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Sample records for brucellosis syphilis measles

  1. Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can I get more information? Sexually Transmitted Diseases http: / / www. cdc. gov/ std/ Syphilis http: / / www. cdc. gov/ std/ syphilis/ Syphilis and MSM Fact Sheet http: / / www. cdc. gov/ std/ syphilis/ STDFact- MSM- Syphilis. ...

  2. Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. It infects the genital area, lips, mouth, or ... of both men and women. You usually get syphilis from sexual contact with someone who has it. ...

  3. Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Bone marrow culture Urine culture CSF (spinal fluid) culture Serology ( ... Health problems that may result from brucellosis include: Bone and joint sores (lesions) Encephalitis Infective endocarditis Meningitis

  4. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, William J; Griffin, Diane E

    2012-01-14

    Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by measles virus and is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of man--measles was responsible for millions of deaths annually worldwide before the introduction of the measles vaccines. Remarkable progress in reducing the number of people dying from measles has been made through measles vaccination, with an estimated 164,000 deaths attributed to measles in 2008. This achievement attests to the enormous importance of measles vaccination to public health. However, this progress is threatened by failure to maintain high levels of measles vaccine coverage. Recent measles outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and the USA show the ease with which measles virus can re-enter communities if high levels of population immunity are not sustained. The major challenges for continued measles control and eventual eradication will be logistical, financial, and the garnering of sufficient political will. These challenges need to be met to ensure that future generations of children do not die of measles. PMID:21855993

  5. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other diseases. In populations with high levels of malnutrition and a lack of adequate health care, up ... intake and treatment of dehydration with WHO-recommended oral rehydration ... are key public health strategies to reduce global measles deaths. The measles ...

  6. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person. It ... down Tiny white spots inside the mouth Sometimes measles can lead to serious problems. There is no ...

  7. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Moss, William J; Takeda, Makoto; de Swart, Rik L; Thompson, Kimberly M; Goodson, James L

    2016-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease in humans caused by the measles virus (MeV). Before the introduction of an effective measles vaccine, virtually everyone experienced measles during childhood. Symptoms of measles include fever and maculopapular skin rash accompanied by cough, coryza and/or conjunctivitis. MeV causes immunosuppression, and severe sequelae of measles include pneumonia, gastroenteritis, blindness, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Case confirmation depends on clinical presentation and results of laboratory tests, including the detection of anti-MeV IgM antibodies and/or viral RNA. All current measles vaccines contain a live attenuated strain of MeV, and great progress has been made to increase global vaccination coverage to drive down the incidence of measles. However, endemic transmission continues in many parts of the world. Measles remains a considerable cause of childhood mortality worldwide, with estimates that >100,000 fatal cases occur each year. Case fatality ratio estimates vary from 5% in developing countries. All six WHO regions have set goals to eliminate endemic transmission of MeV by achieving and maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage accompanied by a sensitive surveillance system. Because of the availability of a highly effective and relatively inexpensive vaccine, the monotypic nature of the virus and the lack of an animal reservoir, measles is considered a candidate for eradication. PMID:27411684

  8. Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as other STIs such as gonorrhea and chlamydial, hepatitis B, and HIV infections. If necessary, his partner(s) should be treated. All pregnant women should receive a blood test for syphilis early in their pregnancies. Treatment of ...

  9. Syphilis - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum . This bacterium causes ...

  10. Primary Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Primary Syphilis Information for adults A A A This image ... ulcer with a red base, typical of primary syphilis. Overview Primary syphilis is a disease caused by ...

  11. Spinal brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, E Turgut; Koc, A Murat; Oner, A Yusuf

    2015-05-01

    Spinal involvement in human brucellosis is a common condition and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in endemic areas, because it is often associated with therapeutic failure. Most chronic brucellosis cases are the result of inadequate treatment of the initial episode. Recognition of spinal brucellosis is challenging. Early diagnosis is important to ensure proper treatment and decrease morbidity and mortality. Radiologic evaluation has gained importance in diagnosis and treatment planning, including interventional procedures and monitoring of all spinal infections.

  12. Pregnancy Complications: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Syphilis Syphilis Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please ... women are diagnosed with syphilis each year. Can syphilis cause problems during pregnancy and for your baby? ...

  13. Measles update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Beginning May 19, 1998, and lasting through the middle of June, a follow-up vaccination campaign which used measles-mumps-rubella vaccine targeted 2,223,210 children, 1-4 years of age, in Venezuela. The vaccinations were performed at day care centers, health posts, and orphanages; door-to-door vaccination was conducted in rural areas. The measles epidemic began in 1992, with 22,321 confirmed cases of measles and 77 deaths; it lasted until early 1994, when there were 16,561 cases and 47 deaths. In 1994, the country launched a "catch-up" vaccination campaign which targeted all children between 9 months and 14 years of age; 98% coverage was reached. Between 1994 and 1996, when routine immunization services were used, the average coverage was 75%. Since the catch-up campaign, the number of confirmed measles cases decreased from 172 in 1995, to 89 in 1996, and to 27 in 1997. As of July 18, 1998, (epidemiological week 28), 452 suspected cases of measles were reported; none were confirmed. Another follow-up campaign will be conducted. In Bolivia, the measles outbreak began May 21, 1998, in areas bordering Argentina. The municipality of Yacuiba, in the department of Tarija, is primarily affected. The municipality, especially the localities of Yacuiba and Pocitos, borders the province of Salta in Argentina, and people cross the border often to shop. As of July 24, 1998, there were 49 suspected measles cases: 22 in Pocitos; 24 in Yacuiba; and 3 in El Palmar. 28 had serum samples taken, and 18 tested positive. The population group most affected were those between 1-4 years of age. A follow-up measles vaccination campaign, which targeted all children under 6 years of age regardless of their vaccination history, was conducted from June 1 to 21, 1998, in Salvador Masa (Argentina), in Pocitos, and in Yacuiba. As of August 10, 1998, in Argentina, 1874 confirmed measles cases and 11 deaths (6 under the age of 1 year) were reported. The first cases appeared in August 1997, in the

  14. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Home For Patients Search FAQs Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and ... FAQ071, February 2016 PDF Format Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Gynecologic Problems What are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis? ...

  15. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  16. Measles (Rubeola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rubeola) is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory system that is caused by a virus. It does ... has measles, particularly if the child is an infant or has any medication or condition that weakens the immune system. Call the doctor immediately if the child has ...

  17. Syphilis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Asrul Abdul; Ali, Umi Kalsom; Mohammad, Marlyn; Md. Monoto, Ezura Madiana; Rahman, M M

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis in pregnancy remains an important medical condition due to its consequences. We present two cases of young pregnant women who were diagnosed syphilis during their antenatal visit. The first case was a 29-year-old Malay lady diagnosed with syphilis during the first trimester of pregnancy, while the second case was a 21-year-old Chinese lady diagnosed with syphilis during the third trimester of pregnancy. The diagnosis and management of the syphilis in pregnancy are discussed.

  18. Towards Measles elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Mark; Sciberras, Maria

    2003-01-01

    In many European countries measles is still a cause of great public health concern. Outbreaks of the disease are still occurring because the degree of vaccination coverage required to interrupt transmission has not yet been achieved. Many countries have started to implement measles elimination strategies. These are primarily based on attaining a very high coverage of measles vaccination and strengthening measles surveillance systems.

  19. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  20. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  1. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  2. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Photos Recommend ...

  3. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  4. Syphilis management and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst Vader, PC

    1998-01-01

    Syphilis poses a serious health problem in many developing countries and in some areas of North America and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. This article initially addresses the state of the art regarding the interaction between syphilis and HIV infection and its consequences for management and tr

  5. Severe Measles Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rafat, Cédric; Klouche, Kada; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Messika, Jonathan; Roch, Antoine; Machado, Sonia; Sonneville, Romain; Guisset, Olivier; Pujol, Wilfried; Guérin, Claude; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Mrozek, Natacha; Darmon, Michaël; Chemouni, Frank; Schmidt, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract France has recently witnessed a nationwide outbreak of measles. Data on severe forms of measles in adults are lacking. We sought to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, treatment, and prognostic aspects of the disease in adult patients who required admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 36 adults admitted to a total of 64 ICUs throughout France for complications of measles from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011. All cases ...

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD on Facebook Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Background Syphilis, ... Table 36B ). Interpreting Rates of Reported Cases of Syphilis Left untreated, infection with syphilis can span decades. ...

  7. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  8. Treatment of primary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W C

    1976-12-01

    Reports in the English language of the treatment of primary syphilis are reviewed. Except for benzathine penicillin, the efficacy of the currently recommended dosage schedules are documented only by Schroeter et al. Although these investigators reported generally acceptable failure rates, further study is necessary to determine: (1) if differences in efficacy exist among regimes; (2) if the current schedules are equally effective in both primary and secondary syphilis; and (3) if increased dosages reduce failure rates. PMID:1010777

  9. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Marangoni; Alessandra Moroni; Elisabetta Tridapalli; Maria Grazia Capretti; Antonietta D’Antuono; Marina Biagi; Sanzio Ruscello; Franca Savioli; Roberto Cevenini

    2011-01-01

    Congenital syphilis (CS) is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was...

  10. Measles (lecture, continuing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article discusses differential diagnosis during different measles periods. Routine and confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, including cytological, serological and molecular genetic methods is outlined. Criteria of suspected, probable and proved diagnosis of measles cases are provided. Principles of diagnosis formulation according to WHO criteria are described. Complications of measles ac¬cording to cause (viral and bacterial, by different systems and particularities in high risk patients are considered. Complications of measles from central nervous system are described in details. Therapeutic management of measles is described in details, including indications for hospital admission, etiotropic therapy, strict indications for steroids and immunoglobulins prescription, vitamin A in dosages, therapy of complications, indications for antibiotics usage and other pathogenetic therapy. Specific therapy of measles complications from central nervous system is outlined. Active and passive immunization, anti-epidemic activities, patient follow-up after episode of measles and disease prognosis are described. The literature reference list consists of 121 items, including Cyrillic, Latin articles and electronic resources.

  11. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Notowicz (Alfred)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific diagnos

  12. Congenital syphilis in the newborn.

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, V.; Pandit, P B; Nkrumah, F K

    1988-01-01

    We studied 53 newborn babies with congenital syphilis. The common clinical features seen were low birth weight, hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia, jaundice, and symmetrical superficial desquamation of the skin affecting palms and soles. The presence of these clinical signs is highly suggestive of early congenital syphilis. Hydrops fetalis without rhesus or ABO isoimmunisation should always arouse the suspicion of congenital syphilis.

  13. Syphilis in the HIV Era

    OpenAIRE

    Kassutto, Sigall; Doweiko, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of syphilis has consistently increased from 2000 to 2002. We report a case of acquired syphilis with symptoms of Tullio phenomenon in a patient concurrently diagnosed with HIV infection. The resurgence of syphilis in HIV-positive groups at high risk has public health implications for prevention of both diseases.

  14. Brucellosis: a political disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Roffe, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    With the challenges confronting North America's elk herds today, a bacteria that causes a nonfatal disease in a few elk herds seems an unlikely addition to the list. Fragmentation of habitat, dwindling bull-cow ratios, grazing competition from livestock on public rangelands, or the crowding of favorite hunting spots all seem like far more urgent matters to elk junkies. But a twist of fate an a national campaign to eradicate this seemingly innocuous bacterium have put brucellosis on the front burner.

  15. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  16. Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources News Newsletters Events Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Measles ... it is eliminated from the body. Who Needs It? Children Children should get 2 doses of MMR ...

  17. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  18. The Reemergence of Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, C L; Safdar, N

    2015-12-01

    Measles, or rubeola, is a highly infectious, acute viral illness of childhood that is considered eliminated in the USA but has reemerged in the past few years. Globally, an estimated 20 million cases of measles continue to occur, and it remains a leading cause of death among young children. It is rare in the USA and other first world countries, but numerous outbreaks have occurred in the USA recently, due to a combination of factors including poor vaccine coverage and importation of cases among travelers returning from endemic areas. The diagnosis of measles is usually made clinically, when an individual presents with a constellation of symptoms including cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, high fever, and an erythematous maculopapular rash in a cephalocaudal distribution. Complications are common and include otitis media, pneumonia, encephalitis, and rarely death. A measles vaccine is available in two doses and provides excellent protection against the disease. Despite this, vaccination coverage, especially among young adults, remains poor. Given its resurgence in the USA and other countries, interventions are urgently needed to address low vaccination rates and vaccine hesitancy. Measles awareness should also be a priority among young clinicians, who may have never seen a case or are not familiar with the disease. PMID:26446612

  19. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  20. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

  1. Unusual presentation of Brucellosis:Afebrile,culture posi-tive Brucellosis and culture positive,seronegative Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Avijgan; Masoud Hafizi; Ardeshir Salemi; Shams al-sadate Izadi Dehkordi

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the unusual presentation of brucellosis.Methods:This prospective study was carried out on 46 patients suspected to brucellosis.The diagnosis was made with isolation of brucella species by Bone Marrow culture.Results:Among 40 culture positive patients,there were two unusual presentations of brucello-sis;Afebrile culture positive and culture positive seronegative brucellosis.Conclusion:Some brucellosis pa-tients would not match with criteria for diagnosis of brucellosis.Although it is needed to have positive serology or culture for diagnosis of brucellosis but sometimes,it is the clinical experiences,which help to diagnose and treat these kinds of patients.

  2. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Barbosa de Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Known as “the great imitator,” secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions.

  3. Brucellosis - diagnostic dilemma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of a 20-year old student from Belgrade, who was admitted to the Institute of Infectious Diseases with fever, muscle and spine pains, strong headacke and malice. During the clinical examination bilateral sacroileitis was found. Serological analyses confirmed brucellosis. Epidemiological data showed that she lived in Kosovo and Metohia in 1997, where she consumed diary products from domestic animals this might be the reason of the acquired infection. With appropriate antibiotic therapy (aminoglycoside, doxicyclin, rifampicin, symptomatic therapy and rehabilitation the disease had favorable outcome; there was no recidive. The authors point out the importance of specific microbiological examinations of patients with fever of unknown origin, especially if the patient has the symptoms that are compatible with brucellosis. In our case it was sacroileitis, as a characteristic complication. As brucellosis is endemic in some parts of our country, there is always a possibility of brucellosis in general medical practice.

  4. Eponyms in syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Vashisht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eponym has originated from the Greek word "eponymos" meaning "giving name". It is a tribute to the pioneers in the field who have significantly contributed towards present understanding of the subject. Syphilis has amazed and plagued mankind since eternity. This disease is a great masquerade and can humble best of physicians with its varied presentations. Keen and immaculate observations of these workers have eased our understanding of many signs and phenomenon associated with this disease. This has led to evolution of number of eponyms, perhaps no other disease has as many eponyms associated with it, as does syphilis. Eponyms such as Kassowitz′s law, Clutton′s joints, Higoumenaki sign, Argyll-Robertson pupil etc. help in providing easy milieu for remembering. Besides paying tributes to stalwarts in the field, who dedicated their lives for this cause, they also facilitated our current understanding of the great masquerade.

  5. Early prenatal syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Rathod; Bela Shah

    2010-01-01

    Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed ea...

  6. Syphilis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Genc, M.; Ledger, W.

    2000-01-01

    Syphilis can seriously complicate pregnancy and result in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, non-immune hydrops, intrauterine growth restriction, and perinatal death, as well as serious sequelae in liveborn infected children. While appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications, the major deterrent has been inability to identify the infected women and get them to undergo treatment. Screening in the first trimester with non-treponemal tests such as rapid plasma reagin...

  7. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  8. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas...

  9. Ocular Syphilis: a Clinical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolston, Sophie L; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Marrazzo, Jeanne

    2016-11-01

    While ocular syphilis is not a new phenomenon, recent increased rates of new diagnoses, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and men who have sex with men, have sparked a new interest in an old disease. This article will review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of ocular syphilis, and provide guidance on management. PMID:27686678

  10. Three Cases of Reinfection Syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜欣

    2001-01-01

    These three cases of reinfection syphilis all had complete medical histories, clinical symptoms, and laboratory records of prior primary or secondary syphilis infection. The author held that the main reason for reinfection was failure of diagnosis and treatment of sex partners.

  11. Thrombocytopenia in Brucellosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    A Nikavar; Z Kalbasi

    1997-01-01

    A 6-year old is presented with fever, ecchymosis and knee pain. Positive Wright and 2ME tests were in favor of Brucellosis. Blood culture for Brucella was also positive. Blood cells count showed a Thrombocytopenia of 35.000. Platelets returned to normal by mere antibiotic treatment of Brucellosis. Pancytopenia or any isolated deficiency of hematologic cell lines can be a complication of Brucellosis. This urges the clinicians to think of Brucellosis in patients with Thrombocytopenia.

  12. 9 CFR 311.15 - Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis. 311.15 Section 311.15... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.15 Brucellosis. Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts...

  13. Control of brucellosis in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease and considered a great problem of major economic importance in most countries, particularly in those where no eradication programme is applied. In developing countries, ovine brucellosis is still a more frequent source of human infection, and attempts at eradication or campaigns for its control have often met with considerable difficulties. The Iraqi government has long been concerned with the danger brucellosis represents to public health and economy. The Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Baghdad has a long history of work on brucellosis since in 1977-1985 different biotypes of Brucella melitensis, in particular biotype III, were prevalent and isolated from aborted foetuses and from sheep and goat milk. In addition, two biotypes of Brucella abortus were isolated from aborted calves. As a result, goats, sheep and cattle have a very high risk of morbidity. Serious incidences of brucellosis have been observed in 12% of goats, 10% of sheep and 0.5% of cattle. Recently, Iraq has faced an increasing incidence of the disease, because of inadequate observation of the rules and regulations concerning its control. Accordingly, Iraq has initiated action in co-operation with Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic in order to develop a regional project in the framework of the elimination, prevention and eradication programme established in 1995

  14. Measles control: a global battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Measles kills about 1.4 million children each year. To bring about reductions in measles cases and deaths, WHO has made some recommendations. Public health officials at the community, district, and national levels need to achieve at least 90% measles vaccine coverage. This coverage level reduces cases and deaths, but may not stop transmission. The primary goal should be that health workers deliver at least 1 dose of measles vaccine to all children at the scheduled age. Several complementary strategies are needed within each country to achieve this high coverage. In situations where there is a high incidence of measles in a defined subgroup of older children, older children should receive extra doses of vaccine when they enter school. In-service training of hospital and clinic staff should reduce the number of missed opportunities (i.e., children who visit health facilities but who are not screened and administered needed immunizations). Public health workers need to identify reasons for high drop-out rates and take corrective action. Limited resources should be directed to high risk areas: areas with high population density, low measles immunization coverage, known vitamin A deficiency, or high reported measles incidence or death rate. Unimmunized urban poor children, underserved ethnic minorities, refugees, people in underserved border areas, children admitted to the hospital, and infants of HIV positive mothers comprise high risk groups. Measles outbreaks occur even in areas where measles immunization coverage is high. Control measures are not always effective, especially if taken late in an epidemic. At the very least, health officials should gather data on cases and death (e.g., date of onset and immunization status). They should determine why the outbreak took place. If possible, they should conduct a vaccine efficacy study. To reduce deaths from measles by 95%, immunization, treatment of measles and its complications at an early stage, and vitamin A

  15. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... ol: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Year Cases 2010 ...

  16. COEXISTENCE OF SYPHILIS AND PSORIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Kumar; Saradha; Anandan; Manisurya Kumar; Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with various triggering factors. Here we report a case of psoriasis coexisting with secondary syphilis which could have been a possible trigger for exacerbation of psoriasis.

  17. COEXISTENCE OF SYPHILIS AND PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with various triggering factors. Here we report a case of psoriasis coexisting with secondary syphilis which could have been a possible trigger for exacerbation of psoriasis.

  18. Epidemiology and control of brucellosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deqiu, Shang; Donglou, Xiao; Jiming, Yin

    2002-12-20

    The paper describes the history and evolvement of brucellosis in China. It presents the variation of epidemic situation, epidemiological characteristics, application of vaccines and control in brief. Before 1980s, human and animal brucellosis was quite severe; during 1980s, the incidence of human and animal brucellosis was relatively low, and seemed to decrease during the decade. During 1990s, there were no obvious changes in the incidence of animal brucellosis, but the incidence of human brucellosis increased, especially from 1995 to 2001. There are not only some common characteristics but also some differences in brucellosis epidemiology relative to that reported in the rest of the world. For the entire country, B. melitensis was the predominant strain associated with outbreaks, and the epidemic peak is from February to June. Several Brucella vaccines have been used in China for prevention and control of brucellosis. such as B. abortus 104 M in humans, B. suis S2 in animals. The introduction of comprehensive measures has allowed great progress in the prevention and control of brucellosis in China. Surveillance points were set-up countrywide to estimate the epidemic situation. In addition, we discussed the new characteristics of brucellosis in China, the influence of the El Nino phenomenon on brucellosis epidemic situation, the phenomenon of antigenic interference between Brucella species and some disadvantages of live Brucella vaccines. PMID:12414142

  19. Brucellosis: Epizootiologic and diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been known as a separate etiological entity for almost 150 years, brucellosis is, on a global scale, one of the most frequent diseases that is transferred from animals to humans. It is present as an endemic disease in almost all countries of the Mediterranean Sea, which indicates that a large number of aspects in connection with the control and epizootiology of this disease still remain unexplained. Three of the six types of brucella have been officially confirmed in our country as well. They are Brucella melitensis biotip 3, Brucella suis biotip 2 and Brucella canis. Brucellosis is endemically present in Kosovo and Metohija province and in southern Serbia proper; over the past few years, the spread of brucellosis in sheep and goats as primary hosts for B. melitensis to new territories, mostly in Vojvodina province, has shown that risk analysis is one of the main factors in selecting and implementing control programmes. A correctly selected set of diagnostic tests yields reliable data in most cases, but interpretations of results are prone to result in subjective assessments as well. A special problem in the serological diagnosis of brucellosis is the cross reactivity of brucellas and some other bacteria, often a weak immunological response of the animal, or that the type of brucella that causes the infection determines the sensitivity and specificity of the applied tests, most often screenings tests. Due to the big economic losses resulting from disease control and eradication, and the serious risk to human health, brucellosis still poses an epizootiological, and, in particular, a diagnostic challenge.

  20. Etiological role of brucellosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colakoglu Onder; Taskiran Bengur; Adnan Kirci; Tunakan Mine; Buyrac Zafer; Unsal Belkis; Aksoz Kadir; Yorukoglu Gazi

    2005-01-01

    To show that brucellosis may trigger autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), in addition to nonspecific liver involvement and toxic hepatitis, due to a class effect of tetracycline family used for treatment. We present a female patient admitted to our hospital due to partially improved fatigue and elevated liver enzymes following doxycycline and streptomycin usage for brucellosis. Brucellosis is endemic in our country, Turkey. It may involve any organ in the body. Liver is frequently involved. Doxycycline used for treatment occasionally may lead to hepatotoxicity. AIH is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver. Certain drugs (e.g. Minocycline), toxins, and viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, EBV, etc.) can trigger AIH. Only one case of AIH probably caused by doxycycline and brucellosis was reported. We discuss the relationship between brucellosis, AIH, and hepatotoxicity of doxycycline. Brucellosis may trigger AIH.

  1. Syphilis infection among homosexual men reporting contact with syphilis: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Weerakoon, Ajith P; Christopher K Fairley; Read, Tim RH; Bradshaw, Catriona; Forrester, Catherine; Bissessor, Melanie; Denham, Ian; Chen, Marcus Y

    2012-01-01

    Objective High rates of syphilis have been reported among men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally. Guidelines recommend presumptive treatment of sexual contacts of individuals with syphilis at the point of care. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion who were infected with syphilis and the factors predictive of infection among men reporting contact with a man with syphilis. Design Contacts who were syphilis infected (cases) were compared with those who were uninfected (...

  2. Congenital syphilis after treatment of maternal syphilis with a penicillin regimen exceeding CDC guidelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, C S; Rend, C A; Miller, G B; Schmid, G P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although congenital syphilis usually occurs as a result of a failure to detect and treat syphilis in pregnant women, failures of the currently recommended regimen to prevent congenital syphilis have been reported. CASE: This report describes an infant with congenital syphilis despite maternal treatment with a regimen exceeding current CDC guidelines. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the regimen used to treat syphilis during pregnancy, clinicians should recognize the possibility of occasi...

  3. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-02-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya.

  4. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (Pbrucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  5. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Brito, Arival Cardoso de; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  6. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...

  7. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  8. Parotitis with secondary syphilis: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Hira, S. K.; Hira, R S

    1984-01-01

    Painless swelling of the parotid salivary gland was observed in a patient presenting with secondary syphilis. This case is of special interest to venereologists and surgeons as parotitis associated with syphilis may be mistaken for common tumours of the parotid glands. A diagnosis of syphilitic parotitis should be considered in patients presenting with swollen parotid salivary glands in countries where syphilis is prevalent.

  9. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations.

  10. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qiaozhen; Hu Yali; Lu Pei-Shan; Zhao Hong; Yao Wenhu; Zhou Yi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased...

  11. Did Adolf Hitler have syphilis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Wessels, A

    2005-10-01

    The evidence that Adolf Hitler might have suffered from incapacitating syphilis is reviewed. Rumors that he acquired syphilis from a prostitute at the age of 20 years, with possible re-infection during World War I, can no longer be verified. Evidence is that he was sexually rather inactive throughout his life. Suggestions that Hitler's cardiac lesion and complaints such as transitory blindness, tremor of his left arm and leg, recurring abdominal pain and a skin lesion of the leg were of syphilitic aetiology cannot be supported. Hitler's progressive mental and physical deterioration after 1942, his growing paranoia, fits of rage, grandiosity and symptoms of possible dementia would fit in neurosyphilis. There are, however, also other explanations for his terminal syndrome, and evidence that repeated clinical examinations did not show the characteristic signs of dementia paralytica or tabes dorsalis, swings the balance of probability away from tertiary syphilis.

  12. Anorectal syphilis mimicking Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mesut; Memisoglu, Reşat; Aydin, Selda; Tabak, Omur; Mete, Bilgül; Memisoglu, Necat; Tabak, Fehmi

    2011-10-01

    Anorectal syphilis, one of the great masqueraders in medicine, can be difficult to diagnose not only because of its variable symptoms but also because it is hard to think of unless a detailed history about sexual preferences and practices, including homosexuality, has been gathered. With increasing acceptance of sexual activity in our culture, despite moral and religious issues, various forms of sex have led to many different clinical conditions of sexually transmitted diseases. In this report, we describe a rare case of primary anorectal syphilis with clinical, endoscopic and histologic features that was misdiagnosed as Crohn's disease. PMID:21437679

  13. Acute Brucellosis Presenting as Gastroenteritis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Bin Salih; Adel Alothman

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a systemic infection with multiple presentations. In spite of its oral mode of transmission and gastrointestinal pathogenesis, systemic symptoms are usually more prominent than gastrointestinal ones. Acute brucellosis presenting as gastroenteritis is rare in adults and could be the only manifestation of the disease. We report a case of gastroenteritis caused by Brucella species.

  14. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed...

  15. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  16. 9 CFR 78.22 - Brucellosis reactor bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor bison. 78.22... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.22 Brucellosis reactor bison....

  17. 9 CFR 78.43 - Validated brucellosis-free States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Wyoming. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 78.43, see the List of CFR Sections... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validated brucellosis-free States. 78... BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.43 Validated brucellosis-free States. Alabama,...

  18. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  19. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  20. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  1. Brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely distributed throughout the developing countries.In this review, an overview of the epidemiological and epizootic status of brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran is presented. In Iran, the disease was first recognized in 1932, which is now endemic in the entire country. The first animal vaccination program was carried out in 1949. Brucellosis has been found in humans, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, buffaloes, dogs and the prevalence of bovine brucellosis is estimated 0.3%. The successful implementation of a national brucellosis control program requires enough compensation, farmers’ cooperation, accurate diagnosis of infected animals and impetus of health system is required to overcome thedisease.

  2. Prediction Analysis for Measles Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Ohtomo, Norio; Tanaka, Yukio; Sawamura, Sadashi; Olsen, Lars Folke; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2003-12-01

    A newly devised procedure of prediction analysis, which is a linearized version of the nonlinear least squares method combined with the maximum entropy spectral analysis method, was proposed. This method was applied to time series data of measles case notification in several communities in the UK, USA and Denmark. The dominant spectral lines observed in each power spectral density (PSD) can be safely assigned as fundamental periods. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated using these fundamental periods can essentially reproduce the underlying variation of the measles data. An extension of the LSF curve can be used to predict measles case notification quantitatively. Some discussions including a predictability of chaotic time series are presented.

  3. Brucellosis: An Unrecognized Zoonotic Disease in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis, is a disease caused by members of the genus Brucella . In Indonesia, brucellosis has known as a contagious reproductive disease in animals, however, only certain people know that brucellosis can be transmitted to human . Bovine brucellosis is characterised by one or more of the following signs : abortion, retained placenta . orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk . The Brucella organism is transmitted to human most commonly by ingestion of untreated milk or milk products or through the mucous membranes and wound of the skin . The severity of human disease varies, depending largely upon the infecting strain . Brucella abortus, B . melitensis. B . suis and B. canis are highly pathogenic for humans . Clinical symptoms of human brucellosis may include an intermittent fever, headaches, weakness, arthalgia, myalgia and weight loss . Occasional complications include arthritis, endocarditis, hepatitis granuloma, meningitis, orchitis dan osteomyelitis have also been reported . Brucellosis can also produce spontaneous abortion in pregnant woman . Diagnosis is based on the isolation of the organism and serology . Antibiotics are usually the mainstay of treatment and long-term treatment may be required . Brucellosis can be controlled by comprehensive campaigns to eradicate the disease by vaccination programme followed by test and slaughter of domestic animals which exhibit positive serologic reactions to brucellae.

  4. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj; Edmond Puca; Sadie Namani; Muharem Bajrami; Valbon Krasniqi; Lindita Ajazaj Berisha; Xhevat Jakupi; Bahrie Halili; Dhimiter Kraja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the diseas...

  5. [Brucellosis, an overview and current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Patrick; Zange, Sabine; Zöller, Lothar; Erkel, Joseph; Robert Thoma, Bryan

    2016-07-01

    Although brucellosis, a zoonosis mostly associated with sheep, goats and cattle, is not endemic in Germany, it is a relevant imported infectious disease. If patients suffer from fever of unknown origin after a stay in highly endemic countries like the Mediterranean area or the Arab world, it is mandatory to formally exclude brucellosis. Cultural methods are the diagnostic gold standard, but due to special methodical and infrastructural requirements it is essential to inform the laboratory at suspicion of infection. The treatment of brucellosis is challenging and usually based on a long-term combination regime using doxycycline and rifampin for at least 6 weeks. PMID:27404931

  6. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  7. Alopecia as the Presenting Symptom of Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ornelas, Jennifer; Agbai, Oma N; Kiuru, Maija; Sivamani, Raja K.

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be one of the many symptoms of secondary syphilis and the clinical presentations include essential syphilitic alopecia or symptomatic syphilitic alopecia. In this report, we present a case of a patient with essential syphilitic alopecia whose sole presenting symptom of syphilis was alopecia. Despite an initial negative rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, he was ultimately found to have syphilis on scalp biopsy. His alopecia improved following treatment with benzathine penicillin. Thi...

  8. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  9. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Elen A; Bolella, Valdes R; Nardin, Maria Estela P; Habib-Simao, Maria Lucia; Furtado, João Marcelo; Moyses-Neto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  10. Alopecia as the Presenting Symptom of Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Jennifer; Agbai, Oma N; Kiuru, Maija; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia can be one of the many symptoms of secondary syphilis and the clinical presentations include essential syphilitic alopecia or symptomatic syphilitic alopecia. In this report, we present a case of a patient with essential syphilitic alopecia whose sole presenting symptom of syphilis was alopecia. Despite an initial negative rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, he was ultimately found to have syphilis on scalp biopsy. His alopecia improved following treatment with benzathine penicillin. This presentation serves as a reminder to clinicians to be cognizant of alopecia as a presenting sign of syphilis. A review of the specificity and sensitivity of the typical tests used for the diagnosis is presented. PMID:26436969

  11. Maternal and congenital syphilis in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, B R; Prasad, S R; Beena, P M; Okade, R; Sheela, S R; Beeregowda, Y C

    2014-03-01

    Screening women for syphilis during pregnancy and providing proper treatment are the cornerstones of congenital syphilis prevention. During 2008-2011, 6,221 pregnant women were screened for syphilis using the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination (TPHA) tests at R.L. Jalappa Hospital, Kolar, Karnataka, India. The seroprevalence of syphilis during pregnancy ranged from 0.57% to 0.78% during the study. Of the 35 women with a positive test, 26 (74.28%) were detected at the time of labor and 9 (25.71%) were detected during antenatal care. None of the women detected at the time of labor received penicillin therapy for syphilis. Adverse fetal outcomes due to untreated syphilis during pregnancy were seen in many of the cases. During the study 26 infants (3.69/1,000) were diagnosed with congenital syphilis. Our findings show detection and treatment of syphilis during pregnancy needs to be strengthened in the study area to reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis. PMID:24968685

  12. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koranne R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  13. Not all that rashes is measles:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is a major cause of infant mortality in third world countries, leading to approximately one million deaths each year. The WHO aims to globally eradicate measles virus at the beginning of the next century, which will need a major effort in particular in countries like Sudan. To achieve goal epidemiological studies I am needed to estimate the magnitude of the problem for which accurate diagnostic test are needed. We therefore conducted a study in El hag Yousif area (population 500 000) in Khartoum North where measles is prevalent despite vaccination effort by EPI. We studied the accuracy of the WHO criteria for clinical diagnosis in comparison with laboratory diagnosis during a one-year period. A total of 145 under five suspected measles cases were identified by active, case finding and examined. 111 cases fully complied with the WHO criteria for diagnosis of clinical measles. Out of 103 clinical measles cases, tested using prototype rapid measles test IgM Elisa and Pcr, 77(75%) were measles positive. A battery of virus test was run on 21 sera out of the 26(25%) measles negatives: Herpes virus-6, Epstein-Bar and Dengue viruses were detected in five, one and one case, respectively. It was concluded that one out of every four cases diagnosed by the clinical as measles rash is probably caused by other viruses. (Author)

  14. Laboratory Animal Models for Brucellosis Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teane M. A. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Brucella spp., a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that affects humans and animals, leading to significant impact on public health and animal industry. Human brucellosis is considered the most prevalent bacterial zoonosis in the world and is characterized by fever, weight loss, depression, hepato/splenomegaly, osteoarticular, and genital infections. Relevant aspects of Brucella pathogenesis have been intensively investigated in culture cells and animal models. The mouse is the animal model more commonly used to study chronic infection caused by Brucella. This model is most frequently used to investigate specific pathogenic factors of Brucella spp., to characterize the host immune response, and to evaluate therapeutics and vaccines. Other animal species have been used as models for brucellosis including rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys. This paper discusses the murine and other laboratory animal models for human and animal brucellosis.

  15. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype or a...... antibiotic treatment, signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure resolved completely. Syphilis is a rare, but very important, differential diagnosis that in this case was clinically indistinguishable from IIH....

  16. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir Stay safe and healthy when traveling abroad. Measles spreads easily through coughing and sneezing. It ... vaccinated for measles before you travel . Are you traveling abroad? You might not think about measles when you ...

