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Sample records for brucelosis diarrea viral

  1. DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA: PATOGÉNESIS E INMUNOPATOLOGÍA

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    Iang Rondón

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea viral bovina (DVB representa un problema de ámbito mundial que causa considerables pérdidastanto en ganado de carne como lechero, afectándolo de diversas formas las cuales están supeditadas ala edad del animal, estado inmunológico y momento de la gestación en el que se produce la infección.La DVB es causada por un virus ARN, género Pestivirus, familia Flaviviridae, el cual ha sido clasificado en2 biotipos (citopático y no citopático según su comportamiento en células de cultivo y en 2 genotipos (Iy II basados en su secuencia genética. Dependiendo de las cepas infectantes se presenta un cuadroclínico particular variando en severidad desde una forma subclínica, pasando por la forma clínica eincluso produciendo la fatal enfermedad de las mucosas o causando efectos deletéreos sobre el feto. Apesar de que en nuestro medio ya existen estudios sobre esta entidad, la implementación de metodologíasdiagnósticas constituye una limitante para el manejo de la misma. La presente revisión se enfoca en lapatogenia e inmunopatología de la DVB.

  2. Encuesta sobre Brucelosis en Colombia

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    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available Informe al Comite Interamericano de la Brucelosis,  presentado por Luis Patiño Camargo, M. D., Andrés Soriano Lleras, M. D.  en el Segundo Congreso interamericano de la Brucelosis, Buenos Aires, Mendoza, 17-26 de noviembre de 1948.

  3. Epidemiología y caracterización de los factores de riesgo de diarrea viral bovina y neosporosis en bovinos del valle del Mantaro – región Junín

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    Arauco Villar, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico de Diarrea viral bovina (DVB) y neosporosis en 425 vacas en producción de 37 hatos del Valle del Mantaro-Región Junín, Perú, mediante ELISA e identificando sus factores de riesgo aplicando una encuesta. Para DVB se encontraron prevalencias: muestral 66.33%, predial 97.3% (36/37) y promedio/hato 64.78%, Concepción tuvo las prevalencias promedio/hato y muestral más altas, luego Jauja, Chupaca y Huancayo; la prevalencia de animales persistentement...

  4. Diarrea y micronutrientes

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    Alonso Zea; Theresa Ochoa

    2013-01-01

    La diarrea continúa siendo una causa importante de morbi-mortalidad en niños pequeños. Si bien el uso de las sales de rehidratación oral ha sido de gran ayuda para disminuir la mortalidad asociada a deshidratación, aún se requieren de estrategias efectivas para disminuir la morbilidad asociada a esta enfermedad. El zinc y la vitamina A son dos micronutrientes que han demostrado ser útiles en la prevención y tratamiento de la diarrea en niños. La suplementación de zinc actualmente es recomenda...

  5. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs Evaluación de vacunas experimentales para la diarrea viral bovina en bovinos, ovinos y cobayos

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    F. Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines.El control del virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB se basa en la eliminación de animales persistentemente infectados, y la inmunización de hembras para prevenir infecciones fetales. La eficiencia de estas vacunas es variable por su baja inmunogenicidad. Se evaluó la respuesta inmune humoral contra virus homólogos y heterólogos de 7 vacunas experimentales inactivadas del VDVB en bovinos y en dos modelos experimentales (ovinos y cobayos. Las vacunas conteniendo VDVB Singer, Oregon, NADL y polivalentes indujeron seroconversión en

  6. Identificación y caracterización genética de agentes virales diarreagénicos en niños menores de cinco años de edad con o sin diarrea en Bucaramanga

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    Nayibe Tatiana Sánchez Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    59 meses. Se observó mayor asociación entre los casos con síntomas de diarrea, vómito, fiebre o dolor abdominal. El genotipo de norovirus G1 más frecuente fue GI.2 y de norovirus GII fue GII.4. Los serotipos más prevalentes de rotavirus fueron G12P8 seguido de G9P8. Conclusiones: Se logró la identificación de 6 virus (norovirus GI, norovirus GII, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus y rotavirus, en muestras de materia fecal de pacientes menores de cinco años de Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana. El mayor porcentaje de aislamiento se obtuvo para el género norovirus en especial norovirus GII. Rotavirus fue el agente viral que tuvo mayor relación con los síntomas de diarrea, vómito, fiebre y dolor abdominal. Este estudio muestra la importancia de los virus en la epidemiología de EDA en la infancia y la alta diversidad genética de los norovirus y rotavirus dentro de la población pediátrica en Bucaramanga, Colombia.

  7. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra diarrea viral bovina, virus sincitial bovino, rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina, leucosis bovina, Neospora caninum, parainfluenza bovina (PI3 y paratuberculosis, en ganadería bovina de fincas ubicadas en Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar

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    Tatiana Gálvis García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el área de la ganadería los problemas caracterizados por infertilidad, abortos, muerte embrionaria, crías con malformaciones neurológicas y físicas son de gran importancia, ya que hay múltiples etiologías y se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos a nivel mundial. Lo anterior ocasiona serias pérdidas económicas y afectando la exportación de carne de los bovinos debido a la restricción de normas de sanidad, donde se encuentran las enfermedades como diarrea viral bovina, rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina, leucosis bovina y Neospora caninum. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra diarrea viral bovina (DVB, virus sincitial respiratorio bovino (BRSV, virus de la rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina (IBR, leucosis enzoótica bovina (BLV, N. caninum, Parainfluenza bovina (PI3 y paratuberculosis (ParaTBC, en bovinos de Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar. Materiales y métodos: Tipo de estudio: Descriptivo de corte transversal, se realizó en 27 fincas ubicadas en zona rural de los municipios de Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar. El Tamaño de la muestra se estimó en 905 bovinos. De cada animal se tomó sangre por punción venosa de la vena coccígea en tubos sin anticoagulante mediante el uso de sistema de vacío Vacutainer®. Cada muestra fue etiquetada adecuadamente con los códigos de identificación asignada, las muestras se centrifugaron a 1500 rpm y se transportó al laboratorio en recipientes con hielo. Se realizó alícuotas en viales de 1,5 ml y se almacenaron a -20 ° C para su posterior procesamiento. Determinación de anticuerpos específicos: Las pruebas para detectar anticuerpos específicos fue mediante ensayo de inmunoabsorción enzimática (ELISA, de las casas comerciales INGEZIM (BRSV, DBV, BLV, N. caninum, IBR, PARACHEK 2 (ParaTBC y BIO-X DIAGNOSTIC (PI3. La validación de las pruebas se realizó mediante los respectivos controles positivos y negativos los cuales se procesaron por duplicado. Resultados

  8. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile

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    Felmer, R; Zúñiga, J; López, A; Miranda, H

    2009-01-01

    Chile es reconocido internacionalmente por poseer una buena situación sanitaria pues el país ha podido alcanzar y mantener el estado de oficialmente libre de las principales enfermedades de la lista de la OIE. Sin embargo, aún coexisten en nuestros rebaños bovinos una serie de enfermedades, las cuales tienen un directo impacto en la producción, por cuanto disminuyen la fertilidad, producen pérdidas por aborto, alargan el lapso interparto y fundamentalmente constituyen barreras sanitarias para...

  9. Brucelosis, una zoonosis presente en la población: estudio de series de tiempo en México

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    Meztli Méndez-Lozano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el comportamiento de la incidencia de brucelosis humana en México durante el periodo 2000-2011 y su relación con la brucelosis en rumiantes domésticos. Material y métodos. En estudio ecológico de series de tiempo se analizaron, mediante regresión Poisson multinivel múltiple, la incidencia de brucelosis humanas durante 2000- 2011 y la incidencia en rumiantes, y su relación con índice de desarrollo humano. Resultados. La alta incidencia de brucelosis bovina aumenta 15% la incidencia de brucelosis humana. La alta incidencia en caprinos aumenta 33% la incidencia de brucelosis humana. La presencia de casos nuevos de brucelosis ovina aumenta 13% la incidencia de brucelosis humana. Conclusiones. La brucelosis es un problema de salud pública; la presencia de la brucelosis en los rumiantes domésticos y el nivel de control de la enfermedad en ellos afecta la presencia de la enfermedad en humanos.

  10. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile Prevalence and space distribution of brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by using bulk milk ELISA test in dairy herds of the IX Region, Chile

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    R Felmer; J Zúñiga; A López; H Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Chile es reconocido internacionalmente por poseer una buena situación sanitaria pues el país ha podido alcanzar y mantener el estado de oficialmente libre de las principales enfermedades de la lista de la OIE. Sin embargo, aún coexisten en nuestros rebaños bovinos una serie de enfermedades, las cuales tienen un directo impacto en la producción, por cuanto disminuyen la fertilidad, producen pérdidas por aborto, alargan el lapso interparto y fundamentalmente constituyen barreras sanitarias para...

  11. Brucelosis, una zoonosis presente en la población: estudio de series de tiempo en México

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    Meztli Méndez-Lozano; Luisa María Sánchez-Zamorano

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar el comportamiento de la incidencia de brucelosis humana en México durante el periodo 2000-2011 y su relación con la brucelosis en rumiantes domésticos. Material y métodos. En estudio ecológico de series de tiempo se analizaron, mediante regresión Poisson multinivel múltiple, la incidencia de brucelosis humanas durante 2000- 2011 y la incidencia en rumiantes, y su relación con índice de desarrollo humano. Resultados. La alta incidencia de brucelosis bovina aumenta 15% la i...

  12. Diarrea persistente: algunos factores de riesgo

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    Lyliam Díaz Fernández

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-longitudinal, con el propósito de evaluar algunos aspectos socioculturales en 75 niños menores de 2 años, que con diagnóstico de diarrea persistente, ingresaron en el Servicio de Enfermedades Diarreicas del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Dr. Angel A. Aballí" de Ciudad de La Habana, de julio de 1995 a marzo de 1996, ambos inclusive. Los resultados permiten afirmar que la mayoría de estos episodios acontecieron en lactantes y que el elevado índice de hacinamiento, malas condiciones higiénico-sanitarias de la vivienda y padres con nivel escolar medio, dominaron los antecedentes sociales de los niños estudiados.A descriptive-longitudinal study was conducted aimed at evaluating some sociocultural aspects in 75 children under 2 that due to persistent diarrhea were admitted in the Service of Diarrheal Diseases of the «Dr. Angel A. Aballí» Pediatric Teaching Hospital, in Havana City, from July, 1995, to March, 1996, including both. The results allow to assure that most of these episodes occurred in infants and that the high index of heaping, bad hygienic and sanitary conditions of the houses and parents with middle educational level predominated in the social background of the studied children.

  13. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila

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    M. Martín Delgado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.

  14. Pronóstico de la diarrea por rotavirus

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    Mota-Hernández Felipe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la gravedad de la diarrea por rotavirus (RV y por no rotavirus. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal en 520 lactantes con diarrea aguda, efectuado entre octubre de 1994 y marzo de 1995 en siete centros del primer nivel de atención en cinco estados de México. El diagnóstico de RV se realizó con ensayo inmunoenzimático o por electroforesis. El análisis se hizo a través de medidas de tendencia central. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana o variación. Resultados. Se aisló RV en 264 lactantes (50.7% con predominio en varones de 6 meses a un año. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron significativamente diferentes entre el grupo rotavirus positivo y el grupo rotavirus negativo en mediana de evacuaciones por 24 horas, frecuencia de vómitos, temperatura > 38° C, deshidratación y calificación de gravedad, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Estos resultados mostraron peor pronóstico por mayor gravedad de la diarrea por RV en lactantes, con relación a otra etiología. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  15. Estudio descriptivo de la presentación de brucelosis humana en Colombia desde 2000 hasta 2012

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    Patricia Lopez Guarnizo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue realizar un estudio descriptivo de la ocurrencia de brucelosis humana en Colombia entre 2000 y 2012, y con base en estudios previos conocer la prevalencia e incidencia de la enfermedad, las limitaciones para el diagnóstico oportuno y el reconocimiento de la enfermedad por el sistema laboral colombiano. La investigación se basó en la búsqueda y análisis de la información publicada en artículos relacionados con brucelosis humana entre 2000 y 2012 en Colombia. En esta investigación se incluyó una fase de recopilación de información y entrevistas no estructuradas a representantes de programas de control de brucelosis y a profesionales expertos. Se analizaron 17 trabajos de brucelosis humana realizados en el personal a riesgo en plantas de beneficio, expendedores y vacunadores del programa de brucelosis animal, en los cuales se reportaron 10 estudios con prevalencias entre 0,14 % y 10,4 % y 7 con seropositividad. En estos se encontró alguna información pertinente a las limitaciones del diagnóstico y se evidenció el poco conocimiento de la comunidad médica frente a la enfermedad. En Colombia no hay una política clara respecto a esta zoonosis de riesgo ocupacional. Solo se menciona la brucelosis en el Decreto 2566 de 2009, en la cual se adopta la nueva tabla de enfermedades profesionales. Se concluye que la brucelosis humana en Colombia es una enfermedad subdiagnosticada y, por lo tanto, subnotificada, ya que no existe un sistema de notificación obligatoria.

  16. Síndrome de crioglobulinemia mixta secundario a brucelosis: Reporte de un caso

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    Ray Ticse Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis produce diversas manifestaciones clínicas muchas de las cuales son secundarias a alteraciones del sistema inmune desencadenadas por esta infección. Presentamos el caso de una paciente mujer de 71 años de edad que ingresó por un cuadro clínico de fiebre y púrpura, en quien se diagnosticó síndrome de crioglobulinemia mixta por infección brucellar. Este es el quinto caso que se reporta en el mundo. A pesar que la causa mas frecuente de púrpura por crioglobulinemia mixta es infección por VHC, se resalta que se debe sospechar de brucelosis especialmente cuando se presente con fiebre.(Rev Med Hered 2007;18:34-38.

  17. Fisiopatología de la diarrea aguda

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    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Es un artículo de revisión de los aspectos importantes de la fisiopatología de la diarrea. Se hace una descripción de la fisiopatología intestinal que incluye la anatomía del intestino y de su superficie de absorción y la estructura funcional de la mucosa intestinal. La fisiopatología normal de los líquidos intestinales. Mecanismo de absorción del agua y los electrólitos. Absorción de sodio por difusión electrogénica, unido al ion cloro, intercambio con el ion hidrógeno y unido a sustancias orgánicas como glucosa, aminoácidos y algunos oligopéptidos; secreción intestinal de agua y electrólitos. Control intracelular de la secreción. Mediadores y moduladores extracelulares del transporte intestinal. Factores que aumentan la absorción y reducen la secreción. Factores que estimulan la secreción y reducen la absorción Mecanismo fisiopatológico de la diarrea. Clasificación de la diarrea infecciosa aguda: acuosa secretoria y osmótica; diarrea con sangre invasiva y no invasiva.This a review of some important aspects of the physiopathology of diarrhea. A description is made of the intestinal physiopathology, including the anatomy of the intestine and of its surface of absorption, as well as the functional structure of the intestinal mucosa: the normal physiopathology of the intestinal fluids; the mechanism of absorption of water and electrolites; the absorption of sodium by electrogenic difussion, joined to the chloride ion; the interchange with the hydrogen ion and attached to organic substances, such as glucose, aminoacids and some oligopeptides; the intestinal secretion of water and electrolites; the intracellular control of secretion, the extracellular mediators and modulators of intestinal transport; the factors that increase absorption and reduce secretion; the factors that stimulate secretion and absorption; and the physiopathological mechanism of diarrhea. The classification of acute infectious diarrhea in aqueous

  18. Diarrea funcional como causa de diarrea crónica Functional diarrhea as cause of chronic diarrhea

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    Trini Fragoso Arbelo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea funcional se presenta con frecuencia en la práctica pediátrica, y generalmente no se asocia a alteraciones nutricionales, pero sí a esquemas dietéticos incorrectos. Se actualiza su importancia clínica, se hace énfasis en la patogenia, diagnóstico y en los métodos de tratamiento. Consideramos que es la causa más frecuente de diarrea crónica inespecífica, y que el interrogatorio dirigido según los criterios de Roma es útil para su diagnóstico. La mayoría de los pacientes con esta enfermedad en la infancia deben ser tratados en la atención primaria.The functional diarrhea is frequent in the pediatric practice and in general it is not associated with nutritional alterations, but to incorrect dietary schemes. Its clinical significance is updated and its pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods are emphasized. Authors considered that the functional diarrhea is the more frequent cause of unspecific chronic diarrhea and the questioning directed according the Rome criteria is very useful for its diagnosis. Most of patients presenting with this disease during childhood must to be treated in primary care services.

  19. DIAGNÓSTICO SEROLÓGICO (ROSA DE BENGALA) Y MOLECULAR (PCR) DE BRUCELOSIS EN HUMANO

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    Orly Fernando Cevallos Falquez; Aldelmo Rodríguez Grefa; Ariel Escobar Troya; Camilo Mestanza Uquillas; Diego Romero Garaicoa; Fabricio Canchignia Martínez; Jaime Fabian Vera Chang; Jonathan Mariscal Álvarez; Ketty Cobeña Rosado; Luís Ramos Gavilanes; Maria Lorena Cadme; Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño; Silvia Gicela Saucedo Aguiar; Ximena Reyes Chancay

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue: Determinar y comparar la presencia de Brucelosis del personal que labora en los camales de los cantones, Buena Fé, Quevedo, El Empalme y Pichincha, utilizando la prueba serológica Rosa de Bengala (RB) y la técnica molecular (PCR). Se utilizó como fuente de ADN y anticuerpos sangre periférica. De un total de 115 muestras de sangre recolectadas al personal que labora en los camales como faenadores y operadores, 54 (47%) y 15 (13%) fueron positivas con RB y...

  20. Seroprevalencia de brucelosis en ganado caprino en hatos del Callao, Perú, 2003

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    Norma Taboada E

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre los años 2000-2002 la provincia de Callao presentó las tasas más elevadas de infección humana por Brucella mellitensis en el Perú, además la crianza de caprinos representa una actividad económica local importante. Con el objetivo de conocer la seroprevalencia de Brucelosis en el ganado caprino analizamos una muestra de 175 animales de nueve hatos de los distritos del Callao y Ventanilla, usando la prueba de Rosa de Bengala (RB para descarte y el 2-mercapto-etanol para confirmación. El 53,7% (94 de las cabras fue mayor de seis meses; el antecedente de vacunación fue de 38,3% y 81,9%, respectivamente. Con RB se obtuvo 10/148 cabras positivas en Callao y 0/27 en Ventanilla; finalmente sólo siete fueron confirmadas. Persiste el riesgo de Brucelosis humana en el Callao ante la presencia de ganado caprino infectado con dicho mal.

  1. Coinfección brucelosis-leptospirosis, Urabá, Colombia: Reporte de caso

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    Laura Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de una confección de leptospirosis-brucelosis, en la región del Urabá antioqueño, en un paciente masculino de 45 años de edad con factores de riesgo ocupacionales, quien consultó inicialmente por síndrome febril prolongado y síntomas generales poco específicos además de manifestaciones hemorrágicas, lo que sumado a estar en área endémica, hizo sospechar el diagnóstico de leptospirosis, por lo cual se ordenó tratamiento, además de pruebas de laboratorio específicas. Luego de 45 días, el paciente consulta nuevamente con síndrome febril y orquiepididimitis unilateral, documentándose por pruebas de laboratorio el diagnóstico de brucelosis y leptospirosis, recibiendo tratamiento triconjugado (doxiciclina, rifampicina y gentamicina con resolución de los síntomas. Este caso de coinfección obliga a tener presente la posibilidad de infecciones simultáneas en pacientes con síndromes febriles procedentes de áreas endémicas para zoonosis, particularmente en los más comprometidos clínicamente.

  2. In vitro amplification of BVDV field strains isolated in Argentina: effect of cell line and culture conditions Amplificación in vitro de cepas de campo de virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB aisladas en Argentina: efecto de la línea celular y las condicioes de cultivo

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    A. C. Odeón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the in vitro amplification of BVDV (Pestivirus, Flaviridae field isolates from Argentina in MDBK, BoTur and BHK-21 continuous cell lines. Field isolates 99/134 (mucosal disease, 00/693 (mucosal disease, 04P7016 (respiratory disease and 04/89 (mucosal disease, genotype 1b, were used and compared with the Singer and NADL reference strains, genotype 1a. Additionally, cell lines derived from explants of bovine testis (RD- 420, bovine uterus (NCL-1 and porcine kidney (PKZ were tested as alternative substrates for BVDV propagation in vitro. The effect of cell line, harvest time and infection protocol was evaluated. The viral titers observed depended on the virus and harvest time but not on the infection protocol. We found that MDBK and BoTur cell lines were susceptible to the infection whereas BHK-21 and PKZ were not. NADL viral titers, 00/693 and 04/89, increased from 24 to 48 h p.i. in BoTur cells and then reached a plateau, whereas those of 99/134 and 04P7016 remained constant between 24 and 72 h p.i. BVDV Singer, on the other hand, presented a maximum titer at 24 h p.i. and then decreased. BVDV-NADL titers increased in MDBK and NCL-1 but not in RD-420 between 24 and 48 h p.i., and then decreased at 72 h p.i. These facts lead us to conclude that neither the subgenotypes (1a, 1b nor the clinical symptoms of the animal from the virus had been isolated seem to affect the virus cell line kinetics of viral replication in vitro. On the other hand, the most homogenous behavior, the most similar replication curves, and highest titers observed in MDBK and NCL-1 seem to indicate that these lines are generally more susceptible to BVDV replication.Se estudió la interacción de aislamientos de campo de Argentina del VDVB (Pestivirus, Flaviridae en las líneas celulares continuas MDBK, BoTur y BHK-21. Se utilizaron los virus de campo genotipo 1b, 99/134, 00/693 (casos compatibles con enfermedad de las mucosas y 04P7016 (cuadro

  3. ESTUDIO SEROLÓGICO DE BRUCELOSIS CANINA EN DOS ALBERGUES DEL MUNICIPIO DE ENVIGADO, COLOMBIA (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Agudelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue buscar la presencia de anticuerpos de brucelosis en la población de dos albergues caninos del municipio de Envigado (Antioquia, Colombia y a tal fin se seleccionaron 54 perros. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas en 10 machos y 44 hembras que fueron procesadas bajo la técnica de inmunocromatografía para Brucella canis. No hubo diferencia estadística entre albergues en los parámetros ‘sexo’ y ‘raza’ de cada grupo de estudio y tampoco se encontró evidencia serológica de la presencia de brucelosis canina en el grupo de animales muestreados. Los resultados indican que, aunque los animales permanecieron en calidad de abandono durante un período de su vida, su condición feral no era permanente debido a que en el momento del estudio se encontraban en albergues. Las políticas intensivas de recolección se orientan más a la atención de mascotas abandonadas que a aquellos animales ferales (los cuales, con mayor frecuencia, pueden ser portadores de la enfermedad. El tipo de población in - cluida en el estudio, sumado a la práctica estricta de esterilización inmediata dentro del albergue —que a su vez impide los apareamientos entre individuos—, pueden incidir en la reducción la propagación de la enfermedad en el municipio.

  4. DIAGNÓSTICO SEROLÓGICO (ROSA DE BENGALA Y MOLECULAR (PCR DE BRUCELOSIS EN HUMANO

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    Orly Fernando Cevallos Falquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue: Determinar y comparar la presencia de Brucelosis del personal que labora en los camales de los cantones, Buena Fé, Quevedo, El Empalme y Pichincha, utilizando la prueba serológica Rosa de Bengala (RB y la técnica molecular (PCR. Se utilizó como fuente de ADN y anticuerpos sangre periférica. De un total de 115 muestras de sangre recolectadas al personal que labora en los camales como faenadores y operadores, 54 (47% y 15 (13% fueron positivas con RB y PCR respectivamente, dando 61(53% y 100 (87% negativas para las dos pruebas correspondientemente. El promedio de casos positivos para las tres poblaciones excepto Pichincha por PCR fue de 3.4% y para RB 39.4%. Se toma atención con el cantón Pichincha debido a que 19 (70.3% de las muestras salieron positivas con RB de las cuales 12 (44.4% al ser analizadas con PCR fueron negativas, teniendo una correlación de 52.6%, lo que indica una alta incidencia de la enfermedad. Mientras tanto que de las 8 muestras negativas con RB, 2 fueron positivas con PCR dando una correlación entre negativos del 75%. Las muestras positivas amplificaron un fragmento de 725 pb. Con este trabajo se sugiere que la técnica de PCR es una herramienta altamente eficiente y muy útil para el diagnóstico de la brucelosis en humanos.

  5. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas maternas frente a la diarrea infantil aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Montero, María Belén

    2014-01-01

    Entre las enfermedades más predominantes de la primera infancia las diarreas explican el 18% de las muertes de niños a nivel mundial. Particularmente en Argentina las diarreas y las infecciones gastrointestinales están dentro de las doce causas de muerte más importantes entre los niños menores de 5 años, lo que genera un gran problema de salud pública en los países en desarrollo, por su alta carga de morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Indagar sobre los conocimientos, actitudes,...

  6. Escherichia coli enteroagregativa en niños con diarrea de un hospital de Lima

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    Isabel Arias B

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre las Escherichia coli diarreogénicas la categoría E. coli enteroagregativa (ECEA es una de las más importantes y frecuentemente asociada a diarreas infantiles. El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de detectar los factores de virulencia que caracterizan a esta categoría patogénica mediante hibridación por colony blot usando sondas de ADN específicas. Se evaluaron 233 cepas aisladas en el laboratorio del Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas durante los meses de diciembre 1998 y abril de 1999. Del total de muestras analizadas, se encontró que 17,16% de las cepas poseen el factor de virulencia característico de esta categoría. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que un importante número de aislamientos de niños con diarrea presentan E. coli enteroagregativa.

  7. Enterobacterias como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea en la comunidad

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    Carlos Agudelo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar, a nivel de la comunidad, los enteropatógenos bacterianos que producen diarrea en niños menores de 10 años, tomamos muestras de heces de 204 pacientes con cuadro diarreico de 1 a 7 días de evolución y de un grupo control, sin diarrea, conformado por 48 niños. Evaluamos también la recuperación de los microorganismos empleando o no medio de Cary-Blair como medio de transporte e identificamos las categorías de Escherichia coli aisladas empleando pruebas biológicas e inmunológicas. Se destacaron como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea E. coli (58,8%, E. coli enterotoxigénica, productora de toxina labil (ECET-TL (5,1%, Salmonella enteritidis (6,9% y Shigella sonnei (5,9%. Cuando no se usó el medio de transporte de Cary-Blair la sensibilidad en la recuperación de los microorganismos fue del 37%. Se destaca la importancia de determinar la frecuencia real de las categorías de E. coli en nuestro medio.

  8. Incidencia, etiología y epidemiología de la brucelosis en una área rural de la Provincia de LLeida

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    Jordi Serra Alvarez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio investiga, de forma prospectiva, la incidencia, la etiología y el perfil epidemiolbgico de la brucelosis humana en las comarcas del Pallars Jussà y Sobir;l (Lleida, durante el período 1995-1998.

  9. La brucelosis como enfermedad profesional: estudio de un brote de transmision aerea en un matadero

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    Rodríguez Valín Mª Elena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La aparición de un número elevado de casos de brucelosis entre los trabajadores de un matadero en Zaragoza, en el que se sacrificaba ganado ovino procedente de las campañas de saneamiento ganadero, hizo iniciar una investigación para esclarecer el origen del brote. MÉTODOS: El estudio se estructuró en tres partes: 1 Descripción del brote; 2 Estudio de la estructura y actividad del matadero en cuanto al número de animales sacrificados, carga de trabajo del personal y riesgo por zona de trabajo y 3 Estudio de casos y controles no apareado. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de ataque por secciones de trabajo. El análisis del sacrificio reveló una variación concomitante entre las curvas de sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento y la epidémica. El estudio de casos y controles no reveló diferencias significativas para los siguientes factores de riesgo: trabajo en zona de riesgo, uso de medidas de protección y realización de cortes y heridas. CONCLUSIONES: El brote está relacionado con el sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento. El que no se observaran diferencias significativas por secciones o por trabajar en la zona de riesgo es compatible con una exposición generalizada. Tampoco se observaron diferencias entre los trabajadores respecto a la realización de cortes y heridas o el uso de medidas de protección, lo que da importancia a la transmisión aérea.

  10. LA BRUCELOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD PROFESIONAL: ESTUDIO DE UN BROTE DE TRANSMISION AEREA EN UN MATADERO

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    Ma. Elena Rodríguez Valín

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La aparición de un número elevado de casos de brucelosis entre los trabajadores de un matadero en Zaragoza, en el que se sacrificaba ganado ovino procedente de las campañas de saneamiento ganadero, hizo iniciar una investigación para esclarecer el origen del brote. Métodos: El estudio se estructuró en tres partes: 1 Descripción del brote; 2 Estudio de la estructura y actividad del matadero en cuanto al número de animales sacrificados, carga de trabajo del personal y riesgo por zona de trabajo y 3 Estudio de casos y controles no apareado. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de ataque por secciones de trabajo. El análisis del sacrificio reveló una variación concomitante entre las curvas de sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento y la epidémica. El estudio de casos y controles no reveló diferencias significativas para los siguientes factores de riesgo: trabajo en zona de riesgo, uso de medidas de protección y realización de cortes y heridas. Conclusiones: El brote está relacionado con el sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento. El que no se observaran diferencias significativas por secciones o por trabajar en la zona de riesgo es compatible con una exposición generalizada. Tampoco se observaron diferencias entre los trabajadores respecto a la realización de cortes y heridas o el uso de medidas de protección, lo que da importancia a la transmisión aérea.

  11. Saneamiento, educación, medio ambiente y diarreas: el caso del Conurbano Bonaerense

    OpenAIRE

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio es analizar los efectos del déficit en servicios de saneamiento, factores socio-económicos y factores ambientales que, por sí mismos o en combinación, incrementan el riesgo de padecimiento de diarreas entre la población del Conurbano Bonaerense, una de las áreas mas densamente pobladas de la Argentina y uno de los once conglomerados urbanos más grandes del mundo. Para la medición de los efectos se utilizan datos primarios obtenidos mediante una encuesta ad-hoc y se est...

  12. Uso de las enzimas digestivas en el tratamiento de la diarrea persistente

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    Arnaldo Izquierdo Estévez

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de corte transversal, con el propósito de conocer la medida en que los fermentos pancreáticos totales administrados oralmente, favorecen la evolución de la enfermedad, en los niños menores de 1 año con diarrea persistente, ingresados en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Ángel A. Aballí" en el período de enero a abril de 1996. Los resultados permiten afirmar la reducción del número de deposiciones y el incremento efectivo de peso al 3er. día de tratamiento, así como la mejoría de los síntomas asociados con la diarrea, sin efectos secundarios.A prospective cross-sectional study aimed at finding out to what extent the orally-administered total pancreatic fermets influence over the development of diarrhea disease in under one-year old children admitted with persistent diarrhea to the Gastroenterology Service Unit of «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital from January to April 1996 was performed. Results showed the reduction in the number of stools, the effective weight gain on the 3rd day of treatment as well as the improvement of diarrhea-related symptoms without side effects.

  13. Varón de 48 años con diarrea y colestasis

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    A. Jímenez Jurado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de un varón de 48 años derivado a la consulta por un cuadro clínico de diarrea crónica (> 6 semanas junto con alteración de las pruebas de función hepática consistente en un patrón de colestasis. La presencia de diarrea crónica y colestasis nos obligaron al diagnóstico diferencial entre las siguientes entidades: enfermedad celíaca, enferme-dad inflamatoria intestinal, enfermedades infecciosas crónicas (tuber-culosis intestinal, micobacterium avium en inmunodeprimidos, causas metabólicas como la amiloidosis, obstrucción de la vía biliar intrahepatica (ductopenia del adulto, colangitis esclerosante primaria o secundaria, toma de fármacos y finalmente causas tumorales (colangiocarcinoma, linfoma de Hodgkin, adenocarcinoma colon. En el caso que presentamos, la colangio resonancia magnética nuclear fue la herramienta diagnóstica fundamental para el diagnóstico de la entidad

  14. Brucelosis: condición socioeconómica familiar y calidad de vida en dos zonas contrastantes del estado de Tlaxcala, México

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    Guillermina García Juárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis, o fiebre de Malta, es una enfermedad zoonótica ocasionada por la bacteria intracelular del género Brucella melitensis y Brucella abortus. En el estado de Tlaxcala los caprinos son los principales reservorios y los productos lácteos no pasteurizados ocasionan daños a la salud pública. En el año 2008 se presentó una tasa de morbilidad de 4.78/100000 habitantes, con ello se ocupó el cuarto lugar a nivel nacional; al segundo bimestre del 2011 se pasó al primer lugar nacional. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la condición socioeconómica familiar de los individuos afectados con brucelosis en las zonas rural y urbana, evaluando la calidad de vida. Los grupos de estudio fueron seleccionados por regionalización a través del programa Arc View-3.2. Se aplicaron dos cuestionarios con los siguientes propósitos: 1 analizar la condición socioeconómica de los grupos de estudio y 2medir la calidad de vida en los individuos infectados y sanos, empleando el método de Rand Group. Los resultados mostraron que en la zona rural, de baja condición socioeconómica, había mayor incidencia de brucelosis, interrupción en tratamientos médicos, complicaciones médicas en los individuos enfermos, menor nivel educativo, menos servicios médicos y medicamentos. La calidad de vida de los individuos infectados con brucelosis fue menor, cuando se comparó con los grupos de individuos sanos.

  15. Incidencia y factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea aguda en una comunidad rural de la selva peruana

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    César Henríquez Camacho

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia y factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea aguda en una comunidad rural localizada en la selva del departamento de San Martín, Perú. Material y métodos: Una cohorte de 119 personas fue seleccionada al azar entre la población de 446 habitantes y seguida diariamente por un mes entre enero y febrero de 1999, buscando casos de diarrea aguda, definida como tres ó más cámaras de deposiciones al día por no más de 3 días. Un estudio caso control pareado fue diseñado para determinar los factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea. Resultados: Fueron observados 18 casos de diarrea aguda; la incidencia fue 15.1 casos por 100 personas-mes (IC 95%: 9.45-23.12. La edad media de los casos fue de 10.7 años (rango: 1-34 años y 66% de los casos fueron niños menores de 10 años de edad. Los factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea fueron: consumo de alimentos crudos, RR: 2.2 (IC 95%: 1.12-4.33, consumo de alimentos no lavados, RR: 4.47 (IC 95%: 1.56-12.82, falta de lavado de manos antes de alimentarse, RR: 9.61 (95% IC: 1.44-64.16, consumo de agua no hervida, RR: 4.52 (IC 95%: 1.23-16.65 y alimentación fuera de casa, RR: 2.2 (IC 95%: 1.51-3.20. La diferencia en el número promedio (DE de personas que vivían por casa entre casos y controles fue de 4.38 (1.03 vs. 3.22 (0.54, p=0.0003, respectivamente. No hubo diferencia en el tiempo de residencia en la comunidad entre casos y controles, media de 5.61 ( 5.04 años vs. 8.83 (9.79, p=0.5747. Conclusiones: Diarrea aguda es un problema de salud pública en la selva de San Martín. Hacinamiento, carencia de saneamiento y pobres prácticas higiénicas son los responsables para adquirir diarrea aguda en esta comunidad de bajo nivel socioeconómico. Campañas educativas y mejora en las condiciones sanitarias son claramente necesarias para superar este problema.

  16. La prevenzione dell'influenza, della malattia da meningococco C e della diarrea da colera

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    R. Trivello

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza, meningococco C e colera: tre differenti agenti infettivi che causano malattie molto diverse tra loro, tutte però con un denominatore comune: sono prevenibili con la vaccinazione. La vaccinazione influenzale nei bambini è un argomento di grande attualità e dibattito: i vari aspetti verranno messi a confronto sulla base delle esperienze internazionali e nazionali. La vaccinazione contro il meningococco C: saranno riportati i risultati di una esperienza di collaborazione tra Pediatria di Famiglia e Sanità Pubblica. La diarrea da colera e la sua prevenzione: molti Paesi considerati ad alto rischio per il colera stanno trasformandosi in destinazioni turistiche popolari e la possibilità di contrarne le forme più lievi è molto elevata; la vaccinazione consente efficacemente di eliminare questo rischio.

  17. Análisis de un brote epidémico de brucelosis en trabajadores de un matadero

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    Luna Sánchez Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La notificación mediante el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de un número inusual de casos de Brucelosis en trabajadores de un matadero a finales de 1996 hizo sospechar la existencia de un brote epidémico entre dicho colectivo profesional. MÉTODOS: Se recopiló la información disponible respecto a: 1 animales sacrificados en el matadero diagnosticados de brucelosis; 2 bajas laborales producidas y 3 datos de la mutualidad laboral relativos a los empleados del matadero con la enfermedad. Se realizó una encuesta epidemiológica a los trabajadores sobre los antecedentes de enfermedad, actividad laboral y riesgos no laborales (ingesta de leche o derivados sin higienizar. Las dependencias y actividades del matadero fueron inspeccionadas. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles. Se estudió cada puesto de trabajo tomando como controles a los restantes empleados del matadero. Para su verificación se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. RESULTADOS: El brote epidémico de la enfermedad entre los trabajadores comenzó durante el mes de septiembre y duró hasta febrero del siguiente año. Las encuestas epidemiológicas descubrieron 28 trabajadores con síntomas sugestivos de la enfermedad, siendo los operarios del área de sacrificio del matadero quienes presentan la tasa de ataque más alta: 56%. En el estudio de casos y controles el riesgo más elevado se observó en dicho colectivo de trabajadores con una OR de 4,27 (IC 95%: 1,6-15 y p<0.01. Del mismo modo en el estudio de cohortes apreciamos que estos trabajadores presentan un RR de 2,5 (IC 95%: 1,5-4,3 cuando son comparados con el resto de trabajadores de la cohorte y de 8 (IC 95%: 2-30 si los comparamos con el colectivo de menor exposición. Los RR de los operarios de la limpieza y de la sala de despiece fueron de 6,56 (IC 95%: 1,6-27 para los primeros y de 4,77 (IC 95%: 1,1-21 para los segundos. Las fracciones etiológicas fueron del 87% para los de la zona de

  18. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  19. Prevalencia de brucelosis bovina en el periodo 2004-2012 y tuberculosis bovina en el periodo 2006-2012 en hatos lecheros del Cantón Mejía

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Quisiguano, O.; Paredes Muñoz, J.; Mosquera, J.; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2015-01-01

    Brucelosis y tuberculosis bovina son dos enfermedades que causan importantes pérdidas productivas y reproductivas en la ganadería local, nacional e internacional. En el Ecuador, desde hace varios años se viene trabajando en un programa para el control y erradicación de estas dos enfermedades. En el año 2006, por primera vez, siete predios de producción lechera consiguieron la certificación de predio libre de Brucelosis bovina, otorgada por el Servicio Ecuatoriano de Sanidad Animal (SESA) de e...

  20. Viral Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better from treatment such as an antiviral medicine. Antibiotics do not help viral infections, so they are not useful in the treatment of viral meningitis. However, antibiotics do fight bacteria, so they are very important ...

  1. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to treat viral infections helps bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. With some sore throats (such as those caused ...

