimic the tracking behaviour over a limited range of redshift. In the small redshift range where the variation of the tracking parameter $\\epsilon$ may be taken to be negligible, the differential equation of generic potentials leads to hyp...

  9. Light-triggered action potentials in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimierz Trębacz

    2014-01-01

    Special attention is paid in this paper to the criteria of the light-triggered action potential, namely the all-or-none law, propagation, the occurrence of refractory periods. Such action potentials have been recorded in Acetabularia mediterranea, Asplenium trichomanes, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Eremosphaera viridis and Concephalum conicum. In Acetabularia, action potentials are generated after sudden cessation of light stimuli of sufficient intensity. The depolarization phase of the action pot...

  10. Abstract Action Potential Models for Toxin Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, James; Khan, Taufiquar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robust methodology using mathematical pattern recognition schemes to detect and classify events in action potentials for recognizing toxins in biological cells. We focus on event detection in action potential via abstraction of information content into a low dimensional feature vector within the constrained computational environment of a biosensor. We use generated families of action potentials from a classic Hodgkin–Huxley model to verify our methodology and build...

  11. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site

  12. The $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Day, J P; Elhanafy, M; Smith, E; Woodhouse, R; Papp, Z

    2011-01-01

    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-$\\alpha$ resonance energies, experimental phase shifts and three-$\\alpha$ binding energies. We found that essentially a simple gaussian can provide a good description of two-$\\alpha$ and three-$\\alpha$ experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.

  13. Polyakov loop potential at finite density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Christian S. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, JLU Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Fister, Leonard [Department of Mathematical Physics, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Maynooth, County Kildare (Ireland); Luecker, Jan [Institut für Theoretische Physik, JLU Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Pawlowski, Jan M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung mbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    The Polyakov loop potential serves to distinguish between the confined hadronic and the deconfined quark–gluon plasma phases of QCD. For N{sub f}=2+1 quark flavors with physical masses we determine the Polyakov loop potential at finite temperature and density and extract the location of the deconfinement transition. We find a crossover at small values of the chemical potential running into a critical end-point at μ/T>1.

  14. Polyakov loop potential at finite density

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Christian S.; Leonard Fister; Jan Luecker; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Polyakov loop potential serves to distinguish between the confined hadronic and the deconfined quark–gluon plasma phases of QCD. For Nf=2+1 quark flavors with physical masses we determine the Polyakov loop potential at finite temperature and density and extract the location of the deconfinement transition. We find a crossover at small values of the chemical potential running into a critical end-point at μ/T>1 .

  15. Environment Dependent Charge Potential for Water

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidharan, Krishna; Valone, Steven M.; Atlas, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new interatomic potential for water captured in a charge-transfer embedded atom method (EAM) framework. The potential accounts for explicit, dynamical charge transfer in atoms as a function of the local chemical environment. As an initial test of the charge-transfer EAM approach for a molecular system, we have constructed a relatively simple version of the potential and examined its ability to model the energetics of small water clusters. The excellent agreement between our resul...

  16. Membrane Potential Generated by Ion Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Hirohisa Tamagawa; Sachi Morita

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation fully explains membrane potential behavior. The fundamental facet of the GHK equation lies in its consideration of permeability of membrane to ions, when the membrane serves as a separator for separating two electrolytic solutions. The GHK equation describes that: variation of membrane permeability to ion in accordance with ion species results in the variation of the membrane potential. However, nonzero potential was...

  17. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Vyacheslav Vasilievich; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Rostovshchikova, А.; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative a...

  18. Austria's Potential for Trade in Services

    OpenAIRE

    V. Brandicourt; Schwellnus, C.; Woerz, Julia

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the potential for trade in services in a 2-step approach using a gravity model for a sample of bilateral service trade flows in individual service categories between 65 countries over the period 2000 to 2005. In particular, we focus on the Austrian economy's potential for untapped trade in services which appears to be substantial. While Austria's travel services are reaching their potential, there is still ample room for exports of commercial services. Our analysis further points ...

  19. Volume-dependent potential approach for tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme to produce density-of-states-(DOS)-dependent potentials for d-metals on the basis of the local density approximation calculations is suggested. As an example this scheme is applied to construct a DOS-dependent potential for tungsten. The second moment of the tungsten DOS is calculated. The authors show that the obtained potentials give a good agreement of cohesive properties with the experimental data

  20. Interatomic potentials for materials of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures to develop embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials are described, with foreseeable applications in nuclear materials. Their reliability is shown by evaluating relevant properties. The studied materials are Nb, Zr and U. The first two were then used to develop an inter species potential for the Zr-Nb binary system. In this sense, the Fe-Cu system was also studied starting from Fe and Cu potentials extracted from the literature. (author)

  1. Solar system effects by potentials of galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the classical solar system tests of general relativity like perihelion shifts, light bending, gravitational time delay, and gravitational red-shift in the presence of potentials of galaxy. The leading order correction δ for planets due to potentials of galaxy has been found. It is shown that the contribution of such potentials gives rise to conflict with observational data for the tests of general relativity in solar system. (authors)

  2. Atomistic Potentials for Palladium-Silver Hydrides

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, L. M.; Wong, B. M.; Zimmerman, J. A.; Zhou, X.

    2013-01-01

    New EAM potentials for the ternary palladium-silver-hydrogen system are developed by extending a previously developed palladium-hydrogen potential. The ternary potentials accurately capture the heat of mixing and structural properties associated with solid solution alloys of palladium-silver. Stable hydrides are produced with properties that smoothly transition across the compositions. Additions of silver to palladium are predicted to alter the properties of the hydrides by decreasing the mis...

  3. Nanoparticles and cars : analysis of potential sources

    OpenAIRE

    Uibel Stefanie; Takemura Masaya; Mueller Daniel; Quarcoo David; Klingelhoefer Doris; Groneberg David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Urban health is potentially affected by particle emissions. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles is heavily debated and there is an enormous global increase in research activity in this field. In this respect, it is commonly accepted that nanoparticles may also be generated in processes occurring while driving vehicles. So far, a variety of studies addressed traffic-related particulate matter emissions, but only few studies focused on potential nanoparticles. Therefore, the presen...

  4. Potential flow through centrifugal pumps and turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, E

    1941-01-01

    The methods of conformal transformation up to the present have been applied to the potential flows in the rotation of solid bodies only to a limited extent. This report deals with aspects of centrifugal pumps and turbines such as: the complex potential for rotation, potential for the flow due to the blade rotation, velocities at the blade tip, comparison with "infinite number of blades," and a variable number of blades.

  5. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L

    2016-06-01

    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength. PMID:26712510

  6. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site.

  7. Inflation with Fractional Potential: A Comprehensive Study

    CERN Document Server

    Eshaghi, Mehdi; Riazi, Nematollah; Kiasatpour, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider an inflationary potential in fractional form coupled non-minimally to gravity. This potential has a dominant constant energy density at early times which can realize successful inflation. We show that this potential predicts small tensor-to-scalar ratio of the order of $r\\approx 0.01$ which is fully consistent with Planck constraints. Using the lower and upper bounds on reheating temperature, we provide additional constraints on the non-minimally coupling parameter $\\xi$ of the model. We also study the preheating stage predicted by this kind of potentials using numerical calculations.

  8. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data and biophysical gradient layers using...

  9. Earthquake Risk - MO 2013 Liquefaction Potential (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil liquefaction potential was determined using existing geologic and alluvium maps. Quaternary, Tertiary, and Cretaceous-age sediments, and alluvium deposits are...

  10. Membrane potential generated by ion adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Morita, Sachi

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation fully explains membrane potential behavior. The fundamental facet of the GHK equation lies in its consideration of permeability of membrane to ions, when the membrane serves as a separator for separating two electrolytic solutions. The GHK equation describes that: variation of membrane permeability to ion in accordance with ion species results in the variation of the membrane potential. However, nonzero potential was observed even across the impermeable membrane (or separator) separating two electrolytic solutions. It gave rise to a question concerning the validity of the GHK equation for explaining the membrane potential generation. In this work, an alternative theory was proposed. It is the adsorption theory. The adsorption theory attributes the membrane potential generation to the ion adsorption onto the membrane (or separator) surface not to the ion passage through the membrane (or separator). The computationally obtained potential behavior based on the adsorption theory was in good agreement with the experimentally observed potential whether the membrane (or separator) was permeable to ions or not. It was strongly speculated that the membrane potential origin could lie primarily in the ion adsorption on the membrane (or separator) rather than the membrane permeability to ions. It might be necessary to reconsider the origin of membrane potential which has been so far believed explicable by the GHK equation. PMID:24957176

  11. Membrane Potential Generated by Ion Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Tamagawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely acknowledged that the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK equation fully explains membrane potential behavior. The fundamental facet of the GHK equation lies in its consideration of permeability of membrane to ions, when the membrane serves as a separator for separating two electrolytic solutions. The GHK equation describes that: variation of membrane permeability to ion in accordance with ion species results in the variation of the membrane potential. However, nonzero potential was observed even across the impermeable membrane (or separator separating two electrolytic solutions. It gave rise to a question concerning the validity of the GHK equation for explaining the membrane potential generation. In this work, an alternative theory was proposed. It is the adsorption theory. The adsorption theory attributes the membrane potential generation to the ion adsorption onto the membrane (or separator surface not to the ion passage through the membrane (or separator. The computationally obtained potential behavior based on the adsorption theory was in good agreement with the experimentally observed potential whether the membrane (or separator was permeable to ions or not. It was strongly speculated that the membrane potential origin could lie primarily in the ion adsorption on the membrane (or separator rather than the membrane permeability to ions. It might be necessary to reconsider the origin of membrane potential which has been so far believed explicable by the GHK equation.

  12. Geophysical Processes - MO 2013 Collapse Potential (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Collapse potential correlates with locations of underground mines and sinkholes. Computer-generated hazard calculations include areas in close proximity to mines...

  13. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Mehrotra; S Prakash

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of proton emission is treated as a process of asymmetric fission through a one-dimensional potential barrier developed due to combined effects of the Coulomb potential, centrifugal potential and various renormalization processes. The barrier is simulated to an asymmetric, smooth and analytically solvable potential with adjustable depth, shape and range. The half-lives of proton emitters in the mass range = 105-171 have been calculated using exact expression for the transmission coefficients. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained by the adjustment of just one parameter in all the cases.

  14. Quantization function for attractive, singular potential tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between atoms and molecules with each other are deep potential wells with attractive, singular tails. Bound state energies are determined by a quantization function according to a simple quantization rule. This function is dominantly determined by the singular potential tail for near-threshold states. General expressions for the low- and high-energy contributions of the singular potential tail to the quantization function, as well as the connection to the scattering length are presented in two and three dimensions. Precise analytical expressions for the quantization function are determined for the case of potential tails proportional to -1/r4 and -1/r6 for three dimensions. (orig.)

  15. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-09-28

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  16. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    OpenAIRE

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  17. Potential models for four quark states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been two main lines of approach to the description of states containing two quarks and two antiquarks; the bag model, employed to describe S-wave states, and potential models, which, in conjunction with elements of Regge phenomenology and duel unitarisation, have been used. A straightforward potential model will be described

  18. Superfield tadpole method for SUSY effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superfield formulation of S. Weinberg's tadpole method to compute effective potential in supersymmetric theories is illustrated by considering the general renormalizable action involving only chiral scalar superfields. unconstrained superfield potentials are introduced to simplify the 'effective' superfield propagator which is derived in a compact form. (Author)

  19. Some aspects of three-quark potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Oleg

    2016-05-01

    We analytically evaluate the expectation value of a baryonic Wilson loop in a holographic model of an S U (3 ) pure gauge theory. We then discuss three aspects of a static three-quark potential: an aspect of universality which concerns properties independent of a geometric configuration of quarks, a heavy diquark structure, and a relation between the three- and two-quark potentials.

  20. Complexification of three potential models – II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjib Meyur; S Dednath

    2009-10-01

    A new kind of $\\mathcal{PT}$ and non-$\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric complex potentials are constructed from a group theoretical viewpoint of the sl(2, ) potential algebras. The real eigenvalues and the corresponding regular eigenfunctions are also obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained before.

  1. Dynamical Higgs potentials with a landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider one-loop effective potentials for adjoint Higgs fields that originate from flat holonomies in toroidal compactification of gauge theories. We show that such potentials are 'landscape-like' for large gauge groups and generic nonsupersymmetric matter representations. In particular, there is a large number of vacua with similar local properties, scanning a broad band of vacuum energies

  2. Market Potential and Regional Disparities in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Dogruel, Fatma; Dogruel, A. Suut; Karahasan, B.Can

    2011-01-01

    Regional disparity is one of the important characteristics of Turkish economy. The paper focuses on the explanatory power of market potential on the regional differences in Turkey. Regional divergences in wages and employment are used as the proxies for regional differences. Empirical results reveal that, under various specifications, variation in market potential is an important determinant of regional differences.

  3. The Real Significance of the Electromagnetic Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    L{\\'ı}u, Jùn

    1995-01-01

    The importance of the potential is revealed in a newly discovered effect of the potential. This paper explore the same issue introduced in quant-ph/9506038 from several different aspects including electron optics and relativity. Some people fail to recognize this effect due to a wrong application of gauge invariance.

  4. YouTube: Educational Potentials and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Troy; Cuthrell, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The instructional potential of video technology in the classroom is promising, especially in light of the 21st Century Learning Framework (Siegle, 2009). Studies show positive gains in student outcomes as a result of the integration of video technology in instruction. This article explores potential uses of YouTube as an instructional aid in…

  5. The mother of all pair potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.; Bacher, Andreas Kvist

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computer simulation study of the exponentially repulsive pair potential system. The simulations show that the system has strong virial potential energy correlations in a large part of its thermodynamic phase diagram. Consequences of this are briefly discussed; these include ...

  6. On the construction of convex effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the convexity property imposed on the effective potential can be satisfied only under the precise specification of the boundary conditions in the functional integral representation of the Green's functions generating functionals. The Schwinger's functionals and effective potentials, which are calculated without such a specification, cannot be expected to be a convex function

  7. Nonconical Relaxation for Supersonic Potential Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Nonlinear, three-dimensional effects computed from full potentialflow equation. Nonconical Relaxation program, NCOREL, employs new computational technique for prediction of inviscid, nonlinear supersonic aerodynamics. Unlike conventional linear potential equations, NCOREL utilizes full potential flow equation to predict formation of supercritical crossflow regions, embedded shocks, and bow shocks. NCOREL written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  8. Gluten-free food - possible market potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Pícha

    2006-01-01

    Food intolerance touches no small part of people. These people have one more care when buying food. They have to find appropriate food product and it is sometimes quite difficult. This group of consumers could be potentially an interesting segment to target. This article shows basic needs of consumers with gluten intolerance and explores potential solution on the part of producers and services providers.

  9. Potential Vorticity Formulation of Compressible Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Arter, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is formulated in terms of the time evolution of potential vorticity and magnetic flux per unit mass using a compact Lie bracket notation. It is demonstrated that this simplifies analytic solution in at least one very important situation relevant to magnetic fusion experiments. Potentially important implications for analytic and numerical modelling of both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are also discussed.

