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Sample records for bruchids acanthoscelides obtectus

  1. Combining parasitoids and plant resistance for the control of the bruchid Acanthoscelides obtectus in stored beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, I.; Wäckers, F.L.; Cardona, C.; Dorn, S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) are the main bruchid pests of stored beans in widespread regions of Latin America and Africa. Host-plant resistance based on the protein arcelin is effective in reducing damage caused by Z. subfasciatus, but beans containing

  2. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  3. The effects of the irradiations X on the reproductive power of Acanthoscelides obtectus say (coleoptera: bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemont, J.-C.

    1973-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiations were studied in Acanthoscelides obtectus. Chorion covered ovocytes stored in lateral oviducts were more sensitive than young growing oocyte. On other hand, studies of fine structure on ovarioles of treated females show that damage to oocyte membrane can explain vitellogenesis perturbations [fr

  4. CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BEAN WEEVIL, ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY IN STORAGE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M PORCA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the positive results obtained by some pesticides applied against the bean weevil - Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, after a synthetic rewiew of the potential chemical methods which may be used in the chemical control of the insectes harmful to the stored bean seeds. The chemical control is realised treatments wits syntetic pyrethroid (permetrin, deltametrin and organophosphoric insecticides (malation, pirimifos metil, fenitrotion and chlrorpirifos-metil.

  5. Susceptibility to bruchids among common beans in Uganda | Ebinu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bean bruchids, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say and Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), are cosmopolitan pests of stored dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), causing damage through reduction of grain quality and seed germination. Biological resistance to these bruchids was definitively ...

  6. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) with phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Yang, Hong; Dai, Renhuai

    2017-10-01

    Acanthoscelides obtectus is a common species of the subfamily Bruchinae and a worldwide-distributed seed-feeding beetle. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. obtectus is 16,130 bp in length with an A + T content of 76.4%. It contains a positive AT skew and a negative GC skew. The mitogenome of A. obtectus contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding region (D-loop). All PCGs start with an ATN codon, and seven (ND3, ATP6, COIII, ND3, ND4L, ND6, and Cytb) of them terminate with TAA, while the remaining five (COI, COII, ND1, ND4, and ND5) terminate with a single T, ATP8 terminates with TGA. Except tRNA Ser , the secondary structures of 21 tRNAs that can be folded into a typical clover-leaf structure were identified. The secondary structures of lrRNA and srRNA were also predicted in this study. There are six domains with 48 helices in lrRNA and three domains with 32 helices in srRNA. The control region of A. obtectus is 1354 bp in size with the highest A + T content (83.5%) in a mitochondrial gene. Thirteen PCGs in 19 species have been used to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Our results show that A. obtectus belongs to the family Chrysomelidae (subfamily-Bruchinae). This is the first study on phylogenetic analyses involving the mitochondrial genes of A. obtectus and could provide basic data for future studies of mitochondrial genome diversities and the evolution of related insect lineages.

  7. Bioactivity of Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart. (Meliaceae in the control of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae in the laboratory

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    Lisonéia Smaniotto

    2010-04-01

    and 1%, were added. The results in the laboratory showed 100% efficiency of the crude extract (concentration 1%, followed by the hexanic fraction (concentration 1% with 84.2%. The ethyl acetate, chloroformic fractions and essential oil showed lower efficiency in the control of Acanthoscelides obtectus.

  8. Bioactivity of Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart. (Meliaceae in the control of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae in the laboratory

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    Lisonéia Smaniotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioactivity of Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart, a common tree species in the western region of Santa Catarina, was tested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleptera: Bruchidae, an important insect-pest that can cause damage to bean seeds. In the experiment, 10 adult insects were put onto Petry dishes lined with filter paper, to wich where was add aliquots of crude extract, hexanic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate fractions and essential oil of Cabralea canjerana leaves, concentrated in 10%, 5% and 1%, were added. The results in the laboratory showed 100% efficiency of the crude extract (concentration 1%, followed by the hexanic fraction (concentration 1% with 84.2%. The ethyl acetate, chloroformic fractions and essential oil showed lower efficiency in the control of Acanthoscelides obtectus.

  9. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The relationship between the chemical composition of three essential oils and their insecticidal activity against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Karamanoli, Katerina I; Stamopoulos, Dimitrios C; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2004-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from various parts of three Greek aromatic plants (Lavandula hybrida Rev, Rosmarinus officinalis L and Eucalyptus globulus Labill) collected at different seasons was determined by GC/MS analysis. The insecticidal action of these oils and of their main constituents on Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) adults was evaluated and their LC50 values were estimated. All essential oils tested exhibited strong activity against A. obtectus adults, with varying LC50 values depending on insect sex and the composition of the essential oils. A correlation between total oxygenated monoterpenoid content and activity was observed, with oxygenated compounds exhibiting higher activity than hydrocarbons. Among the main constituents, only linalyl and terpinyl acetate were not active against A. obtectus, while all the others exhibited insecticidal activity against both male and female adults, with LC50 values ranging from 0.8 to 47.1 mg litre(-1) air. An attempt to correlate the insecticidal activity to the monoterpenoid's structure is presented, and the difference in sensitivity between male and female individuals is also explored.

  11. Lutte contre la bruche du haricot Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) et la mite Tineola bisselliella (Lepidoptera, Tineidae) par des plantes aromatiques et leurs huiles essentielles

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHIKHI TANI, Zoheir

    2014-01-01

    وف ا ( ا )* ، , ا - ب ا / 0 ت 1 ا ت ا وراق وا ق ا " ر # $ % & ت ا وراق وا ا D E ، Tineola bisselliella و Acanthoscelides obtectus 1 " ا 23 43 ت -$ و ،I ه $ ر F 1 " ث ا إ I% J ا KL و )* آJ 4 1 N 1 O أ ات آ " ا 23 م RS1 O 3 T ا ق " ،T.bisselliella ت & و A. obtectus W ا 23 T* X آ...

  12. Isolation and identification of floral attractants from a nectar plant for the dried bean beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuts, József; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John C; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2018-03-08

    The response of virgin females of the legume pest Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to headspace extracts of volatiles collected from flowers of a nectar plant, Daucus carota, was investigated using behaviour (four-arm olfactometry) and coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG). Odours from inflorescences were significantly more attractive to virgin female beetles than clean air. Similarly, a sample of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected by air entrainment (dynamic headspace collection) was more attractive to beetles than a solvent control. In coupled GC-EAG experiments with beetle antennae and the VOC extract, six components showed EAG activity. Using coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC peak enhancement with authentic standards, the components were identified as α-pinene (S:R 16:1), sabinene, myrcene, limonene (S:R 1:3), terpinolene and (S)-bornyl acetate. Females preferred the synthetic blend of D. carota EAG-active volatiles to the solvent control in bioassays. When compared directly, odours of D. carota inflorescences elicited stronger positive behaviour than the synthetic blend. This is the first report of behaviourally active volatiles linked to pollen location for A. obtectus, and development of the six-component blend is being pursued, which could underpin the design of semiochemical-based field management approaches against this major pest of stored products. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Mesoamerican origin and pre- and post-columbian expansions of the ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus say, a cosmopolitan insect pest of the common bean.

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    Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho Oliveira

    Full Text Available An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI throughout most of the species' range and (b exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide.

  14. Atividade inseticida e de repelência de óleos essenciais de cravo e canela sobre o caruncho Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say)

    OpenAIRE

    Jumbo, Luis Oswaldo Viteri

    2013-01-01

    O feijão representa uma das principais fontes de proteínas em países em desenvolvimento, ainda assim as perdas estimadas no armazenamento são de 30% em consequência do ataque de pragas, entre elas Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say). Embora os pesticidas químicos sejam eficazes para controlar essas pragas, seu uso excessivo pode comprometer a qualidade dos alimentos. Óleos essenciais de origem vegetal são apresentados como uma alternativa atrativa aos inseticidas químicos sintéticos para o control...

  15. Controles alternativos para el gorgojo del frijol (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say en granos almacenados a partir de materiales naturales y minerales

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    Carlos Ernesto Lopez-Monzon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de controlar el daño del gorgojo del frijol [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say], se evaluó la efectividad en polvo de raíces deshidratadas de chilca (Senecio salignus DC., frutos deshidratados de pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L., fragmentos de madera de pino (Pinus oocarpa Schiede, maíz pulverizado (Zea mays L., cascabillo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cal mezclada con ceniza, y arena de río. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos, con cuatro repeticiones cada uno, en arreglo totalmente al azar. Los materiales naturales y minerales fueron colectados en el municipio de Malacatancito, Huehuetenango y el ensayo se montó en el laboratorio del Centro Universitario de Nor Occidente (Cunoroc, empleando por réplica un frasco de vidrio con capacidad de 1 L y aplicando a cada uno 100 g de semilla de frijol, 10 parejas de gorgojos adultos y 1 g de polvo de los materiales evaluados, según su tratamiento. El análisis se realizó 60 días después de la infestación, donde se evaluó: el porcentaje de daño del gorgojo del frijol, número de gorgojos vivos, correlación del porcentaje de daño versus número de gorgojos vivos y porcentaje de germinación del frijol. El polvo de pimienta negra y la mezcla de cal con ceniza evidenciaron los mejores resultados con el menor porcentaje de daño (1.64% y 3.55%, respectivamente. Las variables porcentaje de daño y número de gorgojos vivos marcaron una fuerte correlación con valor de r = .892. Se estableció que ninguno de los materiales utilizados influyó en la viabilidad de la semilla, registrándose porcentajes de germinación por arriba del 97% en todos los tratamientos. Se recomienda implementar estos productos en el almacenamiento del frijol, para contrarrestar los daños ocasionados por la plaga, obteniendo así beneficios económicos, sociales y ambientales.

