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Sample records for bruchids acanthoscelides obtectus

  1. Combining parasitoids and plant resistance for the control of the bruchid Acanthoscelides obtectus in stored beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, I.; Wäckers, F.L.; Cardona, C.; Dorn, S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) are the main bruchid pests of stored beans in widespread regions of Latin America and Africa. Host-plant resistance based on the protein arcelin is effective in reducing damage caused by Z. subfasciatus, but beans containing

  2. Ancient and recent evolutionary history of the bruchid beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, a cosmopolitan pest of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Nadir; McKey, Doyle; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Born, Céline; Mercier, Lény; Benrey, Betty

    2005-04-01

    Acanthoscelides obtectus Say is a bruchid species of Neotropical origin, and is specialized on beans of the Phaseolus vulgaris L. group. Since the domestication and diffusion of beans, A. obtectus has become cosmopolitan through human-mediated migrations and is now a major pest in bean granaries. Using phylogeographic methods applied to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear microsatellite molecular markers, we show that the origin of this species is probably further south than Mesoamerica, as commonly thought. Our results also indicate that A. obtectus and its Mesoamerican sister species Acanthoscelides obvelatus, two morphologically close species differing principally in voltinism, speciated in allopatry: A. obtectus (multivoltine) arising in Andean America and A. obvelatus (univoltine) in Mesoamerica. In contrast to Mesoamerica where beans fruit once yearly, wild beans in Andean America fruit year-round, especially in regions showing little or no seasonality. In such habitats where resources are continuously present, multivoltinism is adaptive. According to existing hypotheses, multivoltinism in A. obtectus is a new adaptation that evolved after bean domestication. Our data suggest the alternative hypothesis that multivoltinism is an older trait, adapted to exploit the year-round fruiting of wild beans in relatively aseasonal habitats, and allowed A. obtectus to become a pest in bean granaries. This trait also permitted this species to disperse through human-mediated migrations associated with diffusion of domesticated beans. We also show that diversity of Old World A. obtectus populations can be quite well explained by a single colonization event about 500 bp. Human-mediated migrations appear not to be rare, as our results indicate a second more recent migration event from Andean America to Mexico.

  3. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  4. CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BEAN WEEVIL, ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY IN STORAGE CONDITION

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    M PORCA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the positive results obtained by some pesticides applied against the bean weevil - Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, after a synthetic rewiew of the potential chemical methods which may be used in the chemical control of the insectes harmful to the stored bean seeds. The chemical control is realised treatments wits syntetic pyrethroid (permetrin, deltametrin and organophosphoric insecticides (malation, pirimifos metil, fenitrotion and chlrorpirifos-metil.

  5. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) with phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Yang, Hong; Dai, Renhuai

    2017-10-01

    Acanthoscelides obtectus is a common species of the subfamily Bruchinae and a worldwide-distributed seed-feeding beetle. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. obtectus is 16,130 bp in length with an A + T content of 76.4%. It contains a positive AT skew and a negative GC skew. The mitogenome of A. obtectus contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding region (D-loop). All PCGs start with an ATN codon, and seven (ND3, ATP6, COIII, ND3, ND4L, ND6, and Cytb) of them terminate with TAA, while the remaining five (COI, COII, ND1, ND4, and ND5) terminate with a single T, ATP8 terminates with TGA. Except tRNA Ser , the secondary structures of 21 tRNAs that can be folded into a typical clover-leaf structure were identified. The secondary structures of lrRNA and srRNA were also predicted in this study. There are six domains with 48 helices in lrRNA and three domains with 32 helices in srRNA. The control region of A. obtectus is 1354 bp in size with the highest A + T content (83.5%) in a mitochondrial gene. Thirteen PCGs in 19 species have been used to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Our results show that A. obtectus belongs to the family Chrysomelidae (subfamily-Bruchinae). This is the first study on phylogenetic analyses involving the mitochondrial genes of A. obtectus and could provide basic data for future studies of mitochondrial genome diversities and the evolution of related insect lineages.

  6. Determination of the sterilizing gamma radiation dose of 60Co to ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS imagos (col. bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M.; Sgrillo, R.B.; Campanhola, C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper relates the results of experiments dealing with irradiation of adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831). The insects were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 20 krad gamma radiation of a 60 Co source. After irradiation, the adults were kept for observation on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) var. Jalo, in a controlled environmen t chamber at 30 +- 1 0 C and 70 +- 5% relative humidity. Continuous weighing at weekly intervals was done 22 times, showing, by weight loss in percent, that the sterilizing dose for adults was 10,65 krad. It could also be observed that losses of less than 0,5% occured at 9 krad. For a possible employment on commercial scale, the ideal radiation dose for bean desinfestation would be 10 krad, after which no weight loss occurrence. (Author) [pt

  7. Effects of gamma radiation and irradiated bean seeds on the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Low dosages of gamma radiation affected the development of immature stages of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Radiosensitivity of the bean weevils decreased during their development, and adults seemed to be the most resistant stage for gamma radiation. There were no significant differences in mortality of immature stages of the pest during their development in beans treated with gamma radiation at dosages up to 1.06 kGy. Moreover, the females showed no ovipositional preference for untreated or irradiated beans

  8. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. ON TOLERANCE TO THE BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY STROKE

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    A ODAGIU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say is a very harmful pest. When pest control lacks it can produce 100% damages in stocked seeds. Research performed in Romania emphasized the importance of resistant or tolerant origins use besides the quarantine and fight measures in order to limit the stroke of this pest (Manolache et al., 1966; Marghitu et al., 1978. Research aimed to establish the chemical composition of the beans of different origins in the same time with correlation between the different chemical components and their tolerance against A. obtectus stroke.

  10. Inhibitory activity of Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma spp. on the insect pests Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrisomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Álvaro; Mayo, Sara; González-López, Óscar; Reinoso, Bonifacio; Gutierrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Xylotrechus arvicola is an important pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Iberian wine-producing regions, and Acanthoscelides obtectus causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Under laboratory conditions with a spray tower, the susceptibility of the immature stages of X. arvicola and A. obtectus against the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and four strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated. Both insect pests T. harzianum and B. bassiana showed a good inhibitory activity, accumulating an inhibition on the eggs of values above 85 and 82%, respectively. T. atroviride and T. citrinoviride had a lower inhibitory activity, with inhibition values of 74.1 and 73.3% respectively. These fungi can be considered a highly effective tool for the control during the immature stages of these species.

  11. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

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    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  12. Controles alternativos para el gorgojo del frijol (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say en granos almacenados a partir de materiales naturales y minerales

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    Carlos Ernesto Lopez-Monzon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de controlar el daño del gorgojo del frijol [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say], se evaluó la efectividad en polvo de raíces deshidratadas de chilca (Senecio salignus DC., frutos deshidratados de pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L., fragmentos de madera de pino (Pinus oocarpa Schiede, maíz pulverizado (Zea mays L., cascabillo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cal mezclada con ceniza, y arena de río. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos, con cuatro repeticiones cada uno, en arreglo totalmente al azar. Los materiales naturales y minerales fueron colectados en el municipio de Malacatancito, Huehuetenango y el ensayo se montó en el laboratorio del Centro Universitario de Nor Occidente (Cunoroc, empleando por réplica un frasco de vidrio con capacidad de 1 L y aplicando a cada uno 100 g de semilla de frijol, 10 parejas de gorgojos adultos y 1 g de polvo de los materiales evaluados, según su tratamiento. El análisis se realizó 60 días después de la infestación, donde se evaluó: el porcentaje de daño del gorgojo del frijol, número de gorgojos vivos, correlación del porcentaje de daño versus número de gorgojos vivos y porcentaje de germinación del frijol. El polvo de pimienta negra y la mezcla de cal con ceniza evidenciaron los mejores resultados con el menor porcentaje de daño (1.64% y 3.55%, respectivamente. Las variables porcentaje de daño y número de gorgojos vivos marcaron una fuerte correlación con valor de r = .892. Se estableció que ninguno de los materiales utilizados influyó en la viabilidad de la semilla, registrándose porcentajes de germinación por arriba del 97% en todos los tratamientos. Se recomienda implementar estos productos en el almacenamiento del frijol, para contrarrestar los daños ocasionados por la plaga, obteniendo así beneficios económicos, sociales y ambientales.