  10. Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 is described. Topics covered include: the fuzzy interface between surface chemistry catalysis and organometallic chemistry; potential energy surfaces for elementary fluorine hydrogen reactions; structure, energetics, and reactivity of carbenes; and the theory of self-consistent electron pairs

  11. Dirac Equations with Linear Confining Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, J H

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a study of relativistic eigenstates of Dirac particles which are simultaneously bound by a static Coulomb potential and added linear confining potentials. It has recently been shown that, despite the addition of radially symmetric, linear confining potentials, some specific bound-state energies surprisingly retain their exact Dirac-Coulomb values (in the sense of an "exact symmetry"). This observation raises pertinent questions as to the generality of the cancellation mechanism. A Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to find the relevant nonrelativistic physical degrees of freedom, which include additional spin-orbit couplings induced by the linear confining potentials. The matrix elements of the effective operators obtained from the scalar, and time-like confining potentials mutually cancel for specific ratios of the prefactors of the effective operators, which must be tailored to the cancellation mechanism. The result of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to explicitly s...

  12. Potential controlled flotation of Sarcheshmeh Molybdenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molybdenite flotation in the Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex was studied as a function of pulp potential, controlled using two types of sodium sulfide, a mineral origin and a chemical nature. Air and either plant or laboratory nitrogen were used as flotation careers. Potential readings took place in rougher cells, as it was proved to be vital in the molybdenite circuit. Results showed that, at reducing potentials between -525 and -575 mv, the highest molybdenum recovery of 93% and the lowest copper recovery of 4-15% can be achieved. These potentials did not change considerably by adding extra amounts of sodium sulfide. At more oxidizing potentials, i.e. more than -450 mv, copper recovery increases while the recovery of Molybdenite drops

  13. Simple exercises to flatten your potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how backreaction of the inflation potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V(φ)∝ φp with p<2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of φ. (orig.)

  14. The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries may utilize a long coastline in relation to their landmass as a resource to develop their maritime economy. This paper argues that ASEAN countries differ in utilizing their maritime potential. As a basis for further comparative studies the Center for Policy Research and International Studies (CenPRIS in Penang developed a set of indicators to measure the maritime potential of nations, the state of their maritime industries, and the degree to which the maritime potential has actually been utilized. Using the CenPRIS Ocean Index (COI shows that Brunei and the Philippines have underutilized their maritime potentials, whereas Singapore and Thailand have made full use of it. Malaysia still has the potential to further develop its maritime economy.

  15. [The disposing techniques of evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H G; Zhou, L; Gu, J; Jing, D Z

    2000-11-01

    This paper is to bring forward the new disposing techniques of evoked potentials which include four aspect techniques of the averaging, the recording, digital sampling and filters about the averaging, evoked potential amplitude, evoked potential latency, evoked potential recording, and evoked potential generations. The technique of the averaging including signal filtering and a periodic averaging, can enhance EP dedection. The commercial EP machines also plot changes in latency between serial EP studies in order to detect trends in peak latency. The modern digital EP recording device consists of sensory stimator, recording amplifiers with analog filters, an analog-to-digital converter, a digital signal averager, and a display and storage system. A sample-and-hold function is one of the recent developments which used EP collectors that provide simultaneous recording with multiple channels employing different time and voltage scales and sampling rates. The EP data may be further processed following A-D conversion by digital filters. PMID:12583248

  16. Decomposition of Noncommutative U(1) Gauge Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zi-Yu; LI Xi-Guo

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the decomposition of noncommutative gauge potential Ai, and find that it has inner structure, namely, Ai can be decomposed in two parts, bi and ai, where bi satisfies gauge transformations while ai satisfies adjoint transformations, so dose the Seiberg-Witten mapping of noncommutative U(1) gauge potential. By means of Seiberg-Witten mapping, we construct a mapping of unit vector field between noncommutative space and ordinary space, and find the noncommutative U(1) gauge potential and its gauge field tensor can be expressed in terms of the unit vector field. When the unit vector field has no singularity point, noncommutative gauge potential and gauge field tensor will equal ordinary gauge potential and gauge field tensor

  17. Integrability of Hamiltonian systems with algebraic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Problem of integrability for Hamiltonian systems with potentials that are algebraic thus multivalued functions of coordinates is discussed. Introducing potential as a new variable the original Hamiltonian system on 2n dimensional phase space is extended to 2 n + 1 dimensional system with rational right-hand sides. For extended system its non-canonical degenerated Poisson structure of constant rank 2n and rational Hamiltonian is identified. For algebraic homogeneous potentials of non-zero rational homogeneity degree necessary integrability conditions are formulated. These conditions are deduced from an analysis of the differential Galois group of variational equations around particular solutions of a straight line type. Obtained integrability obstructions are applied to the class of monomial homogeneous potentials. Some integrable potentials satisfying these conditions are found.

  18. Simple Exercises to Flatten your Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP; Westphal, Alexander; /DESY /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We show how backreaction of the inflaton potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V({phi}) {proportional_to} {phi}{sup p} with p < 2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of {phi}.

  19. Simple exercises to flatten your potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). SLAC and Dept. of Physics; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). SLAC and Dept. of Physics

    2010-11-15

    We show how backreaction of the inflation potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V({phi}){proportional_to} {phi}{sup p} with p<2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of {phi}. (orig.)

  20. Critical potentials, leptons, and weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study is made of the interaction of very strong localised electromagnetic potentials with charged leptons, and with the vacuum state. The principal objective is to investigate the phenomena which occur when the potential reaches or exceeds the critical value at which bound levels are drawn into the lower continuum. The behaviour of bound and continuum solutions of the Dirac equation for the specific model of a short range potential well in an arbitrarily large bounded volume is examined in detail. Vacuum polarisation effects are computed by summation over the infinite set of single particle levels, and special attention is given to the behaviour of the overall charge distribution as the potential strength increases through the critical value. The most significant features of the results are (a) the formation of highly localised electron or muon bound states, (b) similar critical potential strengths for electrons and muons, and (c) redefinition of the vacuum by one charge unit at the critical potential. These features are analogous to some properties of leptonic and hadronic weak currents, and the hypothesis is proposed that strong short range potentials may provide a possible mediating mechanism for the weak interaction and also a lepton confinement mechanism within the structure of hadrons. (author)

  1. Dirac Green function for angular projection potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it is shown that the angular dependence of the Dirac Green function can be described analytically for potentials with non-local dependence on the angular variables if they are chosen as projection potentials in angular momentum space. Because the local dependence on the radial variable can be treated to any precision with present computing capabilities, this means that the Green function can be calculated practically exactly. Second, it is shown that a result of this kind not only holds for a single angular projection potential but also more generally, for instance if space is divided into non-overlapping cells and a separate angular projection potential is used in each cell. This opens the way for relativistic density-functional calculations within a different perspective than the conventional one. Instead of trying to obtain the density for a given potential approximately as well as possible, the density is determined exactly for non-local potentials which can approximate arbitrary local potentials as well as desired. PMID:26523824

  2. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  3. Dirac Green function for angular projection potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it is shown that the angular dependence of the Dirac Green function can be described analytically for potentials with non-local dependence on the angular variables if they are chosen as projection potentials in angular momentum space. Because the local dependence on the radial variable can be treated to any precision with present computing capabilities, this means that the Green function can be calculated practically exactly. Second, it is shown that a result of this kind not only holds for a single angular projection potential but also more generally, for instance if space is divided into non-overlapping cells and a separate angular projection potential is used in each cell. This opens the way for relativistic density-functional calculations within a different perspective than the conventional one. Instead of trying to obtain the density for a given potential approximately as well as possible, the density is determined exactly for non-local potentials which can approximate arbitrary local potentials as well as desired.

  4. Marketing potential of industrial companies of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Oliynyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the essence of the marketing potential of the company as a part of improving the efficiency of the company’s activity forming a united mechanism along with industrial and financial subsystems. The components of the total potential of the company, the factors forming structure of the marketing potential of the company and the approaches to the evaluation of such a potential of the company are considered. It is determined that the marketing potential of the company integrates all the marketing resources, reserves and the possibility of their use, and the functioning as well as development of the system are subjected to the achievement of the main company’s goals. The differences in the interpretation of economic, market and marketing potential of the company are identified, although they are related to the subject of entrepreneurship, but they differ in their essence. The substantiation of the essence of marketing potential of the company, the development of an effective mechanism of its management with the possibility of evaluation will contribute to the maximum satisfaction of interests of information consumers’ groups, the formation of strategic directions of the activity, making management decisions at the micro level, the effective functioning in the internal and external markets.

  5. Tropical cyclone genesis potential across palaeoclimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J. H.; Brierley, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    The favourability of the mid-Pliocene, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and mid-Holocene for tropical cyclone formation is investigated in five climate models. This is measured by a genesis potential index, derived from large-scale atmospheric properties known to be related to storm formation. The mid-Pliocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were periods where carbon dioxide levels were higher and lower than preindustrial levels respectively, while the mid-Holocene differed primarily in its orbital configuration. The cumulative global genesis potential is found to be fairly invariant across the palaeoclimates in the multi-model mean. Despite this all ensemble members agree on coherent responses in the spatial patterns of genesis potential change. During the mid-Pliocene and LGM, changes in carbon dioxide led to sea surface temperature changes throughout the tropics, yet the potential intensity (a measure associated with maximum tropical cyclone strength) is calculated to be relatively insensitive to these changes. Changes in tropical cyclone genesis potential during the mid-Holocene are found to be asymmetric about the Equator: being reduced in the Northern Hemisphere but enhanced in the Southern Hemisphere. This is clearly driven by the altered seasonal insolation. Nonetheless, the enhanced seasonality drove localised changes in genesis potential, by altering the strength of monsoons and shifting the intertropical convergence zone. Trends in future tropical cyclone genesis potential are consistent neither between the five models studied nor with the palaeoclimate results. It is not clear why this should be the case.

  6. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A M; DeWitt, B A; Lukes, A L

    2000-07-01

    Potential and documented interactions between alternative therapy agents and warfarin are discussed. An estimated one third of adults in the United States use alternative therapies, including herbs. A major safety concern is potential interactions of alternative medicine products with prescription medications. This issue is especially important with respect to drugs with narrow therapeutic indexes, such as warfarin. Herbal products that may potentially increase the risk of bleeding or potentiate the effects of warfarin therapy include angelica root, arnica flower, anise, asafoetida, bogbean, borage seed oil, bromelain, capsicum, celery, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger ginkgo, horse chestnut, licorice root, lovage root, meadowsweet, onion, parsley, passionflower herb, poplar, quassia, red clover, rue, sweet clover, turmeric, and willow bark. Products that have been associated with documented reports of potential interactions with warfarin include coenzyme Q10, danshen, devil's claw, dong quai, ginseng, green tea, papain, and vitamin E. Interpretation of the available information on herb-warfarin interactions is difficult because nearly all of it is based on in vitro data, animal studies, or individual case reports. More study is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions. There is evidence that a wide range of alternative therapy products have the potential to interact with warfarin. Pharmacists and other health care professionals should question all patients about use of alternative therapies and report documented interactions to FDA's MedWatch program. PMID:10902065

  7. The internal potential of the sustainable organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Associate Professor Vladimir-Codrin Ionescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal potential of an organization reflects its ability to integrate sustainable within the business environment and to compete successfully in a particular industry. Starting from the premise that a competitive managerial strategy can be based and adopted following a proper assessment of the internal potential of the organization, this paper intends to make an integrated and correlative analysis of the four strategic variables that define the internal potential of an organization - the complex of organizational resources, the cultural model, the competitive ability and competitive position.

  8. Inverse problem for axial-deformed potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the literature about Inverse Problems there are no tractable methods for construction of nonspherical potentials from the asymptotic wave function. This problem turned out to be solved in special cases. The methods of reconstruction from scattering data are given for the class of potentials admitting the separation of variables in spheroidal coordinates. This is the first case when the agorithms of the inverse problem solution for spherically-nonsymmetrical local potentials can practically be realised. The modifications of the formalisms of Regge-Newton-Sabatier and finite-difference approximation of Hooshyar-Rasavy are considered

  9. Potentiation of morphine analgesia by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A L; Pontani, R B; Vadlamani, N L

    1985-04-01

    Significant potentiation of morphine (5 mg kg-1 s.c. or 1 mg kg-1 i.v.) analgesia (tail-withdrawal reflex at 55 degrees C) was observed in caffeine-treated (100 mg kg-1 i.p.) rats as compared to the control group and lower doses of caffeine (2mg kg-1 i.p.) did not show this effect. Potentiated analgesia was reversed by naloxone. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors appear to be involved in part in this potentiation. PMID:4005485

  10. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  11. Thermochromic behaviors and ionization potentials of organopolysilanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masaaki

    1989-04-01

    Ionization potentials of organopolysilanes with different kinds of substituents were evaluated from the low energy photo-electron emission measurements in air. An aryl-substituted organopolysilane capable of σ - π mixing between Si backbone σ and side-group π electrons gave smaller ionization potential by about 0.1˜0.15 eV compared with alkyl-substituted organopolysilanes. The value of ionization potentials in some alkyl-substituted organopolysilanes which showed thermochromic behaviors was found to vary substantially with thermally induced reversible changes in polymer backbone conformation, indicating that the effective conjugation length of σ electrons decreases above the thermochromic transition temperature.

  12. Potentiation of morphine analgesia by caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, A. L.; Pontani, R. B.; Vadlamani, N. L.

    1985-01-01

    Significant potentiation of morphine (5 mg kg-1 s.c. or 1 mg kg-1 i.v.) analgesia (tail-withdrawal reflex at 55 degrees C) was observed in caffeine-treated (100 mg kg-1 i.p.) rats as compared to the control group and lower doses of caffeine (2mg kg-1 i.p.) did not show this effect. Potentiated analgesia was reversed by naloxone. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors appear to be involved in part in this potentiation.

  13. Cancer near potential sites of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality and census data for 400 districts of England and Wales were analysed with respect to existing sites of nuclear power stations and sites where the construction of such installations had been considered or had occurred at a later date (potential sites). Excess mortality due to leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease in young people who lived near potential sites was similar to that in young people who lived near existing sites. Areas near existing and potential sites might share unrecognised risk factors other than environmental radiation pollution. (author)

  14. Charmonium properties in a screened potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various nonrelativistic potential models proposed to understand the quarkonium spectra. The specific form of the QCD potential in the whole range of distances is not known. The presence of sea quarks slows down the running of the QCD coupling as a function of the scale with respect to the quenched approximation. When running the coupling from an infra-red hadronic reference scale down to short distances, the effective Coulomb coupling in presence of sea quarks remains stronger than in the quenched case. In this work, we have investigated the charmonium spectrum in a screened potential model

  15. The single particle potential in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependent real part of the optical potential of particles and holes in nuclear matter is calculated from a realistic nuclear hamiltonian that explains the nucleon-nucleon scattering data and equilibrium properties of nuclear matter. The vibrational method is used with Fermi-hypernetted and single-operator-chain summation techniques. The results are comparable with empirical Woods-Saxon well depths at energies approx. < 150 MeV. At higher energies the potential has a density dependence suggesting a wine-bottle shaped nucleon-nucleus potential. (orig.)