  16. Gamma (60CO) radiation effects on arcelin protein and evaluation of bean lineages against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Ana Claudia Girardo

    2006-01-01

    The resistance of arcelin carrying seeds of bean lineages (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the influence of gamma radiation ( 60 CO) on the manifestation of arcelin resistance to Z. subfasciatus were verified. Laboratorial tests, in choice and non-choice tests, with wild specimens carrying Arc-1, Arc-2, Arc-3, Arc-4, Raz-56 and Raz-59 (with Arc-5 alleles) and commercial lineages as control IAC - Carioca and IAC - Arua were conducted. Statistical design was completely randomized, with five repetitions, with 10 g of grains from each lineage samples by portion. Attractiveness, oviposition, emergence, mortality, adults' weigh and longevity, developing period, sexual rate, seeds' weigh loss, infestation and fecundity (Z. subfasciatus) were observed. Gamma radiation doses irradiations, in general, haven't affected the resistance manifestation of lineages carrying arcelin protein variants against the Z. subfasciatus bean weevil, thus, joint application use of both control methods can be recommended. Raz-56 lineage showed high resistance of the antibiosis types and non-preference for oviposition and feeding to Z. subfasciatus, while Raz-59 showed antibiosis and non-preference for feeding, and both (Raz-56 and Raz-59) showed intermediate resistance to A. obtectus, against which lineage Arc-2 was the most harmful to its development, expressing non-preference to feeding and/or antibiosis. (author)

  17. Effects of Olea europaea L. Leaf Metabolites on the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Three Stored Pests, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium confusum and Acanthoscelides obtectus

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    Ahmet Kısa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea L. emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments of various countries of the world, in particular Mediterranean countries. In this study, oleuropein (1, oleanolic acid (2, maslinic acid (3, a mixture of erythrodiol and uvaol (4 and 5 isolated from the leaves of olive were added at two concentrations (1g/100g feed and 4g/100 g feed into fish feed. Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia were fed twice a day with the feed during 96 hours. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes and glucose levels in the serums of fishes fed with pure compounds were found to be higher as compared with the control group. Pure metabolites affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. These results suggested that the compounds tested affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4+5 (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/Petri dish concentrations were also tested for contact toxic effects against three important stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (weevil, Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle and Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil. The toxic effects of the metabolites were lower than those of the insecticide, dichlorvos (DDVP. DDVP caused complete mortality of the insects after 48 hours of treatments, the metabolites caused the mortality rates 16.7-63.3 %, 13.3-67.0 % and 26.7-59.0 % of S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. Maslinic acid (3 has the most toxic compound with the lowest LC 50 values (0.66 mg/Petri, 0.61 mg/Petri and 1.71 mg/Petri for S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. These results show that maslinic acid (3 as well as other substances can be used as natural insecticides against these pests.

  18. Gamma ({sup 60}CO) radiation effects on arcelin protein and evaluation of bean lineages against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae);Efeito da radiacao gama ({sup 60}CO) sobre a proteina arcelina e avaliacao de linhagens de feijoeiro a Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Ana Claudia Girardo

    2006-07-01

    The resistance of arcelin carrying seeds of bean lineages (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the influence of gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) on the manifestation of arcelin resistance to Z. subfasciatus were verified. Laboratorial tests, in choice and non-choice tests, with wild specimens carrying Arc-1, Arc-2, Arc-3, Arc-4, Raz-56 and Raz-59 (with Arc-5 alleles) and commercial lineages as control IAC - Carioca and IAC - Arua were conducted. Statistical design was completely randomized, with five repetitions, with 10 g of grains from each lineage samples by portion. Attractiveness, oviposition, emergence, mortality, adults' weigh and longevity, developing period, sexual rate, seeds' weigh loss, infestation and fecundity (Z. subfasciatus) were observed. Gamma radiation doses irradiations, in general, haven't affected the resistance manifestation of lineages carrying arcelin protein variants against the Z. subfasciatus bean weevil, thus, joint application use of both control methods can be recommended. Raz-56 lineage showed high resistance of the antibiosis types and non-preference for oviposition and feeding to Z. subfasciatus, while Raz-59 showed antibiosis and non-preference for feeding, and both (Raz-56 and Raz-59) showed intermediate resistance to A. obtectus, against which lineage Arc-2 was the most harmful to its development, expressing non-preference to feeding and/or antibiosis. (author)

  19. Determination of the flight range of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1813) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) using /sup 131/I as radioactive tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, L.A.S.; Wiendl, F.M.; Menten, J.O.M. (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil))

    With the objective of determining the flight range (activity) of the bean weevil (A. obtectus) 800 adult insects were labelled with sodium iodide (Na /sup 131/I) at 0.468 mCi/ml. In order to label the weevil they were kept on Petri dishes with filter paper embedded in 3.2 ml sodium iodide (Na /sup 131/I) radioactive solution. The labelled insects (over 800,000 c.p.m./800 insects at 5 cm distance) were released in the middle of a bean plantation cv. Rosinha G-2 at physiological maturation stage. The labelled insects were located using a 'Victoreen' monochannel gamma spectrometer with NaI(Tl) crystal, the countings in the field being repeated 8 times. The first two countings (2 and 3 hours after release) showed that the insects had flow in different directions, reaching about 20 m from the releasing point. the 3rd and 4th countings (6 and 7 hours after release) indicate that they reached around 30 m. According to the 5th, 6th and 7th countings (8, 50 and 54 hours after release) the dispersion of the insects continued, maintaining a radius of 30 m. At the last counting (120 hours after release) a greater uniformity in the dispersion rate was observed, probably because the insects adapted themselves to the local environmental conditions. It was also noted that during the day the insects were located under small soil aggregates or crop residues, close to the nutrients but never on the foliage.

  20. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  1. OLEORRESINA DE JÍCAMA Y CALIDAD DE SEMILLA DE FRIJOL INFESTADA CON Acanthoscelides obtectus Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Antonio Rangel-Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la oleorresina de jícama en la calidad de la semilla de frijol. En laboratorio se obtuvo el extracto de oleorresina media nte HPLC y se detectó la presencia de rotenona (15 mg/l. Se ensayaron tres concentraciones (Ci, g/ml del extracto: C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, ¿5x10-2; C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,¿6x10-2; C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,¿9x10-1 y testigo por concentración, en frascos de 300 ml con 50 g de semilla de frijol (varie dades Flor de Ma yo, Flor de Junio, Ma - yocoba y veinte gorgojos adultos. El ensayo sólo comprendió semillas de frijol tratadas con C2 por 48 horas para evaluar vigor y germinación estándar a los tres y sie te días después de la siembra, bajo normas de IS TA. El aumento de C2 fue gradual en el número de plántulas normales y germinación estándar en el primer recuento, en particular con las diluciones 3 x 10-2 a 6 x 10-2; en el segundo recuento se confirmó la germinación estándar total con estas mismas diluciones. El frijol Ma yocoba en presencia del extracto de semilla de jícama, mantuvo el vigor y valores porcentuales aceptables de germinación estándar de la semilla.

  2. Effects of the seed predator Acanthoscelides schrankiae on viability of its host plant Mimosa bimucronata

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    CAMILA A TOMAZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Mimosa bimucronata are heavily infested (pre-dispersal predation by the bruchid beetle Acanthoscelides schrankiae in Brazil. In this study, firstly we set up experiments to assess seed germination under seven and six different light and temperature regimes, respectively, and then we evaluated the ability of seeds to germinate after predation. We tested the hypothesis that the non-predated seeds from infested fruits may respond differently when set for germination than those seeds of non-infested fruits. We also hypothesized that predation may increase the production of unviable seeds. Seeds under 18 hours of light presented the highest percentage of germination, and the alternating temperature 20-30 °C was considered as optimum for germination (abnormal seedlings were not considered as a successful germination. Germination of seeds from non-infested fruits was significantly higher than germination of non-predated seeds from infested fruits, and predation also caused a significant increase in the proportion of dead seeds. Our results also show a positive correlation between proportions of unviable seeds and predated seeds. These results demonstrated that seeds of M. bimucronata are strongly affected by predation because predated seeds did not germinate and non-predated seeds had their viability reduced when located in infested fruits, supporting our hypothesis

  3. THE EFFECTS ACTIVE PRINCIPLES FROM MEDICINAL AND FLAVOR PLANTS IN NON CHEMICAL CONTROL AGAINST BEAN WEEVIL, ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

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    ECOBICI Maria Monica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reduced toxicity in humans and livestock, and also because they does not develop strength to insects or let toxic residues, the use of vegetal insecticides is of great interest both from an economic and ecological point of view (Golob and contributors, 1999, Multon, 1988.

  4. The bean α-amylase inhibitor αAI-1 in genetically modified chickpea seeds does not harm parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Christoph; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2018-03-23

    Legumes have been genetically engineered to express αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor of the common bean, in their seeds. Whereas the genetically modified (GM) seeds are immune to multiple bruchid pest species, the cosmopolitan bruchid Acanthoscelides obtectus is tolerant to αAI-1 and their larvae develop normally inside the seeds. Hymenopteran bruchid parasitoids, the most important natural enemies of bruchids, might be exposed to αAI-1 when attacking A. obtectus larvae developing inside GM seeds. Exposure might reduce parasitoid fitness, resulting in a decline of the natural control of A. obtectus and thus promote its spread. We investigated the impact of the presence of αAI-1 in legume seeds on parasitoid fitness in tritrophic experiments with αAI-1 GM or non-GM chickpea seeds, A. obtectus, and three parasitoid species. Additionally, we investigated the exposure of parasitoids to αAI-1 using a fourth, highly sensitive parasitoid species. We show that parasitoid fitness is not affected when using A. obtectus in GM chickpea seeds as hosts and that this lack of effects is likely due to the fact that exposure of the parasitoids to αAI-1 is negligible. We conclude that the release of GM chickpeas containing αAI-1 should not harm this important group of non-target insects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of fire, bruchid beetles and soil type on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects offire, bruchid seed beetles and soil type on the germination and seedling establishment of Acacia drepanolobium were experimentally investigated. Seeds subjected to three seed treatments (bruchid damaged, bruchid-free burnt, and bruchid-free unburned) were germinated in three different soil types (black ...

  6. Small scale farmers' knowledge on grain losses from bean bruchid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small scale farmers' knowledge on grain losses from bean bruchid, pesticides safe use and implication on food security and safety in Huye District, Rwanda. ... We used questionnaires and face to face interviews to collect data on bean bruchid, control methods, pesticide use and safety measures. The results indicate that ...

  7. Olfactory host location in beetle bruchid parasitoid Dinarmus basalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rond.) was investigated in bioassays by measuring response to stimuli associated with one of its hosts, the larvae of beetle bruchid, Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic.) infesting Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) seeds. Orientation of parasitoid females was ...

  8. Damage Caused By the Bean Bruchid, Callosobruchus Maculatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The damage caused by the bean bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus(Fabricius) on eight different legume seeds on sale in Awka and Onitshamarkets in Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria, were studied betweenJanuary and April, 2008. Clean legume seeds purchased from local marketswere screened to remove ...