  13. Gamma (60CO) radiation effects on arcelin protein and evaluation of bean lineages against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Ana Claudia Girardo

    2006-01-01

    The resistance of arcelin carrying seeds of bean lineages (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the influence of gamma radiation ( 60 CO) on the manifestation of arcelin resistance to Z. subfasciatus were verified. Laboratorial tests, in choice and non-choice tests, with wild specimens carrying Arc-1, Arc-2, Arc-3, Arc-4, Raz-56 and Raz-59 (with Arc-5 alleles) and commercial lineages as control IAC - Carioca and IAC - Arua were conducted. Statistical design was completely randomized, with five repetitions, with 10 g of grains from each lineage samples by portion. Attractiveness, oviposition, emergence, mortality, adults' weigh and longevity, developing period, sexual rate, seeds' weigh loss, infestation and fecundity (Z. subfasciatus) were observed. Gamma radiation doses irradiations, in general, haven't affected the resistance manifestation of lineages carrying arcelin protein variants against the Z. subfasciatus bean weevil, thus, joint application use of both control methods can be recommended. Raz-56 lineage showed high resistance of the antibiosis types and non-preference for oviposition and feeding to Z. subfasciatus, while Raz-59 showed antibiosis and non-preference for feeding, and both (Raz-56 and Raz-59) showed intermediate resistance to A. obtectus, against which lineage Arc-2 was the most harmful to its development, expressing non-preference to feeding and/or antibiosis. (author)

  14. Effects of Olea europaea L. Leaf Metabolites on the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Three Stored Pests, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium confusum and Acanthoscelides obtectus

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    Ahmet Kısa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea L. emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments of various countries of the world, in particular Mediterranean countries. In this study, oleuropein (1, oleanolic acid (2, maslinic acid (3, a mixture of erythrodiol and uvaol (4 and 5 isolated from the leaves of olive were added at two concentrations (1g/100g feed and 4g/100 g feed into fish feed. Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia were fed twice a day with the feed during 96 hours. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes and glucose levels in the serums of fishes fed with pure compounds were found to be higher as compared with the control group. Pure metabolites affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. These results suggested that the compounds tested affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4+5 (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/Petri dish concentrations were also tested for contact toxic effects against three important stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (weevil, Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle and Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil. The toxic effects of the metabolites were lower than those of the insecticide, dichlorvos (DDVP. DDVP caused complete mortality of the insects after 48 hours of treatments, the metabolites caused the mortality rates 16.7-63.3 %, 13.3-67.0 % and 26.7-59.0 % of S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. Maslinic acid (3 has the most toxic compound with the lowest LC 50 values (0.66 mg/Petri, 0.61 mg/Petri and 1.71 mg/Petri for S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. These results show that maslinic acid (3 as well as other substances can be used as natural insecticides against these pests.

  15. Gamma ({sup 60}CO) radiation effects on arcelin protein and evaluation of bean lineages against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae);Efeito da radiacao gama ({sup 60}CO) sobre a proteina arcelina e avaliacao de linhagens de feijoeiro a Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae)

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    Botelho, Ana Claudia Girardo

    2006-07-01

    The resistance of arcelin carrying seeds of bean lineages (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the influence of gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) on the manifestation of arcelin resistance to Z. subfasciatus were verified. Laboratorial tests, in choice and non-choice tests, with wild specimens carrying Arc-1, Arc-2, Arc-3, Arc-4, Raz-56 and Raz-59 (with Arc-5 alleles) and commercial lineages as control IAC - Carioca and IAC - Arua were conducted. Statistical design was completely randomized, with five repetitions, with 10 g of grains from each lineage samples by portion. Attractiveness, oviposition, emergence, mortality, adults' weigh and longevity, developing period, sexual rate, seeds' weigh loss, infestation and fecundity (Z. subfasciatus) were observed. Gamma radiation doses irradiations, in general, haven't affected the resistance manifestation of lineages carrying arcelin protein variants against the Z. subfasciatus bean weevil, thus, joint application use of both control methods can be recommended. Raz-56 lineage showed high resistance of the antibiosis types and non-preference for oviposition and feeding to Z. subfasciatus, while Raz-59 showed antibiosis and non-preference for feeding, and both (Raz-56 and Raz-59) showed intermediate resistance to A. obtectus, against which lineage Arc-2 was the most harmful to its development, expressing non-preference to feeding and/or antibiosis. (author)

  16. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  17. Phylogeographic support for horizontal gene transfer involving sympatric bruchid species

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    Grill Andrea

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the probable horizontal transfer of a mitochondrial gene, cytb, between species of Neotropical bruchid beetles, in a zone where these species are sympatric. The bruchid beetles Acanthoscelides obtectus, A. obvelatus, A. argillaceus and Zabrotes subfasciatus develop on various bean species in Mexico. Whereas A. obtectus and A. obvelatus develop on Phaseolus vulgaris in the Mexican Altiplano, A. argillaceus feeds on P. lunatus in the Pacific coast. The generalist Z. subfasciatus feeds on both bean species, and is sympatric with A. obtectus and A. obvelatus in the Mexican Altiplano, and with A. argillaceus in the Pacific coast. In order to assess the phylogenetic position of these four species, we amplified and sequenced one nuclear (28S rRNA and two mitochondrial (cytb, COI genes. Results Whereas species were well segregated in topologies obtained for COI and 28S rRNA, an unexpected pattern was obtained in the cytb phylogenetic tree. In this tree, individuals from A. obtectus and A. obvelatus, as well as Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano, clustered together in a unique little variable monophyletic unit. In contrast, A. argillaceus and Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Pacific coast clustered in two separated clades, identically to the pattern obtained for COI and 28S rRNA. An additional analysis showed that Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano also possessed the cytb gene present in individuals of this species from the Pacific coast. Zabrotes subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano thus demonstrated two cytb genes, an "original" one and an "infectious" one, showing 25% of nucleotide divergence. The "infectious" cytb gene seems to be under purifying selection and to be expressed in mitochondria. Conclusion The high degree of incongruence of the cytb tree with patterns for other genes is discussed in the light of three hypotheses: experimental contamination

  18. Phylogeographic support for horizontal gene transfer involving sympatric bruchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Nadir; Benrey, Betty; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Grill, Andrea; McKey, Doyle; Galtier, Nicolas

    2006-07-27

    We report on the probable horizontal transfer of a mitochondrial gene, cytb, between species of Neotropical bruchid beetles, in a zone where these species are sympatric. The bruchid beetles Acanthoscelides obtectus, A. obvelatus, A. argillaceus and Zabrotes subfasciatus develop on various bean species in Mexico. Whereas A. obtectus and A. obvelatus develop on Phaseolus vulgaris in the Mexican Altiplano, A. argillaceus feeds on P. lunatus in the Pacific coast. The generalist Z. subfasciatus feeds on both bean species, and is sympatric with A. obtectus and A. obvelatus in the Mexican Altiplano, and with A. argillaceus in the Pacific coast. In order to assess the phylogenetic position of these four species, we amplified and sequenced one nuclear (28S rRNA) and two mitochondrial (cytb, COI) genes. Whereas species were well segregated in topologies obtained for COI and 28S rRNA, an unexpected pattern was obtained in the cytb phylogenetic tree. In this tree, individuals from A. obtectus and A. obvelatus, as well as Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano, clustered together in a unique little variable monophyletic unit. In contrast, A. argillaceus and Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Pacific coast clustered in two separated clades, identically to the pattern obtained for COI and 28S rRNA. An additional analysis showed that Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano also possessed the cytb gene present in individuals of this species from the Pacific coast. Zabrotes subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano thus demonstrated two cytb genes, an "original" one and an "infectious" one, showing 25% of nucleotide divergence. The "infectious" cytb gene seems to be under purifying selection and to be expressed in mitochondria. The high degree of incongruence of the cytb tree with patterns for other genes is discussed in the light of three hypotheses: experimental contamination, hybridization, and pseudogenisation. However, none of these