  2. Effective treatment of common variable immunodeficiency associated diarrhea Diarrea asociada a inmunodeficiencia común variable tratada con budesonida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Córdova Guevara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID, the commonest symptomatic primary antibody deficiency syndrome, is characterised by recurrent bacterial infections, particularly of the upper and lower airways; it is also associated with an increased incidence of autoimmune and neoplastic disorders. CVID has a high prevalence of infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases. Up to 60% of the patients with non-treated CVID develop diarrhea and 10% associated idiopathic malabsorption with weight loss. The case of a 50-year-old woman with CVID-associated diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating of one year's duration is reported. An exhaustive evaluation made for secondary causes of her symptoms was unrevealing; she was treated with loperamide and diet, without improvement. She later followed a course of oral budesonide for 3 months; her clinical symptoms disappeared and her quality of life improved. In conclusion, we report the case of a patient with CVID-related chronic diarrhea who responded well to oral budesonide treatment. This outcome provides the gastroenterologist with a new therapeutic option in this difficult group of patients.La inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV es la deficiencia primaria de anticuerpos sintomática más frecuente y está caracterizada por infecciones bacterianas recurrentes, especialmente de las vías aéreas superiores e inferiores, y también asociada a incremento de enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias. Presenta alta prevalencia de enfermedades gastrointestinales infecciosas, inflamatorias y neoplásicas. Hasta el 60% de los pacientes con IDCV no tratados desarrollan diarrea y el 10% desarrollan malabsorción idiopática asociado a pérdida de peso. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 50 años con IDCV que presenta diarrea crónica, con dolor y distensión abdominal desde hace 1 año. Realizándose múltiples exploraciones y descartando causas secundarias de diarrea crónica, se inicia

  3. Consenso chileno de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Rocha, Cristian; Pidal, Paola; Ajenjo, M. Cristina; Quera, Rodrigo; Quintanilla, Marcela; Lubascher, Jaime; Jemenao, M. Irene; Ibáñez, Patricio; Álvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Diomedi, Alexis; Marcotti, Alejandra; Acuña, Mirta; Arab, Juan P; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Candía, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile (DACD) ha adquirido gran relevancia debido al aumento en su incidencia, gravedad, capacidad de recurrencia y carga económica asociada. Contar con una guía de consenso local es fundamental para mejorar su manejo. Objetivo: Elaborar un consenso multidisciplinara y basado en la evidencia en la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la DACD. Métodos: Se convocó a un panel de expertos en el área de enfermedades infecciosas, gastroenterolo...

  4. Identificación de Arcobacter en heces de niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en reservorios animales

    OpenAIRE

    Rito Zerpa Larrauri; Jorge O Alarcón Villaverde; Percy E Lezama Vigo; Lilian Patiño Gabriel; Alberto Reyes Dioses; Augusto M Valencia Ramírez; Jorge Velásquez; Carlos R Sevilla Andrade; Miriam J Alarcón León

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Los microorganismos del género Arcobacter, considerados patógenos zoonóticos emergentes, son morfológicamente similares a Campylobacter. Los reportes de Arcobacter como agente etiológico de diarrea en humanos en América Latina son escasos. En el Perú no se ha comunicado su aislamiento en heces de humanos o en animales. Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de Arcobacter en heces de niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en animales: aves, ganado vacuno, porcino, peces y mariscos. Diseño:...

  5. COSTE DE LA DIARREA ASOCIADA A CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE EN ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Asensio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: No se dispone de estudios adecuados del coste de las diarreas asociadas a Clostridium difficile (DACD en España. El objetivo del estudio es estimar el coste de las DACD para el Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS. Métodos: Se realizó un modelo económico para calcular el coste por episodio de DACD (por antibióticos, prolongación del ingreso hospitalario, procedimientos quirúrgicos, medidas de control de la infección, recurrencias de las infecciones tratadas y el coste anual de la DACD. El uso de recursos en la práctica clínica se obtuvo mediante un panel Delphi de clínicos españoles con experiencia en la DACD y los costes unitarios (€ 2012 de fuentes españolas. Resultados: Se estimó que anualmente se produjeron 7.601 episodios de DACD en España (incidencia de 17,1 episodios/año/10.000 altas hospitalarias con un gasto anual para el SNS de 32.157.093 €. Coste por episodio de DACD: 3.901 € (infección inicial, 4.875 € (primera recurrencia y 5.916 € (segunda recurrencia. Coste total de las recurrencias: 10.426.750 € anuales. El 95,6% del gasto se debería a la prolongación de la duración de la estancia hospitalaria, el 0,5% a tratamientos antibióticos, el 2,8% a intervenciones quirúrgicas y el 1,1% a las medidas de control de la infección. Los resultados del estudio fueron sensibles a la incidencia y tasa de letalidad de la DACD en España y a la duración de la prolongación de la duración de la estancia hospitalaria debida a la DACD. Conclusiones: Según este estudio, el gasto asociado a la DACD se debe fundamentalmente a la prolongación de los ingresos hospitalarios y tiene un gran impacto económico en el SNS.

  6. Probióticos para la prevención de la diarrea asociada al clostridium difficile en adultos y niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-05-01

    Resultados principales: Sobre la base de esta revisión sistemática y del metanálisis de 23 ensayos controlados aleatorios con 4213 pacientes, las pruebas de calidad moderada indican que los probióticos son tanto seguros como efectivos para prevenir la diarrea asociada al Clostridium difficile.

  7. Brucelosis canina en perros de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Canine brucellosis in dogs in the city of Buenos Aires

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    Eduardo Boeri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis canina, causada por Brucella canis, provoca epididimitis, atrofia testicular y esterilidad en los perros, mientras que en las hembras el síntoma principal es el aborto. La transmisión al hombre puede ser por contacto con el semen, orina, y/o fetos abortados de animales infectados. El presente estudio de tipo observacional de corte transversal, se realizó en caninos de barrios y asentamientos con alto índice de necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI en 8 áreas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se estudiaron 219 perros, 184 hembras y 35 machos, que fueron negativos a la prueba de aglutinación con antígeno tamponado (BPAT, que descartó la infección con especies lisas del género Brucella. Sedetectaron anticuerpos anti-B. canis en 16 perros (7.3%, 9 hembras y 7 machos, este último dato es relevante ya que la orina de los machos es considerada uno de los medios de diseminación de la infección. Aunque sólo se pudieron tomar hemocultivos a 175 animales, en 3 (2 hembras y un macho se aislaron B. canis. Sólo 3 de los dueños de los perros positivos accedieron al diagnóstico serológico y dos resultaron positivos. Destacamos que la prueba de inmunodifusión en gel de agar (IGDA ha demostrado ser poco sensible, detectó sólo uno de los 16 casos positivos y ninguno de los tres confirmados por aislamiento. Concluimos que en las áreas estudiadas el hallazgo de perros serológicamente positivos y el aislamiento de B. canis en 3 casos, son indicadores del riesgo en el que se encuentra la salud de la población expuesta.Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, provokes epidydimitis, testicular atrophy and sterility in male dogs, while in females the major symptom is miscarriage. Transmission to humans may be through contact with semen, urine and/or aborted fetuses of infected animals. Our study, observational and cross-sectional, focused on dogs in lower class neighborhoods and slums with a high rate of unmet basic needs (UBN in

  8. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  9. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

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    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  10. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda

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    Mota-Hernández Felipe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.

  11. Burden of diarrhea among children in Honduras, 2000-2004: estimates of the role of rotavirus La diarrea infantil en Honduras, 2000-2004: estimados del papel desempeñado por el rotavirus

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    José Orlando Solórzano Girón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the annual burden of diarrhea and of diarrhea that is associated with rotavirus (RV in children who are treated at public clinics and hospitals in Honduras. METHODS: Data were collected from computerized records of all children OBJETIVOS: Estimar la carga anual por diarrea y por diarrea asociada con la infección por rotavirus (RV en niños atendidos en clínicas y hospitales públicos de Honduras. MÉTODOS: Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de los registros computarizados de todos los niños menores de 5 años atendidos por diarrea en clínicas y hospitales operados por la Secretaría de Salud de Honduras durante el período 2000-2004. Una revisión de los estudios realizados sobre RV en Honduras y los países vecinos ofreció estimados de las tasas de detección de RV en niños tratados por diarrea aguda hospitalizados o de forma ambulatoria. Con estos datos se estimó el número anual de casos de diarrea y de diarrea asociada con la infección por RV en Honduras, la incidencia acumulativa de diarrea y de diarrea asociada con la infección por RV en niños menores de 5 años y el número de muertes debido a RV en niños hospitalizados por diarrea. RESULTADOS: Entre los años 2000 y 2004 se registraron medias anuales de 222 000 visitas médicas, 4 390 hospitalizaciones y 162 muertes hospitalarias por diarrea en niños menores de 5 años en instalaciones sanitarias públicas de Honduras. A partir de la revisión de la literatura científica relativa a Honduras y los países vecinos se estimó que 30% de los casos de diarrea atendidos ambulatoriamente y 43% de los hospitalizados podrían deberse a RV. En consecuencia, se estimó que 66 600 visitas médicas ambulatorias, 1 888 hospitalizaciones y 70 muertes hospitalarias de niños menores de 5 años pueden atribuirse a la infección por RV anualmente en Honduras. Por lo tanto, los riesgos de un niño en sus primeros 5 años de vida de asistir a una consulta, de ser

  12. Incidencia, etiología y epidemiología de la brucelosis en una área rural de la Provincia de LLeida

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    Alvarez Jordi Serra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Este estudio investiga, de forma prospectiva, la incidencia, la etiología y el perfil epidemiológico de la brucelosis humana en las comarcas del Pallars Jussà y Sobirà (Lleida, durante el período 1995-1998. Métodos: Fueron estudiados 55 pacientes diagnosticados de brucelosis. Se registró información sobre el sexo, edad, municipio de residencia, riesgo ocupacional, contacto con animales y consumo de productos lácticos no higienizados, y se obtuvieron muestras de sangre para hemocultivo. Resultados: Se registraron 10, 14, 15 y 16 casos para los años 1995, 1996, 1997 y 1998 respectivamente, y las tasas medias acumuladas fueron de 52 en el Pallars Jussà y de 129 en el Pallars Sobirà. El número de casos fue cuatro veces superior en hombres (81,8% que en mujeres (18,2% (RR: 4,4; IC95% 2,2-8,7. La incidencia máxima se produjo en los meses de Marzo-Abril y la mínima en los meses de verano. El 71% de los pacientes desarrollaba una actividad profesional de riesgo y hubo un claro predominio del mecanismo de contagio directo (71%. La especie animal más frecuentemente considerada fuente de infección fue la ovina (65%, seguida de la bovina (47% y de la caprina (25%. En el Pallars Jussà hubo predominio ovino (OR: 0,3; IC95% 0,1 - 0,9 y en el Pallars Sobirà de bovino (OR: 6,6; IC95% 1,8 - 26,2. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Brucella sp, correspondiendo todas ellas a la especie melitensis. Conclusiones: La incidencia de la zoonosis en las comarcas estudiadas ha aumentado durante el período 1995-1998. Los resultados del estudio configuran un perfil epidemiológico característico de enfermedad profesional. El agente etiológico ha sido Brucella melitensis con claro predominio de la biovariedad 1.

  13. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  14. Evaluación nutricional del niño con diarrea funcional Nutritional evaluation of the child with functional diarrhea

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    Tamara Díaz Lorenzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea funcional se presenta con frecuencia en la práctica pediátrica y generalmente no se asocia a alteraciones nutricionales, pero sí a esquemas dietéticos incorrectos. Con el objetivo de determinar la evaluación nutricional de los niños con este tipo de afección, y la influencia de la dieta en la aparición de la enfermedad, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 44 niños menores de 36 meses de edad, que fueron atendidos entre el 2003 y el 2005 en la consulta de gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario Pedro Borrás Astorga. Según los Criterios de Roma II, el diagnóstico correspondiente fue el de diarrea funcional. No hubo afectación nutricional relevante. La evaluación dietética demostró una alimentación no saludable, debida fundamentalmente al consumo poco variado, no equilibrado ni adecuado de los alimentos, que contribuyó a la génesis de las diarreas.Functional diarrhea appears frequently in the pediatric practice and it is not generally associated with nutritional disorders, but with inappropriate diet schemes. In order to determine the nutritional evaluation of the children with this type of affection, and the influence of the diet on the appearance of the disease, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 44 children under 36 months old that received attention at the gastroenterology office of “Pedro Borras Astorga” University Pediatric Hospital between 2003 and 2005. According to the criteria of Rome II, they were diagnosed functional diarrhea. No significant nutritional affection was observed. The dietetic evaluation showed an unhealthy nutrition that contributed to the genesis of the diarrea.

  15. Seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas de las comarcas costeras de Castellón, España

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    Villamarín-Vázquez José Luis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado durante 1996 y 1997 en la Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP de Castellón, España, con 482 aspirantes a su acreditación como manipulador de plaguicidas para aplicación agrícola y a quienes se les hicieron las pruebas serológicas de rosa de Bengala, seroaglutinación de Wright y Coombs antibrucela. En el análisis estadístico se estimó la prevalencia y se usó regresión logística. Resultados. 15 personas (3.1%, IC 95% 1.8%-5.1% presentaron títulos de 1/40 o mayores a las pruebas de Wright o Coombs, y todas negativas al rosa de Bengala. No se apreció riesgo profesional elevado. Conclusiones. La prevalencia estimada fue baja.

  16. Acceso a la educación en salud y su potencial en la disminución de la incidencia de diarrea infantil en las poblaciones costeras de Yucatán, México

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    Rubén Solís

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación en salud o pláticas en el ámbito institucional mitiga la incidencia de diarrea infantil. Yucatán es el estado con las mayores tasas de incidencia de diarreas a nivel nacional; el impacto de las pláticas, como parte de un programa de salud, en la incidencia de diarreas ha sido insuficientemente estudiado. Objetivo: Analizar el rol del acceso a las pláticas para prevenir la incidencia de diarreas infantiles. Metodología: Se utilizó el muestreo de encuestas en 151 hogares, se encontró a 187 niños menores de cinco años de edad. El estudio se realizó en tres segmentos muestrales de la zona costera, con diferentes condiciones ambientales: Progreso (puerto urbano concentrado, Celestún (reserva biosfera, turismo, urbanizada y Río Lagartos (turismo, reserva biosfera rural. Se estimó la tasa de prevalencia lápsica de diarrea, los casos fueron las diarreas ocurridas en los 15 días inmediatos previos a la encuesta. Se hizo análisis descriptivos, bivariados, estratificados y la regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Se registró una tasa de prevalencia lápsica de 13.37% (n=25 casos. El análisis logístico multivariado mostró el impacto protector significativo de las pláticas (=-2.105; RM=0.163; y = 0.018 con un efecto que equivale a 6.25 veces menos riesgo de presentar episodios diarreicos. Conclusión: Las pláticas, como política de salud, tienen impacto en la disminución de las diarreas; esto sucede en especial si se llevan a cabo entre los beneficiarios de los programas sociales.

  17. Acceso a la educación en salud y su potencial en la disminución de la incidencia de diarrea infantil en las poblaciones costeras de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación en salud o pláticas en el ámbito institucional mitiga la incidencia de diarrea infantil. Yucatán es el estado con las mayores tasas de incidencia de diarreas a nivel nacional; el impacto de las pláticas, como parte de un programa de salud, en la incidencia de diarreas ha sido insuficientemente estudiado. Objetivo: Analizar el rol del acceso a las pláticas para prevenir la incidencia de diarreas infantiles. Metodología: Se utilizó el muestreo de encuestas en 151 hogares, se encontró a 187 niños menores de cinco años de edad. El estudio se realizó en tres segmentos muestrales de la zona costera, con diferentes condiciones ambientales: Progreso (puerto urbano concentrado, Celestún (reserva biosfera, turismo, urbanizada y Río Lagartos (turismo, reserva biosfera rural. Se estimó la tasa de prevalencia lápsica de diarrea, los casos fueron las diarreas ocurridas en los 15 días inmediatos previos a la encuesta. Se hizo análisis descriptivos, bivariados, estratificados y la regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Se registró una tasa de prevalencia lápsica de 13.37% (n=25 casos. El análisis logístico multivariado mostró el impacto protector significativo de las pláticas (B=-2.105; RM=0.163; y p= 0.018 con un efecto que equivale a 6.25 veces menos riesgo de presentar episodios diarreicos. Conclusión: Las pláticas, como política de salud, tienen impacto en la disminución de las diarreas; esto sucede en especial si se llevan a cabo entre los beneficiarios de los programas sociales.

  18. Brucelose em bovinos com bursite cervical diagnosticada em abatedouro sob inspeção federal Brucelosis in cattle with supraspinous bursitis diagnosed in an abattoir under federal inspection

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    Laerte Pereira de Almeida

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo epidemiológico tipo caso-controle realizado em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais (MG, Brasil, pesquisou a ocorrência de brucelose em bovinos com bursite cervical, abatidos no período de agosto de 1993 a julho de 1994. O diagnóstico sorológico de brucelose foi realizado mediante a prova de soroaglutinação rápida em placa. Os casos de bursite foram identificados por técnico do Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF, com base em características morfológicas, previamente padronizadas. Para a determinação da "Razão de Odds" e do risco atribuível entre bursite e brucelose, utilizaram-se 30 animais com o quadro e, como controle, 90 bovinos sem a patologia. Dos animais com bursite, 13,3% eram brucélicos, contra 5,6% do grupo controle (P=0,115. Dentre aqueles com brucelose e bursite, as bolsas continham fibrina (40,0% e projeções digitiformes (33,3%; apenas nas bursites dos sorologicamente negativos encontraram-se presença de pus, de nódulos e de líquido viscoso. A "Razão de Odds" encontrada entre brucelose e bursite foi da ordem de 2,61, não sendo demonstrado associação entre bursite cervical e sorologia positiva para brucelose (P>0,05. No âmbito da Saúde Pública e ocupacional, sugere-se a atenção de técnicos e profissionais, visando diminuir o risco de infecção e evitar contaminação de carcaças, equipamentos e instalações.Epidemiological study case-control type carried out in Triângulo abattoir in the city of Uberlândia in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has identified the ocorrence of brucelosis in bovine with supraspinous bursitis, slaughtered from August, 1993 to July, 1994. To diagnose brucelosis "Rapid Agglutination" test was performed on plate with the padronizated antigen count considered positive over 100. The bursas examined were identified by technicians of the Federal Inspection Service based on the presence of ten standardized morphological characteristics. Using the case-control design, 30 animals

  19. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años

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    MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO HOMERO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.

  20. IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE LA PCR (REACCIÓN EN CADENA DE LA POLIMERASA PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE LA BRUCELOSIS DE BOVINOS EN EL ECUADOR

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    Orly Fernando Cevallos Falquez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se implementó la técnica de PCR para la detección de Brucella abortus, en muestras de sangre, en comparación con la prueba Rosa de bengala. La amplificación del ADN se realizó utilizando tres oligonucleotidos homólogos correspondientes a la secuencia 16 ARNr de Brucella abortus, dando una amplificación de 900 y 725 pb respectivamente. Un total de 172 muestras de sangre fueron recolectadas de 4 hatos con prevalencia histórica de presencia de brucelosis. Resultaron 142 negativas con la prueba de serológia y 143 con PCR, 30 resultaron positivas con la prueba serológica Rosa de bengala y 29 salieron positivas con PCR. Todos los animales que salieron positivos con Rosa de bengala, 4 presentaban síntomas clínicos como son; abortos, terneros débiles, baja producción de carne y leche. Los otros 26 animales resultaron negativos con PCR y estos animales no presentaron los síntomas clínicos. De los 142 animales que dieron negativo con Rosa de bengala, 25 resultaron positivos con PCR. Los resultados muestran que la detección de los animales positivos mediante la PCR fue más especificas y sensibles que la prueba serológica de Rosa de bengala, por lo tanto es una herramienta muy útil en el diagnóstico de Brucella abortus.

  1. Evaluación nutricional, lactancia, alimentación complementaria y factores socioambietales en niños con diarrea crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Bottarelli, Josela

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar cual es el estado nutricional, el tipo de la lactancia materna, alimentación complementaria y factores socioambientales en niños de 6 a 12 meses de edad que presentan diarrea crónica. Material y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo, en una muestra de 40 niños lactantes, atendidos en un consultorio de gastroenterología de un Hospital público de la ciudad de Mar del Plata. Se evalúo el estado nutricional a través de los indicadores de crecimiento in...

  2. Infección por Campylobacter y Shigella como causa de Diarrea Aguda Infecciosa en niños menores de dos años en el Distrito de la Victoria, Lima-Perú

    OpenAIRE

    María Perales D; Máximo Camiña; Carmen Quiñones

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Campylobacter y Shigella como agentes etiológicos en diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años atendidos en 4 centros de salud del distrito de La Victoria (Lima, Perú) Materiales y métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico se realizaron coprocultivos bajo técnica microbiológica estándar a los niños menores de dos años con diarrea aguda acuosa atendidos en 4 centros de salud de La Victoria entre abril y octubre de 2001. Fueron excluidos aquell...

  3. Presencia de rotavirus en adultos con diarrea en Asunción, Paraguay Incidence of rotavirus in adults with diarrhea in Asunción, Paraguay

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    M. Martínez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde octubre de 2001 a marzo de 2004 se analizaron 533 heces de individuos mayores de 18 años con cuadros de diarrea, identificándose rotavirus en 92 (17,3% de ellas. La infección por rotavirus en adultos no mostró un grupo etáreo más afectado y se presentó a lo largo de todo el año sin diferencias significativas en las frecuencias trimestrales. En Paraguay, en los niños menores de 5 años, presenta un pico estacional entre los meses de junio y octubre. Los datos presentados refuerzan la necesidad de tener en cuenta a rotavirus en el diagnóstico diferencial de las diarreas en adultos.From October 2001 to March 2004, 92 out of 533 (17.3% fecal samples of patients over 18 years of age were positive for rotavirus. There were not differences of rotavirus incidence between age groups. Although in Paraguay, rotavirus infections in children less than 5 years old present a seasonal peak pattern (since June to October, in adults rotavirus was present throughout the year with the same frequency. Results presented here reinforce the notion that rotavirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diarrhea in adults.

  4. Evaluación de la de vigilancia epidemiológia de la brucelosis en la Comunidad Autónoma del Pais Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coll Jordá D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Se evalúa el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiologíca de las Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria, por medio de la brucelosis, que es la zoonosis de mayor incidencia en todo el Estado, y en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco es de notificación individualizada. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información del Sistema y sus usos y utilidades. Se realizó una búsqueda activa de casos en el Sistema de Información Microbiológico (SIM, en los Hospitales de titularidad pública, y en el Registro de Enfermedades Profesionales. Se compararon los datos de la notificación y la búsqueda. Y por el método de captura recaptuara se compararon los casos de SVE-EDO y hospitales. RESULTADOS: Se detectan riesgos y brotes. La notificación no se realiza bajo sospecha. El aumento de casos después de la búsqueda activa fue de un 40%, 24 frente a 40. La Sensibilidad se estimó en un 60%, el valor predictivo positivo no se pudo calcular. No existe definición de caso. La sensibilidad conjunta, estimada por el método de captura y recaptura, de SVE-EDO y la información hospitalaria es del 84% (Intervalo Confianza 95% 70-100. El número estimado de casos por este método fue de 38+8. DISCUSIÓN: Hay una subdeclaración y como consecuencia una baja sensibilidad. Es necesaria una definición de caso. Notificar después de la confirmación retrasa el tiempo de actuación. El número de casos encontrados en la búsqueda activa es compatible con el calculado por el método de captura-recaptura con solo dos fuentes.

  5. Bacterial pathogens associated with bloody diarrhea in Uruguayan children Patógenos bacterianos asociados a diarrea con sangre en niños uruguayos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Mota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease continues to be a serious health problem, especially in developing countries. Bloody diarrhea represents approximately 20-30% of all cases and has higher morbidity and mortality. Treatment with antibiotics is beneficial in cases of Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia and Salmonella infection, principally in those children with a higher risk of invasive disease. The aims of this study were to detect the bacterial agents associated with bloody diarrhea in children and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Between June 2001 and January 2008, 249 children with bloody diarrhea were studied. Shigella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC were recovered from 48 (19.3% and 3 (1.2% of the total of cases, respectively. In 49 out of 249 children, in whom other enteropathogens were investigated, we recovered Campylobacter jejuni from 7 children (14.3%, Salmonella spp. from 2 (4.1% and Aeromonas spp. from 1 (2% in addition to Shigella from 7 children (14.3%. Thirty-four (70% Shigella isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and 13 (27% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All Shigella isolates were susceptible to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Salmonella and STEC isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics assayed. Thus, the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin would not be appropriate for the empirical treatment of Shigella - associated diarrhea.La enfermedad diarreica es un problema de salud importante, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. La diarrea sanguinolenta representa el 20-30% del total de casos y determina una mayor morbimortalidad. La antibioticoterapia es beneficiosa en casos de infección por Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia y Salmonella, principalmente en niños con riesgo elevado de enfermedad invasora. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron conocer las bacterias asociadas a diarrea sanguinolenta y determinar su patrón de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos

  6. Creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos sobre el manejo de la alimentación del niño con diarrea aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corral-Terrazas Martha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar las creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos rurales sobre el manejo de alimentación en los casos de diarrea aguda de los menores de cinco años y compararlos con la recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de antropología cognitiva con los 10 médicos que brindan atención a la población infantil en el Hospital Rural del IMSS-Solidaridad de San Juanito, Bocoyna, Chihuahua, México, de julio a diciembre de 1998. Se trianguló la información obtenida por las técnicas de grupos focales, viñetas, listado libre, sorteo de montones y cuestionario semiestructurado. Resultados. Los médicos reconocieron el impacto negativo de la diarrea sobre el estado nutricio del niño, pero no todos evaluaron su estado de nutrición. Como tratamientos predominaron los antimicrobianos, el manejo con líquidos y las recomendaciones sobre alimentación. De éstas, las más consistentes fueron la lactancia materna, la alimentación tardía y la dieta "escalonada". Conclusiones. La información obtenida contrasta con la recomendación de la OMS, en especial con la de alimentación sostenida.

  7. PREVALENCIA DE BRUCELOSIS EN LA LECHE CRUDA DE BOVINOS EXPENDIDA EN EL MUNICIPIO DE POPAYÁN CAUCA SEPTIEMBRE - DICIEMBRE 2006. PREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN CATTLE RAW MILK SPREAD IN THE CITY OF POPAYAN CAUCA. SEPTEMBER-DECEMBER 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO VERGARA COLLAZOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Brucelosis bovina es una zoonosis de declaración obligatoria y la de mayor difusión en el mundo según la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS. Esta enfermedad ocasiona pérdidas importantes en la producción, reproducción del ganado lechero y en humanos afecta la salud, productividad y calidad de vida. El propósito de este trabajo es determinar la prevalencia de Brucelosis en la leche cruda que se expende en el Municipio de Popayán e identificar factores asociados con la presencia de brucelosis en los diferentes hatos proveedores de leche cruda. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se evaluaron 247 muestras de leche cruda comercializadas en el Municipio de Popayán a través de 11 rutas, provenientes de los municipios de Sotará, Puracé y Coconuco, principales proveedores de leche cruda al Municipio de Popayán, mediante la técnica de Ring Test para detectar anticuerpos específicos antibrucella y se aplicó una encuesta estructurada a los dueños de los hatos. La Prevalencia encontrada en este estudio fue del 15% (37/247. Los factores que se asociaron significativamente (p The Cattle Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis and it is greatly released in the world according to World Health Organization (WHO. This disease causes important looses in the production, reproduction of dayri cattle. In humans it affects the health, productivity and human quality. This article aims at determining the prevalence of Brucellosis in raw milk that is expended in the city of Popayán and identificate the factors associated with the presence of Brucellosis in the different raw milk provider herds. At descriptive study of cross-cutting was carried out. There were evaluated 247 marketed samples of raw milk in the city of Popayan by 11 routes, originating from the municipalities of Sotará, Puracé and Coconuco, principal providers of raw milk in the city of Popayan. The Ring Test Technique was used for detecting specific

  8. En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Gómez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6 587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos de encuestas comunitarias. Los datos hospitalarios muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea dieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (1 de cada 8 nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (1 de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$27,7 millones. Estos datos preliminares muestran que la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en los niños argentinos es muy pesada y podría disminuirse con una vacuna segura y efectiva. Además se necesita ampliar la

  9. En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Jorge A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6 587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos de encuestas comunitarias. Los datos hospitalarios muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea dieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (1 de cada 8 nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (1 de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$27,7 millones. Estos datos preliminares muestran que la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en los niños argentinos es muy pesada y podría disminuirse con una vacuna segura y efectiva. Además se necesita ampliar la

  10. Mobil Viral Pazarlama

    OpenAIRE

    Barutçu, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mobile Viral Marketing, with using mobile phones, is one of the most importantinnovations after Word of Mouth Marketing performed by face to face amongpeople and Viral Marketing performed in the İnternet. The main objective of thisstudy is to call marketing communicators’ and academicians’ attentions whowant to increase the recognition of companies’ products, services and brands tobecome a current issue in the marketplace using Mobile Viral Marketingapplications by reason of techno...

  11. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  12. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  13. Viral Disease Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  14. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  15. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  16. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  17. Wastewater viral community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the information used to generate the figures in the manuscript. The data describes the viral loss measured at all steps of sample processing,...

  18. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  19. Metabolism goes viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2014-04-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Frecuencia y patotipos de Escherichia coli diarrogénicas en niños peruanos con y sin diarrea Frequency and pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in peruvian children with and without diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Ochoa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las E. coli diarrogénicas (DEC son una de las principales causas de diarrea en niños en países en vías de desarrollo. Sin embargo, no son rutinariamente diagnosticadas en los laboratorios clínicos. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de las DEC en niños peruanos y describir la variabilidad genética de estas cepas. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 8 003 cepas de E. coli previamente aisladas de ocho estudios previos de diarrea en niños, mayormente en zonas periurbanas de Lima. El diagnóstico de las DEC fue a través de un PCR múltiple a tiempo real para los seis grupos de DEC. Se empleó PCR para la determinación de genes adicionales de virulencia. Resultados. La prevalencia promedio global en muestras de diarrea (n=4 243 fue: E. coli enteroagregativa (EAEC 9,9%, enteropatogénica (EPEC 8,5%, enterotoxigénica (ETEC 6,9%, difusamente adherente (DAEC 4,8%, productora de toxina shiga (STEC 0,8% y enteroinvasiva (EIEC 0,6%. La frecuencia relativa de cada patógeno varía según la edad y tipo de estudio. Los principales patotipos en muestras control (n=3 760 fueron EPEC (10,9% y EAEC (10,4%. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la frecuencia de genes de virulencia para cada patotipo, así como en los mecanismos moleculares de resistencia, sin diferencias significativas entre muestras de diarrea y control. Conclusiones. Las DEC son causa importante de diarrea en niños peruanos. Estos patógenos son altamente heterogéneos. Se requieren estudios adicionales para determinar la prevalencia en zonas rurales del Perú, así como en casos graves de diarrea.Introduction. Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC are a major cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. However, they are not part of routine diagnosis in clinical laboratories. Objectives. To determine the DEC prevalence in Peruvian children and to describe the genetic variability of these strains. Materials and methods. A total of 8 003 E. coli strains previously

  1. Infección por Campylobacter y Shigella como causa de Diarrea Aguda Infecciosa en niños menores de dos años en el Distrito de la Victoria, Lima-Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Perales D

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Campylobacter y Shigella como agentes etiológicos en diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años atendidos en 4 centros de salud del distrito de La Victoria (Lima, Perú Materiales y métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico se realizaron coprocultivos bajo técnica microbiológica estándar a los niños menores de dos años con diarrea aguda acuosa atendidos en 4 centros de salud de La Victoria entre abril y octubre de 2001. Fueron excluidos aquellos niños con disentería y aquellos que habían recibido tratamiento antibiótico previo a la atención. Resultados: se estudiaron un total de 248 casos, de los cuales 48 (19,4% coprocultivos fueron positivos: 33 (13.3% a Campylobacter, 12 (4,8% a Shigella y 3 (1,2% a Salmonella. No se identificaron otros patógenos. Las especies de Shigella identificadas fueron: Shigella flexneri en 9 (75,0% casos y Shigella sonnei en 3 (25,0% La única especie de Campylobacter identificada fue Campylobacter jejuni siendo el biotipo I el más frecuente (84,6% Conclusiones: Campylobacter y Shigella juegan un importante papel como agentes etiológicos causantes de diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años.

  2. Identificación de Arcobacter en niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en reservorios animales: aves, ganado vacuno y porcino, peces y mariscos

    OpenAIRE

    Zerpa, Rito; Alarcón, Jorge; Lezama, Percy; Patiño, Lilian; Reyes, Alberto; Valencia, Augusto; Velásquez, Jorge; Alarcón, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de Arcobacter en niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en animales: aves, ganado vacuno y porcino, peces y mariscos. Diseño: Estudio transversal descriptivo. Institución: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrión, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Instituto Materno Infantil de San Bartolomé y Hospital Arzobispo Loayza. Material biológico: Aislamientos bacterianos de humanos y animales. Intervenciones: Búsqueda activa de Arc...

  3. EDUCACIÓN SANITARIA SOBRE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES ADOLESCENTES PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DE DIARREAS AGUDAS EN LACTANTES DEL HOSPITAL HERMILIO VALDIZÁN – HUÁNUCO 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Zevallos, Julia Marina

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVO. Determinar el efecto de la educación sanitaria sobre lactancia materna en madres adolescentes para la prevención de diarreas agudas. MÉTODOS. Se llevó a cabo un estudio cuasi-experimental con pre y post test para 24 lactantes que conformaron el grupo experimental y 24 lactantes el grupo control, procedentes del hospital Regional Hermilio Valdizán, Huánuco 2015. Se utilizó un cuestionario de conocimiento, una guía de observación y una ficha de registros. Para el aná...

  4. Características etiológicas, clínicas y sociodemográficas de la diarrea aguda en Venezuela Etiological, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics of acute diarrhea in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Urrestarazu

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro ciudades de Venezuela se llevó a cabo un estudio para evaluar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y etiológicas de la diarrea aguda en niños menores de 5 años. Entre junio de 1993 y mayo de 1995 se estudiaron 2 552 niños con diarrea y 793 controles que fueron atendidos en el hospital. Para el análisis estadístico de los resultados se empleó la prueba exacta de Fisher. Los rotavirus fueron los agentes más importantes, tanto por su frecuencia (30% como por su asociación con la deshidratación (58%. Le siguieron en importancia Campylobacter spp. (13% y Escherichia coli serogrupos O clásicos (9%, pero su asociación con la diarrea solo fue estadísticamente significativa en los niños menores de 3 meses, hecho de particular importancia desde el punto de vista del tratamiento. Se confirmó la importancia de la edad como factor determinante de la prevalencia y gravedad de la diarrea.In four cities of Venezuela a study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. The study was done between June 1993 and May 1995 and involved children who were seen in a hospital, 2 552 with diarrhea and 793 controls. The Fisher exact test was used for the statistical analysis of the results. Rotaviruses were the most important agents, both in terms of their frequency (30% and their association with dehydration (58%. Following in importance were Campylobacter spp. (13% and Escherichia coli classical O serogroups (9%, but their association with diarrhea was only statistically significant among children less than 3 months old, a fact that is particularly important from the standpoint of treatment. The importance of age was confirmed as a determining factor in the prevalence and severity of diarrhea.

  5. Efecto del zinc aminoquelado y el sulfato de zinc en la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea en niños preescolares de centros infantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El déficit de zinc es común en niños de poblaciones en desarrollo. La deficiencia de zinc altera el sistema inmunológico y la resistencia a las infecciones. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos compuestos de zinc en la prevención de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo comunitario triple ciego en 301 niños entre dos y cinco años de edad de centros infantiles de Medellín. Fueron seis conglomerados distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de intervención que recibieron zinc aminoquelado, sulfato de zinc y placebo durante cinco días de la semana a lo largo de 16 semanas. Se evaluaron diariamente los síntomas de infección respiratoria, diarrea aguda y efectos secundarios. Resultados. La incidencia de la infección respiratoria fue menor con el zinc aminoquelado (1,42 por 1.000 días-niño comparado con el sulfato de zinc (1,57 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,90, IC95%: 0,382 a 2,153, p=0,999 y con el placebo (3,3 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,43, IC95%: 0,196 a 0,950, p=0,049. La incidencia de diarrea aguda con el zinc aminoquelado (0,15 por 1.000 días-niño fue menor que con el sulfato de zinc (1,18 0,78 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,20, IC95%: 0,0043 a 1,662, p=0,361 y que la del grupo placebo (0,49 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,32, IC95%: 0,006 a 3,990, p=0,346. Conclusiones. El zinc aminoquelado tuvo mejor efecto en la disminución de la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas en niños preescolares comparado con los otros grupos de estudio. Identificador en clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01791608

  6. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  7. Evaluación de un antígeno de Brucella abortus para aglutinación en placa como prueba tamiz en el diagnóstico de la brucelosis bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rajme-Manzur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo obtener y validar un antígeno buferado de Brucella abortus para la prueba de aglutinación en placa como prueba diagnóstica de base de la brucelosis bovina. Se formularon tres lotes de antígeno a partir de la multiplicación de la cepa 99 de Brucella abortus. Se realizaron los controles de calidad correspondientes (determinación de pH, volumen celular, esterilidad, capacidad buferante y las pruebas serológicas para la evaluación del desempeño. Se emplearon 1070 muestras de suero bovino (350 positivas y 720 negativas previamente controladas con las pruebas de diagnóstico establecidas. Se determinó la sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica y relativa, los valores predictivos positivos y negativos, la eficacia y la concordancia. En los tres lotes todas las características evaluadas resultaron estar dentro de los parámetros establecidos para este tipo de producto. La especificidad y sensibilidad diagnósticas fueron de 99,5% y 100% respectivamente. El valor predictivo positivo fue de 99,1%, el valor predictivo negativo fue de 100% y la eficacia de un 99,7%. El antígeno mostró una sensibilidad y especificidad relativas de un 100% y la concordancia resultó ser clasificada como muy buena. La evaluación del desempeño arrojó resultados satisfactorios, demostrando que el método de producción empleado es factible para la obtención de un producto con adecuada eficacia.

  8. Seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas de las comarcas costeras de Castellón, España Seroprevalence of brucellosis in agricultural workers living in coastal areas of Castellon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villamarín-Vázquez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado durante 1996 y 1997 en la Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP de Castellón, España, con 482 aspirantes a su acreditación como manipulador de plaguicidas para aplicación agrícola y a quienes se les hicieron las pruebas serológicas de rosa de Bengala, seroaglutinación de Wright y Coombs antibrucela. En el análisis estadístico se estimó la prevalencia y se usó regresión logística. Resultados. 15 personas (3.1%, IC 95% 1.8%-5.1% presentaron títulos de 1/40 o mayores a las pruebas de Wright o Coombs, y todas negativas al rosa de Bengala. No se apreció riesgo profesional elevado. Conclusiones. La prevalencia estimada fue baja.Objective. To estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in agricultural workers. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1996 and 1997 at Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP in Castellon, España (Public Health Center Occupational Health Unit, among 482 subjects applying for certification to handle pesticides for agricultural use. Serologic testing consisted of rose Bengal staining, Wright's agglutination, and antibrucella Coombs tests. Statistical analysis consisted in estimation of prevalence figures and logistic regression modelling. Results. Fifteen subjects (3.1%, 95% CI 1.8%-5.1% had titers of 1/40 or higher to Wright and/or Coombs tests; all were negative to rose Bengal staining. No high occupational risk was observed. Conclusions. A low prevalence of brucellosis was found.