  9. Controlling bruchid pests of stored cowpea seeds with dried leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticidal activities of dried Artemisia annua L. leaves were evaluated against bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) pests in comparison with those of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum gratissimum and a conventional grain storage insecticide, Actellic® 2% dust. Each treatment was added to a mixture of 250 g cowpea seeds ...

  10. susceptibility to bruchids among common beans in uganda abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    spotted (2.4%) and NARBL 40 – 3 (Black 2) (2.3%). (Table 6). In Z. subfasciatus infested seed, grain weight loss was highest in K131 and Yellow round. (37%) and the least in NABE 11 (4.4%) (Table 7). Additionally, bruchid damage significantly. (P<0.05) reduced germination in relation to number of emergence holes and ...

  11. 116 Damage Caused By the Bean Bruchid, Callosobruchus Maculatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... They contain good quantities of most nutrients especially protein, vitamins and ... thus affecting its market value, taints the taste of the crops and also pose a threat to human health, that is if these bruchids ... The weevils mated and laid eggs on the legume seeds. The samples were observed daily for six ...

  12. Bruchid egg induced transcript dynamics in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani K Baruah

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp., reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram. In this study, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH library was constructed to study the genes involved in defense response in black gram against bruchid infestation. An EST library of 277 clones was obtained for further analyses. Based on CAP3 assembly, 134 unigenes were computationally annotated using Blast2GOPRO software. In all, 20 defense related genes were subject to quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR out of which 12 genes showed up-regulation in developing seeds of the pods oviposited by bruchids. Few major defense genes like defensin, pathogenesis related protein (PR, lipoxygenase (LOX showed high expression levels in the oviposited population when compared with the non-oviposited plants. This is the first report on defense related gene transcript dynamics during the bruchid-black gram interaction using SSH library. This library would be useful to clone defense related gene(s such as defensin as represented in our library for crop improvement.

  13. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Construction of an integrated map and location of a bruchid resistance gene in mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis poses a serious threat to the production and storage of mung bean (Vigna radiata. Mapping bruchid resistance (Br will provide an important basis for cloning the responsible gene(s and elucidating its functional mechanism, and will also facilitate marker-assisted selection in mung bean breeding. Here, we report the construction of the genetic linkage groups of mung bean and mapping of the Br1 locus using an RIL population derived from a cross between Berken, a bruchid-susceptible line, and ACC41, a bruchid-resistant line. A total of 560 markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups, with 38.0% of the markers showing distorted segregation. The lengths of the linkage groups ranged from 45.2 to 117.0 cM with a total coverage of 732.9 cM and an average interval of 1.3 cM between loci. Br1 was located on LG9 between BM202 (0.7 cM and Vr2-627 (1.7 cM. Based on 270 shared SSR markers, most of the linkage groups were assigned to specific chromosomes. These results should further accelerate the genetic study of this crop.

  15. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of some Biological Characteristics between Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Reared either on his Habitual Host Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae or on Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. and Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. Identified as Substitution Hosts. In this study, we have measured some biological parameters of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae when this parasitoid grows on three hosts: Callosobruchus maculatus F. (usual host, Acanthoscelides macrophthalma Schaef. and Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. (substitution hosts. The results of this comparative study in no choice situation show that, life duration and development duration of this parasitoid are identical in laboratory conditions. By contrast, the female fecundity, the sexual rate and the parasitism rate of D. basalis are different according to the hosts presented. Although such differences appear to be small between C. maculatus and A. macrophthalmus. In presence of these two species, the number of eggs laid by the female of D. basalis is respectively 61 ± 5.24 and 54 ± 5.60, the sexual rate 37.63 ± 2.13% and 41.73 ± 3.69% and the parasitism rate 85.46 ± 2.61% and 76.48 ± 5.90%. This indicates that these two Bruchids can be used as hosts to D. basalis for a mass production. In presence of B. lineatopygus, the fecundity and the parasitism rate of D. basalis female are very low and the sexual rate more favourable of the males. This situation is unfavourable for a parasitoid production. When D. basalis females are placed in choice situation with equal number of the hosts nowely C. maculatus and A. macrophthalmus, the parasitism rate obtained, is higher for C. maculatus that of A. macrophthalmus. This parasitism rate remains high for C. maculatus even when the other host A. macrophthalmus is twice the number of C. maculatus. Thus the parasitoid seems to have a preference for his natural host. However, A. macrophthalmus can

  16. Transcriptional regulation in cowpea bruchid guts during adaptation to a plant defence protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J; Salzman, R A; Ahn, J-E; Koiwa, H; Zhu-Salzman, K

    2004-06-01

    Cowpea bruchid, when fed on a diet containing the soybean cysteine protease inhibitor soyacystatin N (scN), activates an array of counter-defence genes to adapt to the negative effects of the inhibitor and regain its normal rate of feeding and development. A collection of 1920 cDNAs was obtained by differential subtraction with cDNAs prepared from guts of the 4th instar larvae of scN-adapted (reared on scN-containing diet) and scN-unadapted (reared on regular scN-free diet) cowpea bruchids. Subsequent expression profiling using DNA microarray and Northern blot analyses identified ninety-four transcript species from this collection that are responsive to dietary scN. scN-adapted insects induced genes encoding protein and carbohydrate digestive enzymes, probably to help meet their carbon and nitrogen requirements. Up-regulation of antimicrobial and detoxification protein genes may represent a generalized defence response. Genes down-regulated by scN reflected physiological adjustments of the cowpea bruchids to scN challenge. A large portion of the responsive genes, presumably involved in carrying out the counter-defence response, were of unknown function. The full-length cDNA of an scN-inducible cathepsin B-like cysteine protease was obtained. Its transcriptional response to scN during larval development contrasts with the pattern of the cathepsin L family, the major digestive enzymes. These results suggest cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases may play a crucial role in cowpea bruchid adaptation to dietary scN.

  17. African Crop Science Journal - Vol 22, No 3 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides obtectus. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Nana, F Nchu, RM Bikomo, HI Kutima, 175-180 ...

  18. Control potential of three hymenopteran parasitoid species against the bean weevil in stored beans: The effect of adult parasitoid nutrition on longevity and progeny production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, I.; Wäckers, F.L.; Cardona, C.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the longevity and progeny production of three hymenopteran parasitoids of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) when kept with or without food sources. In absence of adult food, Dinarmus basalis Ashm. (Pteromalidae) and Heterospilus prosopidis (Viereck) (Braconidae)

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on egg hatchability of bruchids developing in three pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrare, V.S.; Bhatia, Parvathy

    2000-01-01

    One day old adults of Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) irradiated at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 Gy dose of gamma radiation were bred on three pulses. Percent egg hatchability was inversely related with gamma radiation dose in both the species on three pulses and it was comparatively low in C. maculatus (Fab.). The mean percent hatchability was 70.66, 68.94, 65.41 on green gram, chickpea and cowpea, respectively in C. chinensis (Linn.) while in C. maculatus (Fab.) it was 66.52, 64.12, 61.27 on green gram, cowpea, chickpea, respectively. Both bruchids tolerated in the radiation doses when bred on green gram whereas they were susceptible on cowpea and chickpea. (author)

  20. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do cardinal directions in different Acacia tree species affect biological activities of bruchid beetle, Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera), in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, A S

    2009-12-15

    Biological activities of bruchid beetle: Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) were studied in four cardinal directions of Acacia tree species in Huraimila and Salbouk. In Huraimila, two species of Acacia; A. grrrardii, subspecies A. g. negevensis (Iraqi) and A. g. nagednsis (Najdi); and A. ehrenbergiana (Salam) were sampled. In Salbouk, A. tortilis radiana (Samar) was sampled. No significant differences were observed for entrance and exit holes per pod and beetles emergence until 45 days on four cardinal directions of different Acacia tree species, except for entrance holes at Dam and Farm locations on Najdi in Huraimila. However, greater activities were observed in south and east direction in farm locations whereas, in the valley (Abu Gatada, Alyata and Dam locations) more bruchid activities were observed in north and south on Najdi and samar while east and west on Iraqi. Moreover, activities were greater on Acacia trees with greater number of seed per pod. Greater bruchid infestation per pod was found on East direction in the farm locations but in the valley locations no distinct trend was observed. Results showed a significant, positive correlation between bruchid activities and temperature but similar strength negative correlation was observed for rest of various abiotic factors. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was recorded between neonate entrance and number of beetle emergence.

  2. Monitoring of the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Feeding Activity in Cowpea Seeds: Advances in Sensing Technologies Reveals New Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James A; Balfe, Susan; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Popovics, John S

    2018-04-12

    Cowpea provides a significant source of protein for over 200 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa. The cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major pest of cowpea as the larval stage attacks stored cowpea grains, causing postharvest loss. Cowpea bruchid larvae spend all their time feeding within the cowpea seed. Past research findings, published over 25 yr ago, have shown that feeding activity of several bruchids within a cowpea seed emit mechanical vibrations within the frequency range 5-75 kHz. This work led to the development of monitoring technologies that are both important for basic research and practical application. Here, we use newer and significantly improved technologies to re-explore the nature of the vibration signals produced by an individual C. maculatus, when it feeds in cowpea seeds. Utilizing broadband frequency sensing, individual fourth-instar bruchid larvae feeding activities (vibration events) were recorded to identify specific key emission frequencies. Verification of recorded events and association to actual feeding activities was achieved through mass measurements over 24 h for a series of replicates. The measurements identified variable peak event emission frequencies across the replicate sample set ranging in frequency from 16.4 to 26.5 kHz. A positive correlation between the number of events recorded and the measured mass loss of the cowpea seed was observed. The procedure and verification reported in this work provide an improved basis for laboratory-based monitoring of single larval feeding. From the rich dataset captured, additional analysis can be carried out to identify new key variables of hidden bruchid larval activity.

  3. Potential of plant materials for the management of cowpea bruchid callosobruchus analis (coleoptera: bruchidae) in gram cicer arietinum during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Tofique, M.