  19. OLEORRESINA DE JÍCAMA Y CALIDAD DE SEMILLA DE FRIJOL INFESTADA CON Acanthoscelides obtectus Say

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    Jos\\u00E9 Antonio Rangel-Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la oleorresina de jícama en la calidad de la semilla de frijol. En laboratorio se obtuvo el extracto de oleorresina media nte HPLC y se detectó la presencia de rotenona (15 mg/l. Se ensayaron tres concentraciones (Ci, g/ml del extracto: C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, ¿5x10-2; C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,¿6x10-2; C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,¿9x10-1 y testigo por concentración, en frascos de 300 ml con 50 g de semilla de frijol (varie dades Flor de Ma yo, Flor de Junio, Ma - yocoba y veinte gorgojos adultos. El ensayo sólo comprendió semillas de frijol tratadas con C2 por 48 horas para evaluar vigor y germinación estándar a los tres y sie te días después de la siembra, bajo normas de IS TA. El aumento de C2 fue gradual en el número de plántulas normales y germinación estándar en el primer recuento, en particular con las diluciones 3 x 10-2 a 6 x 10-2; en el segundo recuento se confirmó la germinación estándar total con estas mismas diluciones. El frijol Ma yocoba en presencia del extracto de semilla de jícama, mantuvo el vigor y valores porcentuales aceptables de germinación estándar de la semilla.

  20. THE EFFECTS ACTIVE PRINCIPLES FROM MEDICINAL AND FLAVOR PLANTS IN NON CHEMICAL CONTROL AGAINST BEAN WEEVIL, ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

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    ECOBICI Maria Monica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reduced toxicity in humans and livestock, and also because they does not develop strength to insects or let toxic residues, the use of vegetal insecticides is of great interest both from an economic and ecological point of view (Golob and contributors, 1999, Multon, 1988.

  1. susceptibility to bruchids among common beans in uganda abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    spotted (2.4%) and NARBL 40 – 3 (Black 2) (2.3%). (Table 6). In Z. subfasciatus infested seed, grain weight loss was highest in K131 and Yellow round. (37%) and the least in NABE 11 (4.4%) (Table 7). Additionally, bruchid damage significantly. (P<0.05) reduced germination in relation to number of emergence holes and ...

  2. Bruchid egg induced transcript dynamics in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo.

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    Indrani K Baruah

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp., reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram. In this study, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH library was constructed to study the genes involved in defense response in black gram against bruchid infestation. An EST library of 277 clones was obtained for further analyses. Based on CAP3 assembly, 134 unigenes were computationally annotated using Blast2GOPRO software. In all, 20 defense related genes were subject to quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR out of which 12 genes showed up-regulation in developing seeds of the pods oviposited by bruchids. Few major defense genes like defensin, pathogenesis related protein (PR, lipoxygenase (LOX showed high expression levels in the oviposited population when compared with the non-oviposited plants. This is the first report on defense related gene transcript dynamics during the bruchid-black gram interaction using SSH library. This library would be useful to clone defense related gene(s such as defensin as represented in our library for crop improvement.

  3. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Abdul R. War

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L. and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these

  4. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Predatory response of Xylocoris flavipes to bruchid pests of stored food legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Richard T. Arbogast

    2008-01-01

    Biological control may provide an affordable and sustainable option for reducing losses to pest Bruchidae in stored food legumes, a crucial source of human dietary protein. Previous investigations have focused primarily on the role of parasitism in bruchid biological control, while the potential of generalist predators has been comparatively unexplored. The true bug...

  6. Construction of an integrated map and location of a bruchid resistance gene in mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis poses a serious threat to the production and storage of mung bean (Vigna radiata. Mapping bruchid resistance (Br will provide an important basis for cloning the responsible gene(s and elucidating its functional mechanism, and will also facilitate marker-assisted selection in mung bean breeding. Here, we report the construction of the genetic linkage groups of mung bean and mapping of the Br1 locus using an RIL population derived from a cross between Berken, a bruchid-susceptible line, and ACC41, a bruchid-resistant line. A total of 560 markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups, with 38.0% of the markers showing distorted segregation. The lengths of the linkage groups ranged from 45.2 to 117.0 cM with a total coverage of 732.9 cM and an average interval of 1.3 cM between loci. Br1 was located on LG9 between BM202 (0.7 cM and Vr2-627 (1.7 cM. Based on 270 shared SSR markers, most of the linkage groups were assigned to specific chromosomes. These results should further accelerate the genetic study of this crop.

  7. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of some Biological Characteristics between Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Reared either on his Habitual Host Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae or on Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. and Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. Identified as Substitution Hosts. In this study, we have measured some biological parameters of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae when this parasitoid grows on three hosts: Callosobruchus maculatus F. (usual host, Acanthoscelides macrophthalma Schaef. and Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. (substitution hosts. The results of this comparative study in no choice situation show that, life duration and development duration of this parasitoid are identical in laboratory conditions. By contrast, the female fecundity, the sexual rate and the parasitism rate of D. basalis are different according to the hosts presented. Although such differences appear to be small between C. maculatus and A. macrophthalmus. In presence of these two species, the number of eggs laid by the female of D. basalis is respectively 61 ± 5.24 and 54 ± 5.60, the sexual rate 37.63 ± 2.13% and 41.73 ± 3.69% and the parasitism rate 85.46 ± 2.61% and 76.48 ± 5.90%. This indicates that these two Bruchids can be used as hosts to D. basalis for a mass production. In presence of B. lineatopygus, the fecundity and the parasitism rate of D. basalis female are very low and the sexual rate more favourable of the males. This situation is unfavourable for a parasitoid production. When D. basalis females are placed in choice situation with equal number of the hosts nowely C. maculatus and A. macrophthalmus, the parasitism rate obtained, is higher for C. maculatus that of A. macrophthalmus. This parasitism rate remains high for C. maculatus even when the other host A. macrophthalmus is twice the number of C. maculatus. Thus the parasitoid seems to have a preference for his natural host. However, A. macrophthalmus can

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on egg hatchability of bruchids developing in three pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrare, V.S.; Bhatia, Parvathy

    2000-01-01

    One day old adults of Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) irradiated at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 Gy dose of gamma radiation were bred on three pulses. Percent egg hatchability was inversely related with gamma radiation dose in both the species on three pulses and it was comparatively low in C. maculatus (Fab.). The mean percent hatchability was 70.66, 68.94, 65.41 on green gram, chickpea and cowpea, respectively in C. chinensis (Linn.) while in C. maculatus (Fab.) it was 66.52, 64.12, 61.27 on green gram, cowpea, chickpea, respectively. Both bruchids tolerated in the radiation doses when bred on green gram whereas they were susceptible on cowpea and chickpea. (author)

  9. African Crop Science Journal - Vol 22, No 3 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides obtectus. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Nana, F Nchu, RM Bikomo, HI Kutima, 175-180 ...