  17. [Rheumatic expression of secondary syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, R; Vinagre, F; Cordeiro, I; Gonçalves, P; Bartolo, E; Canas da Silva, J; Santos, M J

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis is a disease caused by Treponema pallidum infection with protean clinical manifestations. Musculoskeletal complaints are however uncommon and most of the time mild. Occasionally they can dominate the clinical picture and simulate a variety of rheumatic diseases. The authors present the clinical case of a 33-year-old woman who developed a lupus-like syndrome in the postpartum, characterized by polyarthritis, elevated acute phase reactants and positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Physical examination revealed a macular non-pruriginous skin rash involving the trunk, upper limbs and palms. The Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and Treponema Pallidum Hemaglutination (TPHA) tests gave a positive result and the patient was diagnosed as secondary syphilis and medicated with 2.4 MU of benzathine penicillin intramuscular weekly for 3 weeks, with complete resolution of clinical signs and ANA negativation. The association of rash and arthritis may occur in several rheumatic diseases but in the presence of palmoplantar involvement, the possibility of syphilis infection should not be overlooked. PMID:23149640

  18. Laboratory Animal Models for Brucellosis Research

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Teane M. A.; Erica A Costa; Tatiane A. Paixão; Renée M. Tsolis; Santos, Renato L

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Brucella spp., a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that affects humans and animals, leading to significant impact on public health and animal industry. Human brucellosis is considered the most prevalent bacterial zoonosis in the world and is characterized by fever, weight loss, depression, hepato/splenomegaly, osteoarticular, and genital infections. Relevant aspects of Brucella pathogenesis have been intensively investigated...

  19. Advanced diagnostic methods for human brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Kunguloski, Dzoko

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a typical zoonotic disease caused by organisms of genus brucella. Humans become infected by ingestion of animal food products, direct contact with infected animals or inhalation of infectious aerosols. Variable symptoms, sub-clinical and atypical infections make diagnosis of human brucellosis difficult. Objective of this paper is to evaluate specificity and sensitivity of different diagnostic methods, on large number of samples, in patients at different stages of...

  20. Diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife.

    OpenAIRE

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. METHODS: The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wi...

  1. Brucellosis in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, I W; Ho, M W; Sung, Y J; Tien, N; Chi, C Y; Ho, H C; Huang, C C

    2013-10-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common systemic zoonotic diseases transmitted by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products or by occupational contact with infected animals. Brucellosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. Only 3 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of brucellosis with hematologic and hepatobiliary complications in a patient 3 years after renal transplantation. The mean time from transplantation to the diagnosis of brucellosis in these 4 reported patients was 5.1 years (range 17 months to 13 years). All patients had fever and constitutional symptoms, and all attained clinical cure after combination antibiotic therapy. Given the small number of patients, further study is needed to identify the characteristics of brucellosis in renal transplant recipients. Drug interactions and acute renal failure developed in our patient during antibiotic treatment. Therefore, we should monitor the levels of immunosuppressive agents frequently. Several studies have shown in vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis to tigecycline. In our patient, fever finally subsided after tigecycline administration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tigecycline using Etest was 0.094 μg/mL. Tigecycline may be a potential option for treatment of brucellosis in the setting of transplantation.

  2. Low molecular weight measles immunoglobulin M in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and acute measles.

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, J. H.; Simpson, D. M.; Trudgett, A.; Hopkins, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty eight patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were investigated. Five patients who previously had measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) detected in unfractionated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had measles IgM exclusively in the low molecular weight (LMW) fractions of serum and CSF. Measles IgM had previously not been found in unfractionated serum from 33 patients but was detected exclusively in the LMW fractions of serum from 30 patients. Seven children with acute measl...

  3. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  4. Measles eradication: experience in the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    de Quadros, C. A.; Hersh, B S; Nogueira, A. C.; Carrasco, P. A.; da Silveira, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, the Ministers of Health from the Region of the Americas targeted measles for eradication from the Western Hemisphere by the year 2000. To achieve this goal, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) developed an enhanced measles eradication strategy. First, a one-time-only "catch-up" measles vaccination campaign is conducted among children aged 9 months to 14 years. Efforts are then made to vaccinate through routine health services ("keep-up") at least 95% of each newborn cohort at...

  5. Oral manifestations of syphilis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is an infectious disease presenting stages associated with specific oral lesions. Therefore, health professionals should be familiar with the different syphilis oral manifestations at each stage and be prepared to refer any suspected patient for further evaluation. This report describes the most important clinical factors of each stage, emphasizing the oral manifestations.

  6. Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-10-08

    The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive supportive care. Our case and a review of literature show that measles pneumonitis is routinely fatal in patients with cancer. We suggest that antiviral drugs should be considered as soon as the diagnosis has been established.

  7. [Injury by skull osteolytic secundary syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Lucas; Camporro, Julieta Piar; Arakaki, Naomi; Orellana, Nora; Mora, Claudia Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Bone involvement of syphilis can be observed in tertiary and congenital syphilis. It is infrequent during the secondary stage. The skull is the most affected bone in secondary syphilis, and its most frequent form of presentation is proliferative osteitis. If the skull is affected, headache is usual and can be as intense as in meningitis. Osteolyitic lesions may be seen in complimentary imaging studies, with a moth eaten aspect. These lesions raise concern over a number of differential diagnoses, among which are infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The definitive diagnosis is made by bone biopsy of the compromised bone. Molecular techniques in the affected tissues increases diagnostic performance. There is no standardized treatment protocol for syphilis since there are no guidelines available. We report a case of a 19 year old female, presenting with a unique osteolytic lesion in the skull due to secondary syphilis. PMID:27315003

  8. A Case of Secondary Syphilis With Liver and Kidney Involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Shanchuan(雷山川); YU Yi(余艺); YE Yuhong(叶玉鸿)

    2002-01-01

    @@ SYPHILIS IS A chronic sexually transmitted diseasecaused by Treponum Pallidum spreading to the wholebody. Late Syphilis can encroach on most of the organs,but early syphilis has less damage to the internal organs.Here is a case of secondary syphilis with liver andkidney involvement reported as follows:

  9. Syphilis: An Old Disease With Present-Day Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Candice J; Bachmann, Laura H

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis continues to be a burden on the public health system. While men who have sex with men and HIV-infected individuals are the most affected populations, syphilis rates have also increased in reproductive-aged women, resulting in concurrent increases in congenital syphilis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are requisite components of syphilis control.

  10. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  11. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  12. Secondary Syphilis With Hepatitis and Nephrotic Syndrome: A Rare Concurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis, a chronic multisystem disease, is caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Clinical presentation may expand to several stages including primary, secondary and latent syphilis, which may present as early or late syphilis. Nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis are well-known complications of secondary syphilis. To the best of our knowledge, secondary syphilis with coexisting renal and hepatic complications has rarely been reported. Here we present a rare case of concurrent nephrot...

  13. The estimation of serological assays for latent syphilis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņš, Dzintars

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of serological assays for latent syphilis patients Abstract The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate how informative are serological assays for syphilis screening, the confirmation diagnosis of the late latent syphilis and for monitoring of the serological activity and treatment efficacy. Conclusions SED, TPHA, ELISA IgG, IgM and syphilis imunoblot IgG are useful for the late latent syphilis screening diagnostics. We do not recommend to use RPR for thi...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keilbach Baer, N.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vacci

  15. Spread of Measles Virus in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-06

    Dr. Paul Rota, team lead for the Measles Laboratory, Division of Viral Diseases, at CDC, talks about a measles virus survey in Europe, 2008-2011.  Created: 10/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/6/2011.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and...

  17. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  18. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues; Celia Landmann Szwarcwald; Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Junior; Maria do Carmo Leal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during ...

  19. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Marques de Oliveira Soeiro; Angélica Espinosa Miranda; Valeria Saraceni; Marcelo Cordeiro dos Santos; Sinesio Talhari; Luiz Carlos Lima Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of s...

  20. Imaging findings of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the chest radiography and MSCT findings of measles pneumonia in adults. Methods: One hundred and sixty three measles patients underwent chest radiography, MSCT was performed in 3 of them. Measles pneumonia was confirmed in 10 patients (6.13%). Results: Eight of 10 patients had abnormal appearances in initial chest radiography. The characteristic chest radiographic findings were ground-glass opacities (n=6) and bronchial wall thickening (n=2). MSCT showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities in 1 patient, unilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with lobular distribution in the right upper lung in 2 patients. Conclusions: Familiarizing with radiographic and MSCT appearances of measles pneumonia in adults is very important for the differential diagnosis and appropriate management of measles pneumonia. Normal initial chest radiography cannot exclude the involvement of the lungs. (authors)

  1. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sekhar Bose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  2. Immune status of health care workers to measles virus: evaluation of protective titers in four measles IgG EIAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Hall, M.A.; Vreeswijk, J.; Vries, J.J. de; Vossen, A.C.; Hulscher, H.I. Ten; Kerkhof, J.; Smits, G.P.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.; Binnendijk, R.S. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition of a measles case in a hospital in The Netherlands, health care workers (HCW) from the premises were screened by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measles IgG to identify persons at risk for measles. At least 10% of the HCW were tested measles IgG-negati

  3. Secondary Syphilis With Hepatitis and Nephrotic Syndrome: A Rare Concurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Syphilis, a chronic multisystem disease, is caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Clinical presentation may expand to several stages including primary, secondary and latent syphilis, which may present as early or late syphilis. Nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis are well-known complications of secondary syphilis. To the best of our knowledge, secondary syphilis with coexisting renal and hepatic complications has rarely been reported. Here we present a rare case of concurrent nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis in a patient with secondary syphilis. PMID:27298666

  4. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  5. Brucellosis in India – a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basappa G Mantur; Satish K Amarnath

    2008-11-01

    Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. It is still an uncontrolled serious public health problem in many developing countries including India. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. Currently, Brucella melitensis accounts for most recorded cases globally with cattle emerging as a important reservoir with the few cases of B. suis. Isolated cases of non-terrestrial brucellosis and continuing transmission from wild animals have raised important epidemiological issues. Routine serological surveillance along with high clinical suspicion and screening of family members of index cases would be essential in delineating the real magnitude of human brucellosis in endemic countries. Increased business and leisure travel to endemic countries have led to diagnostic challenge in non-endemic areas. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Advances in newer rapid, sensitive, and specific testing methodologies and alternate treatment strategies are urgently needed. A safe and effective vaccine in human is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon increasing public awareness through health education programmes and safe livestock practices. Active co-operation between health and veterinary services should be promoted. This review collates world literature and its impact to the discovery, isolation and diagnosis and epidemiology along with the control measures adapted in the Indian scenario.

  6. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  7. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Claudia Marques de Oliveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Saraceni, Valeria; Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Talhari, Sinesio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of syphilis in pregnant women, including 224 in 2007 (3.8/1,000), 244(4.5/1,000) in 2008, and 198(4.0/1,000) in 2009. The study found 486 cases of congenital syphilis, of which 153 in 2007 (2.1/1,000), 193 in 2008 (2.6/1,000), and 140 in 2009 (2.0/1,000). After linkage of the SINAN databases, 237 pregnant women (35.6%) had cases of congenital syphilis reported. The SIM recorded 4,905 perinatal deaths, of which 57.8% were stillbirths. Probabilistic record linkage between SIM and SINAN-Congenital Syphilis yielded 13 matched records. The use of SINAN and SIM may not reflect the total magnitude of syphilis, but provide the basis for monitoring and analyzing this health problem, with a view towards planning and management. PMID:24896047

  8. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program...(2)(C), the National Park Service announces the availability of the Bison Brucellosis...

  9. Elimination of measles in the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    Furesz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Of the 5551 confirmed measles cases reported in 1995 in the Americas, 2301 (41%) occurred in Canada. In this issue (see pages 1407 to 1413) Drs. Penny A. Sutcliffe and Elizabeth Rea describe a measles outbreak that occurred during that year in a highly vaccinated secondary school population in Toronto. Their findings support the use of a two-dose measles vaccination strategy. In this editorial the author explains how a two-dose strategy lowers the incidence of primary and secondary vaccine fa...

  10. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill;

    2009-01-01

    of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...

  11. Update on treatment options for spinal brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu-Kilic, A; Karakas, A; Erdem, H; Turker, T; Inal, A S; Ak, O; Turan, H; Kazak, E; Inan, A; Duygu, F; Demiraslan, H; Kader, C; Sener, A; Dayan, S; Deveci, O; Tekin, R; Saltoglu, N; Aydın, M; Horasan, E S; Gul, H C; Ceylan, B; Kadanalı, A; Karabay, O; Karagoz, G; Kayabas, U; Turhan, V; Engin, D; Gulsun, S; Elaldı, N; Alabay, S

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic regimens and optimal duration of therapy in complicated and uncomplicated forms of spinal brucellosis. This is a multicentre, retrospective and comparative study involving a total of 293 patients with spinal brucellosis from 19 health institutions. Comparison of complicated and uncomplicated spinal brucellosis was statistically analysed. Complicated spinal brucellosis was diagnosed in 78 (26.6%) of our patients. Clinical presentation was found to be significantly more acute, with fever and weight loss, in patients in the complicated group. They had significantly higher leukocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels, and lower haemoglobulin levels. The involvement of the thoracic spine was significantly more frequent in complicated cases. Spondylodiscitis was complicated, with paravertebral abscess in 38 (13.0%), prevertebral abscess in 13 (4.4%), epidural abscess in 30 (10.2%), psoas abscess in 10 (3.4%) and radiculitis in 8 (2.7%) patients. The five major combination regimens were: doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and gentamicin 5 mg/kg; doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampicin 600 mg/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; and doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and ciprofloxacin 1 g/day. There were no significant therapeutic differences between these antibiotic groups; the results were similar regarding the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Patients were mostly treated with doxycycline and rifampicin with or without an aminoglycoside. In the former subgroup, complicated cases received antibiotics for a longer duration than uncomplicated cases. Early recognition of complicated cases is critical in preventing devastating complications. Antimicrobial treatment should be prolonged in complicated spinal brucellosis in particular.

  12. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis%妊娠梅毒与先天梅毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯存军; 李中伟

    2013-01-01

    近十年来妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的发病率呈上升趋势.未经治疗的孕妇可将梅毒传染给胎儿,引起生长受限、肝肿大、血液与转氨酶异常,进而导致早产、死产、先天梅毒.早期先天梅毒以皮肤、脏器炎症反应为主;晚期先天梅毒,主要是慢性炎症导致的畸形.对妊娠梅毒患者的及时诊断和治疗可有效避免先天梅毒的发生.此文对妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的临床特征、诊断、治疗及随访做一综述,以期为临床工作提供参考.%Morbidity of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis has been rising during the past ten years.Untreated syphilis infection can infect fetus and leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes,including growth resriction,hepatomegaly,blood and transaminase disorder,and then premature birth,stillbirth and congenital syphilis.Early congenital syphilis presents with cutaneous covering and organ inflammatory reaction.Late congenital syphilis presents with anisotrophy causing by chronic inflammation.Timely diagnosis and treatment syphilis in pregnancy can avoid the incidence of congenital syphilis.The clinical characters,diagnosis,treatment and follow-up visit of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis are reviewed in this article,so as to provide reference for clinical practice.

  13. Syphilis and HIV co-infection (PhD-afhandling)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The studies included in this PhD thesis examined the interactions of syphilis, which is caused by Treponema pallidum, and HIV. Syphilis reemerged worldwide in the late 1990s and hereafter increasing rates of early syphilis were also reported in Denmark. The proportion of patients with concurrent...... HIV has been substantial, ranging from one third to almost two thirds of patients diagnosed with syphilis some years. Given that syphilis facilitates transmission and acquisition of HIV the two sexually transmitted diseases are of major public health concern. Further, syphilis has a negative impact...... on HIV infection, resulting in increasing viral loads and decreasing CD4 cell counts during syphilis infection. Likewise, HIV has an impact on the clinical course of syphilis; patients with concurrent HIV are thought to be at increased risk of neurological complications and treatment failure. Almost ten...

  14. Cleft lip as a presentation of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis may present with unusual symptoms in early stages which needs to be identified for prompt treatment. Here, we present a case of 13-day-old female child with congenital syphilis presenting with cleft lip.

  15. Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Syphilis & MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men) - CDC ... Share Compartir Once nearly eliminated in the U.S., syphilis is increasing, especially among gay, bisexual, and other ...

  16. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, O

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.

  17. High asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in patients with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeloglu, Zafer; Sünnetcioglu, Mahmut; Tosun, Mehmet; Kücükbayrak, Abdülkadir; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Baran, Ali Irfan; Karahocagil, Mustafa; Akdeniz, Hayrettin

    2014-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is considered to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp., can manifest as vasculopathy. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between ADMA and brucellosis. Serum samples from 39 patients with an accurate diagnosis of brucellosis and from 18 healthy control individuals were included in this study. ADMA levels were significantly higher in the patient group than the controls (P brucellosis and high levels of ADMA. In conclusion, ADMA levels should be tested in brucellosis cases and that further studies to clarify the mechanism underlying the association between ADMA and brucellosis are required.

  18. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  19. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  20. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with

  1. Barriers to antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Kouanda, Seni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite advances in treatment and management, syphilis remains a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. Syphilis in pregnancy poses major health risks for the mother and the fetus and also increases the risk for HIV transmission. Despite its potential benefits, antenatal syphilis screening is often poorly implemented in many sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of the study is to identify and understand barriers affecting health system performance for syphilis screeni...

  2. Congenital syphilis in Switzerland: gone, forgotten, on the return

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M.; Trück, Johannes; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Tomaske, Maren; Morán Cadenas, Francisca; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Goetschel, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acquired syphilis has re-emerged in many Western European countries. In contrast to international guidelines, screening for syphilis in pregnancy is not generally recommended in Switzerland. There has been an increase in the incidence of laboratory syphilis notifications in recent years, regardless of gender and age. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study, evaluating the total numbers of pregnant women with positive syphilis serology (Treponema pallidum Particle Ag...

  3. Modeling seasonal measles transmission in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenguo; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    A discrete-time deterministic measles model with periodic transmission rate is formulated and studied. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined and used as the threshold parameter in determining the dynamics of the model. It is shown that the disease will die out if R0 1 . Parameters in the model are estimated on the basis of demographic and epidemiological data. Numerical simulations are presented to describe the seasonal fluctuation of measles infection in China.

  4. Attenuated Measles Virus as a Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Armando; Wang, Zili; Liniger, Matthias; Hangartner, Lars; Caballero, Michael; Pavlovic, Jovan; Wild, Peter; Viret, Jean Francois; Glueck, Reinhard; Billeter, Martin A.; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2007-01-01

    Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have an impressive record of safety, efficacy and ability to induce life-long immunity against measles infection. Using reverse genetics technology, such negative-strand RNA viruses can now be rescued from cloned DNA. This technology allows the insertion of exogenous genes encoding foreign antigens into the MV genome in such a way that they can be expressed by the MV vaccine strain, without affecting virus structure, propagation and cell targeting. ...

  5. Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV infected because STDs are a marker for behaviors associated with HIV transmission. g What is the treatment for syphilis? Syphilis ... alcohol and drug use may also help prevent transmission of syphilis because these ... risky sexual behavior. It is important that sex partners talk to ...

  6. Congenital syphilis in the Russian Federation: magnitude, determinants, and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhonova, L.; Salakhov, E; Southwick, K.; Shakarishvili, A; Ryan, C.; Hillis, S

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Reported cases of congenital syphilis in the Russian Federation increased 26-fold from 1991–9. Our objectives were to describe the frequency, risk factors, and consequences of delivering an infant with congenital syphilis among pregnant women with active syphilis.

  7. Internal quality control in serological tests for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wasley, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of syphilis serological tests demands that laboratory reports are reliable. Internal quality control applied to the organisation of a syphilis serology service improves laboratory bench performance and reporting. Described here are internal quality control procedures of a department that serves a genitourinary medicine clinic and conducts 70 000 tests a year to investigate for syphilis.

  8. Brucellosis among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Andrew J; Biggs, Holly M; Stoddard, Robyn A; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Afwamba, Isaac A; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A

    2012-12-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  9. Asymptomatic brucellosis infection in humans: implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z

    2013-09-01

    Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.

  10. Syphilis on the rise: A prolonged syphilis outbreak among HIV-infected patients in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachouridou, Olga; Skoura, Lemonia; Christaki, Eirini; Kollaras, Panagiotis; Sidiropoulou, Eleni; Zebekakis, Pantelis; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Margariti, Apostolia; Metallidis, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health issue in Europe. Numerous outbreaks of syphilis have been described recently and an increased prevalence of high-risk sexual practices has raised concern about the transmission of HIV and other STDs. Similarly, an increase in sexually transmitted infections has been recorded in Northern Greece. Methods This report describes a recent outbreak of syphilis in people living with HIV. The demographic, clinical, and serologic data of HIV patients diagnosed with syphilis were recorded and analyzed. Data on syphilis incidence from the general population was also compared to HIV patients’ data. Results Fifty-eight HIV-patients of the Infectious Diseases Unit of a tertiary hospital (5.2%) were diagnosed with syphilis during a three-year period (2008-2010). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coexistence of other STDs were independent predictors of syphilis (OR: 2.4, 95CI%: 1.26, 4.63, p=0.008; OR: 9.4, 95%CI: 4.49, 19.64, pOrigin from a country other than Greece (p=0.005), and homosexual contact (p=0.003), were separate risk factors for syphilis in the general population in the same area. Conclusion Diagnosis of a sexually transmitted disease in an HIV patient is a crucial clinical event that should trigger the clinician’s suspicion for high-risk sexual behavior. Sexual health assessments should be a routine process for HIV patients.

  11. Syphilis on the rise: A prolonged syphilis outbreak among HIV-infected patients in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachouridou, Olga; Skoura, Lemonia; Christaki, Eirini; Kollaras, Panagiotis; Sidiropoulou, Eleni; Zebekakis, Pantelis; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Margariti, Apostolia; Metallidis, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health issue in Europe. Numerous outbreaks of syphilis have been described recently and an increased prevalence of high-risk sexual practices has raised concern about the transmission of HIV and other STDs. Similarly, an increase in sexually transmitted infections has been recorded in Northern Greece. Methods This report describes a recent outbreak of syphilis in people living with HIV. The demographic, clinical, and serologic data of HIV patients diagnosed with syphilis were recorded and analyzed. Data on syphilis incidence from the general population was also compared to HIV patients’ data. Results Fifty-eight HIV-patients of the Infectious Diseases Unit of a tertiary hospital (5.2%) were diagnosed with syphilis during a three-year period (2008-2010). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coexistence of other STDs were independent predictors of syphilis (OR: 2.4, 95CI%: 1.26, 4.63, p=0.008; OR: 9.4, 95%CI: 4.49, 19.64, phomosexual contact (p=0.003), were separate risk factors for syphilis in the general population in the same area. Conclusion Diagnosis of a sexually transmitted disease in an HIV patient is a crucial clinical event that should trigger the clinician’s suspicion for high-risk sexual behavior. Sexual health assessments should be a routine process for HIV patients. PMID:27622160

  12. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  13. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  14. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Lili; Lu, Changhong; Meng, Ying; Guan, Xiaoli; An, Hongjin; Zhang, Meizhong; Guo, Wenqin; Shang, Bo; Yu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85%) tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3%) tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection. PMID:27366157

  15. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  16. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  17. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  18. Genitourinary brucellosis: results of a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, H; Elaldi, N; Ak, O; Gulsun, S; Tekin, R; Ulug, M; Duygu, F; Sunnetcioglu, M; Tulek, N; Guler, S; Cag, Y; Kaya, S; Turker, N; Parlak, E; Demirdal, T; Ataman Hatipoglu, C; Avci, A; Bulut, C; Avci, M; Pekok, A; Savasci, U; Kaya, S; Sozen, H; Tasbakan, M; Guven, T; Bolukcu, S; Cesur, S; Sahin-Horasan, E; Kazak, E; Denk, A; Gonen, I; Karagoz, G; Haykir Solay, A; Alici, O; Kader, C; Senturk, G; Tosun, S; Turan, H; Baran, A I; Ozturk-Engin, D; Bozkurt, F; Deveci, O; Inan, A; Kadanali, A; Sayar, M S; Cetin, B; Yemisen, M; Naz, H; Gorenek, L; Agalar, C

    2014-11-01

    This study reviewed the clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and prognostic data on genitourinary involvement of brucellosis in this largest case series reported. This multicentre study pooled adult patients with genitourinary brucellar involvement from 34 centres treated between 2000 and 2013. Diagnosis of the disease was established by conventional methods. Overall 390 patients with genitourinary brucellosis (352 male, 90.2%) were pooled. In male patients, the most frequent involved site was the scrotal area (n=327, 83.8%), as epididymo-orchitis (n=204, 58%), orchitis (n=112, 31.8%) and epididymitis (n=11, 3.1%). In female patients, pyelonephritis (n=33/38, 86.8%) was significantly higher than in male patients (n=11/352, 3.1%; pbrucellosis occurred in one patient. A localized scrotal infection in men or pyelonephritis in women in the absence of leucocytosis and with mild to moderate increases in inflammatory markers should signal the possibility of brucellar genitourinary disease.

  19. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have found no connection between this or any vaccine and autism. Reviews by all major health organizations in the ... elsewhere all found NO LINK between the MMR vaccine and autism. The study that had first reported a risk ...

  20. [Treatment of syphilis with malaria or heat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhave, J P

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the Second World War, syphilis was a common sexually transmitted infection. This stigmatising infectious disease caused mental decline, paralysis and eventually death. The history of syphilis was given public attention because of 'malaria therapy', which had been applied from the First World War onwards in patients with paralytic dementia. In 1917, the Austrian physician Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) induced fever in these patients by infecting them with malaria parasites; in 1927, he received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the healing properties of malarial fever. One source, not cited anywhere, is an interview that the American bacteriologist and science writer/medical journalist Paul de Kruif conducted with Wagner-Jauregg in 1930. The reporting of this meeting, and De Kruif's later involvement in the mechanical heat treatment of patients with syphilis, form the inspiration for this article. When penicillin became available, both treatments became obsolete. PMID:27165455

  1. [Treatment of syphilis with malaria or heat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhave, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the Second World War, syphilis was a common sexually transmitted infection. This stigmatising infectious disease caused mental decline, paralysis and eventually death. The history of syphilis was given public attention because of 'malaria therapy', which had been applied from the First World War onwards in patients with paralytic dementia. In 1917, the Austrian physician Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) induced fever in these patients by infecting them with malaria parasites; in 1927, he received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the healing properties of malarial fever. One source, not cited anywhere, is an interview that the American bacteriologist and science writer/medical journalist Paul de Kruif conducted with Wagner-Jauregg in 1930. The reporting of this meeting, and De Kruif's later involvement in the mechanical heat treatment of patients with syphilis, form the inspiration for this article. When penicillin became available, both treatments became obsolete.

  2. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  3. Retrospective and prospective perspectives on zoonotic brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo eMoreno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 B.P. and 33000 B.P., respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts' fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The arm race between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a false sense of security and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential.

  4. [Brucellosis as a cause of hemophagocytic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Saliha; Günal, Özgür; Taşkın, Mehmet Hakan; Atilla, Aynur; Kılıç, Süleyman Sırrı

    2015-04-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare syndrome of excessive inflammation and tissue destruction due to abnormal immune activation and inflammation. HLH can occur primarily due to genetic etiology, or secondarily associated with malignancies, autoimmmune diseases or infections. There are a number of reports that revealed the relationship of hemophagocytosis with brucellosis. In this report, we described a brucellosis-related HLH case. A 73-year-old male who work as farmer was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever continuing for 10 days, loss of appetite and back pain. Physical examination revealed right upper quadrant tenderness and hepatomegaly. Since the patient exhibited five of the diagnostic criteria for HLH (fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and high ferritin level), he was diagnosed as secondary HLH. PCR, microscopic agglutination and indirect fluorescent antibody tests gave negative results for the diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis and Q fever, respectively. On the other hand, Rose Bengal test for brucellosis was positive, while standard tube agglutination test (STA) was negative. The patient's serum yielded a very high positive (1/1280) result when Coombs' test was performed in terms of the possibility of blocking antibodies or prozone phenomenon. Additionally, B.melitensis was isolated from his blood culture on the sixth day. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampicin, and on the 10th day of antibiotic therapy the patient was discharged and recommended to complete his treatment up to 6 weeks. In conclusion, in patients with secondary HLH symptoms especially in the endemic areas, brucellosis should be considered as a predisposing infection.

  5. Brucella ceti and Brucellosis in Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first case of brucellosis detected in a dolphin aborted fetus, an increasing number of Brucella ceti isolates has been reported in members of the two suborders of cetaceans: Mysticeti and Odontoceti. Serological surveys have shown that cetacean brucellosis may be distributed worldwide in the oceans. Although all B. ceti isolates have been included within the same species, three different groups have been recognized according to their preferred host, bacteriological properties, and distinct genetic traits: B. ceti dolphin type, B. ceti porpoise type, and B. ceti human type. It seems that B. ceti porpoise type is more closely related to B. ceti human isolates and B. pinnipedialis group, while B. ceti dolphin type seems ancestral to them. Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, it is feasible that the B. ceti ancestor radiated in a terrestrial artiodactyl host close to the Raoellidae family about 58 million years ago. The more likely mode of transmission of B. ceti seems to be through sexual intercourse, maternal feeding, aborted fetuses, placental tissues, vertical transmission from mother to the fetus or through fish or helminth reservoirs. The B. ceti dolphin and porpoise types seem to display variable virulence in land animal models and low infectivity for humans. However, brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises has been demonstrated to be a severe chronic disease, displaying significant clinical and pathological signs related to abortions, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings, and death. PMID:22919595

  6. [Maternal syphilis and congenital syphilis in Latin America: big problem, simple solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Julia; Zacarías, Fernando; Mazin, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    From the data submitted to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) by nationwide programs against sexually transmitted diseases (STD), HIV infection, and AIDS (2002), one can estimate the overall prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women to be 3.1% and to range from 1.00% in Peru to 6.21% in Paraguay. According to these data, the incidence of congenital syphilis ranges from 1.4 per 1000 live births in El Salvador to 12.0 per 1000 live births in Honduras. Among men who engage in sex with other men, who often classify themselves as heterosexual, as well as in female sex workers, the prevalence of syphilis ranged from 5% to 15%. Factors that determine the persistence of congenital syphilis as public health problem include a lack of awareness of the seriousness of the problem among politicians, health officials, and health care providers, difficult access to prenatal care, and screening services, a low demand for the test among users, and the stigma and discrimination that surround sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This paper seeks to focus the attention of health professionals on maternal and congenital syphilis so they will undertake actions, using an interprogrammatic approach, to eliminate congenital syphilis from Latin America and the Caribbean. Eliminating congenital syphilis will only become possible if interventions targeting vulnerable groups are also implemented. PAHO's role in eliminating congenital syphilis includes determining the baseline situation in the Region as a whole and in each country, developing communication and procurement strategies, supporting nationwide programs, promoting operational research, and facilitating interprogrammatic coordination. PMID:15507190

  7. Human Brucellosis: Still an Unfamiliar and Misdiagnosed Disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Mangalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a disease with protean clinical manifestations. Despite many awareness programmes, it is still missed or wrongly diagnosed. This leads to chronic morbidity leading to misery and loss of working days. Aim and Objectives: To assess the microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of human brucellosis. Materials and Methods: Patients with positive brucella screening test constituted the study material. A detailed laboratory, clinical, epidemiological study along with response to the treatment was analyzed. Results: Seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be 1.75%. Brucellosis was clinically diagnosed in only 12.73% of cases. Fever, joint pain and low backache were the commonest symptoms. Close contact with animals and raw milk ingestion were the major sources of infection. Knowledge regarding brucellosis and its prevention was lacking in patients. Brucellosis was not considered as one of the differential diagnosis by the treating physicians. Conclusion: Brucellosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in cases presenting with fever, low backache, arthritis and arthralgia. Laboratories should screen all the serum samples for brucella agglutinins by Rose Bengal Plate Test. Awareness regarding the prevention of brucellosis in the general population and regarding the existence of the disease among the doctors practicing in rural areas is needed

  8. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  9. 77 FR 42256 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Collection; Brucellosis Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... State-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program, contact Dr. Debbi Donch, Brucellosis Program Manager,...

  10. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.

  11. Risk of HIV or second syphilis infection in Danish men with newly acquired syphilis in the period 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Risk of subsequent diagnosis of HIV in persons diagnosed with newly acquired syphilis, and syphilis in HIV-infected persons, are of interest as these infections are markers of unsafe sex. METHODS: From a nationwide register, all Danish men aged >16 years diagnosed with syphilis...... of a second syphilis diagnosis (IRR=4.0, 95% CI 2.8 to 5.9). Sixty-five percent of the persons were men having sex with men (MSM). Thirty-four percent of the HIV-infected persons had viral load >1000 copies/ml at time of syphilis diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial risks of syphilis and HIV infection...... in men diagnosed with one of these sexually transmitted diseases indicate a high frequency of unsafe sex in the Danish MSM population. As one-third of the HIV-infected persons diagnosed with syphilis had high viral loads, our data support initiation of antiretroviral therapy in all HIV-infected MSM...

  12. Historical perspective of brucellosis: a microbiological and epidemiological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The historical process of brucellosis extends back to humankind's first contact with animals. Although brucellosis is a sporadic disease observed in animals in certain regions of the world, it is an important disease in humans that can affect many organs and systems due to the consumption of contaminated milk or milk products. Studies have shown that the presence of Brucella dates back to 60 million years ago. In 450 BC, Hippocrates described a disease similar to brucellosis. Since Hippocrates' time, brucellosis has been characterized by fever. Our aim is to investigate selfless work undertaken by scientists on the epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical findings of brucellosis until today, and to gain a historical perspective about the disease that is as old as human history, still has importance today, causes economic losses in treated animals and harms human health. PMID:27031903

  13. The Julius Rosenwald Fund syphilis seroprevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, B

    1996-05-01

    In 1929 the Julius Rosenwald Fund, in conjunction with the Public Health Service (PHS), sponsored a syphilis seroprevalence study in the South characterized as a humanitarian effort to benefit the health of rural African Americans. The study reported extraordinarily high rates of positive Wassermann tests, even among children. Despite the unreliability and nonspecificity of this test, modern authors continue to indict these subjects as syphilitic. However, there was no consistent relationship between syphilis and a positive Wassermann test. Additional treponemal pathogens that potentially caused false-positive tests could explain the results. After public outcry to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, the Rosenwald study acquired new significance. It was used as evidence to bolster the argument that Tuskegee was a consequence of humanitarian motives that became captive to misguided methods of researchers at the Venereal Disease Division of the PHS. Humanitarianism implies the acknowledgement of a right invested in the recipient; health is an end in itself. However, African Americans were necessary as a source of cheap labor for competition in the world cotton markets and as a restraint on the market value of white labor in manufacturing. The administrative structure of the PHS, not zealous individuals, adopted utilitarianism as its paradigm for human research. Syphilis seroprevalence was a calculated use of public health as a means to economic development. PMID:8667443

  14. 76 FR 6322 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 27, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 81090-81096, Docket... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal...

  15. 75 FR 81090 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    .... (See ``A Concept Paper for a New Direction for the Bovine Brucellosis Program,'' 74 FR 51115-51116... the 2-year record requirement was established in Sec. 71.20 on October 31, 1996 (61 FR 56155-56165... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States...