  9. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  10. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings Carga de morbilidad de la diarrea por rotavirus en Perú: la necesidad de una vacuna y su potencial de ahorro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ehrenkranz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. Methods. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Results. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384 000 cases, 64 000 clinic visits, 30 000 hospitalizations, and 1 600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Conclusions. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.Objetivos. Evaluar la carga de morbilidad de la diarrea por rotavirus en Perú, la necesidad de una vacuna y el ahorro que esta podría proporcionar en este país. M

  11. Treating viral hemorrhagic fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are illnesses associated with a number of geographically restricted, mostly tropical areas. Over recent decades a number of new hemorrhagic fever viruses have emerged. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases have improved our initial supportive

  12. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  13. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  14. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  15. Patrones de adherencia de cepas de Escherichia coli Difusamente adherente (DAEC provenientes de niños con y sin diarrea Adhesion patterns in diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC strains isolated from children With and without diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Riveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las E. coli de adherencia difusa (DAEC son el sexto grupo de E. coli diarrogénicas reconocidas. Su asociación con diarrea es controversial. No se conoce la variabilidad en los patrones de adherencia de cepas clínicas. Objetivos. Comparar los patrones de adherencia entre cepas aisladas de niños con y sin diarrea. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 31 cepas DAEC, 25 de diarrea y 6 de niños asintomáticos (control aislados de un estudio de cohorte de niños menores de 12 meses en el cono sur de Lima. Las DAEC fueron identificadas por PCR (gen daaD. Se evaluó el patrón y grado de adherencia en cultivos de células HEp-2; la polimerización de actina se evaluó por la prueba de coloración de fluorescencia de actina (FAS; y la motilidad se evaluó por métodos convencionales microbiológicos. Resultados. El patrón de adherencia difusa se encontró en el 88% de muestras de diarrea y en el 100% de muestras control. La cantidad de bacterias adheridas por célula fue significativamente menor en las muestras de diarrea (pIntroduction. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC is the sixth recognized group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, its association with diarrhea remains controversial. Variability in the adherence patterns of clinical strains is unknown. Objectives. To compare the adherence patterns between strains isolated from children with and without diarrhea. Materials and methods. A total of 31 DAEC strains were analyzed, 25 from children with diarrhea and 6 from asymptomatic (control children, isolated from a cohort study of children under one year of age in the southern districts of Lima. DAEC were identified by PCR (daaD gene. The pattern and adherence score in HEp-2 cell culture were evaluated, Actin polimerization was determined by fluorescence actin staining (FAS and motility was evaluated by conventional microbiology methods. Results. Diffuse adherence pattern was found in 88% of diarrhea samples and in the total of

  16. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  17. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  18. Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Aydın; Aşina Gülerarslan; Süleyman Karaçor; Tarık Doğan

    2013-01-01

    Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertise...

  19. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  20. Lactancia materna y diarrea aguda en los primeros tres meses de vida Breast feeding and the incidence of acute diarrhea during the first three months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Macías-Carrillo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la lactancia materna exclusiva y sus interacciones con algunos factores socioeconómicos, en relación con la incidencia de diarrea aguda durante los primeros tres meses de la vida. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En la ciudad de Durango, México, en 1994 se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte con tres meses de seguimiento; la muestra estuvo compuesta por 327 parejas de madre y recién nacido, residentes de la ciudad de Durango, durante el periodo abril-junio de 1994. Para el análisis se utilizaron técnicas descriptivas, análisis bivariados y modelos multivariados de regresión logística con efectos aleatorios. RESULTADOS: Los niños que no reciben lactancia exclusiva al seno materno tienen un riesgo significativamente elevado de padecer diarrea aguda desde el inicio de la vida (RMlactancia mixta= 3.23; IC 95% 1.84-5.68 y RMlactancia artificial=4.36; IC 95% 2.32-8.19. Además, el efecto protector de la lactancia al seno materno es independiente del que tienen factores de riesgo tales como la educación materna deficiente, la falta de apoyo social y el hecho de que la madre sea adolescente. Sin embargo, en el caso especial del saneamiento ambiental encontramos evidencia de una posible modificación del efecto respecto al tipo de lactancia (deltaG=9.26; p=0.09, que se traduce en una razón de momios para la carencia de agua y drenaje mayor que la suma de las RM para cada condición por separado (RMno agua/no drenaje = 2.58; IC 95% 1.10-6.03, en el modelo multivariante final. CONCLUSIONES: Al igual que estudios previos encontramos que la lactancia exclusiva al seno materno tiene una gran importancia, a pesar de que en el entorno persistan condiciones adversas ligadas a la pobreza y al subdesarrollo socioeconómico. En especial, parece que la protección que confiere la lactancia al seno es todavía mayor cuando se carece de las condiciones básicas de saneamiento, lo cual, a su vez, se traduce en oportunidades de intervenci

  1. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  2. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  3. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  4. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  5. Nucleocapsid-Independent Specific Viral RNA Packaging via Viral Envelope Protein and Viral RNA Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Krishna; Chen, Chun-Jen; Maeda, Junko; Makino, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    For any of the enveloped RNA viruses studied to date, recognition of a specific RNA packaging signal by the virus's nucleocapsid (N) protein is the first step described in the process of viral RNA packaging. In the murine coronavirus a selective interaction between the viral transmembrane envelope protein M and the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, composed of N protein and viral RNA containing a short cis-acting RNA element, the packaging signal, determines the selective RNA packaging into vi...

  6. A serological and bacteriological survey of dogs to detect Brucella infection in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province Estudio serológico y bacteriológico de brucelosis en perros de Lomas de Zamora, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of the reproductive tract that may cause miscarriage in females, infection of the sexual organs in males and infertility in both sexes. The prevalence of brucellosis in dogs is unknown and little has been done to control the disease, except in certain breeds and some commercial dog kennels. In the course of a free neuter program in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province, prevalence of antibodies to Brucella sp., bacteriological isolation and clinical observations were performed. Of 224 dogs studied, 33 (14.7% were found positive for the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT, 24 (10.7% of which were confirmed by IELISA. Of the 33 RSAT positive, 17 (51.5% blood cultures were done, and B. canis were isolated from 2 cases. Since infected dogs have been shown to remain bacteremic for prolonged periods, our results also suggest a risk of human infections in this area.La brucelosis canina causada por Brucella canis es una infección que afecta el tracto reproductivo de los perros y que puede provocar abortos en las hembras, infección de los órganos sexuales en los machos e infertilidad en ambos sexos. Se desconoce la prevalencia de esta enfermedad y las medidas de control se aplican sólo en algunos criaderos comerciales. Durante un programa de castración gratuita de perros llevado a cabo en el Partido de Lomas de Zamora (Gran Buenos Aires se realizaron estudios clínicos, serológicos y bacteriológicos en 224 animales. En la población estudiada, la prueba de microaglutinación rápida en portaobjetos (RSAT resultó positiva en suero de 33 (14,7% perros y fueron confirmadas por IELISA en 24 (10,7% de ellos. A 17 de los 33 perros positivos mediante RSAT (51,5% se les practicaron hemocultivos y en 2 casos se aisló B. canis. Debido a que los perros infectados permanecen bacteriémicos durante períodos prolongados, constituyen un riesgo para la salud pública.

  7. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  8. The epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in Latin America: anticipating rotavirus vaccines La epidemiología de la diarrea por rotavirus en América Latina: perspectivas de vacunación frente al rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Kane

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the disease burden and characterize the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in Latin America. METHODS: We conducted a literature review of studies of children OBJETIVO: Valorar la carga de enfermedad e identificar las características epidemiológicas de la diarrea causada por rotavirus en América Latina. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una revisión de la literatura que abarcaba los estudios de niños menores de 5 años que fueron hospitalizados o atendidos como pacientes ambulatorios a causa de la diarrea, y en los cuales se buscó al rotavirus como agente etiológico de la diarrea. Nuestro trabajo de revisión incluye los estudios publicados desde el año 1998 sobre pacientes ingresados y ambulatorios, que incluyeron a 100 niños o más, y que informaron sobre actividades de vigilancia que se prolongaron durante al menos 12 meses consecutivos. RESULTADOS: Un total de 18 estudios de pacientes ingresados y 10 estudios de pacientes ambulatorios satisficieron los criterios de inclusión de nuestro trabajo de revisión. Se detectó el rotavirus en el 31% (mediano de los pacientes ingresados (intervalo del 16% al 52% y en el 30.5% de los pacientes ambulatorios (intervalo del 4% al 42%. La tasa mediana de detección fue mayor en los estudios que emplearon un ensayo de encimoinmunoanálisis (ELISA (pacientes ingresados: 38%, pacientes ambulatorios: 33% frente a otros métodos de detección menos sensibles. La distribución de la enfermedad rotavírica según la edad difería entre países, aunque la proporción de niños hospitalizados durante el primer año de vida fue del 65% al 85%. En la mayoría de los países se produjeron ingresos hospitalarios por rotavirus durante todo el año, y el rotavirus normalmente mostraba un máximo estacional en el invierno tanto en las zonas de clima tropical como en aquellas de clima templado. CONCLUSIONES: La importante carga de enfermedad que se atribuye al rotavirus en América Latina sugiere que las

  9. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  10. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  11. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  12. Relevamiento serológico de anticuerpos contra enfermedades virales de interés sanitario en llamas (Lama glama de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S Barbieri

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones de llamas de Argentina se concentran principalmente en la provincia de Jujuy; su explotación representa un importante recurso económico de las comunidades altoandinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra algunos agentes virales asociados a enfermedades de impacto productivo en rodeos de llamas de Jujuy. Se analizaron 349 sueros de llamas adultas de 6 departamentos de la puna jujeña ubicados por encima de los 3300 msnm. Se obtuvo una prevalencia del 100 % para rotavirus grupo A y del 70 % para el virus parainfluenza-3 bovino, mientras que no se detectaron reactores para herpesvirus bovino 1, virus de la diarrea viral bovina, influenza A humana (H1N1 e influenza equina (H3N8. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la amplia distribución de rotavirus y virus parainfluenza y la baja susceptibilidad a herpesvirus y pestivirus en las tropas de llamas de la puna jujeña.

  13. The feasibility of using antigens prepared with rough Brucella strains for diagnosis of canine brucellosis Utilidad de los antígenos preparados con cepas rugosas de Brucella en el diagnóstico de brucelosis canina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnosis of canine brucellosis is not sensitive enough and a negative blood culture cannot rule out the disease. Indirect methods of serological testing such as agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID, rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT and indirect enzyme linked immunoassay (IELISA are preferred for routine diagnosis. Since Brucella canis shares antigenic components with the Brucella ovis and Brucella abortus RB51 strain, it would seem that either strain could be used as antigen. We present data on AGID and IELISA tests using the B. ovis antigen, RSAT and IELISA using the B. canis antigen and IELISA using the B. abortus RB51 antigen. The cut-off values were adjusted by the ROC analysis; the IELISA-B. ovis cut-off value was 23 (%P and the IELISA-B. abortus RB51, 24 (%P, with 100% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity. RSAT detected 100% of positive cases, while AGID was less sensitive. The sera from dogs treated with antibiotic showed that %P correlated well with the clinical course. Sera from dogs presumptively infected with B. suis were negative in all tests performed with the rough Brucella strains. RSAT is a very sensitive screening test and IELISA-B. canis, B. ovis and B. abortus RB51 could be used as confirmatory tests, since they show good specificity and sensitivity.Las técnicas más usadas en el diagnóstico de brucelosis canina son la inmunodifusión en gel de agar (AGID, la microaglutinación en portaobjetos (RSAT y el ELISA indirecto ya que el diagnóstico clínico es poco sensible y el bacteriológico no excluye la enfermedad. Como Brucella canis comparte componentes antigénicos con Brucella ovis y Brucella abortus RB51, estas cepas podrían ser usadas indistintamente como antígenos. En este trabajo presentamos datos sobre las pruebas de AGID e IELISA con antígeno B. ovis, RSAT e IELISA con antígeno B. canis e IELISA con antígeno B. abortus RB51. Los puntos de corte ajustados con la curva ROC fueron (%P 23 para IELISA-B. ovis y

  14. Zinc supplementation for treating diarrhea in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis Administración de suplementos de zinc para tratar la diarrea infantil: revisión sistemática y metanálisis

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    Tais Freire Galvao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To update the available evidence about zinc use for treating diarrhea in children and to assess its effect on the malnourished population, a subgroup that has not been fully explored in previous analyses. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of randomized clinical trials that assessed children up to 5 years old with acute diarrhea who received zinc supplementation. Controls received a placebo or oral rehydration therapy. After searching the main databases, without language restrictions, two independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Meta-analyses were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance random effects. RESULTS: Eighteen of 1 041 studies retrieved were included in the review (n = 7 314 children. Zinc was beneficial for reducing the duration of diarrhea in hours (mean difference [MD] = -20.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -29.15 to -11.09, I² = 91%. The effect was greater in malnourished children (MD = -33.17, 95% CI = -33.55 to -27.79, I² = 0%. Diarrhea prevalence on days 3, 5, and 7 was lower in the zinc group. The incidence of vomiting was significantly greater in the group that received zinc than in the control group. Included randomized controlled trials were of low risk of bias in most domains assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies.OBJETIVO: Actualizar los datos probatorios disponibles acerca del uso del zinc en el tratamiento de la diarrea infantil y evaluar su efecto en la población malnutrida, un subgrupo no plenamente estudiado en análisis anteriores. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaban a niños de hasta 5 años de edad con diarrea aguda y a los

  15. Caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in Kingston, Jamaica Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los cuidadores hacia la diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica

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    Lela Rose Bachrach

    2002-07-01

    diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica, con el fin de determinar si sus escasos conocimientos sobre la prevención y el tratamiento de la diarrea y la deshidratación hacen que los niños corran mayor riesgo de hospitalización por estos problemas. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional de casos y controles entre febrero y mayo de 1997 en el Hospital Infantil Bustamante de Kingston. Se usó una muestra de conveniencia de niños de menos de 5 años y los datos fueron recogidos mediante entrevistas personales con los cuidadores de los dos grupos de niños. Un grupo estaba formado por 117 niños con gastroenteritis aguda, y el otro por 98 niños con problemas agudos no relacionados con la gastroenteritis. De los 215 cuidadores entrevistados, 197 eran las madres, 9 eran tutores, 5 eran los padres y 4 eran las abuelas. Resultados. La media etaria de los cuidadores, su nivel educacional y su estatus socioeconómico eran similares en los dos grupos. Los cuidadores del grupo de niños con gastroenteritis tenían niños más pequeños y menos acceso al agua corriente y a frigoríficos. Los niños cuyos cuidadores nunca habían oído hablar de la rehidratación oral tenían mayor riesgo de presentar gastroenteritis y deshidratación [razón de posibilidades (odds ratio: OR: 4,6; intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95: 1,8-11,7], al igual que los niños cuyos cuidadores tenían escasos conocimientos sobre la prevención y el tratamiento de la diarrea y la deshidratación (OR: 3,7; IC95: 1,6-8,8. Otro factor de riesgo independiente fue la poca confianza del cuidador en su propia capacidad para tratar la diarrea del niño (OR: 2,3; IC95: 1,1-4,9. Conclusiones. Estos resultados destacan la necesidad de incrementar los esfuerzos informativos que les permitan a los cuidadores proteger a los niños de la morbilidad y la mortalidad relacionadas con la diarrea.

  16. Viral myositis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Haley; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-05-01

    Question I recently evaluated a child in my clinic after an emergency department visit where she presented having woken up that morning refusing to walk and was crawling around the house. The parents reported she was getting over a cold, and I recall similar cases of myositis during the H1N1 influenza epidemic a few years ago. What are the key features of myositis that I should recognize? Which investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis and how should affected patients be managed? Answer Benign acute childhood myositis is a mild and self-limited sudden onset of lower extremity pain during or following recovery from a viral illness. Presentation can include tiptoe gait or refusal to walk, secondary to symmetric bilateral lower extremity pain that resolves quickly, usually within 3 days. In general, no investigation is needed except in severe cases for which screening bloodwork and a urine myoglobin test can confirm the diagnosis and rule out complications. Myoglobinuria and highly elevated creatine phosphokinase levels are rare but should be a consideration for admission to hospital. Prognosis is excellent and management might include rest and analgesia. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. Dengue viral infections

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    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  18. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  19. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  20. Caracterización genotípica y fenotípica de cepas emergentes de Escherichia coli aisladas de niños con diarrea en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia

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    Monica Yurley Arias Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA sigue siendo uno de los principales problemas en salud pública en países en desarrollo. Dentro de los agentes infecciosos que causan esta enfermedad se encuentran bacterias, virus y parásitos. Los agentes bacterianos ocupan un segundo lugar destacándose Escherichia coli enteropatógenas entre las más importantes. Actualmente, seis cepas con diferentes mecanismos de patogenicidad están asociados a diarrea  E. coli enteropatógena (ECEP, productora de toxina-shiga (ECTS, enterotoxigénica (ECET, enteroinvasiva (ECEI, enteroagregativa (ECEA y adherente difusa (ECAD, cada una con un set específico de genes de virulencia. No obstante, se han reportado brotes de EDA ocasionados por cepas de E. coli diferentes a los patotipos conocidos, denominadas cepas emergentes. Estos brotes han sido reportados en Alemania, Europa y recientemente en Cartagena Colombia, lo que sugiere que en nuestro medio circulan estas cepas. Por lo cual, es necesario caracterizar estas cepas emergentes. Objetivo: Caracterizar genotípicamente y fenotípicamente dos cepas emergentes de E. coli aisladas de muestras diarreicas en niños menores de cinco años en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: De un estudio de casos y controles realizado entre Julio del 2013 y diciembre del 2014 en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia a 860 niños menores de 5 años con diarrea (casos y sin diarrea (controles. Se aislaron a partir de coprocultivos cepas de E. coli mediante pruebas bioquímicas. A estas cepas previamente almacenadas a -80°C se les determino mediante PCR multiplex los patotipos de E. coli, los cuales posteriormente fueron confirmados mediante PCR simple. Muestras positivas para dos patotipos u otra característica fueron clasificadas como cepas emergentes. Finalmente, estas cepas se caracterizaron fenotípica y genotípicamente. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo pruebas como secuenciación de genes de

  1. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

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    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  2. Creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos sobre el manejo de la alimentación del niño con diarrea aguda Physicians' beliefs and knowledge on dietary management of children with acute diarrhea

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    Martha Corral-Terrazas

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar las creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos rurales sobre el manejo de alimentación en los casos de diarrea aguda de los menores de cinco años y compararlos con la recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de antropología cognitiva con los 10 médicos que brindan atención a la población infantil en el Hospital Rural del IMSS-Solidaridad de San Juanito, Bocoyna, Chihuahua, México, de julio a diciembre de 1998. Se trianguló la información obtenida por las técnicas de grupos focales, viñetas, listado libre, sorteo de montones y cuestionario semiestructurado. Resultados. Los médicos reconocieron el impacto negativo de la diarrea sobre el estado nutricio del niño, pero no todos evaluaron su estado de nutrición. Como tratamientos predominaron los antimicrobianos, el manejo con líquidos y las recomendaciones sobre alimentación. De éstas, las más consistentes fueron la lactancia materna, la alimentación tardía y la dieta "escalonada". Conclusiones. La información obtenida contrasta con la recomendación de la OMS, en especial con la de alimentación sostenida.Objective. To identify the beliefs and knowledge of a group of rural physicians on the dietary management of children under five years of age, with acute diarrhea. Physicians' dietary management was compared with that recommended by the World Health Organization. Material and Methods. A cognitive anthropology study was carried out from July to December 1998, on ten physicians that care for the infant population ascribed to Hospital Rural IMSS-Solidaridad of San Juanito Bocoyna, Chihuahua, Mexico. Data were collected through focus groups, case vignettes, free listing, pile sorting, and a semi-structured questionnaire, and then cross-referred. Results. The physicians recognized the negative impact of diarrhea on the nutritional state of the child, but not all of them evaluated this state

  3. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  4. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  5. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  6. Viral infections in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razonable, R R; Eid, A J

    2009-12-01

    Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to develop clinical illness, often with increased severity, due to a variety of common and opportunistic viruses. Patients may acquire viral infections from the donor (donor-derived infections), from reactivation of endogenous latent virus, or from the community. Herpes viruses, most notably cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus, are the most common among opportunistic viral pathogens that cause infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The polyoma BK virus causes opportunistic clinical syndromes predominantly in kidney and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The agents of viral hepatitis B and C present unique challenges particularly among liver transplant recipients. Respiratory viral illnesses due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus may affect all types of transplant recipients, although severe clinical disease is observed more commonly among lung and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Less common viral infections affecting transplant recipients include those caused by adenoviruses, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus. Treatment for viruses with proven effective antiviral drug therapies should be complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. For others with no proven antiviral drugs for therapy, reduction in the degree of immunosuppression remains as the sole effective strategy for management. Prevention of viral infections is therefore of utmost importance, and this may be accomplished through vaccination, antiviral strategies, and aggressive infection control measures.

  7. Experiencia con pacientes hospitalizados en la unidad de capacitación para el tratamiento de la diarrea del Hospital Univertario San Vicente de Paúl de Medellín Experience with hospitalized children at a training unit for diarrhea treatment, in Medellín, Colombia

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    Carlos A. Bernal Parra

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre 1988 y 1994 se atendieron 1.755 niños en la sala de hospitalización de la Unidad de Capacitación para el Tratamiento de la Diarrea, del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín; 1.022 (58.2% fueron hombres y 733 (41.8% mujeres; mil setenta y ocho eran menores de un año (61.4% y 677 (38.6% tenían más de un año. Eran desnutridos 888 (50.6%. Presentaban diarrea persistente 418 (23.8%; 1.056 (82.2% diarrea acuosa, 213 (16.6% diarrea disentérica y 16 (1.2% solamente vómitos. Novecientos trece pacientes (52% consultaron o estuvieron en la sala de hidratación oral y 276 (15.7% habían estado hospitalizados por diarrea durante el último mes. Al ingreso 670 (38.2% se encontraban hidratados, 151 (8.6% tenían deshidratación grave y 934 (53.2% presentaban otros grados de deshidratación. La bacteria más frecuentemente identificada fue Salmonella enteritidis (258 casos; 23.9%. Setecientos ochenta y seis pacientes (44.8% recibieron los líquidos solamente por vía oral o por sonda nasogástrica y 969 (55.2% por vía intravenosa. Al egreso 1.088 (62% tuvieron el diagnóstico de diarrea aguda y 667 (38% el de diarrea persistente. La mortalidad fue de 1.5% (27 pacientes.

    We present the results of our experience in the in-patient treatment of children with diarrhea. Between 1988 and 1994,1.755 children were hospitalized for this purpose at the Training Unit for Diarrhea Treatment, Hospital San Vicente, in Medellín, Colombia; 1.022 (58.2% were males and 733 (41.8% females; 1.078 (61.4% were younger than one year and 677 (38.6% were above this age. Eight hundred and eighty eight (50.6% were undernourished. At admission, persistent diarrhea was found in 418 (23.8%; stools were watery in 1.056 (82.2% and dysenteric in 213 (16.6%; 16

  8. CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES DE NIÑOS DE COMUNIDAD RURAL PERUANA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LA DIARREA AGUDA INFECCIOSA

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    LE Veramendi-Espinoza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:  Asociar los Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas (CAP sobre la lactancia materna de las madres con la frecuencia de DAI en los últimos seis  meses del niño menor de dos  años. Metodología: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Lugar: Centro poblado Huaylas, Ancash-Perú, durante febrero de 2011. Participantes:  34 madres de niños menores de 2 años. Intervenciones: Encuesta CAP mediante entrevista a domicilio y revisión de las historias clínicas para confirmar DAI. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntaje obtenido en la encuesta para las distintas variables CAP. Resultados: Se halló conocimiento de medio a bajo en 76,5% de las madres encuestadas, actitudes neutras en 58,8% y favorables en 20,6 y prácticas neutras en 64,7% e inadecuadas en 23,5%. No se encontró correlación entre estos. Conclusión: No se logró establecer ningún tipo de asociación estadísticamente significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna con diarreas agudas infecciosas.

  9. CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES DE NIÑOS DE COMUNIDAD RURAL PERUANA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LA DIARREA AGUDA INFECCIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Veramendi-Espinoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Asociar los Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas (CAP sobre la lactancia materna de las madres con la frecuencia de DAI en los últimos seis me- ses del niño menor de dos años. Metodología: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Lugar: Centro poblado Huaylas, Ancash-Perú, durante febrero de 2011. Participantes: 34 madres de niños menores de 2 años. Intervenciones: Encuesta CAP mediante entrevista a domicilio y revisión de las historias clínicas para confirmar DAI. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntaje obtenido en la encuesta para las distintas variables CAP. Resultados: Se halló conocimiento de medio a bajo en 76,5% de las madres encuestadas, actitudes neutras en 58,8% y favorables en 20,6 y prácticas neutras en 64,7% e inadecuadas en 23,5%. No se encontró correlación entre estos. Conclusión: No se logró establecer ningún tipo de asociación estadísticamente significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna con diarreas agudas infecciosas.

  10. Evaluación de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de la brucelosis en un rebaño lechero infectado con Brucellaspp Assessment of polymerase chain reaction (PCR to diagnose brucellosis in a Brucella infected herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lavaroni

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el diagnóstico de la brucelosis bovina en muestras de sangre y/o leche, se comparó la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con el aislamiento in vitro de Brucella abortus, las pruebas serológicas defijación del complemento (FC e inmunoenzimáticas de competición (ELISA-C en suero e indirecto (ELISA-I en leche. Se analizaron muestras de vacas lecheras de un rebaño infectado “A”, vacunadas con B. abortus cepa 19 antes de los 8 meses de edad y revacunadas con B. abortus cepa RB51 como adultas (n= 99 y de otro “B”, libre de brucelosis (n=100, como control. En A, la PCR identificó 14 vacas infectadas con B. abortus: nueve con cepa silvestre y cinco con cepa silvestre y RB51. No se identificó B. abortus cepa 19. El biotipo 1 se aisló en un caso. Las 14 vacas infectadas con la cepa silvestre resultaron positivas en las tres pruebas serológicas. En B, por PCR no se identificó Brucella. Las pruebas serológicas mostraron una sensibilidad del 100% respecto de PCR. La especificidad para FC, ELISA-C y ELISA-I fue del 100%, 99% y 95%, respectivamente. Se concluye que la PCR sería útil como complemento de las pruebas serológicas o cuando no hay un resultado concluyente.The diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using PCR in blood and milk samples from two dairy herds were compared to in vitro isolation, complement fixation test (CF, competitive ELISA (C-ELISA in serum, and indirect ELISA (I-ELISA in milk. Samples were obtained from 99 cows vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, from a naturally infected herd (A, whose cows were also vaccinated with B. abortus strain RB51 as adults, and 100 from brucellosis free herd (B. In herd A, PCR identified 14 B. abortus infected cows: nine infected with wild type, and five with wild type and RB51, B. abortus S 19 was not identified. B. abortus biotype 1 was isolated from one cow. All cows infected with a wild strain of B. abortus were positive in serologic tests. Brucella was not found in

  11. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  12. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  13. Ventilator and viral induced inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennus, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis expands current knowledge on ventilator induced lung injury and provides insights on the immunological effects of mechanical ventilation during viral respiratory infections. The experimental studies in the first part of this thesis improve our understanding of how mechanical ventilation

  14. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides to their corresponding monophosphate compounds. dNks also phosphorylate deoxyribonucleoside analogues that are used in the treatment of cancer or viral infections. The study of the mammalian dNKs has therefore always been of gr...

  15. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juei-Low, Sung [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Department of Internal Medicine; Ding-Shinn, Chen [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Hepatitis Research Center National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of {sup 131}I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  16. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Juei-Low; Chen Ding-Shinn

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131 I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  18. Caracterización de aislamientos de Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 asociados a cuadros de diarrea Characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 isolates associated with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. González Fraga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Vibrio cholerae, el agente causal del cólera, se trasmite al hombre por ingestión de agua y alimentos contaminados. Aunque son los serogrupos O1 y O139 los que habitualmente se asocian al cólera epidémico, los aislamientos de otros serogrupos también son causales de gastroenteritis e infecciones extra-intestinales. Durante el período 2003-2005, se investigó la presencia de V. cholerae en la materia fecal de niños con diarrea atendidos en el Hospital del Niño Jesús, Tucumán. Se recuperaron 34 aislamientos de V. cholerae no-O1, no-O139. Se determinaron sus perfiles de virulencia por PCR, la sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos y la diversidad genética por electroforesis en campo pulsado. Se obtuvieron ocho perfiles de virulencia, aunque ningún aislamiento fue positivo para la toxina colérica ni para la toxina termoestable. Cuatro aislamientos fueron positivos para el sistema de secreción de tipo tres. El 17,6% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes o de sensibilidad intermedia a ampicilina y el 5,9% fueron resistentes a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Los aislamientos resultaron muy diversos: se hallaron 27 patrones distintos en 29 aislamientos tipificables por electroforesis en campo pulsado. A pesar de su baja incidencia, V. cholerae continúa siendo un agente causal de diarrea en niños, los que se ven afectados por una amplia variedad de cepas circulantes.Vibrio cholerae, etiologic agent of cholera, is transmitted to humans by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Even though serogroups O1 and O139 are the ones usually associated to epidemic cholera, isolates from other serogroups also cause gastroenteritis and extraintestinal infections. During the period 2003-2005, presence of V. cholerae in stools was investigated in children with diarrhea that seaked assistance at the Niño Jesús Hospital in Tucumán. Thirty four isolates of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 were recovered. We characterized the isolates studying

  19. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda Oral rehydration in continuous administration or in fractionated doses in dehydrated children with acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mota-Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.Objective. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two oral rehydration techniques. Material and Methods. A randomized clinical trial was conducted at the oral rehydration unit of Hospital Infantil de Mexico "Federico Gomez", between September 1998 and June 1999. Forty patients five-year old and younger children, dehydrated due to acute diarrhea, were given oral rehydration solution (ORS ad libitum (AL group; another forty patients received ORS in fractionated doses (FD group. Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Results are presented as

  20. Efecto citotóxico en colon humano de Escherichia coli enterohemorrágico aislado de terneros con diarrea sanguinolenta Cytotoxic effect in human colon of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from calves with bloody diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pistone Creydt

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga (STEC es el patógeno emergente en alimentos de mayor impacto, siendo su principal reservorio el ganado bovino. STEC puede causar diarrea, colitis hemorrágica y síndrome urémico hemolítico. El presente trabajo estudió la acción citotóxica de dos cepas de STEC aisladas de heces de terneros diarreicos en colon humano in vitro. Los fragmentos se montaron como un diafragma en una cámara de Ussing y se incubaron con las cepas patógenas. El flujo neto absortivo de agua (Jw disminuyó y la corriente de cortocircuito (Isc aumentó significativamente (P Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC is one of the most important emergent pathogen in foods, being its main reservoir bovine cattle. STEC can cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The present work have studied the cytotoxic action in human colon of cultures of two STEC strains isolated from faeces of calves with bloody diarrhea. Colonic mucosa was mounted as a diaphragm in a Ussing chamber and incubated with the cultures of pathogenic strains. Net water flow (Jw decreased and the short-circuit current (Isc increased significantly (p < 0,01 compared to negative control. Tissues showed an erosion of the mucose, epithelial exfoliation, and presence of pseudo-membranes in the lumen. Mild circulatory lesions were observed in the lamina propia. A moderate neutrophils infiltration was observed in the lumen and into the epithelial cells. Colonic crypts were not disrupted. Both experimental strains caused a similar lesion on colon tissues. This is the first study that shows that cultures of STEC strains isolated from bovine cattle produce cytotoxic effects in vitro in human colon.

  1. Anticipating rotavirus vaccines: review of epidemiologic studies of rotavirus diarrhea in Argentina En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Gómez

    1998-02-01

    , to more accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine program, and to indicate what methods might best be used to monitor such a program's impact.En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos sometidos a encuestas comunitarias. Los datos correspondientes a hospitales muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea tuvieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G a 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados, seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (uno de cada ocho nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (uno de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$ 27,7 millones. Estos datos

  2. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  3. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

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    Sukri Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  4. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); A. Ruiz-Gonzalez (Aritz); V. Baumgärtner (Volkmar); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Schürch (Anita)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractViral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow

  5. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted o...

  6. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  7. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  8. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

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    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  9. [Immunotherapy for refractory viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Tomohiro; Fujita, Yuriko; Takahashi, Satoshi

    Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC can be transduced with virus-antigen coding plasmid or pulsed with overlapping peptides. VST therapy has been studied in drug non-responsive viral infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of VST therapy without significant severe GVHD. In addition, VSTs from a third-party donor have been prepared and administered for post-HCT viral infection. Although target viruses of VSTs include herpes virus species and polyomavirus species, a wide variety of pathogens, such as papillomavirus, intracellular bacteria, and fungi, can be treated by pathogen-specific T-cells. Perhaps, these specific T-cells could be used for opportunistic infections in other immunocompromised hosts in the near future.

  10. Laboratory procedures to generate viral metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Rebecca V; Haynes, Matthew; Breitbart, Mya; Wegley, Linda; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-01-01

    This collection of laboratory protocols describes the steps to collect viruses from various samples with the specific aim of generating viral metagenome sequence libraries (viromes). Viral metagenomics, the study of uncultured viral nucleic acid sequences from different biomes, relies on several concentration, purification, extraction, sequencing and heuristic bioinformatic methods. No single technique can provide an all-inclusive approach, and therefore the protocols presented here will be discussed in terms of hypothetical projects. However, care must be taken to individualize each step depending on the source and type of viral-particles. This protocol is a description of the processes we have successfully used to: (i) concentrate viral particles from various types of samples, (ii) eliminate contaminating cells and free nucleic acids and (iii) extract, amplify and purify viral nucleic acids. Overall, a sample can be processed to isolate viral nucleic acids suitable for high-throughput sequencing in approximately 1 week.

  11. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

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    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  12. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

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    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  13. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  14. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  15. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años Sustained feeding during acute diarrhea in children younger than five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOMERO MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.Objective. To identify locally available and culturally acceptable foods for children with acute diarrhea, and test their acceptance and effect on the childís weight. Material and methods. 142 mothers of children younger than five years of age living in rural communities were interviewed to indentify culturally accepted diets by means of group sorting. These were displayed in a multidimensional scale. A descriptive study was performed of the clinical course of 54 children, ages 4 to 50 months who received the designed diets during the first 48 hours of diarrhea. Results. The designed diets considered age of the child, and stage of the disease. Children spent 47.6 ± 22.2 h in the hospital during which they consumed 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/day (additional to breast milk and they gained 70.6 ± 179.7 g. A direct relationship was observed between increasing age and

  16. Caracterización genotipica de aislamientos de Escherichia coli obtenidos de cerdos con diarrea posdestete y enfermedad de los edemas Genotypic characterization of toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhea (PWD and edema disease (ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A Moredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar mediante PCR 47 aislamientos de Escheríchia coli recuperados de 32 cerdos con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea posdestete (DPD y de 3 cerdos con enfermedad de los edemas (ED. Sobre 44 aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con DPD, 42 (95,5 % fueron caracterizados como E. coli enterotoxigénicos (ETEC y 2 (4,5 % como E. coli productores de toxina Shiga (STEC. Catorce aislamientos de ETEC (33,3 % fueron positivos para los genes estl/estlI/fedA. El genotipo más complejo fue eltA/estll/east1/faeG/aidA. Los aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con ED se clasificaron como STEC porcinos y fueron portadores de stxJaidA. Once aislamientos (25 % fueron portadores del gen que codifica la expresión de la adhesina AIDA-I. Sin embargo, en ningún aislamiento se detectaron los genes que codifican la expresión de las adhesinas F5, F6, F41, de intimina y de "Paa". La prevención de la DPD y de la ED podría realizarse mediante el desarrollo de vacunas que generen anticuerpos contra las adhesinas de las cepas de E. coli prevalentes en la Argentina.The purpose of this work was to characterize 47 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 32 pigs diagnosed with postweaning diarrhea and tree pigs with edema disease by PCR. Forty two (95.5 % of the strains isolated from diarrheic pigs were characterized as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and 2 (4.5 % as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Fourteen (33.3 % ETEC strains were positive for est/estll/fedA genes. The most complex genotype was eltA/estl/faeG/aidA. Strains isolated from pigs with ED were classified as porcine STEC and were stxjaidA carriers. Eleven (25 % strains carried the gene encoding adhesln protein AIDA-I. However, genes coding for F5, F6, F41, intimin and Paa were not detected. The development of vaccines generating antibodies against prevalent E. coli adhesins in Argentina could be useful for the prevention of PWD and ED.

  17. Viral Organization of Human Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Siwo, Geoffrey; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF) allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus. PMID:20827298

  18. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  19. Viral Advertising: Branding Effects from Consumers’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...

  20. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  1. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  2. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  3. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  4. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  5. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  6. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  7. Viral marketing: the use of surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J.; Clarke, I.; Flaherty, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Viral marketing involves consumers passing along a company's marketing message to their friends, family, and colleagues. This chapter reviews viral marketing campaigns and argues that the emotion of surprise often is at work and that this mechanism resembles that of word-of-mouth marketing.

  8. Emerging Viral Diseases of Tomato Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Lapidot, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing

  9. Origins and challenges of viral dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Siddharth R; Wang, David

    2017-07-15

    The accurate classification of viral dark matter - metagenomic sequences that originate from viruses but do not align to any reference virus sequences - is one of the major obstacles in comprehensively defining the virome. Depending on the sample, viral dark matter can make up from anywhere between 40 and 90% of sequences. This review focuses on the specific nature of dark matter as it relates to viral sequences. We identify three factors that contribute to the existence of viral dark matter: the divergence and length of virus sequences, the limitations of alignment based classification, and limited representation of viruses in reference sequence databases. We then discuss current methods that have been developed to at least partially circumvent these limitations and thereby reduce the extent of viral dark matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. HIV Viral Load: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hivviralload.html HIV Viral Load To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an HIV Viral Load? An HIV viral load is a ...

  12. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L Smits

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow rapid phylogenetic characterization of these new viruses. Often, however, complete viral genomes are not recovered, but rather several distinct contigs derived from a single entity, some of which have no sequence homology to any known proteins. De novo assembly of single viruses from a metagenome is challenging, not only because of the lack of a reference genome, but also because of intrapopulation variation and uneven or insufficient coverage. Here we explored different assembly algorithms, remote homology searches, genome-specific sequence motifs, k-mer frequency ranking, and coverage profile binning to detect and obtain viral target genomes from metagenomes. All methods were tested on 454-generated sequencing datasets containing three recently described RNA viruses with a relatively large genome which were divergent to previously known viruses from the viral families Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae. Depending on specific characteristics of the target virus and the metagenomic community, different assembly and in silico gap closure strategies were successful in obtaining near complete viral genomes.