    2012-01-01

    Present research was carried out to identify alternatives to synthetic insecticides to control cowpea weevil Callosobruchus analis (F.) population in gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.), during storage. The efficacies of three plant materials such as Nicotiana tabacum, Citrullus colocythis and Aloe vera were assessed to determine their insecticidal activities against survival of bruchid C. analis on seeds of gram varieties viz., CM-98 and Jubiha-1. These plant materials tested reduced weevil infestation and emergence as compared with untreated control seeds. Seeds treatment with A. vera followed by N. tabacum reduced maximum pest damage over C. colocythis, which proved least effective to control C. analis population. Consequently, the tested plant materials should be given due consideration for effective gram protection as a component of integrated pest management approach in storage. (author)

  4. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.J. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G. [Laboratório de Toxinologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacodinâmica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-01-27

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  5. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  6. Triple bag hermetic technology for controlling a bruchid (Spermophagus sp.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) in stored Hibiscus sabdariffa grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, L; Baoua, I B; Baributsa, D; Williams, S B; Murdock, L L

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the performance of hermetic triple layer Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags for protecting Hibiscus sabdariffa grain against storage insects. The major storage pest in the grain was a bruchid, Spermophagus sp.. When we stored infested H. sabdariffa grain for six months in the woven polypropylene bags typically used by farmers, the Spermophagus population increased 33-fold over that initially present. The mean number of emergence holes per 100 seeds increased from 3.3 holes to 35.4 holes during this time period, while grain held for the same length of time in PICS bags experienced no increase in the numbers of holes. Grain weight loss in the woven control bags was 8.6% while no weight loss was observed in the PICS bags. Seed germination rates of grain held in woven bags for six months dropped significantly while germination of grain held in PICS bags did not change from the initial value. PICS bags can be used to safely store Hibiscus grain after harvest to protect against a major insect pest.

  7. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Nigeria Grown Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) Dried Leaves and Its Bioactivity against Cowpea Seed Bruchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2017-06-01

    Due to several ecological and human hazards of synthetic pesticides in postharvest crop protection, there is the need to search for eco-friendly alternatives. In this study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oil (EO) obtained from Hoslundia opposita dried leaves were evaluated against cowpea seed bruchid. Eight constituents, predominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.86%), were identified using Gas Chromatography (GC)/MS. The constituents were 1,8-cineole (1; 61.15%), followed by α-terpineol (2; 16.81%), β-phellandrene (3; 13.24%), β-farnesene (4; 3.55%), α-pinene (5; 1.89%), Germacrene D (6; 1.83%), cis-sabinene hydrate (7; 0.90%) and caryophyllene (8; 0.63%). In fumigation bioassay, at 6 h after exposure (HAE), 0.78 ml EO/l air caused 35.33% mortality which was significantly lower than 60.90% and 63.6% observed at 3.15 and 6.25 ml/l air, respectively. Mortality reached 90.0% at 24 HAE regardless of the applied concentration. Lethal time for 50% of the bruchids (LT 50 ) at concentration of 0.78 ml/l air (6.89 h) was higher than the LT 50 at 3.15 and 6.25 ml/l air (4.72 and 4.44 h, respectively). H. opposita EO reduced Callosobruchus maculatus oviposition, while progeny emergence observed in EO-treated seeds (2.42 - 25.73) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than 51.56 observed in control. The results confirm H. opposita EO's potentials for control of cowpea bruchids. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus) Abstract. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  9. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel Alleles of Two Tightly Linked Genes Encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Proteins (VrPGIP1 and VrPGIP2 Associated with the Br Locus That Confer Bruchid (Callosobruchus spp. Resistance to Mungbean (Vigna radiata Accession V2709

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anochar Kaewwongwal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all mungbean cultivars are completely susceptible to seed bruchids (Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus. Breeding bruchid-resistant mungbean is a major goal in mungbean breeding programs. Recently, we demonstrated in mungbean (Vigna radiata accession V2802 that VrPGIP2, which encodes a polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP, is the Br locus responsible for resistance to C. chinensis and C. maculatus. In this study, mapping in mungbean accession V2709 using a BC11F2 population of 355 individuals revealed that a single major quantitative trait locus, which controlled resistance to both C. chinensis and C. maculatus, was located in a 237.35 Kb region of mungbean chromosome 5 that contained eight annotated genes, including VrPGIP1 (LOC106760236 and VrPGIP2 (LOC106760237. VrPGIP1 and VrPGIP2 are located next to each other and are only 27.56 Kb apart. Sequencing VrPGIP1 and VrPGIP2 in “V2709” revealed new alleles for both VrPGIP1 and VrPGIP2, named VrPGIP1-1 and VrPGIP2-2, respectively. VrPGIP2-2 has one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 554 of wild type VrPGIP2. This SNP is a guanine to cystine substitution and causes a proline to arginine change at residue 185 in the VrPGIP2 of “V2709”. VrPGIP1-1 has 43 SNPs compared with wild type and “V2802”, and 20 cause amino acid changes in VrPGIP1. One change is threonine to proline at residue 185 in VrPGIP1, which is the same as in VrPGIP2. Sequence alignments of VrPGIP2 and VrPGIP1 from “V2709” with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP2 revealed that residue 185 in VrPGIP2 and VrPGIP1 contributes to the secondary structures of proteins that affect interactions between PGIP and polygalacturonase, and that some amino acid changes in VrPGIP1 also affect interactions between PGIP and polygalacturonase. Thus, tightly linked VrPGIP1 and VrPGIP2 are the likely genes at the Br locus that confer bruchid resistance in mungbean “V2709”.

  11. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BEAN WEEVIL (Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    arthropoda, class; insecta and family; celeoptera. (Akinsanmi, 1980). This species is light olive coloured and mottled with dark brown or grey reddish legs. The bean weevils are stored products granivores and typically infest various kinds of bean species particularly the species Phaseolus vulgaris where they live for most.

  12. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  13. Antimicrobial, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities of Cotinus coggyria Scop. essential oil (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Çenet, Menderes; Oztürk, Bintuğ; Balcilar, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of Cotinus coggyria Scop.' leaves was found to be rich in α-pinene (43.1%), limonene (21.3%) and β-myrcene (8.5%). In the antimicrobial screening, essential oil was notably active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC BAA-977, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 using the disc diffusion and volatilisation assays. The fumigant assay of the essential oil caused 70% and 100% mortality on the two pest adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus and Tribolium castaneum at 80 μL L⁻¹ air concentration at 96 h, respectively. In the toxicity assay on weeds, a dose-dependent decrease was observed in the germination and seedling growth of Silybum marianum and Portulaca oleracea. The present results indicated that oil could be suggested as an effective biocontrol agent in various fields.

  14. Post-harvest bruchid richness and residual activity of pirimiphos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pigeon pea varieties differed significantly (P<0.05) in their grain susceptibilities to C. maculatus as assessed by the quantity of damaged grains, grain weight loss, mean developmental days of insects (MDD) and adult emergence of the pest; the characteristics which allowed the varieties be classified as moderately resistant ...

  15. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  16. RESISTÊNCIA DE GENÓTIPOS DE FEIJÃO-VAGEM AO ATAQUE DE BRUQUÍ-NEOS, EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALINE BENITES BOTTEGA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine resistance types of snap beans genotypes under infestation of bruchins Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833 of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831 in a no choice and free choice tests. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with four and five replications, respectively. In no choice test, it was evaluated the total number of viable and unviable eggs, dry weight of the consumed food, percentage of emerged insects, weight of insects, longevity of adults and biological cycle of egg to adult. In a free choice test, the number of attracted insects for each genotype and total number of eggs were evaluated. The genotype ARFVI047 presents oviposition non-preference resistance type to Z. subfasciatus. The genotype ARFVI008 presents resistance type of the antibiosis to Z. subfasciatus. The genotypes ARFVI006, ARFVI008 and ARFVI029 present resistance of non-preference for oviposition type to Z. subfasciatus and the genotype HAV 56 black seed presents resistance of non-preference type for feeding of A. obtectus.

  17. The effects of selection for early and late reproduction on metabolite pools in Acanthoscelides obtecus Say

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazarević, J.; Tucić, N.; Šešlija Jovanović, D.; Večeřa, Josef; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2012), s. 303-314 ISSN 1672-9609 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technological Development of Serbia(RS) 173007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ageing * energy resources * laboratory evolution Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.786, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2011.01457.x/pdf

  18. THE STORED BEANS GRAIN PRESERVATION WITH BIOLOGIC ORIGIN INSECTICIDE OF AVERMECTINI’S GROUP PRESERVAÇÃO DE FEIJÃO ARMAZENADO, TRATADO COM INSETICIDA DE ORIGEM BIOLÓGICA DO GRUPO DAS AVERMECTINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Queiroz Porto Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aiming to study alternatives to control Acanthoscelides obtectus in beans grain, it was made this experiment, evaluating the abamectin’s efficiency. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 6 x 7, with 3 replications. There were 6 grain treatments and 7 storage periods. It was used bean grain ‘EMGOPA -201’, treated with abamectin in dosages 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 ppm, pirimifós-metil (10 ppm and deltametrina + fenitrothion (0.4 + 7.5 ppm, and control. After treatment, grain samples were kept away, packaged in a bottle with web ird, and infested with 20 no sexed insects. The insecticide efficiency was evaluated 02, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after treatment. It was observed that from 30 days storage, all products reduced the alive insects number and that abamectin insecticide must be recommended in 3.0 ppm dosage.

    Com o objetivo de investigar novas alternativas no controle de Acanthoscelides obtectus em grãos de feijão, foi realizado o presente trabalho, em que se verifica a eficiência do princípio ativo do inseticida abamectin. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 X 7, com 3 repetições, sendo 6 tratamentos de grãos e 7 períodos de armazenamento. Utilizaram-se grãos de feijão ‘EMGOPA - 201’, que foram tratados com abamectin nas dosagens de 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0 ppm, pirimifós-metil (10 ppm e deltametrina + fenitrothion (0,4 + 7,5 ppm, além da testemunha. Após o tratamento, amostras dos grãos foram retiradas e acondicionadas em frascos de vidro com tampa telada e infestadas com 20 insetos não sexados. A eficiência dos inseticidas foi avaliada aos 02, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. Observou-se que a partir de 30 dias de armazenamento todos os

  19. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  20. ENCUESTA A PRODUCTORES PARA ORIENTAR EL FITOMEJORAMIENTO DE FRIJOL EN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmalea Garver Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta a más de cincuenta productores de frijol de los valles de Chota y Mira, ubicados al norte de Ecuador, en el año 2003, con la finalidad de recabar información y plantear objetivos para la implementación de un programa de mejoramiento participativo de frijol en Ecuador. Los productores fueron consultados acerca de las variedades de frijol que están cultivando actualmente, los métodos de producción empleados, los problemas de producción del cultivo y las características que deberían mejorarse en las nuevas variedades. Los principales problemas de producción reportados fueron los daños causados por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, roya (Uromyces appendiculatus y brúquidos (Acanthoscelides obtectus. Los agricultores han cambiado recientemente las clases comerciales de frijol que tradicionalmente cultivaban en respuesta a la demanda del mercado. En cuanto a las características que deberían poseer las nuevas variedades de frijol, indicaron alto rendimiento y semilla de tamaño grande con color y forma comercial. La costumbre de los agricultores de comprar semilla para cada siembra, y no de producir su propia semilla, fue identifi cada como un obstáculo potencial para el uso y mantenimiento de las nuevas variedades mejoradas de frijol en el área estudiada.