  16. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  17. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, clinical presentations, serological test, serum biochemistry and reatment were collected from hospital medical records. The diagnosis of brucellosis based on clinical and laboratory findings. Results: This descriptive study included 47 patients, who 33 of them (70.2% were males. The mean age was 37.9 ± 19.3 years. The route of transmission of the disease was known in 28 59.5% of them. Direct contact with livestock in 22 (46.8% and ingestion of dairy products in six cases (12.7% were reported as the transmission route. The majority of patients (27 patients, 57.4% were from rural area. The main presenting symptoms were atigue, fever and arthralgia. Osteoarticular manifestations were the common forms of localized disease. Regarding to the therapy, 45 (95.7% of patients were treated with streptomycin and doxycycline for the first three weeks. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is not a common in Kosovo but there is a potential risk. Osteoarticular symptoms were the most common presentation reasons. The most effective and preferred treatment regimen was Streptomycin plus Doxycycline for the first three weeks, and Doxycycline plus Rifampicin thereafter. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 147-150

  18. Laboratory confirmation of rubella infection in suspected measles cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M

    2016-10-01

    As a part of measles outbreak based surveillance undertaken by the World Health Organization India, suspected measles cases were referred for the laboratory diagnosis at National Institute of Virology (NIV) Pune and NIV Unit Bengaluru. Altogether, 4,592 serum samples were referred during 2010-2015 from the States of Karnataka (n = 1,173), Kerala (n = 559), and Maharashtra (n = 2,860). Initially, serum samples were tested in measles IgM antibody EIA and samples with measles negative and equivocal results (n = 1,954) were subjected to rubella IgM antibody detection. Overall, 62.9% (2,889/4,592) samples were laboratory confirmed measles, 27.7% (542/1,954) were laboratory confirmed rubella and remaining 25.2% (1,161/4,592) were negative for measles and rubella. The measles vaccination status was available for 1,206 cases. Among the vaccinated individuals, 50.7% (612/1,206) were laboratory confirmed measles. The contribution of laboratory confirmed measles was 493 (40.8%) from Maharashtra, 90 (7.5%) from Karnataka, and 29 (2.4%) from Kerala. Since, 1/3rd of suspected measles cases were laboratory confirmed rubella, an urgent attention needed to build rubella surveillance in India. Additional efforts are required to rule out other exanthematous disease including Dengue and Chikungunya in measles and rubella negatives. J. Med. Virol. 88:1685-1689, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018071

  19. Cotreatment of Congenital Measles with Vitamin A and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the measles vaccine has been part of routine national childhood vaccination programs throughout Europe, measles remains a public health concern. High numbers of cases and outbreaks have occurred throughout the European continent since 2011, and an increasing number of cases have been reported in Turkey since 2012. During a recent measles outbreak in Turkey, 2 pregnant women contracted measles prior to delivering preterm infants at Hacettepe University Hospital. Measles virus genomic RNA and IgM antibodies against measles were detected in the cord blood of infants and mothers in both cases. The infants were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and vitamin A. Transient thrombocytopenia was present in 1 infant and treated with an additional dose of IVIG and vitamin A. The infants were discharged, without complications, within 10 days of birth. The successful treatment of these cases suggests that infants who have been exposed to, or infected with, measles may benefit from cotreatment of vitamin A and IVIG.

  20. Syphilis and the endemic treponematoses : clinical, (histo-) pathological and laboratory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.H. Engelkens (Herman)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTreponemal diseases important to mankind are sexually transmitted syphilis and the endemic nonvenereally transmitted treponematoses (yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis). Historically, the most important disease caused by treponemes is syphilis. During the last few decades, yaws, endemic s

  1. Various clinical manifestations of brucellosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkulov Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Brucellosis is an acute, subacute or chronical disease, from the zoonosis group, caused by various types of bacteria belonging to genus Brucellae. It is transmitted to humans from domestic animals: goats, sheep, cattle, pigs and dogs. The course of the disease may either be asymptomatic, or produce a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from light ones to extremely severe clinical forms. The aim of the study was to follow the clinical features of brucella infection in the hospital-treated patients, as well as its course and outcome. Material and Methods. The investigation included 15 patients, treated for brucella infection at the Clinic for infectious diseases during the last two years (2004 and 2005. Results. All patients were adults, their age ranged from 18 to 71, 49.96 on average. The epidemiological questionnaire was positive in all patients, confirming contacts with the ailing animals, or consumption of cheese made from milk of diseased animals. They all exhibited the classic symptoms - increased body temperature and shiver, fever, sweating, malaise and headache, the so called flu like state. The serum agglutination test was positive in respect to brucellosis, the titre ranged from 1:80 to 1:1280. Eight patients suffered excessive back pain, accompanied with impeded walk. In half of them magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the spondylodiscitis diagnosis. Three patients had clinical features of knee arthritis, two had bronchopneumonia, one pancreatitis, and one developed the signs of an acute kidney insufficiency. The outcome was favorable in all patients - They recuperated or healed completely. In one patient a relapse occurred, leading to the chronic course of the illness. Discussion. Although predominantly Mediterranean Brucellosis is a worldwide spread disease. During the last two years, an increased incidence of the disease has been observed. Conclusion. Due to the variety of clinical futures and the possibility

  2. [An unusual cause of febrile neutropenia: brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Soner; Asma, Süheyl; Ozdoğu, Hakan; Yeral, Mahmut; Turunç, Tuba

    2014-10-01

    Febrile neutropenia which is a common complication of cancer treatment, is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are responsible for infections in neutropenic patients, however the most common microorganisms are Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative staphylococci, in decreasing order. Although Brucella spp. infections are endemic in Turkey, brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia has only rarely been reported. In this report, a case of brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was presented. A 56-year-old male patient presenting with fever, petechiae/purpura, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and anemia was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory studies revealed a hemoglobin level of 8.27 g/dl, leukocyte count of 77.100 k/ml, absolute neutrophil count of 200 k/ml, and platelets at 94.200 k/ml. The patient was diagnosed as AML-M1 and piperacillin/tazobactam was started as the first-line antibiotic therapy due to the febrile neutropenia. On admission, blood and urine cultures were negative. Once the fever was controlled, remission/induction chemotherapy was initiated. However, fever developed again on the eight day, and vancomycin was added to the therapy. Since the fever persisted, the antibiotic therapy was gradually replaced with meropenem and linezolid. However, fever continued and the patient's general condition deteriorated. Subsequently performed Brucella tube agglutination test revealed positivity at 1/320 titer and the microorganism grown in blood culture (Bactec 9050; BD, USA) was identified as B.melitensis by conventional methods. Rifampicin and doxycycline therapy was started immediately, however, the patient died due to septic shock. If the tests for brucellosis were performed earlier when response to second step antibiotic therapy lacked in this patient, it was assumed that mortality could be prevented by the prompt initiation of the

  3. Epidemiological Analysis of Syphilis in China From 1985 to 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚向东; 张国成; 叶顺章; 张君炎; 邵长庚; 梁国钧; 俞进

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To understand trends and epidemiological features of syphilis over the recent years in China and provide a scientific basis for developing prevention strategies. Methods: From 1985 to 2000, syphilis case-reporting data collected from all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were analyzed by applying epidemiological methods. Results: (1) Epidemic trends: syphilis incidence has steadily risen in China from 1985 to 2000, especially after 1993, when it assumed an exponential growth pattern. 80,406 cases of syphilis were reported in the country in 1999, which was almost 40 times the number reported in 1993. During the period of 1993-1999, the annual average growth of the syphilis incidence rate was 83.55%. Perhaps due to a recent national law enforeement campaign, the number of reported syphilis cases dropped slightly in 2000. (2) Geographical distribution: Syphilis spread from coastal, ""open"" cities (especially some cities in Fujian province) to inland urban areas, then to rural areas.Regions with a high incidence rate of syphilis in China were the Minjiang, Yangtze, and Zhujiang River Deltas, Beijing and Tianjin municipalities, and Northeast China. There was a significant difference of syphilis incidence rates and growth rates between these areas. A serious epidemic occurred in some areas, with an incidence rate reaching over 200 cases out of 100,000. (3) Population distribution: the ratio of male and female cases gradually changed from 1.57:1 in 1993 to 1.02:1 in 2000. The rate was the highest in the 20-29 age group and the lowest in 10-14 age group. A great difference existed in prevalence between different population groups and different areas,and some areas with serious epidemics had high prevalence rates even amoung the general population. (4) Clinical stage of syphilis: Primary and secondary syphilis cases have been dominating with a percentage of 90% of all syphilis cases. Primary syphilis was the most common in males and secondary

  4. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  5. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selenge Tsend

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods: A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results: A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1, ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609 of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7 and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0. Conclusion: Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes.

  6. An Epidemiological Situation of an Animal Brucellosis in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nyamdorj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., infects domestic and wild animals worldwide, as well as humans who have contact with infected animals or contaminated dairy products. In present-day epidemiological situation in Mongolia is not quiet, especially, zoonoses such us brucellosis have been broadly spreaded.Recently, we developed agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test with polysaccharide (Poly-B antigen and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA using soluble antigen extracted from B. abortus 544 by n-lauroylsarcosine (sarcosine extracts and these tests could be used to differentiate naturally infected animals from vaccinated and Y. enterocolitica O9-infected ones; this assay simply and specifically diagnoses brucellosis. To validate the method in the field and to test the effectiveness of the vaccination program in Mongolia, a serological survey of brucellosis in nomadic animal husbandry in Mongolia was performed in 2010 and 2011. In this study had been determined an animal brucellosis prevalence in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag. The result showed that 1.25% and 0.4% of cattle and 0.04 % and 0.01% of small ruminants were positive for brucellosis in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag respectively.These results showed that B.abortus 159 N5R can be used as an alternative vaccine against bovine brucellosis.

  7. Congenital and maternal syphilis in the capital of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Muricy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: ​This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of congenital and maternal syphilis in the Brazilian Federal District in 2010. ​ METHODS: ​A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on the basis of the cases recorded in the System of Notifiable Disease Information. RESULTS: ​The study population comprised 133 cases of congenital syphilis; of these, 116 (52.6% mothers received prenatal care, and 70 (60.4% were diagnosed with syphilis during pregnancy. Only 1 mother was adequately treated, and 100 (75.2% of the pregnant women's partners did not undergo treatment for syphilis. ​ CONCLUSIONS: Although mothers attended prenatal care, not all were diagnosed during pregnancy or received adequate treatment for syphilis, as their partners did not undergo treatment for syphilis.

  8. Clinical manifestations of primary syphilis in homosexual men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Bjekić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of a new millennium, syphilis incidence has been increasing worldwide, occurring primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM. The clinical features of primary syphilis among MSM is described, a case-note review of the primary syphilis (PS patients who attended the Institute of Skin and Venereal Diseases. The diagnosis was assessed based upon the clinical features and positive syphilis serology tests. Among 25 patients with early syphilis referred during 2010, PS was diagnosed in a total of 13 cases. In all patients, unprotected oral sex was the only possible route of transmission, and two out of 13 patients had HIV co-infection. Overall, 77% of men presented with atypical penile manifestation. The VDRL test was positive with low titers. The numerous atypical clinical presentations of PS emphasize the importance of continuing education of non-experienced physicians, especially in countries with lower reported incidence of syphilis.

  9. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test and 41.2% (two tests, and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25. A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%, who self-reported as black (1.8% or mixed (1.2%, those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%, and those attending public (1.37% or mixed (0.93% health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions

  10. Syphilis serology and HIV infection in Harare, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gwanzura, L; A. Latif; Bassett, M.; Machekano, R; Katzenstein, D A; Mason, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of serological tests in detecting syphilis in a factory worker cohort and examine the impact of concurrent HIV infection on serological tests for syphilis. METHOD: Reactions to non-treponemal and treponemal antigens were tested using sera from a cohort of 3401 factory workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. The participants consented to regular testing for syphilis, by VDRL, and HIV using two ELISAs. All sera from men who were VDRL positive, and a random sam...

  11. Cost utility analysis of diagnostic method of syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Presently, the diagnosis of syphilis is dependent mainly on serological tests. The most widely used screening tests for syphilis are the VDRL and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and for confirmation, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA) and the treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) tests. The four alternative modes for diagnosis of syphilis can be a) VDRL + FTA, b) VDRL + TPHA, c) RPR + FTA and d) RPR + TPHA. Here the author reports an evaluation of cost utility of these tests in medi...

  12. Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, CM; Deutsch, R; Collier, AC; Morgello, S.; Letendre, S; Clifford, D; Gelman, B.; McArthur, J.; McCutchan, JA; Simpson, DM; Duarte, NA; Heaton, RK; Grant, I.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in HIV-infected individuals, as is syphilis. Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, invades the central nervous system early in disease. We hypothesized that HIV-infected patients with a history of syphilis or neurosyphilis would have more cognitive impairment than HIV-infected individuals without these infections. Eighty-two of 1574 enrollees in CHARTER, a prospective, observational study, had reactive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. The...

  13. Cattle producers' economic incentives for preventing bovine brucellosis under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P

    2012-12-01

    Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and

  14. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise, sne

  15. Epidemic Models for SARS and Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Recent events have led to an increased interest in emerging infectious diseases. This article applies various deterministic models to the SARS epidemic of 2003 and a measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 1999-2000. We take a historical approach beginning with the well-known logistic curve and a lesser-known extension popularized by Pearl and Reed…

  16. Measles - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Farsi (فارسی) Portuguese (português) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Farsi (فارسی) MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine English ( ...

  17. Does Measles Immunization Reduce Diarrhoeal Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddaiah V.P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: 1. Will measles vaccination reduce the incidence and during of diarrhoeal episodes in children? 2. Will measles vaccination reduce the morbidity load because of diarrhoea? Objectives: 1. To provide measles immunization to rural children 9 to 24 months of age. 2. to study the occurrence of diarrhoeal episodes by domicillary visits every month for a period of 1 year. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Rural area in the state of Haryana. Participants: Children between the ages of 9 and 24 months with parental informed consent. Study variables: diarrhoeal episodes per child/year, duration of diarrhoea. Outcome Variable: the difference between the two groups (immunized and non- immunized of attack rate and duration of diarrhoeal episodes. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test. Results: immunization coverage was 75%. Attack rates of diarrhoea in immunized children (1.6/child/year was no different to that in the non- immunized (1.5/child/year. The mean duration of diarrhoea in both groups was 2.3 days. The prevalence diarrhoea in immunized and non-immunized was 3.85 and 3.67 respectively. Conclusion: Measles vaccination has no impact on diarrhoeal morbidity.

  18. Human brucellosis at a pig slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriela I; Jacob, Néstor R; López, Gustavo; Ayala, Sandra M; Whatmore, Adrian M; Lucero, Nidia E

    2013-12-01

    Seventeen workers in a pig slaughterhouse with signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis were clinically examined at the outpatient service of different health institutions and studied by serological tests during the period 2005-2011. Eleven blood cultures were taken and six Brucella suis strains were isolated, three biovar 1 and three with atypical characteristics. In order to confirm that these cases had no common source, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on 5 of the 6 strains whose results showed substantial heterogeneity in the genotypes, thereby demonstrating that the immediate origin was not the same. Two hundred adult pigs admitted for slaughter at the plant were sampled by convenience and tested by buffered antigen plate test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-mercapto-ethanol test (MET). Seven of 62 males (11%) and 25/138 (18%) females tested positive. The study results contribute information on risk scenarios for packing plant workers and underscore the need to improve plant workers' education on appropriate containment measures and to actively screen animals for swine brucellosis.

  19. [Clinical and biological aspects of chronic brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşilă, V T; Vasilescu, I; Popian, R; Fitărău, A; Teodorescu, R; Sarlău, A; Alexandrescu, R; Stamboliu, W

    1975-01-01

    The present study refers to 53 cases of chronic brucellosis admitted to the clinic or followed up in an out-patient unit for ten years (1962-1971). There was a total of 946 days in hospital and 1688 days of occupational disability, about 40% of the patients necessitating repeated hospitalization because of the relapsing course of the disease. This group of cases presented the classical dominant features of an occupational anthropozoonoses (90.5%). Elements of visceral and tissular pathology, obviously conditioned in their structure by the stage of the disease, were found in cardiovascular, hepatic, nervous, osteoarticular, orchitic, ocular, cutaneous localizations, etc. Their associated character particularize the polyvisceral forms. The immunopathology of chronic brucellosis is marked by its dynamics and frequently dissociated character of the sero-allergic diagnostic reactions. Blood proteins behave unequally (hypoalbuminemia, hyperalpha1-, hyperalpha2- and hypergammaglobulinemia). There is still debate about the terapeutic attempts, although sigmamycin associated with cortisone derivatives reduce or temporize the relapsing evolution, opening up new therapeutical perspectives. PMID:128800

  20. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: biotechnology and the administrative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, B

    1995-01-01

    The central issue of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was property: property in the body and intellectual property. Once removed from the body, tissue and body fluids were not legally the property of the Tuskegee subjects. Consequently, there was not a direct relationship between a patient and research that used his sera. The Public Health Service (PHS) was free to exercise its property right in Tuskegee sera to develop serologic tests for syphilis with commercial potential. To camouflage the true meaning, the PHS made a distinction between direct clinical studies and indirect studies of tissue and body fluids. This deception caused all reviews to date to limit their examination to documents labeled by the PHS as directly related to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. This excluded other information in the public domain. Despite the absence of a clinical protocol, this subterfuge led each to falsely conclude that the Tuskagee Syphilis Experiment was a clinical study. Based on publications of indirect research using sera and cerebrospinal fluid, this article conceives a very history of the Tuskagee Syphilis Experiment. Syphilis could only cultivate in living beings. As in slavery, the generative ability of the body made the Tuskegee subjects real property and gave untreated syphilis and the sera of the Tuskegee subjects immense commercial value. Published protocols exploited the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment to invent and commercialize biotechnology for the applied science of syphilis serology. PMID:7869408

  1. Case series of syphilis and HIV co-infections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wahab, Asrul; Rahman, M. M.; Mohammad, Marlyn; Hussin, Salasawati

    2013-01-01

    Syphilis and HIV co-infection are indeed dangerous combinations. The present communication describes three different cases of syphilis and HIV co-infection in young men. The first case is a 25-year-old medical graduate with a primary and secondary syphilis lesions at time of presentation. The second case is a 24-year-old government officer with right eye posterior uveitis where the serology tests for syphilis were reactive. His HIV tests were also positive. The final case is a 25-year-old hom...

  2. Serum Treponema IgM Antibody Test for Syphilis Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑占才; 张荣富; 溪茜

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical utility of testing serum anti-treponema pallidum IgM antibody in the diagnosis of syphilis patients. Methods: Seventy-two cases of syphilis were tested for specific IgM antibody with ELISA, and the results were compared with RPR and TPPA.Results: The sensitivity of IgM antibody was 73.3 %(11/15) in primary syphilis, 88.9% (16/18) in sec-ondary syphilis, and there was no significant differ-ence between these values (x2=1.6363, P>0.10). The sensitivity of IgM antibody in diagnosing latent syphi-lis was only 26.1% (6/23), much lower than the detec-tion rate in symptomatic earlv svDhilis (x2=17.6189. P<0.005). RPR and TPPA were both 100% sensitive in latent and early symptomatic syphilis. Two were posi,five for IgM in the 16 cases who had received regular treatments 2 to 24 months before enrolled.Conclusions: Specific IgM antibody detection doees not appear superior to RPR and TPPA in diagnosing primary syphilis. The diagnosis of latent syphilis should mainly rely on RPR and TPPA, since there are low titers of IgM antibody at that stage. IgM antibody testing alone should not be recommended for monitor-ing syphilis development or treatment efficacy. Fur-ther studies should be concerned.

  3. Measles - United States, January 4-April 2, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Nakia S; Gastanaduy, Paul A; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Redd, Susan B; Wallace, Gregory S

    2015-04-17

    Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and death. As a result of high 2-dose measles vaccination coverage in the United States and improved control of measles in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, the United States declared measles elimination (defined as interruption of year-round endemic transmission) in 2000. Importations from other countries where measles remains endemic continue to occur, however, which can lead to clusters of measles cases in the United States. To update surveillance data on current measles outbreaks, CDC analyzed cases reported during January 4-April 2, 2015. A total of 159 cases were reported during this period. Over 80% of the cases occurred among persons who were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status. Four outbreaks have occurred, with one accounting for 70% of all measles cases this year. The continued risk for importation of measles into the United States and occurrence of measles cases and outbreaks in communities with high proportions of unvaccinated persons highlight the need for sustained, high vaccination coverage across the country. PMID:25879894

  4. Progress toward regional measles elimination - worldwide, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert T; Murray, Jillian S; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2015-11-13

    In 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), with MDG4 being a two-thirds reduction in child mortality by 2015, and with measles vaccination coverage being one of the three indicators of progress toward this goal.* In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to fewer than five cases per million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1).† In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan§ with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. WHO member states in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. This report updates the 2000–2013 report (2) and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000–2014. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 73% worldwide, from 146 to 40 cases per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 79%, from 546,800 to 114,900. However, progress toward the 2015 milestones and elimination goals has slowed markedly since 2010. To resume progress toward milestones and goals for measles elimination, a review of current strategies and challenges to improving program performance is needed, and countries and their partners need to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems. PMID:26562349

  5. Direct Comparison of the Traditional and Reverse Syphilis Screening Algorithms in a Population with a Low Prevalence of Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Binnicker, Matthew J.; Jespersen, Deborah J.; Rollins, Leonard O.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first direct comparison of the reverse and traditional syphilis screening algorithms in a population with a low prevalence of syphilis. Among 1,000 patients tested, the results for 6 patients were falsely reactive by reverse screening, compared to none by traditional testing. However, reverse screening identified 2 patients with possible latent syphilis that were not detected by rapid plasma reagin (RPR).

  6. A case of brucellosis mimicking Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Ozge; Teke, Turkan A; Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep G; Kaman, Ayse; Oz, Fatma N; Bayhan, Gulsum I; Tanir, Gonul

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. that is transmitted to humans by the ingestion of unpasteurized milk and other dairy products from infected animals or through close contact with secretions. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans by ixoid tick bites, contact with blood and tissue of infected animals or contact with infected humans. The symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific; it can mimic other diseases. In this paper, we present a case of brucellosis that was initially evaluated as CCHF. We emphasize that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF, especially in endemic countries.

  7. FY 2001 year-end status report : Brucellosis program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The brucellosis program, created by the Wildlife Health, is a combination of technical assistance and research. The National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Italy during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Magurano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In view of the goal of measles elimination, it is of great importance to assess the circulation of wild-type measles virus (MV. Genetic analysis is indispensable to understand the epidemiology of measles. A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2008, with over 4000 cases reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system introduced in 2007, 37% of which were laboratory confirmed. METHODS. Urine and saliva samples were collected during 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of measles sequences was performed in order to understand the epidemiological situation of wild-type (MV circulation in that period. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Data showed predominant circulation of the genotype D4. Genotypes A, D8, D9 and H1 were also detected in a small number of samples, probably representing imported cases.

  9. Measles-associated encephalopathy in children with renal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A; Jeyaratnam, D; Haworth, F; Sinha, M D; Hughes, E; Cohen, B; Jin, L; Kidd, I M; Rigden, S P A; MacMahon, E

    2006-06-01

    Two children, boys of 8 and 13 years, presented with measles-associated encephalopathy several years after kidney transplantation for congenital nephrotic syndrome. In the absence of prior clinical measles, the neurological symptoms initially eluded diagnosis, but retrospective analysis of stored samples facilitated the diagnosis of measles-associated encephalopathy without recourse to biopsy of deep cerebral lesions. Each had received a single dose of measles mumps and rubella vaccine before 12 months of age. Prior vaccination, reduction of immunosuppression and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and ribavirin may have contributed to their survival. Persistent measles virus RNA shedding, present in one child, was not controlled by treatment with i.v. ribavirin. Two years later, both patients continue to have functioning allografts with only minimal immunosuppression. These cases illustrate the difficulty in diagnosing measles-associated encephalopathy in the immunocompromised host, even in the era of molecular diagnostics, and highlight the renewed threat of neurological disease in communities with incomplete herd immunity.

  10. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, AKM Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  11. An overview of the brucellosis epidemic conditions in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    fallah rostami Fatemeh; Borzoueisileh Sajad; Ebrahimpour Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is as one of the most important infection common disease between human and cattle, which nowadays considered as one of serious health systems dilemma specifically in developing countries.Among brucellosis different species are the cause of infection, 4 species namely B.melitensis, BSuis, B.abortus , B.canis are the most major cause of disease in human(1).Indeed, in Iran that is considered as an endemic area of hygienic organization, B. melitensis is as the most prevalent cause ...

  12. Clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hartady, Tyagita; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Salisi, Mohd Shahrom

    2014-01-01

    Clinical human brucellosis is quite rare in Malaysia although seroconverters are relatively more. This report describes a case of clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia. This case involved a 29-year-old research assistant in a veterinary microbiology laboratory. She complained of intermittent fever, anorexia, profuse sweating, malaise, headache, normotensive (110/60 mm Hg), muscle pain, and arthralgia for 3 d. Blood tests against dengue and malaria were negative thus she was prescribed vitami...

  13. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  14. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, Northern Philippines, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Ma Justina; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Tayag, Enrique; Magpantay, Rio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years). Thirty-two were male (64%). Twenty (40%) were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64%) cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72%) received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96%) knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles. PMID:27766180

  15. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, northern Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results: There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years. Thirty-two were male (64%. Twenty (40% were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64% cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72% received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96% knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion: This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles.

  16. [Pediatric brucellosis : A case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, C; Ray, S; Honorat, R; Prère, M-F; Bicart-See, A; Claudet, I; Grouteau, E

    2016-07-01

    Brucellosis is an overlooked infection of widespread geographic distribution. This disease is rarely evoked when assessing unexplained pediatric fever, and only 20-30 cases (children and adults) are confirmed per year. Risk factors for contracting brucellosis are exposure to bodily fluids and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products from infected animals. Most cases of brucellosis are associated with traveling to or importing contaminated goods from endemic areas. Here, we report a case of brucellosis in a 16-month-old patient hospitalized for an acute febrile illness in a French general pediatric ward. An antibiotic regimen of rifampicin and co-trimoxazole given over 6 weeks led to successful cure without relapse. The child had eaten a cake made from unpasteurized goat's milk and imported from Oran, a region in Algeria. His mother had consumed the same cake and was hospitalized for brucellosis 15 days later. Clinicians should suspect brucellosis when encountering febrile patients who have traveled to endemic areas, been exposed to body fluids or products of abortion of farm animals, or consumed unpasteurized products. PMID:27266645

  17. ADP and brucellosis indemnity systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, W.M.; Harlan, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Our initial study of the USDA/TAHC Brucellosis Indemnity Program in Texas has shown that both the efficiency and rate of claim payments can be increased by the application of present day computer technologies. Two main factors contribute to these increases: the number of discrepancies that are caused by poor penmanship, transposition of numbers, and other human errors can be monitored and minimized; and the documented information can be indexed, sorted, and searched faster, more efficiently, and without human error. The overall flow of documentation that is used to control the movement of infected or exposed animals through commerce should be studied. A new system should be designed that fully utilizes present day computer and electronic technologies.

  18. Reemergence of Syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Cabié, André; Rollin, Bruno; Pierre-François, Sandrine; Abel, Sylvie; Desbois, Nicole; Richard, Pascale; Hochedez, Patrick; Théodose, Raphaëlle; Quist, Danielle; Hélénon, Raymond; Derancourt, Christian; Cavelier, Annick; Liautaud, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Syphilis reemerged in Martinique in 2004 and initially affected 3 HIV-infected patients. By March 2008, syphilis was diagnosed for 37 men and 18 women. As of October 31, 2009, this outbreak had not yet been brought under control. It initially affected mainly men who had sex with men before it spread to heterosexual persons, minority group members, and crack cocaine users.

  19. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  20. Syphilis oculaire : à propos de deux cas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauthier, A; Graffe, A; Beucher, A-B;

    2011-01-01

    Whereas syphilis is a classical cause of uveitis, it is still often under-recognized. Treatment recommendations are not based on specific clinical studies.......Whereas syphilis is a classical cause of uveitis, it is still often under-recognized. Treatment recommendations are not based on specific clinical studies....

  1. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

  2. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2 is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.54, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.41, P<0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.42, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.49, P<0.001. Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs.

  3. An estimate of syphilis incidence in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam J. Herbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Europe experienced epidemic levels of syphilis after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Presently data are less comprehensive outside the European Union (EU and European Free Trade Association (EFTA. This review aims to identify published papers with suitable data to estimate a regional burden of disease for syphilis in the 19 member countries of Eastern Europe.

  4. Early syphilis presenting as a painful polyradiculopathy in an HIV positive individual

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, A; Marriott, D.; Brew, B

    2005-01-01

    Neurosyphilis and neurological complications from syphilis may be commoner in HIV disease. With outbreaks of early syphilis in HIV positive individuals being observed over recent years, rare neurological manifestations of secondary syphilis will be observed more commonly. We describe a case of an HIV positive individual whose first presenting feature of early syphilis was a polyradiculopathy.

  5. Measles in India: Challenges & recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by Morbillivirus, with a secondary attack rate in excess of 80%, that usually affects children (1). However, multiple outbreaks of the disease have even been reported among adults in heterogeneous settings (urban areas, university campuses, disaster sites, during international travel, etc.) (2–5). The disease is characterized by the presence of fever, cough, and coryza, followed by the appearance of a typical rash (1, 6). The disease is generally transm...

  6. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Stittelaar, Koert

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise, sneezing and coughing lasting for about 1 week. Fever precedes the typical rash consisting of generalised maculopapular lesions that first appear on the face and soon after on the trunk and the extrem...

  7. 75 FR 53979 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Service announces the reopening of the public comment period on the Bison Brucellosis Remote...

  8. Measles case fatality rate in Bihar, India, 2011-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj V Murhekar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar-one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. METHODS: We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. RESULTS: The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.30. CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22% and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age <5 years, SC/ST status and non-administration of vitamin A during illness. Outbreaks with longer interval between the occurrence of first case and notification of the outbreak also had a higher rate of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases.

  9. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, Zolzaya; Suuri, Bujinlkham; Dashbal, Enkhbayar; Oidov, Baatarkhuu; Roth, Felix; Zinstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Dambadarjaa, Davaalkham

    2014-01-01

    Background After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1), ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609) of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7) and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0). Conclusion Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes. PMID:25685600

  10. Maternal and congenital syphilis in Bolivia, 1996: prevalence and risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Southwick, K. L.; Blanco, S.; Santander, A.; Estenssoro, M.; Torrico, F; Seoane, G.; Brady, W; Fears, M.; Lewis, J; Pope, V.; Guarner, J.; Levine, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out in seven maternity hospitals to determine the prevalence of maternal syphilis at the time of delivery and the associated risk factors, to conduct a pilot project of rapid syphilis testing in hospital laboratories, to assure the quality of syphilis testing, and to determine the rate of congenital syphilis in infants born to women with syphilis at the time of delivery--all of which would provide baseline data for a national prevention programme in B...

  11. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States,...

  12. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible...

  13. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political in

  14. Clinical outcome in measles patients hospitalized with complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is a highly communicable viral illness and is common cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Keeping in view the high prevalence of measles in the developing world, we carried out this study to look into the complicated measles cases and clinical outcome in patients admitted in children ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital. Detailed history and physical examination of all the hospitalized patients with complication of measles were recorded in a proforma. Immunization and nutritional status of each admitted patient was assessed and the clinical outcome of measles was compared with demographic profile. one hundred thirty six hospitalized patients with complications of measles were studied. There was 60.3% male and 57.3% of patients were vaccinated against measles. Malnourished patients were 71.35% and had longer hospital stay (>5 days). Pneumonia (39.7%) and diarrhoea (38.2%) were the commonest complications. Seven children died and encephalitis (57.1%) was the commonest cause of death. The most common complications of measles are pneumonia and diarrhoea with dehydration requiring admission. Malnutrition results in more complications and longer hospital stay. Mortality is significantly associated with encephalitis. (author)

  15. Four years of measles elimination in the Czech Socialist Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejda, J

    1987-01-01

    In 1982, Czechoslovakia succeeded in eliminating measles infection throughout the country. The paper describes the strategy of the measles immunization program following its introduction in 1969, showing it to reflect the objective epidemiological situation as revealed by the regular immunological surveys carried out in a broad population sample. As it turned out, decisive for achieving and maintaining a permanent measles elimination in the country was the introduction of second vaccination into the regular immunization schedule. Since 1982, its timing of is from 6 to 10 months after primary immunization. Over the 4-year period between 1982 and 1985, confirmed measles occurred only sporadically in the CSR, 115 cases altogether, and of these as many as 67 were classified as imported or their immediate contacts (38 measles patients were tourists from abroad). Of these 115 measles cases, 52 had had vaccination prior to acquiring the disease, 46 were individuals who had never before been vaccinated and in the remaining 17 patients no vaccination data were available. The vaccine failures, at least in 18 cases, could have been explained by the primary immunization prior to reaching 15 months of age. According to the estimates, at least 670 thousand cases of measles, 470 deaths, 100 thousand complications and some 33 thousand hospitalizations had been averted between 1972 and 1985 on the territory of CSR as a result of the introduction of the measles immunization program in Czechoslovakia. PMID:3429851

  16. 76 FR 48118 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis First Point Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...; Brucellosis First Point Testing of Cattle and Bison; Brucellosis Standard Card Test AGENCY: Animal and Plant...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... (202) 690-2817 before coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on brucellosis...

  17. Preventable measles among U.S. residents, 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-26

    Elimination of endemic measles has been achieved in the United States; however, measles continues to be imported from areas of the world where the disease remains endemic, resulting in substantial morbidity and expenditure of local, state, and federal public health resources. Measles among U.S. residents results from returning residents who become infected while living or traveling abroad, from contact or association with an infected traveler, or from an unknown source. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC by state and local health departments regarding confirmed measles cases among U.S. residents during 2001-2004; an illustrative case report is included. The majority of measles cases occurring among U.S. residents can be prevented by following current recommendations for vaccination, including specific guidelines for travelers. PMID:16121120

  18. Measles in Italy, laboratory surveillance activity during 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fortuna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. This study describes the measles laboratory surveillance activity performed by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità during 2010. METHODS: Urine, oral fluid and capillary blood samples from 211 suspected measles cases arrived to the NRL from different regions of Italy for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Serological and/or molecular assays were performed; after molecular detection, positive samples were sequenced and genotyped. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 85% (180/211 of the specimens were confirmed as measles cases and 139 of these were analyzed phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of D4 and D8 genotypes for the reviewed period.

  19. Mapping brucellosis risk in communities in the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Porphyre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the geographical patterns and identified factors associated with serological evidence of brucellosis in ruminants in Armenian communities during 2006 and 2007. The data comprised the two first complete years of the current national test-and-slaughter control programme for cattle, sheep and goats. Overall, 29% and 21% of the 858 communities involved in this study reported brucellosis in their respective cattle and small ruminant populations. The national brucellosis control data showed a widespread and uneven distribution of brucellosis throughout the Republic of Armenia for both cattle and small ruminants. The geographical areas of greater risk of communities having seropositive animals were different for cattle and small ruminant populations but most of the associated factors were similar. Several areas where the likelihood of disease occurrence was predicted poorly by the statistical models were also identified. These latter findings are indicative of either less than perfect testing and reporting procedures or unexplained epidemiological factors operating in those particular areas. The analyses provided valuable insights into understanding the brucellosis epidemiology at the community level which operates in small ruminant and cattle populations, and identified priority areas for implementing targeted risk-based surveillance and disease control interventions.

  20. The quest for a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J; DeBolle, X; Roop, R M; O'Callaghan, D; Tsolis, R M; Baldwin, C; Santos, R L; McGiven, J; Olsen, S; Nymo, I H; Larsen, A; Al Dahouk, S; Letesson, J J

    2014-08-01

    One Health is an interdisciplinary collaboration that aims at mitigating risks to human health arising from microorganisms present in non-human animal species, which have the potential to be transmitted and cause disease in humans. Different degrees of scientific collaboration and sectoral integration are needed for different types of zoonotic diseases, depending on the health and associated economic gains that can be expected from a One Health approach. Indeed, mitigating zoonotic risks related to emerging diseases with pandemic potential is different from mitigating risks related to endemic zoonotic diseases like brucellosis. Likewise, management of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in wildlife conservation areas is in essence different from mitigating transmission of a given Brucella species within its preferential host species, which in turn is different from mitigating the spillover of a given Brucella species to non-preferential host species, humans included. Brucellosis economic models often oversimplify and/or wrongly assess transmission between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts. Moreover,they may not properly value non-market outcomes, such as avoidance of human disease, consumer confidence and conservation biology issues. As a result, uncertainty is such that the economic predictions of these models can be questionable. Therefore, understanding the infection biology of Brucella species is a prerequisite. This paper reviews and highlights important features of the infection biology of Brucella species and the changing epidemiology of brucellosis that need to be integrated into a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

  1. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  2. Skin Rashes on Leg in Brucellosis: a Rare Presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease is endemic in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important re-emerging infectious disease. This disease is closely associated with the evolution of mankind as an agrarian society linked to the practice of shepherding and popularization of animal husbandry. The patients with this disease are typically present with chills, fever, asthenia and sweating. This paper describes a patient with brucellosis and skin rashes on the leg. A 41-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd. The patient reported the loss of appetite, arthralgia and weight loss during previous five months. Finally, he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and high titer for Brucella agglutination test. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is very broad, ranging from asymptomatic infection to serious debilitating disease. Current patient had skin rashes on his leg. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute infections, especially if there is a history of fresh milk product ingestion and living in an endemic region.