  16. Electrostatic patch potentials in Casimir force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joseph; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between interacting surfaces. The force can be minimized by applying a potential to one of the two surfaces. However, electrostatic patch potentials remain and contribute an additional force which can obscure the Casimir force signal. We will discuss recent measurements of patch potentials made with Heterodyne Amplitude-Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy that suggest patches could be responsible for >1% of the signal in some Casimir force measurements, and thus make the distinction between different theoretical models of the Casimir force (e.g. a Drude-model or a plasma-model for the dielectric response) difficult to discern.

  17. The Anthropology of Potentiality in Biomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Hoeyer, Klaus; Helmreich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    productivity of the ambiguity involved when dealing with that which does not (yet and may never) exist. We suggest that potentiality is both an analytic—one that has appeared explicitly and tacitly in the history of anthropology—as well as an object of study in need of further attention. To understand...... contemporary meanings and practices associated with potentiality, we must integrate an awareness of our own social scientific assumptions about potentiality with critical scrutiny of how the word and concept operate in the lives of the people we study....

  18. Potentials of development in protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jernej Tiran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to expose the ways of recognizing potentials for development in the following selected protected areas: Triglav National Park (TNP), Goričko Landscape Park (KPG) and Logarska dolina Landscape Park (KPLD). Basing our results on a survey, which was carried out among locals and tourists, we found out that the ways in which people see potentials for development differ. On the basis of their answers and our analysis of the actual state we established certain potentials f...

  19. Potentials of development in protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Tiran

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expose the ways of recognizing potentials for development in the following selected protected areas: Triglav National Park (TNP, Goričko Landscape Park (KPG and Logarska dolina Landscape Park (KPLD. Basing our results on a survey, which was carried out among locals and tourists, we found out that the ways in which people see potentials for development differ. On the basis of their answers and our analysis of the actual state we established certain potentials for development, which are in compliance with the following principles: they result from the local sources, are in compliance with the applicable legislation and are sustainable.

  20. Effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials as limit cases of a multiparameter exponential-type potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Ravelo, J., E-mail: g.ravelo@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Menéndez, A.; García-Martínez, J. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Schulze-Halberg, A. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States)

    2014-06-13

    We show that the effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials can be obtained by taking particular limits of a multiparameter exponential potential that was studied recently. Moreover, we demonstrate that the bound state solutions of the exponential potential reduce correctly to their well-known counterparts associated with the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. As a byproduct, we obtain a new limit relation for the hypergeometric function. - Highlights: • Kratzer and Coulomb potentials are limit cases of an exponential-type potential. • From exact s-waves, approximate solutions for l-waves are obtained. • l-waves of the potential tend to the solutions of the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. • A non-evident identity between hypergeometric functions is demonstrated.

  1. Radial propagation of muscle action potential along the tubular system examined by potential-sensitive dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, S.; Gilai, A.

    1980-01-01

    Isolated single (Xenopus) muscle fibers were stained with a non-permeant potential-probing dye, merocyanine rhodanine (WW375) or merocyanine oxazolone (NK2367). When the fiber was massively stimulated, an absorption change (wave a), which seemed to reflect the action potential, occurred. Simultaneous recording of optical changes and intracellular action potentials revealed that the time-course of wave a was slower than the action potential: the peak of wave a was attained at 1 ms, and the pea...

  2. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  3. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  4. Research of Microscopic Optical Potential for Deuteron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The microscopic optical potential for deuteron is obtained by Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The radial

  5. Remarks on the Woods-Saxon potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapak, M.; Gönül, B.

    2016-06-01

    More recently, comprehensive applications of approximate analytical solutions of the Woods-Saxon (WS) potential in closed form for the five-dimensional Bohr Hamiltonian have appeared [M. Çapak, D. Petrellis, B. Gönül and D. Bonatsos, J. Phys. G 42, 95102 (2015)] and its comparison to the data for many different nuclei has clearly revealed the domains for the success and failure in case of using such potential forms to analyze the data related to the nuclear structure within the frame of the collective model. Gaining confidence from this work, the exact solvability of the WS type potentials in lower dimensions for the bound states having zero angular momentum is carefully reviewed to finalize an ongoing discussion in the related literature which clearly shows that such kind of potentials have no analytical solutions even for ℓ = 0 case.

  6. Energy potential of agricultural crops in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary energy mix in Kosovo with 98 % consisting of lignite and only 2 % of water is far from portfolio of primary energy sources which could contribute to a sustainable and environmental friendly energy supply of the country. In order to improve the situation, government is supporting activities in favor of upgrading of electricity production capacities based on Renewable Energy Sources. Corresponding action plans and feed in tariffs are already in place. However, prior to any investment, one needs specific results on available potential. Current study provides results of the analysis of Kosovo potential for energy production by using of agricultural crops. Study is based on national statistics on available agricultural crops in Kosovo and provides results on biomass potential of crops, corresponding energy potential and an assessment of financial cost of energy produced.

  7. The interquark potential: a QCD lattice analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a QCD analysis of the potential between heavy quarks. Our calculation includes light quark loops and is carried out on a 163x24 lattice for couplings β=5.35 and 5.15 and a quark mass amq=0.010. We generated lattice configurations using a hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for NF=4 flavors of staggered fermions. We can explore distances between 0.12 fm and 0.9 fm for these parameters. The shape of the resulting potential is well described by the superposition of a term proportional to 1/R and a linear confinement potential. This full QCD potential is compared to results obtained from quenched approximation simulations on lattices of the same size and with the same value of the cutoff. We discuss a rough estimate of the QCD coupling. (orig.)

  8. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel, E-mail: aviel.verbruggen@ua.ac.b [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur nvironnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  9. Biochemicalmethane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, F.; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; de la Rubia, M.A.;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, all experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experim...

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VITEX TRIFOLIA Linn

    OpenAIRE

    V Geetha; A. Doss; Doss, A. Pichai Anthoni

    2004-01-01

    Vitex trifolia (Local name - Nirnocchi, sirunocchi) is well known for its medicinal property. The present investigation encompasses evaluation of antibacterial potential of Vitex trifolia against certain pathogenic bacterial strains. Preliminary phytochemical studies were also made and results are given.

  11. Variation Principle for a Linear Potential

    OpenAIRE

    CASAUBON, Juan Ignacio; BUEP, Juan Pablo COSENTINO and Adrián Hugo

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the student to the Quantum Mechanic linear potential (constant force) using new variation wave functions for the ground state and the first excited one. This approach use simple wave functions to describe the exact Airy solution.

  12. Visual Evoked Potentials in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital recorded pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs in Mecp2 heterozygous female mice and in 34 girls with Rett syndrome (RTT.

  13. Modified meson-nucleus optical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkin, C

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that the energy dependence of the meson-nucleus optical potential should be treated in a more dynamical fashion. When this is done, some of the difficulties found in phenomenological applications are eliminated. (13 refs).

  14. Somatosensory evoked potentials in deaferentation pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ilievska, Liljana; Gorgoska, E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine how to the Somatosensory evoked potentials ( SEPs) are affected in patients with cerebrovascular thalamic lesions and to correlate the findings with sensory abnormalities.

  15. Potential Hazards of Plastics Used in Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecke, Jerome T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the thermoplastic and thermosetting resins presently being used by the artist, and the potential for exposure to the toxic chemicals and other hazards during the development of his creative work. (Author)

  16. Supersymmetric partners for the associated Lame potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez C, David J

    2008-01-01

    The general solution of the stationary Schrodinger equation for the associated Lame potentials with an arbitrary real energy is found. The supersymmetric partners are generated by employing seeds solutions for factorization energies inside the gaps.

  17. Management of potential transuranium assimilation cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals primarily with the duties of Health Protection personnel assigned to Savannah River's operatig facilities - as opposed to the role of bioassay and dosimetry specialists - in handling potential transuranium assimilation cases

  18. US Forest Service Wildfire Hazard Potential 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The wildfire hazard potential (WHP) is a raster geospatial product at 270-meter resolution covering all lands in the conterminous United States. It can help to...

  19. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  20. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  1. Carcinogenic potential of various energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the health impacts of different sources of energy should include a comparison of the potential carcinogenic effects of the radioactive and chemical substances produced by various sources. In general, these potential health effects are too small to be measured directly and are therefore estimated by extrapolation, on the basis of a linear dose-response model, from measurable effects at high dose levels. Estimates of the carcinogenic potential of various energy sources available in North America are given in this paper. For most if not all of the energy sources for which data are currently available, it would appear that the known biological benefits in terms of life expectancy greatly outweigh all the potential harm due to carcinogenic (and genetic) effects on human beings, when expressed in the same terms, i.e. life expectancy. (author)

  2. Remarks on the Woods-Saxon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Capak, M

    2016-01-01

    More recently, comprehensive application results of approximate analytical solutions of the Woods-Saxon potential in closed form for the 5-dimensional Bohr Hamiltonian have been appeared [14] and its comparison to the data for many different nuclei has clearly revealed the domains for the sucsess and failure in case of using such potential forms to analyse the data concerning with the nuclear structure of deformed nuclei within the frame of the collective model. Gaining confidence from this work, exact solvability of the Woods-Saxon type potentials in lower dimensions for the bound states having zero angular momentum is carefully reviewed to finalize an ongoing discussion in the related literature and clearly shown that such kind of potentials have no analytical solutions even for l=0 case.

  3. A microscopic nucleus-nucleus optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part the author concentrates on the first-order part of the optical potential using the simple Skyrme type of two-body interaction. The local density in the Skyrme interaction (the three-body contact term in Skyrme interaction reduces to a density-dependent interaction for even-even nuclei) is computed by taking into account the contribution from both the target and the projectile density distribution. In the second part the second-order part of the interaction potential is discussed - the principal value of which (polarisation term) leads to an additional term in the interaction potential. The pole term which is the imaginary part of the interaction potential is also computed. (orig./AH)

  4. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Glombitza, Clemens; Nickel, Julia;

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface microbial communities undertake many terminal electron-accepting processes, often simultaneously. Using a tritium-based assay, we measured the potential hydrogen oxidation catalyzed by hydrogenase enzymes in several subsurface sedimentary environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial...... Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico) with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product, or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen...... live material. We measured potential hydrogen oxidation rates in all samples from multiple depths at several sites that collectively span a wide range of environmental conditions and biogeochemical zones. Potential activity normalized to total cell abundance ranges over five orders of magnitude and...

  5. Abraham Maslow: On the Potential of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeschi, Ronald L.; Podeschi, Phyllis J.

    1973-01-01

    Authors presented some principal perspectives by the psychologist, Abraham Maslow, who died in 1970, and who was writing about the potential of women long before it became popular to do so. (Author/RK)

  6. Ozone depletion and chlorine loading potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, John A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Solomon, Susan; Zvenigorodsky, Sergei; Connell, Peter; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Fisher, Donald A.; Stordal, Frode; Weisenstein, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The recognition of the roles of chlorine and bromine compounds in ozone depletion has led to the regulation or their source gases. Some source gases are expected to be more damaging to the ozone layer than others, so that scientific guidance regarding their relative impacts is needed for regulatory purposes. Parameters used for this purpose include the steady-state and time-dependent chlorine loading potential (CLP) and the ozone depletion potential (ODP). Chlorine loading potentials depend upon the estimated value and accuracy of atmospheric lifetimes and are subject to significant (approximately 20-50 percent) uncertainties for many gases. Ozone depletion potentials depend on the same factors, as well as the evaluation of the release of reactive chlorine and bromine from each source gas and corresponding ozone destruction within the stratosphere.

  7. Puerto Rico Relative Erosion Potential (REP) - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The relative erosion potential is an indicator of sediment and pollution runoff from land based on slope, soil type, land cover (circa 2000) and (maximum monthly)...

  8. Few interacting particles in a random potential

    OpenAIRE

    Shepelyansky, D. L.; Sushkov, O. P.

    1996-01-01

    We study the localization length of few interacting particles in a random potential. Concentrating on the case of three particles we show that their localization length is strongly enhanced comparing to the enhancement for two interacting particles.

  9. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  10. Frequency-dependent streaming potentials: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Jouniaux, Laurence; 10.1155/2012/648781

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of seismoelectric observations involves the dynamic electrokinetic coupling, which is related to the streaming potential coefficient. We describe the different models of the frequency-dependent streaming potential, mainly the Packard's and the Pride's model. We compare the transition frequency separating low-frequency viscous flow and high-frequency inertial flow, for dynamic permeability and dynamic streaming potential. We show that the transition frequency, on a various collection of samples for which both formation factor and permeability are measured, is predicted to depend on the permeability as inversely proportional to the permeability. We review the experimental setups built to be able to perform dynamic measurements. And we present some measurements and calculations of the dynamic streaming potential.

  11. Chirally motivated K{sup -} nuclear potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieply, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Friedman, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Gal, A., E-mail: avragal@vms.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Gazda, D.; Mares, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-26

    In-medium subthreshold K-bar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K{sup -} atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K{sup -} nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold K-bar N amplitudes, with ReV{sub K}{sup chiral}=-(85{+-}5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When K-bar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K{sup -} nuclear potential results, ReV{sub K}{sup chiral+phen.}=-(180{+-}5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K{sup -}-nuclear quasibound states generated by V{sub K}{sup chiral} are reported and discussed.

  12. Potential turning points in cluster radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D N

    2002-01-01

    Effect of various nuclear interaction potentials on the decay lifetimes and the turning points of the WKB action integral has been studied. The microscopic nuclear potential obtained by folding in the density distribution functions of the two clusters with a realistic effective interaction has also been used to calculate the turning points. Half lives of $\\alpha$ and $^{20} O$ cluster emissions from $^{228} Th$ have been calculated within the superasymmetric fission model using various phenomenological and the microscopic double folding potentials. Calculations of half lives with the microscopic double folding potentials are found to be in good agreement with the observed experimental data. Present calculations put the superasymmetric fission model on a firm theoretical basis.

  13. Distribution of electric potential in hydrocarbon flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Shcherbakov, N.D.; Plitsyn, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the distribution of electrical potential and temperatures in laminar methane and propane--butane flames when the excess air coefficient in the mixture is changed from 0 to 1.2. 7 references, 3 figures.

  14. Reconstructing the inflaton potential an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Lidsey, J E; Kolb, Edward W; Copeland, E J; Barreiro, T; Abney, M; Lidsey, James E; Liddle, Andrew R; Kolb, Edward W; Copeland, Edmund J; Barreiro, Tiago; Abney, Mark

    1995-01-01

    We review the relation between the inflationary potential and the spectra of density (scalar) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor perturbations) produced, with particular emphasis on the possibility of reconstructing the inflaton potential from observations. The spectra provide a potentially powerful test of the inflationary hypothesis; they are not independent but instead are linked by consistency relations reflecting their origin from a single inflationary potential. To lowest-order in a perturbation expansion there is a single, now familiar, relation between the tensor spectral index and the relative amplitude of the spectra. We demonstrate that there is an infinite hierarchy of such consistency equations, though observational difficulties suggest only the first is ever likely to be useful. We also note that since observations are expected to yield much better information on the scalars than on the tensors, it is likely to be the next-order version of this consistency equation which will be appro...