  1. Assessment of Insecticidal Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Powders of Common Lavender and Field Horsetail against Bean Weevil Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohinc, T; Vayias, B; Bartol, T; Trdan, S

    2013-12-01

    In the search for an effective and sustainable control method against the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), an important insect pest affecting stored common beans and other legumes, three different powders were tested against adult been weevils under laboratory conditions. The three powders were diatomaceous earth (DE) (commercial product SilicoSec®), common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) powder and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) powder. The substances were tested at five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), two relative humidity levels (RH) (55 and 75%), and four concentrations (100, 300, 500, and 900 ppm). The mortality of adults was measured after the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 7th days of exposure. The efficacy of the powders increased with the temperature, whereas in general, RH did not have a significant effect on the adults' survival. According to common practice of storing common beans, we recommend the use of DE against the pest in question, as this inert powder showed the highest efficacy at lower temperatures and concentrations. Concerning the wider use of common lavender and field horsetail powders, we suggest studying their combined use with other environmentally friendly methods with the aim of achieving the highest synergistic effect possible.

  2. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Detection of irradiated insects - pest of stored products: locomotion activity of irradiated adult beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banasik, K.

    1994-01-01

    An indirect behavioural test (test of locomotion as a measure of vigor) to determine whether the insects have been subject to irradiation is proposed. The higher the dose applied, the lesser the locomotor activity of the treated beetles, pests of stored products. For radiation disinfestation, the doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy are suggested. At these doses the walking speed of insects, i.e. ability to disperse, is greatly affected. The various species responded to gamma irradiation in a different way. At the first day after treatment all T. confusum Duv. beetles treated with 0.25 to 0.5 kGy doses showed the reduction of locomotor activity by more than 25%. The walking speed of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius L. and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, treated with low doses of gamma radiation, was not affected or it was even higher than the control. At the next day after treatment the walking speed of irradiated insects was negatively correlated with the dose applied. Using data on the percentage of the confused flour beetles that moved outside the 20 cm diam. circle during the first minute as well as during the next minutes, it was possible to discriminate the insects irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation from those treated with 0.25 and 0.5 kGy and untreated. The results obtained suggests that the locomotor test may be used as an identification method of irradiated insects, pests or stored products. The specific causes of decreased locomotor activity of irradiated insects and/or ability to disperse have not been yet established. However, muscles controlling locomotion (walking) seem to be damaged by radiation. (author)

  4. Insecticidal effects of extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) L. cones and its principal component, xanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, T; Bayrak, N; Baran, E; Cakir, A

    2017-08-01

    Insecticidal effects of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) L. cones and its principal components, xanthohumol was investigated on five stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (F.). The mortality of adults of the insects treated with 2, 5, 5, 10 and 20 mg ml̠-1 concentrations of the extracts and xanthuhumol was counted after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. In order to determine the toxic effects of the substances tested against all tested insects, durations for 50% mortality of the adults, and LD50 values were also determined in the first 48 h by probit analysis. Our results also showed that xanthohumol was more toxic against the pests in comparison with the extracts applications. LD50 values for xanthohumol were found to be low dose as compared with the extracts. Xanthohumol was more toxic against S. granarius (L.) with 6.8 µg of LD50 value. Among the extracts, methanol extract was less effective than other extracts against all tested insects. The ethyl acetate extract of H. lupulus cones was the most effective extract against the tested pests. The quantitative amounts of xanthohumol in the extracts were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography. The quantitative data indicated that amount of xanthohumol in the extracts increased with increase of polarity of the solvents used from methanol to dichloromethane. The methanol extract contained the high amount of xanthohumol with 5.74 g/100 g extract (0.46 g/100 g plant sample).

  5. Ovipositional Deterrence of Methanolic and Etherial Extracts of Five Plants to the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Elhag

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol and diethyl ether extracts of Harmal, Rhazya stricta Decne.; neem seed kernels, Azadirachta indica A.Juss; cloves, Syzygeum aromarticum (L.; citrus peel and Ramram, Heliotropium bacciferum (Forssk- were evaluated for their deterrence to oviposition by Callosobruchus maculatus (F. on chickpeas in choice tests. Both extracts of all materials significantly reduced oviposition on treated seeds. Maximum deterrent effects (91.8% were obtained in the neem seed methanol extract at 0.5% concentration, citrus peel O. l% ether extract (90.9%, R stricta 0.5% methanol extract (83.9%, and clove 0. 1% ether extract (80.0%. Methanol extracts of neem seeds and R. stricta evoked higher deterrent effects than their etherial extracts, whereas the responses for cloves and citrus peel were more pronounced in their ether extracts. H. bacirferum % deterrency due to both types of extracts were practically identical. The results encourage future incorporation of such plant extracts as ovipositional deterrents in stored-product lPM programmes.

  6. Analysis on the arcelin expression in bruchid pest resistant wild pulses using real time RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelkumar, Shanmugavel; Veeramani, Velayutham; Hilda, Karuppiah; Arumugam, Munusamy; Janarthanan, Sundaram

    2014-12-01

    Arcelin, the antimetabolic protein from wild pulses is a known natural insecticidal molecule. Wild pulses with high arcelin content could serve as potential source to. increase the levels of insect resistance in cultivated pulse crops. In this study, arcelin (Arl) gene expression was screened in seven stored product insect pest resistant wild pulse varieties using real time RT-qPCR. Arcelin gene specific real time PCR primers were synthesized from arcelin mRNA sequence of the wild pulse variety, Lablab purpureus. The results revealed different levels of arcelin gene expression in the tested varieties. Canavalia virosa registered significantly high content indicating its suitability for utilization of arcelin gene in developing stored product insect pest resistance with other cultivated pulses.

  7. Efficacy of nanostructured silica as a stored pulse protector against the infestation of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea with α-amylase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    Geervani and Umadevi ... the insect pests, bruchids cause substantial loss during storage (Sing et al 1994). ... The results of bioassay study revealed a significant reduction in the survival rate of bruchid weevil. C. maculatus reared on transgenic ...

  9. 831-IJBCS-Article-Doumma Ali

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    ne. * Corresponding ... populations showed that the combination of D. basalis reduced significantly the evolution of bruchids at storage. In fact, for ... For the IT81D–994, the evolution of bruchids population was completely inhibited when the ...

  10. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, R.S.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Sileem, Th.M.

    2013-01-01

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  11. Potency of Traditional Insecticide Materials against Stored Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the materials to A. obtectus at different doses and durations was determined by both the number of surviving insects in treated set-ups reflecting the insect mortality and by the insects' reproductive performance at first filial generation (F1). The findings revealed effectiveness of the materials against A. obtectus to ...

  12. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya, NG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Fishing and Marketing of White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1817 in Ivory Coast. The artisanal fisheries in Ivory Coast is not well developed. It however comes in complement of the products of the industrial trawler and pelagic fisheries to satisfy the needs for the rural populations. Thanks to inexpensive machines and materials, artisanal fishermen exploit the demersal resources in not very deep water of the littoral of Ivory Coast. Their interest is on white Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus, fish living on the rocky bottom, easily accessible to the machines of fishing because of its facility to sell when they come back from the sea in spite of the highest prices they propose to the wholesalers and half wholesalers.

  13. Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Eucalyptus Globulus, Citrus Sinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus), Citrus sinensis (Sweet orange) and Musa sapientium (Banana) on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus was investigated in the laboratory. There were four treatments namely aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus, Orange, Banana, ...

  14. 523-IJBCS-Article-Oumarou Rabi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Rond.) was investigated in bioassays by measuring response to stimuli associated with one of its hosts, the larvae of beetle bruchid,. Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic.) infesting Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) seeds. Orientation of parasitoid females.

  15. Toxicological and histopathological effects of cheese wood, Alstonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological and histopathological effects of cheese wood, Alstonia boonei de wild stem bark powder used as cowpea protectant against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatu (Fab.) [coleoptera: chrysomelidae] on albino rats.

  16. Side effect of grain protectants on biological control agents: How Hyptis plant extracts affect parasitism and larval development of Dinarmus basalis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanon, A.; BA, N.; Dabire, L. C. B.; NIBIE, R.C.H.; Monge, Jean Paul

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Dinarmus basalis Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), an ectoparasitoid of Bruchid pest of stored cowpeas, is a potential biological control agent. We investigated whether grain protectants from Hyptis spicigera and H. suaveolens (Lamiaceae) disturb parasitism and post embryonic growth of the parasitoid. When cowpeas containing bruchid larvae were treated before being placed in the presence of D. basalis females, the rate of parasitism decreased on average up to 24 and...

  17. seed storage proteins arl2 and its variants from the apa locus of wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sion of arcelin and ARL2 tepary bean proteins. Furthermore, a reduction in size and weight of emerged adult insects to almost half was observed. This work demonstrates the superior resistance common bean backcross lines to A. obtectus conferred by the presence of the APA proteins introgressed from tepary bean.

  18. A checklist of seed-beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Hassan; Borowiec, Lech

    2017-05-16

    The fauna of Iranian Bruchinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is summarized in this paper. In total 117 species from 14 genera (Spermophagus Schoenherr, Zabrotes Horn, Acanthobruchidius Borowiec, Acanthoscelides Schilsky, Bruchidius Schilsky, Callosobruchus Pic, Mimosestes Bridwell, Paleoacanthoscelides Borowiec, Palaeobruchidius Egorov, Specularius Bridwell, Stator Bridwell, Bruchus Linnaeus, Caryedon Schoenherr, Rhaebus Fischer von Waldheim) are listed as the fauna of Iran.