  3. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis.

  4. Skin Rashes on Leg in Brucellosis: a Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein; Ayatollahi, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease is endemic in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important re-emerging infectious disease. This disease is closely associated with the evolution of mankind as an agrarian society linked to the practice of shepherding and popularization of animal husbandry. The patients with this disease are typically present with chills, fever, asthenia and sweating. This paper describes a patient with brucellosis and skin rashes on the leg. A 41-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd. The patient reported the loss of appetite, arthralgia and weight loss during previous five months. Finally, he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and high titer for Brucella agglutination test. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is very broad, ranging from asymptomatic infection to serious debilitating disease. Current patient had skin rashes on his leg. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute infections, especially if there is a history of fresh milk product ingestion and living in an endemic region. PMID:26069179

  5. Antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis%妊娠梅毒与先天梅毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林松; 全钰平

    2013-01-01

    Antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis have gradually become one of the important infectious diseases threatening maternal and child health .During pregnancy , treponema pallidum can induce fetal dysplasia or even stillbirth .Risk factors of antenatal syphilis include age , education degree , history of many sexual partner and address .The intrauterine infection of fetus is related to the infection course and treatment course of pregnant women .Thus, it is very necessary to further understand risk factors , criteria of screening and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis , which could effectively control mother-to-child transmission, prevent bad pregnant outcomes and reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis .%妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒逐渐成为危害母婴健康的重要传染性疾病之一。妊娠期梅毒螺旋体能通过胎盘引起胎儿发育不良,甚至死胎、死产。妊娠期梅毒感染的危险因素与发病年龄、文化程度、多性伴史、居住地等有关。胎儿宫内感染状况与感染母亲的病程及妊娠期治疗时间有关。因此,进一步了解妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的感染危险因素,明确妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的筛查和诊断标准、治疗方法及预后效果,对于有效地控制梅毒的母婴传播,预防和治疗梅毒宫内感染的不良后果,降低先天梅毒的发病率具有重要意义。

  6. Gastric syphilis: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Del Duca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CLINICAL CASE A 43-year-old Romanian woman was referred with the clinical suspicion of gastric lymphoma; she had complained from two months nausea, vomiting and weight loss (7 kg; 3 esophagogastroduodenoscopic examinations had evidenced reduced distensibility of stomach body and antrum, ulcered and congestive mucosa, the histopathological examinations revealed a non specific inflammation. There was no response to therapy with omeprazolo. A computer-assisted tomoghraphy scan of the thorax and abdomen, obtained after the oral and intravenous administration of contrast material, showed diffuse thickening of the gastric wall, lymphadenopathies were seen in the retrocrural space, lesser curvature, and paraaortic region. It was performed another upper endoscopy with “deep” biopsy specimen, comprehensive of spirochetal immunohistochemistry, that was diagnostic for gastric syphilis. DISCUSSION Even though gastritis is a rare clinical manifestations of the secondary stage of syphilis, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of erosive gastritis unresponsive to medical therapy, especially in young patients; screening tests like VDRL (routinely used until few years ago in internal medicine divisions may be useful to identify those patients needing a further diagnostic evaluation.

  7. Measles Epidemics Among Children in Vietnam: Genomic Characterization of Virus Responsible for Measles Outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van H. Pham

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Measles viruses responsible for outbreaks in Southern Vietnam belonged to a genotype D8 variant group which had unique amino acid sequences in the N gene. Our report provides important genomic information about the virus for measles elimination in Southeast Asia.

  8. Congenital and maternal syphilis in the capital of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Lucia Muricy; Vitor Laerte Pinto Júnior

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: ​This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of congenital and maternal syphilis in the Brazilian Federal District in 2010. ​ METHODS: ​A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on the basis of the cases recorded in the System of Notifiable Disease Information. RESULTS: ​The study population comprised 133 cases of congenital syphilis; of these, 116 (52.6%) mothers received prenatal care, and 70 (60.4%) were diagnosed with syphilis during pregnancy. Only 1 mother was adeq...

  9. Congenital syphilis in a two-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Serranti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a rare case of congenital syphilis in a two-month-old Romanian infant. Diagnosis was possible when the baby showed decrease in the left upper limb movements and a papular rash. Her father had been infected and transmitted the infection to the mother, who had two non-treponemal serological tests during pregnancy, both with negative results. Congenital syphilis was confirmed by serological tests and the newborn was successfully treated. A global overview on diagnosis and treatment of children with suspected congenital syphilis is presented.

  10. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children with brucellosis: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Yöntem; Gözmen, Salih; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Oymak, Yeşim; Apa, Hurşit; Vergin, Canan; Devrim, İlker

    2015-10-29

    Brucellosis is a systemic zoonotic infectious disease that may cause fever, fatigue, sweating, arthritis, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, and lymphadenopathy. It continues to be an important health problem worldwide. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, high serum levels of ferritin and triglycerides, low serum fibrinogen levels, and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, or liver. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with brucellosis is a very rare condition in the pediatric age group. Here, three pediatric cases of secondary HLH associated with brucellosis are reported. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be considered in patients with brucellosis having cytopenias. Hemophagocytosis in brucellosis seems to be cured with appropriate antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin.

  11. Predictive contribution of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olt, Serdar; Ergenç, Hasan; Açıkgöz, Seyyid Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated for the first time that NLR values were significantly associated with brucellosis. This situation can help clinicians during diagnosis of brucellosis.

  12. Molecular strategies for the detection of measles virus in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Hypotheses. i) Atypical exposure to measles virus is a factor in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). ii) Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is a factor in the aetiology of autistic enteropathy. Aims. i) To compare a range of molecular techniques for measles RNA amplification. ii) To develop a sensitive and robust method for the detection of measles RNA. iii) To analyse clinical samples from IBD patients for the presence of measles RNA. iv) To analyse...

  13. An optimal control problem for ovine brucellosis with culling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannyonga, B; Mwanga, G G; Luboobi, L S

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is used to study the dynamics of ovine brucellosis when transmitted directly from infected individual, through contact with a contaminated environment or vertically through mother to child. The model developed by Aïnseba et al. [A model for ovine brucellosis incorporating direct and indirect transmission, J. Biol. Dyn. 4 (2010), pp. 2-11. Available at http://www.math.u-bordeaux1.fr/∼pmagal100p/papers/BBM-JBD09.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2012] was modified to include culling and then used to determine important parameters in the spread of human brucellosis using sensitivity analysis. An optimal control analysis was performed on the model to determine the best way to control such as a disease in the population. Three time-dependent controls to prevent exposure, cull the infected and reduce environmental transmission were used to set up to minimize infection at a minimum cost.

  14. Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-06-01

    Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P < 0.001). Human seroprevalence was significantly associated with small ruminant seroprevalence but not with cattle seroprevalence. Annual incidence of human brucellosis exposure, measured by serological tests, was more than ten times higher than the annual incidence of reported clinical brucellosis cases. This indicates an under-reporting of human brucellosis cases, even if only a fraction of seropositive people have clinical symptoms. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.

  15. Brucellosis and tuberculosis:Clinical overlap and pitfalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sowjanya Dasari; Kushal Naha; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify characteristic features of tuberculosis in patients with culture proven brucellosis.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on patients diagnosed with culture proven brucellosis betweenJanuary andDecember2011, based on review of their medical records.Patients with demonstrable co-infection with tuberculosis were excluded.Clinical features, laboratory parameters and tissue histopathology reports where available were noted. Results:Thirty-two patients with brucellosis were included in the study.Twenty-one(65.63%) patients had chronic fever, thirteen(40.63%) had a productive cough, while significant weight loss, evening rise of temperature and night sweats were reported by eight(25.00%), eleven(34.38%) and five(15.63%) patients respectively.Nine(28.13%) patients had atleast three of these symptoms. Lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were noted on examination in seven(21.88%), fifteen(46.88%) and twelve(37.50%) patients respectively.Eight(25.00%) patients had hepato-splenomegaly, of these only two had associated significant lymphadenopathy.Respiratory examination was normal in all patients.ElevatedESR greater than50 mm/hr was seen in eight (25.00%), it was greater than100 mm/hr in five(15.63%) patients.Hypergammaglobulinemia was seen in eight(25.00%) cases.Bone marrow biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas in three (9.38%) cases, lymph node biopsy showed granulomas in one case.Overall, three(9.38%) patients had known risk factors for tuberculosis, while six(18.75%) had risk factors for brucellosis. Conclusions:There is a clear overlapbetween brucellosis and tuberculosis both in terms of clinical presentation and laboratory parameters.It is essential to carefully rule out tuberculosis in all cases of suspected or proven brucellosis before initiating antimicrobial therapy, in order to forestall development of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  16. Brucellosis outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon in 2009: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaar, L; Chaaya, M; Ghosn, N; Mahfoud, Z

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with brucellosis infection in an outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon during summer 2009. Cases of brucellosis reported to the Ministry of Public Health were identified, and for each case 2 controls were matched by sex, age and residence. Sociodemographic data, exposure to animals and animal products, knowledge about brucellosis, symptoms and history of past brucellosis infections were collected. Consumption of raw cheese was a significant risk factor for contracting brucellosis (matched OR = 29.5), whereas wearing gloves when in contact with animals and animal products and self-preparing dairy products were protective factors (OR = 0.08 and 0.13 respectively). Low and inaccurate knowledge about brucellosis was prevalent among subjects, with a common misconception about human-human transmission. Ensuring animal vaccination, educating people on correct ways of milk pasteurization and handling meat products, and elevating food safety monitoring threshold are key elements in controlling brucellosis.

  17. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  18. Evaluation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, E; Singhal, A; Verghese, S; D'Lima, D; Mathai, D; Ganesh, A; Thomas, K; Moses, P

    1996-06-01

    Brucela serology using ELISA and standard agglutination test was performed on 23 patients with prolonged fever where the test was requested, on 26 randomly chosen patients with prolonged fever where it was not requested and on 17 controls. ELISA was positive in 39.1, 26.9 and 0 per cent respectively in these groups. Brucellosis may often be unsuspected because of its varied clinical manifestations and may be a more important cause of fever than previously considered. Our data reaffirm that ELISA is superior to the standard agglutination test for the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  19. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL...... syphilis.IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels correlated positively with plasma HIV RNA values at the time of diagnosis (r = 0.38, P = 0.023, and r = 0.64, P HIV-1 and early...... stage syphilis coinfection were associated with an increase in IL-10. IL-10 and TNF-alpha both decreased after treatment of syphilis. TNF-alpha and IL-10 correlated with low CD4 T cell counts and high plasma HIV RNA values....

  20. Oral Syphilis: A Reemerging Infection Prompting Clinicians' Alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybeck Udd, Sebastian; Lund, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is a rare but increasing disease. Due to changing sexual habits, presentation of oral manifestations may rise. Since syphilis may mimic other oral manifestations, diagnoses can be difficult. Clinicians need to be aware that ambiguous oral manifestations may in fact be caused by oral syphilis. Here, we present a case of extended diagnostic delay highlighting the importance of consulting an expert in infectious diseases in case of obscure oral lesions not responding to standard treatment. Despite seven visits to six different medical doctors, a patient who presented with oral syphilis was continuously misdiagnosed. After 6 months of increasing complaints and deteriorating severity of disease, the patient was referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon where the correct diagnosis was determined and proper treatment initiated. PMID:27293914

  1. Ultrastructural Study of Dermatic Tissues in Secondary Syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓东; 脱朝伟; 张庆瑞; 宋芳吉

    2001-01-01

    Objective: For the purpose of understanding the changing process of syphilis histomorphology and its injury mechanism,the ultrastructure of dermatic tissues of secondary syphilis was studied.Methods: Different skin injury tissues of secondary syphilis patients, whose serum RPR and TPHA tests in the lab both appeared positive reaction, were observed through transmission electron microscope (TEM).Results: Inflammations appeared on epidermides and coria,a great deal of neutrocytes, lymphocytes and a small amount of plasma infiltrated them. Karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis,epicyte lysis and mitochondrion vacular degeneration occurred. Spirocheta pallida was distributed on intercellular substances, epicytes and coilagenous fibers. The epicytes were pressed to foveation. Conclusion The pathological change of characteristic tissue ultrastructure reported here is a histomorphological foundation to study the organism injury mechanism caused by syphilis.

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  5. Cost utility analysis of diagnostic method of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the diagnosis of syphilis is dependent mainly on serological tests. The most widely used screening tests for syphilis are the VDRL and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR and for confirmation, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA and the treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA tests. The four alternative modes for diagnosis of syphilis can be a VDRL + FTA, b VDRL + TPHA, c RPR + FTA and d RPR + TPHA. Here the author reports an evaluation of cost utility of these tests in medical practice. It is shown that the cost per accurate diagnosis with VDRL + TPH is the least expensive choice. Therefore, this alternative is the best method for serological diagnosis for syphilis, based on medical laboratory economics principles

  6. Reemergence of Syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bruno; Pierre-François, Sandrine; Abel, Sylvie; Desbois, Nicole; Richard, Pascale; Hochedez, Patrick; Théodose, Raphaëlle; Quist, Danielle; Hélénon, Raymond; Derancourt, Christian; Cavelier, Annick; Liautaud, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Syphilis reemerged in Martinique in 2004 and initially affected 3 HIV-infected patients. By March 2008, syphilis was diagnosed for 37 men and 18 women. As of October 31, 2009, this outbreak had not yet been brought under control. It initially affected mainly men who had sex with men before it spread to heterosexual persons, minority group members, and crack cocaine users. PMID:20031052

  7. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  8. Incidence of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Anie Savi Serafim; Gustavo Pasquali Moretti; Guilherme Savi Serafim; Cintia Vieira Niero; Maria Inês da Rosa; Maria Marlene de Souza Pires; Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo Simões

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish the incidence rates of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil from 2001 to 2009. Methods Temporal ecological and descriptive study based on the cases recorded by the System of Information of Notifiable Diseases. Results The incidence of congenital syphilis has been increasing in the South Region of Brazil since 2004; the highest incidence rates were in women who received prenatal care (113.5 new cases per 100,000 births, p

  9. Towards the Elimination of Syphilis in a Small Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameel Mungrue

    2015-01-01

    39 per 100 000 population in 2009 to 29 per 100 000 in 2012. We identified 3 “hot spots,” in urban areas of Trinidad. Young men and particularly young women in childbearing age 15–35 living in urban high density populations were commonly infected groups. Conclusion. The incidence of syphilis continues to be very high in Trinidad. New initiatives will have to be formulated in order to attain the global initiative to eradicate syphilis by 2015.

  10. Prevalence of syphilis among HIV-seroreactive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Turbadkar D; Mathur M; Gaikwad S

    2007-01-01

    Presence of genital ulcer disease facilitates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and their -diagnosis is essential for the proper management. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is used as a screening test for the diagnosis of syphilis. However, unusual VDRL test results have been reported in HIV-infected persons with syphilis. There are reports showing higher than expected VDRL titers as well as biological false positive in most of the studies. A negative Rapid Plas...

  11. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  12. Bovine Brucellosis: Old and New Concepts with Pakistan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar*, Mehwish Mansoor and Muhammad Javed Arshed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered to be one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. According to OIE, it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats, camels and dogs. It may also infect other ruminants and marine mammals. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and characteristic lesions are primarily placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis. The organism is excreted in uterine discharges and milk. The disease is economically important, is one of the most devastating transboundary animal diseases and also a major trade barrier. Although not yet reported, some species of Brucella (e.g., B. abortus are zoonotic and could be used as bioweapons. Brucellosis has a considerable impact on animal and human health, as well as wide socio-economic impacts, especially in countries in which rural income relies largely on livestock breeding and dairy products. Considering the poor health infrastructure and manpower in rural areas, the focus should be on preventive measures coupled with strengthening the curative health care services for early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing particularly in large dairy herds in Pakistan. Several studies have been conducted using sero-diagnostic techniques to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in different provinces, districts and livestock farms in government and private sector.

  13. Assessment of Rose Bengal test in diagnosing Egyptian human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fekhfakh, Effat Abdel-Monaem; Hassanain, Nawal Abdel-Hafiz; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; El-Hariri, Hazem

    2011-08-01

    A total of 30 patients suffering from brucellosis were suspected based on history taking, clinical manifestations and positive serum tube agglutination test (at titer > or = 1/160). The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count) and liver function tests, serodiagnosis of Brucella (serum tube agglutination test (STAT) as well as Rose Bengal test (RBT) and PCR. The study aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR for human brucellosis, and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the cost and the time consuming of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR. There was a significant difference between diagnosis by RBT and both STAT > or = 1/640, & STAT > or = 1/1280. Also, there was a significant difference between PCR and both STAT > or = 1/640, and STAT > or = 1/1280. No significant difference was detected between RBT in diagnosing acute and chronic infection. STAT > or = 1/320 proved to be better than STAT at other titers and RBT in diagnosis of brucellosis. RBT proved to be suitable as screening test regarding time (faster) and cost. But, STAT > or = 1/320 from a practical and economic point of views proved to be the best one in diagnosing human brucellosis.

  14. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...-5256. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 6, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 26239... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and...

  15. Polymyositis-like syndrome with rhabdomyolysis in association with brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kushal Naha; Suman Karanth; Sowjanya Dasari; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse myositis with progression to rhabdomyolysis has been reported in association with wide range of viral infections.We report a case of polymyositis-like syndrome complicated by rhabdomyolysis secondary to brucellosis.This case report thus contributes yet another atypical presentation to a disease already infamous for its protean manifestations.

  16. Brucellosis in Milk and Milk Products and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Dilek; TOROĞLU, Sevil

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp, is a zoonotic disease which is patogenic to human. Brucella spp especially can be host cattle, sheep, goats, water bufalo pigs, dogs, camel, deer, certain poultry and human even tick and some artropod. Brucella spp are very important for public health because, along causing important economical losses, they infect man via milk and milk products of infected animals.

  17. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. ELISA for epidemiology of brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a travel report of a three-week mission (from October 13 to November 1, 1991) to Indonesia within the framework of ''The implementation of ELISA technology for the sero-diagnosis of important livestock diseases''. The mission evaluated the implementation of ELISA technology at the Regional Laboratories and its role in the surveillance and control of bovine brucellosis

  18. An interesting case of childhood brucellosis with unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksugur, Sevil Bilir; Bekdas, Mervan; Gurel, Safiye; Tas, Tekin; Sarac, Esma Gokcen; Demircioglul, Fatih; Kismet, Erol

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection, which is still a major public health concern worldwide. Common clinical findings are usually nonspecific involving fever, arthralgia, myalgia, weakness and malaise. Since none of the symptoms of brucellosis is pathognomonic, it may have a similar course with various multisystemic diseases. In terms of focal involvement, sacroiliitis is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adult patients, while it is quite rare in pediatric patients. Blood culture is the gold standard in the diagnosis of brucellosis. In the absence of culture facilities, the diagnosis traditionally relies on serologic testing with a variety of agglutination tests such as the Rose Bengal test and the serum agglutination test. However, these agglutination tests are accompanied by frequent false negative results such as seen in prozone phenomenon, which may lead to diagnostic delays. In this article we present a rarely encountered pediatric brucellosis patient who had sacroiliitis-spondylitis, which are rarely reported in children, and exhibited prozone phenomenon in agglutination tests. PMID:26058253

  19. A model of animal-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, J; Roth, F; Orkhon, D; Chimed-Ochir, G; Nansalmaa, M; Kolar, J; Vounatsou, P

    2005-06-10

    We developed a dynamic model of livestock-to-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. The compartmental model considers transmission within sheep and cattle populations and the transmission to humans as additive components. The model was fitted to demographic and seroprevalence data (Rose Bengal test) from livestock and annually reported new human brucellosis cases in Mongolia for 1991-1999 prior to the onset of a mass livestock-vaccination campaign (S19 Brucella abortus for cattle and Rev 1 Brucella melitensis for sheep and goat). The vaccination effect was fitted to livestock- and human-brucellosis data from the first 3 years of the vaccination campaign (2000-2002). Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (assessed by the deviance). The simultaneously fitted sheep-human and cattle-human contact rates show that 90% of human brucellosis was small-ruminant derived. Average effective reproductive ratios for the year 1999 were 1.2 for sheep and 1.7 for cattle. PMID:15899298

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of syphilis infection among drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhlmann Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent epidemiological data show an increased trend of official estimates for syphilis infection in the general population. Many of the infected cases remain undetected leaving an underestimation of the true prevalence of syphilis in the general population, but also among subpopulations such as illicit drug users. There is limited epidemiological data published on the proportion and risk factors of syphilis infections associated with illicit drug abuse. Methods Illicit drug addicts (n = 1223 in inpatients units in Germany were screened (2000–01 for syphilis and interviewed regarding patterns of drug use and sexual behaviour. TPHA-test for initial screening and FTA-ABS-IgM test in TPHA-positive patients were used. Results In total, TPHA-tests were positive in 39 (3.3% and 7 patients (0.6% were IgM positive. The prevalence rate for syphilis in males was 1.9% and for women it was 8.5%. Female patients were 4.56 (CI 95% 2.37–8.78 times more likely to have a positive TPHA test than males. Sexual behaviours such as high number of sexual partners, sex for drugs/money, sex on the first day were associated with syphilis infection only in women. Females with frequent sex for drugs or money had 4.31 (CI 95% 2.32–8.52 times more likely a reactive TPHA test than remaining patients. Neither the sociodemographic factors nor sexual behaviour were statistically significant associated with syphilis infection among men at all. Conclusion Our data suggest the need for screening for syphilis among these illicit drug users in inpatient settings, in particular among sexual active women. This conclusion is corroborated by the finding of increasing numbers of syphilis infections in the general population. The identification of syphilis cases among drug addicts would give treatment options to these individuals and would help to reduce the spread of infection in this population, but also a spread into heterosexual populations related to

  1. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gee, S

    2010-01-01

    Measles cases are increasing in Ireland, with 320 cases notified since August 2009. Nearly two-thirds of these cases (n=206) were unvaccinated. In the early stages of the outbreak a substantial number of cases were linked to the Traveller community with some cases also reported among the Roma community, other citizens from eastern Europe and children whose parents objected to vaccination. By February 2010, there had been considerable spread to the general population.

  2. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill;

    2014-01-01

    vaccinated with MV in the presence of maternal antibody and 32.3 per 1000 person-years without maternal antibody (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0-.52). In trial II (2003-2007), the mortality rate was 4.2 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated in presence of maternal...... mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07-.64) between 4-6 months and 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4......BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...

  3. Atypical measles syndrome: unusual hepatic, pulmonary, and immunologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H M; Krugman, S

    1981-01-01

    The atypical measles syndrome is a relatively new disease that was first recognized 15 years ago. Initially, it occurred in children who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. It was characterized by a two- to three-day prodrome of high fever, cough, headache, and myalgia followed by a rash that resembled Rocky Mountain spotted fever, scarlet fever, or varicella and associated with roentgenographic evidence of pneumonia with or without pleural effusion. This report highlights three unusual manifestations of this syndrome: 1) transient hepatitis, 2) persistence of pulmonary lesions for several years, and 3) occurrence of excessively high measles hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers. Today, this syndrome occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults.

  4. Measles outbreak--California, December 2014-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Winter, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James; Harriman, Kathleen

    2015-02-20

    On January 5, 2015, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 11 years with rash onset on December 28. The only notable travel history during the exposure period was a visit to one of two adjacent Disney theme parks located in Orange County, California. On the same day, CDPH received reports of four additional suspected measles cases in California residents and two in Utah residents, all of whom reported visiting one or both Disney theme parks during December 17-20. By January 7,seven California measles cases had been confirmed, and CDPH issued a press release and an Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X) notification to other states regarding this outbreak. Measles transmission is ongoing.

  5. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  6. Neonatal Brucellosis: Two Cases with Two Different Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Mungan Akın

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis remains as an endemic infection of humans in many parts of the world; Latin America, Asia including Middle East and Mediterranean region including Turkey. Neonatal brucellosis is very rare and clinical manifestations as well as transmission route are not well-defined. The neonate can be either infected transplacentally, or by ingestion of mother’s secretions and blood during delivery, or by ingestion of breast milk. Here, we present two cases with two different transmission route and clinical findings. First case is a premature infant born after 31 weeks of gestation and hospitalized for respiratory distress in addition to hepatosplenomegaly and leukocytosis. Brucella species were isolated from the initial blood culture obtained just after birth. Clinical and laboratory findings improved with decreased ventilatory support after replacement of antibiotherapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX and rifampicin. Second case was a 28 days old, term infant. Her sibling was diagnosed as brucellosis and during evaluation of the family members, her mother was found to have brucellosis just before delivery. Initial evaluation of the baby after birth was totally normal. Beside medical advice, she was breastfed and in the 4th week of life she was found to have leucopenia and neutropenia, and brucella tube agglutination test turned to be positive. After antibiotherapy, laboratory findings were normalized. Breastfeeding was ceased during the treatment periods of both mothers. Both families were from rural regions of Turkey, who were using unpasteurized dairy products. Both patients were treated with TMP-SMX and rifampicin for 6 weeks without any complication. Brucella spp must be sought as a causative agent in the differential diagnosis of intrauterine and neonatal infections in endemic countries. Family members of patients from rural areas of the country must be questioned about traditional food consumption, as findings of neonatal

  7. Seroepidemiological survey of human brucellosis in and around Ludhiana, India

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    Moti Yohannes Gemechu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been done on public health significance of brucellosis using serology with little or no emphasis to risk factors. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and assess epidemiological variables associated with human brucellosis. After obtaining verbal consent, 241 peripheral blood samples were collected from occupationally exposed groups with and without pyrexia of unknown origin. A structured questionnaire was prepared to gather risk factors, such as occupation, age, sex, history of consuming raw milk and other unpasteurised dairy products, direct contact with domestic animals, general knowledge about the route of transmission and awareness level. Purposive sampling was used to select the key informants. All serum samples were first screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and further analysed by Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT. The results revealed that 24.5% were positive by RBPT and diagnosis was established in 26.6% using STAT with a titre range between 80 and 1,280 IU/ml. Among occupational groups, prevalence was 17.8% in veterinarians and pharmacists but was not statistically significant. The most common clinical symptoms at presentation were fever, headache, back pain, arthralgia and myalgia. No female reactor was found and the mean age and standard deviation of seropositive patients was 34.69±10.97 years. Risk factors such as residence in rural area, participation in vaccination of animals and eating during working hours were significantly associated (P<0.05 with brucellosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. In conclusion, to deal with occupation-related disease like brucellosis, awareness on risk factors must be part of extension education campaign. Besides, regular surveillance of the disease needs to be integrated into control and prevention programme at a local and national level.

  8. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  9. Lipopolysaccharide as a target for brucellosis vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Gil-Ramírez, Yolanda; Iriarte, Maite; Grilló, María-Jesús; Gorvel, Jean Pierre; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    The gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella are facultative intracellular parasites that cause brucellosis, a world wide-distributed zoonotic disease that represents a serious problem for animal and human health. There is no human-to-human contagion and, since there is no human vaccine, animal vaccination is essential to control brucellosis. However, current vaccines (all developed empirically) do not provide 100% protection and are infectious in humans. Attempts to generate new vaccines by obtaining mutants lacking the lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide, in purine metabolism or in Brucella type IV secretion system have not been successful. Here we propose a new approach to develop brucellosis vaccines based on the concept that Brucella surface molecules evade efficient detection by innate immunity, thus delaying protective Th1 responses and opening a time window to reach sheltered intracellular compartments. We showed recently that a branch of the core oligosaccharide section of Brucella lipopolysaccharide hampers recognition by TLR4-MD2. Mutation of glycosyltransferase WadC, involved in the synthesis of this branch, results in a lipopolysaccharide that, while keeping the O-polysaccharide essential for optimal protection, shows a truncated core, is more efficiently recognized by MD2 and triggers an increased cytokine response. In keeping with this, the wadC mutant is attenuated in dendritic cells and mice. In the mouse model of brucellosis vaccines, the Brucella abortus wadC mutant conferred protection similar to that provided by S19, the best cattle vaccine available. The properties of the wadC mutant provide the proof of concept for this new approach and open the way for more effective brucellosis vaccines. PMID:23219811

  10. Syphilis at the crossroad of phylogenetics and paleopathology.

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    Fernando Lucas de Melo

    Full Text Available The origin of syphilis is still controversial. Different research avenues explore its fascinating history. Here we employed a new integrative approach, where paleopathology and molecular analyses are combined. As an exercise to test the validity of this approach we examined different hypotheses on the origin of syphilis and other human diseases caused by treponemes (treponematoses. Initially, we constructed a worldwide map containing all accessible reports on palaeopathological evidences of treponematoses before Columbus's return to Europe. Then, we selected the oldest ones to calibrate the time of the most recent common ancestor of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum and T. pallidum subsp. pertenue in phylogenetic analyses with 21 genetic regions of different T. pallidum strains previously reported. Finally, we estimated the treponemes' evolutionary rate to test three scenarios: A if treponematoses accompanied human evolution since Homo erectus; B if venereal syphilis arose very recently from less virulent strains caught in the New World about 500 years ago, and C if it emerged in the Americas between 16,500 and 5,000 years ago. Two of the resulting evolutionary rates were unlikely and do not explain the existent osseous evidence. Thus, treponematoses, as we know them today, did not emerge with H. erectus, nor did venereal syphilis appear only five centuries ago. However, considering 16,500 years before present (yBP as the time of the first colonization of the Americas, and approximately 5,000 yBP as the oldest probable evidence of venereal syphilis in the world, we could not entirely reject hypothesis C. We confirm that syphilis seems to have emerged in this time span, since the resulting evolutionary rate is compatible with those observed in other bacteria. In contrast, if the claims of precolumbian venereal syphilis outside the Americas are taken into account, the place of origin remains unsolved. Finally, the

  11. Management of syphilis in HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Fiona V; Fisher, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Since the turn of the millennium a sustained outbreak of syphilis among men who have sex with men continues, approximately 20-50% of whom have concurrent HIV infection. In this paper we aim to explore the controversies that exist around the management of syphilis in HIV-positive individuals. Not only do HIV-positive people have different clinical manifestations of syphilis they have higher rates of asymptomatic neurological involvement, slower serological response to treatment and higher serological failure than HIV-negative individuals in most studies. Whether long-term clinical outcomes are different or affected by the antibiotic regimen selected remains to be established. The optimal antimicrobial regimen to treat syphilis in HIV is unknown due to a dearth of randomised controlled trial data. International guidelines state that the antibiotic management of syphilis is the same regardless of HIV status, with early syphilis treated with a single dose of benzathine penicillin G 2.4mU intrmuscularly. In practice, however, the majority of surveyed clinicians do treat HIV-positive people with more intensive antibiotics suggesting a lack of faith in guidelines. Factors which appear to affect the likelihood of developing neurological disease include CD4(+) count of RPR) or venereal diseases reference laboratory titre (VDRL) >1:32, late-latent disease or lack of response to standard antibiotic treatment. We recommend a low-threshold for offering antibiotic treatment effective against neurosyphilis in HIV-positive people with syphilis, especially if they exhibit any of the above factors. PMID:25621462

  12. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    ALMA ROBO; AGIM VERCANI; ARTAN SIMAKU; ERIDA NELAJ; EUGENA TOMINI; SILVA BINO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with ...

  13. Characteristics of patients with measles admitted to allied hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles, a virus borne droplet infection, is one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite presence of a safe and cost-effective vaccine. Objective of our study was to identify the characteristics of measles patients admitted to Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst patients admitted with measles in paediatric units of Rawalpindi Medical College Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. A standard proforma was used to collect data from the respondents. Results: A total of 55 patients (mean age-29.36 months) with measles were included in the study. 65.5% children were vaccinated while 34.5% were not vaccinated. Among those vaccinated 14 were male. Out of the vaccinated children 52.6% were residents of middle class areas, 31.6% lower middle class area, 10.5% upper middle class areas and 5.3% rural areas. In 55.0% of patients who were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles at nine month of age the estimated calendar months of vaccination was March to April while in 30% the overall climatic period of vaccination was of summer (May to September). Twenty one study subjects were exposed to a case of measles in the family and thirty five out of all developed at least one known complication of the disease. Pneumonia was the most common complication reported in patients (63.6%) followed by diarrhoea (27.3%). Conclusion: Majority of the patients suffering from measles were not vaccinated and the most common reason for failure to immunize children was lack of awareness. Educated and well off fathers were more likely to get their children immunized. The vaccinated children who developed measles majority were vaccinated during months of March, April and May. (author)

  14. Evaluation of preventative and control measures for congenital syphilis in State of Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Regina de Oliveira; Maria da Conceição Nascimento Costa; Florisneide Rodrigues Barreto; Susan Martins Pereira; Inês Dourado; Maria Glória Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital syphilis is an important health problem in Brazil. This study assessed measures aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis in the State of Mato Grosso and its capital, Cuiabá. Methods A descriptive study cross-sectional and of time trends assessing the congenital syphilis was performed in Cuiabá and Mato Grosso between 2001 and 2011. We compared maternal sociodemographic characteristics and health care utilization related to cases of congenital syphilis during t...

  15. Premature loss of primary teeth associated with congenital syphilis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Kelly, Alice; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2005-01-01

    Congenital syphilis is an infectious disease transmitted by an infected mother to her fetus. Several reports in the literature have focused on oral manifestations of congenital syphilis, mainly about Hutchinson's teeth and dysplastic molars, which are more common. However, this paper describes an unusual feature of congenital syphilis in a four-year-old child. A case of premature loss of primary teeth associated with congenital syphilis is reported.

  16. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  17. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis According to Disease Stage and HIV Status

    OpenAIRE

    Knaute, Damaris Fröhlich; Graf, Nicole; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Weber, Rainer; Bosshard, Philipp P.

    2012-01-01

    Background.  Serology is the mainstay for syphilis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We investigated serological response to treatment of syphilis according to disease stage and HIV status. Methods.  A retrospective cohort study of 264 patients with syphilis was conducted, including 90 primary, 133 secondary, 33 latent, and 8 tertiary syphilis cases. Response to treatment as measured by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and a specific IgM (immunoglobulin M) capture enzyme...

  18. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis According to Disease Stage and HIV Status

    OpenAIRE

    Knaute, Damaris Fröhlich; Graf, Nicole; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Weber, Rainer; Bosshard, Philipp P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Serology is the mainstay for syphilis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We investigated serological response to treatment of syphilis according to disease stage and HIV status. Methods. A retrospective cohort study of 264 patients with syphilis was conducted, including 90 primary, 133 secondary, 33 latent, and 8 tertiary syphilis cases. Response to treatment as measured by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and a specific IgM (immunoglobulin M) capture enzyme-l...

  19. EVALUATION OF MICRO-TPHA, VDRL AND RPR TESTS IN THE SERODIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS

    OpenAIRE

    Santhi; Jhansi Lakshmi; Lavanya; Raju; Guru Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is one of the most fascinating diseases of humans. Widespread use of antibiotics now has reduced the incidence of early syphilis and recognized new cases of late syphilis have decreased. Serological tests are the basis for the diagnosis of latent syphilis. They vary in their sensitivity and specificity. While non-treponemal tests (VDRL and RPR) are most frequently used as screening procedures, treponemal tests (FTA-ABS and TPHA) are considered to be highly sensitive and s...