  15. Elastic Waves Due to Optical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Srivastava

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of optical potential producing elastic waves has been studied. The possibility for absorption is considered and the possibility of the conversion of elastic waves into photoelectric current or other forms of radiation is discussed.

  16. Potentials for transverse trace-free tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In constructing and understanding initial conditions in the 3 + 1 formalism for numerical relativity, the transverse and trace-free (TT) part of the extrinsic curvature plays a key role. We know that TT tensors possess two degrees of freedom per space point. However, finding an expression for a TT tensor depending on only two scalar functions is a non-trivial task. Assuming either axial or translational symmetry, expressions depending on two scalar potentials alone are derived here for all TT tensors in flat 3-space. In a more general spatial slice, only one of these potentials is found, the same potential given in (Baker and Puzio 1999 Phys. Rev. D 59 044030) and (Dain 2001 Phys. Rev. D 64 124002), with the remaining equations reduced to a partial differential equation, depending on boundary conditions for a solution. As an exercise, we also derive the potentials which give the Bowen-York curvature tensor in flat space. (paper)

  17. Potential Optimization Software for Materials (POSMat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jackelyn A.; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Yilmaz, Dundar E.; Liang, Tao; Sinnott, Susan B.; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2016-06-01

    The Potential Optimization Software for Materials package (POSMat) is presented. POSMat is a powerful tool for the optimization of classical empirical interatomic potentials for use in atomic scale simulations, of which molecular dynamics is the most ubiquitous. Descriptions of the empirical formalisms and targetable properties available are given. POSMat includes multiple tools, including schemes and strategies to aid in the optimization process. Samples of the inputs and outputs are given as well as an example for fitting an MgO Buckingham potential, which illustrates how the targeted properties can influence the results of a developed potential. Approaches and tools for the expansion of POSMat to other interatomic descriptions and optimization algorithms are described.

  18. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL GEOTHERMAL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains general information on the physical, chemical and radiochemical data of geothermal manifestations (wells and springs) in areas with the most probable potential for development. Information contained in this document, together with other existing data, can b...

  19. Moving potentials and completeness of wave operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the generalized charge transfer model, i.e. for moving and time-dependent short range potentials the existence and completeness, defined in a suitable manner, of the wave operators are shown. 18 refs

  20. A potential model for quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A static quark potential model obtained from a relativistic wave-equation is considered. The long-part of the quadratic terms is suppressed by a glueball exchange mechanism and compatibility with the meson spectra is shown

  1. Propagator for the double delta potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagator for the double delta potential is calculated starting from the integral form of the Schroedinger equation. A compact expression of its Laplace transform is found, that can be explicitly inverted in some limiting cases

  2. Phenomenological aspects of nonrelativistic potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review reports on the description of hardrons as bound states of quarks by nonrelativistic potential models. It contains a brief sketch of the way in which information on the form of the inter-quark potential may be gained from quantum chromodynamics, proofs of some general theorems related to the potential-model approach, a discussion of the significance of the treatment of bound states consisting of relativistically-moving constituents by the nonrelativistic Schroedinger formalism, as well as a brief survey of the motivations for the various proposed potential models. Finally, it illustrates the application of the developed theoretical framework at a few selected examples. 60 refs., 8 figs., 17 tabs. (Authors)

  3. Static potentials from an extended gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static potentials derived from the inclusion of more than one vector field in a single simple group are calculated. A confinement mechanism including colourful unphysical particle is discussed. (Author)

  4. Disappearing Inflaton Potential via Heavy Field Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kitajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    We propose a possibility that the inflaton potential is significantly modified after inflation due to heavy field dynamics. During inflation there may be a heavy scalar field stabilized at a value deviated from the low-energy minimum. As the heavy field moves to the low-energy minimum, the inflaton potential could be significantly modified. In extreme cases, the inflaton potential vanishes and the inflaton becomes almost massless at some time after inflation. Such transition of the inflaton potential has interesting implications for primordial density perturbations, reheating, creation of unwanted relics, dark radiation, and experimental search for light degrees of freedom. To be concrete, we consider a chaotic inflation in supergravity where the inflaton mass parameter is promoted to a modulus field, finding that the inflaton becomes stable after the transition and contributes to dark matter. Another example is the new inflation by the MSSM Higgs field which acquires a large expectation value just after infl...

  5. Lienard-Wiechert potentials as a consequence of Lorentz transformation of Coulomb potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A derivation of the electric potential of a moving charge as a result of the 'relativization' of the Coulomb potential is considered. The account of the Lorentz covariance demand and the action retardation of the electromagnetic field with necessity leads to the Lienard-Wiechert potentials. 11 refs. (author)

  6. A Note on Unification of Translational Shape Invariant Potential and Scaling Shape Invariant Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bo-Wen; GU Zhi-Yu; QIAN Shang-Wu

    2005-01-01

    This article puts forward a general shape invariant potential, which includes the translational shape invariant potential and scaling shape invariant potential as two particular cases, and derives the set of linear differential equations for obtaining general solutions of the generalized shape invariance condition.

  7. Missing solution in a Cornell potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missing bound-state solutions for fermions in the background of a Cornell potential consisting of a mixed scalar–vector–pseudoscalar coupling is examined. Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed. -- Highlights: •The Dirac equation with scalar–vector–pseudoscalar Cornell potential is investigated. •The isolated solution from the Sturm–Liouville problem is found. •Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed

  8. One dimensional potentials in q space

    CERN Document Server

    Alavi, S A

    2003-01-01

    We study the one dimensional potentials in q space and the new features that arise. In particular we show that the probability of tunneling of a particle through a barrier or potential step is less than the one of the same particle with the same energy in ordinary space which is somehow unexpected. We also show that the tunneling time for a particle in q space is less than the one of the same particle in ordinary space.

  9. Electromagnetic potentials and Aharonov-Bohm effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ershkovich, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton-Jacobi equation which governs classical mechanics and electrodynamics explicitly depends on the electromagnetic potentials (A,{\\phi}), similar to Schroedinger equation. We derived the Aharonov-Bohm effect from Hamilton-Jacobi equation thereby having proved that this effect is of classical origin. These facts enable us to arrive at the following conclusions: a) the very idea of special role of potentials (A,{\\phi}) in quantum mechanics (different from their role in classical physics) ...

  10. Estimates of global dew collection potential

    OpenAIRE

    Vuollekoski, H.; Vogt, M; V. A. Sinclair; J. Duplissy; Järvinen, H; E.-M. Kyrö; Makkonen, R.; T. Petäjä; N. L. Prisle; P. Räisänen; Sipilä, M.; Ylhäisi, J.; M. Kulmala

    2014-01-01

    The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilising 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1 mm. Nevertheless, some water-stressed areas such as the coastal regions of northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula show potential for large-scale dew ...

  11. Some Aspects of Three-Quark Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    We use gauge-string duality to analytically evaluate the expectation value of a baryonic Wilson loop in a SU(3) pure gauge theory. We then discuss three aspects of a static three-quark potential: an aspect of universality which concerns properties independent of a geometric configuration of quarks; a heavy diquark structure; and a relation between the three and two-quark potentials.

  12. Mineralization Potential of Polarized Dental Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Background Management of human teeth has moved from a surgical to a more conservative approach of inhibiting or preventing lesion progression. Increasing enamel mineralization is crucial in this regard. A potential difficulty is the preferential mineralization of the outermost portion of the enamel that can prevent overall mineralization. We describe a strategy for increasing the mineralization potential of dental enamel. Methodology/Principal Findings Extracted human premolar teeth enamel (n...

  13. Managing uncertainty in potential supplier identification

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Yun; Jankovic, Marija; Okudan Kremer, Gül E.; Bocquet, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    As a benefit of modularization of complex systems, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) can choose suppliers in a less constricted way when faced with new or evolving requirements. Before a supplier is selected for each module, a group of potential suppliers should be identified in order to control the uncertainty along with other performance measures of the new system development. In modular design, because suppliers are more involved in system development, the potential supplier identifi...

  14. Somatosensory evoked potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cosi, V; Poloni, M.; Mazzini, L.; Callieco, R.

    1984-01-01

    Forty five patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were investigated, by means of somatosensory evoked potentials, in order to detect the presence of subclinical sensory changes. Cervical SEPs from the median nerve and cortical SEPs from the median and tibial nerve were recorded, showing a delay of N13 and subsequent components; the latency of the first constant cortical potential was also increased in many patients. Only the SEPs from the tibial nerve showed a decrease of amplitude. Thes...

  15. DESIGN OF THE CONTACT POTENTIALS DIFFERENCE PROBES

    OpenAIRE

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu; U. A. Mikitsevich; A. L. Zharin

    2016-01-01

    The contact potential difference probes distinguished by great variety and produced mostly in the laboratory for specific experimental applications. As a rule, they consist of commercially available instrumentation, and have a number of disadvantages: large dimensions, complexity and high cost, small sensitivity, operating speed, noiseproof, etc. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approaches to design of the small dimension, complete contact potential difference probes, provid...

  16. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  17. INDIA'S TOURISM SECTOR CONTRIBUTION AND POTENTIALS

    OpenAIRE

    DINKAR P. TAKALE; SHIVAJI R. KAKADE

    2013-01-01

    India is endowed with both natural and man-made attractions such as coast lines, snow capped mountains, wild life, heritage sights and monuments, hearth-taking picturesque etc. India has tremendous potential to promote inbound and outbound tourism. Tourism industry is the potential industry for generating foreign exchange and employment for the developing country like India. Tourism sector has become an important tool for achieving economic self-sufficiency in India through promoting internat...

  18. Hydropower potential of the lower Vistula

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Szydłowski; Romuald Szymkiewicz; Dariusz Gąsiorowski; Piotr Zima; Jakub Hakiel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate analysis of the hydropower potential of the lower Vistula River from Warsaw to Gdańsk Bay. The calculations were made for a hydraulic model of the lower Vistula which takes into account potential development of barrages in a cascade system. Results obtained from the model simulations and from hydrological calculations were used to estimate the power of hydropower plants and the average annual energy output from the entire cascade system. The results of calcu...

  19. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  20. Customer's potential value: The role of learning

    OpenAIRE

    Komulainen, Hanna; Mainela, Tuija; Tähtinen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    Current views on value creation emphasize the role of the customer, mutual investments, and value co-creation. Nevertheless, at present the customer-focused research concentrates on value expectations and value experiences as outcomes but disregards the analysis of potential value that is dependent on the customer's activity and learning in the process. The present study explores customer perceived value as a multidimensional phenomenon incorporating expected, realized, and potential dimensio...

  1. Galactic rotation curves and linear potential laws

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, C E; Carlson, Carl E; Lowenstein, Eric J

    1996-01-01

    We study the possibility that galactic rotation curves can be explained by a gravitational potential that contains a linear term as well as a Newtonian one. This hypothesis, suggested by conformal gravity, does allow good fits to the galactic rotation curves of the galaxies we study, which have a wide range of luminosities. However, the universality one might have expected of the parameter describing the strength of the linear potential does not emerge. Instead, a different regularity is seen.

  2. Educational Potential of Case-Study Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorinova, Zoya Vladimirovna; Vorobyeva, Viktoriya Vladimirovna; Malyanova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of phenomenological and typological analysis of case-study technology educational potential. The definition “educational potential of case-study technology” is given, the main characteristics of which are changed in communication and collaborative activity quality, appearance of educational initiatives, change of participants’ position in learning process, formation of “collective subject” in collaborative activity, increase of learning (subject) results. Dep...

  3. Measurement of Redox Potential in Nanoecotoxicological Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak Gohil; Jacqueline Snowden; Roger Peck; Alex Cackett; Ratna Tantra

    2012-01-01

    Redox potential has been identified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as one of the parameters that should be investigated for the testing of manufactured nanomaterials. There is still some ambiguity concerning this parameter, i.e., as to what and how to measure, particularly when in a nanoecotoxicological context. In this study the redox potentials of six nanomaterials (either zinc oxide (ZnO) or cerium oxide (CeO2)) dispersions were measured using an oxida...

  4. Gaussian Approximation Potentials: a brief tutorial introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bart?k, Albert P.; Cs?nyi, G?bor

    2015-01-01

    We present a swift walk-through of our recent work that uses machine learning to t interatomic potentials based on quantum mechanical data. We describe our Gaussian Approximation Potentials (GAP) framework, discuss a variety of descriptors, how to train the model on total energies and derivatives and the simultaneous use of multiple models of di erent complexity. We also show a small example using QUIP, the software sandbox implementation of GAP that is available for non-comme...

  5. Dirac particle in a pseudoscalar potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico), D.F.; Zentella-Dehesa, A. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Intituto de Quimica, UNAM Ap. Postal 70-213, 04510 (Mexico), D.F.

    1996-02-01

    We study the problem of a Dirac particle with a pseudoscalar interaction in the potential approximation. It is shown how nonperturbative relativistic solutions arise. The case of the central pseudoscalar potential is explicitly worked out also in a closed form. The angular functions are worked out in general for this central case. Finally for the special case of the spherical well the radial solutions are shown to behave like Bessel-type functions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Potential vorticity formulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics is formulated in terms of the time evolution of potential vorticity and magnetic flux per unit mass using a compact Lie bracket notation. It is demonstrated that this simplifies analytic solution in at least one very important situation relevant to magnetic fusion experiments. Potentially important implications for analytic and numerical modelling of both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are also discussed. PMID:23383802

  7. Reviving Quintessence with an Exponential Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui-Yiing; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We examine a quintessence model with a modified exponential potential given by $V(\\phi) = V_0(1+e^{-\\lambda \\phi})$. Unlike quintessence with a standard exponential potential, our model can yield an acceptable accelerated expansion at late times, while producing a distinct "early dark energy" signature at high redshift. We determine the evolution of the equation of state parameter, $w_\\phi$, and the density parameter, $\\Omega_\\phi$, as a function of the scale factor. The strongest constraints...

  8. Imaging membrane potential in dendritic spines

    OpenAIRE

    Nuriya, Mutsuo; Jiang, Jiang; Nemet, Boaz; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Yuste, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic spines mediate most excitatory inputs in the brain. Although it is clear that spines compartmentalize calcium, it is still unknown what role, if any, they play in integrating synaptic inputs. To investigate the electrical function of spines directly, we used second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of membrane potential in pyramidal neurons from hippocampal cultures and neocortical brain slices. With FM 4-64 as an intracellular SHG chromophore, we imaged membrane potential in the so...

  9. The Measurement of Potential Output for Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Franz R. Hahn; Gerhard Rünstler

    1996-01-01

    Most empirical approaches to measuring potential output (PO) are based on variants of the method of trend extraction. This is also true for estimating PO on the basis of production functions. Structural approaches rely on trend extraction methods, in connection with determining potential employment or the long-term path of productivity for example. Thus, trend adjustment methods are of central importance for the measurement of PO, regardless of whether PO is estimated through a structural or ...