  10. Sunning as a technique for disinfecting stored beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinwada, P.; Giga, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of sunning (solar heating) as a small farm technique for controlling the bean bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) was investigated. Bean seeds infested with mixed-stage larvae were placed on clear or black polyethylene sheets or inside polyethylene pouches with clear upper and black lower surfaces and exposed to the sun for five hours each day for 0, 3 and 5 successive days. No live insects emerged from seeds heated in the pouches while the few that emerged from seeds on the black sheets resulted in damage to less than 1% of the seeds. Of the three polyethylene systems used, the clear sheet was the least useful, while the pouches even for only 3 days, were the most effective in eliminating infestations. These studies demonstrated that effective bruchid control can be achieved with daily 5-h exposure periods of seeds for a successive 5-day duration. However, the success of the method of control may be influenced by the time of the year and prevailing environmental conditions

  11. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant–plant mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant–plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output. PMID:24807259

  12. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2014-06-22

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output.

  13. Do cardinal directions in different Acacia tree species affect biological activities of bruchid beetle, Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera), in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, A S

    2009-12-15

    Biological activities of bruchid beetle: Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) were studied in four cardinal directions of Acacia tree species in Huraimila and Salbouk. In Huraimila, two species of Acacia; A. grrrardii, subspecies A. g. negevensis (Iraqi) and A. g. nagednsis (Najdi); and A. ehrenbergiana (Salam) were sampled. In Salbouk, A. tortilis radiana (Samar) was sampled. No significant differences were observed for entrance and exit holes per pod and beetles emergence until 45 days on four cardinal directions of different Acacia tree species, except for entrance holes at Dam and Farm locations on Najdi in Huraimila. However, greater activities were observed in south and east direction in farm locations whereas, in the valley (Abu Gatada, Alyata and Dam locations) more bruchid activities were observed in north and south on Najdi and samar while east and west on Iraqi. Moreover, activities were greater on Acacia trees with greater number of seed per pod. Greater bruchid infestation per pod was found on East direction in the farm locations but in the valley locations no distinct trend was observed. Results showed a significant, positive correlation between bruchid activities and temperature but similar strength negative correlation was observed for rest of various abiotic factors. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was recorded between neonate entrance and number of beetle emergence.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 204 ... ... note on the distribution and relative importance of bean Bruchid species Aconthoscelides obtectus (Say.) ... DE Mushi, LA Mtenga, LO Eik ... MC Kalumuna, ST Ikerra, GJ Ley, B Kiwambo, JA Kamasho, RR Weil.

  15. Potential of plant materials for the management of cowpea bruchid callosobruchus analis (coleoptera: bruchidae) in gram cicer arietinum during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Tofique, M.

    2012-01-01

    Present research was carried out to identify alternatives to synthetic insecticides to control cowpea weevil Callosobruchus analis (F.) population in gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.), during storage. The efficacies of three plant materials such as Nicotiana tabacum, Citrullus colocythis and Aloe vera were assessed to determine their insecticidal activities against survival of bruchid C. analis on seeds of gram varieties viz., CM-98 and Jubiha-1. These plant materials tested reduced weevil infestation and emergence as compared with untreated control seeds. Seeds treatment with A. vera followed by N. tabacum reduced maximum pest damage over C. colocythis, which proved least effective to control C. analis population. Consequently, the tested plant materials should be given due consideration for effective gram protection as a component of integrated pest management approach in storage. (author)

  16. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.J. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G. [Laboratório de Toxinologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacodinâmica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-01-27

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  17. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation

  18. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A J; Ferreira, A T S; Perales, J; Beghini, D G; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J; Venancio, T M; Oliveira, A E A

    2012-02-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  19. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  20. Triple bag hermetic technology for controlling a bruchid (Spermophagus sp.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) in stored Hibiscus sabdariffa grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, L; Baoua, I B; Baributsa, D; Williams, S B; Murdock, L L

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the performance of hermetic triple layer Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags for protecting Hibiscus sabdariffa grain against storage insects. The major storage pest in the grain was a bruchid, Spermophagus sp.. When we stored infested H. sabdariffa grain for six months in the woven polypropylene bags typically used by farmers, the Spermophagus population increased 33-fold over that initially present. The mean number of emergence holes per 100 seeds increased from 3.3 holes to 35.4 holes during this time period, while grain held for the same length of time in PICS bags experienced no increase in the numbers of holes. Grain weight loss in the woven control bags was 8.6% while no weight loss was observed in the PICS bags. Seed germination rates of grain held in woven bags for six months dropped significantly while germination of grain held in PICS bags did not change from the initial value. PICS bags can be used to safely store Hibiscus grain after harvest to protect against a major insect pest.

  1. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Nigeria Grown Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) Dried Leaves and Its Bioactivity against Cowpea Seed Bruchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2017-06-01

    Due to several ecological and human hazards of synthetic pesticides in postharvest crop protection, there is the need to search for eco-friendly alternatives. In this study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oil (EO) obtained from Hoslundia opposita dried leaves were evaluated against cowpea seed bruchid. Eight constituents, predominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.86%), were identified using Gas Chromatography (GC)/MS. The constituents were 1,8-cineole (1; 61.15%), followed by α-terpineol (2; 16.81%), β-phellandrene (3; 13.24%), β-farnesene (4; 3.55%), α-pinene (5; 1.89%), Germacrene D (6; 1.83%), cis-sabinene hydrate (7; 0.90%) and caryophyllene (8; 0.63%). In fumigation bioassay, at 6 h after exposure (HAE), 0.78 ml EO/l air caused 35.33% mortality which was significantly lower than 60.90% and 63.6% observed at 3.15 and 6.25 ml/l air, respectively. Mortality reached 90.0% at 24 HAE regardless of the applied concentration. Lethal time for 50% of the bruchids (LT 50 ) at concentration of 0.78 ml/l air (6.89 h) was higher than the LT 50 at 3.15 and 6.25 ml/l air (4.72 and 4.44 h, respectively). H. opposita EO reduced Callosobruchus maculatus oviposition, while progeny emergence observed in EO-treated seeds (2.42 - 25.73) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than 51.56 observed in control. The results confirm H. opposita EO's potentials for control of cowpea bruchids. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Insecticidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of Ageratum Conyzoides L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, Jairo; Rivera, Augusto

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the insecticidal activity of the petroleum ether (bp 40-60o C) extract of Ageratum Conyzoides L. Towards mosca domestica (diptera) third stage larvae and cynthia Carye (Lepidoptera) third, fourth and fifth stage larvae, being this extract also active against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera) adults. We have isolated the known chromene precocene II from this extract, which is highly toxic to M. domestica third stage larvae under sunlight exposure, while no larvicidal effect was shown under U.V. irradiation or in dark. We have also identified two flavonoids: Eupalestin and lucidin dimethyl ether, which insecticidal role in this extract has not been determinate

  3. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species.

  4. Predação de sementes de leguminosas por bruquídeos (Insecta: Coleoptera na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil Legume seed damage by bruchids (Insecta: Coleoptera in Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Lomônaco

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a predação de sementes em Bauhinia pulchella Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa acutistipula Benth. var. nigra Hub., Mimosa somnians H.B. ex Willd. (Mimosaceae e Phaseolus linearis H.B.K. (Fabaceae para investigar a taxa de predação e a existência de defesas contra a ação de predadores. Foi constatada a preferência por sementes de maior tamanho pelo bruquídeo de Bauhinia pulchella, o que pode significar uma adaptação das plantas em ter sementes pequenas que escapem da predação. Em Mimosa somnians, a imprevisibilidade do número de sementes viáveis produzidas poderia consistir num mecanismo de defesa, por impedir a otimização da quantidade de ovos deixados pelo predador em cada fruto. O formato extremamente achatado das sementes de Mimosa acutistipula parece limitar a ação de predadores. A alta resistência da casca dos frutos de Phaseolus linearis e o aspecto compacto e duro de suas sementes podem ser considerados defesas mecânicas. Existe relação entre o tamanho de sementes e o tamanho de predadores para as espécies estudadas.Seed damage in Bauhinia pulchella Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa acutistipula Benth var. nigra Hub., Mimosa somnians H.B. ex Willd. (Mimosaceae and Phaseolus linearis H.B.K. (Fabaceae, was studied to investigate defense against predators. The preference for larger seeds of Bauhinia pulchella by bruchids is a selection pressure for the plant to product smaller seeds, as a survival mechanism to scape predation. The impredictability of the number of viable seeds per pod in Mimosa somnians could represent a defense mechanism because it does not permit the optimization of the number of eggs laid in each fruit. The flattened seeds of Mimosa acutistipula limit the attack sucess of predator beetles. The high resistance of the pod skin and the hard compact seeds in Phaseolus linearis may be considered mechanical defenses. There is a con-elation between seed size and predator size in the species

  5. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  6. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.; Margam, Venu; Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Balfe, Susan; Shade, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    't reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don't develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from

  7. Susceptibility to bruchids among common beans in Uganda | Ebinu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. 116 Damage Caused By the Bean Bruchid, Callosobruchus Maculatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Onyido, A. E. - Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi. Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Zeibe, C. C. - Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi. Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Okonkwo, N. J. - Department of Parasitology and Entomology, ...