  20. Genotyping of circulating measles strains in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Baggieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. In Italy, laboratory surveillance activity is implemented by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. The role of the National Reference Laboratory is to strengthen surveillance systems through rigorous case investigation and laboratory confirmation of suspected sporadic cases and outbreaks. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus is an essential component of the laboratory-based surveillance. This study describes the molecular characterization of measles virus strains isolated during 2010. METHODS: Dried blood spots, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from patients with a suspected measles infection. Serological tests were performed on capillary blood, and viral detection was performed on urine and oral fluid samples through molecular assay. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phylogenetic analysis showed a co-circulation of genotypes D4 and D8, and sporadic cases associated to genotypes D9 and B3. Then, molecular epidemiology of measles cases permitted to establish that D4 and D8 were the endemic genotypes in Italy during 2010.

  1. INFLUENCE OF PROCESS CONDITIONS ON MEASLES VIRUS STABILITY

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    K. Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant measles viruses are currently tested in clinical trials as oncolytic agent to be applied in cancer therapy. Contrary to their use as vaccine where 103 infectious virus particles per dose are needed, for cancer therapy 109 virus particles should be provided per dose. This leads to other challenges for the production process when compared to vaccine production. This study presents measles virus stability with regard to conditions during production and storage of the virus. Relevant process parameters such as temperature (4-37°C, pH (pH 4-11, conductivity (1.5 to 137.5 mS cm-1 and oxygen partial pressure were analyzed. The infectivity of measles virus particles decreased highly at 37 and 32°C, while at 22 and 4°C it remained stable for several hours or even days, respectively. The thermal inactivation reactions followed first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters enthalpy and entropy were estimated. Towards changes in pH measles virus particles were very sensitive, while no inactivation could be observed with varying conductivity. Measles virus incubation at an oxygen partial pressure of 100% did not lead to any loss of infectivity. The results show which parameters should be considered and controlled strongly in the production process to further raise measles virus yields for the high amount needed in cancer therapy approaches.

  2. Measles: United States, January--May 20, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to serious complications and death. Endemic or sustained measles transmission has not occurred in the United States since the late 1990s, despite continued importations (1). During 2001--2008, a median of 56 (range: 37--140) measles cases were reported to CDC annually (2); during the first 19 weeks of 2011, 118 cases of measles were reported, the highest number reported for this period since 1996. Of the 118 cases, 105 (89%) were associated with importation from other countries, including 46 importations (34 among U.S. residents traveling abroad and 12 among foreign visitors). Among those 46 cases, 40 (87%) were importations from the World Health Organization (WHO) European and South-East Asia regions. Of the 118, 105 (89%) patients were unvaccinated. Forty-seven (40%) patients were hospitalized and nine had pneumonia. The increased number of measles importations into the United States this year underscores the importance of vaccination to prevent measles and its complications. PMID:21617634

  3. Population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, M.G. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))

    1981-11-01

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 ..mu..l of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with /sup 125/I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed.

  4. Acute encephalitis associated with measles: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.Y.; Cho, W.H.; Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, H.D. [Department of Paediatrics, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, I.O. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110744 (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    We document the MRI features in six patients aged 5-14 years with acute encephalitis following measles. The diagnosis was made on a characteristic morbiliform rash and detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The symptoms of encephalitis occurred 1-11 days after the appearance of the rash. All patients underwent MRI within 1-4 days of the onset of neurological symptoms. Diffusion weighted images (DWI) were obtained in three patients. In all patients, T2-weighted images showed widely distributed, multifocal high signal in both cerebral hemispheres with swelling of the cortex, with bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the putamen and caudate nucleus. The lesions had showed low apparent diffusion coefficients. Three patients showed subacute gyriform haemorrhage, and asymmetrical gyriform contrast enhancement on follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  5. High Incidence of Asymptomatic Syphilis in HIV-Infected MSM Justifies Routine Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Branger; J.T.M. van der Meer; R.J. van Ketel; S. Jurriaans; J.M. Prins

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, the incidence of syphilis has risen, mainly among men having sex with men (MSM), many of whom are coinfected with HIV. Current guidelines recommend at least yearly syphilis testing in this group. In this study, we assessed the yield of routine syphilis screening in outpatient H

  6. Increase of infectious syphilis among heterosexuals in Amsterdam: its relationship to drug use and prostitution.

    OpenAIRE

    van den Hoek, J A; van der Linden, M M; Coutinho, R A

    1990-01-01

    Since 1986, an increase in heterosexually acquired syphilis cases has been seen in Amsterdam. The proportion of syphilis patients who reported using hard drugs, increased from 7% in 1985 to 23% in 1988, which was mainly due to increased numbers of addicted prostitute women with syphilis.

  7. Histopathologic ear findings of syphilis: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Hızlı, Pelin; Kaya, Serdar; Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, histopathologic studies of syphilitic ears have generally focused on hydropic changes; so far, no such studies have investigated peripheral vestibular otopathology using differential interference contrast microscopy, in patients with syphilis. For this study, we examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with a history of syphilis. Using conventional light microscopy, we performed qualitative histopathologic assessment. In addition, using differential interference contrast microscopy, we performed type I and type II vestibular hair cell counts on each vestibular sense organ with minimal autolysis; in which the neuroepithelium was oriented perpendicular to the plane of section. We then compared vestibular hair cell densities (cells per 0.01 mm² surface area) in the syphilis group vs. the control group. In the syphilis group, we observed precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces in 1 (7.7 %) of the samples and endolymphatic hydrops in eight (61.5 %) of the samples. Hydrops involved the cochlea (four samples) and/or saccule (four samples). In addition, the syphilis group experienced a significant loss of type II vestibular hair cells in the maculae of the utricle and saccule, and in the cristae of the lateral and posterior semicircular canals, as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). PMID:26573155

  8. Histopathologic ear findings of syphilis: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Hızlı, Pelin; Kaya, Serdar; Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, histopathologic studies of syphilitic ears have generally focused on hydropic changes; so far, no such studies have investigated peripheral vestibular otopathology using differential interference contrast microscopy, in patients with syphilis. For this study, we examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with a history of syphilis. Using conventional light microscopy, we performed qualitative histopathologic assessment. In addition, using differential interference contrast microscopy, we performed type I and type II vestibular hair cell counts on each vestibular sense organ with minimal autolysis; in which the neuroepithelium was oriented perpendicular to the plane of section. We then compared vestibular hair cell densities (cells per 0.01 mm² surface area) in the syphilis group vs. the control group. In the syphilis group, we observed precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces in 1 (7.7 %) of the samples and endolymphatic hydrops in eight (61.5 %) of the samples. Hydrops involved the cochlea (four samples) and/or saccule (four samples). In addition, the syphilis group experienced a significant loss of type II vestibular hair cells in the maculae of the utricle and saccule, and in the cristae of the lateral and posterior semicircular canals, as compared with the control group (P < 0.05).

  9. Serodiagnosis of syphilis in a community: An evaluatory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse the prevalence of syphilis in the apparently healthy population and to provide data for implementation of the joint STD/HIV control programme, a population based study was undertaken by using ′probability proportional to size′ cluster survey method in three randomly chosen districts of Tamil Nadu, India namely Dindigul, Ramnad and Tanjore. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from adults (n=1873 aged 15-45 years, from the selected households enrolled in this study. The sera were tested parallelly by rapid plasma reagin (RPR and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA tests. Reactive samples by RPR and/or TPHA were later analysed by fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS test. RESULTS: The prevalence of syphilis in the community of Tamil Nadu as per RPR positivity was 2.7% (50/1873 as against 0.7% by TPHA (13/1873. FTA-ABS positivity was observed in only 12 out of 48 (25% RPR/TPHA reactive samples tested. By taking the positivity by two of the three tests, the community prevalence of acute ongoing syphilis in Tamil Nadu was determined as 1.1% (20/1873. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed that no single serological test for syphilis can act as the marker of ongoing acute infection in an apparently healthy population. The study suggests that for specific diagnosis of ongoing syphilis, the FTA-ABS test may be performed along with RPR and TPHA.

  10. Prevalence of syphilis among HIV-seroreactive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turbadkar D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of genital ulcer disease facilitates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and their -diagnosis is essential for the proper management. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL test is used as a screening test for the diagnosis of syphilis. However, unusual VDRL test results have been reported in HIV-infected persons with syphilis. There are reports showing higher than expected VDRL titers as well as biological false positive in most of the studies. A negative Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR test or VDRL test result may not rule out syphilis in patients with HIV infection. For laboratory confirmation of syphilis, one specific Treponemal test, namely, Fluroscent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA-ABS test or Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA should be done along with VDRL. In the present study, 88 HIV-seropositive patients with history of high-risk behaviour were screened for syphilis by VDRL test. Out of these 88 cases, 42 (47.7% patients were positive for TPHA and eight (9.1% patients were reactive for VDRL in various titers. All the eight patients who were reactive for VDRL test were also positive for TPHA test. Persons with HIV infection acquired through sexual route should be screened for sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and all patients with STIs should be counselled for HIV testing. This will help in proper management of patients having STIs and HIV coinfection.

  11. [Syphilis. Part 1: Introduction, pathology and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Flaig, B; Rode, S

    2013-10-01

    In Germany more than 3,500 people become infected with syphilis annually. As elsewhere in Western Europe there is a low level endemicity with a concentration among population subgroups with high rates of partner exchange, such as men who have sex with other men. In Germany after initially reduced numbers of cases, the incidence rate has increased after the turn of the millennium. In 2011 the incidence reached 4.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest incidence since the introduction of the Infection Protection Act of 2001. Syphilis, like other sexually transmitted infections and diseases with its manifold clinical manifestations and complex diagnostics, is a large global problem for public health systems. The recent resurgence of syphilis presents a challenge for all physicians but particularly for dermatologists and venereologists because the skin and adjacent mucous membranes are initially affected. Rapid diagnosis, differential diagnosis, consequent treatment and monitoring can cure the disease. Prevention of misdiagnosis is essential otherwise severe, sometimes fatal cardiovascular complications, neurosyphilis and transfer to unborn and newborn children can occur. The synergy of syphilis and sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of special importance. Syphilis together with genital herpes and other sexually transmitted genital and oral ulcers is an important pacemaker for HIV. PMID:24150827

  12. Optimal Control of Brucellosis in Bison in the Yellowstone National Park Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fang; Horan, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly infectious bacterial disease that causes infected females to abort their calves. It has caused devastating losses to U.S. farmers over the last century. The only known focus of Brucellosis left in the nation is wildlife such as bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Vaccination and test-and-slaughter have been applied to brucellosis management in bison, and there has been discussion that a combination of both could potentially eradicate the disease in the Yello...

  13. Acute Brucellosis with Splenic Infarcts: A Case Report from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishal Alyousef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic infarction is an extremely rare and unique presentation of brucellosis. Only few cases have been reported worldwide. We here report a case of a young man, presenting with acute onset of fever, left hypochondial pain, and vomiting. Further evaluation revealed multiple splenic infarcts and positive blood culture for brucellosis despite negative transesophageal echocardiography for endocarditis. Significant improvement in clinical symptoms and splenic lesions was achieved after six weeks of combination therapy against brucellosis.

  14. Seroprevalence Study of Human Brucellosis by Conventional Tests and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Agasthya, Annapurna S.; Srikrishna Isloor; Prabhudas Krishnamsetty

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart ...

  15. An evaluation of Irish cattle herds with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes M; Ashe S; Collins DM; Power S; Kenny K; Sheahan M; O'Hagan G; More SJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory ...

  16. Transmission dynamics and control for a brucellosis model in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingtao; Sun, Guiquan; Zhang, Juan; Jin, Zhen; Sun, Xiangdong; Wang, Youming; Huang, Baoxu; Zheng, Yaohui

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major infectious and contagious bacterial diseases in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China. The number of newly infected human brucellosis data in this area has increased dramatically in the last 10 years. In this study, in order to explore effective control and prevention measures we propose a deterministic model to investigate the transmission dynamics of brucellosis in Hinggan League. The model describes the spread of brucellosis among sheep and from sheep to humans. The model simulations agree with newly infected human brucellosis data from 2001 to 2011, and the trend of newly infected human brucellosis cases is given. We estimate that the control reproduction number Rc is about 1.9789 for the brucellosis transmission in Hinggan League and compare the effect of existing mixed cross infection between basic ewes and other sheep or not for newly infected human brucellosis cases. Our study demonstrates that combination of prohibiting mixed feeding between basic ewes and other sheep, vaccination, detection and elimination are useful strategies in controlling human brucellosis in Hinggan League.

  17. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Keziban Asli; Doğan, Murat; Kaba, Sultan; Akbayram, Sinan; Aslan, Oktay; Kocaman, Selami; Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Üstyol, Lokman; Demir, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to demonstrate the frequency of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) and associated factors during the course of brucellosis in children and adolescents. Material/Methods The study included children and adolescents aged 0–18 years old diagnosed with brucellosis between 2012 and 2014. The data were collected from patient charts. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on titrations >1:160 in standard Wright tube agglutination tests and/or positive culture tests. SIADH diagnosis was made based on the following criteria: euvolemic hyponatremia, serum Na+ 25 mmol/L with normal dietary salt intake), low uric acid (brucellosis. PMID:27590789

  18. A brucellosis case presenting with vesicular and maculopapular rash and febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmin Dirgen Çaylak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a systemic disease in which all kind of tissues and organs can be affected. Brucellosis may present with different symptoms and symptoms are non-specific. A broad spectrum of clinical manifestations can be seen, therefore diagnosis can be difficult. Cutaneous complications and febrile neutropenia have been rarely reported. Here, a rare brucellosis case was reported that he applied with fever, skin eruption and neutropenia. We emphasized that especially in endemic areas brucellosis should always be kept on mind in the differential diagnosis of patient with skin eruption and febril neutropenia.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 39-41

  19. Measles reporting completeness during a community-wide epidemic in inner-city Los Angeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewert, D P; S Westman; Frederick, P D; Waterman, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of measles underreporting among preschool-age children. In two community surveys conducted in inner-city Los Angeles during 1990 and 1991, respondents were asked whether preschool-age children in their households had ever been ill with measles. Information about measles episodes was obtained and medical records were reviewed, when available. A probable measles case was defined as having 3 or more days of rash with fever of 38.3 degrees centigrade...

  20. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, 2004–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariyam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection causing large outbreaks all over the world. Despite the availability of safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remained endemic with persistent periodic outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. The aim of this study is to characterize laboratory confirmed measles cases in Amhara Regional State, which was one of the highly affected regions in Ethiopia. Method A suspected measles case was defined as any person presenting with fever, maculopapu...

  1. Nucleoprotein gene analysis of the wild-type measles viruses circulated in Beijing in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正德; 申昆玲; 许文波; 照日格图; 朱贞

    2004-01-01

    @@ The hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes are the most variable regions on the genome of the measles virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the H and/or N genes has been used to describe different genetic groups of wild-type measles virus.1-3 This genetic information has been used in molecular epidemiological studies to identify the transmission pathways of measles virus. The present study was conducted to reveal the genotype of measles viruses which circulated in Beijing in 2001.

  2. Protein-protein and protein-small-molecule inhibitor interactions in the measles virus replication complex

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie A Krumm

    2013-01-01

    The disease measles is caused by the highly contagious measles virus (MeV). MeV belongs to the paramyxovirus family together with respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza viruses and metapneumovirus. Paramyxoviruses are responsible for major pediatric morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of an effective MeV vaccine, measles case numbers increased alarmingly in the past few years especially in Europe. The return of endemic measles in the European population can directly be...

  3. Misplaced loss of confidence in measles vaccination: an investigation in a primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, N R

    1989-01-01

    Doubts were expressed about the effectiveness of measles vaccination during a measles outbreak in a Bristol primary school. Investigation of this outbreak showed that the vaccine uptake rate was 89%, vaccine effectiveness was 84% and that 57% of children developing measles had a history of previous measles vaccination. This apparent paradox arises because, for any vaccine that is not 100% effective, as the vaccine uptake rate rises so the percentage of cases previously vaccinated also rises. ...

  4. Quantifying child mortality reductions related to measles vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the historical relationship between coverage of measles containing vaccines (MCV and mortality in children under 5 years, with a view toward ongoing global efforts to reduce child mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using country-level, longitudinal panel data, from 44 countries over the period 1960-2005, we analyzed the relationship between MCV coverage and measles mortality with (1 logistic regressions for no measles deaths in a country-year, and (2 linear regressions for the logarithm of the measles death rate. All regressions allowed a flexible, non-linear relationship between coverage and mortality. Covariates included birth rate, death rates from other causes, percent living in urban areas, population density, per-capita GDP, use of the two-dose MCV, year, and mortality coding system. Regressions used lagged covariates, country fixed effects, and robust standard errors clustered by country. The likelihood of no measles deaths increased nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage (ORs: 13.8 [1.6-122.7] for 80-89% to 40.7 [3.2-517.6] for ≥95%, compared to pre-vaccination risk levels. Measles death rates declined nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage, with benefits accruing more slowly above 90% coverage. Compared to no coverage, predicted average reductions in death rates were -79% at 70% coverage, -93% at 90%, and -95% at 95%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 40 years of experience with MCV vaccination suggests that extremely high levels of vaccination coverage are needed to produce sharp reductions in measles deaths. Achieving sustainable benefits likely requires a combination of extended vaccine programs and supplementary vaccine efforts.

  5. Analysis of the incidence of syphilis in the Leningrad region and St. Petersburg: the current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Agaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996–2009, the incidence of syphilis in the North-West region of Russia has declined and changed its structure. The frequency of neurosyphilis and latent forms increased, especially of late and unspecified latent syphilis. Differences in the structure of syphilis between the Leningrad region and St. Petersburg have been identified, which consisted in the reduction of primary syphilis and an increase in early latent syphilis in comparison with the city.

  6. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Brucellosis Among Animal Farmers of Yazd Province"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis has remained a great problem of health in most of countries, which have failed in control of zoonosis infections. This disease is caused by species of Brucella and usually is transferred from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal farmers of Yazd province. In this descriptive study, 933 animal farmers were investigated by serological tests and blood culture method. Then the data were analyzed by SPPS statistical program. The results showed that the frequency distribution of seropositive cases by MAT and STAT were 35 (3.2%; 25 (2.7% males and 10 (1.1% females. The highest and lowest incidences of seropositive cases were among age group of 21-30 (1% and more than 60 (0.3% years old, respectively. Of the 35 seropositive cases, 2MET positive were 5 (0.5%, while all blood cultures were negative.

  7. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  8. Ultrasound examination in diagnostic of early congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zavadovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A peculiarity of the congenital syphilis of recent years is an increase of the number of cases of latent forms of the disease, marked with osteopathy. With the help of an examination of 50 children with early congenital syphilis, the following ultrasonic signs of a musculoskeletal system lesion were revealed: osteochondritis 90%, osteosclerosis 80%, and periostitis 30%.The comparison of the nature of a musculoskeletal system lesion with serological data of the specific process activity showed that complex manifestations of lesions with periostitis being a component were of the greatest clinical significance.

  9. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities. PMID:22647743

  10. CLINICAL PROFILE OF MEASLES IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Deepa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles affects about 20 million people a year. Even with greater than 80% immunization cover, the number of children with measles has registered a steep rise. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases of measles admitted to the paediatric wards of a tertiary care medical college hospital in a rural area in north Kerala. A total of 31 cases of measles (n=31 were admitted to the paediatric ward. Age at admission of 67.8% of the patients was above 6 years. The average age of the sample was 7.52 years (S. D = 3.19. Amongst the clinical features, fever and rash were seen in 100%, coryza in 83.8% and conjunctivitis in 67.7%. Koplik spots, pathognomonic of measles were seen only in 32.3%. About 61.3% of those with measles were previously immunized. Regarding the vitamin A supplementation status , only 19.4% of the childr en were administered vitamin A. The fact that 61% of children who developed measles had actually received measles vaccination during infancy , and that majority (67% of them were >6 years at the time of presentation , points to the drop in the protective im munity , after a single dose of measles vaccine, as age advances. To conclude , Measles is now a re - emerging infectious disease and a second dose of measles vaccine to boost up the existing immunity would turn out to be a corner stone in subsequent measles e limination.

  11. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  12. Syphilis Infection: An Uncommon Etiology of Infectious Nonimmune Fetal Hydrops with Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Florent; Michaux, Katell; Rousseau, Céline; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Audibert, François

    2016-01-01

    An increased prevalence of syphilis has been observed in many developed countries over the last decade. During pregnancy, syphilis can affect the fetus through development of nonspecific symptoms such as microcephaly, ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, dilated and echogenic bowel, placentomegaly, and, uncommonly, fetal hydrops. Congenital syphilis also leads to hematologic abnormalities such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and leukocytosis. We present a case of nonimmune fetal hydrops with anemia related to syphilis infection. Diagnosis was confirmed by a maternal serological test and microbiological testing on amniotic fluid, umbilical cord, and placental tissues. The patient was treated with penicillin and the fetus received an intrauterine red blood cell transfusion, but fetal death occurred shortly after. Such a presentation is mostly related to parvovirus B19, and syphilis etiology is poorly mentioned because physicians have rarely seen early congenital syphilis in the past. However, given the increasing prevalence of this disease in the adult population, clinicians should remain alert to the various presentations of congenital syphilis. PMID:25138225

  13. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS(®) Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS(®) CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  14. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  15. Epididymoorchitis as the First Finding in Patients with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Karaköse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acute scrotal pain as the first symptom of brucellosis is rarely observed. We aimed to evaluate the data of male patients with brucellosis and epididymoorchitis as the initial diagnosis. Material and Methods. The data of seven patients presented with testicular pain, hyperemia, swelling, and increased fever were reviewed. Concomitant focal diseases as well as clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Results. The mean age of the patients was 22.28 ± 7.78 (16–35 years. All patients presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and increased sweating. Additional findings included fever, asthenia, arthralgia, dysuria, shiver and rash, weight loss, and vomiting in 6, 5, 4, 4, 3, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. In all of 7 patients, the agglutination tests of Rose-Bengal and Wright were positive. Coombs test was positive only in 3 patients. The patients underwent antibiotic and conservative treatment. No relapse was observed following the treatment. Conclusion. In endemic regions, epididymoorchitis caused by brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotal pain. Clinical and serological findings are sufficient for the diagnosis. Conservative management combined with antibiotic therapy is adequate for managing brucellar epididymoorchitis.

  16. Brucellosis: Development and success using ELISAs for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a highly infectious disease of a substantial number of animal species. Because of its pathogenicity to humans, the cost and time involved, classical diagnosis by isolation of the causative microorganism is not commonly used for diagnosis of individual animals. Presumptive diagnosis has been made for about 100 years by using serological tests. Initially, a slow agglutination test was developed and later modified to increase the sensitivity and to decrease the time. Complement fixation and gel diffusion tests were also developed and, in some cases, widely used. The development of primary binding assays, in particular, enzyme immunoassays, has provided tools for diagnosis that are more accurate than conventional serological tests. The enzyme immunoassays, the indirect and competitive formats, have different uses but are both potent additions to the diagnosis of brucellosis in that they may be used for rapid and accurate assessment of antibody in milk and serum in the absence of interference by antibodies resulting from vaccination. Another type of primary binding assay, a fluorescence polarization assay, was also developed for the diagnosis of brucellosis. This assay, which is a homogeneous format, has the added advantages of being simple to perform, very rapid, potentially inexpensive and capable of being performed outside the laboratory. (author)

  17. An analysis of children with brucellosis associated with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Kamuran; Akbayram, Sinan; Kaba, Sultan; Karaman, Serap; Garipardiç, Mesut; Aydin, Ilyas; Öner, Ahmet Fayik

    2016-06-01

    This retrospective study included seven paediatric cases aged from 4 to 14 (10.2±3.4) years with pathologically proved haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from a single institution during 2009 and 2013. Over this time period, 496 patients with brucellosis were diagnosed. None of the patients (3 boys and 4 girls) had a history of any haematologic disorder. All patients had an anamnesis for recently consumed unpasteurised homemade dairy products or had a contact history with sheep and/or cows. The diagnosis of brucellosis was confirmed by standard tube agglutination test in all patients; titres were 1: 1280 in seven patients. Blood culture was positive for Brucella melitensis in three patients (42%). Bone marrow cultures were positive for B. melitensis in four patients (57%). Fever was present in all patients (100%) with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The other most common symptoms were malaise, myalgia, anorexia, sweating and weight loss. In addition, sweating was observed in five patients, and lymphadenopathy, petechiae, and weight loss were observed in one patient. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly were found in four (57%), six (85%) and four (57%), patients, respectively. Haemophagocytosis was documented in bone marrow examinations of all children except in two cases. All patients recovered completely, and their peripheral blood counts returned to normal by 2 to 4 weeks after antibiotic treatment of brucellosis. PMID:27367321

  18. Measles outbreak investigation in Zaka, Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomerai Kufakwanguzvarova W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A measles outbreak was detected at Ndanga Hospital in Zaka district Masvingo Province on the 5th of May 2010 and there were five deaths. Source of infection was not known and an investigation was carried out to determine factors associated with contracting measles in Zaka district. Materials and methods A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a person residing in Zaka district who developed signs and symptoms of measles or tested IgM positive from 06 May 2010 to 30 August 2010. A control was a person residing in the same community who did not have history of signs and symptoms of measles during the same period. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire (translated into shona was used to solicit information from cases and controls. Ethical consideration like written consent from all participants, respect and confidentiality were observed. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the medical research Council of Zimbabwe and the provincial Medical Directors Masvingo. Epi info was used to calculate frequencies, odds ratios and perform logistic regression to control for confounding variables. Findings A total of 110 cases and 110 controls were recruited. Most cases (63.03% were from the apostolic sect while 44.7% of controls were from orthodox churches. Contact with a measles case [AOR= 41.14, 95% CI (7.47-226.5],being unvaccinated against measles [AOR= 3.96, 95%CI (2.58-6.08] and not receiving additional doses of measles vaccine [AOR 5.48, 95% CI (2.16-11.08] were independent risk factor for contracting measles. Measles vaccination coverage for Zaka district was 75%. The median duration for seeking treatment after onset of illness was three days (Q1=2; Q3=7. There were no emergency preparedness plans in place. Conclusion This outbreak occurred due to a large number of unvaccinated children and a boarding school that facilitated person to person transmission. We recommend mandatory

  19. Lives Saved Tool supplement detection and treatment of syphilis in pregnancy to reduce syphilis related stillbirths and neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Stuart

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally syphilis is an important yet preventable cause of stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives This review sought to estimate the effect of detection and treatment of active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU benzathine penicillin (or equivalent on syphilis-related stillbirths and neonatal mortality. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of multiple databases to identify relevant studies. Data were abstracted into standardised tables and the quality of evidence was assessed using adapted GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. Results Moderate quality evidence (3 studies supports a reduction in the incidence of clinical congenital syphilis of 97% (95% c.i 93 – 98% with detection and treatment of women with active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU penicillin. The results of meta-analyses suggest that treatment with penicillin is associated with an 82% reduction in stillbirth (95% c.i. 67 – 90% (8 studies, a 64% reduction in preterm delivery (95% c.i. 53 – 73% (7 studies and an 80% reduction in neonatal deaths (95% c.i. 68 – 87% (5 studies. Although these effect estimates were large and remarkably consistent across studies, few of the studies adjusted for potential confounding factors and thus the overall quality of the evidence was considered low. However, given these large observed effects and a clear biological mechanism for effectiveness the GRADE recommendation is strong. Conclusion Detection and appropriate, timely penicillin treatment is a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse syphilis-related pregnancy outcomes. More research is required to identify the most cost-effective strategies for achieving maximum coverage of screening for all pregnant women, and access to treatment if required.

  20. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA ROBO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with fever”. The diagnosis was established by clinical signs, confirmed by serologic results. Sera samples from all the suspected cases were tested for Measles IgM by ELISA and molecular genotyping of virus by the regional reference laboratory. Results: According to the case definition 16 cases were actively found, 13 (77% were female and 3 (23% male. The mean age was 7.1 years (range: three months to 23 years. Most of the patients had Koplik spots, coryza and conjunctivitis. All cases were unvaccinated. All patients recovered and no fatal cases. Conclusion: Gaps of low vaccine coverage facilitated the measles infection to spread. The vaccination of this community it difficult despite the commitement of the health staff. Families with their children are in ongoing migration all over the country and abroad. As a response to stop the spread of the measles outbreak, the district epidemiological service in Elbasan with the support from the national institute of public health, organised a mass vaccination campaign.

  1. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  2. Human Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia by Regions Depending on Vaccination Procedures in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharko Stojmanovski

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Decline of the incidence of human brucellosis is one of the major indicators for successfully implemented new control programs and strategies for prevention and eradication of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Vaccination was good measure to control brucellosis in the 3 regions.

  3. 78 FR 54620 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... destroyed because of brucellosis. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before November... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch,...

  4. 75 FR 31743 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY..., and horses destroyed because of brucellosis. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch,...

  5. Syphilis serology in patients with primary syphilis and non-treponemal sexually transmitted diseases in southern Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Sischy, A; da L'Exposto, F; Y. Dangor; Fehler, H G; Radebe, F.; Walkden, D D; Miller, S. D.; Ballard, R C

    1991-01-01

    The reactivity of a non-specific reagin (RPR) test and a specific treponemal (FTA-ABS) test were determined in 21 patients with primary syphilis, 430 patients with proven non-treponemal genital ulcerations and 719 patients with acute urethritis presenting at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in southern Africa. Excluding those 21 cases of primary syphilis, 358 of 1149 tests performed (31%) were found to be reactive by at least one test. The rate of false positive RPR tests was very l...

  6. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantur B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on

  7. Stability of further-attenuated measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G F; Allison, L M; Lloyd, J S; Tam, P; Zuckerman, A J; Perkins, F T

    1983-01-01

    Accelerated stability tests on lyophilized measles vaccines show two distinct mechanisms of virus inactivation. A rapid initial loss of infectivity occurs only on exposure to temperatures above the ambient temperature. This loss is temperature related and may be attributable to the movement of residual moisture from the virus pellet into the void space of the vial. Subsequent inactivation of virus occurs at all temperatures as a first-order reaction that follows Arrhenius kinetics. Integration of values for these two components allows precise prediction of vaccine stability at any temperature. Analysis of the results obtained for greater than 30 vaccines shows that those which are stable for one week at 37 C have a predicted life of more than one year at 8 C. This simple test is now being applied to the identification of unstable products. The rate of this reaction is closely, if conservatively, matched by a time-temperature color indicator, which may be useful for monitoring vaccine quality. PMID:6879003

  8. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  9. BOCI-Egypt : Brucellosis and Tuberculosis control 21- 25 March 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, A.J.; Vugt, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the report of the first mission to Egypt for the project: Impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on animal production and public health (BO-10-009-118). The objective of this mission was: to make an assessment of the current needs and problems in Egypt related to brucellosis and tuberculosis

  10. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (78 FR 9028-9029, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0086) a notice that made a proposed action plan describing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will...

  11. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent da

  12. Malignant syphilis (Leus maligna in a HIV infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad P

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old promiscuous man presented with nodulo ulcerative lesions all over the body and a healing genital ulcer. Blood VDRL was reactive in 64 dilutions and HIV (Elisa was positive. Patient was diagnosed to have malignant syphilis (leas inaligna and was given appropriate treatment. Lesions healed with hypopigmented macules suggestive of ′Icukoderma colli′.

  13. Syphilis seroprevalence estimates of Santa Catarina blood donors in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysla Marcelino Baião

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knowledge of blood donor characteristics is essential to better guide clinical and serological screening for hemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine the syphilis seroprevalence and the associated factors of blood donors in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods This population-based study from the State of Santa Catarina used information obtained from blood donation records. We analyzed 83,396 blood donor records generated from donors who were considered eligible to donate between January and August 2010. The aim of the study was to estimate the syphilis seroprevalence and its relationship with educational level, age, gender, geographical region and having donated blood in the past 12 months. We used descriptive analyses and a Poisson regression to calculate the prevalence ratios for the variables of interest. Results We found a 0.14% overall seroprevalence and significant differences among the following: first-time blood donors (0.19% versus repeat donors (0.03% to 0.08%; low educational levels (0.30% versus medium and high educational levels (0.08% to 0.19%; and donors who did not report their residence (0.88% or age (6.94% versus those who did. Increased syphilis seroprevalence was also significantly associated with increased age. Conclusion High syphilis seroprevalence was associated with lower educational level, age, first-time donation and the failure to provide age or residence information.

  14. Late endemic syphilis: case report of bejel with gummatous laryngitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    An elderly Bedouin woman originally thought, on clinical and histological grounds, to have tuberculosis of the larynx was found to have gummatous laryngitis due to late endemic syphilis (bejel). This disease is highly prevalent in the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East. Doctors dealing with Arab patients, either in the Middle East or elsewhere, should be aware of this possibility.

  15. An assessment of measles vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pillsbury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccine effectiveness analysis serves as a critical evaluation for immunization programmes and vaccination coverage. It also contributes to maintaining public confidence with the vaccine providers. This study estimated measles vaccine effectiveness at the population level using Australian national notifications data between 2006 and 2012. Methods: Notification data were obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Vaccination status was classified according to whether a case had received zero, one or two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Cases aged less than 1 year and those with unknown vaccination status were excluded. All children with disease onset between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012 who were born after 1996 were included. Cases were matched to controls extracted from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register according to date of birth and jurisdiction of residence. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated by conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test data robustness. Results: Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.5–98.0% for one dose and 99.7% (95% CI: 99.2–99.9% for two doses of measles vaccine. For at least one dose, effectiveness was estimated at 98.7% (95% CI: 97.9–99.2%. Sensitivity analyses did not significantly alter the base estimates. Discussion: Vaccine effectiveness estimates suggested that the measles vaccine was protective at the population level between 2006 and 2012. However, vaccination coverage gaps may have contributed to recent measles outbreaks and may represent a serious barrier for Australia to maintain measles elimination status.

  16. Measles immune suppression: lessons from the macaque model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    Full Text Available Measles remains a significant childhood disease, and is associated with a transient immune suppression. Paradoxically, measles virus (MV infection also induces robust MV-specific immune responses. Current hypotheses for the mechanism underlying measles immune suppression focus on functional impairment of lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells, caused by infection with or exposure to MV. We have generated stable recombinant MVs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein, and remain virulent in non-human primates. By performing a comprehensive study of virological, immunological, hematological and histopathological observations made in animals euthanized at different time points after MV infection, we developed a model explaining measles immune suppression which fits with the "measles paradox". Here we show that MV preferentially infects CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, resulting in high infection levels in these populations. After the peak of viremia MV-infected lymphocytes were cleared within days, followed by immune activation and lymph node enlargement. During this period tuberculin-specific T-lymphocyte responses disappeared, whilst strong MV-specific T-lymphocyte responses emerged. Histopathological analysis of lymphoid tissues showed lymphocyte depletion in the B- and T-cell areas in the absence of apoptotic cells, paralleled by infiltration of T-lymphocytes into B-cell follicles and reappearance of proliferating cells. Our findings indicate an immune-mediated clearance of MV-infected CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, which causes temporary immunological amnesia. The rapid oligoclonal expansion of MV-specific lymphocytes and bystander cells masks this depletion, explaining the short duration of measles lymphopenia yet long duration of immune suppression.