  10. Estimating the potential gains from mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wang, Dexiang

    2005-01-01

    We introduce simple production economic models to estimate the potential gains from mergers. We decompose the gains into technical ef¿ciency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains, and we discuss alternative ways to capture these gains. We propose to approximate the production processes using the...... non-parametric. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach, and we use the resulting operational approach to estimate the potential gains from merging agricultural extension of¿ces in Denmark....

  11. Analytic extension of the nuclear algebraic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic extension of the nuclear algebraic potential in the complex energy and angular momentum planes is discussed and an approximation for the algebraic potential in agreement with the known analytic properties of the S-matrix is proposed. The invariance of the energy spectrum of the Coulomb part of the interaction is established. The results are applied to the Regge pole analysis of the 12C+24Mg elastic collision at Elab=23.0 MeV

  12. Harmonic Oscillator Potential to describe Internal Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, R D

    2003-01-01

    Assuming that a constant potential energy function has meaning for a dissipated harmonic oscillator, then an important issue is the time dependence of the turning points. Turning point studies demonstrate that the common model of external (viscous) damping fails to properly describe those many systems where structural (internal friction) damping is the most important source of dissipation. For internal friction damping, the better model of potential energy is one in which the function is not stationary.

  13. Economic Growth in Croatia: Potential and Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    David Moore; Athanasios Vamvakidis

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the factors and constraints that affect recent and potential growth in Croatia, as well as policies that can influence it. On current productivity trends, it estimates Croatia’s potential growth rate at 4–4½ percent, a result reasonably robust to different methodologies. For growth to be sustained at a significantly higher rate, the business environment needs to be improved through further measures to reduce the administrative burden, legal uncertainties, and corruption. T...

  14. The zeta potential of mineral fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastri, Simone; Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Hanuskova, Miriam; Cavallo, Alessandro; Gaudino, Giovanni

    2014-07-15

    For the first time, the zeta (ξ) potential of pathogenic mineral fibres (chrysotiles, amphiboles and erionite) was systematically investigated to shed light on the relationship between surface reactivity and fibre pathogenicity. A general model explaining the zeta potential of chrysotile, amphiboles and erionite has been postulated. In double distilled water, chrysotiles showed positive values while crocidolite and erionite showed negative values. In contact with organic solutions, all fibres exhibited negative values of zeta potential. The decrease of the surface potential is deemed to be a defensive chemical response of the macrophage cells to minimize hemolytic damage. Negatively charged surfaces favour the binding of collagen and redox activated Fe-rich proteins, to form the so-called asbestos bodies and prompt the formation of HO via the reaction with peroxide (H2O2+e(-)→HO+HO(-)). An additional mechanism accounting for higher carcinogenicity is possibly related to the Ca(2+) sequestration by the fibres with surface negative potential, impairing the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. It was also found that with a negative zeta potential, the attractive forces prevailed over repulsions and favoured processes such as agglomeration responsible of a tumorigenic chronic inflammation. PMID:24929786

  15. Quest for potentials in the quintessence scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The time variation of the equation of state $w$ for quintessence scenario with a scalar field as dark energy is studied up to the third derivative ($d^3w/da^3$) with respect to the scale factor $a$, in order to predict the future observations and specify the scalar potential parameters with the observables. The third derivative of $w$ for general potential $V$ is derived and applied to several types of potentials. They are the inverse power-law ($V=M^{4+\\alpha}/Q^{\\alpha}$), the exponential ($V=M^4\\exp{(\\beta M/Q)}$), the cosine ($V=M^4(\\cos (Q/f)+1)$) and the Gaussian types ($V=M^4\\exp(-Q^2/\\sigma^2)$), which are prototypical potentials for the freezing and thawing models. If the parameter number for a potential form is $ n$, it is necessary to find at least for $n+2$ independent observations to identify the potential form and the evolution of the scalar field ($Q$ and $ \\dot{Q} $). Such observations would be the values of $ \\Omega_Q, w, dw/da. \\cdots $, and $ dw^n/da^n$. Since four of the above mentioned po...

  16. Statistical systems with nonintegrable interaction potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    Statistical systems composed of atoms interacting with each other trough nonintegrable interaction potentials are considered. Examples of these potentials are hard-core potentials and long-range potentials, for instance, the Lennard-Jones and dipolar potentials. The treatment of such potentials is known to confront several problems, e.g., the impossibility of using the standard mean-field approximations, such as Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations, the impossibility of directly introducing coherent states, the difficulty in breaking the global gauge symmetry, which is required for describing Bose-Einstein condensed and superfluid systems, the absence of a correctly defined Fourier transform, which hampers the description of uniform matter as well as the use of local-density approximation for nonuniform systems. A novel iterative procedure for describing such systems is developed, starting from a correlated mean-field approximation, allowing for a systematic derivation of higher orders, and meeting no problems listed above. The procedure is applicable to arbitrary systems, whether equilibrium or nonequilibrium. The specification for equilibrium systems is presented. The method of extrapolating the expressions for observable quantities from weak coupling to strong coupling is described.

  17. Microscopic optical potential at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems concerning a microscopic optical model for the elastic nuclear collisions at medium energies are discussed. We describe the method for constructing the optical potential which makes use of the particular properties of quantum scattering in the eikonal limit. The resulting potential is expressed in terms of the nuclear wave functions and the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. This potential has a dynamic character since by including the effects of multiple scattering it allows for the possibility of intermediate excitations of the projectile and target nuclei. The use of the potential in the exact wave equation accounts for the most important mechanisms present in the collisions between composite particles. The microscopic optical model was successfully applied in the analysis of elastic scattering of protons and α-particles on atomic nuclei in the energy range of 300-1000 MeV/nucleon. The dynamic optical potential in this case represents a considerable improvement over the eikonal Glauber model and the static optical potential of Watson. The possibilities to extend the microscopic description of the proton-nucleus interaction by considering the spin dependence of the elementary amplitude and the Majorana exchange effects were investigated. (author)

  18. Hydrogen Utilization Potential in Subsurface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Rishi R.; Glombitza, Clemens; Nickel, Julia C.; Anderson, Chloe H.; Dunlea, Ann G.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Murray, Richard W.; D'Hondt, Steven; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface microbial communities undertake many terminal electron-accepting processes, often simultaneously. Using a tritium-based assay, we measured the potential hydrogen oxidation catalyzed by hydrogenase enzymes in several subsurface sedimentary environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico) with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product, or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen and allows qualitative detection of microbial activity irrespective of the predominant electron-accepting process. Because the method only requires samples frozen immediately after recovery, the assay can be used for identifying microbial activity in subsurface ecosystems without the need to preserve live material. We measured potential hydrogen oxidation rates in all samples from multiple depths at several sites that collectively span a wide range of environmental conditions and biogeochemical zones. Potential activity normalized to total cell abundance ranges over five orders of magnitude and varies, dependent upon the predominant terminal electron acceptor. Lowest per-cell potential rates characterize the zone of nitrate reduction and highest per-cell potential rates occur in the methanogenic zone. Possible reasons for this relationship to predominant electron acceptor include (i) increasing importance of fermentation in successively deeper biogeochemical zones and (ii) adaptation of H2ases to successively higher concentrations of H2 in successively deeper zones. PMID:26858697

  19. Revisiting the argument from fetal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most famous, and most derided, arguments against the morality of abortion is the argument from potential, which maintains that the fetus' potential to become a person and enjoy the valuable life common to persons, entails that its destruction is prima facie morally impermissible. In this paper, I will revisit and offer a defense of the argument from potential. First, I will criticize the classical arguments proffered against the importance of fetal potential, specifically the arguments put forth by philosophers Peter Singer and David Boonin, by carefully unpacking the claims made in these arguments and illustrating why they are flawed. Secondly, I will maintain that fetal potential is morally relevant when it comes to the morality of abortion, but that it must be accorded a proper place in the argument. This proper place, however, cannot be found until we first answer a very important and complex question: we must first address the issue of personal identity, and when the fetus becomes the type of being who is relevantly identical to a future person. I will illustrate why the question of fetal potential can only be meaningfully addressed after we have first answered the question of personal identity and how it relates to the human fetus.

  20. Alpha-Ni optical model potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work reports the analyses of the experimental differential cross-sections of α elastic scattering on 58,60,62,64Ni, over a wide range of incident energies, in terms of four types of optical potentials, namely shallow (molecular), deep non-monotonic, squared Woods-Saxon and semi-microscopic folding. All the four potentials produce a reasonable description of the experimental data. The potential parameters, calculated from the energy density functional theory using a realistic two-nucleon interaction, resemble closely the molecular potential parameters, which produce the best description of the experimental data for the four isotopes. The volume integrals and the energy variation of the parameters indicate the effect of the shell-model structure on the potentials. The folding potentials, without any need for renormalization, are found to describe reasonably well the elastic scattering cross-section data for the four isotopes within the energy range considered. In conformity with the previous observation on Ca isotopes, the number of nucleons, 4Aα=49, existing in α-like clusters in the target nucleus, is the same for the four isotopes, considered herein

  1. Hydrogen Utilization Potential in Subsurface Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Rishi R; Glombitza, Clemens; Nickel, Julia C; Anderson, Chloe H; Dunlea, Ann G; Spivack, Arthur J; Murray, Richard W; D'Hondt, Steven; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface microbial communities undertake many terminal electron-accepting processes, often simultaneously. Using a tritium-based assay, we measured the potential hydrogen oxidation catalyzed by hydrogenase enzymes in several subsurface sedimentary environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico) with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product, or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen and allows qualitative detection of microbial activity irrespective of the predominant electron-accepting process. Because the method only requires samples frozen immediately after recovery, the assay can be used for identifying microbial activity in subsurface ecosystems without the need to preserve live material. We measured potential hydrogen oxidation rates in all samples from multiple depths at several sites that collectively span a wide range of environmental conditions and biogeochemical zones. Potential activity normalized to total cell abundance ranges over five orders of magnitude and varies, dependent upon the predominant terminal electron acceptor. Lowest per-cell potential rates characterize the zone of nitrate reduction and highest per-cell potential rates occur in the methanogenic zone. Possible reasons for this relationship to predominant electron acceptor include (i) increasing importance of fermentation in successively deeper biogeochemical zones and (ii) adaptation of H2ases to successively higher concentrations of H2 in successively deeper zones. PMID:26858697

  2. Development of empirical potentials for amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, A.

    2007-09-15

    Amorphous silica (SiO{sub 2}) is of great importance in geoscience and mineralogy as well as a raw material in glass industry. Its structure is characterized as a disordered continuous network of SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Many efforts have been undertaken to understand the microscopic properties of silica by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this method the interatomic interactions are modeled by an effective potential that does not take explicitely into account the electronic degrees of freedom. In this work, we propose a new methodology to parameterize such a potential for silica using ab initio simulations, namely Car-Parrinello (CP) method [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)]. The new potential proposed is compared to the BKS potential [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1955 (1990)] that is considered as the benchmark potential for silica. First, CP simulations have been performed on a liquid silica sample at 3600 K. The structural features so obtained have been compared to the ones predicted by the classical BKS potential. Regarding the bond lengths the BKS tends to underestimate the Si-O bond whereas the Si-Si bond is overestimated. The inter-tetrahedral angular distribution functions are also not well described by the BKS potential. The corresponding mean value of the SiOSi angle is found to be {approx_equal} 147 , while the CP yields to a SiOSi angle centered around 135 . Our aim is to fit a classical Born-Mayer/Coulomb pair potential using ab initio calculations. To this end, we use the force-matching method proposed by Ercolessi and Adams [Europhys. Lett. 26, 583 (1994)]. The CP configurations and their corresponding interatomic forces have been considered for a least square fitting procedure. The classical MD simulations with the resulting potential have lead to a structure that is very different from the CP one. Therefore, a different fitting criterion based on the CP partial pair correlation functions was applied. Using this approach the resulting

  3. The use of off-shell potentials in Brueckner theory calculations of the nucleon optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the nucleon optical-potential from the Hamada-Johnston potential using firstorder Brueckner theory. The new feature is that we use a fully complex off-shell potential in the energy denominator in the calculation of the t-matrix in place of the usually used real part of the on-shell potential. We find that for bombarding energies near 30 MeV the agreement with experimental data is satisfactory while at higher energies the general results from the on- and off-shell potentials are very similar. The reason for the better agreement at the lower energies using the off-shell potential in the energy denominator is that the calculated optical potential in this case has a much smaller imaginary part. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of eigenvalues of a smooth potential via Schroedinger transmission across multi-step potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Sahu; Bidubhusan Sahu; Santosh K Agarwalla

    2008-01-01

    In a one-dimensional quantal solution of Schroedinger equation, the general expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients are derived for a potential constituting n number of rectangular wells and barriers. These expressions are readily used for the estimation of eigenvalues of a smooth potential which is simulated by a multi-step potential. The applicability of this method is demonstrated with success in potentials with different forms including the most versatile Ginocchio potential where the widely used numerical method like Runge–Kutta integration algorithm fails to yield the result. Accurate evaluation of eigenvalues free from numerical problem for any form of potentials, whether analytically solvable or not, is the highlight of the present multi-step approximation method in the theory of potential scattering.

  5. Far-field potentials recorded from action potentials and from a tripole in a hemicylindrical volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, D L; Deupree, D L

    1989-05-01

    There is growing evidence in support of the hypothesis that far-field potentials are recorded when action potentials encounter discontinuities in the surrounding volume. The present study found further support for this hypothesis using two methods of experimentation. The first method recorded potentials when the action potential from an isolated bullfrog sciatic nerve in a hemicylindrical volume (i) encountered a change in the shape of the surrounding volume, (ii) crossed a boundary between 2 volumes of differing resistivities, (iii) reached a bend in the nerve, or (iv) reached the functional end of the nerve. In the second method, potentials were recorded when an electrical tripole, constructed in a way to produce the electrical equivalent of an action potential, encountered the same discontinuities as well as when it was configured to simulate a curved nerve. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dipole components of an action potential predominant in far-field recordings. PMID:2469568

  6. Automated experiment for registration of bioelectrical potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A hardware-software complex automated system of recording bioelectrical potentials, which is based on a USB-device with subsequent processing of signals with PC was developed in this work. We proposed a universal scheme of registration of bioelectrical potentials, which allows one to detect the reaction of biological objects to different stimuli, such as cold, heat, photo- and electrical stimulation, and to different combinations of these stimuli (Motsnyj et al., 2004. They could be applied for deeper understanding of the biological mechanisms of generation of electrical potentials in cells and discovering the accommodation processes of organisms as a whole to these stimuli. The system for registration of bioelectrical potentials consists of hardware and software parts. The software part consists of the client and server sides, which transmit experimental data to the network. The client-side software renders a quantitative analysis and stores the results in a database. An integrated system of registration and biometrical processing was applied for analysis of the electrical responses of maize leaves to heat stimuli. The dynamics of these potentials were studied and a quantitative analysis of the potential level stabilization was made. We found that amplitude relation of responses to the initial response increased and stabilized at the level of 130%. Mathematical models of the plant cell for discovering intracellular mechanisms of biopotentials registration were developed. As a result of modeling, we found that the electrical response of the cells is based on selective conductance of the cell membrane for Н+ and K+ ions. By this way, we show the biophysical relation of plant potentials to intracellular biophysical mechanisms.