  13. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-04-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  14. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  16. Modern marketing approach: Concept of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Lidija B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, viral marketing is one of the most effective forms of marketing and it can be used to raise awareness about the product/service of a specific company. This type of marketing thrives in a modern environment, where final users (buyers/clients dominate by spreading messages within themselves. Boosted by the advantages that modern technology brings, viral marketing is booming in the online world. For the first time, small brands have a chance to make their appearance in the global market ad challenge the dominating position of the historically top brands. All they need is content that draws attention and modern, digital culture will help spread their message. Viral marketing is the future. And with the growth of social media and other channels, marketing managers need to be careful, because it is a thin line between a good and a bad (backfired viral campaign.

  17. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-31

    with subsequent seroconversion or susceptibility to illness in a naturally occurring outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis among American teen ... anorexia , myalgia and malaise. It can be severe, indeed fatal, in the elderly, infant, debilitated or malnourished pa- tient. Viral gastroenteritis

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  2. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  4. Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    flash frozen brain tissue. Hoechst and CFSE labeled cells are readily visualized in fresh CSF. The brightest staining is achieved with Hoechst and is...viral infection in the meninges is in part due to reduction of the effects of suppressor macrophages. The work is complicated by the fact that...therapeutic effect of viral infection in the meninges is in part due to reduction of the effects of suppressor macrophages. • We found that mice cured

  5. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  6. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  7. Viral Metagenomics: MetaView Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Smith, J

    2007-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to design and develop a tool for analysis of raw sequence read data from viral metagenomics experiments. The tool should compare read sequences of known viral nucleic acid sequence data and enable a user to attempt to determine, with some degree of confidence, what virus groups may be present in the sample. This project was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 we surveyed the literature and examined existing metagenomics tools to educate ourselves and to more precisely define the problem of analyzing raw read data from viral metagenomic experiments. In phase 2 we devised an approach and built a prototype code and database. This code takes viral metagenomic read data in fasta format as input and accesses all complete viral genomes from Kpath for sequence comparison. The system executes at the UNIX command line, producing output that is stored in an Oracle relational database. We provide here a description of the approach we came up with for handling un-assembled, short read data sets from viral metagenomics experiments. We include a discussion of the current MetaView code capabilities and additional functionality that we believe should be added, should additional funding be acquired to continue the work.

  8. Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis on nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A V; Osipov, N V; Yashchenko, S V; Kokotukha, Yu A; Baron, I J; Puzyr, A P; Olkhovskiy, I A; Bondar, V S

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis B and C on modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) was shown in the in vitro experiments. PCR method showed the treatment of plasma with MNDs leads to a decrease in the viral load by 2-3 orders of magnitude or more in both cases studied. These results make it possible to predict the applicability of MNDs for the development of new technologies of hemodialysis and plasmapheresis for binding and removal of viral particles from the blood of infected patients.

  9. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    polishing by Karl Habel (a superb senior virologist who left the National Institutes of Health and came to Scripps), and the gifted postdoctoral fellows who joined my laboratory over four decades form the log of my scientific voyage. The strong friendships and collaborations developed with other young but growing experimentalists like Bernie Fields and Abner Notkins are the fabric of the tale I will weave and were pivotal in the establishment of viral pathogenesis as a discipline.

  10. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one of several ... each virus is spread in different ways. Are gay and bisexual men at risk for viral hepatitis? ...

  11. Postdiarrheal Shiga Toxin-Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Similar to Septic Shock Síndrome urémico hemolítico símil shock séptico, posterior a diarrea mediada por toxina shiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Valles

    2005-10-01

    enterohemorrágica que deviene en Síndrome Urémico Hemolítico (SUH. Se evaluó en forma prospectiva, entre 1999 y 2003, la respuesta a un tratamiento no convencional, en doce pacientes, edad 2.8 ± 0.6 años, que desarrollaron SUH con presencia de diarrea sanguinolenta (SUH D+ y evidencia serológica de toxina Shiga, los cuales en fase inicial presentaron parámetros hemodinámicos compatibles con shock séptico y compromiso neurológico grave. El protocolo incluyó transfusión de plasma fresco, pulsos de metilprednisolona (10mg/k/día por tres días consecutivos y plasmaféresis por cinco días, iniciados en las primeras 48 horas. Los doce pacientes ingresaron en terapia intensiva, presentando una puntuación de riesgo de mortalidad pediátrica (PRISM: 18 ± 2, con requerimiento de diálisis por 17.4 ± 4 días, asistencia ventilatoria mecánica por 10 ± 1días y soporte temprano con drogas inotrópicas por un período de 10.5 ± 1 días. La disfunción neurológica se presentó con convulsiones tónico-clónicas generalizadas por 5.4 ± 1 días en 8 pacientes y con convulsiones focalizadas en los restantes. Seis pacientes desarrollaron miocardiopatía dilatada y 8 presentaron colitis hemorrágica. Sobrevivieron a la etapa aguda de la enfermedad 9 pacientes. Al finalizar el primer año de seguimiento, dos de ellos presentaban secuelas neurológicas (escala de seguimiento de Glasgow; GOS 3 y 4 respectivamente y uno, fallo renal crónico. La introducción temprana de este protocolo podría beneficiar a pacientes con SUH D+ con inestabilidad hemodinámica grave y disfunción neurológica al inicio. Los mecanismos involucrados en esta temprana presentación clínica adversa de SUH D+ permanecen aún sin dilucidar.

  12. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  13. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    target organ of the immune  response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure.

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis.

    Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  14. View and review on viral oncology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parolin Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, almost one and a half million cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in the US and nearly 560,000 Americans are expected to die of cancer in the current year, more than 1,500 people a day (data from the American Cancer Society at http://www.cancer.org/. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, roughly 20% of all cancers worldwide results from chronic infections; in particular, up to 15% of human cancers is characterized by a viral aetiology with higher incidence in Developing Countries. The link between viruses and cancer was one of the pivotal discoveries in cancer research during the past Century. Indeed, the infectious nature of specific tumors has important implications in terms of their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be vigorous, with new significant and original studies on viral oncogenesis and translational research from basic virology to treatment of cancer. This review will cover different viral oncology aspects, starting from the history of viral oncology and moving to the peculiar features of oncogenic RNA and DNA viruses, with a special focus on human pathogens.

  15. Molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have made their mark on the cancer world as a potential therapeutic option, with the possible advantages of reduced side effects and strengthened treatment efficacy due to higher tumor selectivity. Results have been so promising, that oncolytic viral treatments have now been approved for clinical trials in several countries. However, clinical studies may benefit from the ability to noninvasively and serially identify sites of viral targeting via molecular imaging in order to provide safety, efficacy, and toxicity information. Furthermore, molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy may provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic technique to detect tumor origin and, more importantly, presence of metastases. Several strategies have been investigated for molecular imaging of viral replication broadly categorized into optical and deep tissue imaging, utilizing several reporter genes encoding for fluorescence proteins, conditional enzymes, and membrane protein and transporters. Various imaging methods facilitate molecular imaging, including computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, gamma-scintigraphy, and photoacoustic imaging. In addition, several molecular probes are used for medical imaging, which act as targeting moieties or signaling agents. This review will explore the preclinical and clinical use of in vivo molecular imaging of replication-competent oncolytic viral therapy.

  16. Pediatric Viral Exanthema: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jafar Saffar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Many diseases caused by viral agents are associated with fever and cutaneous manifestations. Viral exanthema is a widespread nonspecific skin rash, commonly characterized by generalized eruption of erythematous macules and papular lesions. Although these rashes are mostly benign and self-limited, some may be serious and life-threatening. Differentiation between severe and benign types is clinically important and life-saving. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, electronic databases, including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed (including Medline, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, and Scopus, were searched. We conducted a narrative review of papers published on pediatric viral exanthema during 2000 - 2016. The used keywords included “viral exanthema”, “fever”, and “skin rash”. Articles on skin rash, caused by drug reactions or nonviral exanthema, were excluded. Results Different viral agents can cause different types of skin reactions. Cutaneous manifestations and skin rashes can be categorized, based on the form of the rash (macular, papular, vesicular, blistery, petechial, and purpuric or the general term, which denotes illnesses such as measles-like morbilliform rash, rubella or rubelliform rash, and scarlatiniform rash, a scarlet-fever like infection. Conclusions Based on the findings, a systematic approach relying on accurate history-taking and analysis of epidemiological cues and rash characteristics is of great significance.

  17. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  18. CT images of infantile viral encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Tateo; Okazaki, Hitoshi; Woo, Man

    1985-01-01

    Cranial CT scanning was undertaken in 40 patients with infantile viral encephalitis seen from 1977 to 1983. According to the pathogenic viruses, abnormal CT findings were detected most frequently in cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), followed by non-eruptive viral encephalitis, measles encephalitis, and rubella encephalitis in that order, which coincided well with neurological prognosis. Although CT findings lay within a normal range in cases of measles encephalitis, except a case in which cerebral ventricle was slightly dilated, the degree of consciousness disturbance was unfavorable and it persisted long. This revealed that there is no distinct correlation between the degree of consciousness disturbance and CT findings. Normal CT findings were detected in 13% of patients aged less than 5 years and 76.5% of patients aged 5 years or more. In many patients who had an attack of viral encephalitis at the age of 5 years or more, epileptic seizures occurred frequently, even though CT findings were normal. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs, which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-12-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  2. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  3. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Gojobori, Takashi; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  4. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  5. Importance of viral diseases in irradiated persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.; Jebavy, L.; Merka, V.; Horacek, J.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed aimed at establishing the incidence of some viral diseases in radiation syndrome patients and the significance of the diseases for prognosis. In the study, 77 patients with syndromologically identical acute hematological forms of radiation sickness, mainly leukemic patients suffering from severe blood formation suppression and/or hematoblastosis were examined for concurrent herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus infections. Active viruses were isolated in almost 30% of the patients; nearly 90% of the patients were serologically positive, shedding antibodies. The findings thus confirmed the view that viral disease, especially in immunocompromised patients, has a critical effect on the survival of radiation sickness sufferers. (L.O.). 12 refs

  6. Viral pneumonias: Typical and atypical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westhoff-Bleck, M.; Bleck, J.S.; Schirg, E.

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and radiological features of viral pneumonias are summarized and discussed. Although viral infections of the lung belong to atypical pneumonias they demonstrate not always the radiographic pattern of an interstitial pneumonia. Characteristic radiographic findings are quite rare. In most cases the microbial etiology cannot be predicted from chest radiographs. The appearance varies depending on the virulence of the organism and the resistence of the host. In this regard knowledge of epidemiological data as well as patients condition and underlying disease is of utmost importance. Differentiation between community- and hospital-acquired infection may be very helpful. (orig.) [de

  7. Viral gastroenteritis in daily pediatric practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracmarova, R.; Plisek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is one of the most common causes of an acute examination and hospitalisation of a child. Portion of a viral etiology of intestinal diseases is increasing in connection with an improvement of social and economical conditions. The most common viral agents are rotaviruses, caliciviruses, adenoviruses and astroviruses, but also other viruses cause an intestinal disease. The most severe clinical course is expected from the rotaviral and noroviral infection. The dehydratation, which could be less or more severe, often complicated the infection. The treatment is symptomatic. The most important role for the prevention of rotavirus disease is played by the vaccination. (author)

  8. UGGT1 enhances enterovirus 71 pathogenicity by promoting viral RNA synthesis and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Nien Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71 utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1, a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood. Using EVA71 as a model, this study found that host UGGT1 and viral 3D polymerase co-precipitate along with other factors on membranous replication complexes to enhance viral replication. Increased UGGT1 levels elevated viral growth rates, while viral pathogenicity was observed to be lower in heterozygous knockout mice (Uggt1 +/- mice. These findings provide important insight on the role of UPR and host UGGT1 in regulating RNA virus replication and pathogenicity.

  9. ViralORFeome: an integrated database to generate a versatile collection of viral ORFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, J; Tafforeau, L; Lucas-Hourani, M; Navratil, V; Meyniel, L; Achaz, G; Guironnet-Paquet, A; Aublin-Gex, A; Caignard, G; Cassonnet, P; Chaboud, A; Chantier, T; Deloire, A; Demeret, C; Le Breton, M; Neveu, G; Jacotot, L; Vaglio, P; Delmotte, S; Gautier, C; Combet, C; Deleage, G; Favre, M; Tangy, F; Jacob, Y; Andre, P; Lotteau, V; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Vidalain, P O

    2010-01-01

    Large collections of protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) established in a versatile recombination-based cloning system have been instrumental to study protein functions in high-throughput assays. Such 'ORFeome' resources have been developed for several organisms but in virology, plasmid collections covering a significant fraction of the virosphere are still needed. In this perspective, we present ViralORFeome 1.0 (http://www.viralorfeome.com), an open-access database and management system that provides an integrated set of bioinformatic tools to clone viral ORFs in the Gateway(R) system. ViralORFeome provides a convenient interface to navigate through virus genome sequences, to design ORF-specific cloning primers, to validate the sequence of generated constructs and to browse established collections of virus ORFs. Most importantly, ViralORFeome has been designed to manage all possible variants or mutants of a given ORF so that the cloning procedure can be applied to any emerging virus strain. A subset of plasmid constructs generated with ViralORFeome platform has been tested with success for heterologous protein expression in different expression systems at proteome scale. ViralORFeome should provide our community with a framework to establish a large collection of virus ORF clones, an instrumental resource to determine functions, activities and binding partners of viral proteins.

  10. Good Friends, Bad News - Affect and Virality in Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Arvidsson, Adam; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2011-01-01

    The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. The basic measure of virality in Twitter is the prob......The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. The basic measure of virality in Twitter...

  11. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  12. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial oceanography: Viral strategies at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingstad, T. Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    The finding that marine environments with high levels of host microbes have fewer viruses per host than when host abundance is low challenges a theory on the relative roles of lysogenic and lytic viral-survival strategies. See Article p.466

  14. Viral immune evasion: a masterpiece of evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Mireille T. M.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cécilia; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Coexistence of viruses and their hosts imposes an evolutionary pressure on both the virus and the host immune system. On the one hand, the host has developed an immune system able to attack viruses and virally infected cells, whereas on the other hand, viruses have developed an array of immune

  15. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  16. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...

  17. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  18. Viral Hepatitis and Thrombosis: A Narrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multicausal disease. Among minor risk factors, acute infections in general are associated with a transient increased risk of VTE. However, acute hepatitis is usually not reported as a potential risk factor for VTE. Recent studies suggest a possible role of viral

  19. The laboratory diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    defined level and is thus indicative of recent infection as IgM anti-HBc may persist in low titres for a prolonged period. SAMJ. ARTICLES. Detection of HBeAg in the serum is important in the clinical evaluation of a patient with HBV infection as it usually correlates with viral replication, active liver damage and infectivity.3 ...

  20. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.

  1. KSHV Rta promoter specification and viral reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens whose biological success depends upon replication and packaging of viral genomes, and transmission of progeny viruses to new hosts. The biological success of herpesviruses is enhanced by their ability to reproduce their genomes without producing progeny viruses or killing the host cells, a process called latency. Latency permits a herpesvirus to remain undetected in its animal host for decades while maintaining the potential to reactivate, or switch, to a productive life cycle when host conditions are conducive to generating viral progeny. Direct interactions between many host and viral molecules are implicated in controlling herpesviral reactivation, suggesting complex biological networks that control the decision. One viral protein that is necessary and sufficient to switch latent KSHV into the lytic infection cycle is called K-Rta. Rta is a transcriptional activator that specifies promoters by binding direct DNA directly and interacting with cellular proteins. Among these cellular proteins, binding of K-Rta to RBP-Jk is essential for viral reactivation.. In contrast to the canonical model for Notch signaling, RBP-Jk is not uniformly and constitutively bound to the latent KSHV genome, but rather is recruited to DNA by interactions with K-Rta. Stimulation of RBP-Jk DNA binding requires high affinity binding of Rta to repetitive and palindromic CANT DNA repeats in promoters, and formation of ternary complexes with RBP-Jk. However, while K-Rta expression is necessary for initiating KSHV reactivation, K-Rta’s role as the switch is inefficient. Many factors modulate K-Rta’s function, suggesting that KSHV reactivation can be significantly regulated post-Rta expression and challenging the notion that herpesviral reactivation is bistable. This review analyzes rapidly evolving research on KSHV K-Rta to consider the role of K-Rta promoter specification in regulating the progression of KSHV reactivation.

  2. Contagious Content: Viral Video Ads Identification of Content Characteristics that Help Online Video Advertisements Go Viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yentl Knossenburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do some online video advertisements go viral while others remain unnoticed? What kind of video content keeps the viewer interested and motivated to share? Many companies have realized the need to innovate their marketing strategies and have embraced the newest ways of using technology, as the Internet, to their advantage as in the example of virality. Yet few marketers actually understand how, and academic literature on this topic is still in development. This study investigated which content characteristics distinguish successful from non-successful online viral video advertisements by analyzing 641 cases using Structural Equation Modeling. Results show that Engagement and Surprise are two main content characteristics that significantly increase the chance of online video advertisements to go viral.  

  3. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Zahir; Abulfaraj, Aala A.; Idris, Ali; Ali, Shawkat; Tashkandi, Manal; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2015-01-01

    These data establish the efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for viral interference in plants, thereby extending the utility of this technology and opening the possibility of producing plants resistant to multiple viral infections.

  5. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Call for ...

  6. In vitro amplification of BVDV field strains isolated in Argentina: effect of cell line and culture conditions Amplificación in vitro de cepas de campo de virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB) aisladas en Argentina: efecto de la línea celular y las condicioes de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Odeón; M. R. Leunda; C. Faverín; N. Boynak; M. M. Vena; O. Zabal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the in vitro amplification of BVDV (Pestivirus, Flaviridae) field isolates from Argentina in MDBK, BoTur and BHK-21 continuous cell lines. Field isolates 99/134 (mucosal disease), 00/693 (mucosal disease), 04P7016 (respiratory disease) and 04/89 (mucosal disease), genotype 1b, were used and compared with the Singer and NADL reference strains, genotype 1a. Additionally, cell lines derived from explants of bovine testis (RD- 420), bovine uterus (NCL-1) and porc...

  7. Virale commercials: de consument als marketeer. Onderzoek naar de redenen waarom consumenten virale commercials doorsturen: hun motieven, de inhoudskenmerken van viral commercials en de mediumcontext waarin virale commercials verschijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  8. Viral subversion of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, L.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The continuous interactions between host and viruses during their co-evolution have shaped not only the immune system but also the countermeasures used by viruses. Studies in the last decade have described the diverse arrays of pathways and molecular targets that are used by viruses to elude immune detection or destruction, or both. These include targeting of pathways for major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigen presentation, natural killer cell recognition, apoptosis, cytokine signalling, and complement activation. This paper provides an overview of the viral immune-evasion mechanisms described to date. It highlights the contribution of this field to our understanding of the immune system, and the importance of understanding this aspect of the biology of viral infection to develop efficacious and safe vaccines. (author)

  9. ASTHMA AND VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most common pathogens of acute respiratory diseases — most often causing mild symptoms of common cold: cough, runny nose, temperature increases. At the same time, 1/3 of children have the following symptoms of lower respiratory tract disorders: shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, respiratory failure. Virus-induced wheezing are risk factors for development of asthma in childhood. Recent clinical and scientific data suggest: the more difficult are viral respiratory infections in young children, the higher their risk of asthma later on. Another feature is that children with allergic diseases are much more likely to have viral respiratory infections(and with longer clinical course, compared with children without atopy. The use of ibuprofen is safe for children over 3 months, including suffering from bronchial asthma.

  10. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, M; Lorenzon, G; Mesaglio, S

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed.

  11. Annotation of selection strengths in viral genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCauley, Stephen; de Groot, Saskia; Mailund, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Viral genomes tend to code in overlapping reading frames to maximize information content. This may result in atypical codon bias and particular evolutionary constraints. Due to the fast mutation rate of viruses, there is additional strong evidence for varying selection between intra......- and intergenomic regions. The presence of multiple coding regions complicates the concept of Ka/Ks ratio, and thus begs for an alternative approach when investigating selection strengths. Building on the paper by McCauley & Hein (2006), we develop a method for annotating a viral genome coding in overlapping...... may thus achieve an annotation both of coding regions as well as selection strengths, allowing us to investigate different selection patterns and hypotheses. Results: We illustrate our method by applying it to a multiple alignment of four HIV2 sequences, as well as four Hepatitis B sequences. We...

  12. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, M.; Lorenzon, G.; Mesaglio, S.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed

  13. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A; Williams, P L; Wagner, M; Colston, B W

    2008-06-26

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and for several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.

  14. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Risk analysis of brucelosis in the state of Tlaxcala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Juárez, Guillermina; Ramírez-Bribiesca, J Efrén; Hernández-Vázquez, Maricela; Hernández-Calva, Luz Marina; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Orozco-Bolaños, Hermila

    2014-01-01

    To identify the risk of brucellosis in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A diagnosis of social type was conducted in the municipalities of Huamantla, Ixtenco and Teacalco, located in the eastern region of the state. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats and humans was determined. 46.9% of producers know the programs of vaccination against brucellosis; 19.7% apply the vaccine and 80.3% do not apply the vaccine. Huamantla had the highest seroprevalence of animal brucellosis in 66.8%; San Jose Teacalco distributes unpasteurized cheeses to a distance of 270 km, increasing the risk of infection with brucellosis. Ixtenco recorded the highest prevalence of brucellosis in humans, with 1.51%. The municipalities studied present risks of infection and spread of brucellosis.

  16. Un Caso de Brucelosis en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Paredes Manrique

    1948-11-01

    Full Text Available Después de más de un año de observación presentamos un caso de Fiebre Ondulante aparentemente infectado en Bogotá. Aunque no se trata del primer caso hallado en esta ciudad, tiene el interés de la escasa frecuencia de aparición de la enfermedad entre nosotros, de la comprobación del diagnòstico por métodos distintos de la aglutinación y per el tratamiento llevado a cabo.

  17. Risk analysis of brucelosis in the state of Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina García-Juárez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the risk of brucellosis in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. Materials and methods. A diagnosis of social type was conducted in the municipalities of Huamantla, Ixtenco and Teacalco, located in the eastern region of the state. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats and humans was determined. Results. 46.9% of producers know the programs of vaccination against brucellosis; 19.7% apply the vaccine and 80.3% do not apply the vaccine. Huamantla had the highest seroprevalence of animal brucellosis in 66.8%; San Jose Teacalco distributes unpasteurized cheeses to a distance of 270 km, increasing the risk of infection with brucellosis. Ixtenco recorded the highest prevalence of brucellosis in humans, with 1.51%. Conclusion. The municipalities studied present risks of infection and spread of brucellosis.

  18. Global issues related to enteric viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselberger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral gastroenteritis is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with high annual mortality, particularly in children of developing countries. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses are the main causes. Accurate diagnoses are possible by recently developed molecular techniques. In many setups, zoonotic transmission is an important epidemiological factor. Treatment consists of rehydration and is otherwise symptomatic. The worldwide introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination of infants has significantly reduced rotavirus disease and mortality.

  19. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  20. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyo...

  1. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  2. Biological species in the viral world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Ochman, Howard

    2018-06-05

    Due to their dependence on cellular organisms for metabolism and replication, viruses are typically named and assigned to species according to their genome structure and the original host that they infect. But because viruses often infect multiple hosts and the numbers of distinct lineages within a host can be vast, their delineation into species is often dictated by arbitrary sequence thresholds, which are highly inconsistent across lineages. Here we apply an approach to determine the boundaries of viral species based on the detection of gene flow within populations, thereby defining viral species according to the biological species concept (BSC). Despite the potential for gene transfer between highly divergent genomes, viruses, like the cellular organisms they infect, assort into reproductively isolated groups and can be organized into biological species. This approach revealed that BSC-defined viral species are often congruent with the taxonomic partitioning based on shared gene contents and host tropism, and that bacteriophages can similarly be classified in biological species. These results open the possibility to use a single, universal definition of species that is applicable across cellular and acellular lifeforms.

  3. Role of viral coinfections in asthma development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Garcia-Garcia

    Full Text Available Viral respiratory infections, especially acute bronchiolitis, play a key role in the development of asthma in childhood. However, most studies have focused on respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infections and none of them have compared the long-term evolution of single versus double or multiple viral infections.Our aim was to compare the frequency of asthma development at 6-8 years in children with previous admission for bronchiolitis associated with single versus double or multiple viral infection.A cross-sectional study was performed in 244 children currently aged 6-8 years, previously admitted due to bronchiolitis between September 2008 and December 2011. A structured clinical interview and the ISAAC questionnaire for asthma symptoms for 6-7-year-old children, were answered by parents by telephone. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate for virological study (polymerase chain reaction and clinical data were prospectively taken during admission for bronchiolitis.Median current age at follow-up was 7.3 years (IQR: 6.7-8.1. The rate of recurrent wheezing was 82.7% in the coinfection group and 69.7% in the single-infection group, p = 0.06. The number of wheezing-related admissions was twice as high in coinfections than in single infections, p = 0.004. Regarding the ISAAC questionnaire, 30.8% of coinfections versus 15% of single infections, p = 0.01, presented "wheezing in the last 12 months", data that strongly correlate with current prevalence of asthma. "Dry cough at night" was also reported more frequently in coinfections than in single infections, p = 0.02. The strongest independent risk factors for asthma at 6-8 years of age were: age > 9 months at admission for bronchiolitis (OR: 3.484; CI95%: 1.459-8.317, p:0.005, allergic rhinitis (OR: 5.910; 95%CI: 2.622-13.318, p<0.001, and viral coinfection-bronchiolitis (OR: 3.374; CI95%: 1.542-7.386, p:0.01.Asthma at 6-8 years is more frequent and severe in those children previously hospitalized

  4. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

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    Katja Pfafferott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  5. VIRAL ETIOLOGY OF RECURRENT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

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    H. S. Ibishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recurrent urinary tract infection is an actual problem of modern urology.Objective. Complex investigation of urinary tract infections including viral etiology for chronic recurrent cystitis in womenMaterials and methods. The study included 31 women with recurrent infection of urinary tract. Inclusion criteria were the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms caused by infection, severe recurrent course, the lack of anatomical and functional disorders of the urinary tract, the absence of bacterial pathogens during the study, taking into account the culture of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques.Results. The analysis of the clinical manifestations, the dominant in the study group were pain and urgency to urinate at 100% and 90% of women surveyed, respectively, and less frequent urination were recorded in 16.1% of patients. In general clinical examination of urine in all cases identified leukocyturia and 90% of the hematuria. By using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR in midstream urine of all examined was verified 10 types of human papilloma virus (HPV with the predominance of 16 and 18 types . Considering the presence of recurrent infectious and inflammatory processes of the urinary tract, cystoscopy with bladder biopsy was performed for all patients. When histomorphological biopsies of all patients surveyed noted the presence of the specific characteristics of HPV: papillary hyperplasia with squamous koilocytosis, pale cytoplasm and shrunken kernels. When analyzing the results of PCR biopsy data corresponded with the results of PCR in midstream urine in all biopsies was detected HPV.Conclusions. Human papillomavirus infection may be involved in the development of viral cystitis. In the etiological structure of viral cystitis, both highly oncogenic and low oncogenic HPV types can act.

  6. Zoonotic Viral Deseases and Virus Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel

    Viruses are the most abundant organisms on earth and are ubiquitous in all environments where life is present. They are capable of infecting all cellular forms of life, sometimes causing disease in the infected host. This thesis is broadly divided into two main sections with three projects...... program of wildlife, and with the purpose of preventing the next disease emerging from these animals. Numerous viruses were detected of which many were novel variants, thus reaffirming the notion that attention should be focused at these animals. Near-complete viral genome sequencing was performed...

  7. Flavonoids: promising natural compounds against viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Arabyan, Erik; Oo, Adrian; Zandi, Keivan

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed as secondary metabolites produced by plants and play important roles in plant physiology, having a variety of potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Different flavonoids have been investigated for their potential antiviral activities and several of them exhibited significant antiviral properties in in vitro and even in vivo studies. This review summarizes the evidence for antiviral activity of different flavonoids, highlighting, where investigated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action on viruses. We also present future perspectives on therapeutic applications of flavonoids against viral infections.

  8. [Decimeter-wave physiotherapy in viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kents, V V; Mavrodiĭ, V M

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness was evaluated of magnetotherapy, inductothermy, UNF electric field and electromagnetic waves of decimetric wave band (460 MHz) on the projection of the liver, adrenals and thyroid gland in controlled trials enrolling a total of 835 patients with viral hepatitis (type A, B, associated forms). A conclusion is reached that optimum effectiveness of decimetric field on the projection of the adrenals and thyroid gland can be achieved through the application of minimum power and everyday alternation of exposures. It has been estimated that as many as 69 percent of the patients derive benefit from the above treatment.

  9. Content Recommendation for Viral Social Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Sergei; Theocharidis, Konstantinos; Terrovitis, Manolis

    2017-01-01

    How do we create content that will become viral in a whole network after we share it with friends or followers? Significant research activity has been dedicated to the problem of strategically selecting a seed set of initial adopters so as to maximize a meme’s spread in a network. This line of work...... assumes that the success of such a campaign depends solely on the choice of a tunable seed set of adopters, while the way users perceive the propagated meme is fixed. Yet, in many real-world settings, the opposite holds: a meme’s propagation depends on users’ perceptions of its tunable characteristics...

  10. Diarréia aguda em crianças menores de um ano: subsídios para o delineamento do cuidar Diarrea aguda en niños menores de un año: subsidios para el delineamiento del cuidado Acute diarrhea in lesser Children of one year: subsidies for the delineation of taking care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Vieira Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo quantitativo observacional descritivo, teve como fonte de dados o inquérito epidemiológico, para determinar as razões da elevada prevalência de doenças diarréicas agudas em menores de um ano em Ananindeua, Pará. A amostra foi constituída pelas famílias cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família. Constatou-se que os fatores sócio-econômico-culturais influenciaram na ocorrência de diarréia, pois quanto menores a idade da mãe e a escolaridade maior a prevalência da doença. Esta população vive em área de ocupação, sem saneamento básico, com lixo e dejetos a céu aberto, estando abaixo da linha de pobreza. Quanto ao desmame precoce, observou-se introdução de água e chás nos primeiros 15 dias e de leite artificial no primeiro mês, havendo resistência para utilizar soro oral. Realizavam tratamento caseiro. Conclui-se que, além da reversão dos fatores estruturais, é necessário incluir questões culturais, educativas para uma política pública de cuidar.El estudio es cuantitativo del tipo observacional descriptivo tuvo como fuente de datos la pesquisa epidemiológica, para determinar las razones del elevado predominio de enfermedades diarreicas agudas en menores de un año en Ananindeua, Pará. La muestra fue constituida por las familias registradas en el Programa Salud de la Familia. Los factores socioeconómicos y culturales determinaron la presencia de diarrea, ya que cuanto menor la edad de la madre y la escolaridad mayor fue el predominio de diarrea. Esta población vive en área de ocupación, sin saneamiento básico, con basura y desechos al aire libre, estando abajo de la línea de pobreza. En cuanto a la precoz suspensión de amamantar, se observa la introducción de agua, en los primeros 15 días y leche artificial en el primer mes, teniendo resistencia para utilizar el suero oral y tratamientos llevados por los vigilantes. Se concluye que además de reversión de los factores estructurales, es necesario

  11. Escherichia coli enteroagregativa como agente provocador de diarreia persistente: modelo experimental utilizando microscopia óptica de luz Escherichia coli enteroagregativa como agente provocador de diarrea persistente: modelo experimental utilizando microscopia óptica de luz Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a cause of persistent diarrhea: an experimental model using light microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Alves B. de Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar interações de amostras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa com tecido intestinal humano, a fim de documentar potenciais alterações em diferentes regiões do trato digestivo. MÉTODOS: Amostras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa isoladas das fezes de crianças com diarreia persistente e a amostra protótipo 042, isolada de uma criança com diarreia em Lima, no Peru (controle positivo, foram analisadas por microscopia óptica de luz após semeadura em cultura de orgão in vitro de fragmentos de mucosa ileal e colônica. Foram analisadas as interações entre as diferentes cepas de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa e as mucosas ileal e colônica. RESULTADOS: A análise por microscopia óptica de luz indicou associação destes micro-organismos com o epitélio, provocando alterações. As cepas estudadas aderiram a ambas as regiões avaliadas (intestino delgado distal e grosso e causaram alterações, especialmente naquelas áreas onde interagiram diretamente com o epitélio. No íleo, algumas regiões mostraram internalização secundária. CONCLUSÕES: Esses agentes podem causar diarreia persistente por meio de alterações no intestino delgado, no qual ocorrem as funções digestivo-absortivas. As lesões inflamatórias descritas na mucosa colônica poderiam explicar a colite mostrada em algumas crianças infectadas por Escherichia coli enteroagregativa.OBJETIVO: Evaluar interacciones de muestras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC con tejido intestinal humano, a fin de documentar potenciales alteraciones en distintas regiones del tracto digestivo (intestino delgado distal e intestino grueso y definir, con eso, su rol en la persistencia del proceso diarreico. MÉTODOS: Muestras de EAEC aislada de las heces de niños con diarrea persistente y la muestra prototipo 042, aislada de un niño con diarrea en Lima, Perú (control positivo fueron analizadas por microscopía óptica de luz (ML después de siembra en cultura

  12. Persistent viral infections and immune aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stefan; Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2011-07-01

    Immunosenescence comprises a set of dynamic changes occurring to both, the innate as well as the adaptive immune system that accompany human aging and result in complex manifestations of still poorly defined deficiencies in the elderly population. One of the most prominent alterations during aging is the continuous involution of the thymus gland which is almost complete by the age of 50. Consequently, the output of naïve T cells is greatly diminished in elderly individuals which puts pressure on homeostatic forces to maintain a steady T cell pool for most of adulthood. In a great proportion of the human population, this fragile balance is challenged by persistent viral infections, especially Cytomegalovirus (CMV), that oblige certain T cell clones to monoclonally expand repeatedly over a lifetime which then occupy space within the T cell pool. Eventually, these inflated memory T cell clones become exhausted and their extensive accumulation accelerates the age-dependent decline of the diversity of the T cell pool. As a consequence, infectious diseases are more frequent and severe in elderly persons and immunological protection following vaccination is reduced. This review therefore aims to shed light on how various types of persistent viral infections, especially CMV, influence the aging of the immune system and highlight potential measures to prevent the age-related decline in immune function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Viral encephalitis virus, a new bioterrorist menace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Micol, Romain; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    Often responsible for little known infections, today viral encephalitis viruses appear as a new bioterrorist menace, because of their easy production and their great pathogenic potential. Spraying is the best way to permit the rapid diffusion of certain encephalitis viruses. Diagnosis of viral encephalitis, predominating in tropical surroundings, is difficult. In the majority of cases, symptoms differ little from those of common flu. With supplementary examinations, the biological abnormalities are usually non-specific. There are no characteristic images on scans or MRI. Identification of the virus in the nasopharynx, blood or cerebrospinal fluid, in serology, PCR or RT-PCR permits confirmation of the virus. Treatment is essentially symptomatic and relies on appropriate reanimation measures. Ribavirin can be indicated in some cases such as the Rift Valley fever, but is formally contraindicated in West Nile encephalitis. The aim of terrorist groups who would use this type of weapon is more to provoke panic and disorganisation than to kill as many people as possible.

  14. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

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    Aris Katzourakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  15. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James; Kurath, Gael; Batts, William

    2007-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is considered to be one of the most important viral pathogens of finfish and is listed as reportable by many nations and international organizations (Office International des Epizooties 2006). Prior to 1988, VHSV was thought to be limited to Europe (Wolf 1988; Smail 1999). Subsequently, it was shown that the virus is endemic among many marine and anadromous fish species in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005). Genetic analysis reveals that isolates of VHSV can be divided into four genotypes that generally correlate with geographic location with the North American isolates generally falling into VHSV Genotype IV (Snow et al. 2004). In 2005-2006, reports from the Great Lakes region indicated that wild fish had experienced disease or, in some cases, very large die-offs from VHSV (Elsayed et al. 2006, Lumsden et al. 2007). The new strain from the Great Lakes, now identified as VHSV Genotype IVb, appears most closely related to isolates of VHSV from mortalities that occurred during 2000-2004 in rivers and near-shore areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada (Gagne et al. 2007). The type IVb isolate found in the Great Lakes region is the only strain outside of Europe that has been associated with significant mortality in freshwater species.

  16. Viral asthma: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Menendez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger Menendez1, Michael D Goldman21Allergy and Asthma Center of El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Pulmonary Division, UCLA Gaffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The natural history of asthma appears to be driven primarily by the timing and duration of viral respiratory infections. From the very high rate of infections in childhood, to the more sporadic pattern seen in adults, the cycle of acute injury followed by an inefficient repair process helps explain the clinical patterns of asthma severity currently recognized by asthma guidelines. Why the asthmatic host responds to viral injury in a particular way is largely a mystery and the subject of intense investigation. The role of viruses in asthma extends not just to intermittent but to persistent disease, and to both the atopic as well as nonatopic phenotypes. Future therapeutic strategies should include primary prevention via the development of antiviral innate immunity-enhancing vaccines, as well as secondary prevention via the use of antiviral agents, or immunomodulators designed to boost the antiviral response or interrupt the proinflammatory cascade.Keywords: asthma, rhinoviruses, exacerbations, epidemiology, phenotypes, clinical trials

  17. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  18. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara W. Bird

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed. The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference.