  17. A case report of brucellosis with fever and abdominal pain at onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU He-Ling; YANG Fei-Fei; HUANG Yu-Xian; JIN Jia-Lin; ZHANG Wen-Hong; WENG Xin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella ,with an acute or chronic clinical infection .Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are various or atypical ,and it is easily misdiagnosed and miss-diagnosed .The case we have reported had an onset of fever and abdominal pain ,associated with arthralgia ,headache and rashes during the course , and was initially misdiagnosed as “acute cholangitis , associated with biliary pancreatitis” . According to epidemiologic survey , radiological evidence , as well as blood culture and agglutination test showing Brucella positive ,the diagnosis of brucellosis associated with splenic infarction and multi-systemic involvement including lungs , skin and brain was made . After regular anti-brucellosis treatment , the patient’s symptoms were significantly improved . Brucellosis associated with splenic infarction is rare ,which is possibly due to vasculitis resulting from Brucella infection .

  18. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Ozgun Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet Ilker; Kuscu, Ferit

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT). RB test results were positive for 6 patients, and SAT was negative for all patients. Our findings suggest that seroprevalence of brucellosis is decreasing in Middle Anatolia due to a new cattle vaccination and eradication programme which was initiated in 2009.

  19. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis: First report of minimal change disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanis, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Paschou, Eleni; Tsotsiou, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Kavlakoudis, Christos; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2016-05-01

    Human brucellosis is considered a great example of the complexity of clinical manifestations possibly affecting multiple organs or systems. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis have been documented in few case reports and one case series. Herein, we present a case of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to minimal change disease in the course of acute brucellosis. A 53-year-old male farmer was admitted to our department with acute brucellosis and NS. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Combined treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg), rifampicin (600 mg/day), and doxycycline (200 mg/day) was initiated. Complete remission of NS was achieved at the end of the fourth week. One year later, the patient remained in complete remission of NS without any sign of relapse of brucellosis.

  20. Foodborne outbreak of human brucellosis caused by ingested raw materials of fetal calf on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Yoo, Seung Jin

    2015-02-01

    Since the first reported case of human brucellosis in 2002 in South Korea, its incidence has been increasing nationally. However, bovine brucellosis has not been present from 2005 to date on Jeju Island. Despite Jeju Island being considered a clean area for bovine brucellosis, we experienced an outbreak of human brucellosis between 2012 and 2013. Herein, we report cases with human brucellosis after ingestion of raw materials of fetal calf at a restaurant. Patients were identified by isolation of the Brucella abortus in their blood and joint tissue. Because all patients developed zoonosis by a faulty folk remedy, we emphasize the importance of educational programs to increase the awareness of zoonosis, and the need for active surveillance and detection of illegal distribution channels of the infected animal. After the outbreak, we took control of the involved restaurant and its illegal distribution channel, and there have been no further outbreaks.

  1. A Case of Brucellosis Associated with Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dalton Wheeler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of brucellosis are rare in the United States and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a young female who underwent a diagnostic investigation of fever of unknown origin, which included a lymph node biopsy. The biopsy was consistent with Kikuchi’s Disease, or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, an entity where the major differential diagnosis is systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, serologic studies supported the diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucellosis has rarely been associated with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. This association has never been reported in the United States, thus suggesting that brucellosis should be considered in the differential for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, along with lupus-like autoimmune disease. As the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, brucellosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus are distinct, it is important to differentiate these entities. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 274-279

  2. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated hemato-biochemical changes in pakistani horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and hemato-biochemical manifestations of brucellosis in horses. Serum samples were screened for Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT). Blood samples were evaluated for hemato-biochemical parameters following standard procedures. Results indicated seroprevalence of brucellosis 20.13 and 16.23% in horses by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Brucellosis does not lead to any significant change in hematological and biochemical parameters in relation to age, sex, body condition and lactation except few parameters. The values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil, basophil and alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in brucellosis positive animals as compared to healthy animals whereas lymphocytes and alanine aminotransferase were in opposite order. It was concluded from the results that prevalence of brucellosis in horse population is of concern; therefore, control measures should be opted so that its zoonotic threat is curtailed. (author)

  3. Measles control and elimination in Somalia: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Naouri, Boubker; Mirza, Imran Raza; Hirsi, Abdurazak; Mohammed, Abdurahman; Omer, Mohammed; Dualle, Abdi Hassan; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Despite enormous challenges, Somalia has been successfully implementing accelerated measles control activities since 2005. Through innovative strategies and with the support of local and international partners, the country has shown potentials of implementing measles mortality reduction activities in complex emergencies. Measles incidence has been reduced by >80% after the measles catch-up campaigns of 2005-2007, and national reported measles routine immunization coverage with first dose measles containing vaccine has reached 59% for the first time in 2009. However, the near collapse of the health care system and the ongoing insecurity continue to hamper the implementation of recommended measles control and elimination strategies in some parts of the country, making these achievements fragile. Somalia exemplifies the challenges in meeting measles elimination goals in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean region. As the region is entering its 2010 measles elimination goals, it appears necessary to establish realistic and flexible interim goals for measles control in Somalia that will take into consideration the specificities of the country. Maintaining flexibility in conducting field operations, securing financial resources, multiplying opportunities for measles vaccination, and improving disease monitoring systems will remain vital to sustain and improve current achievements.

  4. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L;

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  5. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Measles Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the measles effect observed in WFPC observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Look for changes in measle numbers/characteristics 2. Have before/after images in place for decontaminations. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every two weeks. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  6. Some characteristics of salt-dependent haemagglutinating measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirodaria, P V; Dermott, E; Gould, E A

    1976-10-01

    Several strains of measles virus which did not agglutinate monkey erythrocytes in phosphate-buffered saline did so in buffer containing 0-8 M-ammonium sulphate. Haemadsorption to cells infected with these viruses was also salt-dependent. In a series of tests salt-dependent agglutinin was shown to be a stable structural component of the infectious virion. The relevance of these findings is discussed in the light of previous reports that many measles virus preparations do not agglutinate erythrocytes. PMID:62022

  7. The influence of the school year on measles epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Viggo

    The measles incidence record for Copenhagen 1880-1966 shows that the date of admission of new pupils has major impact on the structure of the epidemics, suggesting that measles transmission should be modelled in a way that accounts for the pulsed influx of new pupils. Assuming that the school year...... is long enough to allow for the epidemic to reach its final size, I derive an age-structured model reflecting the school sytructure and discuss its properties. If disease transmission is independent of age there exists a stable equilibrium in the sense that the epidemics of the same size will arise...

  8. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem. PMID:26436786

  9. False-positive reaction between syphilis and hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, E; Ozerol, I H; Senol, M; Kizilkaya, N; Sahin, K; Ozbilge, H

    1997-11-01

    There are limited data about false-positive reactions against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in syphilitic patients and false-positive reactions against syphilis in the patients with HCV infection. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the false-positivity of syphilis in patients with HCV infection, the false-positivity of anti-HCV in patients with syphilis and the validity of the serological tests in such patients. Fifty patients with positive anti-HCV, 21 patients with positive VDRL and 50 healthy subjects were studied. Syphilis serology was determined by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and microhemagglutination for T. pallidum (MHA-TP) test. Hepatitis C serology was determined by a second generation ELISA (Ortho Diagnostics) test for HCV antibody, and anti-HCV positive patients were tested for HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All assays were performed on all subjects. Not only the false-positive VDRL reaction in the patients with HCV infection but also false-positive anti-HCV tests in syphilitic patients have been observed. Four patients with syphilis had positive anti-HCV and negative HCV-RNA, whereas 10% (5 of 50) of patients with hepatitis C infection had positive VDRL and these patients were negative for MHA-TP test. The rates of false-positivity of VDRL and anti-HCV were higher than within the control group (p anti-HCV in syphilitic patients and positive VDRL in chronic hepatitis C may be false-positive results with regard to the reaginic tests. Therefore, therapeutic measures should not be initiated without confirmation with a treponemal test or PCR. VDRL and HCV-ELISA tests may be interacted with IgM or IgG antibodies. This relationship should be investigated in further studies. PMID:9434808

  10. The study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The participation of minorities in clinical studies is the subject of much discussion and has even become the subject of Federal law. The project known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and officially titled 'The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male', is one of the great debacles of American medicine and a national shame. Despite the fact that its existence is well known, many do not know the historical facts of the study nor the context of the study. My purpose here is to recount the facts of the study and its historical context. Methods: The history recounted here is taken from documents gathered during a U.S. Senate investigation of the study, original papers located in National Library of Medicine, and books about the trial. Results: The trial began in 1931 as a survey of the natural history of untreated tertiary syphilis in Black men. This study enrolled 399 men with syphilis and 201 uninfected men to serve as controls. All were at least 25 years old at enrollment. The men were told they were in a study, but never educated about the implications. Later, men were not informed that there was a treatment for effective treatment for their disease - a treatment that was being withheld from them. This trial continued till 1972. Conclusion: Many of the issues that led to the study and caused it to continue for 40 years still exist. The lessons of the Public Health Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Untreated Negro include the dangers of paternalism, arrogance, blind loyalty, and misuse of science. 'Those who do not appreciate history are condemned to repeat it' (Alfred North Whitehead)

  11. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Materials and Methods: Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. Results: The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Conclusions: Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  12. Human brucellosis in northwest Ecuador: typifying Brucella spp., seroprevalence, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Abatih, Emmanuel; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, Laura; Calva-Pacheco, Jaime; González-Andrade, Pablo; Berkvens, Dirk; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Human brucellosis in Ecuador is underreported and based only on passive surveillance. Since 2008, brucellosis was removed from the list of communicable diseases in the country. Until now, the true human brucellosis picture has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the disease, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity in humans, and isolate circulating strains of Brucella spp. in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Between 2006 and 2008, a large transect survey was conducted, based on blood sampling of people from the northwestern part of Ecuador (n=3733) together with an epidemiological inquiry. On the basis of three diagnostic tests used in parallel, the overall seroprevalence was estimated as 1.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.38). Based on a multivariable random effects logistic regression analysis, the main risk factors associated with human brucellosis seropositivity were contact with livestock (odds ratio [OR]=3.0; CI 1.25-7.08), consumption of fetus and placenta (OR=2.5; CI 1.18-5.22), and involvement in activities at risk for brucellosis infection (OR=1.8; CI 1.00-3.35). Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within cantons was observed. The circulating strain was Brucella abortus biotype 4. This study emphasized that contact with livestock, consumption of fetus and placenta, and occupational hazard group were all significant risk factors for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Alongside encouraging the launching of educational campaigns against brucellosis, especially in rural areas where 36% of the population lives, controlling this zoonotic disease in animals will directly benefit its prevention in humans, especially because there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against brucellosis in humans.

  13. Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Oliver WC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years, in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infections worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths. The history of smallpox suggests that achieving measles eradication depends on several factors; the biological characteristics of the organism; vaccine technology; surveillance and laboratory identification; effective delivery of vaccination programmes and international commitment to eradication. Discussion Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination. Summary Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.

  14. The Global Epidemiology of Syphilis in the Past Century - A Systematic Review Based on Antenatal Syphilis Prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How can we explain the uneven decline of syphilis around the world following the introduction of penicillin? In this paper we use antenatal syphilis prevalence (ASP to investigate how syphilis prevalence varied worldwide in the past century, and what risk factors correlate with this variance.1 A systematic review using PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted to identify countries with published data relating to ASP estimates from before 1952 until the present. Eleven countries were identified (Canada, Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, Singapore, South Africa, United States of America (USA, United Kingdom (UK and Zimbabwe. The ASP epidemic curve for each population was depicted graphically. In South Africa and the USA, results are reported separately for the black and white populations. 2 National antenatal syphilis prevalence estimates for 1990 to 1999 and 2008 were taken from an Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation database on the prevalence of syphilis in low risk populations compiled for the Global Burden of Diseases study and from a recent review paper respectively. National ASPs were depicted graphically and regional median ASPs were calculated for both time periods. 3 Linear regression was used to test for an association between ASP in 1990-1999 and 2008 and four risk factors (efficacy of syphilis screening/treatment, health expenditure, GDP per capita and circumcision prevalence. WHO world regions were included as potential explanatory variables.In most populations, ASP dropped to under 1% before 1960. In Zimbabwe and black South Africans, ASP was high in the pre-penicillin period, dropped in the post-penicillin period, but then plateaued at around 6% until the end of the 20th century when ASP dropped to just above 1%. In black Americans, ASP declined in the post penicillin period, but plateaued at 3-5% thereafter. ASP was statistically significantly higher in sub-Saharan Africa in 1990-1999 and 2008 than in the other world

  15. High prevalence of syphilis among demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutala Prosper

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.

  16. [Ocular Syphilis Complicated with HIV Infection: A Report of 3 Cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuaki; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Sasaki, Shugo; Sekiya, Ryoko; Sekiya, Noritaka; Suganuma, Akihiko; Ajisawa, Atsushi; Imamura, Akifumi

    2016-05-01

    We present 3 cases of ocular syphilis in patients who had been newly diagnosed as having HIV. All the patients had only complained of ophthalmologic symptoms at the time of their initial visit. Treatment with penicillin was successful, resulting in no significant sequelae. Ocular syphilis may lead to reduced visual acuity or even blindness if left untreated. However, the diagnosis may be challenging, since patients may lack symptoms that are commonly observed in cases with primary and secondary syphilis. Considering the recent increase in the number of syphilis patients, clinicians should be aware of ocular syphilis and should have a high index of suspicion for syphilis in any patient at risk so as to ensure a prompt diagnosis. PMID:27529966

  17. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients...... with chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013. Stored plasma samples obtained before, during, and after syphilis infection were analysed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). RESULTS: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas...

  18. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Jeffrey W. Bethel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reacti...

  19. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Jensen, Ryan L

    2003-04-01

    Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P vaccine virus revealed that the antibody was directed against a protein of approximately 74 kd molecular weight. The antibody to this antigen was found in 83% of autistic children but not in normal children or siblings of autistic children. Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation.

  20. Evaluation of Elecsys Syphilis Assay for Routine and Blood Screening and Detection of Early Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremastinou, J.; Polymerou, V.; Lavranos, D.; Aranda Arrufat, A.; Harwood, J.; Martínez Lorenzo, M. J.; Ng, K. P.; Queiros, L.; Vereb, I.

    2016-01-01

    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum. The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results. PMID:27358468

  1. Angiogenesis in secondary syphilis: role of the bacterioferritin TpF1, antigen of Treponema pallidum

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzobon, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a chronic inflammatory disease transmitted by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. The bacterium is usually acquired by direct contact, generally sexual; the disease is worldwide spread and it represents an important global health problem. Syphilis is indeed a major sexually transmitted disease, particularly in developing countries, but an increasing number of new cases have also been recently noted in USA and Europe. Syphilis is a progressive and multistage disease with diverse ...

  2. Evaluation of Elecsys Syphilis Assay for Routine and Blood Screening and Detection of Early Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremastinou, J; Polymerou, V; Lavranos, D; Aranda Arrufat, A; Harwood, J; Martínez Lorenzo, M J; Ng, K P; Queiros, L; Vereb, I; Cusini, M

    2016-09-01

    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results. PMID:27358468

  3. A longitudinal evaluation of Treponema pallidum PCR testing in early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Matt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis is a growing public health problem among men who have sex with men (MSM globally. Rapid and accurate detection of syphilis is vital to ensure patients and their contacts receive timely treatment and reduce ongoing transmission. Methods We evaluated a PCR assay for the diagnosis of Treponema pallidum using swabs of suspected early syphilis lesions in longitudinally assessed MSM. Results We tested 260 MSM for T pallidum by PCR on 288 occasions: 77 (26.7% had early syphilis that was serologically confirmed at baseline or within six weeks, and 211 (73.3% remained seronegative for syphilis. Of 55 men with primary syphilis, 49 were PCR positive, giving a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% CI: 77.8%-95.9% and a specificity of 99.1% (95% CI: 96.5%-99.9%. Of 22 men with secondary syphilis, 11 were PCR positive, giving a sensitivity of 50% (95% CI: 28.2%-71.8% and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 66.4%-71.8%. Of the 77 syphilis cases, 43 (56% were HIV positive and the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR test did not vary by HIV status. The PCR test was able to detect up to five (10% primary infections that were initially seronegative, including one HIV positive man with delayed seroconversion to syphilis (72 to 140 days and one HIV positive man who did not seroconvert to syphilis over 14 months follow-up. Both men had been treated for syphilis within a week of the PCR test. Conclusions T pallidum PCR is a potentially powerful tool for the early diagnosis of primary syphilis, particularly where a serological response has yet to develop.

  4. A Novel Quantum Dots–Based Point of Care Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ding; Yang Hao; He Rong; Guo Qin; Wang Kan; Zhang Xueqing; Huang Peng; Cui Daxiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract One-step lateral flow test is recommended as the first line screening of syphilis for primary healthcare settings in developing countries. However, it generally shows low sensitivity. We describe here the development of a novel fluorescent POC (Point Of Care) test method to be used for screening for syphilis. The method was designed to combine the rapidness of lateral flow test and sensitiveness of fluorescent method. 50 syphilis-positive specimens and 50 healthy specimens conformed ...

  5. Prevalence and Characteristics of Pregnant Syphilis among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Shenzhen (China) in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Fan(杨帆); Zhou Hua(周华); Hong Fuchang(洪福昌); Luo Bin(罗斌); Cai Yumao(蔡于茂); Wen Lizhang(文立章); Zhang Chunlai(张春来)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Nnewly reported cases of congenital syphilis have been increaseding substantially over the past few years. To control the epidemic, a municipal program aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission of syphilis was introduced in July, 2001,which was designed aimed to screen all pregnant women for syphilis at their first visit to antenatal clinics or at admission to hospitals in Shenzhen.Objectives: The aim of the study is tTo determine the prevalence of syphilis among women attending antenatal clinics and other medical institutions in Shenzhen and identifies its patterns of infection.Methods: Upon giving informed consent, w Women who attended antenatal care centers in Shenzhen from January to December 2003 were included in this study subject to obtaining informed consent. A blood sample was harvested for syphilis screened for syphilising by using rapid plasma reagent test (RPR) and confirmed by TPHA for those who were RPR positive. The women with pregnant syphilispositive serology were systematically interviewed to obtain. During the interview, their demographic detailsinformation, patterns of risk behaviors and other data. Data were collected andwere analyzed retrospectively.Results: Among Of 118,235 pregnant women surveyed,555 pregnant women were confirmed to have syphilis (prevalence of 4.69%), with a incidence of 4.69‰. 123women were excluded from the analysis because of incomplete medical records. Of 432 infected subjects with complete medical records, the average age was 26.8, with a range of 19 to 41. 7.41% (32/432) of them suffered from primary syphilis, 3.24% (14/432) were ofhad secondary syphilis, and 89.35%(386/432) had latent syphilis. Without any conspicuous clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusions: The prevalence of syphilis among the pregnant women in our series was high an most of them were asymptomatic. Screening for syphilis among pregnant women in Shenzhen is of importantce for the prevention of mother

  6. Characterization of Sera with Discordant Results from Reverse Sequence Screening for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Kyunghoon Lee; Hyewon Park; Eun Youn Roh; Sue Shin; Kyoung Un Park; Myoung Hee Park; Eun Young Song

    2013-01-01

    Reverse sequence screening for syphilis (RSSS) (screening with treponemal tests, followed by confirmation with nontreponemal tests) has been increasingly adopted. CDC recommends confirmation of discordant results (reactive EIA/CIA and nonreactive nontreponemal test) with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA). We characterized sera with discordant results from RSSS with Architect Syphilis TP CIA. Among 15,713 screening tests using Architect Syphilis TP at Seoul National Unive...

  7. Maternal and congenital syphilis programmes: case studies in Bolivia, Kenya and South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Deperthes, Bidia D.; Meheus, André; O'Reilly, Kevin; Broutet, Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Preventing congenital syphilis is not technically difficult, however operational difficulties limit the effectiveness of programmes in many settings. This paper reports on programmes in Bolivia, Kenya, and South Africa. All three countries have established antenatal syphilis control programmes. Early antenatal syphilis screening and management of positive cases were difficult to implement since most women presented for their first antenatal clinic visit after 6 months of pregnancy. Most women...

  8. Epidemiology of Syphilis in regional blood transfusion centres in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bisseye, Cyrille; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Kiba, Alice; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Tao, Issoufou; Simpore, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. However, few published data are available on the prevalence of syphilis in the general population. This study had two main objectives: to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in a cohort of 37,210 first time blood donors and to study socio-demographic factors associated with the risk of infection by Treponema pallidum. Methods Antibodies to Treponema pallidum were screened for, by us...

  9. Syphilis in HIV-infected patients: predictors for serological failure and serofast state

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, R; Navarro, F; Moreno, T.; Ruiz, J.; E Nuño; M Márquez; Santos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: HIV-infected patients treated for syphilis may be at increased risk for serological failure and serofast state. Our aim was to analyse serological response to treatment in HIV-infected patients diagnosed with syphilis, and factors associated with serological cure and serofast state. Methods: Open-label, no controlled study of a series of HIV-patients diagnosed with syphilis during 2004–2011. Patients were categorized by rapid plasma reagin titer (RPR) into success (4-fold decr...

  10. Evaluation of a Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay as a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, N E; Malloy, D C; Passen, S

    1994-01-01

    The CAPTIA Syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibodies to Treponema pallidum was evaluated as a screening test for syphilis in comparison with the standard rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. One thousand samples were tested, and the standard fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test and the standard microhemmaglutination test were used to confirm the presence of treponemal antibodies. Diagnosis of syphilis was based on traditional standard serology results. Clinical data ...

  11. Diagnostic tools for preventing and managing maternal and congenital syphilis: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, RW; Ye, H

    2004-01-01

    Syphilis is a major cause of adverse outcomes in pregnancy in developing countries. Fetal death and morbidity due to congenital syphilis are preventable if infected mothers are identified and treated appropriately by the middle of the second trimester. Most pregnant women with syphilis are asymptomatic and can only be identified through serological screening. Non-treponemal tests, such as the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, are sensitive, simple to perform, and inexpensive. However, they have...

  12. A Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Four Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Causer, Louise M.; Kaldor, John M.; Christopher K Fairley; Basil Donovan; Theo Karapanagiotidis; Leslie, David E.; Robertson, Peter W.; McNulty, Anna M.; David Anderson; Handan Wand; Damian P Conway; Ian Denham; Claire Ryan; Guy, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis point-of-care tests may reduce morbidity and ongoing transmission by increasing the proportion of people rapidly treated. Syphilis stage and co-infection with HIV may influence test performance. We evaluated four commercially available syphilis point-of-care devices in a head-to-head comparison using sera from laboratories in Australia. METHODS: Point-of-care tests were evaluated using sera stored at Sydney and Melbourne laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity were calc...

  13. Don’t Forget What You Can’t See: A Case of Ocular Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Monica I.; Lee, Annie W.C.; Sumsion, Sean M.; Gorchynski, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    This case describes an emergency department (ED) presentation of ocular syphilis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patient. This is an unusual presentation of syphilis and one that emergency physicians should be aware of. The prevalence of syphilis has reached epidemic proportions since 2001 with occurrences primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is a case of a 24-year-old male who presented to our ED with bilateral painless vision loss. The patient’s history and...

  14. Retrospective Analysis of the Serologic Response to the Treatment of Syphilis During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    GALAN, Henry L.; Montalvo, Juan F.; John Deaver

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of several maternal variables on the serologic response following the treatment of syphilis in pregnancy. Methods: A 5-year chart review identified 95 patients coded with syphilis at Hermann Hospital. Inclusion criteria were 1) serologically confirmed syphilis infection during the index pregnancy, 2) complete treatment during the index pregnancy, and 3) minimum of one follow-up rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer. Forty-nine of 95 pati...

  15. Syphilis among people with HIV infection in southern Ethiopia: sero-prevalence and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Shimelis, Techalew; Lemma, Kinfe; Ambachew, Henock; Tadesse, Endale

    2015-01-01

    Background Syphilis facilitates both HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission and acquisition, reflecting the complex interplay between the two infections. Scarce information exists regarding syphilis epidemiology in Ethiopian context. Thus, this study determined the sero-prevalence of syphilis and associated risk factors in people with HIV infection. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia from January to May, 2014. A consecutive 9...

  16. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ismayilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19% reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan.

  17. Descriptive Study of the Presentation of Human Brucellosis in Colombia (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopez Guarnizo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to conduct a descriptive study of the occurrence of human brucellosis in Colombia between 2000 and 2012, and, based on previous studies, to determine the prevalence and incidence of the disease, and the limitations for its timely diagnosis and recognition by the Colombian labor system. The research consisted of searching for and analyzing articles on human brucellosis published between 2000 and 2012 in Colombia. It included a phase of information gathering and unstructured interviews with representatives of brucellosis control programs and experienced professionals. We analyzed 17 studies of human brucellosis cases in personnel at risk in slaughterhouses, retailers and vaccinators for animal brucellosis programs: 10 of them reported prevalences between 0.14% and 10.4%, and seven evidenced seropositivity. Information revealed the limitations of the diagnosis, and it demonstrated the little knowledge of the medical community about this disease. In Colombia, there is no clear policy regarding this occupational zoonosis. Brucellosis is mentioned only in Decree 2566 of 2009, in which the new table of occupational diseases is established. The paper concludes that human brucellosis in Colombia is an underdiagnosed, and therefore underreported, disease since there is no mandatory reporting system on the subject.

  18. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.;

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... children developed measles; 19% of unvaccinated children had measles before 9 months of age. The monthly incidence of measles among the 441 children enrolled in the treatment arm was 0.7% and among the 892 enrolled in the control arm was 3.1%. Early vaccination with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine...... prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat...

  19. Characterization of Sera with Discordant Results from Reverse Sequence Screening for Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghoon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse sequence screening for syphilis (RSSS (screening with treponemal tests, followed by confirmation with nontreponemal tests has been increasingly adopted. CDC recommends confirmation of discordant results (reactive EIA/CIA and nonreactive nontreponemal test with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA. We characterized sera with discordant results from RSSS with Architect Syphilis TP CIA. Among 15,713 screening tests using Architect Syphilis TP at Seoul National University Gangnam Center between October 2010 and May 2011, 260 (1.7% showed reactive results. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR and TP-PA were performed on 153 available sera among them. On sera with discordant results between Architect Syphilis TP and TP-PA, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and FTA-ABS were performed. Among 153 sera, RPR was nonreactive in 126 (82.4%. Among them, TP-PA was positive in 103 (81.7%, indeterminate (± in 7 (5.6%, and negative in 16 (12.7%. Out of 16 CIA(+/RPR(−/TP-PA(− sera, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and/or FTA-ABS were negative on 14 sera. Out of 7 CIA(+/RPR(−/TP-PA(± sera, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and FTA-ABS were positive/reactive in 6 sera. RSSS with confirmation by TP-PA on sera with discordant results between Architect Syphilis TP and RPR effectively delineated those discordant results and could be successfully adopted for routine checkup for syphilis.

  20. Lack of effectiveness of ofloxacin against experimental syphilis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, T; Nakajima, R; Otani, T; Katami, K; Osada, Y; Otani, M

    1987-09-01

    Ofloxacin, a new pyridone-carboxylic acid derivative, was evaluated in experimental syphilis in rabbits in comparison with penicillin G. Experimental syphilis was established by intradermal injection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. Ten days after infection, the dermal lesions were characterized by syphilitic papula accompanied with central necrosis. These animals were subsequently treated either with ofloxacin twice a day at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg or with penicillin G once a day at an intramuscular dose of 10,000 U/kg for 21 consecutive days. In penicillin G-treated animals, the dermal lesions became smaller as early as day 3 of treatment and almost disappeared during the therapy. In marked contrast to remarkable efficacy of penicillin G was further development of the lesions in ofloxacin-treated animals, showing no difference in pathological manifestations as compared to untreated animals. The results of nontreponemal serologic test correlated well with the response of animals to treatment.

  1. La syphilis congenitale revelee par une fracture spontanee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Lakhdar Idrissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alors qu�elle est actuellement oubliee dans les pays developpes, la syphilis congenitale se voit encore chez nous faute du depistage antenatal. Ses formes cliniques sont polymorphes et orientent a tord vers d�autres pathologies surtout en periode neonatale. Le diagnostic n�est donc pas toujours facile. La revelation d�une syphilis congenitale par une fracture spontanee est exceptionnellement decrite. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d�un nourrisson de 2 mois ramene en consultation pour limitation douloureuse des mouvements du bras droit. Le diagnostic est evoque sur les donnees radiologiques et confirme par la serologie syphilitique. Le traitement a repose essentiellement sur l�administration de la penicilline G avec une bonne evolution clinique.

  2. Lack of effectiveness of ofloxacin against experimental syphilis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, T; Nakajima, R; Otani, T; Katami, K; Osada, Y; Otani, M

    1987-09-01

    Ofloxacin, a new pyridone-carboxylic acid derivative, was evaluated in experimental syphilis in rabbits in comparison with penicillin G. Experimental syphilis was established by intradermal injection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. Ten days after infection, the dermal lesions were characterized by syphilitic papula accompanied with central necrosis. These animals were subsequently treated either with ofloxacin twice a day at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg or with penicillin G once a day at an intramuscular dose of 10,000 U/kg for 21 consecutive days. In penicillin G-treated animals, the dermal lesions became smaller as early as day 3 of treatment and almost disappeared during the therapy. In marked contrast to remarkable efficacy of penicillin G was further development of the lesions in ofloxacin-treated animals, showing no difference in pathological manifestations as compared to untreated animals. The results of nontreponemal serologic test correlated well with the response of animals to treatment. PMID:3325066

  3. [The symbolic geopolitics of syphilis: an essay in historical anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, S

    The article analyzes certain scientific ideas that Brazilian physicians, and particularly syphilologists, have held about this disease. During the 1920's especially, these specialists constructed a uniquely Brazilian version of the disease as they debated with foreign specialists on the origins, symptoms, and incidence of syphilis in Brazil. In their formulations, syphilis became a kind of natural symbol through which they expressed their desires to play a leading role within the international scientific community and put forth efforts to earn Brazil a new status in the world ranking of nations contesting the notion that Brazil was forever doomed to backwardness and barbarism because it was a tropical country with a racially mixed population. PMID:11625109

  4. Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle and the case of congenital syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Arthur M; Ruggere, Christine

    2006-01-01

    In 1894, Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle wrote "The Third Generation," a short story involving the transmission of congenital syphilis from generation to generation. Analysts of his writings have interpreted the pathogenetic mechanism involved in modern terms: infection of mother by father and then transplacental infection of the fetus. However, a review of the contemporary literature and the history of the concepts of congenital and "hereditary" syphilis demonstrates that the late 19th-century understanding of the process involved a Lamarckian transmission of paternal infection, via the sperm at the moment of conception. It was undoubtedly this concept that Doyle learned in medical school in the late 1870s and that provided the background to his story.

  5. Peliosis and gummatous syphilis of the liver: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Fa Chen; Wei-Xia Chen; Hong-Ying Zhang; Wen-Yan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Peliosis hepatis is a rare benign vascular disorder of the liver that may be associated with malignancy, infection and drugs. The imaging manifestation of this disorder is often variable and nonspecific making its diagnosis difficult. We describe a rare case of peliosis hepatis and gummatous syphilis of the liver with emphasis on CT findings. Image characteristics of our patient included pseudotumoral appearance of peliosis hepatis, isodensity to the adjacent liver parenchyma on unenhanced and dual-phase scanning. To our knowledge, peliosis hepatis associated with syphilis and unique enhancement pattern has not been reported. Considering the imaging features of peliosis hepatis, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical focal hepatic lesion.

  6. Syphilis in Colonial Morocco - The Case of Bousbir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Laboudi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a venereal disease. Morocco has witnessed syphilis since the fifteenth century and the treatment of this disease remained archaic until the Protectorate was established.With the establishment of the colonial system in Morocco, the phenomenon of prostitution spread. Protectorate authorities designated a particular place in Casablanca for such activity that developed: Bousbir district. The authorities’ efforts failed to regulate and organize such activity because of the development of clandestine prostitution in relation to urban growth and the increase of employed, poor and downgraded urban population, especially among women who practice prostitution, and due to lack of a real social policy of the Protectorate concerning the policy of land-use planning or control that were a priority. 

  7. Brucellosis with p-ANCA-associated renal failure, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and endocarditis: Case report

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    Murat Turgay, Esin Ertuğrul, Orhan Küçükşahin, Ali Şahin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between brucellosis and p-antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA-associated vasculitis (pAAV is a rare condition. Herein, we report a 52-year-old man who was diagnosed as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN and endocarditis due to brucellosis. He was treated with antimicrobial agents, steroids, plasmapheresis, renal replacement therapy and aortic valve replacement. According to our best of knowledge, no similar case has been reportedpreviously in the literature in regard to p-ANCA anti-lactoferrin antibodies associated-glomerulonephritis with brucellosis and endocarditis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(1:31-34.

  8. Co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle in Ibadan, Nigeria: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy A. Stack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case report on co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered at the Bodija abattoir in Ibadan, Nigeria. Out of 32 animals that were seropositive for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and competitive ELISA, six were also demonstrated as being infected with tuberculosis through mycobacterial culture. This is the first report of co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Nigeria. There is a need for further studies to investigate this occurrence.

  9. [THE PERSPECTIVES OF STUDYING OF POLYMORPHISM OF GENES OF GAMMA-INTERFERON UNDER CHRONIC BRUCELLOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurpeisova, A Kh; Kolomeietz, A N

    2016-02-01

    The brucellosis is an actual zoonotic disease in many countries, Russia included. The complexity of individual prognosis of disease and choice of tactics of maintenance of patients is explained by heterogeneity of clinical manifestations of brucellosis and different rate of progression of organs pathology. Despite of low mortality, this pathology quite often results in disability of patient. The frequent transition of acute process into chronic one (40-60%), probability of development of primary chronic brucellosis determines interest of researchers to issues of immunopathogenesis of this disease. The article presents review of achievements in studies of polymorphism of genes of gamma-interferon in the given area.

  10. Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in sera from patients with brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Refik M.; Mehmet N.; Durmaz R.; Ersoy Y.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the serum levels of some cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8] and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with untreated brucellosis and to test the correlation of these parameters with each other. The study was conducted on 67 subjects, 37 patients with brucellosis and 30 healthy individuals with no history of Brucella infection. Brucellosis was identified by a positive blood culture and/or ...

  11. Mean platelet volume may not be a biomarker monitoring of brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Beyan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To the editor We read with great interest the research article by Kader et al. [1] entitled with evaluation of mean platelet volume (MPV levels in brucellosis patients. They retrospectively investigated the complete blood count parameters in patients with brucellosis. They found that MPV values were statistically significantly low in pre-treatment group compared with post-treatment group and healthy controls. They suggested that MPV levels might be useful in the follow-up of brucellosis patients. We would like to comment on this study.

  12. Non-Traumatic Subcapsular Spleen Hematoma in a Patient with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Söker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease. A characteristic clinical findings are fever, headache, arthralgia and splenomegali. Brucellosis occurs after direct contact with an infected animal or consumption of products of an infected animal. Subcapsular hematoma in the spleen is very rare complication of brucella infection. We report here, an 11 year old patient with brucellosis who admitted to our clinic with subcapsular non-traumatic spleen hematoma. Hematoma and clinical findings were resolved with doxicyclin and streptomycin combination. We emphasised that brucella infection should be keept in mind when non-traumatic subcapsular spleen hematoma occur.

  13. An overview of the brucellosis epidemic conditions in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fallah rostami Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is as one of the most important infection common disease between human and cattle, which nowadays considered as one of serious health systems dilemma specifically in developing countries.Among brucellosis different species are the cause of infection, 4 species namely B.melitensis, BSuis, B.abortus , B.canis are the most major cause of disease in human(1.Indeed, in Iran that is considered as an endemic area of hygienic organization, B. melitensis is as the most prevalent cause of infection in human. This bacterium generally will transfer to human from contact with contaminated animals or the consumption of cattle production such as unpasteurized dairy (raw milk, soft cheese, cream or even via breathe can transfer to human. But the transfer of infection from person to person is very infrequent.Of course there is some evidence of transfer in a bone marrow transplanting. The most prevalent clinical symptoms of this disease are fever, night sweat, asthenia and anorexia (2.Naturally this infection involved different systems and organs in human body and the one of most major part of body can be mentioned to nervous system, muscuskeletal and also some organs like joints, heart and liver.Diagnosis of this infection can be made by some various laboratory tests like SAT, 2ME. But some misdiagnosis instances are very common. Thus, World Health Organization (WHO exposed in its report that the number of infected cases are maybe ten folds more than scale which stated by health organizations.