  9. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  10. The effects of selection for early and late reproduction on metabolite pools in Acanthoscelides obtecus Say

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazarević, J.; Tucić, N.; Šešlija Jovanović, D.; Večeřa, Josef; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2012), s. 303-314 ISSN 1672-9609 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technological Development of Serbia(RS) 173007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ageing * energy resources * laboratory evolution Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.786, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2011.01457.x/pdf

  11. THE STORED BEANS GRAIN PRESERVATION WITH BIOLOGIC ORIGIN INSECTICIDE OF AVERMECTINI’S GROUP PRESERVAÇÃO DE FEIJÃO ARMAZENADO, TRATADO COM INSETICIDA DE ORIGEM BIOLÓGICA DO GRUPO DAS AVERMECTINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Queiroz Porto Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aiming to study alternatives to control Acanthoscelides obtectus in beans grain, it was made this experiment, evaluating the abamectin’s efficiency. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 6 x 7, with 3 replications. There were 6 grain treatments and 7 storage periods. It was used bean grain ‘EMGOPA -201’, treated with abamectin in dosages 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 ppm, pirimifós-metil (10 ppm and deltametrina + fenitrothion (0.4 + 7.5 ppm, and control. After treatment, grain samples were kept away, packaged in a bottle with web ird, and infested with 20 no sexed insects. The insecticide efficiency was evaluated 02, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after treatment. It was observed that from 30 days storage, all products reduced the alive insects number and that abamectin insecticide must be recommended in 3.0 ppm dosage.

    Com o objetivo de investigar novas alternativas no controle de Acanthoscelides obtectus em grãos de feijão, foi realizado o presente trabalho, em que se verifica a eficiência do princípio ativo do inseticida abamectin. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 X 7, com 3 repetições, sendo 6 tratamentos de grãos e 7 períodos de armazenamento. Utilizaram-se grãos de feijão ‘EMGOPA - 201’, que foram tratados com abamectin nas dosagens de 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0 ppm, pirimifós-metil (10 ppm e deltametrina + fenitrothion (0,4 + 7,5 ppm, além da testemunha. Após o tratamento, amostras dos grãos foram retiradas e acondicionadas em frascos de vidro com tampa telada e infestadas com 20 insetos não sexados. A eficiência dos inseticidas foi avaliada aos 02, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. Observou-se que a partir de 30 dias de armazenamento todos os

  12. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  13. ENCUESTA A PRODUCTORES PARA ORIENTAR EL FITOMEJORAMIENTO DE FRIJOL EN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmalea Garver Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta a más de cincuenta productores de frijol de los valles de Chota y Mira, ubicados al norte de Ecuador, en el año 2003, con la finalidad de recabar información y plantear objetivos para la implementación de un programa de mejoramiento participativo de frijol en Ecuador. Los productores fueron consultados acerca de las variedades de frijol que están cultivando actualmente, los métodos de producción empleados, los problemas de producción del cultivo y las características que deberían mejorarse en las nuevas variedades. Los principales problemas de producción reportados fueron los daños causados por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, roya (Uromyces appendiculatus y brúquidos (Acanthoscelides obtectus. Los agricultores han cambiado recientemente las clases comerciales de frijol que tradicionalmente cultivaban en respuesta a la demanda del mercado. En cuanto a las características que deberían poseer las nuevas variedades de frijol, indicaron alto rendimiento y semilla de tamaño grande con color y forma comercial. La costumbre de los agricultores de comprar semilla para cada siembra, y no de producir su propia semilla, fue identifi cada como un obstáculo potencial para el uso y mantenimiento de las nuevas variedades mejoradas de frijol en el área estudiada.

  14. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Detection of irradiated insects - pest of stored products: locomotion activity of irradiated adult beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banasik, K.

    1994-01-01

    An indirect behavioural test (test of locomotion as a measure of vigor) to determine whether the insects have been subject to irradiation is proposed. The higher the dose applied, the lesser the locomotor activity of the treated beetles, pests of stored products. For radiation disinfestation, the doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy are suggested. At these doses the walking speed of insects, i.e. ability to disperse, is greatly affected. The various species responded to gamma irradiation in a different way. At the first day after treatment all T. confusum Duv. beetles treated with 0.25 to 0.5 kGy doses showed the reduction of locomotor activity by more than 25%. The walking speed of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius L. and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, treated with low doses of gamma radiation, was not affected or it was even higher than the control. At the next day after treatment the walking speed of irradiated insects was negatively correlated with the dose applied. Using data on the percentage of the confused flour beetles that moved outside the 20 cm diam. circle during the first minute as well as during the next minutes, it was possible to discriminate the insects irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation from those treated with 0.25 and 0.5 kGy and untreated. The results obtained suggests that the locomotor test may be used as an identification method of irradiated insects, pests or stored products. The specific causes of decreased locomotor activity of irradiated insects and/or ability to disperse have not been yet established. However, muscles controlling locomotion (walking) seem to be damaged by radiation. (author)

  16. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ilesanmi, Joana O.; Gungula, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea) of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfe...

  17. Ovipositional Deterrence of Methanolic and Etherial Extracts of Five Plants to the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Elhag

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol and diethyl ether extracts of Harmal, Rhazya stricta Decne.; neem seed kernels, Azadirachta indica A.Juss; cloves, Syzygeum aromarticum (L.; citrus peel and Ramram, Heliotropium bacciferum (Forssk- were evaluated for their deterrence to oviposition by Callosobruchus maculatus (F. on chickpeas in choice tests. Both extracts of all materials significantly reduced oviposition on treated seeds. Maximum deterrent effects (91.8% were obtained in the neem seed methanol extract at 0.5% concentration, citrus peel O. l% ether extract (90.9%, R stricta 0.5% methanol extract (83.9%, and clove 0. 1% ether extract (80.0%. Methanol extracts of neem seeds and R. stricta evoked higher deterrent effects than their etherial extracts, whereas the responses for cloves and citrus peel were more pronounced in their ether extracts. H. bacirferum % deterrency due to both types of extracts were practically identical. The results encourage future incorporation of such plant extracts as ovipositional deterrents in stored-product lPM programmes.

  18. Analysis on the arcelin expression in bruchid pest resistant wild pulses using real time RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelkumar, Shanmugavel; Veeramani, Velayutham; Hilda, Karuppiah; Arumugam, Munusamy; Janarthanan, Sundaram

    2014-12-01

    Arcelin, the antimetabolic protein from wild pulses is a known natural insecticidal molecule. Wild pulses with high arcelin content could serve as potential source to. increase the levels of insect resistance in cultivated pulse crops. In this study, arcelin (Arl) gene expression was screened in seven stored product insect pest resistant wild pulse varieties using real time RT-qPCR. Arcelin gene specific real time PCR primers were synthesized from arcelin mRNA sequence of the wild pulse variety, Lablab purpureus. The results revealed different levels of arcelin gene expression in the tested varieties. Canavalia virosa registered significantly high content indicating its suitability for utilization of arcelin gene in developing stored product insect pest resistance with other cultivated pulses.