  19. APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolution of viruses and their hosts has reached a fragile and dynamic equilibrium that allows viral persistence, replication and transmission. In response, infected hosts have developed strategies of defense that counteract the deleterious effects of viral infections. In particular, single-strand DNA editing by Apolipoprotein B Editing Catalytic subunits proteins 3 (APOBEC3s is a well-conserved mechanism of mammalian innate immunity that mutates and inactivates viral genomes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of APOBEC3 editing during viral replication, the viral strategies that prevent APOBEC3 activity and the consequences of APOBEC3 modulation on viral fitness and host genome integrity. Understanding the mechanisms involved reveals new prospects for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Sensitive detection of viral transcripts in human tumor transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Eric Schelhorn

    Full Text Available In excess of 12% of human cancer incidents have a viral cofactor. Epidemiological studies of idiopathic human cancers indicate that additional tumor viruses remain to be discovered. Recent advances in sequencing technology have enabled systematic screenings of human tumor transcriptomes for viral transcripts. However, technical problems such as low abundances of viral transcripts in large volumes of sequencing data, viral sequence divergence, and homology between viral and human factors significantly confound identification of tumor viruses. We have developed a novel computational approach for detecting viral transcripts in human cancers that takes the aforementioned confounding factors into account and is applicable to a wide variety of viruses and tumors. We apply the approach to conducting the first systematic search for viruses in neuroblastoma, the most common cancer in infancy. The diverse clinical progression of this disease as well as related epidemiological and virological findings are highly suggestive of a pathogenic cofactor. However, a viral etiology of neuroblastoma is currently contested. We mapped 14 transcriptomes of neuroblastoma as well as positive and negative controls to the human and all known viral genomes in order to detect both known and unknown viruses. Analysis of controls, comparisons with related methods, and statistical estimates demonstrate the high sensitivity of our approach. Detailed investigation of putative viral transcripts within neuroblastoma samples did not provide evidence for the existence of any known human viruses. Likewise, de-novo assembly and analysis of chimeric transcripts did not result in expression signatures associated with novel human pathogens. While confounding factors such as sample dilution or viral clearance in progressed tumors may mask viral cofactors in the data, in principle, this is rendered less likely by the high sensitivity of our approach and the number of biological replicates

  1. Factores de riesgo asociados a la presencia de aborto y desempeño reproductivo en ganado lechero de Aguascalientes, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Meléndez Soto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar el efecto de factores de riesgo sobre la ocurrencia del aborto, y su impacto sobre algunas medidas de eficiencia reproductiva en hatos de Aguascalientes. Se obtuvieron 353 sueros de vacas que abortaron y que no abortaron de 23 hatos con registros. La información de los hatos y animales se obtuvo por entrevistas. Además de factores relacionados con las condiciones de los hatos, se exploró la influencia de la seropositividad a rinotraqueitis infecciosa, diarrea viral bovina, neosporosis y brucelosis, determinada por pruebas comerciales de ELISA, y la última mediante las pruebas de rosa de bengala, rivanol e inmunodifusión radial. Se realizaron análisis de Ji-cuadrada, y posteriormente con las variables significativas (P<0.10 se realizaron análisis de de regresión logística. Las variables relativas a la eficiencia reproductiva de los animales se evaluaron mediante análisis de varianza. La seronegatividad a rinotraqueitis infecciosa fue el único factor que incrementó el riesgo de aborto (RM=1.71. El aborto incrementó el número de servicios por concepción (3.09 ± 0.25 vs 2.36 ± 0.12, P<0.05, los días abiertos (149.8 ± 9.7 vs 262.3 ± 18.7, P<0.01 y el promedio de días en lactancia (192.4 ± 9.1 vs 285.9 ± 19.2, P<0.01. Con los resultados encontrados no se logró determinar asociación entre los factores de riesgo relativos al hato e individuales relacionados con el aborto, pero es indudable que ocasiona un efecto detrimental sobre la eficiencia reproductiva de los hatos.

  2. Viral Vectors for Use in the Development of Biodefense Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John S; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Parker, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    .... DNA vectors, live-attenuated viruses and bacteria, recombinant proteins combined with adjuvant, and viral- or bacterial-vectored vaccines have been developed as countermeasures against many potential...

  3. Viral Contamination Source in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Ling; Song, Juan; Song, Qin Qin; Yu, Jie; Luo, Xiao Nuan; Wu, Gui Zhen; Han, Jun

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential causes of laboratory-acquired infections and to provide possible solutions that would protect laboratory personnel, samples from a viral laboratory were screened to determine the main sources of contamination with six subtypes of Rhinovirus. Rhinovirus contamination was found in the gloves, cuffs of protective wear, inner surface of biological safety cabinet (BSC) windows, and trash handles. Remarkably, high contamination was found on the inner walls of the centrifuge and the inner surface of centrifuge tube casing in the rotor. Spilling infectious medium on the surface of centrifuge tubes was found to contribute to contamination of centrifuge surfaces. Exposure to sodium hypochlorite containing no less than 0.2 g/L available chlorine decontaminated the surface of the centrifuge tubes from Rhinovirus after 2 min. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Update on viral community-acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Neto, Ozéas Galeno da; Leite, Ricardo Ferreira; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

    2013-01-01

    A pneumonia de origem viral é uma causa prevalente de infecção respiratória em adultos imunocompetentes. Tem apresentação variada, ocasionando desde formas leves a quadros graves de insuficiência respiratória com necessidade de ventilação mecânica. Contudo, em nosso país, há poucos estudos a respeito da apresentação clínica e diagnóstico dessa infecção. Dessa forma, os autores do presente artigo têm por objetivo revisar os principais agentes virais causadores de pneumonia na comunidade e disc...

  5. Viral gastrointestinal syndrome in our environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patić A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral gastrointestinal syndrome is a cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Infection is spread through contact with an infected person, as well as through contaminated food and water. A lethal outcome is possible in infants and young children due to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The study included 141 patients with gastroenteritis from Vojvodina. Real-Time PCR method in stool samples was used to determine the presence of rota-, noro-, and astrovirus nucleic acid. Out of 141 patients with gastroenteritis, 60.3% were confirmed to have one of the three viruses. Rotavirus was significantly more common in children up to 3 years of age (43.3%. Norovirus was more frequently detected in patients older than 20 (50%. These infections started in collectives. Astrovirus was detected in four patients (2.8%. The results confirm the necessity to implement PCR in routine diagnostics for the proper treatment of patients.

  6. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  7. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  8. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi; Ishii, Yasushi.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T 2 -weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author)

  9. Viral hepatitis in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zaytsev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Ukraine, about 17 thousands of newborns are at risk of vertical infection with hepatitis B and C. Identification of infected women at the stage of family planning is the best way to prevent infection in newborns, and therefore it must be performed strictly in accordance with established norms. In case of detection of hepatitis, further tactics depend on the variant of the virus: in case of hepatitis C, pre-pregnancy treatment is preferable. In case of hepatitis B — pregnancy with subsequent simultaneous vaccination of the newborn. Antiviral therapy is possible in women with high viral load to prevent intrauterine infection. Similar tactics should be followed in case of in vitro fertilisation too. The text of the lecture is illustrated by clinical examples. The lecture is intended for infectious disease physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists.

  10. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Ishii, Yasushi

    1991-02-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T{sub 2}-weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author).

  11. Papillomaviruses: Viral evolution, cancer and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Ignacio G; Félez-Sánchez, Marta

    2015-01-28

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a numerous family of small dsDNA viruses infecting virtually all mammals. PVs cause infections without triggering a strong immune response, and natural infection provides only limited protection against reinfection. Most PVs are part and parcel of the skin microbiota. In some cases, infections by certain PVs take diverse clinical presentations from highly productive self-limited warts to invasive cancers. We propose PVs as an excellent model system to study the evolutionary interactions between the immune system and pathogens causing chronic infections: genotypically, PVs are very diverse, with hundreds of different genotypes infecting skin and mucosa; phenotypically, they display extremely broad gradients and trade-offs between key phenotypic traits, namely productivity, immunogenicity, prevalence, oncogenicity and clinical presentation. Public health interventions have been launched to decrease the burden of PV-associated cancers, including massive vaccination against the most oncogenic human PVs, as well as systematic screening for PV chronic anogenital infections. Anti-PVs vaccines elicit protection against infection, induce cross-protection against closely related viruses and result in herd immunity. However, our knowledge on the ecological and intrapatient dynamics of PV infections remains fragmentary. We still need to understand how the novel anthropogenic selection pressures posed by vaccination and screening will affect viral circulation and epidemiology. We present here an overview of PV evolution and the connection between PV genotypes and the phenotypic, clinical manifestations of the diseases they cause. This differential link between viral evolution and the gradient cancer-warts-asymptomatic infections makes PVs a privileged playground for evolutionary medicine research. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  12. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkady, A.A.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  13. Virus del dengue: estructura y ciclo viral Dengue virus: structure and viral cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam L Velandia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El virus del dengue (DENV es el agente causal de la enfermedad conocida como dengue, que es la principal enfermedad viral transmitida por artrópodos en el mundo. El DENV es un flavivirus que ingresa por endocitosis y se replica en el citoplasma de la célula infectada, originando tres proteínas estructurales y siete proteínas no estructurales, sobre las cuales se conocen sólo algunas de sus funciones en la replicación viral o en la infección. El ciclo viral que ocurre en las células infectadas hasta ahora está comenzando a aclararse y su conocimiento permitirá en el futuro próximo diseñar racionalmente moléculas que lo intervengan y eviten la replicación del virus. Durante la infección, el individuo puede presentar fiebre indiferenciada o, en otros casos, puede presentar un proceso generalizado de activación de la respuesta inmunitaria innata y adquirida, lo cual provoca la liberación de factores inflamatorios solubles que alteran la fisiología de los tejidos, principalmente el endotelio, conllevando al desarrollo de manifestaciones clínicas graves. Aunque se ha identificado un gran número de factores del individuo asociados al desarrollo de la enfermedad por DENV, queda por identificar el papel de las diferentes proteínas virales en la patogenia de la enfermedad. En la presente revisión, se presenta una breve actualización sobre la estructura y biología del DENV, de su ciclo viral intracelular y, finalmente, se introducen algunos conceptos sobre la inmunopatogenia de la enfermedad producida por este agente.Dengue virus (DENV is responsible for the clinical entity known as dengue that is a great concern for economy and public health of tropical countries. This flavivirus is a single strand RNA virus that after their translation and replication in host cells produces three structural and seven non-structural proteins with specific function in replication or cell binding process that we will describe here. Intracellular

  14. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  15. Plasma Viral miRNAs Indicate a High Prevalence of Occult Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fuentes-Mattei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8 varies greatly in different populations. We hypothesized that the actual prevalence of KSHV/HHV8 infection in humans is underestimated by the currently available serological tests. We analyzed four independent patient cohorts with post-surgical or post-chemotherapy sepsis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and post-surgical patients with abdominal surgical interventions. Levels of specific KSHV-encoded miRNAs were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, and KSHV/HHV-8 IgG were measured by immunoassay. We also measured specific miRNAs from Epstein Barr Virus (EBV, a virus closely related to KSHV/HHV-8, and determined the EBV serological status by ELISA for Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1 IgG. Finally, we identified the viral miRNAs by in situ hybridization (ISH in bone marrow cells. In training/validation settings using independent multi-institutional cohorts of 300 plasma samples, we identified in 78.50% of the samples detectable expression of at least one of the three tested KSHV-miRNAs by RT-qPCR, while only 27.57% of samples were found to be seropositive for KSHV/HHV-8 IgG (P < 0.001. The prevalence of KSHV infection based on miRNAs qPCR is significantly higher than the prevalence determined by seropositivity, and this is more obvious for immuno-depressed patients. Plasma viral miRNAs quantification proved that EBV infection is ubiquitous. Measurement of viral miRNAs by qPCR has the potential to become the “gold” standard method to detect certain viral infections in clinical practice.

  16. A Strong Case for Viral Genetic Factors in HIV Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Herbeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important gap and has demonstrated a robust effect of the viral genotype on HIV virulence.

  17. Experience with Hepatitis B viral load testing in Nigeria | Okwuraiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV DNA levels, ...

  18. Core Gene Expression and Association of Genotypes with Viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine genotypic distribution, ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA viral load and express core gene from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1690 HCV RNA positive patients were included in the study. HCV genotyping was tested by type-specific genotyping assay, viral ...

  19. Anti-viral effect of herbal medicine Korean traditional Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. Material and Methods: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First ...

  20. Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobele, A.; Lindgreen, A.; Beverland, M.; Vanhamme, J.; Wijk, van R.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we identify that successful viral marketing campaigns trigger an emotional response in recipients. Working under this premise, we examine the effects of viral messages containing the six primary emotions (surprise, joy, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust) on recipients' emotional

  1. 101 . experience with hepatitis b viral load testing in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus. (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV ...

  2. Distribution, incidence and severity of viral diseases of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in major yam cultivation zones in Côte d'Ivoire in 2009 to determine the incidence, severity of viral diseases, and viruses associated with the infected plants. Incidence and severity of the viral diseases were estimated based on symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ...

  3. Short Report Challenges with targeted viral load testing for medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges with targeted viral load testing 179. Malawi Medical ... targeted viral load (VL) testing for patients who have been on ART for at least .... Tuberculosis. 32. Community-acquired pneumonia. 17. Non-typhoidal Salmonella sepsis. 5. Bacterial meningitis. 5. Disseminated Kaposi sarcoma. 4. Cryptococcal meningitis. 4.

  4. Analysis of host genetic diversity and viral entry as sources of between-host variation in viral load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kell, Alison M.; Scott, Robert J.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the high levels of between-host variation in pathogen burden that are frequently observed in viral infections. Here, two factors thought to impact viral load variability, host genetic diversity and stochastic processes linked with viral entry into the host, were examined. This work was conducted with the aquatic vertebrate virus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in its natural host, rainbow trout. It was found that in controlled in vivo infections of IHNV, a suggestive trend of reduced between-fish viral load variation was observed in a clonal population of isogenic trout compared to a genetically diverse population of out-bred trout. However, this trend was not statistically significant for any of the four viral genotypes examined, and high levels of fish-to-fish variation persisted even in the isogenic trout population. A decrease in fish-to-fish viral load variation was also observed in virus injection challenges that bypassed the host entry step, compared to fish exposed to the virus through the natural water-borne immersion route of infection. This trend was significant for three of the four virus genotypes examined and suggests host entry may play a role in viral load variability. However, high levels of viral load variation also remained in the injection challenges. Together, these results indicate that although host genetic diversity and viral entry may play some role in between-fish viral load variation, they are not major factors. Other biological and non-biological parameters that may influence viral load variation are discussed.

  5. Towards Sustainability in Viral Marketing with User Engaging Supporting Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Jankowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While viral marketing has captured substantial academic and professional interest, the processes that underpin successful viral marketing campaigns remain poorly understood. High competition and pressure for successful campaigns lead to strategies based on persuasion, unsolicited messages, and other techniques that negatively affect brand perception. The need for more sustainable strategies with a limited negative impact on web users is observed. Therefore, the current study examines the effectiveness of viral marketing and a supporting campaign, where the main goal was to increase user engagement and overall campaign performance. Supporting campaigns were evaluated, to determine whether they enhanced viral activity, but without the need for high persuasion or intrusive techniques. Results showed that supporting actions could be integrated with lower performing campaigns to increase their effectiveness. Apart from the main scientific goal that is presented, the study demonstrates how virtual worlds can provide a laboratory-like environment for identifying the processes that underpin viral marketing.

  6. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1-471 of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection.

  7. Campylobacter spp.: prevalencia y caracterización feno-genotípica de aislamientos de pacientes con diarrea y de sus mascotas en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Tamborini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la prevalencia de Campylobacter spp. en 327 pacientes con diarrea y en 36 animales (perros, gatos y pollos que convivían con pacientes en los que se detectó este patógeno; el estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Se aisló Campylobacter spp. en 50/327 pacientes y en 12/36 animales, Campylobacter jejuni fue la especie más frecuente. Se detectó resistencia a ciprofoxacina (65 % y a tetraciclina (32 % en una selección de 35 aislamientos de origen humano. En el análisis por electroforesis de campo pulsado de 13 aislamientos de C. jejuni se identificaron siete subtipos genéticos. Dos subtipos agruparon aislamientos de pacientes y de sus respectivos perros, y un tercer subtipo agrupó 1 aislamiento humano y 2 de pollos de ese paciente. Si bien las aves son reconocidas como el principal reservorio, es importante fortalecer la vigilancia de Campylobacter spp. en mascotas, las cuales pueden ser portadores asintomáticos del patógeno.The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofoxacin (65 % and tetracycline (32 % was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed feld gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient´s chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the

  8. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  9. Hemostatic System in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borisova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemostasis is balanced by pro- and anticoagulant and pro- and antifibrinolytic factors, most of these being synthesized by the liver. Advanced liver disease is associated with perturbations in the level of these factors due to secretory deficiencies. Thrombocytopenia, reduced levels of factor II-VII-X, and anti-fibrinolytic factors are all features of CHC infection, suggesting hypocoagulability. However, higher concentrations of VWF and factor VIII, as well as lower concentrations of anticoagulant factors including protein C and S, have also been reported in CHC infections, suggesting hypercoagulability. Thus, the hemostatic balance in the patient with liver disease is relatively unstable as evidenced by the occurrence of both bleeding and thrombotic complications in a significant proportion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. In patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, in whom extremely complex alterations of hemostasis occur, one cannot rely on levels of individual coagulation factors, or on simplified tests of hemostasis such as the PT or APTT to predict the hemostatic status. To determine the hemostatic status in these patients, more complex tests and a more comprehensive overview of the hemostatic changes are required. In connection with the latest studies, a revision of the methods for correction of hemostatic system disorders in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases becomes urgent.

  10. Packaging DNA Origami into Viral Protein Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Veikko; Mikkilä, Joona; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2018-01-01

    The DNA origami technique is a widely used method to create customized, complex, spatially well-defined two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) DNA nanostructures. These structures have huge potential to serve as smart drug-delivery vehicles and molecular devices in various nanomedical and biotechnological applications. However, so far only little is known about the behavior of these novel structures in living organisms or in cell culture/tissue models. Moreover, enhancing pharmacokinetic bioavailability and transfection properties of such structures still remains a challenge. One intriguing approach to overcome these issues is to coat DNA origami nanostructures with proteins or lipid membranes. Here, we show how cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid proteins (CPs) can be used for coating DNA origami nanostructures. We present a method for disassembling native CCMV particles and isolating the pure CP dimers, which can further bind and encapsulate a rectangular DNA origami shape. Owing to the highly programmable nature of DNA origami, packaging of DNA nanostructures into viral protein cages could find imminent uses in enhanced targeting and cellular delivery of various active nano-objects, such as enzymes and drug molecules.

  11. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into dengue virus encephalopathy, dengue virus encephalitis, immune-mediated syndromes (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuritis brachialis, acute cerebellitis, and others, neuromuscular complications (hypokalemic paralysis, transient benign muscle dysfunction and myositis, and dengue-associated stroke. Common neuro-ophthalmic complications are maculopathy and retinal vasculopathy. Pathogenic mechanisms include systemic complications and metabolic disturbances resulting in encephalopathy, direct effect of the virus provoking encephalitis, and postinfectious immune mechanisms causing immune-mediated syndromes. Dengue viruses should be considered as a cause of neurological disorders in endemic regions. Standardized case definitions for specific neurological complications are still needed. Keywords: encephalitis, encephalopathy, dengue fever, neurological complications

  12. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  13. Modeling of Viral Aerosol Transmission and Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Maryam; Amin, Osama; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the spread mechanism of diseases in the atmosphere as an engineering problem. Among the viral transmission mechanisms that do not include physical contact, aerosol transmission is the most significant mode of transmission where virus-laden droplets are carried over long distances by wind. In this work, we focus on aerosol transmission of virus and introduce the idea of viewing virus transmission through aerosols and their transport as a molecular communication problem, where one has no control over transmission source but a robust receiver can be designed using nano-biosensors. To investigate this idea, a complete system is presented and end-toend mathematical model for the aerosol transmission channel is derived under certain constraints and boundary conditions. In addition to transmitter and channel, a receiver architecture composed of air sampler and Silicon Nanowire field effect transistor is also discussed. Furthermore, a detection problem is formulated for which maximum likelihood decision rule and the corresponding missed detection probability is discussed. At the end, simulation results are presented to investigate the parameters that affect the performance and justify the feasibility of proposed setup in related applications.

  14. Markers of viral hepatitis in hemophiliacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.; Hussain, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Sero prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and anti-HCV IgG was determined in 100 persons with Hemophilia (PWH), registered with Hemophilia Patient Welfare Society (HPWS), Lahore Zone, Pakistan. The study shows that 4% were positive for HBsAg. However, there was a high level of anti-HCV sero positivity (56%) in our PWH, including many patients in younger age groups. When compared with figures from PWH in other regions of Asia like 23% in Western India, 33% in Sri Lanka and 15% of those in Iran, this figure is one of the highest. This rate is a reflection of the same rising trend in our population that is now exceeding 10%. The practice of unscreened blood/blood-products transfusions in the backdrop of high prevalence of HCV in our population is responsible for high figures seen in PWH. The need is to increase awareness amongst the patients, health care workers and policy makers about the transfusion associated viral infections in a group of patients who already had a hereditary disorder of severe nature. (author)

  15. Filovirus tropism: Cellular molecules for viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayato eTakada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In human and nonhuman primates, filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever.Recently, other animals such as pigs and some species of fruit bats have also been shown to be susceptible to these viruses. While having a preference for some cell types such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, filoviruses are known to be pantropic in infection of primates. The envelope glycoprotein (GP is responsible for both receptor binding and fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. It has been demonstrated that filovirus GP interacts with multiple molecules for entry into host cells, whereas none of the cellular molecules so far identified as a receptor/coreceptor fully explains filovirus tissue tropism and host range. Available data suggest that the mucin-like region (MLR on GP plays an important role in attachment to the preferred target cells, whose infection is likely involved in filovirus pathogenesis, whereas the MLR is not essential for the fundamental function of the GP in viral entry into cells in vitro. Further studies elucidating the mechanisms of cellular entry of filoviruses may shed light on the development of strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

  16. Leucopenia associated with abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, C; Slocombe, R; Day, R; Crawford, S

    2012-01-01

    To compare microscopic lesion severity with circulating total haemocyte counts (THC) in abalone affected by abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG). A herpes-like virus led to severe mortality in a number of Australian abalone farms in 2006. The infection was associated with severe necrotising ganglioneuritis. The microscopic lesions were well demarcated, affecting the neural tissue almost exclusively and were characterised by necrosis and increased cellularity in affected ganglia and nerves. On two farms, the presence or absence of typical AVG pathology was compared with THC. Those abalone with microscopic lesions of AVG had significantly lower haemocyte counts. The mean THC in abalone with no evidence of AVG from both farms was 4.6 × 10(6)/mL (±0.3 SE). The THC in AVG-affected abalone in farm 1 was 2.8 × 10(6)/mL (±0.5 SE) and farm 2 was 0.98 × 10(6)/mL (±0.4 SE). Severe AVG is associated with leucopenia in affected abalone. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Effect of oligonucleotide primers in determining viral variability within hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andrés

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the frequency of the corresponding template in the initial sample. Although bias in template-to-product ratios has been described before, its relevance in describing viral genetic variability at the intrapatient level has not been fully assessed yet. Results To investigate the role of oligonucleotide design in estimating viral variability within hosts, genetic diversity in hepatitis C virus (HCV populations from eight infected patients was characterised by two parallel PCR amplifications performed with two slightly different sets of primers, followed by cloning and sequencing (mean = 89 cloned sequences per patient. Population genetics analyses of viral populations recovered by pairs of amplifications revealed that in seven patients statistically significant differences were detected between populations sampled with different set of primers. Conclusions Genetic variability analyses demonstrates that PCR selection due to the choice of primers, differing in their degeneracy degree at some nucleotide positions, can eclipse totally or partially viral variants, hence yielding significant different estimates of viral variability within a single patient and therefore eventually producing quite different qualitative and quantitative descriptions of viral populations within each host.

  18. Effect of oligonucleotide primers in determining viral variability within hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Jiménez, Nuria; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2004-12-09

    Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the frequency of the corresponding template in the initial sample. Although bias in template-to-product ratios has been described before, its relevance in describing viral genetic variability at the intrapatient level has not been fully assessed yet. To investigate the role of oligonucleotide design in estimating viral variability within hosts, genetic diversity in hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations from eight infected patients was characterised by two parallel PCR amplifications performed with two slightly different sets of primers, followed by cloning and sequencing (mean = 89 cloned sequences per patient). Population genetics analyses of viral populations recovered by pairs of amplifications revealed that in seven patients statistically significant differences were detected between populations sampled with different set of primers. Genetic variability analyses demonstrates that PCR selection due to the choice of primers, differing in their degeneracy degree at some nucleotide positions, can eclipse totally or partially viral variants, hence yielding significant different estimates of viral variability within a single patient and therefore eventually producing quite different qualitative and quantitative descriptions of viral populations within each host.

  19. 454-Pyrosequencing: A Molecular Battiscope for Freshwater Viral Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Rooks

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses, the most abundant biological entities on the planet, are capable of infecting organisms from all three branches of life, although the majority infect bacteria where the greatest degree of cellular diversity lies. However, the characterization and assessment of viral diversity in natural environments is only beginning to become a possibility. Through the development of a novel technique for the harvest of viral DNA and the application of 454 pyrosequencing, a snapshot of the diversity of the DNA viruses harvested from a standing pond on a cattle farm has been obtained. A high abundance of viral genotypes (785 were present within the virome. The absolute numbers of lambdoid and Shiga toxin (Stx encoding phages detected suggested that the depth of sequencing had enabled recovery of only ca. 8% of the total virus population, numbers that agreed within less than an order of magnitude with predictions made by rarefaction analysis. The most abundant viral genotypes in the pond were bacteriophages (93.7%. The predominant viral genotypes infecting higher life forms found in association with the farm were pathogens that cause disease in cattle and humans, e.g. members of the Herpesviridae. The techniques and analysis described here provide a fresh approach to the monitoring of viral populations in the aquatic environment, with the potential to become integral to the development of risk analysis tools for monitoring the dissemination of viral agents of animal, plant and human diseases.

  20. A comprehensive and quantitative exploration of thousands of viral genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabadi, Gita

    2018-01-01

    The complete assembly of viral genomes from metagenomic datasets (short genomic sequences gathered from environmental samples) has proven to be challenging, so there are significant blind spots when we view viral genomes through the lens of metagenomics. One approach to overcoming this problem is to leverage the thousands of complete viral genomes that are publicly available. Here we describe our efforts to assemble a comprehensive resource that provides a quantitative snapshot of viral genomic trends – such as gene density, noncoding percentage, and abundances of functional gene categories – across thousands of viral genomes. We have also developed a coarse-grained method for visualizing viral genome organization for hundreds of genomes at once, and have explored the extent of the overlap between bacterial and bacteriophage gene pools. Existing viral classification systems were developed prior to the sequencing era, so we present our analysis in a way that allows us to assess the utility of the different classification systems for capturing genomic trends. PMID:29624169

  1. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  2. [Atomic force microscopy: a tool to analyze the viral cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaud, Julien; Castelnovo, Martin; Muriaux, Delphine; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine

    2015-05-01

    Each step of the HIV-1 life cycle frequently involves a change in the morphology and/or mechanical properties of the viral particle or core. The atomic force microscope (AFM) constitutes a powerful tool for characterizing these physical changes at the scale of a single virus. Indeed, AFM enables the visualization of viral capsids in a controlled physiological environment and to probe their mechanical properties by nano-indentation. Finally, AFM force spectroscopy allows to characterize the affinities between viral envelope proteins and cell receptors at the single molecule level. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. How Can Viral Dynamics Models Inform Endpoint Measures in Clinical Trials of Therapies for Acute Viral Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available Acute viral infections pose many practical challenges for the accurate assessment of the impact of novel therapies on viral growth and decay. Using the example of influenza A, we illustrate how the measurement of infection-related quantities that determine the dynamics of viral load within the human host, can inform investigators on the course and severity of infection and the efficacy of a novel treatment. We estimated the values of key infection-related quantities that determine the course of natural infection from viral load data, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The data were placebo group viral load measurements collected during volunteer challenge studies, conducted by Roche, as part of the oseltamivir trials. We calculated the values of the quantities for each patient and the correlations between the quantities, symptom severity and body temperature. The greatest variation among individuals occurred in the viral load peak and area under the viral load curve. Total symptom severity correlated positively with the basic reproductive number. The most sensitive endpoint for therapeutic trials with the goal to cure patients is the duration of infection. We suggest laboratory experiments to obtain more precise estimates of virological quantities that can supplement clinical endpoint measurements.

  4. A comparative analysis of response to ORS (oral rehydration solution vs. ORS + gelatin tannate in two cohorts of pediatric patients with acute diarrhea Análisis comparativo de dos cohortes de pacientes pediátricos con diarrea aguda y respuesta a la solución de rehidratación oral (SRO frente a SRO + tanato de gelatina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esteban Carretero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the study aims to observe the response to treatment with ORS only or ORS + gelatin tannate in two cohorts of pediatric patients with acute diarrhea, with the primary efficacy endpoint being the number of stools at 12 hours from baseline. Methods: children aged 3 months to 12 years were included in the study. Only children with acute diarrhea, more than 3 liquid stools, and duration inferior to 72 h were included. Number of stools was recorded as absolute number, categorized as ≤ 3 and ≥ 4 stools over 12 hours, and as a stool decrease index (SDI. Other clinical variables were recorded, including weight, fever, vomiting, stool characteristics, and signs of peritonitis/sepsis. Results: baseline characteristics for the two populations included a mean age of 2.3 years in the ORS group and 2.6 years in the ORS + gelatin tannate group. Children younger than 2 years represented 59.8 and 54.3% in the ORS and ORS + gelatin tannate groups, respectively. Clinical variables such as vomiting, dehydration, weigth, and stool decrease index were used to compare the two groups. We found a statistical significant difference between the two groups (p Objetivo: el estudio tiene como objetivo observar la respuesta al tratamiento con SRO o SRO + tanato de gelatina en dos cohortes de pacientes pediátricos que presentan diarrea aguda, siendo el número de deposiciones a las 12 horas desde el tratamiento inicial el criterio principal de valoración de la eficacia. Métodos: en el estudio se incluyeron niños de entre 3 meses y 12 años de edad. Únicamente se incluyeron niños con diarrea aguda, con más de 3 deposiciones líquidas y menos de 72 horas de evolución. Se registró la variable principal del número de deposiciones y de análisis como número absoluto, categorizado como ≤ 3 y ≥ 4 deposiciones en 12 horas y como un índice de disminución de deposiciones (IDD. Se registraron otras variables clínicas como peso, fiebre, vómitos, caracter

  5. Changing haematological parameters in dengue viral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, T.; Mehmood, K.; Mujtaba, G.; Choudhry, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dengue Fever is the most common arboviral disease in the world, and presents cyclically in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The four serotypes of dengue virus, 1, 2, 3, and 4, form an antigenic subgroup of the flaviviruses (Group B arboviruses). Transmission to humans of any of these serotypes initiates a spectrum of host responses, from in apparent to severe and sometimes lethal infections. Complete Blood count (CBC) is an important part of the diagnostic workup of patients. Comparison of various finding in CBC including peripheral smear can help the physician in better management of the patient. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on a series of suspected patients of Dengue viral infection reporting in Ittefaq Hospital (Trust). All were investigated for serological markers of acute infection. Results Out of 341 acute cases 166 (48.7%) were confirmed by IgM against Dengue virus. IgG anti-dengue was used on 200 suspected re-infected patients. Seventy-one (39.5%) were positive and 118 (59%) were negative. Among 245 confirmed dengue fever patients 43 (17.6%) were considered having dengue hemorrhagic fever on the basis of lab and clinical findings. Raised haematocrit, Leukopenia with relative Lymphocytosis and presence atypical lymphocytes along with plasmacytoid cells was consistent finding at presentation in both the patterns of disease, i.e., Dengue Haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue fever (DF). Conclusion: Changes in relative percentage of cells appear with improvement in the symptoms and recovery from the disease. These findings indicate that in the course of the disease, there are major shifts within cellular component of blood. (author)

  6. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  7. What makes a marketing campaing a viral success? : A descriptive model exploring the mechanisms of viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Stålnacke Larsson, Richard; Odén, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    What makes some marketing campaigns so immensely big and well known when they are marketed through social media or with a viral approach? How can a company reach out to customers through viral marketing and how can they make use of today’s social media to achieve it? In this article we will try to understand and further explore what a campaign have to accomplish in order to achieve a viral spread, using a descriptive model which uses a number of factors and terms necessary in order to properl...

  8. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  9. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensitivity, and high specificity. Nonetheless, the application of each diagnostic method is completely dependent on viral agent. Conclusions: Despite rapidity, automation, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, high sensitivity, and high specificity of molecular techniques, each type of molecular technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25789132

  10. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  12. Viral entry pathways: the example of common cold viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    For infection, viruses deliver their genomes into the host cell. These nucleic acids are usually tightly packed within the viral capsid, which, in turn, is often further enveloped within a lipid membrane. Both protect them against the hostile environment. Proteins and/or lipids on the viral particle promote attachment to the cell surface and internalization. They are likewise often involved in release of the genome inside the cell for its use as a blueprint for production of new viruses. In the following, I shall cursorily discuss the early more general steps of viral infection that include receptor recognition, uptake into the cell, and uncoating of the viral genome. The later sections will concentrate on human rhinoviruses, the main cause of the common cold, with respect to the above processes. Much of what is known on the underlying mechanisms has been worked out by Renate Fuchs at the Medical University of Vienna.

  13. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co‐detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  16. Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in West Africa- Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to contain the Ebola epidemic. Key words: Ebola, viral hemorrhagic fever, West Africa, lessons, Uganda .... the corresponding surveillance systems for detecting priority diseases. ... A major outbreak of Yellow Fe- ver was reported in five ...

  17. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp-a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  18. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  19. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J.; Forrest, M. Laird; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that “fits-all” cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications. PMID:23099792

  20. Economic and legal conceptual framework of viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Marija; Jovanović-Tončev Melita; Džamić Vladimir; Knežević Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and online communications are modern, and perhaps the most common form of communication between individuals and legal entities, and thus have become one of the most used ways of market communication. Viral marketing is evolving into the dominant form of marketing and exchange of information for the purpose of advertising, promoting, or achieving other goals. In this paper we present and analyse the phenomenon of viral marketing-its purpose, effects, and power of influence, and disc...

  1. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  2. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  3. The Impact Of Viral Marketing On Corporate Brand Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of viral marketing on corporate brand reputation. The study aimed to analyse and evaluate the use of viral marketing and the impact it has on the reputation of corporate branding of South African companies. The study was conducted in four South African provinces. The sample consisted of 75 companies, selected using a stratified sampling method, with respondents completing a five-point Likert scale questionnaire with the assistance of an interviewer. The result...

  4. Viral evasion of intracellular DNA and RNA sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U.

    2016-01-01

    The co-evolution of viruses with their hosts has led to the emergence of viral pathogens that are adept at evading or actively suppressing host immunity. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are key components of antiviral immunity that detect conserved molecular features of viral pathogens and initiate signalling that results in the expression of antiviral genes. In this Review, we discuss the strategies that viruses use to escape immune surveillance by key intracellular sensors of viral RNA or DNA, with a focus on RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Such viral strategies include the sequestration or modification of viral nucleic acids, interference with specific post-translational modifications of PRRs or their adaptor proteins, the degradation or cleavage of PRRs or their adaptors, and the sequestration or relocalization of PRRs. An understanding of viral immune-evasion mechanisms at the molecular level may guide the development of vaccines and antivirals. PMID:27174148

  5. The Immunoproteasome and Viral Infection: A Complex Regulator of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Katherine McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During viral infection, proper regulation of immune responses is necessary to ensure successful viral clearance with minimal host tissue damage. Proteasomes play a crucial role in the generation of antigenic peptides for presentation on MHC class I molecules, and thus activation of CD8 T cells, as well as activation of the NF-kB pathway. A specialized type of proteasome called the immunoproteasome is constitutively expressed in hematopoietic cells and induced in nonimmune cells during viral infection by interferon (IFN signaling. The immunoproteasome regulates CD8 T cell responses to many viral epitopes during infection. Accumulating evidence suggests that the immunoproteasome may also contribute to regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, activation of the NF-kB pathway, and management of oxidative stress. Many viruses have mechanisms of interfering with immunoproteasome function, including prevention of transcriptional upregulation of immunoproteasome components as well as direct interaction of viral proteins with immunoproteasome subunits. A better understanding of the role of the immunoproteasome in different cell types, tissues, and hosts has the potential to improve vaccine design and facilitate the development of effective treatment strategies for viral infections.

  6. Viral Infections in Pregnancy: A Focus on Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Nicole S

    2018-01-30

    During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier. Viral infections during pregnancy can also be spread through blood and vaginal secretions, and during the post-natal period, via breast milk. Thus, even in the absence of vertical transmission of viral infection to the fetus, maternal health can still be compromised and threaten the pregnancy. The most common viral DNA isolates found in gestation are adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and enterovirus. However, with the recent pandemic of Ebola virus, and the first documented case of a neonate to survive due to experimental therapies in 2017, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the changing roles and impacts of viral infection during pregnancy needs to be better understood, while strategies to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes need to be identified. This review focuses on the adverse impacts of viral infection during gestation, with an emphasis on Ebola virus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens 1-3 . In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects 3-5 . Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers 6-8 , allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  8. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-10

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip ('dendritic nanotip') with a single terminal nanotip ('single nanotip') for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10(4) particles ml(-1). The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  9. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip (‘dendritic nanotip’) with a single terminal nanotip (‘single nanotip’) for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4–5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10 4 particles ml −1 . The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles. (paper)

  10. Rituximab-related viral infections in lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Sercan; Harputluoglu, Hakan; Kilickap, Saadettin; Dede, Didem Sener; Dizdar, Omer; Altundag, Kadri; Barista, Ibrahim

    2007-07-01

    Recently, a human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody, rituximab, has been successfully used to treat cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some autoimmune diseases. However, several viral infections related to rituximab have been reported in the literature, but were not well characterized. To further investigate this topic, relevant English language studies were identified through Medline. There were 64 previously reported cases of serious viral infection after rituximab treatment. The median age of the cases was 61 years (range: 21 - 79). The median time period from the start of rituximab treatment to viral infection diagnosis was 5.0 months (range: 1 - 20). The most frequently experienced viral infections were hepatitis B virus (HBV) (39.1%, n = 25), cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) (23.4%, n = 15), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) (9.4%, n = 6), and others (28.1%, n = 18). Of the patients with HBV infections, 13 (52.0%) died due to hepatic failure. Among the 39 cases that had viral infections other than HBV, 13 died due to these specific infections. In this study, about 50% of the rituximab-related HBV infections resulted in death, whereas this was the case in only 33% of the cases with other infections. Close monitoring for viral infection, particularly HBV and CMV, in patients treated with rituximab should be recommended.