  7. Direct reconstruction of the quintessence potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlén, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2005-10-01

    We describe an algorithm which directly determines the quintessence potential from observational data, without using an equation of state parametrization. The strategy is to numerically determine observational quantities as a function of the expansion coefficients of the quintessence potential, which are then constrained using a likelihood approach. We further impose a model selection criterion, the Bayesian Information Criterion, to determine the appropriate level of the potential expansion. In addition to the potential parameters, the present day quintessence field velocity is kept as a free parameter. Our investigation contains unusual model types, including a scalar field moving on a flat potential, or in an uphill direction, and is general enough to permit oscillating quintessence field models. We apply our method to the “gold“ Type Ia supernovae sample of Riess et al. [A. G. Riess (Supernova Search Team Collaboration), Astrophys. J.ASJOAB0004-637X 607, 665 (2004)]10.1086/383612 confirming the pure cosmological constant model as the best description of current supernovae luminosity-redshift data. Our method is optimal for extracting quintessence parameters from future data.

  8. Screening action potentials: The power of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eKaestner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Action potentials reflect the concerted activity of all electrogenic constituents in the plasma membrane during the excitation of a cell. Therefore, the action potential is an integrated readout and a promising parameter to detect electrophysiological failures or modifications thereof in diagnosis as well as in drug screens. Cellular action potentials can be recorded by optical approaches. To fulfill the pre-requirements to scale up for e.g. pharmacological screens the following preparatory work has to be provided: (i model cells under investigation need to represent target cells in the best possible manner; (ii optical sensors that can be either small molecule dyes or genetically encoded potential probes need to provide a reliable readout with minimal interaction with the naive behavior of the cells and (iii devices need to be capable to stimulate the cells, read out the signals with the appropriate speed as well as provide the capacity for a sufficient throughput. Here we discuss several scenarios for all three categories in the field of cardiac physiology and pharmacology and provide a perspective to use the power of light in screening cardiac action potentials.

  9. Search for tracker potentials in quintessence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Vinod B.

    2002-12-01

    We report a significant finding in quintessence theory that scalar fields with tracker potentials have a model-independent scaling behaviour in the expanding universe. So far, widely discussed exponential, power law or hyperbolic potentials can simply mimic the tracking behaviour over a limited range of redshift. A new version of the tracker field theory is proposed and it is shown that in the small redshift range where the variation of the tracking parameter ɛ may be taken to be negligible, the differential equation of generic potentials leads to hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine potentials which may approximate a tracker field in the present-day universe. We have plotted the variation of the tracker potential and the equation of state of the tracker field as a function of the redshift z for the model-independent relation derived from tracker field theory; we have also plotted the variation of V(Φ) in terms of the scalar field Φ for the chosen hyperbolic cosine function and have compared it with the curves obtained by the reconstruction of V(Φ) from real observational data from the supernovae.

  10. Search for Tracker Potentials in Quintessence Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Johri, V B

    2002-01-01

    We report a significant finding in Quintessence theory that the the scalar fields with tracker potentials have a model-independent scaling behaviour in the expanding universe. So far widely discussed exponential,power law or hyperbolic potentials can simply mimic the tracking behaviour over a limited range of redshift. In the small redshift range where the variation of the tracking parameter $\\epsilon$ may be taken to be negligible, the differential equation of generic potentials leads to hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine potentials which may approximate tracker field in the present day universe. We have plotted the variation of tracker potential and the equation of state of the tracker field as function of the redshift $z$ for the model-independent relation derived from tracker field theory; we have also plotted the variation of $V(\\Phi)$ in terms of the scalar field $\\Phi$ for the chosen hyperbolic cosine function and have compared with the curves obtained by reconstruction of $V(\\phi)$ from the real ob...

  11. Interpolation effects in tabulated interatomic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, M.; Whalen, S. M.; Elliott, R. S.; Tadmor, E. B.

    2015-10-01

    Empirical interatomic potentials are widely used in atomistic simulations due to their ability to compute the total energy and interatomic forces quickly relative to more accurate quantum calculations. The functional forms in these potentials are sometimes stored in a tabulated format, as a collection of data points (argument-value pairs), and a suitable interpolation (often spline-based) is used to obtain the function value at an arbitrary point. We explore the effect of these interpolations on the potential predictions by calculating the quasi-harmonic thermal expansion and finite-temperature elastic constant of a one-dimensional chain compared with molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that some predictions are affected by the choice of interpolation regardless of the number of tabulated data points. Our results clearly indicate that the interpolation must be considered part of the potential definition, especially for lattice dynamics properties that depend on higher-order derivatives of the potential. This is facilitated by the Knowledgebase of Interatomic Models (KIM) project, in which both the tabulated data (‘parameterized model’) and the code that interpolates them to compute energy and forces (‘model driver’) are stored and given unique citeable identifiers. We have developed cubic and quintic spline model drivers for pair functional type models (EAM, FS, EMT) and uploaded them to the OpenKIM repository (https://openkim.org).

  12. Phenomenological optical potentials of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes recent experimental studies of heavy ion interactions through elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and transfer reactions. The large cross sections at far back angles observed in elastic scattering of even-even nuclei (12C, 16O, ..., 28Si, ..., 40Ca) are roughly explained by using optical potentials which are transparent at the strong-absorption-radius region. The mass number dependence of the constant-cross-section regions which appear in the 1800 excitation functions are also explained by a surface-transparent potential set with slight energy dependence. However, the structure seen at 900 and 1800 can be simultaneously explained only by a parity-dependent potential, although the physical significance of the term seems unclear yet. The α-transfer reactions also suggest a common isolated doorway state will be ruled out for the gross structures. The channel coupling effects of a strong inelastic scattering was included approximately by modifying the imaginary term. However, when strong Coulomb excitation dominates the inelastic scattering, the optical potential needs to have a new term of long range absorption. Heavy-ion spin-orbit term was studied through transfer reactions and inelastic scatterings, giving the order of V sub(so) = 0.7 - 3 MeV for the 13C, 15N and 19F potentials. (author)

  13. Timing of potential and metabolic brain energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, Jakob; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2007-01-01

    The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho-physiologic......The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho...... functions. We introduce the concepts of potential and metabolic brain energy to distinguish trans-membrane gradients of ions or neurotransmitters and the capacity to generate energy from intra- or extra-cerebral substrates, respectively. Higher brain functions, such as memory retrieval, speaking......, consciousness and self-consciousness are so fast that their execution depends primarily on fast neurotransmission (in the millisecond range) and action-potentials. In other words: brain functioning requires primarily maximal potential energy. Metabolic brain energy is necessary to restore and maintain the...

  14. Soil Water Hysteresis at Low Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. PRUNTY; J. BELL

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the soil water characteristic curve is fundamental for understanding unsaturated soils. The objective of this work was to find scanning hysteresis loops of two fine textured soils at water potentials below wilting point. This was done by equilibration over NaCl solutions with water potentials of -6.6 to -18.8 MPa at 25 °C. When cycled repeatedly through a series of potentials in the range noted previously both soils exhibited a hysteresis effect. The experimental differences in water content between the drying and wetting soils at the same water potential were much too large to be accounted for by failure to allow sufficient time to attain equilibrium as predicted by the exponential decay model. The wetting versus drying differences were relatively small, however, at only 4 mg g-1 or less in absolute terms and about 3% of the mean of wetting and drying, in relative terms. Hysteresis should be a consideration when modeling biological and physical soil processes at water contents below the wilting point, where small differences in water content result in large potential energy changes.

  15. Fuel Consumption Potential of the Pushbelt CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Van der Sluis, Francis; Van Dongen, Tom; Van Spijk, Gert-Jan; Van der Velde, Arie; Van Heeswijk, Ad

    2011-01-01

    The efforts to further reduce fuel consumption of vehicles equipped with a pushbelt type Continuously Variable Transmission(CVT) focus on different sources of loss.In this paper the magnitude of these losses and their potential for reduction is described.Inside the CVT,the variator,its control strategy and the hydraulic actuation circuit can be distinguished as the main potentials.A major opportunity is offered by a new control strategy that takes the actual slip between belt and pulley as the control parameter.The resulting decrease of clamping forces on the pushbelt leads to a reduction of variator and actuation losses.Further potential is found in the hydraulic actuation circuit by an improved tuning of the power supply to the actual power requirement.Outside the CVT additional potential is found in start-stop functionality as supported by measures inside the transmission.The paper describes the theoretical background as well as practical fuel savings of up to 5.5% that were obtained in tests on vehicle level.Slip control adds an inherent robustness to the operation of the pushbelt and opens up the fuel saving potential of the CVT thus reinforcing its position as the benchmark for the near future.

  16. Development of Interatomic Potentials for Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: To be able to benefit from fusion as a clean and safe power source, we need a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic region of a fusion reactor. Knowing the interplay between the fuel plasma and the reactor components, such as the first wall and the divertor, one can minimize the resulting degradation. The atom-level mechanisms behind the reactions, (e.g. erosion and redeposition) are, however, not accessible to experiments. Hence, computational methods, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, are needed. The interactions in a system of particles are within MD described by an interatomic potential. The study of reactor processes requires models for the mixed interaction between the first wall and divertor materials beryllium, carbon and tungsten, as well as for the interaction of these with hydrogen. The absence of proper models for the Be system motivated us to develop potentials for pure Be, Be-C, Be-W and Be-H. We present a Tersoff-like bond order potential for pure Be and the same formalism applied to Be-C and Be-H. The performance of the potentials is discussed and an outlook for the remaining potential is also given. (authors)

  17. A spectroscopic potential energy surface for FCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potential energy surface for the FCN linear molecule is obtained by nonlinear least-squares fit to the pure (l=0) vibrational terms observed spectroscopically. The potential surface is expressed as a Morse-cosine expansion in valence coordinates, and the vibrational energy levels needed to carry out the fit are calculated variationally using a system of optimal generalized internal coordinates expressly determined for such a purpose. The quality of the potential energy surface fitted is checked by computing the vibrational terms Gv and the rotational constants Bv of the FCN molecule and its isotopologs 19F13C14N and 19F12C15N using a normal hyperspherical coordinate system which facilitates the assignments of normal modes quantum numbers to the vibrational energy levels and the subsequent comparison with the observed values. The spectroscopic FCN potential energy surface obtained is shown to reproduce the vibrational terms of the three molecular species well, and above all their rotational constants, thus endorsing the use of the potential to identify and characterize unobserved infrared bands of these species.

  18. On Effective Potential in Tortoise Coordinate

    CERN Document Server

    Ganjali, M A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the field dynamics in Tortoise coordinate where the equation of motion of a scalar can be written as Schrodinger-like form. We obtain a general form for effective potential by finding the Schrodinger equation for scalar and spinor fields and study its global behavior in some black hole backgrounds in three dimension such as BTZ black holes, new type black holes and black holes with no horizon. Especially, we study the asymptotic behavior of potential at infinity, horizons and origin and find that its asymptotic in BTZ and new type solution is completely different from that of vanishing horizon solution. In fact, potential for vanishing horizon goes to a fixed quantity at infinity, while in BTZ and new type black hole we have an infinite barrier.

  19. On Effective Potential in Tortoise Coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we study the field dynamics in Tortoise coordinate where the equation of motion of a scalar can be written as Schrodinger-like form. We obtain a general form for effective potential by finding the Schrodinger equation for scalar and spinor fields and study its global behavior in some black hole backgrounds in three dimension such as BTZ black holes, new type black holes and black holes with no horizon. Especially, we study the asymptotic behavior of potential at infinity, horizons and origin and find that its asymptotic in BTZ and new type solution is completely different from that of vanishing horizon solution. In fact, potential for vanishing horizon goes to a fixed quantity at infinity, while in BTZ and new type black hole we have an infinite barrier.

  20. Brainstem evoked potentials in infantile spasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ten patients with infantile spasms, brainstem evoked potentials and MRI examinations were performed to evaluate the brainstem involvement. The result of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) following the right median nerve stimulation revealed abnormal findings including the absence or low amplitudes of the waves below wave P3 and delayed central conduction time in 7 of the ten patients. The result of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) revealed abnormal findings including low amplitudes of wave V, prolonged interpeak latency of waves I-V and absence of the waves below wave IV in 5 of the ten patients. The result of the MRI examinations revealed various degrees of the brainstem atrophy in 6 of the ten patients, all of whom showed abnormal brainstem evoked potentials. The result of this study demonstrates that patients with infantile spasms are frequently associated with brainstem dysfunction and raises the possibility that brainstem atrophy might be a cause of infantile spasms. (author)

  1. Anharmonic potential in the oscillator representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the non relativistic and relativized Schroedinger equation the Wick ordering method called the oscillator representation is proposed to calculate the energy spectrum for a wide class of potentials allowing the existence of a bound state. The oscillator representation method gives a unique regular way to describe and calculate the energy levels of ground as well as orbital and radial excitation states for a wide class of potentials. The results of the zeroth approximation oscillator representation are in good agreement with the exact values for the anharmonic potentials. The oscillator representation method was applied to the relativized Schroedinger equation too. The perturbation series converges fairly fast, i.e., the highest perturbation corrections over the interaction Hamiltonian are small enough. 29 refs.; 4 tabs. (author)

  2. Active control of electric potential of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, R.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for controlling the potential of a spacecraft by means of devices which release appropriate charged particles from the spacecraft to the environment. Attention is given to electron emitters, ion emitters, a basic electron emitter arrangement, techniques for sensing electric field or potential, and flight experiments on active potential control. It is recommended to avoid differential charging on spacecraft surfaces because it can severely affect the efficacy of emitters. Discharging the frame of a spacecraft with dielectric surfaces involves the risk of stressing the dielectric material excessively. The spacecraft should, therefore, be provided with grounded conductive surfaces. It is pointed out that particles released by control systems can return to the spacecraft.

  3. International gas trade: Potential major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper reviews some key factors affecting continued expansion of the use and trade of natural gas, with a particular focus on a group of major gas trade and transport projects now in various stages of consideration. The paper begins by outlining the distribution of potential gas supplies, it also sketches the sectorial and regional structures of potential demand for natural gas. It continues by considering current and emerging trends in the international trade of natural gas by pipeline and as liquefied natural gas (LNG). Within the context thus provided, the paper then details a number of significant potential gas trade and transportation projects individually. Finally, the paper comments on the challenges in financing and implementing gas projects, especially with regard to economic, political, and institutional issues in the producing, transit, and consuming countries

  4. Weak gravitational field and Coriolis potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z Y Turakulov

    2009-03-01

    In mechanics of the mass point passage from one frame of reference to another moving with velocity $\\vec{u}$ consists in subtracting this vector from the velocity of the particle. In general case the vector $\\vec{u}$ is not constant, as, for example, when passing through a rotating frame, this operation creates inertial forces. Analysis of this phenomenon from the point of view of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics is interesting from the general relativistic point of view due to Einstein's principle of equivalence. We show that the vector $\\vec{u}$ plays the role of vector potential which, however, essentially differs from vector potential known in classical electrodynamics. Comparative analysis of the two kinds of vector potentials is completed.