  19. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, R.S.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Sileem, Th.M.

    2013-01-01

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  20. Radioisotopes and Radiation in Animal and Plant Insect Pest Control; Emploi des radioisotopes et des rayonnements dans la lutte contre les insectes nuisibles aux plantes et aux animaux; Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov i radiashchi v bor'be s nasekomymi-vreditelyami rastenij i zhivotnykh; Utilizacion de los radioisotopos y de las radiaciones en la lucha contra los insectos nocivos para las plantas y los animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, S. V.; Martens, B. K.; Samojlova, V. A.; Molchanova, Z. I. [Vsesoyuznyj Institut Zashchity Rastenij, Leningrad, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-09-15

    degrees of stability when subjected to the action of herbicides. Pesticides containing trace quantities of isotopes with short half-lives can be used as a means of judging the merits of various spraying systems for treating seeds and agricultural crops with pesticides; this method also provides information about the optimum doses. Experiments have shown that ionizing radiations can be used to increase the virulence of insect nosophytes (Beauveria vassiana Unill.) and thus improve the efficiency of microbiological insect-pest-control methods. The sterilizing and lethal effects of ionizing radiations are also useful in combatting insect pests. Gamma-ray experiments have made it possible to establish sterilizing doses for a number of insect pests which attack crops and stored products (Calandra granaria L., Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, Pectinophora malvella Hb., Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say, Chloridea obsoleta F.). The data obtained in these investigations will be used to develop and improve the methods of insect-pest control used in agriculture. (author) [French] Le probleme de la lutte contre les parasites des cultures presente une grande importance pour l'economie nationale. Il importe, pour le resoudre, de tirer parti des realisations scientifiques les plus recentes. Pour rationaliser les methodes actuelles de lutte contre les insectes nuisibles et accroitre l'efficacite de ces methodes, on a fait appel aux radioisotopes et aux rayonnements. Grace a remploi des radioisotopes et des rayonnements, il est possible de rationaliser dans une large mesure les methodes utilisees et d'augmenter leur efficacite. A cet effet, il est indispensable d'etudier a fond les problemes d'ecologie, de toxicologie, etc. Dans le domaine de l'ecologie, la methode du radiomarquage des insectes est particulierement prometteuse. L'emploi de radioisotopes pour le marquage des insectes ravageurs des cereales (Eurygaster integriceps Put. et Hadena sordida Skh.) et de leurs parasites (Meniscus

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 225 ... ... on the longevity and fecundity of adult cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus ... Vol 13, No 3 (2013), Larvicidal Activity of Aqeous Extract of Moringa .... safety maintenance of the physical properties of Daucus carota L. fruits ...

  2. African Research Review - Vol 5, No 4 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prerequisite for Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Sub-Saharan Africa · EMAIL ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... the Bean Bruchid, Callosobruchus Maculatus (Fabricius) on Different Legume Seeds on Sale in ...

  3. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya, NG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Fishing and Marketing of White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1817 in Ivory Coast. The artisanal fisheries in Ivory Coast is not well developed. It however comes in complement of the products of the industrial trawler and pelagic fisheries to satisfy the needs for the rural populations. Thanks to inexpensive machines and materials, artisanal fishermen exploit the demersal resources in not very deep water of the littoral of Ivory Coast. Their interest is on white Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus, fish living on the rocky bottom, easily accessible to the machines of fishing because of its facility to sell when they come back from the sea in spite of the highest prices they propose to the wholesalers and half wholesalers.

  4. seed storage proteins arl2 and its variants from the apa locus of wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sion of arcelin and ARL2 tepary bean proteins. Furthermore, a reduction in size and weight of emerged adult insects to almost half was observed. This work demonstrates the superior resistance common bean backcross lines to A. obtectus conferred by the presence of the APA proteins introgressed from tepary bean.

  5. The Influence of Processing by Impulse Pressure on the Productivity of the Don Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Violetta Aleksandrovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is the important indicator, which determines the amount of yield. The productivity of plants depends on the number of bruchids per plant and on the weight of 1000 bruchids. The article studies the influence of impulse pressure of various magnitudes on plant productivity of Don barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. It was found that the pressure of 17 MPa was the most effective for increasing the productivity. Impulse pressure of other magnitudes also had influence on the productivity of Don barley.

  6. The role of chemical cues in host finding and acceptance by Callosobruchus chinensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignacimuthu, S.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the response of female Callosobruchus chinensis to chemical cues emitted by cowpea seeds at different stages of bruchid infestation (uninfested, egg carrying, L1-, and L4-infested). Olfactory attractiveness was determined in Y-tube olfactometer assays by testing individual seed categories

  7. Zahrotes subfasciatus.JBoh.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hybridization 'be~n breedin~ programme aimed at breeding b~a;'s resistant against the be'an bruchid species Z. subfasciatus. which destroys beans in storiige was carried outat Sokoine Univ~rsityofAgricul lure (SUA) Morogkro. Tanza'!ia between 1994 - 1997. Five potential local bean varieties/lines were crossed to a ...

  8. Morphometric Analysis of the Developmental Stages and Insecticidal Efficacy of Three Botanical Oils Against Adult Callosobruchus analis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi-Salami Folasade Kemisola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental stages of Callosobruchus analis were observed under laboratory conditions at 28 ± 2 °C and 72 ± 5% relative humidity. The results showed that female C. analis began to lay eggs within 24 hours and have an oviposition period of 8.50 ± 0.70 days and an average of 13.00 ± 0.50 eggs were laid by individual C. analis throughout their lifetime. The mean developmental periods from egg to larva and larva to pupa were observed to be 8.50 ± 0.79 and 4.50 ± 0.70 days, respectively. The unmated bruchids were observed to have lived longer than the mated bruchids as the unmated bruchids lifespan was on average 10.50 ± 0.81 days, as opposed to 2.50 ± 0.75 days for mated females. Adult male C. analis have an average antenna length of 2.96 ± 0.08 mm which is slightly longer than 2.42 ± 0.12 mm on average for female bruchids. The three botanical oil extracts from Capsicum frutescens, Anacardium occidentale and Xylopia aethiopica used at 10.0% concentration were not effective, as none of them resulted in a mortality rate of 50% when recorded 3 days after treatment.

  9. the effects of 4 ratios of organic to inorganic manures on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nkechi

    Next was Aloka which gave 48.20 g, followed by IAR 48 (Big Brown), big white and lastly by iron beans (an unimproved line) with kthe highest weight reduction of 126.99 g. Among the treatments, bitter leaf gave the best protection against cowpea bruchid compared to the other plant materials giving least weight reduction of ...

  10. Aranhas da família Theridiosomatidae: espécie nova e novas ocorrências no Brasil Spiders of family Theridiosomatidae: a new species and new records for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Theridiosoma caaguara sp. nov. do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, é descrita e ilustrada. Baalzebub baubo Coddington, 1986 é registrada pela primeira vez para o Brasil, ampliando-se a distribuição conhecida de Epilineutes globosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1896, Naatlo splendida (Taczanowski, 1873 e Ogulnius obtectus O. P.-Cambridge, 1882.Theridiosoma caaguara sp. nov. from Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Baalzebub baubo Coddington, 1986 is recorded for the first time for Brazil and the known geographic distribution of Epilineutes globosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1896, Naatlo splendida (Taczanowski, 1873 and Ogulnius obtectus O. P.-Cambridge, 1882 is extended.

  11. Aranhas da família Theridiosomatidae: espécie nova e novas ocorrências no Brasil Spiders of family Theridiosomatidae: a new species and new records for Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Everton N. L. Rodrigues; Ricardo Ott

    2005-01-01

    Theridiosoma caaguara sp. nov. do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, é descrita e ilustrada. Baalzebub baubo Coddington, 1986 é registrada pela primeira vez para o Brasil, ampliando-se a distribuição conhecida de Epilineutes globosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1896), Naatlo splendida (Taczanowski, 1873) e Ogulnius obtectus O. P.-Cambridge, 1882.Theridiosoma caaguara sp. nov. from Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Baalzebub baubo Coddington, 1986 is recorded for the first...