  11. Viral impacts on microbial carbon cycling in thawing permafrost soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubl, G. G.; Roux, S.; Bolduc, B.; Jang, H. B.; Emerson, J. B.; Solonenko, N.; Li, F.; Solden, L. M.; Vik, D. R.; Wrighton, K. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Sullivan, M. B.; Rich, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost contains 30-50% of global soil carbon (C) and is rapidly thawing. While the fate of this C is unknown, it will be shaped in part by microbes and their associated viruses, which modulate host activities via mortality and metabolic control. To date, viral research in soils has been outpaced by that in aquatic environments, due to the technical challenges of accessing viruses as well as the dramatic physicochemical heterogeneity in soils. Here, we describe advances in soil viromics from our research on permafrost-associated soils, and their implications for associated terrestrial C cycling. First, we optimized viral resuspension-DNA extraction methods for a range of soil types. Second, we applied cutting-edge viral-specific informatics methods to recover viral populations, define their gene content, connect them to potential hosts, and analyze their relationships to environmental parameters. A total of 781 viral populations were recovered from size-fractionated virus samples of three soils along a permafrost thaw gradient. Ecological analyses revealed endemism as recovered viral populations were largely unique to each habitat and unlike those in aquatic communities. Genome- and network-based classification assigned these viruses into 226 viral clusters (VCs; genus-level taxonomy), 55% of which were novel. This increases the number of VCs by a third and triples the number of soil viral populations in the RefSeq database (currently contains 256 VCs and 316 soil viral populations). Genomic analyses revealed 85% of the genes were functionally unknown, though 5% of the annotatable genes contained C-related auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs; e.g. glycoside hydrolases). Using sequence-based features and microbial population genomes, we were able to in silico predict hosts for 30% of the viral populations. The identified hosts spanned 3 phyla and 6 genera but suggested these viruses have species-specific host ranges as >80% of hosts for a given virus were in the same

  12. VirSorter: mining viral signal from microbial genomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Simon; Enault, Francois; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome), new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs) of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages). Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs) as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision) on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made available through the i

  13. VirSorter: mining viral signal from microbial genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome, new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages. Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made

  14. Evolution of approaches to viral safety issues for biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiniecki, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Approaches to viral safety issues for biological products have evolved during the past 50+ years. The first cell culture products (viral vaccines) relied largely on the use of in vitro and in vivo virus screening assays that were based upon infectivity of adventitious viral agents. The use of Cohn fractionation and pasteurization by manufacturers of plasma derivatives introduced the concepts that purification and treatment with physical and chemical agents could greatly reduce the risk of viral contamination of human albumin and immunoglobulin products. But the limitations of such approaches became clear for thermolabile products that were removed early in fractionation such as antihemophilic factors, which transmitted hepatitis viruses and HIV-1 to some product recipients. These successes and limitations were taken into account by the early developers of recombinant DNA (rDNA)-derived cell culture products and by regulatory agencies, leading to the utilization of cloning technology to reduce/eliminate contamination due to human viruses and purification technologies to physically remove and inactivate adventitious and endogenous viruses, along with cell banking and cell bank characterization for adventitious and endogenous viruses, viral screening of biological raw materials, and testing of cell culture harvests, to ensure virus safety. Later development and incorporation of nanofiltration technology in the manufacturing process provided additional assurance of viral clearance for safety of biotechnology products. These measures have proven very effective at preventing iatrogenic infection of recipients of biotechnology products; however, viral contamination of production cell cultures has

  15. The Pacific Ocean virome (POV: a marine viral metagenomic dataset and associated protein clusters for quantitative viral ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie L Hurwitz

    Full Text Available Bacteria and their viruses (phage are fundamental drivers of many ecosystem processes including global biogeochemistry and horizontal gene transfer. While databases and resources for studying function in uncultured bacterial communities are relatively advanced, many fewer exist for their viral counterparts. The issue is largely technical in that the majority (often 90% of viral sequences are functionally 'unknown' making viruses a virtually untapped resource of functional and physiological information. Here, we provide a community resource that organizes this unknown sequence space into 27 K high confidence protein clusters using 32 viral metagenomes from four biogeographic regions in the Pacific Ocean that vary by season, depth, and proximity to land, and include some of the first deep pelagic ocean viral metagenomes. These protein clusters more than double currently available viral protein clusters, including those from environmental datasets. Further, a protein cluster guided analysis of functional diversity revealed that richness decreased (i from deep to surface waters, (ii from winter to summer, (iii and with distance from shore in surface waters only. These data provide a framework from which to draw on for future metadata-enabled functional inquiries of the vast viral unknown.

  16. The Pacific Ocean virome (POV): a marine viral metagenomic dataset and associated protein clusters for quantitative viral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria and their viruses (phage) are fundamental drivers of many ecosystem processes including global biogeochemistry and horizontal gene transfer. While databases and resources for studying function in uncultured bacterial communities are relatively advanced, many fewer exist for their viral counterparts. The issue is largely technical in that the majority (often 90%) of viral sequences are functionally 'unknown' making viruses a virtually untapped resource of functional and physiological information. Here, we provide a community resource that organizes this unknown sequence space into 27 K high confidence protein clusters using 32 viral metagenomes from four biogeographic regions in the Pacific Ocean that vary by season, depth, and proximity to land, and include some of the first deep pelagic ocean viral metagenomes. These protein clusters more than double currently available viral protein clusters, including those from environmental datasets. Further, a protein cluster guided analysis of functional diversity revealed that richness decreased (i) from deep to surface waters, (ii) from winter to summer, (iii) and with distance from shore in surface waters only. These data provide a framework from which to draw on for future metadata-enabled functional inquiries of the vast viral unknown.

  17. Viral-specific T-cell transfer from HSCT donor for the treatment of viral infections or diseases after HSCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, C; Wang, Y; Reppel, L; D'aveni, M; Campidelli, A; Decot, V; Bensoussan, D

    2018-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative option for treatment of some malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. However, post-HSCT patients are severely immunocompromised and susceptible to viral infections, which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although antiviral agents are now available for most types of viral infections, they are not devoid of side effects and their efficacy is limited when there is no concomitant antiviral immune reconstitution. In recent decades, adoptive transfer of viral-specific T cells (VSTs) became an alternative treatment for viral infection after HSCT. However, two major issues are concerned in VST transfer: the risk of GVHD and antiviral efficacy. We report an exhaustive review of the published studies that focus on prophylactic and/or curative therapy by donor VST transfer for post-HSCT common viral infections. A low incidence of GVHD and a good antiviral efficacy was observed after adoptive transfer of VSTs from HSCT donor. Viral-specific T-cell transfer is a promising approach for a broad clinical application. Nevertheless, a randomized controlled study in a large cohort of patients comparing antiviral treatment alone to antiviral treatment combined with VSTs is still needed to demonstrate efficacy and safety.

  18. Viral Genome DataBase: storing and analyzing genes and proteins from complete viral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, D; Upton, C

    2000-05-01

    The Viral Genome DataBase (VGDB) contains detailed information of the genes and predicted protein sequences from 15 completely sequenced genomes of large (&100 kb) viruses (2847 genes). The data that is stored includes DNA sequence, protein sequence, GenBank and user-entered notes, molecular weight (MW), isoelectric point (pI), amino acid content, A + T%, nucleotide frequency, dinucleotide frequency and codon use. The VGDB is a mySQL database with a user-friendly JAVA GUI. Results of queries can be easily sorted by any of the individual parameters. The software and additional figures and information are available at http://athena.bioc.uvic.ca/genomes/index.html .

  19. Virally encoded chemokines and chemokine receptors in the role of viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter J; Lüttichau, Hans R; Schwartz, Thue W

    2003-01-01

    of these or potent ways to alter an efficient antiviral response to a weak Th2-driven response. Examples here are the chemokine scavenging by US28, attractance of Th2 cells and regulatory cells by vMIP1-3 and the selective engaging of CCR8 by MC148. Important insights into viral pathology and possible targets...... for antiviral therapies have been provided by UL33, UL78 and in particular ORF74 and the chances are that many more will follow. In HHV8 vMIP-2 and the chemokine-binding proteins potent anti-inflammatory agents have been provided. These have already had their potential demonstrated in animal models and may...

  20. How to be good at being a virus : Biochemical constraints of viral life-history evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berngruber, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Viral reproduction depends on a careful balance of the viral life-cycle in time and magnitude. Maintenance of this balance is granted by the regulation of viral protein production and protein interactions. Viral evolution therefore hinges on the possibilities to optimize these protein interactions.

  1. Comparison of reproductive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus provided by multivalent viral vaccines containing inactivated fractions of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against the impacts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) provided by three different multivalent vaccines containing inactivated BVDV. Beef heifers and cows (n=122), seronegative and virus negative for BVDV, were randomly ...

  2. Life cycle synchronization is a viral drug resistance mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia A Neagu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections are one of the major causes of death worldwide, with HIV infection alone resulting in over 1.2 million casualties per year. Antiviral drugs are now being administered for a variety of viral infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and C, and influenza. These therapies target a specific phase of the virus's life cycle, yet their ultimate success depends on a variety of factors, such as adherence to a prescribed regimen and the emergence of viral drug resistance. The epidemiology and evolution of drug resistance have been extensively characterized, and it is generally assumed that drug resistance arises from mutations that alter the virus's susceptibility to the direct action of the drug. In this paper, we consider the possibility that a virus population can evolve towards synchronizing its life cycle with the pattern of drug therapy. The periodicity of the drug treatment could then allow for a virus strain whose life cycle length is a multiple of the dosing interval to replicate only when the concentration of the drug is lowest. This process, referred to as "drug tolerance by synchronization", could allow the virus population to maximize its overall fitness without having to alter drug binding or complete its life cycle in the drug's presence. We use mathematical models and stochastic simulations to show that life cycle synchronization can indeed be a mechanism of viral drug tolerance. We show that this effect is more likely to occur when the variability in both viral life cycle and drug dose timing are low. More generally, we find that in the presence of periodic drug levels, time-averaged calculations of viral fitness do not accurately predict drug levels needed to eradicate infection, even if there is no synchronization. We derive an analytical expression for viral fitness that is sufficient to explain the drug-pattern-dependent survival of strains with any life cycle length. We discuss the implications of these findings for

  3. Oxygen minimum zones harbour novel viral communities with low diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, Noriko; Prieto-Davó, Alejandra; Walsh, Kevin; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Angly, Florent; Akhter, Sajia; Barott, Katie; Busch, Julia; McDole, Tracey; Haggerty, J Matthew; Willner, Dana; Alarcón, Gadiel; Ulloa, Osvaldo; DeLong, Edward F; Dutilh, Bas E; Rohwer, Forest; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A

    2012-11-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are oceanographic features that affect ocean productivity and biodiversity, and contribute to ocean nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we describe the viral communities associated with the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) OMZ off Iquique, Chile for the first time through abundance estimates and viral metagenomic analysis. The viral-to-microbial ratio (VMR) in the ETSP OMZ fluctuated in the oxycline and declined in the anoxic core to below one on several occasions. The number of viral genotypes (unique genomes as defined by sequence assembly) ranged from 2040 at the surface to 98 in the oxycline, which is the lowest viral diversity recorded to date in the ocean. Within the ETSP OMZ viromes, only 4.95% of genotypes were shared between surface and anoxic core viromes using reciprocal BLASTn sequence comparison. ETSP virome comparison with surface marine viromes (Sargasso Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Kingman Reef, Chesapeake Bay) revealed a dissimilarity of ETSP OMZ viruses to those from other oceanic regions. From the 1.4 million non-redundant DNA sequences sampled within the altered oxygen conditions of the ETSP OMZ, more than 97.8% were novel. Of the average 3.2% of sequences that showed similarity to the SEED non-redundant database, phage sequences dominated the surface viromes, eukaryotic virus sequences dominated the oxycline viromes, and phage sequences dominated the anoxic core viromes. The viral community of the ETSP OMZ was characterized by fluctuations in abundance, taxa and diversity across the oxygen gradient. The ecological significance of these changes was difficult to predict; however, it appears that the reduction in oxygen coincides with an increased shedding of eukaryotic viruses in the oxycline, and a shift to unique viral genotypes in the anoxic core. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Mujer anciana con diarrea crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura González Vázquez

    2013-12-01

    Celiac disease is typically diagnosed in children and young adults with a history of diarrhea or malabsorption. However, this disease is increasingly detected in patients older than 55 years. For this reason, it seemed interesting to describe a new case in an elderly patient and to make a brief update

  5. Mujer joven con diarrea crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vares González

    2013-12-01

    Chronic diarrhea is frequent. The causes are multiple, so reaching the definitive diagnosis can be complex. The diagnostic delay can be deadly. We describe the case of a young woman who developed severe hypokalemia secondary to VIPoma, neuroendocrine tumor secreting vasoactive intestinal peptide, a hormone responsible for the clinical: watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria

  6. Viral kinetics of Enterovirus 71 in human abdomyosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; He, Ya-Qing; Yi, Li-Na; Zan, Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To characterise the viral kinetics of enterovirus 71 (EV71). METHODS: In this study, human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells were infected with EV71 at different multiplicity of infection (MOI). After infection, the cytopathic effect (CPE) was monitored and recorded using a phase contrast microscope associated with a CCD camera at different time points post viral infection (0, 6, 12, 24 h post infection). Cell growth and viability were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in both EV71 infected and mock infected cells at each time point. EV71 replication kinetics in RD cells was determined by measuring the total intracellular viral RNA with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Also, the intracellular and extracellular virion RNA was isolated and quantified at different time points to analyze the viral package and secretion. The expression of viral protein was determined by analyze the levels of viral structure protein VP1 with Western blotting. RESULTS: EV71 infection induced a significant CPE as early as 6 h post infection (p.i.) in both RD cells infected with high ratio of virus (MOI 10) and low ratio of virus (MOI 1). In EV71 infected cells, the cell growth was inhibited and the number of viable cells was rapidly decreased in the later phase of infection. EV71 virions were uncoated immediately after entry. The intracellular viral RNA began to increase at as early as 3 h p.i. and the exponential increase was found between 3 h to 6 h p.i. in both infected groups. For viral structure protein synthesis, results from western-blot showed that intracellular viral protein VP1 could not be detected until 6 h p.i. in the cells infected at either MOI 1 or MOI 10; and reached the peak at 9 h p.i. in the cells infected with EV71 at both MOI 1 and MOI 10. Simultaneously, the viral package and secretion were also actively processed as the virus underwent rapid replication. The viral package kinetics

  7. Recent Advances in Non-viral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Huang, Leaf

    2011-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Non-viral vectors, typically based on cationic lipids or polymers, are preferred due to safety concerns with viral vectors. So far, non-viral vectors can proficiently transfect cells in culture, but obtaining efficient nanomedicines is far from evident. To overcome the hurdles associated with non-viral vectors is significant for improving delivery efficiency and therapeutic effect of nucleic acid. The drawbacks include the strong interaction of cationic delivery vehicles with blood components, uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), toxicity, targeting ability of the carriers to the cells of interest, and so on. PEGylation is the predominant method used to reduce the binding of plasma proteins with non-viral vectors and minimize the clearance by RES after intravenous administration. The nanoparticles that are not rapidly cleared from the circulation accumulate in the tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and the targeting ligands attached to the distal end of the PEGylated components allow binding to the receptors on the target cell surface. Neutral or anionic liposomes have been also developed for systemic delivery of nucleic acids in experimental animal model. Designing and synthesizing novel cationic lipids and polymers, and binding nucleic acid with peptides, targeting ligands, polymers, or environmentally sensitive moieties also attract many attentions for resolving the problems encountered by non-viral vectors. The application of inorganic nanoparticles in nucleic acid delivery is an emerging field, too. Recently, different classes of non-viral vectors appear to be converging and the features of different classes of non-viral vectors could be combined in one strategy. More hurdles associated with efficient nucleic acid delivery therefore might be expected to be overcome. In this account, we will focus on these novel non-viral vectors, which are classified into multifunctional hybrid nucleic acid vectors, novel

  8. Konjungtivitis Viral: Diagnosis dan Terapi di Pelayanan Kesehatan Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sitompul

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Konjungtiva adalah membran mukosa tipis transparan yang melapisi bagian anterior bola mata dan bagian dalam palpebral. Konjungtiva berfungsi sebagai salah satu komponen sistem perlindungan mata dari peradangan dan infeksi. Peradangan konjungtiva disebut konjungtivitis dan infeksi virus merupakan etiologi peradangan akut tersering pada konjungtiva. Virus yang menyebabkan konjungtivitis adalah adenovirus, herpes simpleks, herpes zoster, pox virus, myxovirus, paramyxovirus, dan arbovirus. Konjungtivitis sering terjadi bersama atau sesudah infeksi saluran napas dan umumnya terdapat riwayat kontak dengan pasien konjungtivitis viral. Gejala konjungtivitis viral berupa mata merah, sekret mata berair dan dapat disertai pembesaran kelenjar limfe. Gejala konjungtivitis viral biasanya ringan, dapat sembuh sendiri dan tidak disertai penurunan tajam penglihatan sehingga dapat ditatalaksana di pelayanan kesehatan primer. Meskipun demikian, terdapat kasus-kasus yang bersifat mengancam penglihatan sehingga perlu segera dirujuk ke rumah sakit atau dokter spesialis mata. Konjungtivitis viral sangat menular sehingga pasien perlu mendapat edukasi untuk mengurangi kontak langsung dan tidak langsung agar tidak menjadi sumber infeksi bagi lingkungannya. Konjungtivitis viral dapat sembuh sendiri, namun pemberian air mata buatan, antihistamin topikal, atau kompres dingin berguna untuk meredakan gejala. Terapi antiviral tidak diperlukan untuk konjungtivitis virus, kecuali untuk konjungtivitis herpetik. Kata kunci: epidemi, konjungtivitis, virus.     Viral Conjunctivitis: Diagnosis and Therapy in Primary Health Care   Abstract Conjunctivae is a transparent thin mucosal membrane covering the outer anterior eye and inner palpebrae. This structure is vital for eye defense from inflammation and infection. Inflammation occurring on the conjunctivae is called conjunctivitis and virus is one of the most common etiologic agent. Such viruses are adenovirus, herpes simplex virus

  9. ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCIRRHETINIC AND GLYCIRRHIZIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zarubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA and glycirrhizic (GA acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component

  10. The Impact of Viral Marketing Through Social Media on BCD's Consumer Brand Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumadjaja, Levina

    2014-01-01

    Due to the continous increase in viral marketing's popularity phenomenon that causes viral marketing to later become a strategic requirement for marketers worldwide, a necessity to assess the effectiveness of viral marketing in achieveing its objectives in leveraging brand and products has emerged. This research was accomplished to study the impact of viral marketing through social media on consumer brand knowledge of a franchised Taiwanese bubble tea company, BCD. The company utilizes viral...

  11. Anti-viral RNA silencing: do we look like plants ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecellier Charles-Henri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anti-viral function of RNA silencing was first discovered in plants as a natural manifestation of the artificial 'co-suppression', which refers to the extinction of endogenous gene induced by homologous transgene. Because silencing components are conserved among most, if not all, eukaryotes, the question rapidly arose as to determine whether this process fulfils anti-viral functions in animals, such as insects and mammals. It appears that, whereas the anti-viral process seems to be similarly conserved from plants to insects, even in worms, RNA silencing does influence the replication of mammalian viruses but in a particular mode: micro(miRNAs, endogenous small RNAs naturally implicated in translational control, rather than virus-derived small interfering (siRNAs like in other organisms, are involved. In fact, these recent studies even suggest that RNA silencing may be beneficial for viral replication. Accordingly, several large DNA mammalian viruses have been shown to encode their own miRNAs. Here, we summarize the seminal studies that have implicated RNA silencing in viral infection and compare the different eukaryotic responses.

  12. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  13. Conditions for Viral Influence Spreading through Multiplex Correlated Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanqing; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up "new ideas." Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through "viral" influence spreading, producing cascades of followers and fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the rise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the rise of Facebook to the detriment of Myspace. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex-correlated graph with hidden "influence links." Analytical solutions predict percolation-phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers, as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of the local correlation function between multilayers, which we also confirm empirically. Ultimately, the theory predicts the conditions for viral cascading in a large class of multiplex networks ranging from social to financial systems and markets.

  14. Human viral pathogens are pervasive in wastewater treatment center aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisebois, Evelyne; Veillette, Marc; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Lavoie, Jacques; Corbeil, Jacques; Culley, Alexander; Duchaine, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater treatment center (WTC) workers may be vulnerable to diseases caused by viruses, such as the common cold, influenza and gastro-intestinal infections. Although there is a substantial body of literature characterizing the microbial community found in wastewater, only a few studies have characterized the viral component of WTC aerosols, despite the fact that most diseases affecting WTC workers are of viral origin and that some of these viruses are transmitted through the air. In this study, we evaluated in four WTCs the presence of 11 viral pathogens of particular concern in this milieu and used a metagenomic approach to characterize the total viral community in the air of one of those WTCs. The presence of viruses in aerosols in different locations of individual WTCs was evaluated and the results obtained with four commonly used air samplers were compared. We detected four of the eleven viruses tested, including human adenovirus (hAdV), rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV1). The results of the metagenomic assay uncovered very few viral RNA sequences in WTC aerosols, however sequences from human DNA viruses were in much greater relative abundance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Tissue viral load variability in chronic hepatitis C.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, L

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard for assessing disease activity in chronic hepatitis C, but sampling error is a potential limitation. Whether sampling variability applies equally to viral load assessment as it does to histology is uncertain. To examine this, we compared viral load between right- and left-lobe biopsy specimens from patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Bilobe biopsies were taken from 16 patients who were serum positive for HCV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype was identified by reverse line probe hybridization. There was an absence of competing risk factors for infectious and other liver diseases in this patient group. Histology and hepatic viral load were assessed blindly. None of the patients had received antiviral therapy at the time of study. RESULTS: Detection of HCV in right and left lobes was concordant with serum positivity in all cases. The viral load between lobes was highly correlated (p = 0.0003, r = 0.79). In contrast, the histological activity indices of inflammation and fibrosis\\/cirrhosis were poorly correlated between lobes (p = 0.038, r = 0.60, and p = 0.098, r = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hepatic viral load variability does not suffer from the same degree of heterogeneity of sampling variability as does histology.

  16. Struggle for space: viral extinction through competition for cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, José A; Aguirre, Jacobo; Capitán, José A; Manrubia, Susanna C

    2011-01-14

    The design of protocols to suppress the propagation of viral infections is an enduring enterprise, especially hindered by limited knowledge of the mechanisms leading to viral extinction. Here we report on infection extinction due to intraspecific competition to infect susceptible hosts. Beneficial mutations increase the production of viral progeny, while the host cell may develop defenses against infection. For an unlimited number of host cells, a feedback runaway coevolution between host resistance and progeny production occurs. However, physical space limits the advantage that the virus obtains from increasing offspring numbers; thus, infection clearance may result from an increase in host defenses beyond a finite threshold. Our results might be relevant to devise improved control strategies in environments with mobility constraints or different geometrical properties.

  17. Zika Fetal Neuropathogenesis: Etiology of a Viral Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Klase

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing Zika virus epidemic in the Americas and the observed association with both fetal abnormalities (primary microcephaly and adult autoimmune pathology (Guillain-Barré syndrome has brought attention to this neglected pathogen. While initial case studies generated significant interest in the Zika virus outbreak, larger prospective epidemiology and basic virology studies examining the mechanisms of Zika viral infection and associated pathophysiology are only now starting to be published. In this review, we analyze Zika fetal neuropathogenesis from a comparative pathology perspective, using the historic metaphor of "TORCH" viral pathogenesis to provide context. By drawing parallels to other viral infections of the fetus, we identify common themes and mechanisms that may illuminate the observed pathology. The existing data on the susceptibility of various cells to both Zika and other flavivirus infections are summarized. Finally, we highlight relevant aspects of the known molecular mechanisms of flavivirus replication.

  18. Zika Fetal Neuropathogenesis: Etiology of a Viral Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klase, Zachary A.; Khakhina, Svetlana; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus epidemic in the Americas and the observed association with both fetal abnormalities (primary microcephaly) and adult autoimmune pathology (Guillain–Barré syndrome) has brought attention to this neglected pathogen. While initial case studies generated significant interest in the Zika virus outbreak, larger prospective epidemiology and basic virology studies examining the mechanisms of Zika viral infection and associated pathophysiology are only now starting to be published. In this review, we analyze Zika fetal neuropathogenesis from a comparative pathology perspective, using the historic metaphor of “TORCH” viral pathogenesis to provide context. By drawing parallels to other viral infections of the fetus, we identify common themes and mechanisms that may illuminate the observed pathology. The existing data on the susceptibility of various cells to both Zika and other flavivirus infections are summarized. Finally, we highlight relevant aspects of the known molecular mechanisms of flavivirus replication. PMID:27560129

  19. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Limongi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson’s disease (PD, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.

  20. Viral Interference and Persistence in Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses

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    Juan Santiago Salas-Benito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. However, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through Aedes and Culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. This establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the antiviral host response. Viral interference is a phenomenon whereby one virus inhibits the replication of other viruses, and this condition is frequently associated with persistent infections. Viral interference and persistent infection are determined by several factors, such as defective interfering particles, competition for cellular factors required for translation/replication, and the host antiviral response. The interaction between two flaviviruses typically results in viral interference, indicating that these viruses share common features during the replicative cycle in the vector. The potential mechanisms involved in these processes are reviewed here.

  1. Influenza A Virus-Host Protein Interactions Control Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Shitao

    2017-08-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is a highly transmissible respiratory pathogen and represents a continued threat to global health with considerable economic and social impact. IAV is a zoonotic virus that comprises a plethora of strains with different pathogenic profiles. The different outcomes of viral pathogenesis are dependent on the engagement between the virus and the host cellular protein interaction network. The interactions may facilitate virus hijacking of host molecular machinery to fulfill the viral life cycle or trigger host immune defense to eliminate the virus. In recent years, much effort has been made to discover the virus-host protein interactions and understand the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we review the recent advances in our understanding of IAV-host interactions and how these interactions contribute to host defense and viral pathogenesis.

  2. Emmprin and KSHV: new partners in viral cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu; Bai, Lihua; Lu, Ying; Xu, Zengguang; Reiss, Krys; Del Valle, Luis; Kaleeba, Johnan; Toole, Bryan P; Parsons, Chris; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    Emmprin (CD147; basigin) is a multifunctional glycoprotein expressed at higher levels by cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Through direct effects within tumor cells and promotion of tumor-stroma interactions, emmprin participates in induction of tumor cell invasiveness, angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance. Although its contribution to cancer progression has been widely studied, the role of emmprin in viral oncogenesis still remains largely unclear, and only a small body of available literature implicates emmprin-associated mechanisms in viral pathogenesis and tumorigenesis. We summarize these data in this review, focusing on the role of emmprin in pathogenesis associated with the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a common etiology for cancers arising in the setting of immune suppression. We also discuss future directions for mechanistic studies exploring roles for emmprin in viral cancer pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  4. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  5. The great escape: viral strategies to counter BST-2/tetherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Douglas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced BST-2 protein has the unique ability to restrict the egress of HIV-1, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, Ebola virus, and other enveloped viruses. The observation that virions remain attached to the surface of BST-2-expressing cells led to the renaming of BST-2 as "tetherin". However, viral proteins such as HIV-1 Vpu, simian immunodeficiency virus Nef, and KSHV K5 counteract BST-2, thereby allowing mature virions to readily escape from infected cells. Since the anti-viral function of BST-2 was discovered, there has been an explosion of research into several aspects of this intriguing interplay between host and virus. This review focuses on recent work addressing the molecular mechanisms involved in BST-2 restriction of viral egress and the species-specific countermeasures employed by various viruses.

  6. Human Lectins and Their Roles in Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Mason

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate recognition of virus proteins is an important component of the immune response to viral pathogens. A component of this immune recognition is the family of lectins; pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that recognise viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs including viral glycoproteins. In this review we discuss the contribution of soluble and membrane-associated PRRs to immunity against virus pathogens, and the potential role of these molecules in facilitating virus replication. These processes are illustrated with examples of viruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and Ebola virus (EBOV. We focus on the structure, function and genetics of the well-characterised C-type lectin mannose-binding lectin, the ficolins, and the membrane-bound CD209 proteins expressed on dendritic cells. The potential for lectin-based antiviral therapies is also discussed.

  7. Pest control through viral disease: mathematical modeling and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Bhattacharya, D K

    2006-01-07

    This paper deals with the mathematical modeling of pest management under viral infection (i.e. using viral pesticide) and analysis of its essential mathematical features. As the viral infection induces host lysis which releases more virus into the environment, on the average 'kappa' viruses per host, kappain(1,infinity), the 'virus replication parameter' is chosen as the main parameter on which the dynamics of the infection depends. We prove that there exists a threshold value kappa(0) beyond which the endemic equilibrium bifurcates from the free disease one. Still for increasing kappa values, the endemic equilibrium bifurcates towards a periodic solution. We further analyse the orbital stability of the periodic orbits arising from bifurcation by applying Poor's condition. A concluding discussion with numerical simulation of the model is then presented.

  8. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  9. Visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitenkov Vladislav Borisovich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate extent and nature of visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis. METHODS: Thirty patients(age 5-12 yearswith acute viral encephalitis underwent visual evoked potentials(VEPinvestigation within 12 days from the appearance of the first signs of disease. Latency and amplitude of P100 peak were compared with normative data and between patients with varicella and tick-borne encephalitis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between children with these two forms of encephalitis. In the whole group in 40% of the cases signs of the visual cortex dysfunction(P100 amplitude loweringand mild slowing of the conductivity along the visual pathways(P100 latency lengtheningwere seen. In 3% of the cases retrobulbar optic neuritis was diagnosed. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that visual pathway have good endurance to the viral encephalitis anatomically, but functionally visual cortex is quite vulnerable towards general disturbances caused by this kind of illness.

  10. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Viral Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pmp; Handa, S K; Banerjee, A

    2006-10-01

    There was a rise in the number of viral hepatitis cases in a regimental training centre in Mar 2003 and an epidemic of viral hepatitis was suspected. The clinical case sheets and preliminary investigations carried out in the local military hospital (MH) were reviewed. A cross sectional descriptive epidemiological study was undertaken with survey odf the suspected sewage and water pipelines. A total of 36 cases occurred from Mar 2003 to Apr 2003. There was clustering in time and space suggesting common source epidemic. All the 36 serum samples tested for IgM anti HEV antibodies were positive. Exploration of the water pipelines revealed sewage contamination due to leakage in the pipeline passing close to the sewage line. The overall attack rate was 1.44%. The outbreak of viral hepatitis in the regimental training centre occurred due to sewage contamination of drinking water pipeline.

  11. Anti-metastatic effects of viral and non-viral mediated Nk4 delivery to tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhles, Alexandra; Collins, Sara A; van Pijkeren, Jan P; Rajendran, Simon; Miles, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; O'Hanlon, Deirdre M; Tangney, Mark

    2009-03-09

    The most common cause of death of cancer sufferers is through the occurrence of metastases. The metastatic behaviour of tumour cells is regulated by extracellular growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a ligand for the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant expression/activation of the c-Met receptor is closely associated with metastatic progression. Nk4 (also known as Interleukin (IL)32b) is a competitive antagonist of the HGF c-Met system and inhibits c-Met signalling and tumour metastasis. Nk4 has an additional anti-angiogenic activity independent of its HGF-antagonist function. Angiogenesis-inhibitory as well as cancer-specific apoptosis inducing effects make the Nk4 sequence an attractive candidate for gene therapy of cancer. This study investigates the inhibition of tumour metastasis by gene therapy mediated production of Nk4 by the primary tumour. Optimal delivery of anti-cancer genes is vital in order to achieve the highest therapeutic responses. Non-viral plasmid delivery methods have the advantage of safety and ease of production, providing immediate transgene expression, albeit short-lived in most tumours. Sustained presence of anti-angiogenic molecules is preferable with anti-angiogenic therapies, and the long-term expression mediated by Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) might represent a more appropriate delivery in this respect. However, the incubation time required by AAV vectors to reach appropriate gene expression levels hampers efficacy in many fast-growing murine tumour models. Here, we describe murine trials assessing the effects of Nk4 on the spontaneously metastatic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) model when delivered to primary tumour via plasmid lipofection or AAV2 vector. Intratumoural AAV-Nk4 administration produced the highest therapeutic response with significant reduction in both primary tumour growth and incidence of lung metastases. Plasmid-mediated therapy also significantly reduced metastatic growth, but with moderate

  12. Translation of a nonpolyadenylated viral RNA is enhanced by binding of viral coat protein or polyadenylation of the RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeleman, L; Olsthoorn, R C; Linthorst, H J; Bol, J F

    2001-12-04

    On entering a host cell, positive-strand RNA virus genomes have to serve as messenger for the translation of viral proteins. Efficient translation of cellular messengers requires interactions between initiation factors bound to the 5'-cap structure and the poly(A) binding protein bound to the 3'-poly(A) tail. Initiation of infection with the tripartite RNA genomes of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and viruses from the genus Ilarvirus requires binding of a few molecules of coat protein (CP) to the 3' end of the nonpolyadenylated viral RNAs. Moreover, infection with the genomic RNAs can be initiated by addition of the subgenomic messenger for CP, RNA 4. We report here that extension of the AMV RNAs with a poly(A) tail of 40 to 80 A-residues permitted initiation of infection independently of CP or RNA 4 in the inoculum. Specifically, polyadenylation of RNA 1 relieved an apparent bottleneck in the translation of the viral RNAs. Translation of RNA 4 in plant protoplasts was autocatalytically stimulated by its encoded CP. Mutations that interfered with CP binding to the 3' end of viral RNAs reduced translation of RNA 4 to undetectable levels. Possibly, CP of AMV and ilarviruses stimulates translation of viral RNAs by acting as a functional analogue of poly(A) binding protein or other cellular proteins.

  13. Viral findings in adult hematological patients with neutropenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ohrmalm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until recently, viral infections in patients with hematological malignancies were concerns primarily in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. During the last years, changed treatment regimens for non-transplanted patients with hematological malignancies have had potential to increase the incidence of viral infections in this group. In this study, we have prospectively investigated the prevalence of a broad range of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA as well as viruses that commonly reactivate after allogeneic HSCT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with hematological malignancies and therapy induced neutropenia (n = 159 were screened regarding a broad range of common respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and for viruses commonly detected in severely immunosuppressed patients in peripheral blood. Quantitative PCR was used for detection of viruses. A viral pathogen was detected in 35% of the patients. The detection rate was rather similar in blood (22% and NPA (18% with polyoma BK virus and rhinovirus as dominating pathogens in blood and NPA, respectively. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL (p<0.01 and patients with fever (p<0.001 were overrepresented in the virus-positive group. Furthermore, viral findings in NPA were associated with upper respiratory symptoms (URTS (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both respiratory viral infections and low titers of viruses in blood from patients with neutropenia were common. Patients with CLL and patients with fever were independently associated to these infections, and viral findings in NPA were associated to URTS indicating active infection. These findings motivate further studies on viruses' impact on this patient category and their potential role as causative agents of fever during neutropenia.

  14. Diabetes mellitus and renal involvement in chronic viral liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, V F; Streba, C T; Ionescu, M; Constantinescu, A F; Vere, C C; Rogoveanu, I; Moța, E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral liver disease is often associated with other conditions. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported in this context and may play a role in the progression of the liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Renal disease is also an important extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis viral infection and its presence is associated with poor prognosis and management issues. Our study had multiple purposes: to determine the frequency of the association between chronic viral liver disease and diabetes mellitus, evaluate the potential of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for HCC and assess an eventual renal involvement. We included in our study a number of 246 patients with chronic liver disease, from whom 136 were diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis and 110 with viral liver cirrhosis. These patients were assessed by using a clinical examination and a series of tests, including serum transaminase levels, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, markers of cholestasis, fasting plasma glucose levels, serum creatinine, urea, albuminuria, Addis-Hamburger test, electrophoresis of urinary proteins, abdominal ultrasound and, in some cases, CT examination. We obtained the following results: diabetes mellitus is often associated with chronic liver disease of viral etiology, having been identified in 18.29% of the patients in our study. Age above 60 in patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.013diabetes mellitus. Renal disease was present in 13.4% of the patients with chronic liver disease and it was especially associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus. The most common form of renal injury was glomerulonephritis. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed only in cirrhotic patients as hepatorenal syndrome, occurring in 7.27% of the subjects, while chronic kidney disease was identified only in two cases of chronic viral hepatitis. Four patients in our study were diagnosed with HCC and none of them presented diabetes mellitus. Our study revealed that there is a

  15. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  16. Marketing Interactivo Viral En el Área Educativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Castro, María Fernanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The viral interactive marketing represents to the new era of the technology for its benefits where limit doesn't exist, more when its market is young and the interaction permanency is active, all this implies a great effort for the creators of the social networks being its development place. The innovation of the traditional marketing to a viral interactive marketing where people, virtual platforms and to work of the necessities is active, they are working to be implemented in the educational area where it is possible to foment the reading, writting, creativity, investigation and analysis for the projects of the students contributing to the learning of the society.

  17. Marketing Viral aplicado a la difusión musical

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Dorado, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Trabajo Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2013/2014. Director/a: Raquel Sardá En este Trabajo Fin de grado se analiza el Marketing Viral como técnica de comunicación y se aplica a cinco casos prácticos relacionados directamente con el panorama musical. Además, se realiza un recorrido por las principales plataformas y formatos utilizados por esta herramienta de comunicación. Finalmente, se pone de manifiesto el auge del Marketing Viral en la actualid...

  18. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Viral and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, and climate change, bacterial and viral infections that were once unrecognized or uncommon are being seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere. A delay in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these emerging bacterial and viral diseases. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatitis C virus genotypes: A plausible association with viral loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ghulam Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The basic aim of this study was to find out the association of genotypes with host age, gender and viral load. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at Social Security Hospital, Pakistan. This study included 320 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection who were referred to the hospital between November 2011 and July 2012. HCV viral detection and genotyping was performed and the association was seen between genotypes and host age, gender and viral load. Results : The analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 3 with further subtypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b and mixed genotypes 1b + 3a, 1b + 3b and 3a + 3b. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA positive patients. The genotype 3a was observed in 124 (82.12% patients, 3b was found in 21 (13.91%, 1a was seen in 2 (1.32%, 1b in 1 (0.66%, mixed infection with 1b + 3a in 1 (0.66%, 1b + 3b in 1 (0.66% and 3a + 3b was also found in 1 (0.66% patient. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV RNA positive patients and was compared between the various genotypes. The mean viral load in patients infected with genotype 1a was 2.75 × 10 6 , 1b 3.9 × 10 6 , 3a 2.65 × 10 6 , 3b 2.51 × 10 6 , 1b + 3a 3.4 × 106, 1b + 3b 2.7 × 106 and 3a + 3b 3.5 × 10 6 . An association between different types of genotypes and viral load was observed. Conclusion : Further studies should be carried out to determine the association of viral load with different genotypes so that sufficient data is available and can be used to determine the type and duration of therapy needed and predict disease outcome.

  20. Late presentation of chronic viral hepatitis for medical care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauss, Stefan; Pol, Stanislas; Buti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    , and relevant stakeholders including patient advocacy groups, health policy-makers, international health organisations and surveillance experts, met in 2014 and 2015 to develop a draft consensus definition of late presentation with viral hepatitis for medical care. This was refined through subsequent...... consultations among the group. RESULTS: Two definitions were agreed upon. Presentation with advanced liver disease caused by chronic viral hepatitis for medical care is defined as a patient with chronic hepatitis B and C and significant fibrosis (≥ F3 assessed by either APRI score > 1.5, FIB-4 > 3.25, Fibrotest...

  1. Viral infections in allergy and immunology: How allergic inflammation influences viral infections and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael R; Strong, Katherine; Cameron, Aoife; Walton, Ross P; Jackson, David J; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2017-10-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections are associated with asthma inception in early life and asthma exacerbations in older children and adults. Although how viruses influence asthma inception is poorly understood, much research has focused on the host response to respiratory viruses and how viruses can promote; or how the host response is affected by subsequent allergen sensitization and exposure. This review focuses on the innate interferon-mediated host response to respiratory viruses and discusses and summarizes the available evidence that this response is impaired or suboptimal. In addition, the ability of respiratory viruses to act in a synergistic or additive manner with T H 2 pathways will be discussed. In this review we argue that these 2 outcomes are likely linked and discuss the available evidence that shows reciprocal negative regulation between innate interferons and T H 2 mediators. With the renewed interest in anti-T H 2 biologics, we propose a rationale for why they are particularly successful in controlling asthma exacerbations and suggest ways in which future clinical studies could be used to find direct evidence for this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ViralEpi v1.0: a high-throughput spectrum of viral epigenomic methylation profiles from diverse diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Shoaib; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    To develop a computational resource for viral epigenomic methylation profiles from diverse diseases. Methylation patterns of Epstein-Barr virus and hepatitis B virus genomic regions are provided as web platform developed using open source Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP (LAMP) bundle: programming and scripting languages, that is, HTML, JavaScript and PERL. A comprehensive and integrated web resource ViralEpi v1.0 is developed providing well-organized compendium of methylation events and statistical analysis associated with several diseases. Additionally, it also facilitates 'Viral EpiGenome Browser' for user-affable browsing experience using JavaScript-based JBrowse. This web resource would be helpful for research community engaged in studying epigenetic biomarkers for appropriate prognosis and diagnosis of diseases and its various stages.