  5. Applying a potential across a biomembrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lomholt, Michael A; Hansen, Per Lyngs

    2007-01-01

    -tensor we find (1) in the small screening length limit, where the Debye screening length is smaller than the distance between the electrodes, the screening certifies that all electrostatic interactions are short range and the major effect of the applied potential is to decrease the membrane tension and...... increase the bending rigidity; explicit expressions for electrostatic contribution to the tension and bending rigidity are derived as a function of the applied potential, the Debye screening lengths, and the dielectric constants of the membrane and the solvents. For sufficiently large voltages the negative...... contribution to the tension is expected to cause a membrane stretching instability. (2) For the dielectric limit, i.e., no salt (and small wave vectors compared to the distance between the electrodes), when the dielectric constant on the two sides are different the applied potential induces an effective...

  6. Microscopic optical potential from chiral nuclear forces

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, J W; Miller, G A; Weise, W

    2013-01-01

    The energy- and density-dependent single-particle potential for nucleons is constructed in a medium of infinite isospin-symmetric nuclear matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. The leading-order terms from both two- and three-nucleon forces give rise to real, energy-independent contributions to the nucleon self-energy. The Hartree-Fock contribution from the two-nucleon force is attractive and strongly momentum dependent, in contrast to the contribution from the three-nucleon force which provides a nearly constant repulsive mean field that grows approximately linearly with the nuclear density. Together, the leading-order perturbative contributions yield an attractive single-particle potential that is however too weak compared to phenomenology. Second-order contributions from two- and three-body forces then provide the additional attraction required to reach the phenomenological depth. The imaginary part of the optical potential, which ...

  7. Microscopic optical buffering in a harmonic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2015-01-01

    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Schr\\"odinger noticed that oscillations of a wave packet in a one-dimensional harmonic potential well are periodic and, in contrast to those in anharmonic potential wells, do not experience distortion over time. This original idea did not find applications up to now since an exact one-dimensional harmonic resonator does not exist in nature and has not been created artificially. However, an optical pulse propagating in a bottle microresonator (a dielectric cylinder with a nanoscale-high bump of the effective radius) can exactly imitate a quantum wave packet in the harmonic potential. Here, we propose a tuneable microresonator that can trap an optical pulse completely, hold it as long as the material losses permit, and release it without distortion. This result suggests the solution of the long standing problem of creating a microscopic optical buffer, the key element of the future optical signal processing devices.

  8. Electrical potential difference during laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohm, H.; Ambrosy, G.; Lackner, K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new model for the generation of thermoelectric currents during laser welding, taking into account sheath effects at both contact points as well as the potential drop within the quasi-neutral plasma generated by the laser. We show that the model is in good agreement with experimentally measured electric potential difference between the hot and the cold parts of the welded workpiece. In particular, all three elements of the model are needed to correctly reproduce the sign of the measured voltage difference. The mechanism proposed relies on the temperature dependence of the electron flux from the plasma to the workpiece and hence does not need thermoemission from the workpiece surface to explain the experimentally observed sign and magnitude of the potential drop.

  9. A new interaction potential for swarming models

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, J A; Panferov, V

    2012-01-01

    We consider a self-propelled particle system which has been used to describe certain types of collective motion of animals, such as fish schools and bird flocks. Interactions between particles are specified by means of a pairwise potential, repulsive at short ranges and attractive at longer ranges. The exponentially decaying Morse potential is a typical choice, and is known to reproduce certain types of collective motion observed in nature, particularly aligned flocks and rotating mills. We introduce a class of interaction potentials, that we call Quasi-Morse, for which flock and rotating mills states are also observed numerically, however in that case the corresponding macroscopic equations allow for explicit solutions in terms of special functions, with coefficients that can be obtained numerically without solving the particle evolution. We compare thus obtained solutions with long-time dynamics of the particle systems and find a close agreement for several types of flock and mill solutions.

  10. Evolutionary potential games on lattices and graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and t...

  11. INDIA'S TOURISM SECTOR CONTRIBUTION AND POTENTIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINKAR P. TAKALE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available India is endowed with both natural and man-made attractions such as coast lines, snow capped mountains, wild life, heritage sights and monuments, hearth-taking picturesque etc. India has tremendous potential to promote inbound and outbound tourism. Tourism industry is the potential industry for generating foreign exchange and employment for the developing country like India. Tourism sector has become an important tool for achieving economic self-sufficiency in India through promoting international tourism. This study is depending on secondary data. The needed secondary data were collected from various sources like RBI, Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India, WTTC etc. Tourism sector capabilities of income generation, employment potential and poverty alleviation are quite considerable.

  12. Geostatistics approach to radon potential mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-gas radon potential assessment is an important component of the most of national radon programs. With regard to recent intensive advances in all fields of science and increasing demands on accuracy in data there is an urgent need to support current approaches by alternative methods. Important finding of this study is the benefit of variographic analysis based on random sampling for prediction of the overall radon potential, as a counterpart of a widely used regular sampling. In addition, as could be seen the temporal variability might be a crucial factor affecting consequent accuracy of radon risk assessment. We hope that introduced combination of geo-statistics tools, results of long-term radon activity monitoring and, in general, dealing with uncertainties affecting radon potential/risk assessment can bring synergic effect providing more exhaustive data treatment. (authors)

  13. Dietary chalcones with chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikova, Barbora; Tasdemir, Deniz; Golais, Frantisek; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Chalcones are absorbed in the daily diet and appear to be promising cancer chemopreventive agents. Chalcones represent an important group of the polyphenolic family, which includes a large number of naturally occurring molecules. This family possesses an interesting spectrum of biological activities, including antioxidative, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cytotoxic, and immunosuppressive potential. Compounds of this family have been shown to interfere with each step of carcinogenesis, including initiation, promotion and progression. Moreover, numerous compounds from the family of dietary chalcones appear to show activity against cancer cells, suggesting that these molecules or their derivatives may be considered as potential anticancer drugs. This review will focus primarily on prominent members of the chalcone family with an 1,3-diphenyl-2-propenon core structure. Specifically, the inhibitory effects of these compounds on the different steps of carcinogenesis that reveal interesting chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential will be discussed. PMID:21484163

  14. Characterizing Galaxy Clusters with Gravitational Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Erwin Tin-Hay

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple estimator for the gravitational potential of cluster-size halos using the temperature and density profiles of the intracluster gas based on the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Using high resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, we show that the scaling relation between this estimator and the gravitational potential has a small intrinsic scatter of about 10%, and it is insensitive to baryon physics outside the cluster core. The slope and the normalization of the scaling relation vary weakly with redshift, and they are relatively independent of the choice of radial range used and the dynamical states of the clusters. The results presented here provide a way for using the cluster potential function as an alternative to the cluster mass function in constraining cosmology using galaxy clusters.

  15. Movement-related potentials in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Dejan; Lange, Florian; Seer, Caroline; Kopp, Bruno; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2016-06-01

    To date, many different approaches have been used to study the impairment of motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Event-related potentials (ERPs) are averaged amplitude fluctuations of the ongoing EEG activity that are time locked to specific sensory, motor or cognitive events, and as such can be used to study different brain processes with an excellent temporal resolution. Movement-related potentials (MRPs) are ERPs associated with processes of voluntary movement preparation and execution in different paradigms. In this review we concentrate on MRPs in PD. We review studies recording the Bereitschaftspotential, the Contingent Negative Variation, and the lateralized readiness potential in PD to highlight the contributions they have made to further understanding motor deficits in PD. Possible directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:27178872

  16. Boiling water reactor uranium utilization improvement potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of design and operational simulation studies to assess the potential for reduction of BWR uranium requirements. The impact of the improvements on separative work requirements and other fuel cycle requirements also were evaluated. The emphasis was on analysis of the improvement potential for once-through cycles, although plutonium recycle also was evaluated. The improvement potential was analyzed for several design alternatives including axial and radial natural uranium blankets, low-leakage refueling patterns, initial core enrichment distribution optimization, reinsert of initial core discharge fuel, preplanned end-of-cycle power coastdown and feedwater temperature reduction, increased discharge burnup, high enrichment discharge fuel rod reassembly and reinsert, lattice and fuel bundle design optimization, coolant density spectral shift with flow control, reduced burnable absorber residual, boric acid for cold shutdown, six-month subcycle refueling, and applications of a once-through thorium cycle design and plutonium recycle

  17. Potential success factors in brand development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Carsten Stig;

    2005-01-01

    ? This is the question we want to answer. More specifically, we want to identify potential success factors in building strong brands, understood as brands with high consumer-based brand equity. Keller (1993, p. 2) defined customer-based brand equity as "the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response...... to the marketing of the brand." The branding literature mentions many important aspects, factors, issues, brand requirements, steps, building blocks or guidelines for building strong brands. However, these are all quite general and abstract. Given the substantial body of literature on branding, surprisingly few...... of this paper is to identify potential success factors in developing strong brands and to test whether these factors can be used to discriminate between strong and weak brands. It does so through a review of the literature for potential success factors. Furthermore, to ensure that important factors have...

  18. Electron inertia effect on floating plasma potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady one-dimensional planar plasma sheath problem, originally considered by Tonks and Langmuir, is revisited. Two-fluid equations for cold ions and isothermal electrons, including terms for particle generation and electron inertia, have been numerically integrated together with Poisson equation. The inclusion of electron inertia in the model allows us to obtain the value of the plasma floating potential as resulting from an electron density discontinuity at the walls, where the electrons attain sound velocity and the electric potential is continuous. Results from numerical computation are presented in terms of plots for densities, electric potential and particles velocities. Comparison with results from literature, corresponding to electron Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (neglecting electron inertia), are also shown.

  19. Potential flow inside an evaporating cylindrical line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsi, A J; Burganos, V N

    2005-10-01

    An analytical solution to the problem of potential flow inside an evaporating line is obtained. The line is shaped as a half-cylinder lying on a substrate, and evaporates with either pinned or depinned contact lines. The solution is provided through the technique of separation of variables in the velocity potential and stream function formulations. Based on the flow field calculations, it is estimated that the coffee-stain phenomenon should be expected even for uniform evaporation flux throughout the cylindrical surface, provided that the contact lines remain anchored. A simple expression for the velocity potential is also suggested, which reproduces the local velocity vector with excellent accuracy. The vertically averaged velocity is calculated also for other contact line values, revealing for any value an outward liquid flow for pinned lines as opposed to inward flow for depinned lines. PMID:16383581

  20. Systematic nonlocal optical model potential for nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Perey–Buck nonlocal optical model potential, F. Perey and B. Buck, Nucl. Phys. 32 (1962) 353, we obtain a new set of nonlocal optical model potential (NLOMP) parameters for proton and neutron scattering off nuclei. The experimental angular distributions of nucleon scattering off nuclei ranging from 27Al to 208Pb with incident energies around 10 MeV to 30 MeV are adopted in the fitting procedures. This NLOMP is energy independent. The chi-squares χ2 obtained in the fittings are comparable to those from the KD03 phenomenological local optical model potentials (OMP) A. Koning and J. Delaroche, Nucl. Phys. A 713 (2003) 231. Good agreement is found in comparisons between optical model calculations using this NLOMP and KD03 in their reproduction to the experimental angular distributions of elastic scattering cross-sections and analyzing powers. (author)

  1. Effective potential in density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Amovilli, C

    2004-10-01

    In the previous paper it was shown that in the ground state the diagonal of the spin independent second-order density matrix n can be determined by solving a single auxiliary equation of a two-particle problem. Thus the problem of an arbitrary system with even electrons can be reduced to a two-particle problem. The effective potential of the two-particle equation contains a term v(p) of completely kinetic origin. Virial theorem and hierarchy of equations are derived for v(p) and simple approximations are proposed. A relationship between the effective potential u(p) of the shape function equation and the potential v(p) is established. PMID:15473719

  2. Electronic Quantum Confinement in Cylindrical Potential Well

    CERN Document Server

    Baltenkov, A S

    2016-01-01

    The effects of quantum confinement on the momentum distribution of electrons confined within a cylindrical potential well have been analyzed. The motivation is to understand specific features of the momentum distribution of electrons when the electron behavior is completely controlled by the parameters of a non-isotropic potential cavity. It is shown that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries have been considered and the corresponding wave functions have been calculated; the behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well has been analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states have been calculated. The limi...

  3. A new interaction potential for swarming models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, J. A.; Martin, S.; Panferov, V.

    2013-10-01

    We consider a self-propelled particle system which has been used to describe certain types of collective motion of animals, such as fish schools and bird flocks. Interactions between particles are specified by means of a pairwise potential, repulsive at short ranges and attractive at longer ranges. The exponentially decaying Morse potential is a typical choice, and is known to reproduce certain types of collective motion observed in nature, particularly aligned flocks and rotating mills. We introduce a class of interaction potentials, that we call Quasi-Morse, for which flock and rotating mills states are also observed numerically, however in that case the corresponding macroscopic equations allow for explicit solutions in terms of special functions, with coefficients that can be obtained numerically without solving the particle evolution. We compare the obtained solutions with long-time dynamics of the particle systems and find a close agreement for several types of flock and mill solutions.

  4. Anticancer potential of animal venoms and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Antony; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Mishra, Roshnara; Biswas, Ajoy K; Dasgupta, Subir Chandra; Giri, Biplab

    2010-02-01

    Anticancer drug development from natural resources are ventured throughout the world. Animal venoms and toxins a potential bio resource and a therapeutic tool were known to man for centuries through folk and traditional knowledge. The biodiversity of venoms and toxins made it a unique source of leads and structural templates from which new therapeutic agents may be developed. Venoms of several animal species (snake, scorpion, toad, frog etc) and their active components (protein and non protein toxins, peptides, enzymes, etc) have shown therapeutic potential against cancer. In the present review, the anticancer potential of venoms and toxins from snakes, scorpions, toads and frogs has been discussed. Some of these molecules are in the clinical trials and may find their way towards anticancer drug development in the near future. The implications of combination therapy of natural products in cancer have been discussed. PMID:20455317

  5. Numerical matrix method for quantum periodic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vot, Felipe; Meléndez, Juan J.; Yuste, Santos B.

    2016-06-01

    A numerical matrix methodology is applied to quantum problems with periodic potentials. The procedure consists essentially in replacing the true potential by an alternative one, restricted by an infinite square well, and in expressing the wave functions as finite superpositions of eigenfunctions of the infinite well. A matrix eigenvalue equation then yields the energy levels of the periodic potential within an acceptable accuracy. The methodology has been successfully used to deal with problems based on the well-known Kronig-Penney (KP) model. Besides the original model, these problems are a dimerized KP solid, a KP solid containing a surface, and a KP solid under an external field. A short list of additional problems that can be solved with this procedure is presented.