  12. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  13. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies reputedly minimize losses of stored cowpea grain to bruchid beetles on low resource farms in Africa. Side by side comparison of these different postharvest storage methods can provide the basis for deciding which performs best. We compared six different technologies for cowpea storage: (1) grain mixed with ash; (2) mixed with sand; (3) fumigated with phostoxin; (4) admixed with the stems and leaves of . Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir, a potential botanical insecticide; (5) disinfested using a solar heater, and; (6) hermetically sealed in triple-layer plastic bags. Sampling was done at thirty-day intervals over five months of storage. Counts were made of (i) adult emergence holes, (ii) dead larvae and (iii) surviving bruchid larvae and adults. Controls, which consisted of infested cowpea grain stored in cloth bags, were damaged extensively. . Boscia senegalensis-treated grain suffered similar severe damage. All other treatments suppressed bruchid population increases as was evident from the much lower counts of emergence holes and lower numbers of surviving or dead insects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, I. B.; Amadou, L.; Margam, V.; Murdock, L. L.

    2012-01-01

    Several technologies reputedly minimize losses of stored cowpea grain to bruchid beetles on low resource farms in Africa. Side by side comparison of these different postharvest storage methods can provide the basis for deciding which performs best. We compared six different technologies for cowpea storage: (1) grain mixed with ash; (2) mixed with sand; (3) fumigated with phostoxin; (4) admixed with the stems and leaves of . Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir, a potential botanical insecticide; (5) disinfested using a solar heater, and; (6) hermetically sealed in triple-layer plastic bags. Sampling was done at thirty-day intervals over five months of storage. Counts were made of (i) adult emergence holes, (ii) dead larvae and (iii) surviving bruchid larvae and adults. Controls, which consisted of infested cowpea grain stored in cloth bags, were damaged extensively. . Boscia senegalensis-treated grain suffered similar severe damage. All other treatments suppressed bruchid population increases as was evident from the much lower counts of emergence holes and lower numbers of surviving or dead insects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  16. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

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    Gisela C Stotz

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo. In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó, and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  17. Evaluation of the seed oil of three citrus species, for the control of the bean beetle, callosobruchus maculatus (F) (coleoptera: bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    On application of the seed oil of ripe and unripe fruits of Citrus sinensis, C. paradisi and C. aurantifolia to the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) for three days, a dose of 0.5 ml of C. sinensis gave, significantly, high mortality rate upto 85%. In case of C. aurantifolia, mortality ranged from 75% to 100%. Same least dosage of seed oil of ripe C. paradissi produced 58.8% to 100% mortality, whereas, except the dose of 0.5 ml, all the other treatments of unripe C. paradissi resulted in 100% mortality after 24 h. (author)

  18. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  19. Effet structurant de la plante hôte chez la bruche de l'arachide, Caryedon serratus (Olivier, 1790 (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sembène, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structuring effect of the host plant in the groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus (Olivier, 1790 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Twenty-six samples of the groundnut seed-beetle which were reared from pods of five different host plants (Arachis hypogaea L., Bauhinia rufescens Lam., Cassia sieberiana DC., Piliostigma reticulatum (DC. Hochst. and Tamarindus indica L. in four localities of Senegal were compared using electrophoresis based on six loci of four enzymatic systems. The population structure of Caryedon serratus Olivier was analysed using Weir and Cockerham's estimator of Wright's F-statistics. θ value (0.235 and the dendrogram of Rogers'genetic distances revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation between host plants. Genetic analysis without C. sieberiana samples indicated that populations form host races which are partially isolated according to their host plants (θ = 0.035. Geographical distances between localities are not decisive for genetic structuration of C. serratus populations from a given host plant.

  20. THE INVASIVE COLEOPTEROFAUNA FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

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    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova consists of the 100 species. After correlation local database with Fauna Europaea for our country registered are 31 of species, but for 69 mentioned with the „absent” and 38 „no date”. In the meantime 24 species were recorded for our country: Acanthoscelides abtectus, A.pallidipennis, Alphitobius diaperinus, Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Bruchus pisorum, B.rufimanus, Caulophilus latinasus, Diabrotica virgifera, Gnathocerus cornutus, Harmonia axyridis, Lasioderma serricorne, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lignyodes bischoffi, Lithocharis nigriceps, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrioides mauritanicus, Tribolium castaneum, T. destructor, Trogoderma granarium. According periods penetration the invasive beetles it was found that 2 species have entered the XVIII century, 16 species in the XIX, 53 species in the XX and 29 species in the XXI century. The registration invasive beetles in countries of interest to the our country is in: Bulgaria – 54 species; Poland – 39; România – 3; other countries- 4.

  1. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of an Oxabicyclolactone and Novel Pyrethroids

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    Elson S. de Alvarenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deltamethrin, a member of the pyrethroids, one of the safest classes of pesticides, is among some of the most popular and widely used insecticides in the World. Our objective was to synthesize an oxabicyclolactone 6 and five novel pyrethroids 8–12 from readily available furfural and D-mannitol, respectively, and evaluate their biological activity against four insect species of economic importance namely A. obtectus, S. zeamais, A. monuste orseis, and P. americana. A concise and novel synthesis of 6,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-one (6 from furfural is described. Photochemical addition of isopropyl alcohol to furan-2(5H-one afforded 4-(1'-hydroxy-1'-methylethyltetrahydro-furan-2-one (3. The alcohol 3 was directly converted into 4-(1'-bromo-1'-methylethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-one (5 in 50% yield by reaction with PBr3 and SiO2. The final step was performed by cyclization of 5 with potassium tert-butoxide in 40% yield. The novel pyrethroids 8–12 were prepared from methyl (1S,3S-3-formyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate (7a by reaction with five different aromatic phosphorous ylides. Compounds 6–12 presented high insecticidal activity, with 6 and 11 being the most active. Compound 6 killed 90% of S. zeamais and 100% of all the other insects evaluated. Compound 11 killed 100% of all insects tested.

  2. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Wolowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008 in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa, as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1939-1948. Epub 2011 December 01Es importante determinar la eficacia de las áreas de conservación cuando se están implementando diferentes categorías de manejo, y una forma de hacerlo es conociendo si se mantiene una reproducción sexual efectiva en las especies de plantas y sus interacciones con grupos de animales. Para evaluar esta cuestión, se comparó la fenología, el

  3. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  4. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  5. Cloning of cDNA sequences encoding cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins: Computational simulations suggest a binding mode of cowpea vicilins to chitin oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Antônio J; Sousa, Bruno L; Girão, Matheus S; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Monteiro-Júnior, José E; Oliveira, José T A; Nagano, Celso S; Carneiro, Rômulo F; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Rocha, Bruno A M; Freire, Valder N; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2018-05-27