  14. Yellowish dots in the retina: a finding of ocular syphilis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Albert Mendonça Rodrigues

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the occurrence of pale yellowish perivascular preretinal dots in 12 patients with ocular syphilis. A case series of these patients was examined between March and October 2012 at the Uveitis Sector of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. After diagnostic confirmation of syphilis, fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed to verify the localization of the dots, and patients were treated with IV crystalline penicillin for 14 days. The study comprised 11 men (91.6%, 19 eyes, median presentation age of 38.1 years, and panuveitis as the main clinical manifestation (seven patients, 58.3%, being bilateral in four. Ten patients were taking oral prednisone (83.3%. Serum panels performed by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL showed positive results in eight patients (66.7%, whereas VDRL cerebrospinal fluid (CSF tests were negative in seven of nine collected (77.8%. However, serum FTA-Abs was positive in 100% of patients, and eight patients (66.7% had HIV infection. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA presented after treatment improved in 10 eyes (55.6%, did not change in seven eyes (38.9%, and worsened in one eye (5.6%. Although not yet acknowledged in the literature as a typical manifestation of ocular syphilis, these are very common findings in clinical practice. We believe that preretinal dots are due to perivasculitis secondary to treponema infection. It is important recognize them and remember that syphilis can present in several forms, including the one presented in this study.

  15. Epidemiology Of Genital Ulcers And Prevalence Of Seropositivity For Syphilis

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    Hazra B. R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the prevalence of seropositivity for syphilis amongst cases presenting with genital ulcer to STD Clinic, Medical College, Calcutta during July 1994 to January 1995, and their epidemiological characteristics. Of the 157 cases studied, 142 (90.9% were males and 15 (9.1% were females. Prevalence of seropositivity for syphilis was in 22.93% cases of genital ulcers. In the age distribution of males, 9% were below 21 years, 33.8% between 21-25 years and 23.9% between 26-30 years. In females, the highest proportion (33.3% was in the age range 16-20 years. While all the female patients were Hindus, 87.3% of males were Hindus and 12.7% were Muslims. Large Majority (70% of the cases were literate. Amongst male patients, unskilled labourers constituted the highest proportion (35.2%, and majority in females (53.3% were from middle income group and 16.6% from high income group. 90.1% of males were unmarried single against 87.9% in females. The type of family for both male and female patients was overwhelmingly nuclear (86.6% to 87.3% and 2.8% of the males and 13.3% of the females were orphans. Amongst the seropositive patients, primary syphilis was present in 71.4% males and 62.5% females and the figures for secondary syphilis were 28.6% in males and 30.6% in females, 42% males and 26.7% females had knowledge about source of infection. While 85.9% males got infection from prostitutes, 66.7% females got it from clients. In females, 20% had been infected by friends and neighbours and 13.3% by casual contact.

  16. Serodiagnosis of syphilis in a community: An evaluatory study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran P; Thyagarajan S; Pramod N; Joyee A; Murugavel K; Balakrishnan P; Hari R; Jeyaseelan L; Kurien T; STD study group

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyse the prevalence of syphilis in the apparently healthy population and to provide data for implementation of the joint STD/HIV control programme, a population based study was undertaken by using ′probability proportional to size′ cluster survey method in three randomly chosen districts of Tamil Nadu, India namely Dindigul, Ramnad and Tanjore. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from adults (n=1873) aged 15-45 years, from the selected households enrolled in thi...

  17. Curse on two generations: a history of congenital syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Before the microbiologic era, venereal diseases were poorly distinguished. Congenital syphilis was believed to be transmitted during conception by the father's sperm, during delivery in the birth canal, or from infected milk or breasts. The most frequent maternofetal transmission was not considered because the mother's primary infection remained undiagnosed. The concept of treating infants with mercury transmitted by nurses' milk prompted the founding of a specialized infant hospital in Vaugirard in 1780: lactating syphilitic women received mercury orally and by rubbing it into the skin. Their own infant and a second infected infant from the foundling hospital were believed to be cured by their milk. Underwood described snuffles in 1789 and Bertin periosteal bone disease in 1810. Tardive congenital lues with keratitis, deafness, and notched upper incisors were described by Hutchinson in 1863. Feeding remained difficult, as wet nursing transmitted syphilis to the nurse and other infants. Specialized institutions tried goat or donkey milk. A debate between contagionists assuming exclusively maternal infection and hereditists assuming germinal transmission by the father's sperm continued throughout the 19th century. Schaudinn and Hoffmann identified Spirochaeta pallida in 1905. When Ehrlich discovered the efficacy of salvarsan in 1910, Noeggerath treated infants with the new drug, pioneering the injection into scalp veins. In 1943, Lentz and Ingraham established penicillin treatment for congenital syphilis. Whereas this drug effectively prevented maternofetal transmission, treating infants remained difficult due to the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction.

  18. A new enhanced antibiotic treatment for early and late syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Broccolo, Francesco; Sartoris, Giulia; Stura, Paola; Esposito, Susanna; Rebora, Alfredo; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an enhanced treatment regimen for syphilis with the addition of doxycycline and ceftriaxone to the conventional benzathine penicillin G (BPG) treatment. Sixty-nine syphilis patients were recruited and were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (38 patients) received standard therapy and group 2 (31 patients) received the enhanced therapy. All patients were followed-up for at least 12 months. Patients underwent physical examination and serology every 6 months as well as echocardiography and neurological examination every year. A three- to four-fold decline in the initial Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titre within 6 months after therapy was considered as serological cure. At 12 months, 68% of patients in group 1 and 100% in group 2 were serologically cured (P=0.002). During follow-up, no patients in group 2 experienced complications related to syphilis. In contrast, one patient in group 1 developed neurosyphilis. In conclusion, the enhanced treatment is more effective than standard treatment and results in a higher and faster cure rate. Moreover, it provides treponemicidal antibiotic levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, thereby preventing possible late complications. PMID:27436469

  19. Laboratory evaluation of the Chembio Dual Path Platform HIV-Syphilis Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille B. Kalou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of rapid diagnostic tests for HIV and syphilis has increased remarkably in the last decade. As new rapid diagnostic tests become available, there is a continuous need to assess their performance and operational characteristics prior to use in clinical settings.Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Chembio Dual Path Platform (DPP® HIV–Syphilis Assay to accurately diagnose HIV, syphilis, and HIV/syphilis co-infection.Method: In 2013, 990 serum samples from the Georgia Public Health Laboratory in Atlanta, Georgia, United States were characterised for HIV and syphilis and used to evaluate the platform. HIV reference testing combined third-generation Enzyme Immunoassay and Western Blot, whereas reference testing for syphilis was conducted by the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination method and the TrepSure assay. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the DPP assay on this panel by comparing results with the HIV and syphilis reference testing algorithms.Results: For HIV, sensitivity was 99.8% and specificity was 98.4%; for syphilis, sensitivity was 98.8% and specificity was 99.4%. Of the 348 co-infected sera, 344 (98.9% were detected accurately by the DPP assay, but 11 specimens had false-positive results (9 HIV and 2 syphilis due to weak reactivity.Conclusion: In this evaluation, the Chembio DPP HIV–Syphilis Assay had high sensitivity and specificity for detecting both HIV and treponemal antibodies. Our results indicate that this assay could have a significant impact on the simultaneous screening of HIV and syphilis using a single test device for high-risk populations or pregnant women needing timely care and treatment.

  20. Improving global estimates of syphilis in pregnancy by diagnostic test type: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, D. Cal; Lin, Carol; Newman, Lori; Wijesooriya, N. Saman; Kamb, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background “Probable active syphilis,” is defined as seroreactivity in both non-treponemal and treponemal tests. A correction factor of 65%, namely the proportion of pregnant women reactive in one syphilis test type that were likely reactive in the second, was applied to reported syphilis seropositivity data reported to WHO for global estimates of syphilis during pregnancy. Objectives To identify more accurate correction factors based on test type reported. Search Strategy Medline search usin...

  1. Evolution and Use of Dynamic Transmission Models for Measles and Rubella Risk and Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-07-01

    The devastation caused by periodic measles outbreaks motivated efforts over more than a century to mathematically model measles disease and transmission. Following the identification of rubella, which similarly presents with fever and rash and causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in infants born to women first infected with rubella early in pregnancy, modelers also began to characterize rubella disease and transmission. Despite the relatively large literature, no comprehensive review to date provides an overview of dynamic transmission models for measles and rubella developed to support risk and policy analysis. This systematic review of the literature identifies quantitative measles and/or rubella dynamic transmission models and characterizes key insights relevant for prospective modeling efforts. Overall, measles and rubella represent some of the relatively simplest viruses to model due to their ability to impact only humans and the apparent life-long immunity that follows survival of infection and/or protection by vaccination, although complexities arise due to maternal antibodies and heterogeneity in mixing and some models considered potential waning immunity and reinfection. This review finds significant underreporting of measles and rubella infections and widespread recognition of the importance of achieving and maintaining high population immunity to stop and prevent measles and rubella transmission. The significantly lower transmissibility of rubella compared to measles implies that all countries could eliminate rubella and CRS by using combination of measles- and rubella-containing vaccines (MRCVs) as they strive to meet regional measles elimination goals, which leads to the recommendation of changing the formulation of national measles-containing vaccines from measles only to MRCV as the standard of care. PMID:27277138

  2. An ongoing measles outbreak linked to a suspected imported case, Ireland, April to June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Peter; Chaintarli, Katerina; Ryan, Fiona; Cotter, Suzanne; Cronin, Anthony; Carlton, Louise; MacSweeney, Mary; McDonnell, Mairead; Connell, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Rose; Hamilton, Douglas; Ward, Mary; Glynn, Ronan; Migone, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    We report an outbreak of measles which started in April 2016 and which, by 13 June, has resulted in 22 confirmed and five probable measles cases occurring in four regions of Ireland. Genotype B3 was identified. We describe the identification, ongoing investigation and control measures being implemented. This outbreak occurs during a period of very low measles transmission in Ireland, with only one confirmed case (imported) notified in 2016 before this event. PMID:27416848

  3. German measles outbreak bursts in two unvaccinated border hilly districts of Northern Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Surender N Gupta; Naveen Gupta; Nirankar S Neki

    2012-01-01

    Background: We investigated German measles outbreak as a suspected one of measles to confirm diagnosis and recommend for control and prevention. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of German measles as the occurrence of febrile rash in any resident of the eight villages from 20 th October to 16 th January, 2007. Case patients were line listed and information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, traveling, treatment history, vaccination status, and pregnancy status were...

  4. Local public health response to vaccine-associated measles: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hau, Monica; Schwartz, Kevin L; Frenette, Crystal; Mogck, Isabelle; Jonathan B Gubbay; Severini, Alberto; Hiebert, Joanne; Shelley L Deeks; Shaun K Morris

    2013-01-01

    Background The most appropriate public health approach to vaccine-associated measles in immunocompromised patients is unknown, mainly because these cases are rare and transmission of vaccine-associated measles has not been previously documented. In this case report, we describe Peel Public Health’s response to a vaccine-associated measles case in an immunocompromised child in Ontario, Canada. Case presentation A five-year-old Canadian-born boy with a history of a hematopoetic stem cell transp...

  5. Antigen mimicry involving measles virus hemagglutinin and human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Norrby, E; Sheshberadaran, H; Rafner, B

    1986-01-01

    Intergenic antigenic relationships between measles virus and respiratory syncytial (RS) virus-specific structural components were studied by using monoclonal antibodies. Of 75 monoclonal antibodies against these components, only one, an anti-measles virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody, cross-reacted. Immunofluorescence analysis of measles virus- and RS virus-infected cells with this monoclonal antibody showed qualitatively different staining patterns which indicated that the antigen invol...

  6. What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know About Measles and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-07-01

    From January 1 to April 3, 2015, 159 people from 18 states and the District of Columbia were reported as having measles. Most cases are part of an outbreak linked to a California amusement park. Because measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, most U.S. clinicians are unfamiliar with the condition. We reviewed information on the current outbreak, measles manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and infection-control recommendations. To identify information on measles and pregnancy, we reviewed reports with 20 or more measles cases during pregnancy that included data on effects on pregnant women or pregnancy outcomes. These reports were identified through MEDLINE from inception through February 2015 using the following strategy: (((pregnan*) AND measles) AND English[Language]) NOT review[Publication Type]. Reference lists also were reviewed to identify additional articles. Pregnant women infected with measles are more likely to be hospitalized, develop pneumonia, and die than nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm birth, and low birth weight, are associated with maternal measles; however, the risk of congenital defects does not appear to be increased. No antiviral therapy is available; treatment is supportive. Early identification of possible cases is needed so that appropriate infection control can be instituted promptly. The recent measles outbreak highlights the role that obstetric health care providers play in vaccine-preventable illnesses; obstetrician-gynecologists should ensure that patients are up to date on all vaccines, including measles-containing vaccines, and should recommend and ideally offer a measles-containing vaccine to women without evidence of measles immunity before or after pregnancy.

  7. A measles epidemic threshold in a highly vaccinated population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against measles has successfully lowered the incidence of the disease and has changed the epidemic pattern from a roughly biennial cycle to an irregular sequence of outbreaks. A possible explanation for this sequence of outbreaks is that the vaccinated population is protected by solid herd immunity. If so, we would expect to see the fraction of susceptible individuals remaining below an epidemic threshold. An alternative explanation is the occurrence of occasional localised lapses in herd immunity that allow for major outbreaks in areas with a low vaccine coverage. In that case, we would expect the fraction of susceptible individuals to exceed an epidemic threshold before outbreaks occur. These two explanations for the irregular sequence of measles outbreaks can be tested against observations of both the fraction of susceptible individuals and infection attack rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have estimated both the fraction of susceptible individuals at the start of each epidemic year and the infection attack rates for each epidemic year in the Netherlands over a 28-y period. During this period the vaccine coverage averaged 93%, and there was no sustained measles transmission. Several measles outbreaks occurred in communities with low vaccine coverage, and these ended without intervention. We show that there is a clear threshold value for the fraction of susceptible individuals, below which only minor outbreaks occurred, and above which both minor and major outbreaks occurred. A precise, quantitative relationship exists between the fraction of susceptible individuals in excess of this threshold and the infection attack rate during the major outbreaks. CONCLUSION: In populations with a high but heterogeneous vaccine coverage, measles transmission can be interrupted without establishing solid herd immunity. When infection is reintroduced, a major outbreak can occur in the communities with low vaccine coverage. During

  8. The clinical and radiological observation of congenital syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital syphilis is transmitted through the placenta by the infected mother after 16 weeks of gestation. Since the incidence of syphilis is again on the increase, syphilis remains at the present time a public problem of major and increasing proportions. Recently, congenital syphilis has different formas of presentation. The authors observed clinically and radiologically 27 cases of congenital syphilis in the neonates and infants treated at the pediatric ward of Chonnam National University Hospital from Jan. 1977 to Mar. 1982. The results are as follows: 1. The number of observed patients was 27 cases, 22 cases in male, 5 cases in female. 2. Onset of first clinical symptoms and signs was within the 4th week life in 14 cases (52%), 1-2 months in 6 cases (22%), 2-3 months in 4 cases (15%), 3-4 months in 3 cases (11%). All cases was within 6 months. 3. The order of the frequency of common clinical manifestations was hepatomegaly (96%), splenomegaly (78%), skin lesion (63%), anemia (63%), nasal snuffle (56%). 4. Of 11 cases with known birth weight, 10 cases were low birth weight. 5. The serologic test (VDRL slide test) of 27 tested caes revealed reactive response in 26 cases, non-reactive response in 1 case, and that of syphilitic mothers except one revealed reactive in 23 cases, non- reactive in 3 cases. 6. Roentgenographic syphilitic bony changes were detected in 26 cases (96%), of 27 studied cases, osteochondritis was present in 24 cases (89%), periostitis in 21 case (78%), osteomyelitis in 11 cases (41%). 7. The most common sites affected were as follows. Radius and ulna were the most frequently affected, the next were in order of tibia and fibula. Considering osteochondiritis only, the distal end of radius and ulna (78% respectively) and proximal end of tibra (67%) were the most frequently affected sites, the proximal end of femur (33%) was least frequently affected site. 8. On chest films of 27 case, osseous changes (mainly periostitis) of clavicle were noted

  9. The clinical and radiological observation of congenital syphilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Byung Sik; Chung, Ung Ki [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Congenital syphilis is transmitted through the placenta by the infected mother after 16 weeks of gestation. Since the incidence of syphilis is again on the increase, syphilis remains at the present time a public problem of major and increasing proportions. Recently, congenital syphilis has different formas of presentation. The authors observed clinically and radiologically 27 cases of congenital syphilis in the neonates and infants treated at the pediatric ward of Chonnam National University Hospital from Jan. 1977 to Mar. 1982. The results are as follows: 1. The number of observed patients was 27 cases, 22 cases in male, 5 cases in female. 2. Onset of first clinical symptoms and signs was within the 4th week life in 14 cases (52%), 1-2 months in 6 cases (22%), 2-3 months in 4 cases (15%), 3-4 months in 3 cases (11%). All cases was within 6 months. 3. The order of the frequency of common clinical manifestations was hepatomegaly (96%), splenomegaly (78%), skin lesion (63%), anemia (63%), nasal snuffle (56%). 4. Of 11 cases with known birth weight, 10 cases were low birth weight. 5. The serologic test (VDRL slide test) of 27 tested caes revealed reactive response in 26 cases, non-reactive response in 1 case, and that of syphilitic mothers except one revealed reactive in 23 cases, non- reactive in 3 cases. 6. Roentgenographic syphilitic bony changes were detected in 26 cases (96%), of 27 studied cases, osteochondritis was present in 24 cases (89%), periostitis in 21 case (78%), osteomyelitis in 11 cases (41%). 7. The most common sites affected were as follows. Radius and ulna were the most frequently affected, the next were in order of tibia and fibula. Considering osteochondiritis only, the distal end of radius and ulna (78% respectively) and proximal end of tibra (67%) were the most frequently affected sites, the proximal end of femur (33%) was least frequently affected site. 8. On chest films of 27 case, osseous changes (mainly periostitis) of clavicle were noted

  10. CLINICAL PROFILE OF MEASLES IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Measles affects about 20 million people a year. Even with greater than 80% immunization cover, the number of children with measles has registered a steep rise. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases of measles admitted to the paediatric wards of a tertiary care medical college hospital in a rural area in north Kerala. A total of 31 cases of measles (n=31) were admitted to the paediatric ward. Age at admission of 67.8% of the patients was above 6 years. ...

  11. Immunoelectron microscopic studies on haemagglutinin and haemolysin of measles virus in infected HEp2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M A; Fraser, K B; Dermott, E; Shirodaria, P V

    1982-03-01

    The antigenic determinants of the haemagglutinin and haemolysin antigens of measles virus were located at the surface of HEp2 cells infected with measles virus and on measles virions released from these cells, using immunoelectron microscopy. Antisera specific for haemagglutinin or haemolysin antigen and peroxidase-conjugated antiglobulin were used. Treatment of the infected cells with trypsin removed the virus spikes and prevented binding by the anti-haemagglutinin serum, while the reaction with anti-haemolysin serum was unaltered. This suggests that the antigenic determinants for measles haemagglutinin reside on the spike, while the antigenic determinants for haemolysin reside on, or are close to, the virus membrane. PMID:6175729

  12. Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M B; Addiss, D G; McPherson, J T; Berg, J L; Circo, S R; Davis, J P

    1990-05-01

    A prolonged school-based outbreak of measles provided an opportunity to study "vaccine-modified" mild measles and secondary vaccine failure. Thirty-six (97%) of 37 unvaccinated patients had rash illnesses that met the Centers for Disease Control clinical case definition of measles, but 29 (15%) of 198 vaccinated patients did not, primarily because of low-grade or absent fever. Of 122 patients with seroconfirmed measles, 10 patients (all previously vaccinated) had no detectable measles-specific IgM and significantly milder illness than either vaccinated or unvaccinated patients with IgM-positive serum. Of 108 vaccinated patients with seroconfirmed measles, 17 patients (16%) had IgM-negative serology or rash illnesses that failed to meet the clinical case definition; their mean age (13 years), age at the time of vaccination, and time since vaccination did not differ from those of other vaccinated patients. The occurrence of secondary vaccine failure and vaccine-modified measles does not appear to be a major impediment to measles control in the United States but may lead to underreporting of measles cases and result in overestimation of vaccine efficacy in highly vaccinated populations. PMID:2278542

  13. Simultaneous acute deep vein thrombosis and acute brucellosis. A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Şeyda; Kalender, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Onur; İmre, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease common in developing countries. Vascular complications, including arterial and venous, associated with Brucella infection have rarely been reported. A case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) developing after a diagnosis of acute brucellosis in a young milkman is presented. A 26-year-old man presented with pain in the right leg. The patient's medical history included a diagnosis of brucellosis in our hospital where he had presented with complaints of weakness and fever. Peripheral venous Doppler ultrasound showed DVT, and the patient was treated with anticoagulants. The patient was discharged with warfarin therapy and anti-brucellosis treatment. Although rare, some infectious agents may cause vascular pathologies. Patients presenting with symptoms of DVT or similar vascular pathologies should be assessed for infectious agents, particularly in those coming from Brucella-endemic areas. PMID:27516795

  14. Simultaneous acute deep vein thrombosis and acute brucellosis. A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Şeyda; Kalender, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Onur; İmre, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease common in developing countries. Vascular complications, including arterial and venous, associated with Brucella infection have rarely been reported. A case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) developing after a diagnosis of acute brucellosis in a young milkman is presented. A 26-year-old man presented with pain in the right leg. The patient's medical history included a diagnosis of brucellosis in our hospital where he had presented with complaints of weakness and fever. Peripheral venous Doppler ultrasound showed DVT, and the patient was treated with anticoagulants. The patient was discharged with warfarin therapy and anti-brucellosis treatment. Although rare, some infectious agents may cause vascular pathologies. Patients presenting with symptoms of DVT or similar vascular pathologies should be assessed for infectious agents, particularly in those coming from Brucella-endemic areas.

  15. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (Pbrucellosis.

  16. Effect of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on some biochemical parameters in ewes

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. J. Al- Hussary; A. S. M. Al- Zuhairy

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of infection of ewes with toxoplasmosis and/or brucellosis on someserum biochemical parameters. Ninety six samples of blood were collected from aborted ewes at different stages of gestation,suspected to be infected with toxoplasmosis and /or brucellosis from different regions in Nineveh governorate. The percentageof toxoplasma and brucella infection depending on Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) and Rose Bengal Test were 21.88% and23.96% re...

  17. Prevalence and risk-mapping of bovine brucellosis in Maranhão State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, M R; Stevenson, M A; Gonçalves, V S P; Neto, J S Ferreira; Ferreira, F; Amaku, M; Telles, E O; Santana, S S; Ferreira, J C A; Lôbo, J R; Figueiredo, V C F; Dias, R A

    2013-06-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in Maranhão State, Brazil to estimate the seroprevalence of and risk factors for bovine brucellosis. In total, 749 herds and 6779 cows greater than two years of age were blood sampled. At the time of sampling a questionnaire to collect details on possible risk factors for bovine brucellosis was administered to the participating herd manager. A logistic regression model was developed to quantify the association between herd demographic and management characteristics and the herd-level brucellosis status. Spatial analyses were carried out to identify areas of the state where the presence of brucellosis was unaccounted-for by the explanatory variables in the logistic regression model. The estimated herd-level prevalence of brucellosis in Maranhão was 11.4% (95% CI 9.2-14) and the individual animal-level prevalence was 2.5% (95% CI 1.7-3.6). Herds with more than 54 cows older than two years of age, herds that used rented pasture to feed cattle, and the presence of wetlands on the home farm increased the risk of a herd being brucellosis positive. Infected farms were identified throughout the state, particularly in the central region and on the northwestern border. Spatial analyses of the Pearson residuals from the logistic regression model identified an area in the center of the state where brucellosis risk was not well explained by the predictors included in the final logistic regression model. Targeted investigations should be carried out in this area to determine more precisely the reasons for the unexplained disease excess. This process might uncover previously unrecognized risk factors for brucellosis in Maranhão.

  18. Brucellosis with p-ANCA-associated renal failure, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and endocarditis: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Turgay, Esin Ertuğrul, Orhan Küçükşahin, Ali Şahin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between brucellosis and p-antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA)-associated vasculitis (pAAV) is a rare condition. Herein, we report a 52-year-old man who was diagnosed as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and endocarditis due to brucellosis. He was treated with antimicrobial agents, steroids, plasmapheresis, renal replacement therapy and aortic valve replacement. According to our best of knowledge, no similar case has been reportedpreviously in the literature ...

  19. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country.

  20. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Rujeni; Léonidas Mbanzamihigo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB) and Kabutare District Hospital. Se...

  1. Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nidia E.; Foglia, Luis; Ayala, Sandra M.; Gall, David; Nielsen, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    The methods commonly used for human brucellosis serological testing are agglutination tests and the complement fixation test (CFT). Among the newer serological tests, primary binding assays were developed to improve sensitivity and specificity. The competitive enzyme immunoassay (CELISA) for the detection of serum antibody to Brucella is a multispecies assay which appears to be capable of differentiating vaccinal and cross-reacting antibodies from antibodies elicited by field infection in cattle. The competing monoclonal antibody used in this assay is specific for a common epitope of smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS). In this study, we compared the CELISA to the classical tests for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The CELISA cutoff value was determined to calculate its diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. A survey was performed with 911 sera. Of the sera, 341 were from an asymptomatic population that tested negative with conventional serological tests (screening and confirmatory). Based on these samples, the CELISA specificities were determined to be 99.7 and 100% with cutoff values of 28 and 30% inhibition (%I), respectively. In a further study with 393 additional sera from an asymptomatic population found negative by the conventional screening tests, the CELISA specificities were calculated to be 96.5 and 98.8% with cutoff values of 28 and 30%I. The CELISA sensitivities were determined to be 98.3 and 94.8% with cutoff values of 28 and 30%I, respectively, for sera from 116 individuals found positive by the classical tests. For the 51 culture-positive patients, CELISA was positive for 100%, the CFT was positive for 92%, and the standard tube agglutination test (TAT) was positive for 100%. The CELISA specificity was 100% for 31 sera from patients found negative by conventional serological tests but with brucellosis-like symptoms. The CELISA is fairly rapid to perform, somewhat faster than TAT, and cross-reacts less with other antigens (or antibodies) than the

  2. Unusual case of cervical syphilis with Piringer-Kuchinka-like lymphadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; González-García, Raúl; García, Carlos Moreno; Monje, Florencio

    2014-12-01

    Syphilis rarely presents with cervical lymphadenopathy. We describe a patient with a cervical mass associated with weight loss, asthenia, and night sweats. The mass was excised and histological examination suggested Piringer-Kuchinka lymphadenitis, which is usually present in cervical toxoplasmosis. To the best of our knowledge, Piringer-Kuchinka lymphadenitis has not previously been reported in cervical syphilis.

  3. Don't Forget What You Can't See: A Case of Ocular Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Monica I; Lee, Annie W C; Sumsion, Sean M; Gorchynski, Julie A

    2016-07-01

    This case describes an emergency department (ED) presentation of ocular syphilis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patient. This is an unusual presentation of syphilis and one that emergency physicians should be aware of. The prevalence of syphilis has reached epidemic proportions since 2001 with occurrences primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is a case of a 24-year-old male who presented to our ED with bilateral painless vision loss. The patient's history and ED workup were notable for MSM, positive rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) and HIV tests and fundus exam consistent with ocular syphilis, specifically uveitis. Ocular manifestations of syphilis can present at any stage of syphilis. The 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines now recommend that ocular syphilis be treated as neurosyphilis regardless of the lumbar puncture results. There is a paucity of emergency medicine literature on ocular syphilis. For emergency physicians it is important to be aware of iritis, uveitis, or chorioretinitis as ocular manifestations of neurosyphilis especially in this high-risk population and to obtain RPR and HIV tests in the ED to facilitate early diagnosis, and treatment and to prevent irreversible vision loss. PMID:27429702

  4. Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Syphilis in High-Risk Populations, Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sabidó, Meritxell; Adele S Benzaken; de Andrade Rodrigues, Ệnio José; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the acceptability and operational suitability of a rapid point-of-care syphilis test and identified barriers to testing among high-risk groups and healthcare professionals in a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Use of this test could considerably alleviate the impact of syphilis in hard-to-reach populations in the Amazon region of Brazil.

  5. Determinants Associated with Syphilis among the Youth in Health Centre Wamena City, Jayawijaya Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliphina Rumbekwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexually transmitted infections (STI cases in province of Papua in 2013 were 1,213 cases, then in 2014 the number of visits to STI services were 19 945 cases with the number of STI patients of 10,995 cases and the number of syphilis patients was 2,150 cases, while cases of syphilis in adolescent at the health center Wamena City District Jayawijaya in 2015 were 91 cases. The method used in this research is quantitative correlation type with cross sectional study. The population in this study was all teenagers who visited the health center Jayawijaya Wamena town, with 578 teenagers. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling, obtained a sample of 236 respondents. The data collection is done by distributing questionnaires to the respondents. Analysis of the data in this study is analysis of univariate and bivariate. The results showed a correlation between free association with syphilis in adolescence (p-value = 0.000, there is a relationship between the use of condoms with syphilis in adolescence (p-value = 0.000, there is no relationship between early sex education with disease syphilis in adolescence (p-value = 0.151, there is no relationship between the supervision of parents with syphilis in adolescence (p-value = 0.265, there is a relationship between personal hygiene with syphilis in adolescence (p-value = 0.001 , there is no relationship between the mass media with syphilis in adolescence (p-value = 0.569.

  6. Don’t Forget What You Can’t See: A Case of Ocular Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica I. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This case describes an emergency department (ED presentation of ocular syphilis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patient. This is an unusual presentation of syphilis and one that emergency physicians should be aware of. The prevalence of syphilis has reached epidemic proportions since 2001 with occurrences primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM. This is a case of a 24-year-old male who presented to our ED with bilateral painless vision loss. The patient’s history and ED workup were notable for MSM, positive rapid plasmin reagin (RPR and HIV tests and fundus exam consistent with ocular syphilis, specifically uveitis. Ocular manifestations of syphilis can present at any stage of syphilis. The 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines now recommend that ocular syphilis be treated as neurosyphilis regardless of the lumbar puncture results. There is a paucity of emergency medicine literature on ocular syphilis. For emergency physicians it is important to be aware of iritis, uveitis, or chorioretinitis as ocular manifestations of neurosyphilis especially in this high-risk population and to obtain RPR and HIV tests in the ED to facilitate early diagnosis, and treatment and to prevent irreversible vision loss.[West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(4:473-476.

  7. Predictors of lack of serological response to syphilis treatment in HIV-infected subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Spagnuolo; Andrea Poli; Laura Galli; Massimo Cernuschi; Silvia Nozza; Myriam Maillard; Nicola Gianotti; Hamid Hasson; Simona Bossolasco; Adriano Lazzarin; Antonella Castagna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with lack of serological response (LSR) to treatment of syphilis among HIV-infected subjects. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal study on HIV-infected subjects diagnosed and treated for syphilis and with an assessable serological response between 1 January 2004 and 15 September 2013. LSR was defined as a

  8. Prevalence of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendees in Karachi: Imperative to begin universal screening in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, SA; Kristensen, S; Memon, MA; Usman, G; Ghazi, A; John, R; Sathiakumar, N; Vermund, SH

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sexually transmitted infections are thought by some to be rare in socially conservative Muslim countries. Little is known about prevalence of syphilis in Pakistani women from the general population. We determined syphilis prevalence in a multi-center cross-sectional study of low risk pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We administered a structured questionnaire and obtained a blood sample for syphilis serology (rapid plasma reagin test with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation) from all women giving informed consent over six weeks in 2007. Results The prevalence of confirmed syphilis was less than one percent (0.9%; 95%CI: 0.4, 1.8) in a sample size of 800 women recruited from three urban sites (≈1% refusal rate). Women who lived in an area where male drug use is prevalent (Ibrahim Hyderi Hospital) had 1% (1.5%) higher prevalence rates than women from the other two sites 0.5%. Conclusions We documented higher-than-expected syphilis seroprevalence rates in a low risk population of antenatal clinic attendees in Pakistan. Bridge populations for syphilis may include drug users, who are usually married, and Hijras or their clients. Hijras are transgender and/or transvestite men who may provide sex for money to men. In accordance with our results, the national policy for syphilis control in Pakistan should be modified to include universal syphilis screening in antenatal clinics with subsequent partner notification. PMID:22356034

  9. The Role of Sphingomyelin Breakdown in Measles Virus Immunmodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Avota

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV efficiently causes generalized immunosuppression which accounts to a major extent for cases of measles-asscociated severe morbidity and mortality. MV infections alter many functions of antigen presenting cells (APC (dendritic cells (DCs and lymphocytes, yet many molecular targets of the virus remain poorly defined. Cellular interactions and effector functions of DCs and lymphocytes are regulated by surface receptors. Associating with other proteins involved in cell signaling, receptors form part of receptosomes that respond to and transmit external signals through dynamic interctions with the cytoskeleton. Alterations in the composition and metabolism of membrane sphingolipids have a substantial impact on both processes. In this review we focus on the regulation of sphingomyelinase activity and ceramide release in cells exposed to MV and discuss the immunosuppressive role of sphingomyelin breakdown induced by MV.

  10. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  11. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayabas, Uner [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)], E-mail: ukayabas@inonu.edu.tr; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Department of Radiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis.

  12. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  13. BRUCELLOSIS: REVIEW OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES AND THERAPEUTIC REGIMENS IN 44 CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afsharpaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBrucellosis is not uncommon in children in endemic areas. We described clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic regimens for brucellosis in children under 14 who admitted in the Pediatric Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, Iran from March 1988 until February 2001. The male: female ratio was 2:1. Family history of brucellosis and consumption of un-pasteurized milk and dairy products was positive in 20.4% and 65.9%, respectively. The common clinical findings were arthritis (79.5%, fever (77.4%, anorexia (61.4%, sweating (52.3%, splenomegaly (43.2%, hepatomegaly (34.1% and lymphadenopathy (13.65. Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 56.8%, 31.8% and 9.1%, respectively. Out of all patients, seropositivity rate for brucellosis was found in 97.7% using serum agglutination test. Culture of blood and bone marrow specimen were positive in 30% and 50% of samples obtained, respectively. Rifampin and co-trimoxazole were the most commonly used combination in 68.1%. The overall relapse rate was 13.6%. Arthritis and fever were the most common clinical findings of brucellosis. Wright test is a very sensitive method to detect brucella infection. Public education and control measures should be applied to prevent the zoonotic and human brucellosis

  14. [Clinical manifestations, complications and treatment of brucellosis: 45-patient study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, M; Ammari, L; Masmoudi, A; Tiouiri, H; Fendri, C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, laboratory findings and therapeutic features of patients with brucellosis. The diagnosis was made by clinical findings, automated blood culture, serology (Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, standard tube agglutination (Wright) and immunofluorerescence). The susceptibility of 13 strains was tested in vitro. The base sequence was determined for four strains. Forty-five cases were collected (31 acute and 14 sub-acute). Contamination was digestive in 62%. Symptoms of patients were fever (93%), sweating (82%), arthralgia (78%) and splenomegaly (51%). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined in 80%, leukopenia in 49% and anaemia in 37% of cases. Blood cultures were positives in 39% of cases. The four sequenced strains were identified as Brucella melitensis biovar abortus. Six strains were resistant to sufomethoxazol-trimetoprim (54%). In 93% of cases, the treatment was associated rifampicin and doxycyclin. One patient died. No relapse was reported. PMID:18387752

  15. Evaluation of four immunoassays for diagnosis of brucellosis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four immunoassays (two indirect and two competitive ones) were evaluated by samples from areas free of disease, free by vaccination and affected areas using as reference techniques the Bengal Rose Tests, the Antigen in Buffered Plate Tests and the Complement Fixation Reaction Test. The evaluated samples demonstrated that the competitive assays (ELISAC-1 and ELISAC-2) detected less false positives than the indirect ones (ELISAI-1 and ELISAI-2). Of the competitive ELISAS, version 2 presented better sensitivity and specificity results in affected areas for 95% confidence: 80.9 - 96.9% and 97.5 - 99.4% respectively with positive predictive value in the range of 76 to 94% and negative predictive one between 98.1 and 99.7%. It was concluded that this assay can be used for brucellosis control because it gives higher assurance than the other evaluated immunoassays and it can discriminate infected from vaccinated animals. (author)

  16. Measles Induced Death in Eastеrn Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananiev Ju.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The infectious disease of measles is becoming a rarity in the member states of the European Union. After the implementation of the mandatory immunization calendar, cases of measles among children rarely encounter while those that have been registered usually pass lightly and without any significant complications. We present two cases of a measles-type infection with a fatal outcome for two children - 4 and 11 years of age respectively - who had not been immunized by the time of the event and who developed an unfolding clinical picture with the respective complications. In a number of countries in the European Union (as well as within some ethnical groups, the Roma population included, standard-type vaccinations may appear to be problematic. The most frequently encountered complications, resulting from such “blunders”, are pneumonia and encephalitis but controlling the clinical symptoms is not always possible because of: 1 late medical intervention due to the poor knowledge ability of the respective ethnical group (overdue contact with the specialized medical personnel, as well as 2 the superposed bacterial infections which unmask the initial diagnosis. Obtaining a clear picture of the symptoms in such patients is difficult. In the rare cases, when the therapy is rewarded with some success, patients remain partial or permanent invalids because of the irreversible damage to the brain and/or the functions of the lungs.