  3. Optimizing viral and non-viral gene transfer methods for genetic modification of porcine mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiehler, Maik; Duch, Mogens; Mygind, Tina

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an excellent source of pluripotent progenitor cells for tissue-engineering applications due to their proliferation capacity and differentiation potential. Genetic modification of MSCs with genes encoding tissue-specific growth factors...... viral and non-viral ex vivo gene delivery systems with respect to gene transfer efficiency, maintenance of transgene expression, and safety issues using primary porcine MSCs as target cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs were purified from bone marrow aspirates from the proximal tibiae of four 3-month......-old Danish landrace pigs by Ficoll step gradient separation and polystyrene adherence technique. Vectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were transferred to the cells by different non-viral methods and by use of recombinant adeno...

  4. Possible Relevance of Receptor-Receptor Interactions between Viral- and Host-Coded Receptors for Viral-Induced Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F. Agnati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that some viruses, such as the cytomegalovirus, code for G-protein coupled receptors not only to elude the immune system, but also to redirect cellular signaling in the receptor networks of the host cells. In view of the existence of receptor-receptor interactions, the hypothesis is introduced that these viral-coded receptors not only operate as constitutively active monomers, but also can affect other receptor function by interacting with receptors of the host cell. Furthermore, it is suggested that viruses could also insert not single receptors (monomers, but clusters of receptors (receptor mosaics, altering the cell metabolism in a profound way. The prevention of viral receptor-induced changes in host receptor networks may give rise to novel antiviral drugs that counteract viral-induced disease.

  5. Viral infection and antiviral therapy in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, Galina; Rentz, Alison C; Faix, Roger G

    2004-01-01

    Viral diseases are leading causes of mortality and morbidity among infants requiring care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with ongoing discoveries of new viral pathology likely to add to the burdens posed. Many viral diseases in NICU infants are undiagnosed or appreciated only late in the course because of subtle or asymptomatic presentation, confusion with bacterial disease, and failure to consider viral disease. We present an overview of viral disease in NICU infants, with emphasis on pharmacologic agents currently employed for prophylaxis and treatment of such diseases. Advances in molecular biology and popular demand to develop antiviral agents for viral diseases (eg, human immunodeficiency virus) offer great promise for the future.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMARKER OF EXPOSURE TO VIRAL PATHOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was selected as a biomarker for a viral exposure study. Twelve-week-old BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.2ml of 104 PFU/ml of coxsackievirus B3 or B4 diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Control mice were injected with PBS on...

  7. Viral Infectivity Markers in Donor Blood: A Retrospective Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 12,540 homologous donors seen between 1993 and 1999 at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H) blood bank were analysed with respect to the frequency of viral infectivity markers (HBsAg and HIV antibodies) as it relates to donor categories. Fifteen percent and 4.07% of voluntary donors were ...

  8. Risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti in some sites in Accra, Ghana. Design: Larval surveys were carried to inspect containers within households and estimate larval indices and adult Aedes mosquitoes were collected using human landing collection technique.

  9. De novo assembly of viral quasispecies using overlap graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Baaijens (Jasmijn); A.Z. El Aabidine (Amal Zine); E. Rivals (Eric); A. Schönhuth (Alexander)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAviral quasispecies, the ensemble of viral strains populating an infected person, can be highly diverse. For optimal assessment of virulence, pathogenesis, and therapy selection, determining the haplotypes of the individual strains can play a key role. As many viruses are subject to high

  10. Illuminating structural proteins in viral "dark matter" with metaproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Kim, Eun-Hae; Trubl, Gareth; Jones, Robert M; Roux, Simon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Rich, Virginia I; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-03-01

    Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional "viral dark matter." Although recent analytical advances are rapidly improving taxonomic annotations, identifying functional dark matter remains problematic. Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. Furthermore, four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world's oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. Together, these culture-independent analyses improve virion-associated protein annotations, facilitate the investigation of proteins within natural viral communities, and offer a high-throughput means of illuminating functional viral dark matter.

  11. Massive activation of archaeal defense genes during viral infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.; Voet, M.; Sismeiro, O.; Dillies, M.A.; Jagla, B.; Coppée, J.Y.; Sezonov, G.; Forterre, P.; Oost, van der J.; Lavigne, R.; Prangishvili, D.

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal viruses display unusually high genetic and morphological diversity. Studies of these viruses proved to be instrumental for the expansion of knowledge on viral diversity and evolution. The Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) is a model to study virus-host interactions in

  12. Environmental modulation of mucosal immunity : Opportunities in respiratory viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The exact cause of severe disease in children during primary RSV infections is not completely clear. There is a link with viral load, but differences virus strains do not seem to be the major reason why in some children the disease manifests as a mild cold while others suffer from a severe lower

  13. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  14. Tandem Oligonucleotide Probe Annealing and Elongation To Discriminate Viral Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Maria; Uhd, Jesper; Miotke, Laura

    2017-01-01

    opportunities in transcriptome analysis, virology, and other fields. Herein, we report for the first time a "click" chemistry approach to oligonucleotide probe elongation as a novel approach to specifically detect a viral sequence. We hybridized a library of short, terminally labeled probes to Ebola virus RNA...

  15. A simulation framework to investigate in vitro viral infection dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bankhead, A.; Mancini, E.; Sims, A.C.; Baric, R.S.; McWeeney, S.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection is a complex biological phenomenon for which in vitro experiments provide a uniquely concise view where data is often obtained from a single population of cells, under controlled environmental conditions. Nonetheless, data interpretation and real understanding of viral dynamics is

  16. Viral vectors for production of recombinant proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Chiara; Chen, Qiang; Santi, Luca

    2008-08-01

    Global demand for recombinant proteins has steadily accelerated for the last 20 years. These recombinant proteins have a wide range of important applications, including vaccines and therapeutics for human and animal health, industrial enzymes, new materials and components of novel nano-particles for various applications. The majority of recombinant proteins are produced by traditional biological "factories," that is, predominantly mammalian and microbial cell cultures along with yeast and insect cells. However, these traditional technologies cannot satisfy the increasing market demand due to prohibitive capital investment requirements. During the last two decades, plants have been under intensive investigation to provide an alternative system for cost-effective, highly scalable, and safe production of recombinant proteins. Although the genetic engineering of plant viral vectors for heterologous gene expression can be dated back to the early 1980s, recent understanding of plant virology and technical progress in molecular biology have allowed for significant improvements and fine tuning of these vectors. These breakthroughs enable the flourishing of a variety of new viral-based expression systems and their wide application by academic and industry groups. In this review, we describe the principal plant viral-based production strategies and the latest plant viral expression systems, with a particular focus on the variety of proteins produced and their applications. We will summarize the recent progress in the downstream processing of plant materials for efficient extraction and purification of recombinant proteins. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Inference with viral quasispecies diversity indices: clonal and NGS approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Josep; Salicrú, Miquel; Domingo, Esteban; Sanchez, Alex; Esteban, Juan I; Rodríguez-Frías, Francisco; Quer, Josep

    2014-04-15

    Given the inherent dynamics of a viral quasispecies, we are often interested in the comparison of diversity indices of sequential samples of a patient, or in the comparison of diversity indices of virus in groups of patients in a treated versus control design. It is then important to make sure that the diversity measures from each sample may be compared with no bias and within a consistent statistical framework. In the present report, we review some indices often used as measures for viral quasispecies complexity and provide means for statistical inference, applying procedures taken from the ecology field. In particular, we examine the Shannon entropy and the mutation frequency, and we discuss the appropriateness of different normalization methods of the Shannon entropy found in the literature. By taking amplicons ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) raw data as a surrogate of a real hepatitis C virus viral population, we study through in-silico sampling the statistical properties of these indices under two methods of viral quasispecies sampling, classical cloning followed by Sanger sequencing (CCSS) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) such as UDPS. We propose solutions specific to each of the two sampling methods-CCSS and NGS-to guarantee statistically conforming conclusions as free of bias as possible. josep.gregori@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. New Insights into Viral Architecture via Affine Extended Symmetry Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Keef

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the seminal work of Caspar and Klug on the structure of the protein containers that encapsulate and hence protect the viral genome, it has been recognized that icosahedral symmetry is crucial for the structural organization of viruses. In particular, icosahedral symmetry has been invoked in order to predict the surface structures of viral capsids in terms of tessellations or tilings that schematically encode the locations of the protein subunits in the capsids. Whilst this approach is capable of predicting the relative locations of the proteins in the capsids, a prediction on the relative sizes of different virus particles in a family cannot be made. Moreover, information on the full 3D structure of viral particles, including the tertiary structures of the capsid proteins and the organization of the viral genome within the capsid are inaccessible with their approach. We develop here a mathematical framework based on affine extensions of the icosahedral group that allows us to address these issues. In particular, we show that the relative radii of viruses in the family of Polyomaviridae and the material boundaries in simple RNA viruses can be determined with our approach. The results complement Caspar and Klug's theory of quasi-equivalence and provide details on virus structure that have not been accessible with previous methods, implying that icosahedral symmetry is more important for virus architecture than previously appreciated.

  19. Vaccines for viral and parasitic diseases produced with baculovirus vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The baculovirus¿insect cell expression system is an approved system for the production of viral antigens with vaccine potential for humans and animals and has been used for production of subunit vaccines against parasitic diseases as well. Many candidate subunit vaccines have been expressed in this

  20. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Viral Antibodies among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important health problem with an increasing number of patients acquiring the virus. Some infected patients are known to develop liver cirrhosis and /or possible hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was designed to find out the seroprevalence of hepatitis C viral antibodies among ...

  1. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Ferronato

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP.

  2. Method of inactivation of viral and bacterial blood contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, R.; Goodrich, R.P.; Van Borssum Waalkes, M.; Wong, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is provided for inactivating viral and/or bacterial contamination in blood cellular matter, such as erythrocytes and platelets, or protein fractions. The cells or protein fractions are mixed with chemical sensitizers and irradiated with, for example, gamma or X-ray radiation

  3. First chikungunya outbreak in Pakistan: a trail of viral attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Mallhi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite explicit warning from the National Institute of Health, Pakistan experienced its first chikungunya outbreak in the metropolis of Karachi. We underscore the attention of health authorities and healthcare professionals towards contributing factors associated with this outbreak and the measures required to combat this viral disease.

  4. Viral Vectors for Use in the Development of Biodefense Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John S; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Parker, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    ... agents of bioterrorism or biowarfare. The use of viruses, for example adenovirus, vaccinia virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, as vaccine-vectors has enabled researchers to develop effective means for countering the threat of bioterrorism and biowarfare. An overview of the different viral vectors and the threats they counter will be discussed.

  5. Potency Studies of live- Attenuated Viral Vaccines Administered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We critically carried out a potency study in 1992 and 1997 on measles and poliovirus vaccines administered at five different vaccination centers in the metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. using WHO guidelines on titration of live- viral vaccines, our results revealed that only 6 (16.7%) of 36 measles vaccine (MV) vials and 11 ...

  6. Recommendations pertaining to the use of viral vaccines: Influenza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we provide recommendations for the use of viral vaccines in anticipation of the 2014 southern hemisphere influenza season. For a review of the 2013 influenza season, please refer to the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service website (http://www.nicd.ac.za).

  7. Viral infections as potential triggers of type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Nienke; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    During the last decades, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased significantly, reaching percentages of 3% annually worldwide. This increase suggests that besides genetical factors environmental perturbations (including viral infections) are also involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. T1D

  8. Oxygen minimum zones harbour novel viral communities with low diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassman, N.; Prieto-Davo, A.; Walsh, K.; Silva, G.G.; Angly, F.; Akhter, S.; Barott, K.; Busch, J.; McDole, T.; Haggerty, J.M.; Willner, D.; Alarcon, G.; Ulloa, O.; DeLong, E.F.; Dutilh, B.E.; Rohwer, F.; Dinsdale, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are oceanographic features that affect ocean productivity and biodiversity, and contribute to ocean nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we describe the viral communities associated with the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) OMZ off Iquique, Chile for the

  9. Neonatal bronchial hyperresponsiveness precedes acute severe viral bronchiolitis in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L K; Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory tract viruses lead to common colds in most infants, whereas a minority develop acute severe bronchiolitis often requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that such an excessive response to respiratory tract viral infection is caused by host factors...

  10. Typing of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Sano, Motohiko

    2012-01-01

    Seven mAbs with specific reaction patterns against each of the four genotypes and eight subtypes of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were produced, aiming to establish an immunoassay for typing VHSV isolates according to their genotype. Among the mAbs, VHS-1.24 reacted with all genotypes...

  11. Aptamers in Diagnostics and Treatment of Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wandtke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are in vitro selected DNA or RNA molecules that are capable of binding a wide range of nucleic and non-nucleic acid molecules with high affinity and specificity. They have been conducted through the process known as SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment. It serves to reach specificity and considerable affinity to target molecules, including those of viral origin, both proteins and nucleic acids. Properties of aptamers allow detecting virus infected cells or viruses themselves and make them competitive to monoclonal antibodies. Specific aptamers can be used to interfere in each stage of the viral replication cycle and also inhibit its penetration into cells. Many current studies have reported possible application of aptamers as a treatment or diagnostic tool in viral infections, e.g., HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HBV (Hepatitis B Virus, HCV (Hepatitis C Virus, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, H5N1 avian influenza and recently spread Ebola. This review presents current developments of using aptamers in the diagnostics and treatment of viral diseases.

  12. HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the December 2014 Vital Signs. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.

  13. Prolonged elevation of viral loads in HIV-1-infected children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cqq1a

    2010-11-09

    Nov 9, 2010 ... treatment i.e. mean difference (signed-rank test) in viral load “before” and .... We used Abbott Determine and Unigold as the rapid HIV test kits. The ..... N: Number of patients, *: Wilcoxon signed ranks test for Median difference ...

  14. Electrophysiological studies in the post-viral fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, G A; Hansen, S

    1985-01-01

    Single fibre electromyography (SFEMG) was studied in 40 patients with the post-viral fatigue syndrome. These patients were also assessed clinically, serologically, virologically and immunologically. About 75% of the patients had definitely abnormal SFEMG results. This was regarded as evidence of abnormality in the peripheral part of the motor unit. The muscle fibre was the likely site of involvement.

  15. Noninvasive estimation of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Malene; Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2013-01-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis the liver biopsy helps the clinician to decide when to start treatment and plan follow-up. However, the execution of a liver biopsy is associated with discomfort, and sampling error can lead to misinterpretation. Serum markers and transient elastography (TE) are being...

  16. Studies on some biochemical parameters in viral hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation deals with studying liver amino transferases (ALT. AST). Cholesterol and triglycerides. As well as testosterone and protection hormones in blood of Egyptian men infected with hepatitis C virus.hepatitis B virus and mixed B and C viruses. These biochemical parameters were evaluated to be used in diagnosis and prognosis of viral hepatitis. Which considered the most important health problem in Egypt and developing countries. Biochemical analysis were performed using spectrophotometric and radioimmunoassay techniques. All data will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to detect the most suitable biochemical analysis that can be used as specific tests for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis and to detect the parameters that show abnormalities among the different groups of infected patients. The data revealed that AST and ALT levels were increased in all patient groups. Concerning the level of triglycerides, it was increased only in the group of mixed viral hepatitis B and C, while cholesterol showed non-significant changes in all viral hepatitis groups. The sex hormone testosterone was decreased in all infected patients while the prolactin level was increased only in case of patients infected with mixed B and C viruses. However, these abnormal values in such sex hormones play a serious role in male sterility

  17. Noninvasiv vurdering af fibrose ved kronisk viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Malene; Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2013-01-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis the liver biopsy helps the clinician to decide when to start treatment and plan follow-up. However, the execution of a liver biopsy is associated with discomfort, and sampling error can lead to misinterpretation. Serum markers and transient elastography (TE) are being...

  18. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.N.; Baloch, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  19. MicroRNAs: role and therapeutic targets in viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike H.; de Bruijne, Joep; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Jansen, Peter Lm; Reesink, Hendrik W.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The importance of microRNAs has been shown for several liver diseases, for example, viral hepatitis. MicroRNA-122 is highly abundant in the liver and is involved in the regulation of

  20. Analysis of hepatitis C viral dynamics using Latin hypercube sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachpute, Gaurav; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2012-12-01

    We consider a mathematical model comprising four coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to study hepatitis C viral dynamics. The model includes the efficacies of a combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin. There are two main objectives of this paper. The first one is to approximate the percentage of cases in which there is a viral clearance in absence of treatment as well as percentage of response to treatment for various efficacy levels. The other is to better understand and identify the parameters that play a key role in the decline of viral load and can be estimated in a clinical setting. A condition for the stability of the uninfected and the infected steady states is presented. A large number of sample points for the model parameters (which are physiologically feasible) are generated using Latin hypercube sampling. An analysis of the simulated values identifies that, approximately 29.85% cases result in clearance of the virus during the early phase of the infection. Results from the χ2 and the Spearman's tests done on the samples, indicate a distinctly different distribution for certain parameters for the cases exhibiting viral clearance under the combination therapy.

  1. Viral Marketing Determinants of Top Online Shop Brands in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the internet starts to shifting the purchase as a conventional to online. One of marketing strategies used by online store is viral marketing.The purpose of this study is to find determinant that forms viral marketing based on perceived customers in top brand online store such as lazada.com, olx.com, tokopedia.com, zalora.com, blibli.com, and bhinneka.com. The Research methodology used is the quantitative method with descriptive analysis using factor analysis by a population as 3.271.147 people and the number of sample uses Slovin formulas with confidency level at 95 % obtained as 400 respondents. Based on the result of research, there are twelve factors formed a new factor called viral marketing online store. Based on its priority, those dimensions of viral marketing online store can be sorted as follows: customer recommendation, newsletter, linking strategies, communities, free offer, sweepstakes, list of prospective buyers, chatrooms, reference list, product texts, affiliate programs, dan search engine.

  2. HSV-1 Remodels Host Telomeres to Facilitate Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Deng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the ends of cellular chromosomes. We show here that infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 results in chromosomal structural aberrations at telomeres and the accumulation of telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage foci (TIFs. At the molecular level, HSV-1 induces transcription of telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA, followed by the proteolytic degradation of the telomere protein TPP1 and loss of the telomere repeat DNA signal. The HSV-1-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0 is required for TERRA transcription and facilitates TPP1 degradation. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA depletion of TPP1 increases viral replication, indicating that TPP1 inhibits viral replication. Viral replication protein ICP8 forms foci that coincide with telomeric proteins, and ICP8-null virus failed to degrade telomere DNA signal. These findings suggest that HSV-1 reorganizes telomeres to form ICP8-associated prereplication foci and to promote viral genomic replication.

  3. Microneedle-mediated delivery of viral vectored vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Marija; Ibarzo Yus, Bárbara; Kalcheva, Petya Petrova; Klavinskis, Linda Sylvia

    2017-10-01

    Microneedle array platforms are a promising technology for vaccine delivery, due to their ease of administration with no sharp waste generated, small size, possibility of targeted delivery to the specified skin depth and efficacious delivery of different vaccine formulations, including viral vectors. Areas covered: Attributes and challenges of the most promising viral vector candidates that have advanced to the clinic and that have been leveraged for skin delivery by microneedles; The importance of understanding the immunobiology of antigen-presenting cells in the skin, in particular dendritic cells, in order to generate further improved skin vaccination strategies; recent studies where viral vectors expressing various antigens have been coupled with microneedle technology to examine their potential for improved vaccination. Expert opinion: Simple, economic and efficacious vaccine delivery methods are needed to improve health outcomes and manage possible outbreaks of new emerging viruses. Understanding what innate/inflammatory signals are required to induce both immediate and long-term responses remains a major hurdle in the development of the effective vaccines. One approach to meet these needs is microneedle-mediated viral vector vaccination. In order for this technology to fulfil this potential the industry must invest significantly to further develop its design, production, biosafety, delivery and large-scale manufacturing.

  4. Viral Load Pattern Among Hepatitis B Surface Antigen‑positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-13

    Mar 13, 2015 ... Abstract. Background: Hepatitis B viral infection is an old medical problem with worldwide distribution. It is usually diagnosed using serologic methods. However, the decision as to which patient to treat or not remains challenging due to the poor sensitivity of serologic markers as prognostic or severity ...

  5. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Arden, Amir David

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  6. Quantum virology : improved management of viral infections through quantitative measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalpoe, Jaijant Satishkumar

    2007-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of PCR has strongly supported the increased diagnostic use of nucleic acid detection assays in clinical virology. Particularly the improvements in the ability to quantify target nucleic acid sequences offer new opportunities in the management of viral infections. Real-time PCR

  7. Possible mechanisms underlying bacterial-viral interactions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and method: For this review, PubMed and Google search engines were used to select about 45 publications on bacterial-viral interactions in respiratory conditions. Studies on animal models were also included in the review. The publications were compared and summarized using a narrative review approach and ...

  8. Pricing Strategies for Viral Marketing on Social Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Arthur, David; Motwani, Rajeev; Sharma, Aneesh; Xu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    We study the use of viral marketing strategies on social networks that seek to maximize revenue from the sale of a single product. We propose a model in which the decision of a buyer to buy the product is influenced by friends that own the product

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Viral Hepatitis in Chronic Liver Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Precise assessment of the risks and interactions of alcohol consumption and viral hepatitis in the aetiology of chronic liver disease [CLD] are not locally available. Methodology: 74 patients with CLD and 74 controls were evaluated for Hepatitis B and C infection [anti-HCV, HBsAg]. The type and amount of ...

  10. Évolution De La Prevalence Des Infections Virales Transmissibles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Évolution De La Prevalence Des Infections Virales Transmissibles Par Transfusion Chez Les Donneurs De Sang Du Cnts De Cote D'ivoire De 2000 A 2010. B Dembélé, KA Inwoley, MK Diane, R Affi-Aboli, AS Abisse, BL Siransy, S Konate, AS Oga, D Sawadogo ...

  11. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  12. Viral-Associated GN: Hepatitis C and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupin, Warren L

    2017-08-07

    Viruses are capable of inducing a wide spectrum of glomerular disorders that can be categorized on the basis of the duration of active viremia: acute, subacute, or chronic. The variable responses of the adaptive immune system to each time period of viral infection results mechanistically in different histologic forms of glomerular injury. The unique presence of a chronic viremic carrier state with either hepatitis C (HCV) or HIV has led to the opportunity to study in detail various pathogenic mechanisms of viral-induced glomerular injury, including direct viral infection of renal tissue and the development of circulating immune complexes composed of viral antigens that deposit along the glomerular basement membrane. Epidemiologic data show that approximately 25%-30% of all HIV patients are coinfected with HCV and 5%-10% of all HCV patients are coinfected with HIV. This situation can often lead to a challenging differential diagnosis when glomerular disease occurs in this dual-infected population and requires the clinician to be familiar with the clinical presentation, laboratory workup, and pathophysiology behind the development of renal disease for both HCV and HIV. Both of these viruses can be categorized under the new classification of infection-associated GN as opposed to being listed as causes of postinfectious GN as has previously been applied to them. Neither of these viruses lead to renal injury after a latent period of controlled and inactive viremia. The geneses of HCV- and HIV-associated glomerular diseases share a total dependence on the presence of active viral replication to sustain renal injury so the renal disease cannot be listed under "postinfectious" GN. With the new availability of direct-acting antivirals for HCV and more effective combined antiretroviral therapy for HIV, successful remission and even regression of glomerular lesions can be achieved if initiated at an early stage. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Viral Diversity Threshold for Adaptive Immunity in Prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Ariel D.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Gilmore, Michael S.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria and archaea face continual onslaughts of rapidly diversifying viruses and plasmids. Many prokaryotes maintain adaptive immune systems known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated genes (Cas). CRISPR-Cas systems are genomic sensors that serially acquire viral and plasmid DNA fragments (spacers) that are utilized to target and cleave matching viral and plasmid DNA in subsequent genomic invasions, offering critical immunological memory. Only 50% of sequenced bacteria possess CRISPR-Cas immunity, in contrast to over 90% of sequenced archaea. To probe why half of bacteria lack CRISPR-Cas immunity, we combined comparative genomics and mathematical modeling. Analysis of hundreds of diverse prokaryotic genomes shows that CRISPR-Cas systems are substantially more prevalent in thermophiles than in mesophiles. With sequenced bacteria disproportionately mesophilic and sequenced archaea mostly thermophilic, the presence of CRISPR-Cas appears to depend more on environmental temperature than on bacterial-archaeal taxonomy. Mutation rates are typically severalfold higher in mesophilic prokaryotes than in thermophilic prokaryotes. To quantitatively test whether accelerated viral mutation leads microbes to lose CRISPR-Cas systems, we developed a stochastic model of virus-CRISPR coevolution. The model competes CRISPR-Cas-positive (CRISPR-Cas+) prokaryotes against CRISPR-Cas-negative (CRISPR-Cas−) prokaryotes, continually weighing the antiviral benefits conferred by CRISPR-Cas immunity against its fitness costs. Tracking this cost-benefit analysis across parameter space reveals viral mutation rate thresholds beyond which CRISPR-Cas cannot provide sufficient immunity and is purged from host populations. These results offer a simple, testable viral diversity hypothesis to explain why mesophilic bacteria disproportionately lack CRISPR-Cas immunity. More generally, fundamental limits on the adaptability of biological

  14. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  15. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  16. Viral-bacterial associations in acute apical abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Dennis C; Rôças, Isabela N; Paiva, Simone S M; Carmo, Flávia L; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Rosado, Alexandre S; Santos, Kátia R N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-08-01

    Viral-bacterial and bacterial synergism have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. This study sought to investigate the possible associations between 9 candidate endodontic bacterial pathogens and 9 human viruses in samples from acute apical abscesses. DNA extracts from purulent exudate aspirates of 33 cases of acute apical abscess were surveyed for the presence of 9 selected bacterial species using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Single or nested PCR assays were used for detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpesviruses types 1 to 8. Two-thirds of the abscess samples were positive for at least one of the target viruses. Specifically, the most frequently detected viruses were HHV-8 (54.5%); HPV (9%); and varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 (6%). Bacterial DNA was present in all cases and the most prevalent bacterial species were Treponema denticola (70%), Tannerella forsythia (67%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (67%), Dialister invisus (61%), and Dialister pneumosintes (57.5%). HHV-8 was positively associated with 7 of the target bacterial species and HPV with 4, but all these associations were weak. Several bacterial pairs showed a moderate positive association. Viral coinfection was found in 6 abscess cases, but no significant viral association could be determined. Findings demonstrated that bacterial and viral DNA occurred concomitantly in two-thirds of the samples from endodontic abscesses. Although this may suggest a role for viruses in the etiology of apical abscesses, the possibility also exists that the presence of viruses in abscess samples is merely a consequence of the bacterially induced disease process. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these viral-bacterial interactions, if any, in the pathogenesis of acute apical abscesses. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deteccion de citomegalovirus mediante la tecnica de inmunoperoxidasa y aislamiento viral Cytomegalovirus detection by Immunoperoxidase assay and viral isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Alvarez

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se comparó la técnica de inmunoperoxidasa para la detección de citomegalovirus (IPCMV utilizando anticuerpos monoclonales que reconocen proteínas precoces virales con el método convencional de aislamiento viral en fibroblastos humanos. Un total de 150 muestras de orina fueron examinadas encontrando una sensibilidad de un 89.8% y una especificidad de 91.3% de la técnica de IPCMV comparada con el aislamiento viral. Una de las ventajas que presentó la IPCMV fue la rapidez con que fueron obtenidos los resultados (48 horas mientras que el aislamiento viral fue como promedio 14 días.An Immunoperoxidase assay was applied to detect early antigens of Cytomegalovirus (CMV in 150 urine samples from immunocompromised patients, using the commercial available monoclonal antibody against CMV El3. The detection of early antigen by IP (IPCMV is compared to the conventional cell culture isolation regarding specificity and sensitivity in order to evaluate is usefulness in the diagnostic of CMV infections. The IPCMV showed a sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 91.3% when compared to the isolation method. The great advantage of the IPCMV is based on the shorter time results are achieved, since 48-72 Hs can be enough to provide evidence of CMV infection, while in the isolation technique cytopatho-genic effect was present around 14 days after sample inoculation.

  18. Optimizing viral and non-viral gene transfer methods for genetic modification of porcine mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiehler, Maik; Duch, Mogens R.; Mygind, Tina

    2006-01-01

    -old Danish landrace pigs by Ficoll step gradient separation and polystyrene adherence technique. Vectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were transferred to the cells by different non-viral methods and by use of recombinant adeno...

  19. Pregnant and breastfeeding women: A priority population for HIV viral load monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Essajee, Shaffiq; Broyles, Laura N; Watts, D Heather; Lesosky, Maia; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-08-01

    Landon Myer and colleagues discuss viral load monitoring for pregnant HIV-positive women and those breastfeeding; ART treatments can suppress viral load and are key to preventing transmission to the child.

  20. A Systematic Approach to Elucidate Causes of Gastroenteritis Outbreaks of Suspected Viral Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Svraka-Latifovic (Sanela)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of this thesis was to investigate the etiology of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis that remained without diagnosis after testing for common viral pathogens causing gastroenteritis, e.g. noroviruses, rotaviruses, sapoviruses, adenoviruses, and astroviruses. No

  1. Transneuronal retrograde dual viral labelling of central autonomic circuitry : possibilities and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Viral retrograde transneuronal labelling has become an important neuroanatomical tract-tracing tool for characterization of Limbic neuronal networks. Recently, dual viral retrograde transneuronal labelling has been introduced; a method employing differential transgene expression of two genetically

  2. Viral metagenomics: Analysis of begomoviruses by illumina high-throughput sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali; Al-Saleh, Mohammed; Piatek, Marek J.; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim; Ali, Shahjahan; Brown, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional DNA sequencing methods are inefficient, lack the ability to discern the least abundant viral sequences, and ineffective for determining the extent of variability in viral populations. Here, populations of single-stranded DNA plant

  3. Utilidad del estudio de las heces para el diagnóstico y manejo de lactantes y prescolares con diarrea aguda Stool work-up protocol in infants and preschool children with acute diarrhea: is it useful for diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Larrosa-Haro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar los resultados de un protocolo de estudio de las heces en una serie de lactantes y prescolares con diarrea aguda. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal descriptivo efectuado entre abril de 1999 y marzo de 2000 en una muestra de 288 prescolares y lactantes, atendidos en un consultorio pediátrico no institucional de la ciudad de Guadalajara, México. La edad promedio fue de 23.1±13.9 meses. El 43% fueron niñas. Se tomaron datos generales sociodemográficos y clínicos. Las heces se estudiaron con frotis en fresco, tinciones de azul de metileno y Kinyoun. Se analizaron pH y sustancias reductoras. Se hizo coprocultivo en casos con ³3 leucocitos/campo y el antígeno de rotavirus se midió en casos seleccionados. Se empleó estadística descriptiva, ji², RM e intervalo de confianza de 95%. Resultados. Agentes identificados (% del total de muestras estudiadas: Rotavirus 47.1, Campylobacter jejuni 27.4, Salmonella spp. 5.1,Shigella spp. 4.3, Cryptosporidium parvum 2.8, Giardia lamblia 2.4, Blastocystis hominis 1.4, Entamoeba histolytica 0.7. La RM para aislamiento de bacterias enteropatógenas en presencia de leucocitos fue de 5.7. Intolerancia a la lactosa en 19.1% de la muestra. La frecuencia de rotavirus e intolerancia a la lactosa fue mayor en lactantes; la RM para intolerancia a la lactosa en casos con rotavirus fue de 21. La presencia de moco y sangre se asoció con agentes bacterianos y con Cryptosporidium parvum. Conclusiones. Con el protocolo aplicado fue posible identificar en forma inmediata agentes parasitarios, rotavirus e intolerancia a hidratos de carbono. La presencia de leucocitos en las heces se asoció con el aislamiento de bacterias enteroinvasoras. La frecuencia de agentes patógenos identificados fue similar a la de otras series nacionales. Este algoritmo puede limitar la prescripción de fármacos y la manipulación dietética exclusivamente a las indicaciones universalmente aceptadas.Objective. To

  4. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosan, A.; Qureshi, H.; Bile, K.M.; Ahmad, I.; Hafiz, R.

    2010-01-01

    A review of published literature on viral hepatitis infections in Pakistan is presented. A total of 220 abstracts available in the Pakmedinet and Medline have been searched. All relevant articles were reviewed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan. Two hundred and three (203) relevant articles/abstracts including twenty nine supporting references are included in this review. Of the articles on prevalence of hepatitis infection, seven were related to Hepatitis A, fifteen to Hepatitis E while the remaining articles were on frequency of hepatitis B and C in different disease and healthy population groups. These included eight studies on healthy children, three on vertical transmission, nineteen on pregnant women, fifteen on healthy individuals, six on army recruits, thirty one on blood donors, thirteen on health care workers, five on unsafe injections, seventeen on high risk groups, five on patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis, thirty three on patients with chronic liver disease, four on genotypes of HBV and five on genotypes of HCV. This review highlights the lack of community-based epidemiological work as the number of subjects studied were predominantly patients, high risk groups and healthy blood donors. High level of Hepatitis A seroconversion was found in children and this viral infection accounts for almost 50%- 60% of all cases of acute viral hepatitis in children in Pakistan. Hepatitis E is endemic in the country affecting mostly the adult population and epidemic situations have been reported from many parts of the country. The mean results of HBsAg and Anti-HCV prevalence on the basis of data aggregated from several studies was calculated which shows 2.3% and 2.5% prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in children, 2.5% and 5.2% among pregnant women, 2.6% and 5.3% in general population, 3.5% and 3.1% in army recruits, 2.4% and 3.6% in blood donors, 6.0% and 5.4% in health care workers, 13.0% and 10.3% in high risk groups

  5. Viral tRNA Mimicry from a Biocommunicative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Ariza-Mateos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA viruses have very small genomes which limits the functions they can encode. One of the strategies employed by these viruses is to mimic key factors of the host cell so they can take advantage of the interactions and activities these factors typically participate in. The viral RNA genome itself was first observed to mimic cellular tRNA over 40 years ago. Since then researchers have confirmed that distinct families of RNA viruses are accessible to a battery of cellular factors involved in tRNA-related activities. Recently, potential tRNA-like structures have been detected within the sequences of a 100 mRNAs taken from human cells, one of these being the host defense interferon-alpha mRNA; these are then additional to the examples found in bacterial and yeast mRNAs. The mimetic relationship between tRNA, cellular mRNA, and viral RNA is the central focus of two considerations described below. These are subsequently used as a preface for a final hypothesis drawing on concepts relating to mimicry from the social sciences and humanities, such as power relations and creativity. Firstly, the presence of tRNA-like structures in mRNAs indicates that the viral tRNA-like signal could be mimicking tRNA-like elements that are contextualized by the specific carrier mRNAs, rather than, or in addition to, the tRNA itself, which would significantly increase the number of potential semiotic relations mediated by the viral signals. Secondly, and in particular, mimicking a host defense mRNA could be considered a potential new viral strategy for survival. Finally, we propose that mRNA’s mimicry of tRNA could be indicative of an ancestral intracellular conflict in which species of mRNAs invaded the cell, but from within. As the meaning of the mimetic signal depends on the context, in this case, the conflict that arises when the viral signal enters the cell can change the meaning of the mRNAs’ internal tRNA-like signals, from their current significance to that

  6. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson JM...how Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like recepto...rs regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  7. Junk DNA enhances pEI-based non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaal, E.V.B. van; Oosting, R.S.; Hennink, W.E.; Crommelin, D.J.A.; Mastrobattista, E.

    Gene therapy aims at delivering exogenous DNA into the nuclei of target cells to establish expression of a therapeutic protein. Non-viral gene delivery is examined as a safer alternative to viral approaches, but is presently characterized by a low efficiency. In the past years several non-viral

  8. How Viral Poems are Annotated : On ‘OCD’ by Neil Hilborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Starre, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    In How Viral Poems are Annotated: On ‘OCD’ by Neil Hilborn Kila van der Starre explores how, where and by whom viral poems are annotated. The article focuses on the performance of the poem ‘OCD’ by Neil Hilborn that went viral in the summer of 2013 and has been viewed more than 10 million times on

  9. DMPD: Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17336545 Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. Barton GM. Semin Immunol. 2007 F...eb;19(1):33-40. Epub 2007 Mar 2. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors.... PubmedID 17336545 Title Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. Authors Barton GM. Publication Semin Imm

  10. Viral infections, prevalence and costs: A5-year, hospital based, retrospective observational study in shiraz, iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabayan, B.; Zamiri, N.; Chohedry, A.

    2007-01-01

    Many patients suffering from viral infections attend to health care centers. Data gathered from viral infections is limited to specific cases such as AIDS, viral hepatitis and Influenza. There is a significant lack of reliable documentation about other viral infections. In this study the prevalence and related costs of viral infections in hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were reviewed. In this cross-sectional study the data were extracted from files of 1319 patients with viral infection admitted in two university hospitals during a five year period (1999-2004). The frequencies of different viral infections along with their demographic data were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 29.24 with the range of 90 years. Hospitalization days were 8636 in 40 different wards in two hospitals. US$ 30.84 was the daily mean cost for each admitted patient. Viral meningitis was most frequent (14.2%) and 8.4% of patients died during hospitalization. This study confirms the necessity of expanding management programs for viral infections especially hepatitis B in youths in Iran. Unspecified viral infections cost much more than specified viral diseases. Viral infection costs can be reduced by finding more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods. (author)

  11. Single-Domain Antibodies As Therapeutics against Human Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In full-size formats, monoclonal antibodies have been highly successful as therapeutics against cancer and immune diseases. However, their large size leads to inaccessibility of some epitopes and relatively high production costs. As an alternative, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs offer special advantages compared to full-size antibodies, including smaller size, larger number of accessible epitopes, relatively low production costs and improved robustness. Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, influenza viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, and enteric viruses. Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial infection or any other diseases. In this review, we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases.

  12. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, S.G.; Cho, H.J.; Masri, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32 P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  13. A viral metagenomic approach on a nonmetagenomic experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovo, Samuele; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Ribani, Anisa

    2017-01-01

    Shot-gun next generation sequencing (NGS) on whole DNA extracted from specimens collected from mammals often produces reads that are not mapped (i.e. unmapped reads) on the host reference genome and that are usually discarded as by-products of the experiments. In this study, we mined Ion Torrent...... reads obtained by sequencing DNA isolated from archived blood samples collected from 100 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Two reduced representation libraries were prepared from two DNA pools constructed each from 50 equimolar DNA samples. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out to mine...... unmapped reads on the reference pig genome that were obtained from the two NGS datasets. In silico analyses included read mapping and sequence assembly approaches for a viral metagenomic analysis using the NCBI Viral Genome Resource. Our approach identified sequences matching several viruses...