  19. Effets de Boscia senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur l'évolution des populations de bruches dans les systèmes de stockage traditionnel de niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp en zone sahélienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumma, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on Bruchids Populations within Storage Traditional System of Cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Sahelian Area. Bruchidius atrolineatus Pic. (Coleoptera- Bruchidae and Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera-Bruchidae are, in Sahelian area, the most important pests of cowpea beans, (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Cowpea infestation by these two species of bruchids starts in the field at the beginning of the plant fruit bearing and continues during storages where damage can be high if no control action is taken. In this study, the impact of several introductions of B. senegalensis (Pers. Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae, an insecticidal plant which is usually used by farmers in Niger, on the population dynamics of the two bruchids species in traditional cowpea storage system has been investigated. The results obtained from this study point out that bruchid populations are more important in the standard jars than in the one, which have received regular inputs of B. senegalensis. Thus, preservation action by regular inputs of B. senegalensis seems to be an efficient way to control bruchids in the cowpea traditional storage system.

  20. Dynamique des populations naturelles de bruches et de leurs parasitoïdes nympho-larvophages en situation expérimentale de stockage de niébé en zone guinéenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevoin, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Population Dynamic of Natural Bruchids and their Larval and Pupae Parasitoids in Experimental Cowpea Storage in Guinean Zone. Population dynamic of natural bruchids and their parasitoids were analysed in Guinean subtropical climatic conditions and in an experimental storage situation in Togo. Emergence of insects from cowpea samples collected from 5 localities sited between 6 and 8° north latitude gave the opportunity to list 3 species of bruchids: Callosobruchus maculatus (F., Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic. and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic.. B. atrolineatus and C. rhodesianus under go reproductive diapause and die in the storage. C. maculatus was the only species which remained in cowpea storage. The last two species have inverse distribution. B. atrolineatus seemed to be more abundant in the northen zone whereas C. rhodesianus is important in the southern one. Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae was the larval and pupae parasitoid of bruchids found in our samples. However its initial population was low. The presence and maintenance of D. basalis populations in stores restricted cowpea bruchids development.

  1. Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2002-06-06

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops.

  2. Zahrotes subfasciatus.JBoh.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hybridization 'be~n breedin~ programme aimed at breeding b~a;'s resistant against the be'an bruchid species Z. subfasciatus. which destroys beans in storiige was carried outat Sokoine Univ~rsityofAgricul lure (SUA) Morogkro. Tanza'!ia between 1994 - 1997. Five potential local bean varieties/lines were crossed to a ...

  3. Agrosearch - Vol 15, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fumigant effect of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L) leaf essential oil on the longevity and fecundity of adult cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F) and on germination · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AO Ojumoola, AA Adesiyun, LA Usman ...

  4. Agro. no 2 december 233

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed Beetle was recorded at 5, 7 and 10 g/150 g cowpea grains laid out in completely randomized design replicated four .... The grains were disinfested, after sorting and winnowing, in the freezer compartment of a. 0 ... bruchids. All treatments were arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) replicated four times. 0.

  5. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    the use of chemical pesticide in the protection of both field and stored crops is becoming more expensive to the ... Oil induced reduction or complete inhibition of oviposition of female bruchids and mortality of the ... 0.2 ml of each oil treatment was applied to 50 g of seed which were placed in a plastic container measuring 7.5 ...

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-25

    Mar 25, 2013 ... the bruchid has been studied by many workers on different pulses (Howe and Curie 1964; Raina. 1970 .... Egg laying was maximum (99 eggs / female) during July –. August. Incubation period of eggs ranged from. 6.33 to 10.33 days with an average of 8 days. The egg stage was shorter (6.33 days) during.

  7. STECH, 3(3), S/NO 12, SEPTEMBER, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2014-09-12

    Sep 12, 2014 ... Other workers have studied the oviposition behaviour and progeny development of C. maculatus and related pest species. (Strong et. al; 1968; ... This suggests that the short period for the egg laying potential in cowpea bruchids may be an inherent survival mechanism for perpetuation of generations given ...

  8. interactive effect of cowpea variety, dose and exposure time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    BRUCHID TOLERANCE TO BOTANICAL PESTICIDES. E.A. OYENIYI, O.A. GBAYE and G.J. HOLLOWAY1. Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Nigeria. 1Centre for Wildlife Assessment and Conservation, School of Biological Sciences, Harborne Building,. University of Reading, RG6 ...

  9. 853-IJBCS-Article-Prof Mbacké Sembene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    different agro-ecological zones and final product, i.e. for grain consumption or oil production. The main constraints to groundnut storage are attack by rodents, especially Xerus erythropus Desmarest and. Cricetomys gambianus, insects such as. Elasmolomus sordidus. (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) and the groundnut bruchid.

  10. Small Scale Farmers' Knowledge on Grain Losses from Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    whether bean bruchids is major pest, how much damage it causes, knowledge of pests problem, management strategies and how safe are treated beans to consumers. In addition we interviewed input dealers in Huye town, which covered pesticides most sold, price range and advice given to buyers. In most cases farmers ...

  11. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Concentrations of Mixed Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus with mixture of Cassia Occidentalis (Coffee senna) and Vittallaria paradoxa (Shea butter) leaf powders in the ratios of 50%:50%, was evaluated under ambient condition of temperature and relative humidity laboratory conditions. The mixtures of the leaf powders in ...

  12. Optimization of parameters for Agrobacterium mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    satyam

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... cereals to provide a balanced diet (Bhomkar et al., 2008). This crop is subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses which limit its productivity (Eapen, 2008). The high susceptibility of the crop to yellow mosaic virus. (VMYMV), fungal pathogens (powdery mildew, cercospora leaf spot), insects (bruchids) ...

  13. Fumigant effect of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L) leaf essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fumigant effect of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L) leaf essential oil on the longevity and fecundity of adult cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F) and on germination. ... There was however no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean percentage germination of treated and control seeds after 24 and 48 hours.

  14. Morphometric Analysis of the Developmental Stages and Insecticidal Efficacy of Three Botanical Oils Against Adult Callosobruchus analis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi-Salami Folasade Kemisola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental stages of Callosobruchus analis were observed under laboratory conditions at 28 ± 2 °C and 72 ± 5% relative humidity. The results showed that female C. analis began to lay eggs within 24 hours and have an oviposition period of 8.50 ± 0.70 days and an average of 13.00 ± 0.50 eggs were laid by individual C. analis throughout their lifetime. The mean developmental periods from egg to larva and larva to pupa were observed to be 8.50 ± 0.79 and 4.50 ± 0.70 days, respectively. The unmated bruchids were observed to have lived longer than the mated bruchids as the unmated bruchids lifespan was on average 10.50 ± 0.81 days, as opposed to 2.50 ± 0.75 days for mated females. Adult male C. analis have an average antenna length of 2.96 ± 0.08 mm which is slightly longer than 2.42 ± 0.12 mm on average for female bruchids. The three botanical oil extracts from Capsicum frutescens, Anacardium occidentale and Xylopia aethiopica used at 10.0% concentration were not effective, as none of them resulted in a mortality rate of 50% when recorded 3 days after treatment.

  15. the effects of 4 ratios of organic to inorganic manures on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nkechi

    Next was Aloka which gave 48.20 g, followed by IAR 48 (Big Brown), big white and lastly by iron beans (an unimproved line) with kthe highest weight reduction of 126.99 g. Among the treatments, bitter leaf gave the best protection against cowpea bruchid compared to the other plant materials giving least weight reduction of ...

  16. Evaluation of F3 generations of the hybrid crosses between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of crosses between vegetable and field cowpea for resistance to the cowpea Bruchids, [Callosobruchus maculatus (F)], was carried out at the Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu southeastern Nigeria. There was a significant difference in the field infestation of the cowpea lines by C.

  17. Insecticidal Activities of Jatropha curcas L. against Callosobruchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the insecticidal activities of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in storage under prevailing temperature (27±2ºC) and relative humidity (68±3%). The seed oil was applied at the rates of 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 ml/50 g cowpea ...

  18. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of...

  19. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies reputedly minimize losses of stored cowpea grain to bruchid beetles on low resource farms in Africa. Side by side comparison of these different postharvest storage methods can provide the basis for deciding which performs best. We compared six different technologies for cowpea storage: (1) grain mixed with ash; (2) mixed with sand; (3) fumigated with phostoxin; (4) admixed with the stems and leaves of . Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir, a potential botanical insecticide; (5) disinfested using a solar heater, and; (6) hermetically sealed in triple-layer plastic bags. Sampling was done at thirty-day intervals over five months of storage. Counts were made of (i) adult emergence holes, (ii) dead larvae and (iii) surviving bruchid larvae and adults. Controls, which consisted of infested cowpea grain stored in cloth bags, were damaged extensively. . Boscia senegalensis-treated grain suffered similar severe damage. All other treatments suppressed bruchid population increases as was evident from the much lower counts of emergence holes and lower numbers of surviving or dead insects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  2. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela C Stotz

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo. In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó, and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  3. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  4. Seven-up facilitates insect counter-defense by suppressing cathepsin B expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji-Eun; Guarino, Linda A; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2007-06-01

    When challenged by the dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) adapts to the inhibitory effects by readjusting the transcriptome of its digestive system, including the specific activation of a cathepsin B-like cysteine protease CmCatB. To understand the transcriptional regulation of CmCatB, we cloned a portion of its promoter and demonstrated its activity in Drosophila cells using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter system. EMSAs detected differential DNA-binding activity between nuclear extracts of scN-adapted and -unadapted midguts. Two tandem chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter (COUP) elements were identified in the CmCatB promoter that specifically interacted with a protein factor unique to nuclear extracts of unadapted insect guts, where CmCatB expression was repressed. Seven-up (Svp) is a COUP-TF-related transcription factor that interacted with the COUP responsive element. Polyclonal anti-(mosquito Svp) serum abolished the specific DNA-binding activity in cowpea bruchid midgut extracts, suggesting that the protein factor is an Svp homolog. Subsequent cloning of a cowpea bruchid Svp (CmSvp) indicated that it shares a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity with COUP-TF/Svp orphan nuclear receptor family members from varied species. The protein was more abundant in scN-unadapted insect guts than scN-adapted guts, consistent with the observed DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, CmCatB expression was repressed when CmSvp was transiently expressed in Drosophila cells, most likely through COUP binding. These findings indicate that CmSvp may contribute to insect counter-defense, in part by inhibiting CmCatB expression under normal growth conditions, but releasing the inhibition when insects are challenged by dietary protease inhibitors.