  17. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Protein Epitopes: The Basis of Antigenic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Maino; Bürckert, Jean-Philippe; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Maenaka, Katsumi; Muller, Claude P.; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Globally eliminating measles using available vaccines is biologically feasible because the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) protein is antigenically stable. The H protein is responsible for receptor binding, and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. The immunodominant epitope, known as the hemagglutinating and noose epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS). The RBS also contains an immunodominant epitope. Loss of receptor binding correlates with an escape from the neutralization by antibodies that target the epitope at RBS. Another neutralizing epitope is located near RBS and is shielded by an N-linked sugar in certain genotype strains. However, human sera from vaccinees and measles patients neutralized all MV strains with similar efficiencies, regardless of the N-linked sugar modification or mutations at these epitopes. Two other major epitopes exist at a distance from RBS. One has an unstructured flexible domain with a linear neutralizing epitope. When MV-H forms a tetramer (dimer of dimers), these epitopes may form the dimer-dimer interface, and one of the two epitopes may also interact with the F protein. The neutralization mechanisms of antibodies that recognize these epitopes may involve inhibiting the H-F interaction or blocking the fusion cascade after MV-H binds to its receptors. PMID:27490564

  18. CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEASLES AT SIR RONALD ROSS INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth Bhatt; Kalyani; Shankar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles remain a leading vaccine - preventable cause of child mortality worldwide and is still a public health problem. According to the World Health Organization ( WHO ), more than 20 million people are affected by measles each year with 95% of measles deaths occurring in countries that have weak health infrastructures. Out breaks of Measles are still common in India. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of th e present study were to determi...

  19. Unacceptably high mortality related to measles epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Grais

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the comprehensive World Health Organization (WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF measles mortality-reduction strategy and the Measles Initiative, a partnership of international organizations supporting measles mortality reduction in Africa, certain high-burden countries continue to face recurrent epidemics. To our knowledge, few recent studies have documented measles mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of our study was to investigate measles mortality in three recent epidemics in Niamey (Niger, N'Djamena (Chad, and Adamawa State (Nigeria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted three exhaustive household retrospective mortality surveys in one neighbourhood of each of the three affected areas: Boukoki, Niamey, Niger (April 2004, n = 26,795; Moursal, N'Djamena, Chad (June 2005, n = 21,812; and Dong District, Adamawa State, Nigeria (April 2005, n = 16,249, where n is the total surveyed population in each of the respective areas. Study populations included all persons resident for at least 2 wk prior to the study, a duration encompassing the measles incubation period. Heads of households provided information on measles cases, clinical outcomes up to 30 d after rash onset, and health-seeking behaviour during the epidemic. Measles cases and deaths were ascertained using standard WHO surveillance-case definitions. Our main outcome measures were measles attack rates (ARs and case fatality ratios (CFRs by age group, and descriptions of measles complications and health-seeking behaviour. Measles ARs were the highest in children under 5 y old (under 5 y: 17.1% in Boukoki, 17.2% in Moursal, and 24.3% in Dong District. CFRs in under 5-y-olds were 4.6%, 4.0%, and 10.8% in Boukoki, Moursal, and Dong District, respectively. In all sites, more than half of measles cases in children aged under 5 y experienced acute respiratory infection and/or diarrhoea in the 30 d following rash onset. Of measles cases, it was reported that 85

  20. Neurological Manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarfarosh, Shah Faisal Ahmad; Manzoor, Mushbiq

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease causing serious public health problems in countries of the Middle-East and developing countries like India. Neurobrucellosis is one of the devastating complications of this re-emerging zoonosis. The objective of this review was to identify the neurological manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian population and bring into light the effective modalities used for treating neurobrucellosis. A systematic review of the scientific literature reported in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Three databases (PubMed, IndMed, and ScienceDirect) were used to analyze retrospectively case reports of sufficient quality for data extraction (from the last 15 years, 2002-2016), and relevant literature was reviewed. Most of the cases had a definite history of exposure to Brucella through occupational contact with cattle, drinking raw milk, or living near unhygienic abattoir or even trips to epidemic areas outside India. The common presentations include fever, meningitis, brisk deep-tendon reflexes, extensor plantars, sensory deficit usually below the twelfth thoracic vertebral level, weakness of lower limbs, ocular signs of papilledema, and retrobulbar neuritis. The usual systemic findings associated were hepatosplenomegaly and weight-loss. Neurobrucellosis needs to be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin involving neurological symptoms and systemic involvement. Prognosis is good if there is a combination of antibiotics, each with different mechanisms of action given in full dose. Suitable measures for its prevention are also suggested. PMID:27555982

  1. Neurological Manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Mushbiq

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease causing serious public health problems in countries of the Middle-East and developing countries like India. Neurobrucellosis is one of the devastating complications of this re-emerging zoonosis. The objective of this review was to identify the neurological manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian population and bring into light the effective modalities used for treating neurobrucellosis. A systematic review of the scientific literature reported in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Three databases (PubMed, IndMed, and ScienceDirect) were used to analyze retrospectively case reports of sufficient quality for data extraction (from the last 15 years, 2002-2016), and relevant literature was reviewed. Most of the cases had a definite history of exposure to Brucella through occupational contact with cattle, drinking raw milk, or living near unhygienic abattoir or even trips to epidemic areas outside India. The common presentations include fever, meningitis, brisk deep-tendon reflexes, extensor plantars, sensory deficit usually below the twelfth thoracic vertebral level, weakness of lower limbs, ocular signs of papilledema, and retrobulbar neuritis. The usual systemic findings associated were hepatosplenomegaly and weight-loss. Neurobrucellosis needs to be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin involving neurological symptoms and systemic involvement. Prognosis is good if there is a combination of antibiotics, each with different mechanisms of action given in full dose. Suitable measures for its prevention are also suggested. PMID:27555982

  2. Early congenital syphilis%胎传梅毒的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强娣; 季必华

    2010-01-01

    近年来随着梅毒发病率的增长,胎传梅毒的发病率也在不断增加.孕妇缺乏梅毒血清学筛查及梅毒孕妇不正规的治疗是导致胎传梅毒发生的主要因素.胎传梅毒在临床特点、诊断和治疗等多方面与后天梅毒有所不同.临床上大多数胎传梅毒患儿在出生时并无临床症状,对无症状的患儿仅依据快速血浆反应素环状卡片试验和梅毒孕妇性病研究实验室试验的阳性结果诊断胎传梅毒易造成误诊、漏诊.因此,临床上对出生时无症状的胎传梅毒患儿应提高警惕.%With the increase of syphilis incidence, congenital syphilis has recently become a serious health problem. The development of congenital syphilis is mainly ascribed to the lack of prenatal serologic testing and proper management of syphilis in pregnant women. Congenital syphilis is different from acquired syphilis in many aspects, such as clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management. Most cases of congenital syphilis are asymptomatic at birth, and to diagnose congenital syphilis only based on the results of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test and T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay often leads to missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of syphilis in asymptomatic babies. Thereby, clinicians should be particularly vigilant for the possibility of asymptomatic congenital syphilis.

  3. Simultaneous chickenpox and measles infection among migrant children who stayed in Italy during the second half of June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ivi?-Hofman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting on a household outbreak of measles, in which cases of simultaneous measles and chickenpox infection occured in children of a family who resided in Italy during the incubation period (June 2011. In three children, fever and generalized confluent macular rash were the dominant symptoms. Serology testing revealed simultaneous measles and chickenpox infection in four children.

  4. Social network investigation of a syphilis outbreak in Ottawa, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo-Scott, H; Cutler, J; Friedman, D; Hendriks, A; Jolly, AM

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of syphilis in Ottawa, Ontario, has risen substantially since 2000 to six cases per 100,000 in 2003, again to nine cases per 100,000 in 2007, and recently rose to 11 cases per 100,000 in 2010. The number of cases reported in the first quarter of 2010 was more than double that in the first quarter of 2009. OBJECTIVE: In May 2010, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care requested the assistance of the Field Epidemiology Program to describe the increase in infectious syphilis rates and to identify social network sources and prevention messages. METHODS: Syphilis surveillance data were routinely collected from January 1, 2009 to July 15, 2010, and social networks were constructed from an enhanced social network questionnaire. Univariate comparisons between the enhanced surveillance group and the remaining cases from 2009 on non-normally distributed data were conducted using Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ2 tests. RESULTS: The outbreak cases were comprised of 89% men. Seventeen of the 19 most recent cases consented to answer the questionnaire, which revealed infrequent use of condoms, multiple sex partners and sex with a same-sex partner. Information regarding social venues where sex partners were met was plotted together with sexual partnerships, linking 18 cases and 40 contacts, representing 37% of the outbreak population and connecting many of the single individuals and dyads. CONCLUSION: Uncovering the places sex partners met was an effective proxy measure of high-risk activities shared with infected individuals and demonstrates the potential for focusing on interventions at one named bar and one Internet site to reach a high proportion of the population at risk. PMID:26600816

  5. Evaluation of syphilis serostatus on the safety of IVF treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengli; Li, Rong; Huang, Shuo; Zhao, Lianming; Li, Ming; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jinliang; Zheng, Xiaoying; Huang, Jin; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of infertile syphilis-infected individuals have turned to assisted reproductive technology; however, the safety of syphilis carrier serostatus on IVF and embryo transfer outcomes has not been evaluated. Data from 482 patients who delivered singletons were analysed. In the retrospective study, the rate of IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection fertilization was 79.50% ± 17.57%/78.72% ± 16.66% in the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay negative (TPPA-negative) and rapid plasma reagin negative (RPR-negative) group, 76.12% ± 22.99%/74.05% ± 20.31% in the TPPA-positive and RPR-negative group, and 75.66% ± 21.72%/70.90% ± 16.11% in the TPPA-positive and RPR-positive group. The clinical pregnancy rate was 39.79% in the TPPA-negative and RPR-negative group, 46.30% in the TPPA-positive and RPR-negative group, and 36.59% in the TPPA-positive and RPR-positive group. No significant differences were found between the groups. The neonatal gestational age and mean birth weight were not significantly different between the TPPA-negative and TPPA-positive groups. Multiple linear regression analysis also showed no association between TPPA serostatus and newborn birth weight and gestational age. The present retrospective study showed that TPPA and RPR serostatus did not affect the outcomes of IVF and embryo transfer. Syphilis-infected individuals can undergo IVF and embryo transfer cycles after penicillin treatment. PMID:25444510

  6. Are serological tests of value in diagnosing and monitoring response to treatment of syphilis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus?

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, P M; Page, M L; Goldmeier, D

    1988-01-01

    To assess the value of serological tests in diagnosing and monitoring the response to treatment of syphilis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), case notes of eight homosexual men with a history of treated syphilis, positive reactions to serological tests for syphilis, and documented subsequent conversion to HIV seropositivity were studied. No change was noted in serological markers of syphilis after HIV infection. The case notes of one man with primary syphilis, ...

  7. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several...

  8. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007

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    Nan Lijuan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  9. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children children 1-14 years old, 22% (n = 1,769) were unvaccinated and 70% (n = 5,518) had received one dose of a measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination. PMID:26967661

  10. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

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    H. K. Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, modified RBPT (mRBPT, standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  11. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  12. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H. K.; Kotwal, S. K.; Singh, D. K.; Malik, M. A.; Kumar, Arvind; Rajagunalan; Singh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years) age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:27536036

  13. Serum annexin A2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktug Demir, N; Kolgelier, S; Sumer, S; Inkaya, A C; Ozcimen, S; Demir, L S; Ural, O; Arpaci, A

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic granulomatous infection and may present with various clinical manifestations. Brucellar spondylodiscitis symptoms are initially subtle and nonspecific. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is involved in various biological functions, including osteoclast formation, bone resorption, and cell growth regulation. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of serum ANXA2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis. This prospective study included 96 acute brucellosis patients and 51 healthy controls. Acute brucellosis was diagnosed by a 1/160 or higher titer in a standard tube agglutination (STA) test or a four-fold increase in titers between two STA tests performed two weeks apart in the presence of clinical symptoms within the last eight weeks and/or growth of Brucella spp. in appropriately prepared culture media. ANXA2 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty (41.7 %) of 96 acute brucellosis patients were male and 56 (58.3 %) were female. Serum ANXA2 levels were elevated in patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001). Eighteen of 96 (18.7 %) acute brucellosis patients had brucellar spondylodiscitis. The serum ANXA2 levels of patients with brucellar spondylodiscitis were higher than those of patients with acute disease without brucellar spondylodiscitis (p = 0.001). ANXA2, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values were elevated in the brucellar spondylodiscitis group compared to patients without brucellar spondylodiscitis. Serum ANXA2 measurement together with ESR and CRP is thought to be indicative in the diagnosis of brucellar spondylodiscitis, a common complication of brucellosis.

  14. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Bertu, Wilson J; Ocholi, Reuben A; Gusi, Amahyel M; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Sue; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences.

  15. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Cross, Paul C; Bengis, Roy G; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood. We report infection patterns and fitness correlates of bovine brucellosis in African buffalo based on (1) 7 years of cross-sectional disease surveys and (2) a 4-year longitudinal study in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We then used a matrix population model to translate these observed patterns into predicted population-level effects. Annual brucellosis seroprevalence ranged from 8·7% (95% CI = 1·8-15·6) to 47·6% (95% CI = 35·1-60·1) increased with age until adulthood (>6) and varied by location within KNP. Animals were on average in worse condition after testing positive for brucellosis (F = -5·074, P pregnancy or being observed with a calf. For the range of body condition scores observed in the population, the model-predicted growth rate was λ = 1·11 (95% CI = 1·02-1·21) in herds without brucellosis and λ = 1·00 (95% CI = 0·85-1·16) when brucellosis seroprevalence was 30%. Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25714466

  16. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular.

  17. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G;

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  18. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  19. A unique measles B3 cluster in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands linked to air travel and transit at a large international airport, February to April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura; Mandal, Sema; de Sousa, Rita; Paranthaman, Karthik; van Binnendijk, Rob; Ramsay, Mary; Hahné, Susan; Brown, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a joint measles outbreak investigation between public health officials in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands following detection of a measles cluster with a unique measles virus strain. From 1 February to 30 April 2014, 33 measles cases with a unique measles virus strain of genotype B3 were detected in the UK and the Netherlands, of which nine secondary cases were epidemiologically linked to an infectious measles case travelling from the Philippines. Through a combination of epidemiological investigation and sequence analysis, we found that measles transmission occurred in flight, airport and household settings. The secondary measles cases included airport workers, passengers in transit at the same airport or travelling on the same flight as the infectious case and also household contacts. This investigation highlighted the particular importance of measles genotyping in identifying transmission networks and the need to improve vaccination, public health follow-up and management of travellers and airport staff exposed to measles. PMID:27074646

  20. Measles outbreaks in displaced populations: a review of transmission, morbidity and mortality associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamigaki Taro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease with a significant public health impact especially among displaced populations due to their characteristic mass population displacement, high population density in camps and low measles vaccination coverage among children. While the fatality rate in stable populations is generally around 2%, evidence shows that it is usually high among populations displaced by disasters. In recent years, refugees and internally displaced persons have been increasing. Our study aims to define the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors associated with measles outbreaks in displaced populations. Methods We reviewed literature in the PubMed database, and selected articles for our analysis that quantitatively described measles outbreaks. Results A total of nine articles describing 11 measles outbreak studies were selected. The outbreaks occurred between 1979 and 2005 in Asia and Africa, mostly during post-conflict situations. Seven of eight outbreaks were associated with poor vaccination status (vaccination coverage; 17-57%, while one was predominantly due to one-dose vaccine coverage. The age of cases ranged from 1 month to 39 years. Children aged 6 months to 5 years were the most common target group for vaccination; however, 1622 cases (51.0% of the total cases were older than 5 years of age. Higher case-fatality rates (>5% were reported for five outbreaks. Consistent factors associated with measles transmission, morbidity and mortality were vaccination status, living conditions, movements of refugees, nutritional status and effectiveness of control measures including vaccination campaigns, surveillance and security situations in affected zones. No fatalities were reported in two outbreaks during which a combination of active and passive surveillance was employed. Conclusion Measles patterns have varied over time among populations displaced by natural and man-made disasters. Appropriate

  1. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  2. Application of the World Health Organization Programmatic Assessment Tool for Risk of Measles Virus Transmission-Lessons Learned from a Measles Outbreak in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer B; Badiane, Ousseynou; Lam, Eugene; Nicholson, Jennifer; Oumar Ba, Ibrahim; Diallo, Aliou; Fall, Amadou; Masresha, Balcha G; Goodson, James L

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) African Region set a goal for regional measles elimination by 2020; however, regional measles incidence was 125/1,000,000 in 2012. To support elimination efforts, the WHO and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed a tool to assess performance of measles control activities and identify high-risk areas at the subnational level. The tool uses routinely collected data to generate district-level risk scores across four categories: population immunity, surveillance quality, program performance, and threat assessment. To pilot test this tool, we used retrospective data from 2006 to 2008 to identify high-risk districts in Senegal; results were compared with measles case-based surveillance data from 2009 when Senegal experienced a large measles outbreak. Seventeen (25%) of 69 districts in Senegal were classified as high or very high risk. The tool highlighted how each of the four categories contributed to the total risk scores for high or very high risk districts. Measles case-based surveillance reported 986 cases during 2009, including 368 laboratory-confirmed, 540 epidemiologically linked, and 78 clinically compatible cases. The seven districts with the highest numbers of laboratory-confirmed or epidemiologically linked cases were within the capital region of Dakar. All except one of these seven districts were estimated to be high or very high risk, suggesting that districts identified as high risk by the tool have the potential for measles outbreaks. Prospective use of this tool is recommended to help immunization and surveillance program managers identify high-risk areas in which to strengthen specific programmatic weaknesses and mitigate risk for potential measles outbreaks.

  3. The prevalence and correlates of syphilis and HIV among homosexual and bisexual men in Shijiazhuang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Jun; Hu, Ling-Ling; Li, Jie-Fang; Liu, Li-Hua; Wei, Ning

    2016-02-01

    Bisexual men (men who have sex with men and women) are potential epidemiological bridges responsible for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from men who have sex with men only to the heterosexual population. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV and the factors associated with syphilis infection among men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only from Shijiazhuang, China. In 2011-2013, a cross-sectional cohort of 427 men who have sex with men was recruited by a snowball sampling method and tested for syphilis and HIV. Chi square and logistic regression were performed to identify syphilis risk factors. Among the 427 men who have sex with men, 71 (16.6%) cases were syphilis-positive and 16 cases (3.7%) were HIV-positive. The proportions of men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only in the total sample were 31.4% and 68.6%, respectively. Men who have sex with men and women exhibited double the syphilis prevalence of men who have sex with men only and were more likely to practice insertive anal sex. Higher education level, being married, having more male partners, and both receptive and insertive anal sex roles were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men and women. Residing in suburban areas, being married, being HIV positive, and an absence of desire to change sexual orientation were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men only. Therefore, men who have sex with men and women represent an important sub-group in the syphilis epidemic and further interventions should be developed to reduce risk among different sub-sets of men who have sex with men.

  4. [HIV infection, gonorrhea and syphilis from Thailand to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O

    1999-10-30

    Thailand, a popular tourist destination for Norwegians, is experiencing an increasing epidemic of HIV infection. We used the Norwegian surveillance system for communicable diseases to assess the connections between the Norwegian and Thai epidemics. Before 1999, 1,869 cases of HIV-infection had been reported in Norway. From 1993 to 1998, 1,334 cases of gonorrhoea and 62 cases of syphilis were reported. We studied cases with a Thai patient or source partner and cases acquired in Thailand. 56 (3%) of HIV-infection cases, 64 (5%) of gonorrhoea cases and two (3%) of syphilis cases were connected to Thailand. All the Norwegians who acquired HIV in Thailand were males, with a median age of 39. Eight of them were diagnosed in 1998 as compared to 16 during the previous ten-year period. 21 Thai women and seven males were diagnosed with HIV infection in Norway, eight in 1998 and 20 in the previous ten-year period. The Norwegian HIV epidemic is influenced by the Thai epidemic. Norwegian men are infected in Thailand during holidays. Thai women come with their Norwegian partner to Norway and later discover their HIV status. We recommend raising the awareness of the Thai epidemic among Norwegian tourists. Immigrants to Norway from highly endemic countries should be offered HIV counselling and testing. PMID:10592752

  5. ANALYSIS OF Treponema pallidum RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS BY WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    SATO Neuza Satomi; HIRATA Mário H.; HIRATA Rosário D.C.; Lia Carmen M.S. ZERBINI; Edilene P.R. SILVEIRA; MELO Carmem Silvia de; Ueda, Mirthes

    1999-01-01

    Three GST fusion recombinant antigen of Treponema pallidum, described as GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15 were analyzed by Western blotting techniques. We have tested 53 serum samples: 25 from patients at different clinical stages of syphilis, all of them presenting anti-treponemal antibody, 25 from healthy blood donors and three from patients with sexually transmitted disease (STD) other than syphilis. Almost all samples from patients with syphilis presented a strong reactivity with GST-rT...

  6. [Nodular granuloma of the lip. An unusual manifestation of secondary syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wiefel, A-S; Reifenberger, J; Bruch-Gerharz, D; Helbig, D

    2013-10-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum which evolves through three overlapping stages. A 50-year-old woman presented with an expanding painless granulomatous nodule on her lower lip in combination with a maculo-papular exanthem. Both serologic studies and microscopic examination indicated an infection with Treponema pallidum. This case shows an unusual granulomatous nodular presentation of syphilis on the lower lip, emphasizing the variable clinical and histological manifestations syphilis, which shows an increasing number of new infections worldwide in recent years. PMID:23979072

  7. HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis prevalence and coinfection among sex workers in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol; Geisiane Custodio; Ana Carolina Barreto da Silva; Mikely Byala de Oliveira; Audrei Wolfart; Daisson Jose Trevisol

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to HIV, hepatitis, and syphilis coinfection. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tubarão, Laguna, and Imbituba, Southern Brazil. We surveyed 147 SWs using face-to-face interviews and blood sampling for serological evaluation. Results Prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) was 23.1%, syphilis 19.7%, hepatitis C (HCV) 8.8%, and HIV 8.8%. Of 13 HIV-infected patients, 3 were co-infected with HCV, 4 with syphilis, and 5 with HBV. Concl...

  8. Papulonodular secondary syphilis: a rare clinic presentation confirmed by serologic and histologic exams*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Boin, Maria Fernanda Feitosa de Camargo; Porto, Pedro Loureiro; Chen, Jessica Chia Sin

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum and divided into three stages according to the duration of the disease: primary, secondary and tertiary. Secondary syphilis has diverse clinical presentations, such as papular-nodular lesions. This presentation is rare, with 15 cases reported in the literature over the past 20 years. We report a case of secondary syphilis with papular-nodular lesions in a healthy 63-year-old patient, who has presented treponema in immunohistochemical examination of the skin lesions. PMID:27192520

  9. The Great Imitator Strikes Again: Syphilis Presenting as “Tongue Changing Colors”

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Swanson; Janna Welch

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is known as the great imitator, making its diagnosis in the emergency department difficult. A 29-year-old male presented with the chief complaint of “my tongue is changing colors.” A syphilis rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test resulted as positive. In primary syphilis, the chancre is the characteristic lesion. While chancres are frequently found on the external genitalia or anus, extragenital chancres arise in 2% of patients. With oral involvement, the chancre is commonly found on the li...

  10. Syphilis in HIV-infected patients: predictors for serological failure and serofast state

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    R Palacios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: HIV-infected patients treated for syphilis may be at increased risk for serological failure and serofast state. Our aim was to analyse serological response to treatment in HIV-infected patients diagnosed with syphilis, and factors associated with serological cure and serofast state. Methods: Open-label, no controlled study of a series of HIV-patients diagnosed with syphilis during 2004–2011. Patients were categorized by rapid plasma reagin titer (RPR into success (4-fold decrease in RPR by 12 or 24 months after treatment of early or late syphilis, serofast (success with persistently stable reactive RPR, and failure/re-infection (failure to decrease 4-fold in RPR by 12 or 24 months after treatment or sustained 4-fold increase in RPR after treatment response. Results: 141 HIV-patients were diagnosed with syphilis during the study period (104 early syphilis, 36 late or indeterminate latent syphilis. The mean age was 36.3 years, 98.5% were male, and 87.2% homosexual men. In 46 (32.6% cases, HIV and syphilis infection diagnosis were coincident (mean CD4 457/mm3 and HIV-VL 4.72 log10. Among patients with prior known HIV infection, 65 were on antiretroviral therapy (ART at syphilis diagnosis (mean CD4 469/mm3, 76.9% undetectable HIV-VL. 116 patients satisfied criteria for serological response analysis (89 early, 24 late/indeterminate. At 12 months of early syphilis treatment (89.2% penicillin there were 16 (18% failures, and at 24 months of late/indeterminate syphilis (91.7% penicillin there were 5 (18.5% failures. Overall, 36 (31.0% patients presented serofast state. Treatment failure was related with lower CD4 count (295 vs 510/mL; p=0.045 only in patients with coincident diagnosis. Serofast state was related with older age (41 vs 36 years; p=0.024, and lower CD4 count (391 vs 513/mm3; p=0.026. Conclusions: In this series of HIV-infected patients, with many patients on ART and with good immunological and virological parameters, serological

  11. The use of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity as an adjunct test to diagnose brucellosis in cattle: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological te

  12. Study of toxic properties of prototypes of photo inactivated vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis by speckle microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    Testing of prototypes of vaccines against extremely dangerous diseases, such as tularemia and brucellosis has been performed using speckle-microscopy. Changes of microcirculation caused by effect of toxins at applications of suspension of photoinactivated bacteria have been studied. Toxic properties of prototypes of vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis have been analyzed.

  13. the temperature dropped to normal When Rash Had appeared For 12 Hours:an atypical Case of Measles in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ling Liu; Chun-wei Wang; Ying Liu; Ping Zhou; Xiao-juan Li; Hui-yuan Si; Hong-wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A twenty-eight-year-old male patient with five-day’s fever (the highest body tempreture reached 39.4℃) and 10-hour’s rash (first on face) presented to the department of emergency for “drug rash”, at that time his temperature was 38.6℃. Two hours later, his temperature fell to normal. Then this patient’s entire body rash increased signiifcantly and lasted for 13 hours. Serum measles antibody IgM(+) conifrmed the measles diagnosis. He had received measles vaccine as a baby. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical clinical manifestation of adult measles. If this kind of patients were misdiagnosed as drug rash and given corticosteroid, measles disease may be aggravated. Speciifc serum measles antibody testing may be the only reliable method for differential diagnosis, but the earliest time point for examining the antibodies of measles still needs precise research.

  14. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  15. Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using B. melitensis strain B115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrente, Marialaura; Desario, Costantina; Parisi, Antonio; Grandolfo, Erika; Scaltrito, Domenico; Vesco, Gesualdo; Colao, Valeriana; Buonavoglia, Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is diagnosed by official tests, such as Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation test (CFT). Both tests detect antibodies directed against the lipolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella cell wall. Despite their good sensitivity, those tests do not discriminate between true positive and false positive serological reactions (FPSR), the latter being generated by animals infected with other Gram negative microorganisms that share components of Brucella LPS. In this study, an antigenic extract from whole Brucella melitensis B115 strain was used to set up an ELISA assay for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. A total of 148 serum samples from five different groups of animals were tested: Group A: 28 samples from two calves experimentally infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O:9; Group B: 30 samples from bovines infected with Brucella abortus; Group C: 50 samples from brucellosis-free herds; Group D: 20 samples RBPT positive and CFT negative; Group E: 20 samples both RBPT and CFT positive. Group D and Group E serum samples were from brucellosis-free herds. Positive reactions were detected only by RBPT and CFT in calves immunized with Y. enterocolitica O:9. Sera from Group B animals tested positive also in the ELISA assay, whereas sera from the remaining groups were all negative. The results obtained encourage the use of the ELISA assay to implement the serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend.

  17. Epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle in Korea from 2001 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hachung; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Won-Chang; Her, Moon; Jeong, Wooseog; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Do-Soon

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the outbreak patterns of bovine brucellosis in Korea from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed to understand the epidemiological evolution of this disease in the country. A total of 85,521 brucella reactor animals were identified during 14,215 outbreaks over the 12-year study period. The number of bovine brucellosis cases increased after 2003 and peaked in 2006 before decreasing thereafter. The majority of the bovine brucellosis cases were Korean native cattle, Han Woo. The numbers of human brucellosis cases and cattle outbreaks increased and decreased in the same pattern. The correlation coefficient for human and bovine cases per year was 0.96 (95% confidence interval = 0.86 ˜ 0.99; p brucellosis appeared to be affected by the intensity of eradication programs that mainly involved a test- and-slaughter policy. Findings from the present study were based on freely available statistics from web pages maintained by government agencies. This unlimited access to information demonstrates the usefulness of government statistics for continually monitoring the health of animal populations.

  18. Apparent seroprevalence, isolation and identification of risk factors for brucellosis among dairy cattle in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ajay D; Dubal, Z B; Karunakaran, M; Doijad, Swapnil P; Raorane, Abhay V; Dhuri, R B; Bale, M A; Chakurkar, Eaknath B; Kalorey, Dewanand R; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonotic infection affecting livestock and human beings. The disease has been reported worldwide except in few countries where it has been eradicated. The prevalence of brucellosis among cattle from 11 farms having a history of abortions was studied. A total of 481 samples comprising of blood, milk, vaginal swabs, vaginal discharges, placental tissues and fetal tissues were collected from 296 animals. Clinical samples were processed for the isolation of Brucella. Serum samples (n=296) were tested by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA. A total of 90 (30.40%) and 123 (41.55%) samples were positive by RBPT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Also 27.02% samples were positive by both the tests. Brucella isolates (n= 8) were recovered from clinical samples using Brucella selective media. All the isolates demonstrated PCR amplification for the bcsp31 and IS711 genes. Amplification of Brucella abortus specific primer was demonstrated by all the isolates in AMOS PCR indicating isolates to be of either B. abortus biotype 1, 2 or 4. Risk factors for transmission of brucellosis among cattle population were studied by field surveys. It was observed that lack of awareness about brucellosis (OR=8.739, P=0.138) and inadequate floor space (OR=0.278, P=0.128) were crucial risk factors for transmission of bovine brucellosis. PMID:27477501

  19. Study of 72 Cases of Human Brucellosis in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassrollah Mojdehi

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Conclusions based on 72 proven cases of B~cellosis obsed"Ve.d at ~he Infectious Diseases Department of Pahlavi HOSPItal, Tehran University, School of Medicine from 1958-1962 are as follow:-"n1. Age Incidence: Highest between the ages of 20 to 40."n2. Seasonal Incidence: Highest during the summer months."n3. Occupational Relationship and Incidence: In 90% of th~ cases, there was no contact between the patients and the infected animals or their products. "n4. Sex Incidence: The majority of our cases, (68.0% were men."n5. Despite the prevalence of Hr. abortus among the c~ttle of tAlh~ Tehran area human Brucellosis due to Hr. abortus IS rare. the reported cases were due to Hr. mclitensi~."n6. The difference between the symptomatology in our cahsesdiaffnd those of foreigners are described. The~ may be ~ue ~o. t €I . ~renee in the casual agent and to the difference m living conditions in Iran. "n7. The Incidence of Brucellosis in children is extremely low. This may be due to their natural resistance and to their more limited living conditions."n8. The .disease is almost absent in occupationally exposed people, despite the number of infected cattle in the Tehran area. This may be due to the low pathogenic potency of Hr. abortus in Iran.."n9. Mode of Transmisainn ; Not discounting the possibility of transmission through the alimentary tract, we suggest that Brucella excreted by the goats kept in the city or those which belong to the tribes who pass some times during winter and summer"nmovement in the cities, may mix with the dust and air and so  ain entrance to the respiratory system."n10. Therapy: Best results in chronic cases were obtained througn"nan association of Tetracycline derivative with Sulfonamides and Streptomycine. Chloramphenicol has yielded good results, although in some cases the illness may recur.

  20. Syphilis Predicts HIV Incidence Among Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men in a Preexposure Prophylaxis Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Marc M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Glidden, David V.; Liu, Albert Y.; McMahan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Fernandez, Telmo; Grant, Robert M.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Buchbinder, Susan; Casapia, Martin; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Guanira, Juan; Kallas, Esper; Lama, Javier; Mayer, Kenneth; Montoya, Orlando; Schechter, Mauro; Veloso, Valdiléa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Syphilis infection may potentiate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the extent to which HIV acquisition was associated with syphilis infection within an HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial and whether emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) modified that association. Methods. The Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx) study randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men (MSM) to receive oral daily FTC/TDF or placebo. Syphilis prevalence at screening and incidence during follow-up were measured. Hazard ratios for the effect of incident syphilis on HIV acquisition were calculated. The effect of FTC/TDF on incident syphilis and HIV acquisition was assessed. Results. Of 2499 individuals, 360 (14.4%) had a positive rapid plasma reagin test at screening; 333 (92.5%) had a positive confirmatory test, which did not differ between the arms (FTC/TDF vs placebo, P = .81). The overall syphilis incidence during the trial was 7.3 cases per 100 person-years. There was no difference in syphilis incidence between the study arms (7.8 cases per 100 person-years for FTC/TDF vs 6.8 cases per 100 person-years for placebo, P = .304). HIV incidence varied by incident syphilis (2.8 cases per 100 person-years for no syphilis vs 8.0 cases per 100 person-years for incident syphilis), reflecting a hazard ratio of 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.6–4.4; P < .001). There was no evidence for interaction between randomization to the FTC/TDF arm and incident syphilis on HIV incidence. Conclusions. In HIV-seronegative MSM, syphilis infection was associated with HIV acquisition in this PrEP trial; a syphilis diagnosis should prompt providers to offer PrEP unless otherwise contraindicated. PMID:24928295