    Vicilins are 7S globulins which constitute the major seed storage proteins in leguminous species. Variant vicilins showing differential binding affinities for chitin have been implicated in the resistance and susceptibility of cowpea to the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. These proteins are members of the cupin superfamily, which includes a wide variety of enzymes and non-catalytic seed storage proteins. The cupin fold does not share similarity with any known chitin-biding domain. Therefore, it is poorly understood how these storage proteins bind to chitin. In this work, partial cDNA sequences encoding β-vignin, the major component of cowpea vicilins, were obtained from developing seeds. Three-dimensional molecular models of β-vignin showed the characteristic cupin fold and computational simulations revealed that each vicilin trimer contained 3 chitin-binding sites. Interaction models showed that chito-oligosaccharides bound to β-vignin were stabilized mainly by hydrogen bonds, a common structural feature of typical carbohydrate-binding proteins. Furthermore, many of the residues involved in the chitin-binding sites of β-vignin are conserved in other 7S globulins. These results support previous experimental evidences on the ability of vicilin-like proteins from cowpea and other leguminous species to bind in vitro to chitin as well as in vivo to chitinous structures of larval C. maculatus midgut. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Comparative genome analysis and resistance gene mapping in grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Using, DNA markers and genome organization, several important disease resistance genes have been analyzed in mungbean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and soybean (Glycine max). In the process, medium-density linkage maps consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were constructed for both mungbean and cowpea. Comparisons between these maps, as well as the maps of soybean and common bean, indicate that there is significant conservation of DNA marker order, though the conserved blocks in soybean are much shorter than in the others. DNA mapping results also indicate that a gene for seed weight may be conserved between mungbean and cowpea. Using the linkage maps, genes that control bruchid (genus Callosobruchus) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni) resistance in mungbean, aphid resistance in cowpea (Aphis craccivora), and cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) resistance in soybean have all been mapped and characterized. For some of these traits resistance was found to be oligogenic and DNA mapping uncovered multiple genes involved in the phenotype. (author)

  7. Ancient plant remains with special reference to buckthorn, Frangula alnus Mill., pyrenes from Dascyleum, Balıkesir, NW Turkey

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    Emel Oybak Dönmez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonized plant remains recovered from the ancient city Dascyleum (Daskyleion in the province of Balıkesir in northwestern Turkey provide an outline of several phases of plant use in archaic, Hellenistic, and medieval times. At the study site, various crop plant remains of Near Eastern agriculture, including cereals (barley, Hordeum vulgare L. and bread/durum/rivet wheat, Triticum aestivum L. / T. durum Desf. / T. turgidum L. and pulses [bitter vetch, Vicia ervilia (L. Willd.; grass pea, Lathyrus sativus L. / L. cicera L.; fava bean, V. faba L.; and chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.] were found. Drupaceous fruits and pyrenes of buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. were also found, probably representing dyes and/or medicines used by the inhabitants of the mound. Archaeometrical analyses of the ancient buckthorn pyrenes by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA provide chemical evidence for traces of ancient mordants remaining until the present day. Some of the pulse seed remains retrieved from the medieval layers at the study site were found to have been infested by bruchid beetles (Bruchidae.

  8. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in and

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    Hongmei Li-Byarlay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus . We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster . Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  9. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Performance of PICS bags under extreme conditions in the sahel zone of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoua, Ibrahim B; Bakoye, Ousmane; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-03-01

    Experiments in Niger assessed whether extreme environmental conditions including sunlight exposure affect the performance of triple-layer PICS bags in protecting cowpea grain against bruchids. Sets of PICS bags and woven polypropylene bags as controls containing 50 kg of naturally infested cowpea grain were held in the laboratory or outside with sun exposure for four and one-half months. PICS bags held either inside or outside exhibited no significant increase in insect damage and no loss in weight after 4.5 months of storage compared to the initial values. By contrast, woven bags stored inside or outside side by side with PICS bags showed several-fold increases in insects present in or on the grain and significant losses in grain weight. Grain stored inside in PICS bags showed no reduction in germination versus the initial value but there was a small but significant drop in germination of grain in PICS bags held outside (7.6%). Germination rates dropped substantially more in grain stored in woven bags inside (16.1%) and still more in woven bags stored outside (60%). PICS bags held inside and outside retained their ability to maintain internal reduced levels of oxygen and elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions degraded the external polypropylene outer layer of the PICS triple-layer bag. Even so, the internal layers of polyethylene were more slowly degraded. The effects of exposure to sunlight, temperature and humidity variation within the sealed bags are described.

  11. Avaliação da qualidade tecnológica do feijão durante o armazenamento Avaliation of the technological quality of the edible beans during the storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, conduziram-se os estudos para avaliar a qualidade tecnológica dos grãos de feijão, durante quatro meses de armazenamento, em condições ambientais e na presença do inseto-praga Acanthocelides obtectus. Foram utilizados grãos de feijão com teor de água de aproximadamente 18 (%b.s.. Para infestação do produto, foram colocados 20 insetos adultos em cada pote de vidro, que foi fechado com uma tampa telada. As análises tecnológicas foram realizadas no produto com e sem o inseto-praga, no início do experimento e a cada 28 dias, totalizando 112 dias de armazenagem. O teste de cocção foi realizado com aparelho de Mattson utilizando-se amostras previamente imersas por 12 horas. Para a determinação da absorção de água, as amostras foram submetidas à imersão em água destilada, durante um período de 12 horas, em diferentes temperaturas (20, 30, 40 e 50 °C. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a presença do inseto-praga causa a deterioração intensa dos grãos de feijão, resultando na redução da sua qualidade tecnológica. A temperatura de embebição aumenta a absorção de água dos grãos de feijão, sendo intensificada pela presença do inseto-praga ao longo do período de armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of edible bean grain during four months of storage in ambient conditions and in the presence of insect Acanthocelides obtectus. The edible beans were stored at 18.0 (%d.b.. For the infestation of the product, were put 20 adults insects in wich recipient, than was closed with cover with screen. The technological analysis were made in product with and without the insect, in the begin of experiment and at wich 28 days, totalized 112 days of storage. The cooking test was made with Mattson apparatus utilized sample soaking for 12 hours. For determinate the water absorption, the samples were soaking in water distillated, during 12 hours in

  12. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E J Arnold

    Full Text Available The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless, more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies.

  14. Effect of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).; Efeitos de radiacoes gama do {sup 60}Co na conservacao da semente e na produtividade do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-07-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ({sup 60}Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment

  15. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-01-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ( 60 Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e

  16. Mutants of common bean alpha-amylase inhibitor-2 as an approach to investigate binding specificity to alpha-amylases Mutantes do inibidor-2 de alfa-amilase do feijão-comum para investigação da especificidade de ligação a alfa-amilases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mattar da Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the presence of a family of defense proteins, Phaseolus vulgaris can be attacked by bruchid insects resulting in serious damage to stored grains. The two distinct active forms of a-amylase inhibitors, a-AI1 and a-AI2, in P. vulgaris show different specificity toward a-amylases. Zabrotes subfasciatus a-amylase is inhibited by a-AI2 but not by a-AI1. In contrast, porcine a-amylase is inhibited by a-AI1 but not by a-AI2. The objective of this work was to understand the molecular basis of the specificity of two inhibitors in P. vulgaris (a-AI1 and a-AI2 in relation to a-amylases. Mutants of a-AI2 were made and expressed in tobacco plants. The results showed that all the a-AI2 mutant inhibitors lost their activity against the insect a-amylases but none exhibited activity toward the mammalian a-amylase. The replacement of His33 of a-AI2 with the a-AI1-like sequence Ser-Tyr-Asn abolished inhibition of Z. subfasciatus a-amylase. From structural modeling, the conclusion is that the size and complexity of the amylase-inhibitor interface explain why mutation of the N-terminal loop and resultant abolition of Z. subfasciatus a-amylase inhibition are not accompanied by gain of inhibitory activity against porcine a-amylase.Apesar de possuir uma família de proteínas de defesa, o feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pode ser atacado por insetos bruquídeos causando sérios danos aos grãos armazenados. O P. vulgaris possui duas formas ativas de inibidores de a-amilases, denominadas a-AI1 e a-AI2, que apresentam diferentes especificidades em relação às a-amilases. A a-amilase de Zabrotes subfasciatus é inibida por a-AI2 mas não por a-AI1. Em contraste, a a-amilase pancreática de porco é inibida por a-AI1 mas não é por a-AI2. O objetivo deste trabalho foi entender as bases moleculares da especificidade desses inibidores em relação às a-amilases. Para tanto, foram construídos mutantes do a-AI2, os quais foram expressados em plantas de fumo