  5. Evaluation of the seed oil of three citrus species, for the control of the bean beetle, callosobruchus maculatus (F) (coleoptera: bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    On application of the seed oil of ripe and unripe fruits of Citrus sinensis, C. paradisi and C. aurantifolia to the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) for three days, a dose of 0.5 ml of C. sinensis gave, significantly, high mortality rate upto 85%. In case of C. aurantifolia, mortality ranged from 75% to 100%. Same least dosage of seed oil of ripe C. paradissi produced 58.8% to 100% mortality, whereas, except the dose of 0.5 ml, all the other treatments of unripe C. paradissi resulted in 100% mortality after 24 h. (author)

  6. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  7. Molecular identification of four different alpha-amylase inhibitors from baru (Dipteryx alata) seeds with activity toward insect enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavides, Krishna B; Pelegrini, Patrícia B; Laumann, Raúl A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Jorge A T; Quirino, Betania F; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octávio L

    2007-07-31

    The endophytic bruchid pest Callosobruchus maculatus causes severe damage to storage cowpea seeds, leading to economical losses. For this reason the use of alpha-amylase inhibitors to interfere with the pest digestion process has been an interesting alternative to control bruchids. With this aim, alpha-amylase inhibitors from baru seeds (Dipteryx alata) were isolated by affinity chromatographic procedures, causing enhanced inhibition of C. maculatus and Anthonomus grandis alpha-amylases. To attempt further purification, this fraction was applied onto a reversed-phase HPLC column, generating four peaks with remarkable inhibition toward C. maculatus alpha-amylases. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-ToF analysis identified major proteins of approximately 5.0, 11.0, 20.0 and 55 kDa that showed alpha-amylase inhibition. Results of in vivo bioassays using artificial seeds containing 1.0% (w/w) of baru crude extract revealed 40% cowpea weevil larvae mortality. These results provide evidence that several alpha-amylase inhibitors classes, with biotechnological potential, can be isolated from a single plant species.

  8. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types) provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control.

  9. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Mitkova Nikolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L. to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar. The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1, damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2, and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3 and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control.

  10. Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  11. Typical Monoterpenes as Insecticides and Repellents against Stored Grain Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen L. Reis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Five monoterpenes naturally occurring in essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and repellent activities against the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The monoterpenes were highly efficient as inducers of mortality or repellency against both insect species. They were more efficient in their fumigant activity against C. maculatus than against S. zeamais, while this profile of action was inverted when considering the repellent activities. Eugenol was one the most effective fumigants against both insects and one the most effective repellent against C. maculatus, while citronellal and geranial were one the most effective repellents against S. zeamais. Functional and positional isomerism of the monoterpenes pairs appears to exert little or no influence on theirs effects, especially in case of repellency. The validation of the insecticidal/repellent efficacy of isolated monoterpenes may permit a more advantageous, rapid, economic and optimized approach to the identification of promising oils for commercial formulations when combined with ethnobotanical strategies.

  12. Influence de Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur les capacités de dispersion de Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera- Pteromalidae dans les systèmes de stockage traditionnels de niébé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumma, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on the Dispersion Capacities of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera- Pteromalidae in Traditional Storage System. In this study, the impact of Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on dispersion capacities of Dinarmus basalis Rond (Hymenoptera-Pteromalidae, a solitary ectoparasitoïd of the development stages of bruchid pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, within a traditional storage system is analysed. The results point out that, whatever the position of the treated patch, females of D. basalis are able to move between seeds of cowpea and some of them are able to localize and parasitize their hosts. In a non choice situation, the rates of parasitism observed were less important than the ones obtained when the patchs were not treated with B. senegalensis. Nevertheless in situation of choice, females seem to avoid the patch treated with the insecticidal plant B. senegalensis.

  13. Evaluation of damage caused by Bruchus pisorum L (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on some parameters related to seed quality of pea forage cultivars (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the damage caused by Bruchus pisorum L (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on the germination ability of pea farage varieties (Pisum sativum L.. Result of damage by Bruchus pisorum in seeds with parasitized larva was significant decrease of the germination by 16.4% percentage points, the length and weight of primary radicle by 16.8 and 24.5%, the length and weight of plumule by 12.3 and 14.1%, the vigor index of primary radicle and plumule by 32.5 and 32.8% as well as the germination index by 17.4%. The inhibitory effect was on average 17.8%. Essential significant changes in regard to the studied parameters were found for damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole. In these seeds the gewrmination decrease by 58.3% percentage points, the length and weight of primary radicle by 34.1 and 36.2%, the length and weight of plumule by 31.8 and 34.3%, the vigor index of primary radicle and plumule by 81.1 and 82.1% as well as the germination index by 83.1%. The inhibitory effect was on average 58.3%. It was found that the damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole provided better possibility for growth and development of plants whereas the damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole had significantly low germination, vigor and sowing characteristics. These seeds could not provide the establishment of well-garnished stand and stable yields. As tolerant to damage by Bruchus pisorum was distinguished Glyans variety for which the values of parameters related to germination and vigor of seeds were influenced in the lowest degree from the damage unlike the sensitive Pleven 4 variety. Dominant factor influencing germination ability of seeds for all analyzed parameters was the type of seeds compared to varietal appurtenance.

  14. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae) in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Freitas, Leandro

    2011-12-01

    One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008) in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa), as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas.

  15. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Wolowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008 in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa, as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1939-1948. Epub 2011 December 01

  16. THE INVASIVE COLEOPTEROFAUNA FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

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    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova consists of the 100 species. After correlation local database with Fauna Europaea for our country registered are 31 of species, but for 69 mentioned with the „absent” and 38 „no date”. In the meantime 24 species were recorded for our country: Acanthoscelides abtectus, A.pallidipennis, Alphitobius diaperinus, Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Bruchus pisorum, B.rufimanus, Caulophilus latinasus, Diabrotica virgifera, Gnathocerus cornutus, Harmonia axyridis, Lasioderma serricorne, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lignyodes bischoffi, Lithocharis nigriceps, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrioides mauritanicus, Tribolium castaneum, T. destructor, Trogoderma granarium. According periods penetration the invasive beetles it was found that 2 species have entered the XVIII century, 16 species in the XIX, 53 species in the XX and 29 species in the XXI century. The registration invasive beetles in countries of interest to the our country is in: Bulgaria – 54 species; Poland – 39; România – 3; other countries- 4.

  17. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Wolowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008 in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa, as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1939-1948. Epub 2011 December 01Es importante determinar la eficacia de las áreas de conservación cuando se están implementando diferentes categorías de manejo, y una forma de hacerlo es conociendo si se mantiene una reproducción sexual efectiva en las especies de plantas y sus interacciones con grupos de animales. Para evaluar esta cuestión, se comparó la fenología, el

  18. Control of stored grain pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using the essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandra, B A H E; Pathirathna, P U; Paranagama, P A

    2012-01-01

    The bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of cowpea seeds [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.] in Sri Lanka. Essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus plant was tested for potential insecticidal activity against C. maculatus. The gas chromatography studies of the essential oil of P. zeylanicus showed that ρ-cymene (3.5%), β-caryophyllene (0.2%), geranyl acetate (9.3%) and geraniol (7.2%) were the major constituents. The adults of C. maculatus were susceptible to both fumigant and contact toxicity of P. zeylanicus plant oil. LC(50) values of 0.927 and 0.010 g L(-1) were obtained for fumigant toxicity and contact toxicity assays, respectively. Oviposition and F(1) adult emergence were significantly inhibited by P. zeylanicus plant oil at a concentration higher than 0.001 g L(-1) in both fumigant and contact toxicities. The analysis of olfactometer and choice camber bioassays revealed the repellent effects of the oil of P. zeylanicus plant.

  19. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development

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    Antônio Chagas Mota

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

  20. The evolution of harm--effect of sexual conflicts and population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Laurène; Hosken, David J; Eady, Paul; Vasudev, Ram; Tregenza, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Conflicts of interest between mates can promote the evolution of male traits that reduce female fitness and that drive coevolution between the sexes. The rate of adaptation depends on the intensity of selection and its efficiency, which depends on drift and genetic variability. This leads to the largely untested prediction that coevolutionary adaptations such as those driven by sexual conflict should evolve faster in large populations. We tested this using the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where harm inflicted by males is well documented. Although most experimental evolution studies remove sexual conflict, we reintroduced it in populations in which it had been experimentally removed. Both population size and standing genetic variability were manipulated in a factorial experimental design. After 90 generations of relaxed conflict (monogamy), the reintroduction of sexual conflicts for 30 generations favored males that harmed females and females that were more resistant to the genital damage inflicted by males. Males evolved to become more harmful when population size was large rather than when initial genetic variation was enriched. Our study shows that sexual selection can create conditions in which males can benefit from harming females and that selection may tend to be more intense and effective in larger populations. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Comparison of seed yielding performance of deltamethrin unprotected and protected plants of five cowpea cultivars at Foumbot, Cameroon

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    Parh, LA.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses in seed yields due to damage by seed insect pests were studied on unsprayed and sprayed cowpea plants at Foumbot, located in the western highland savanna zone of Cameroon, in 1988 and 1989. Major pests recorded in the study site were Melanagromyza vignalis Spencer (Diptera : Agromyzidae, Marucatestulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae, Cydia ptychora Meyrick (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae, Heliothis armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera : Aphididae, Apion species (Coleoptera : Curculionidae, Coreid bugs (Heteroptera : Coreidae, and Bruchids (Coleoptera : Bruchidae. Yields of undamaged cowpea seeds from unsprayed and sprayed plants of local cultivars acquired from Badun, Melong, Foumbot and Befang were comparable with those from MA 2/1, an improved cultivar from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture that has been released in Cameroon by the Institute for Agronomie Research. Melanagromyza, Maruca and Coreid bugs caused 70-80 % of seed damage on unsprayed and sprayed plants. Fortnightly spraying of plants with deltamethrin at 12.5g. a. i./ha, significantly reduced yield loss due to damage by Maruca sp., the overall loss in seed yields/ha and % loss of potential seed yield, in all five cowpea cultivars used in this study. However, deltamethrin appeared ineffective in reducing seed yield loss caused by Melanagromyza and Coreid bugs.