  14. Economic and legal conceptual framework of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic and online communications are modern, and perhaps the most common form of communication between individuals and legal entities, and thus have become one of the most used ways of market communication. Viral marketing is evolving into the dominant form of marketing and exchange of information for the purpose of advertising, promoting, or achieving other goals. In this paper we present and analyse the phenomenon of viral marketing-its purpose, effects, and power of influence, and discuss it in terms of ethical and legal standards. Special emphasis is placed on the right to privacy and personal data protection, harassment, acting in good faith and in accordance with good business practices, the presentation of false or fraudulent information. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of marketing activity have been observed.

  15. Viral hepatitis in Hawai'i--differing perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Alan D; Bannan, Michael; Bauman, Kay; Collis, Tarquin; Hall, Alba; Haning, William; Hannemann, Shoshana; Hare, C Bradley; Humphry, Joseph; Jao, Robert; Leevy, Carroll; Lusk, Heather; Ochoa, Edward; Palafox, Neal; Withers, Nancy; Akinaka, Kenneth

    2010-04-01

    This publication contains information from a conference titled "Individual Perspectives on the Silent Epidemic of Viral Hepatitis in Hawai'i" held in October of 2007 with updates and additional contributions from annual conferences in 2008 and 2009. These conferences were sponsored by the Hepatitis Support Network of Hawai'i and held in Honolulu, Hawai'i at the Queen's Conference Center. The primary objectives of the conferences have been to heighten awareness of viral hepatitis in Hawai'i and to bring together health care professionals to learn about these infections and to help them respond to the challenges they bring to the people of Hawai'i. The initial conference was oriented to present the unique and individual perspectives of patients, physicians, and other healthcare providers specific to the complex issues of hepatitis in an effort to help them understand their role in the context of others and to develop a team approach in responding to this epidemic.

  16. Viral aggregating and opsonizing activity in collectin trimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L; White, Mitchell R; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2010-01-01

    of bovine serum collectin CL-46 induces aggregation of influenza A virus (IAV) and potently increases IAV uptake by neutrophils. CL-46-NCRD showed calcium-dependent and sugar-sensitive binding to both neutrophils and IAV. Replacement of specific residues of the CRD of human SP-D with those found in bovine...... were further increased by cross-linking of hSP-D-NCRD/R343V trimers with mAbs directed against areas of the hSP-D-NCRD not involved in viral binding. Unlike the wild-type human SP-D hSP-D-NCRD, hSP-D-NCRD/R343V also induced viral aggregation. These results indicate that collectins can act as opsonins...

  17. Investigating the thermal dissociation of viral capsid by lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingzhi; Chevreuil, Maelenn; Combet, Sophie; Lansac, Yves; Tresset, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    The dissociation of icosahedral viral capsids was investigated by a homogeneous and a heterogeneous lattice model. In thermal dissociation experiments with cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and probed by small-angle neutron scattering, we observed a slight shrinkage of viral capsids, which can be related to the strengthening of the hydrophobic interaction between subunits at increasing temperature. By considering the temperature dependence of hydrophobic interaction in the homogeneous lattice model, we were able to give a better estimate of the effective charge. In the heterogeneous lattice model, two sets of lattice sites represented different capsid subunits with asymmetric interaction strengths. In that case, the dissociation of capsids was found to shift from a sharp one-step transition to a gradual two-step transition by weakening the hydrophobic interaction between AB and CC subunits. We anticipate that such lattice models will shed further light on the statistical mechanics underlying virus assembly and disassembly.

  18. Atypical viral dynamics from transport through popular places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2016-08-01

    The flux of visitors through popular places undoubtedly influences viral spreading—from H1N1 and Zika viruses spreading through physical spaces such as airports, to rumors and ideas spreading through online spaces such as chat rooms and social media. However, there is a lack of understanding of the types of viral dynamics that can result. Here we present a minimal dynamical model that focuses on the time-dependent interplay between the mobility through and the occupancy of such spaces. Our generic model permits analytic analysis while producing a rich diversity of infection profiles in terms of their shapes, durations, and intensities. The general features of these theoretical profiles compare well to real-world data of recent social contagion phenomena.

  19. Role of viral infection in the etiopathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The viral nature of many female genital cancers is now beyond question; however, the role of viral infection in the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC has not been adequately investigated. The paper defines the importance of a number of viruses in the etiopathogenesis of on- cogynecological diseases. It presents the results of examining 60 patients with Stages I-IV BC and 30 patients with fibrocystic mastopathy, in whom the presence of DNA-containing virus genomes in tumor tissue was compared, and the data of polymerase chain reaction study of genital tract smears. It is shown that human papillomaviruses and cytomegaloviruses do not play a fundamental role in the develop- ment of BC; there is no valid evidence for Epstein–Barr virus.

  20. Vaccines against viral hemorrhagic fevers: non-human primate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L

    2011-06-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of disease syndromes caused by infection with certain RNA viruses. The disease is marked by a febrile response, malaise, coagulopathy and vascular permeability culminating in death. Case fatality rates can reach 90% depending on the etiologic agent. Currently, there is no approved antiviral treatment. Because of the high case fatality, risk of importation and the potential to use these agents as biological weapons, development of countermeasures to these agents is a high priority. The sporadic nature of disease outbreaks and the ethical issues associated with conducting a human trial for such diseases make human studies impractical; therefore, development of countermeasures must occur in relevant animal models. Non-human primates are superior models to study infectious disease because their immune system is similar to humans and they are good predictors of efficacy in vaccine development and other intervention strategies. This review article summarizes viral hemorrhagic fever non-human primate models.

  1. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ghane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

  2. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  3. Evaluating viral marketing: isolating the key criteria in insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gooyandeh Hagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the key criteria that viral marketing practitioners believe should be implemented to measure about the success of viral marketing campaigns in insurance industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale where the effects of four independent variables, personal, message, media and tools characteristics are measured on an Iranian insurance firm’s reputation as well as service expansion. Cronbach alphas were measured for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression analysis, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between insurance firm’s reputation as well as service expansion and four independent variables.

  4. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three......The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately...... groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31 %) showing...

  5. Unfinished stories on viral quasispecies and Darwinian views of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Más, Antonio; López-Galíndez, Cecilio; Cacho, Isabel; Gómez, Jordi; Martínez, Miguel Angel

    2010-04-09

    Experimental evidence that RNA virus populations consist of distributions of mutant genomes, termed quasispecies, was first published 31 years ago. This work provided the earliest experimental support for a theory to explain a system that replicated with limited fidelity and to understand the self-organization and adaptability of early life forms on Earth. High mutation rates and quasispecies dynamics of RNA viruses are intimately related to both viral disease and antiviral treatment strategies. Moreover, the quasispecies concept is being applied to other biological systems such as cancer research in which cellular mutant spectra can be also detected. This review addresses some of the unanswered questions regarding viral and theoretical quasispecies concepts as well as more practical aspects concerning resistance to antiviral treatments and pathogenesis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-08-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  7. Hatchery Vaccination Against Poultry Viral Diseases: Potential Mechanisms and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Palomino-Tapia, Victor; Amarasinghe, Aruna; Ahmed-Hassan, Hanaa; De Silva Senapathi, Upasama; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    Commercial broiler and layer chickens are heavily vaccinated against economically important viral diseases with a view of preventing morbidity, mortality, and production impacts encountered during short production cycles. Hatchery vaccination is performed through in ovo embryo vaccination prehatch or spray and subcutaneous vaccinations performed at the day of hatch before the day-old chickens are being placed in barns with potentially contaminated environments. Commercially, multiple vaccines (e.g., live, live attenuated, and viral vectored vaccines) are available to administer through these routes within a short period (embryo day 18 prehatch to day 1 posthatch). Although the ability to mount immune response, especially the adaptive immune response, is not optimal around the hatch, it is possible that the efficacy of these vaccines depends partly on innate host responses elicited in response to replicating vaccine viruses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of hatchery vaccination in poultry and potential mechanisms of hatchery vaccine-mediated protective responses and limitations.

  8. Aggregate Formation During the Viral Lysis of a Marine Diatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Yamada

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that the viral lysis of microbes not only facilitates the conversion of particulate organic matter into dissolved organic matter, but also promotes the formation of organic aggregates, which enhance the export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to the deep sea. However, experimental data supporting this proposition are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the viral infection of marine diatoms enhances aggregate formation. We used a model system consisting of Chaetoceros tenuissimus, a bloom-forming diatom with an approximate cell size of 3–10 μm, and a DNA virus, CtenDNAV type II, which replicates in the nucleus of C. tenuissimus. The volume of large particles (50–400 μm in equivalent spherical diameters, determined from photographic images was measured over time (up to 15 days in the diatom-alone control and a virus-added diatom culture. We also determined the concentrations of Coomassie-stainable particles (CSP, proteinaceous particles and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP, acid-polysaccharide-rich particles with colorimetric methods. The total volume of large particles was significantly higher (5–59 fold in the virus-added diatoms than in the diatom-alone control during the period in which the viral lysis of the diatoms proceeded. One class of large particles produced in the virus-added diatoms was flake-shaped. The flakes were tightly packed and dense, and sank rapidly, possibly playing an important role in the vertical delivery of materials from the surface to the deep sea. The bulk CSP concentrations tended to be higher in the virus-added diatoms than in the diatom-alone control, whereas the reverse was true for the TEP. These results suggest that proteinaceous polymers are involved in aggregate formation. Our data support the emerging notion that the viral lysis of microbes facilitates aggregate formation and the export of organic carbon in the ocean.

  9. Tendency to Message Delivery in Internet Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Ghazizadeh; Ahmad Sardari; Seyyed Reza Shojaee; Mehdi Samizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of this research is to review and determine the factors associated with tendency to forward the marketing messages in viral marketing plans of Fast-food industries. In other words, in this study, the effects of three critical determinants, i.e. commercial intention, attractiveness, and media richness have been examined on receivers' intention to forward marketing message in Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz. Findings imply that receivers’ attitude toward the message has pos...

  10. Mechanism of membranous tunnelling nanotube formation in viral genome delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Peralta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In internal membrane-containing viruses, a lipid vesicle enclosed by the icosahedral capsid protects the genome. It has been postulated that this internal membrane is the genome delivery device of the virus. Viruses built with this architectural principle infect hosts in all three domains of cellular life. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, we investigate bacteriophage PRD1, the best understood model for such viruses, to unveil the mechanism behind the genome translocation across the cell envelope. To deliver its double-stranded DNA, the icosahedral protein-rich virus membrane transforms into a tubular structure protruding from one of the 12 vertices of the capsid. We suggest that this viral nanotube exits from the same vertex used for DNA packaging, which is biochemically distinct from the other 11. The tube crosses the capsid through an aperture corresponding to the loss of the peripentonal P3 major capsid protein trimers, penton protein P31 and membrane protein P16. The remodeling of the internal viral membrane is nucleated by changes in osmolarity and loss of capsid-membrane interactions as consequence of the de-capping of the vertices. This engages the polymerization of the tail tube, which is structured by membrane-associated proteins. We have observed that the proteo-lipidic tube in vivo can pierce the gram-negative bacterial cell envelope allowing the viral genome to be shuttled to the host cell. The internal diameter of the tube allows one double-stranded DNA chain to be translocated. We conclude that the assembly principles of the viral tunneling nanotube take advantage of proteo-lipid interactions that confer to the tail tube elastic, mechanical and functional properties employed also in other protein-membrane systems.

  11. Intracellular Detection of Viral Transcription and Replication Using RNA FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Chapter 14. Intracellular detection of viral transcription and replication using RNA FISH i. Summary/Abstract Many hemorrhagic fever viruses...only allow entirely new investigations into the replication of these viruses, but also how this method can be applied to any virus with a known...localization, TurboFISH, hemorrhagic fever virus replication 1. Introduction RNA FISH was developed as a method to visualize cellular RNA by binding a

  12. HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-25

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the December 2014 Vital Signs. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.  Created: 11/25/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/25/2014.

  13. Does atopy affect the course of viral pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, S B; Can, D; Girit, S; Çatal, F; Şen, V; Pekcan, S; Yüksel, H; Bingöl, A; Bostancı, I; Erge, D; Ersu, R

    The presence of atopy is considered as a risk factor for severe respiratory symptoms in children. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of atopy on the course of disease in children hospitalised with viral pneumonia. Children between the ages of 1 and 6 years hospitalised due to viral pneumonia between the years of 2013 and 2016 were included to this multicentre study. Patients were classified into two groups as mild-moderate and severe according to the course of pneumonia. Presence of atopy was evaluated with skin prick tests. Groups were compared to evaluate the risk factors associated with severe viral pneumonia. A total of 280 patients from nine centres were included in the study. Of these patients, 163 (58.2%) were male. Respiratory syncytial virus (29.7%), Influenza A (20.5%), rhinovirus (18.9%), adenovirus (10%), human metapneumovirus (8%), parainfluenza (5.2%), coronavirus (6%), and bocavirus (1.6%) were isolated from respiratory samples. Eighty-five (30.4%) children had severe pneumonia. Atopic sensitisation was found in 21.4% of the patients. Ever wheezing (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4), parental asthma (RR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), other allergic diseases in the family (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9) and environmental tobacco smoke (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) were more common in the severe pneumonia group. When patients with mild-moderate pneumonia were compared to patients with severe pneumonia, frequency of atopy was not different between the two groups. However, parental asthma, ever wheezing and environmental tobacco smoke exposure are risk factors for severe viral pneumonia in children. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Viral Warts-A Clinico-Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmisha Chandrashekar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although clinical criteria, laboratory diagnosis and treatment are well established, scanty attention has been paid to prevalence and pattern of viral warts in India. HIV is widely prevalent and its influence on the number and morphology of viral warts has not yet been studied in our setup. Hence, this study was undertaken. One hindered and forty four cases of viral warts were studied between September 2000 and June 2002 at the department of Dermatology and STD, JIPMER, Pondicherry. These included 81childeren and 63 adults. In Children, viral warts were most commonly seen in the age group of 10to14 years (41.9%, whereas in adults, the most commonly seen in the age 14to20 years (46.03%. The average age at presentation was 11.5 years. The male to female ratio was 2.2 to 1 in children and 1.8 to 1 in adults. Family history of warts was observed in 27.7% of the cases. In children, multiple site involvement (62.9% was more common than single site involvement. The most commonly involved site was hand in children as also in adults. In adults, single site involvement (66.6%was more common than multiple site involvement. The most common type of wart seen in both children and adults was the common wart. Twenty percent of the cases showed koebnerization. Four cases were found to be seropositive for HIV infection, who were adult with genital warts, but florid manifestations were not seen.

  15. A better regulation is required in viral hepatitis smartphone applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª R. Cantudo-Cuenca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe the characteristics and content of the available viral hepatitis mobile applications, as well as assess the level of participation of medical professionals in their development. Methods. A descriptive observational study was carried out in September 2013. We searched smartphone apps specifically relating to the viral hepatitis for using a keyword search with the following terms; «hepatitis», «hepatology», «hbv» and «hcv» in the Google Play Store (Android and the Apple App Store (iOS. Data recorded included: name, platform, category, cost, user star rating, number of downloads, date the app was updated by the developer and target audience. We analysed the content of the applications, and these were then categorised based on the viral hepatitis type into three groups. We conducted an analysis in which we specifically examined the authorship in order to assess the prevalence of health professional participation in their development. Results. A total of 33 apps were included (from 232 that were identified, among which there were 10 duplicates. Most of these apps were uploaded under the medical category. Three had ratings less than 3.9 stars (out of 5. Only 6 apps had exceeded 1000 downloads. A total of 12 apps were aimed at health professionals, while 4 focused on patients (7 for both of them. The participation of health professionals in the development of apps was 56.6%. Conclusions. Viral hepatitis apps are available for both professionals and patients; however, much of the information contained within them is often not validated. They should be certificated.

  16. A better regulation is required in viral hepatitis smartphone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantudo-Cuenca, Ma R; Robustillo-Cortés, Ma A; Cantudo-Cuenca, Ma D; Morillo-Verdugo, R

    2014-04-01

    To describe the characteristics and content of the available viral hepatitis mobile applications, as well as assess the level of participation of medical professionals in their development. A descriptive observational study was carried out in September 2013. We searched smartphone apps specifically relating to the viral hepatitis for using a keyword search with the following terms; «hepatitis», «hepatology», «hbv» and «hcv» in the Google Play Store (Android) and the Apple App Store (iOS). Data recorded included: name, platform, category, cost, user star rating, number of downloads, date the app was updated by the developer and target audience. We analysed the content of the applications, and these were then categorised based on the viral hepatitis type into three groups. We conducted an analysis in which we specifically examined the authorship in order to assess the prevalence of health professional participation in their development. A total of 33 apps were included (from 232 that were identified), among which there were 10 duplicates. Most of these apps were uploaded under the medical category. Three had ratings less than 3.9 stars (out of 5). Only 6 apps had exceeded 1000 downloads. A total of 12 apps were aimed at health professionals, while 4 focused on patients (7 for both of them). The participation of health professionals in the development of apps was 56.6%. Viral hepatitis apps are available for both professionals and patients; however, much of the information contained within them is often not validated. They should be certificated. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Viral aetiology of wheezing in children under five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithi Sureka Mummidi

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The study reported the presence of respiratory viral agents in 28.57 per cent of children with wheezing; RSV and PIV were most common, accounting to 55 per cent of the total cases. Mixed infection was reported in 30 per cent of cases. Seasonal variation in the occurrence of these viruses was also noted. Further studies need to be done with a large sample and longer follow up period to verify these findings.

  18. Magnetotherapy in the treatment of viral conjunctivitis and keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Jarosław; Pasek, Tomasz; Herba, Ewa; Misiak, Anna; Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    Ocular infections are one of the most frequent causes of ailments among the patients coming to ophthalmologic offices. This article presents one of the physical medicine's methods--magnetotherapy--which uses the alternating low frequency magnetic fields in the therapy of viral conjunctivitis and keratitis in a 49-year-old female patient. Basing on the obtained results it was stated that this method broadens the treatment possibilities becoming a precious supplement and support treatment method in ophthalmology.

  19. The Analysis about the Network Expansion of Enterprise Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Shourong Tang

    2014-01-01

    There are a lot of unexpected changes taking place in the online world. Viral marketing is a typical efficient network marketing method which births at the background of the Web2.0 era. It is high concerned with its clipping and comprehensive effect on society. Studying its mechanism, in addition to the spanking speed of the Internet, the rapid transmission method and the wide range of audience, it mostly depends on idiographic interactive involvement and relationship. This article mainly sum...

  20. Innate resistance of New Zealand paua to abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Slater, Joanne; Crane, Mark St J

    2017-06-01

    The susceptibility of New Zealand paua (Haliotis iris) to infection by abalone herpesvirus (Haliotid herpesvirus 1; HaHV) and to the disease abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) was determined. Infection challenges performed by intra-muscular injection and by immersion in infectious water containing HaHV demonstrated that New Zealand paua were highly resistant to infection by Haliotid herpesvirus 1 and were fully resistant to the disease AVG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Retroviral Vectors for Analysis of Viral Mutagenesis and Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M.O. Rawson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrovirus population diversity within infected hosts is commonly high due in part to elevated rates of replication, mutation, and recombination. This high genetic diversity often complicates the development of effective diagnostics, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. This review highlights the diverse vectors and approaches that have been used to examine mutation and recombination in retroviruses. Retroviral vectors for these purposes can broadly be divided into two categories: those that utilize reporter genes as mutation or recombination targets and those that utilize viral genes as targets of mutation or recombination. Reporter gene vectors greatly facilitate the detection, quantification, and characterization of mutants and/or recombinants, but may not fully recapitulate the patterns of mutagenesis or recombination observed in native viral gene sequences. In contrast, the detection of mutations or recombination events directly in viral genes is more biologically relevant but also typically more challenging and inefficient. We will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the various vectors and approaches used as well as propose ways in which they could be improved.

  2. Vaccines prepared from translation products of cloned viral genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, J.; Obijeski, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    With the advent of recombinant DNA (rDNA) techniques and their application to viruses for vaccine research, there has been an explosion of information about the molecular structure and replication of many viruses. rDNA technology in conjunction with several other emerging technologies, e.g. monoclonal antibodies, solid phase synthesis of peptides and prediction of protein conformation on the basis of amino acid sequence, has provided a powerful battery of techniques that in many cases has allowed the identification of specific sites on the virion surface that elicit neutralizing antibodies. Knowledge of these sites allows one to design a subunit vaccine that utilizes one of the virion proteins or regions of a particular protein in the absence of any other viral proteins or the viral nucleic acid. The advantages of this approach are: that there are no potentially infectious agents contained in the vaccine if the inactivation procedure is incomplete, there is less chance of complications from the vaccine due to nonessential viral components in the vaccine, a purified protein or polypeptide is usually more stable than virus particles during storage, and many times larger quanitities of an antigen can be produced by rDNA techniques than by classical vaccine methods

  3. Structural and Functional Insights into Foamy Viral Integrase

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    Cha-Gyun Shin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful integration of retroviral DNA into the host chromosome is an essential step for viral replication. The process is mediated by virally encoded integrase (IN and orchestrated by 3'-end processing and the strand transfer reaction. In vitro reaction conditions, such as substrate specificity, cofactor usage, and cellular binding partners for such reactions by the three distinct domains of prototype foamy viral integrase (PFV-IN have been described well in several reports. Recent studies on the three‑dimensional structure of the interacting complexes between PFV-IN and DNA, cofactors, binding partners, or inhibitors have explored the mechanistic details of such interactions and shown its utilization as an important target to develop anti-retroviral drugs. The presence of a potent, non-transferable nuclear localization signal in the PFV C-terminal domain extends its use as a model for investigating cellular trafficking of large molecular complexes through the nuclear pore complex and also to identify novel cellular targets for such trafficking. This review focuses on recent advancements in the structural analysis and in vitro functional aspects of PFV-IN.

  4. Viral Mimicry to Usurp Ubiquitin and SUMO Host Pathways

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    Peter Wimmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications (PTMs of proteins include enzymatic changes by covalent addition of cellular regulatory determinants such as ubiquitin (Ub and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO moieties. These modifications are widely used by eukaryotic cells to control the functional repertoire of proteins. Over the last decade, it became apparent that the repertoire of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation regulating various biological functions is not restricted to eukaryotic cells, but is also a feature of human virus families, used to extensively exploit complex host-cell networks and homeostasis. Intriguingly, besides binding to host SUMO/Ub control proteins and interfering with the respective enzymatic cascade, many viral proteins mimic key regulatory factors to usurp this host machinery and promote efficient viral outcomes. Advanced detection methods and functional studies of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation during virus-host interplay have revealed that human viruses have evolved a large arsenal of strategies to exploit these specific PTM processes. In this review, we highlight the known viral analogs orchestrating ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation events to subvert and utilize basic enzymatic pathways.

  5. Massive activation of archaeal defense genes during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quax, Tessa E F; Voet, Marleen; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnes; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick; van der Oost, John; Lavigne, Rob; Prangishvili, David

    2013-08-01

    Archaeal viruses display unusually high genetic and morphological diversity. Studies of these viruses proved to be instrumental for the expansion of knowledge on viral diversity and evolution. The Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) is a model to study virus-host interactions in Archaea. It is a lytic virus that exploits a unique egress mechanism based on the formation of remarkable pyramidal structures on the host cell envelope. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we present here a global map defining host and viral gene expression during the infection cycle of SIRV2 in its hyperthermophilic host S. islandicus LAL14/1. This information was used, in combination with a yeast two-hybrid analysis of SIRV2 protein interactions, to advance current understanding of viral gene functions. As a consequence of SIRV2 infection, transcription of more than one-third of S. islandicus genes was differentially regulated. While expression of genes involved in cell division decreased, those genes playing a role in antiviral defense were activated on a large scale. Expression of genes belonging to toxin-antitoxin and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems was specifically pronounced. The observed different degree of activation of various CRISPR-Cas systems highlights the specialized functions they perform. The information on individual gene expression and activation of antiviral defense systems is expected to aid future studies aimed at detailed understanding of the functions and interplay of these systems in vivo.

  6. [New viral risks in blood transfusion by 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzetto, B; Garraud, O

    2016-02-01

    Viral safety remains a major concern in transfusion of blood products. Over years, the control measures applied to blood products were made more and more sophisticated; however, the number of infectious agents, and notably of viruses, that can be transmitted by transfusion is increasing continuously. The aim of this review paper is to actualize that published in the same journal by the same authors in 2011 with more details on some of actual vs virtual viral threats that were identified recently in the field of blood transfusion. The main subjects that are covered successively concern the transmission via transfusion of hepatitis E virus, the frequency of transfusion transmitted arboviruses, transfusion at the time of the Ebola epidemics in West Africa, the debated role of Marseillevirus (giant viruses infecting amoebae and suspected to infect human blood latently), and, finally, the recent report of the identification in blood donors of a new member of the Flaviviridae family. The addition of these new viral risks to those already identified-partially controlled or not-pleads for the urgent need to move forward to considering inactivation of infectious agents in blood products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Host and Viral Factors in HIV-Mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Himanshu; Joshi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections lead to a progressive loss of CD4 T cells primarily via the process of apoptosis. With a limited number of infected cells and vastly disproportionate apoptosis in HIV infected patients, it is believed that apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells plays a significant role in this process. Disease progression in HIV infected individuals is highly variable suggesting that both host and viral factors may influence HIV mediated apoptosis. Amongst the viral factors, the role of Envelope (Env) glycoprotein in bystander apoptosis is well documented. Recent evidence on the variability in apoptosis induction by primary patient derived Envs underscores the role of Env glycoprotein in HIV disease. Amongst the host factors, the role of C-C Chemokine Receptor type 5 (CCR5), a coreceptor for HIV Env, is also becoming increasingly evident. Polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene and promoter affect CCR5 cell surface expression and correlate with both apoptosis and CD4 loss. Finally, chronic immune activation in HIV infections induces multiple defects in the immune system and has recently been shown to accelerate HIV Env mediated CD4 apoptosis. Consequently, those factors that affect CCR5 expression and/or immune activation in turn indirectly regulate HIV mediated apoptosis making this phenomenon both complex and multifactorial. This review explores the complex role of various host and viral factors in determining HIV mediated bystander apoptosis. PMID:28829402

  8. Bloodborne Viral Pathogen Contamination in the Era of Laboratory Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Andrew; Cook, Linda; Atienza, Ederlyn E; Kuypers, Jane; Cent, Anne; Baird, Geoffrey S; Coombs, Robert W; Jerome, Keith R; Wener, Mark H; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    The CDC states that laboratory testing for persons under investigation for Ebola virus disease can be safely performed using automated laboratory instruments by adhering to bloodborne pathogen practices. We therefore sought to investigate the levels of viral contamination of a total laboratory automation (TLA) system to guide risk mitigation strategies for handling infectious agents. Environmental swabs followed by PCR for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses were taken from a chemistry TLA system during routine clinical use and after running a small number of high-titer HCV samples. Control experiments were performed to ensure the recovery of DNA and RNA viruses by swabs from a representative nonporous surface. Of 79 baseline swabs for nucleic acids performed on the TLA system, 10 were positive for HBV and 8 for HCV. Viral nucleic acid was consistently detected from swabs taken from the distal inside surface of the decapper discharge chute, with areas adjacent to the decapper instrument and the centrifuge rotor also positive for HBV or HCV nucleic acid. Contamination was occasionally detected on exposed surfaces in areas without protective barriers between samples and personnel. After running known HCV-positive samples, at least one additional site of contamination was detected on an exposed area of the line. A low level of viral contamination of automated clinical laboratory equipment occurs in clinical use. Given the risks associated with highly infectious agents, there is a need for risk-mitigation procedures when handling all samples. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  9. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferronato, Angela E; Gilio, Alfredo E; Vieira, Sandra E

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the frequency of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and to analyze their characteristics at hospital admission and clinical outcomes. a historical cohort study was performed in a reference service for pertussis, in which the research of respiratory viruses was also a routine for infants hospitalized with respiratory problems. All infants reported as suspected cases of pertussis were included. Tests for Bordetella pertussis (BP) (polymerase chain reaction/culture) and for respiratory viruses (RVs) (immunofluorescence) were performed. Patients who received macrolides before hospitalization were excluded. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Among the 67 patients studied, BP tests were positive in 44%, and 26% were positive for RV. There was no etiological identification in 35%, and RV combined with BP was identified in 5%. All patients had similar demographic characteristics. Cough followed by inspiratory stridor or cyanosis was a strong predictor of pertussis, as well as prominent leukocytosis and lymphocytosis. Rhinorrhea and dyspnea were more frequent in viral infections. Macrolides were discontinued in 40% of patients who tested positive for RV and negative for BP. the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatitis B viral infection with nephrotic syndrome treated with lamivudine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, N A; Khatoon, S; Quadir, E; Rahman, M M; Khan, M A

    2007-07-01

    A 04 years old boy with 02 months history of generalized oedema and scanty micturition was diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome with hepatitis B viral infection. He had evidence of active viral replication. After 01 month treatment with oral lamivudine, his urine became protein free and after 04 months, he had seroconversion from HBeAg+ve to HBeAg-ve. Lamivudine was continued for 01 year. He had no relapse after discontinuation of therapy and remained well after 36 months of completion of therapy. He had no evidence of active viral replication during this period, however HBsAg remained positive indication carrier state. As most children with HBV associated nephropathy have no evidence of chronic hepatitis, all such children must undergo HBV screening and for chronic liver disease if HBV screening is positive. As such children do not respond to prednisolone or other immunosuppresive therapy which might harm them, antiviral therapy should be considered. Lamivudine is a suitable alternative to IFN alpha owing to its low cost, ease of administration and fewer side effects.

  11. Classification of viral zoonosis through receptor pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Se-Eun; Son, Hyeon Seok

    2011-04-13

    Viral zoonosis, the transmission of a virus from its primary vertebrate reservoir species to humans, requires ubiquitous cellular proteins known as receptor proteins. Zoonosis can occur not only through direct transmission from vertebrates to humans, but also through intermediate reservoirs or other environmental factors. Viruses can be categorized according to genotype (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA and dsRNA viruses). Among them, the RNA viruses exhibit particularly high mutation rates and are especially problematic for this reason. Most zoonotic viruses are RNA viruses that change their envelope proteins to facilitate binding to various receptors of host species. In this study, we sought to predict zoonotic propensity through the analysis of receptor characteristics. We hypothesized that the major barrier to interspecies virus transmission is that receptor sequences vary among species--in other words, that the specific amino acid sequence of the receptor determines the ability of the viral envelope protein to attach to the cell. We analysed host-cell receptor sequences for their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity characteristics. We then analysed these properties for similarities among receptors of different species and used a statistical discriminant analysis to predict the likelihood of transmission among species. This study is an attempt to predict zoonosis through simple computational analysis of receptor sequence differences. Our method may be useful in predicting the zoonotic potential of newly discovered viral strains.

  12. Sonographic changes of liver and gallbladder in acute viral hepatitis

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    Ebrahimi Daryani N

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatomegaly, decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and increase in the gallbladder wall thickness has been shown in acute viral hepatitis. The present study was done to determine sonographic changes in acute viral hepatitis. We performed liver and bile ducts sonography and specific tests on 42 patients (mean age: 31.5 and 61% male with acute viral hepatitis. Gallbladder wall thickness was seen in 45.2% and hepatomegaly in 33.3% of patients and liver paranchymal echo was decreased in 19.3%. Age, sex, type of hepatitis, cholecystitis like symptoms, aspartate aminotransfrase, alanine aminotransfrase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin did not significantly corralate with these changes. Only raised prothrombin time was strongly correlated to the thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and cholesistic like symptoms we can postulate that thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo is not dependent on the severity and speed of the paranchymal necrosis (as considered with ALT and AST but they depend on the liver function disturbance (as considered with PT because the thickening of the gall bladder is present in 45% of the patients and 10% of the normal population have gallbladder stones, one should not perform the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, only on the basis of sonographic report without attention to the clinical and laboratory data.

  13. Severe hindrance of viral infection propagation in spatially extended hosts.

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    José A Capitán

    Full Text Available The production of large progeny numbers affected by high mutation rates is a ubiquitous strategy of viruses, as it promotes quick adaptation and survival to changing environments. However, this situation often ushers in an arms race between the virus and the host cells. In this paper we investigate in depth a model for the dynamics of a phenotypically heterogeneous population of viruses whose propagation is limited to two-dimensional geometries, and where host cells are able to develop defenses against infection. Our analytical and numerical analyses are developed in close connection to directed percolation models. In fact, we show that making the space explicit in the model, which in turn amounts to reducing viral mobility and hindering the infective ability of the virus, connects our work with similar dynamical models that lie in the universality class of directed percolation. In addition, we use the fact that our model is a multicomponent generalization of the Domany-Kinzel probabilistic cellular automaton to employ several techniques developed in the past in that context, such as the two-site approximation to the extinction transition line. Our aim is to better understand propagation of viral infections with mobility restrictions, e.g., in crops or in plant leaves, in order to inspire new strategies for effective viral control.

  14. MORBILI PADA ANAK DALAM PENGOBATAN ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV

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    Surya Dipta Nugraha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MEASLES IN CHILDREN WITH ANTI RETRO VIRAL (ARV ON TREATMENT ABSTRACT Introduction: Morbili is an acute viral infectious disease caused by a virus transmitted morbili. Morbili is a contagious acute viral infectious disease that is characterized by three stages: catarrhal stage, eruption stage and convalence stage. Another name morbili is measles, measles, or rubeola. Morbili caused by a virus that is classified as Family paramyxovirus, the virus genus morbili contained in nasopharyngeal secretions and blood during the prodromal period until 24 hours after the onset of spots. Case: Patient male, 6 years old, Hindu, Balinese tribe, came with complaints of febris since 5 days ago. Febris is not measured with a thermometer. The heat is felt up and down, getting better with medicine. Complaints red spots felt since 1 day ago. Originally discovered red spots appear in the neck area and then to the face and chest. The incidence of rash accompanied by itching and heat. This complaint is accompanied with nosebleeds 1 day ago, cough with sputum since 5 days ago and the red eye from one day ago. Patients feel the first time such complaints. Having a history of antiretroviral use regularly since 1.5 years old. Keywords: rash, morbili, HIV, antiretroviral drugs.

  15. Ultrasonographic study of gallbladder wall thickness in acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jin Sook; Kim, Kyung Jung; Park, Yang Hee; Kang, Ik Won; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hanyang Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Prospective study of gallbladder wall thickness by ultrasonography was performed in 38 patients of acute viral hepatitis and 50 normal subjects as a control group from June 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows; 1. In normal population, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 1 mm to 3 mm with peak incidence in 2 mm (66%, 33 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 1.9 {+-} 0.6 mm. 2. In acute viral hepatitis, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 2 mm to 8 mm with peak incidence in 3 mm (34%, 13 case), second peak in 4 mm (29%, 11 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 3.6 {+-} 1.6 mm, which is thicker than normal with statistical significance. (p<0.005) 3. In acute viral hepatitis, the mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 4.4 {+-} 1.8 mm in the group of SGOT/SGPT level above 400 IU, and 2.8 {+-} 0.8 mm in the group of SGOT/ SGPT level below 400 IU. This difference is significant statistically. (p<0.05)

  16. Prediction of fibrosis progression in chronic viral hepatitis

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    Grace Lai-Hung Wong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of liver fibrosis progression has a key role in the management of chronic viral hepatitis, as it will be translated into the future risk of cirrhosis and its various complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. Both hepatitis B and C viruses mainly lead to fibrogenesis induced by chronic inflammation and a continuous wound healing response. At the same time direct and indirect profibrogenic responses are also elicited by the viral infection. There are a handful of well-established risk factors for fibrosis progression including older age, male gender, alcohol use, high viral load and co-infection with other viruses. Metabolic syndrome is an evolving risk factor of fibrosis progression. The new notion of regression of advanced fibrosis or even cirrhosis is now strongly supported various clinical studies. Even liver biopsy retains its important role in the assessment of fibrosis progression, various non-invasive assessments have been adopted widely because of their non-invasiveness, which facilitates serial applications in large cohorts of subjects. Transient elastography is one of the most validated tools which has both diagnostic and prognostic role. As there is no single perfect test for liver fibrosis assessment, algorithms combining the most validated noninvasive methods should be considered as initial screening tools.

  17. Ultrasonographic study of gallbladder wall thickness in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jin Sook; Kim, Kyung Jung; Park, Yang Hee; Kang, Ik Won; Yoon, Jong Sup

    1984-01-01

    Prospective study of gallbladder wall thickness by ultrasonography was performed in 38 patients of acute viral hepatitis and 50 normal subjects as a control group from June 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows; 1. In normal population, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 1 mm to 3 mm with peak incidence in 2 mm (66%, 33 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 1.9 ± 0.6 mm. 2. In acute viral hepatitis, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 2 mm to 8 mm with peak incidence in 3 mm (34%, 13 case), second peak in 4 mm (29%, 11 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 3.6 ± 1.6 mm, which is thicker than normal with statistical significance. (p<0.005) 3. In acute viral hepatitis, the mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 4.4 ± 1.8 mm in the group of SGOT/SGPT level above 400 IU, and 2.8 ± 0.8 mm in the group of SGOT/ SGPT level below 400 IU. This difference is significant statistically. (p<0.05)

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Zahir

    2015-11-11

    Background The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides bacteria and archaea with molecular immunity against invading phages and conjugative plasmids. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 has been used for targeted genome editing in diverse eukaryotic species. Results In this study, we investigate whether the CRISPR/Cas9 system could be used in plants to confer molecular immunity against DNA viruses. We deliver sgRNAs specific for coding and non-coding sequences of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) into Nicotiana benthamiana plants stably overexpressing the Cas9 endonuclease, and subsequently challenge these plants with TYLCV. Our data demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system targeted TYLCV for degradation and introduced mutations at the target sequences. All tested sgRNAs exhibit interference activity, but those targeting the stem-loop sequence within the TYLCV origin of replication in the intergenic region (IR) are the most effective. N. benthamiana plants expressing CRISPR/Cas9 exhibit delayed or reduced accumulation of viral DNA, abolishing or significantly attenuating symptoms of infection. Moreover, this system could simultaneously target multiple DNA viruses. Conclusions These data establish the efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for viral interference in plants, thereby extending the utility of this technology and opening the possibility of producing plants resistant to multiple viral infections.

  19. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  20. Viral Aggregation: Impact on Virus Behavior in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P; Betancourt, Walter Q

    2017-07-05

    Aggregates of viruses can have a significant impact on quantification and behavior of viruses in the environment. Viral aggregates may be formed in numerous ways. Viruses may form crystal like structures and aggregates in the host cell during replication or may form due to changes in environmental conditions after virus particles are released from the host cells. Aggregates tend to form near the isoelectric point of the virus, under the influence of certain salts and salt concentrations in solution, cationic polymers, and suspended organic matter. The given conditions under which aggregates form in the environment are highly dependent on the type of virus, type of salts in solution (cation, anion. monovalent, divalent) and pH. However, virus type greatly influences the conditions when aggregation/disaggregation will occur, making predictions difficult under any given set of water quality conditions. Most studies have shown that viral aggregates increase the survival of viruses in the environment and resistance to disinfectants, especially with more reactive disinfectants. The presence of viral aggregates may also result in overestimation of removal by filtration processes. Virus aggregation-disaggregation is a complex process and predicting the behavior of any individual virus is difficult under a given set of environmental circumstances without actual experimental data.