  6. Effects of potential functions on stochastic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the effects of a bistable potential function U(x) = —ax2/2 + b|x|2γ/(2γ) on stochastic resonance (SR) is discussed. We investigate the effects of index γ on the performance of the SR system with fixed parameters a and b, and with fixed potential barriers, respectively. To measure the performance of the SR system in the presence of an aperiodic input, the bit error rate is employed, as is commonly used in binary communications. The numerical simulations strongly support the theoretical results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the effects of the shape of potential functions on SR and give a guidance of nonlinear systems in the application of information processing. (general)

  7. RA research reactor - potentials and prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since December 1959, the RA reactor was operated successfully, except for a few shorter periods needed for maintenance and a four longer shutdown periods caused by decrease in the heavy water quality. Accordingly, reconstruction of some reactor systems was started at the beginning of this decad, as well as increase of its experimental potential which would enable its efficient reliable operation in the future period. Reconstruction is concerned with emergency core cooling system, special ventilation system, and modernization of the reactor instrumentation. Improvement of the experimental potential is related to modifications of the neutron scattering instruments. Development of methods for isotope production is described as well. Design of the reactor experimental loop with external cooling system will be of significant importance in improvement of reactor potential in the future

  8. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  9. Developing interaction potentials from first principles

    OpenAIRE

    Foy, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Interaction potentials for the double-perovskite cryolite, Na3AlF6, have been developed for use in classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations using a method whereby ionic configurations are generated with empirical pair potentials, the multipoles and forces on the ions and the stress tensor of the cell are extracted from ab initio single-point DFT calculations, and then the multipoles, forces and stresses from the MD simulations are ‘fit’ to the ab initio quantities in a ser...

  10. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-01

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. PMID:26216862

  11. Effects of electron emission on sheath potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ansel; Khrabrov, Alexander; Kaganovich, Igor; Schamis, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the potential profile of a sheath under the influence of surface electron emission. The plasma and sheath profiles are simulated using the Large Scale Plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell code. Using one dimensional models we corroborate the analytical relationship between sheath potential and plasma electron and emitted electron temperatures derived earlier. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. Potential role of tetrandrine in cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Jen

    2002-01-01

    Tetrandrine, a bisbenylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the dried root of Stephenia tetrandra S Moore, exhibits very broad pharmacological actions, including anti-tumor activity. The beneficial effects of tetrandrine on tumor cell cytotoxicity and radiosensitization, multidrug resistance, normal tissue radioprotection, and angiogenesis are most promising and deserve great attention. Tetrandrine has potential either as a tumoricidal agent or as an adjunct to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To evaluate the potential clinical efficacy of tetrandrine for cancer therapy,more mechanism-based pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic studies are required.

  13. Potentials for Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methodologies for analysing heat saving potentials. The background for the lack of activities in that field is suggested. Various elements of heat savings are described, including changes in daily behaviour and life styles. Definition of various levels of potentials are...... suggested. Two scenarios for future heat savings are established, deviating in the rates of renovation, demolition, and construction of buildings, as well as in the thermal insulation standards, ventilation systems ,and in the daily behaviour. The results are that compared to the base year 1995, heat...

  14. Sub-Saharan hydroelectric power development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though evidencing a power demand which is amongst the lowest in the world, the sub-Saharan regions of Africa are blessed with an enormous hydroelectric power resource potential, which, if suitably developed and tapped, may become a source of economic electric energy for Europe. With the aid of numerous statistical supply and demand data, this paper surveys the marketing potential of this energy source in Africa. The analysis of future development prospects is carried out with reference to the local socio-economic framework

  15. The Democratic Potential of Theatre Talks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses and analyses the democratic potential of theatre-going within the framework of cultural policy. Theoretically the article is based on three different approaches: theatre research on the link between theatre and democracy, cultural policy research on the strategy of democrati......The article discusses and analyses the democratic potential of theatre-going within the framework of cultural policy. Theoretically the article is based on three different approaches: theatre research on the link between theatre and democracy, cultural policy research on the strategy of...

  16. On Dirichlet's Derivation of the Ellipsoid Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, W

    2016-01-01

    Newton's potential of a massive homogeneous ellipsoid is derived via Dirichlet's discontinuous factor. At first we review part of Dirichlet's work in an English translation of the original German, and then continue with an extension of his method into the complex plane. With this trick it becomes possible to first calculate the potential and thereafter the force components exerted on a test mass by the ellipsoid. This is remarkable in so far as all other famous researchers prior to Dirichlet merely calculated the attraction components. Unfortunately, Dirichlet's derivation is to a large extent mathematically unacceptable which, however, can be corrected by treating the problem in the complex plane.

  17. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  18. Quintessence Model With Double Exponential Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, A A

    2002-01-01

    We have reinvestigated the quintessence model with minimally coupled scalar field in the context of recent Supernova observation at $z=1.7$. By assuming the form of the scale factor which gives both the early time deceleration and late time acceleration, consistent with the observations, we show that one needs a double exponential potential. We have also shown that the equation of state and the behaviour of dark energy density are reasonably consistent with earlier constraints obtained by different authors. This work shows again the importance of double exponential potential for a quintessence field.

  19. Negative potentials and collapsing universes II

    CERN Document Server

    Giambò, Roberto; Tzanni, Koralia

    2015-01-01

    Completing a previous analysis started in [1], we study flat Friedmann--Lema\\^{\\i}tre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) models with a perfect fluid matter source and a scalar field nonminimally coupled to matter, self--interacting with a potential that may attain negative values. We prove that the evolution generically forces the Hubble function to diverge to $-\\infty$ in a finite time, except in case the potential exhibits a flat plateau at infinity (tending to zero from below); in that case we find conditions which may give rise to ever expanding or recollapsing cosmologies.

  20. Relativistic one-pion-exchange potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare three different types of relativistic two-body equations, namely the Blankenbecler-Sugar equation, the Gross equation, and an equation derived from relativistic three-body equations. Regarding the one-boson-exchange, the corresponding potentials coincide on mass shell but differ off shell. The potential connected with the three-body equation even shows some cuts in the momentum plane. We analyze the differences for the example of the one-pion-exchange calculating half-off-shell functions and phase shifts. We also include strong πNN form factors and discuss the influence of some of their parametrizations on the phase shifts

  1. Effective Dilaton Potential in Linearized Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1996-01-01

    Considering the linearized gravity with matter fields, the effective potential of the ``conformal dilaton'' in the string frame is generated semiclassically by one-loop contribution of heavy matter fields. This in turn generates a nontrivial potential for the physical dilaton in the Einstein frame with the trace of the graviton in the Einstein frame gauged away. The remaining manifest local spacetime symmetry is only the volume preserving diffeomorphism symmetry. The consistency of this procedure is examined and the possibility of spontaneous diffeomorphism symmetry breaking is suggested.

  2. Learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Pedersen, Nicholai Friis; Aaen, Janus Holst

    The aim of this paper is to identify the key learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet. Rather than focusing on mobile technology or the mobility of the learner, the paper emphasises the ubiquity of internet access as a paramount catalyst for new learning in the digital age. From...... a sociocultural perspective the paper discusses different ways in which the use of mobile devices can extend and augment the context of the learner. The learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet relate to the opportunities to extend the context of the learner on three levels: 1) personalisation...

  3. Potential Role of Exercise in Retinal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Machelle T; Chrenek, Micah A; Schmidt, Robin H; Nickerson, John M; Boatright, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    For many patients suffering vision loss due to retinal degeneration, the potential exists for therapeutic intervention to halt or delay disease progression. Proposed molecular, pharmacological, and surgical treatments are expensive and complicated. Finding low-cost interventions to sustain vision and thereby quality of life is vitally important. This chapter reviews findings from animal model and human subject studies indicating that physical exercise has direct, beneficial effects on regions of the central nervous system and is protective against neurodegenerative disease, including recent data from animal models showing similar effects for retina and vision. Potential local and systemic mechanistic pathways for exercise-induced retinal neuroprotection are discussed. PMID:26310173

  4. Towards an understanding of the nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formalism for investigating the /bar Q/q/bar Q/q system on the lattice is constructed. We describe how the model may be used to study the nuclear potential, and present some preliminary results on the range of the nuclear force. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Glueball Masses in Relativistic Potential Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shpenik, A; Kis, J; Fekete, Yu

    2000-01-01

    The problem of glueball mass spectra using the relativistic Dirac equation is studied. Also the Breit-Fermi approach used to obtaining hyperfine splitting in glueballs. Our approach is based on the assumption, that the nature and the forces between two gluons are the short-range. We were to calculate the glueball masses with used screened potential.

  6. Implicit Assumptions in High Potentials Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…

  7. The Potential of Perspectivism for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jacob V.

    2013-01-01

    Many science teachers are presented with the challenge of characterizing science as a dynamic, human endeavour. Perspectivism, as a hermeneutic philosophy of science, has the potential to be a learning tool for teachers as they elucidate the complex nature of science. Developed earlier by Nietzsche and others, perspectivism has recently re-emerged…

  8. Quantifying the transmission potential of pandemic influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    This article reviews quantitative methods to estimate the basic reproduction number of pandemic influenza, a key threshold quantity to help determine the intensity of interventions required to control the disease. Although it is difficult to assess the transmission potential of a probable future pandemic, historical epidemiologic data is readily available from previous pandemics, and as a reference quantity for future pandemic planning, mathematical and statistical analyses of historical data are crucial. In particular, because many historical records tend to document only the temporal distribution of cases or deaths (i.e. epidemic curve), our review focuses on methods to maximize the utility of time-evolution data and to clarify the detailed mechanisms of the spread of influenza. First, we highlight structured epidemic models and their parameter estimation method which can quantify the detailed disease dynamics including those we cannot observe directly. Duration-structured epidemic systems are subsequently presented, offering firm understanding of the definition of the basic and effective reproduction numbers. When the initial growth phase of an epidemic is investigated, the distribution of the generation time is key statistical information to appropriately estimate the transmission potential using the intrinsic growth rate. Applications of stochastic processes are also highlighted to estimate the transmission potential using similar data. Critically important characteristics of influenza data are subsequently summarized, followed by our conclusions to suggest potential future methodological improvements.

  9. Marketing Potential of Advanced Breeding Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  10. The potential of participatory hybrid breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jingsong; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Huang, K.; Qin, L.; Song, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the potential of involving smallholder farmers in hybrid development for their low-external input farming systems. We have developed a conceptual model of the procedures, based on five assumptions: (a) the hybrids are bred for adaptation to local needs and preferences; (b) the

  11. Physics Potential of Solar Neutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.; Yuksel, H.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the physics potential of the solar neutrino experiments i) To explore the parameter space of neutrino mass and mixings; ii) To probe the physics of the Sun; iii) To explore nuclear physics of the neutrino-target interactions. Examples are given for these three classes.

  12. Colour octet potential to three loops

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Chihaya; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smirnov, Vladimir A; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We consider the interaction between two static sources in the colour octet configuration and compute the potential to three loops. Special emphasis is put on the treatment of pinch contributions and two methods are applied to reduce their evaluation to diagrams without pinches.

  13. Effective Potential in Noncommutative BTZ Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Jafar; Shajiee, Vahid Reza

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigated the noncommutative rotating BTZ black hole and showed that such a space-time is not maximally symmetric. We calculated effective potential for the massive and the massless test particle by geodesic equations, also we showed effect of non-commutativity on the minimum mass of BTZ black hole.

  14. A two-step potential for quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific two-step potential, a combination of the Coulomb and linear part, is reexamined. A set of parameters is found which give a good description of the charmonium and bottonium families. Some comments are made that might be useful in further study of quarkonium systems

  15. Spectral properties of supersymmetric shape invariant potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barnali Chakrabarti

    2008-01-01

    We present the spectral properties of supersymmetric shape invariant potentials (SIPs). Although the folded spectrum is completely random, unfolded spectrum shows that energy levels are highly correlated and absolutely rigid. All the SIPs exhibit harmonic oscillator-type spectral statistics in the unfolded spectrum. We conjecture that this is the reflection of shape invariant symmetry.

  16. Varying-alpha cosmologies with potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the Bekenstein-Sandvik-Barrow-Magueijo model for the variation of the fine-structure 'constant', α, to include an exponential or inverse power-law self-potential for the scalar field φ which drives the time variation of α, and consider the dynamics of φ in such models. We find solutions for the evolution of φ or α in matter-, radiation-, and dark-energy-dominated cosmic eras. In general, the evolution of φ is well determined solely by either the self-potential or the coupling to matter, depending on the model parameters. The results are general and applicable to other models where the evolution of a scalar field is governed by a matter coupling and a self-potential. We find that the existing astronomical data stringently constrains the possible evolution of α between redshifts z≅1-3.5 and the present, and this leads to a very strong limit on the allowed deviation of the potential from that of a pure cosmological constant.

  17. Varying-Alpha Cosmologies with Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2008-01-01

    We generalize the Bekenstein-Sandvik-Barrow-Magueijo (BSBM) model for the variation of the fine structure 'constant', $\\alpha ,$ to include an exponential or inverse power-law self-potential for the scalar field $% \\phi $ which drives the time variation of $\\alpha $, and consider the dynamics of $\\phi$ in such models. We find solutions for the evolution of $\\phi $ or $\\alpha $ in matter-, radiation- and dark-energy-dominated cosmic eras. In general, the evolution of $\\phi $ is well determined solely by either the self-potential or the coupling to matter, depending on the model parameters. The results are general and applicable to other models where the evolution of a scalar field is governed by a matter coupling and a self-potential. We find that the existing astronomical data stringently constrains the possible evolution of $\\alpha $ between redshifts $z\\simeq 1-3.5$ and the present, and this leads to very strong limit on the allowed deviation of the potential from that of a pure cosmological constant.

  18. Introducing the Action Potential to Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    For this simple active learning technique for teaching, students are assigned "roles" and act out the process of the action potential (AP), including the firing threshold, ion-specific channels for ions to enter and leave the cell, diffusion, and the refractory period. Pre-post test results indicated that students demonstrated increased…

  19. Mapping Potential Croplands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, T. J.; Gibbs, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    There is a growing debate about land availability in the U.S., with some proponents of biofuels suggesting a nearly endless supply of land for production, while others claim we have already reached "peak land". Until now, however, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the extent and location of uncultivated land suitable for crop production in the U.S. We created the first spatially-explicit database of Potentially Available Cropland (PAC) in the United States by fusing NASS's Cropland Data Layer with data from the U.S. Census and Census of Agriculture, Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) data, and databases of public, private, and protected areas, while implementing rule-based decisions derived from stakeholder interviews. We considered all potential cropland, including idle land, pastureland, and areas of turf lawn that could be used for production. We then used the output maps to estimate maximum production potential and associated carbon debt for the U.S. under a range of scenarios. Preliminary results suggest that fully cultivating all PAC could increase U.S. annual corn grain production by 16 - 48 % and more than double current U.S. vegetable production. However, several economic, social, and physical constraints as well as ecological tradeoffs limit the practical expansion onto these lands. Our results will provide needed inputs to project national and global agricultural production potential, constrain estimates of direct and indirect land use change, and inform agricultural and energy policy.

  20. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos; Skaarup, Steen

    -up is simplicity and that the maximum force generated in the polymer can be transferred directly to the load. There is, however, an inherent problem in this design that will be examined in this paper. If the potential of the reduced state is below that for oxygen reduction, only a finite length of the...