  3. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in and

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    Hongmei Li-Byarlay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus . We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster . Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  4. Comparative genome analysis and resistance gene mapping in grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Using, DNA markers and genome organization, several important disease resistance genes have been analyzed in mungbean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and soybean (Glycine max). In the process, medium-density linkage maps consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were constructed for both mungbean and cowpea. Comparisons between these maps, as well as the maps of soybean and common bean, indicate that there is significant conservation of DNA marker order, though the conserved blocks in soybean are much shorter than in the others. DNA mapping results also indicate that a gene for seed weight may be conserved between mungbean and cowpea. Using the linkage maps, genes that control bruchid (genus Callosobruchus) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni) resistance in mungbean, aphid resistance in cowpea (Aphis craccivora), and cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) resistance in soybean have all been mapped and characterized. For some of these traits resistance was found to be oligogenic and DNA mapping uncovered multiple genes involved in the phenotype. (author)

  5. Expression in Escherichia coli of cysteine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): The crystal structure of a single-domain cystatin gives insights on its thermal and pH stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Júnior, José Edvar; Valadares, Napoleão Fonseca; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz; Dyszy, Fábio Henrique; da Costa Filho, Antônio José; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; da Silveira Carvalho, Cristina Paiva; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa

    2017-09-01

    Two cysteine proteinase inhibitors from cowpea, VuCys1 and VuCys2, were produced in E. coli ArcticExpress (DE3). The recombinant products strongly inhibited papain and chymopapain as well as the midgut proteases from Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, a bruchid that uses cysteine proteases as major digestive enzymes. Heat treatment at 100°C for up to 60min or incubation at various pH values caused little reduction in the papain inhibitory activity of both inhibitors. Moreover, minor conformational variations, as probed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, were observed after VuCys1 and VuCys2 were subjected to these treatments. The crystal structure of VuCys1 was determined at a resolution of 1.95Å, revealing a domain-swapped dimer in the asymmetric unit. However, the two lobes of the domain-swapped dimer are positioned closer to each other in VuCys1 in comparison to other similar cystatin structures. Moreover, some polar residues from opposite lobes recruit water molecules, forming a hydrogen bond network that mediates contacts between the lobes, thus generating an extended open interface. Due to the closer distance between the lobes, a small hydrophobic core is also formed, further stabilizing the folded domain-swapped dimer. These structural features might account for the extraordinary thermal and pH stability of VuCys1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stability of AtVSP in the insect digestive canal determines its defensive capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yong Hun; Jing, Xiangfeng; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Koo, Yoon Duck; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang Yeol; Behmer, Spencer T; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2011-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Arabidopsis vegetative storage protein (AtVSP) is an acid phosphatase that has anti-insect activity in in vitro feeding assays [Liu et al., 2005. Plant Physiology 139, 1545-1556]. To investigate the functionality of AtVSP in planta as an anti-insect defense protein, we produced AtVSP-overexpressing as well as AtVSP-silenced transgenic Arabidopsis lines, and evaluated impact on the polyphagous American grasshopper Schistocerca americana. Grasshoppers showed no significant difference in weight gain and growth rate when feeding on wild type, overexpressing, or silenced lines, respectively. In addition, AtVSP protein was undetectable in either the midgut or frass of grasshoppers reared on transgenic plants suggesting that AtVSP was unable to withstand proteolytic degradation. To determine the stability of the AtVSP protein in grasshopper digestive canal, midgut extracts from various nymphal stages were incubated with bacterially expressed AtVSP for different periods of time. AtVSP was hydrolyzed rapidly by grasshopper midgut extract, in stark contrast with its fate when incubated with cowpea bruchid midgut extract. Multiple proteases have been detected in the midgut of grasshoppers, which may play important roles in determining the insect response to AtVSP. Results indicate that stability of an anti-insect protein in insect guts is a crucial property integral to the defense protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the α-amylase inhibitor-1 from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties and transgenic expression in other legumes--post-translational modifications and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter M; Reiner, Daniela; Moore, Andrew E; Lee, Rui-Yun; Epstein, Michelle M; Higgins, T J V

    2011-06-08

    The seeds of peas (Pisum sativum) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) expressing a gene for α-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are protected from damage by old world bruchids (pea and cowpea weevils). Here, we used electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to compare the post-translational modifications of αAI from transgenic sources with the processed forms of the protein from several bean varieties. All sources showed microheterogeneity with differences in the relative abundance of particular variants due to differences in the frequency of addition of glycans, variable processing of glycans, and differences of C-terminal exopeptidase activity. The structural variation among the transgenics was generally within the range of the bean varieties. Previously, mice showed allergic reactions following ingestion of transgenic pea αAI but not bean αAI. Here, only minor differences were observed following intraperitoneal sensitization. Both of the transgenic pea and bean forms of αAI elicited Th1 and Th2 antibody isotype responses, suggesting that both proteins are immunogenic and could potentially be allergenic.

  8. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  9. Fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrency of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, against three stored–product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT₅₀ tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10-20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests.

  10. Intraspecific and interspecific competition in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) on stored bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lale, N E.S.; Vidal, S

    2001-10-01

    Intraspecific competition was studied in Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Interspecific competition between the two bruchids was also studied to determine which of these species is likely to cause more damage to stored bambara groundnuts, Vigna subterranea in cases of joint infestation. Results showed that increasing the adult density up to 8 females per 10g of bambara groundnut seeds did not significantly reduce the mean number of eggs laid per female, the number of eggs developing to the adult stage, or the weight of emerged adults of either species. The developmental period of the two species was also not significantly affected. The adult emergence curve of C. maculatus was similar to that of C. subinnotatus and was of the scramble type. C. maculatus performed better than C. subinnotatus in interspecific competition and it achieved this through a higher egg-laying ability and a higher rate of progeny production coupled with a shorter life-cycle. The implications of these findings with respect to damage and possible loss of stored bambara groundnut are discussed.

  11. Ancient plant remains with special reference to buckthorn, Frangula alnus Mill., pyrenes from Dascyleum, Balıkesir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oybak Dönmez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonized plant remains recovered from the ancient city Dascyleum (Daskyleion in the province of Balıkesir in northwestern Turkey provide an outline of several phases of plant use in archaic, Hellenistic, and medieval times. At the study site, various crop plant remains of Near Eastern agriculture, including cereals (barley, Hordeum vulgare L. and bread/durum/rivet wheat, Triticum aestivum L. / T. durum Desf. / T. turgidum L. and pulses [bitter vetch, Vicia ervilia (L. Willd.; grass pea, Lathyrus sativus L. / L. cicera L.; fava bean, V. faba L.; and chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.] were found. Drupaceous fruits and pyrenes of buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. were also found, probably representing dyes and/or medicines used by the inhabitants of the mound. Archaeometrical analyses of the ancient buckthorn pyrenes by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA provide chemical evidence for traces of ancient mordants remaining until the present day. Some of the pulse seed remains retrieved from the medieval layers at the study site were found to have been infested by bruchid beetles (Bruchidae.

  12. Performance of PICS bags under extreme conditions in the sahel zone of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoua, Ibrahim B; Bakoye, Ousmane; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-03-01

    Experiments in Niger assessed whether extreme environmental conditions including sunlight exposure affect the performance of triple-layer PICS bags in protecting cowpea grain against bruchids. Sets of PICS bags and woven polypropylene bags as controls containing 50 kg of naturally infested cowpea grain were held in the laboratory or outside with sun exposure for four and one-half months. PICS bags held either inside or outside exhibited no significant increase in insect damage and no loss in weight after 4.5 months of storage compared to the initial values. By contrast, woven bags stored inside or outside side by side with PICS bags showed several-fold increases in insects present in or on the grain and significant losses in grain weight. Grain stored inside in PICS bags showed no reduction in germination versus the initial value but there was a small but significant drop in germination of grain in PICS bags held outside (7.6%). Germination rates dropped substantially more in grain stored in woven bags inside (16.1%) and still more in woven bags stored outside (60%). PICS bags held inside and outside retained their ability to maintain internal reduced levels of oxygen and elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions degraded the external polypropylene outer layer of the PICS triple-layer bag. Even so, the internal layers of polyethylene were more slowly degraded. The effects of exposure to sunlight, temperature and humidity variation within the sealed bags are described.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-01-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ( 60 Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e

  14. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Rôle de l'intensité lumineuse sur les capacités parasitaires d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford et d'Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoïdes des Bruchidae ravageurs de graines de niébé (Vigna unguiculata Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndoutoume-Ndong A.

    2008-01-01

    a biological control agent against bruchids.

  16. Mutants of common bean alpha-amylase inhibitor-2 as an approach to investigate binding specificity to alpha-amylases Mutantes do inibidor-2 de alfa-amilase do feijão-comum para investigação da especificidade de ligação a alfa-amilases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mattar da Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the presence of a family of defense proteins, Phaseolus vulgaris can be attacked by bruchid insects resulting in serious damage to stored grains. The two distinct active forms of a-amylase inhibitors, a-AI1 and a-AI2, in P. vulgaris show different specificity toward a-amylases. Zabrotes subfasciatus a-amylase is inhibited by a-AI2 but not by a-AI1. In contrast, porcine a-amylase is inhibited by a-AI1 but not by a-AI2. The objective of this work was to understand the molecular basis of the specificity of two inhibitors in P. vulgaris (a-AI1 and a-AI2 in relation to a-amylases. Mutants of a-AI2 were made and expressed in tobacco plants. The results showed that all the a-AI2 mutant inhibitors lost their activity against the insect a-amylases but none exhibited activity toward the mammalian a-amylase. The replacement of His33 of a-AI2 with the a-AI1-like sequence Ser-Tyr-Asn abolished inhibition of Z. subfasciatus a-amylase. From structural modeling, the conclusion is that the size and complexity of the amylase-inhibitor interface explain why mutation of the N-terminal loop and resultant abolition of Z. subfasciatus a-amylase inhibition are not accompanied by gain of inhibitory activity against porcine a-amylase.Apesar de possuir uma família de proteínas de defesa, o feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pode ser atacado por insetos bruquídeos causando sérios danos aos grãos armazenados. O P. vulgaris possui duas formas ativas de inibidores de a-amilases, denominadas a-AI1 e a-AI2, que apresentam diferentes especificidades em relação às a-amilases. A a-amilase de Zabrotes subfasciatus é inibida por a-AI2 mas não por a-AI1. Em contraste, a a-amilase pancreática de porco é inibida por a-AI1 mas não é por a-AI2. O objetivo deste trabalho foi entender as bases moleculares da especificidade desses inibidores em relação às a-amilases. Para tanto, foram construídos mutantes do a-AI2, os quais foram expressados em plantas de fumo