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Sample records for brucellosis syphilis measles

  1. Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can I get more information? Sexually Transmitted Diseases http: / / www. cdc. gov/ std/ Syphilis http: / / www. cdc. gov/ std/ syphilis/ Syphilis and MSM Fact Sheet http: / / www. cdc. gov/ std/ syphilis/ STDFact- MSM- Syphilis. ...

  2. Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria. ... you eat or drink unpasteurized milk or cheese. Brucellosis is rare in the United States. About 100 ...

  3. Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Brucellosis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. People ...

  4. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, William J; Griffin, Diane E

    2012-01-14

    Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by measles virus and is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of man--measles was responsible for millions of deaths annually worldwide before the introduction of the measles vaccines. Remarkable progress in reducing the number of people dying from measles has been made through measles vaccination, with an estimated 164,000 deaths attributed to measles in 2008. This achievement attests to the enormous importance of measles vaccination to public health. However, this progress is threatened by failure to maintain high levels of measles vaccine coverage. Recent measles outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and the USA show the ease with which measles virus can re-enter communities if high levels of population immunity are not sustained. The major challenges for continued measles control and eventual eradication will be logistical, financial, and the garnering of sufficient political will. These challenges need to be met to ensure that future generations of children do not die of measles. PMID:21855993

  5. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other diseases. In populations with high levels of malnutrition and a lack of adequate health care, up ... intake and treatment of dehydration with WHO-recommended oral rehydration ... are key public health strategies to reduce global measles deaths. The measles ...

  6. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person. It ... down Tiny white spots inside the mouth Sometimes measles can lead to serious problems. There is no ...

  7. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Moss, William J; Takeda, Makoto; de Swart, Rik L; Thompson, Kimberly M; Goodson, James L

    2016-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease in humans caused by the measles virus (MeV). Before the introduction of an effective measles vaccine, virtually everyone experienced measles during childhood. Symptoms of measles include fever and maculopapular skin rash accompanied by cough, coryza and/or conjunctivitis. MeV causes immunosuppression, and severe sequelae of measles include pneumonia, gastroenteritis, blindness, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Case confirmation depends on clinical presentation and results of laboratory tests, including the detection of anti-MeV IgM antibodies and/or viral RNA. All current measles vaccines contain a live attenuated strain of MeV, and great progress has been made to increase global vaccination coverage to drive down the incidence of measles. However, endemic transmission continues in many parts of the world. Measles remains a considerable cause of childhood mortality worldwide, with estimates that >100,000 fatal cases occur each year. Case fatality ratio estimates vary from 5% in developing countries. All six WHO regions have set goals to eliminate endemic transmission of MeV by achieving and maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage accompanied by a sensitive surveillance system. Because of the availability of a highly effective and relatively inexpensive vaccine, the monotypic nature of the virus and the lack of an animal reservoir, measles is considered a candidate for eradication. PMID:27411684

  8. Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Bone marrow culture Urine culture CSF (spinal fluid) culture Serology ( ... Health problems that may result from brucellosis include: Bone and joint sores (lesions) Encephalitis Infective endocarditis Meningitis

  9. Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. It infects the genital area, lips, mouth, or ... of both men and women. You usually get syphilis from sexual contact with someone who has it. ...

  10. Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltser, Ross; Kurban, Amal K

    2004-01-01

    In the last half of the 20(th) century, medicine has made tremendous inroads against syphilis chiefly owing to the introduction of penicillin and vigorous public health initiatives. Yet, the world continues to be burdened by this disease. Since 2000, overall rates of syphilis have risen in the US and throughout the world. Furthermore, through its association with an increased risk of HIV infection, syphilis has acquired a new potential for morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to survey the latest knowledge about syphilis, including pathogenesis and host response, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and, especially, treatment and follow-up. PMID:15596316

  11. Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as other STIs such as gonorrhea and chlamydial, hepatitis B, and HIV infections. If necessary, his partner(s) should be treated. All pregnant women should receive a blood test for syphilis early in their pregnancies. Treatment of ...

  12. Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints, or almost any other part of your body. This damage can happen years or even decades after the primary stage. Late syphilis can result in mental illness, blindness, deafness, memory loss or other neurologic problems, heart disease, ...

  13. Syphilis - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum . This bacterium causes ...

  14. Syphilis - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients will have late complications of syphilis. Late syphilis may be permanently disabling, and it may lead to death. ... Cardiovascular complications (aortitis and aneurysms) Destructive ... to the developing baby. This is called congenital syphilis.

  15. Primary Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Primary Syphilis Information for adults A A A This image ... ulcer with a red base, typical of primary syphilis. Overview Primary syphilis is a disease caused by ...

  16. Congenital syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum , which is passed from mother to child during fetal development or at birth. Nearly half of all children infected with syphilis while they ...

  17. Ocular brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabbara, K F; al-Kassimi, H

    1990-01-01

    Though brucellosis has been eradicated from many countries, it remains a health problem in many developing countries. We report hereon a 34-year-old woman who presented with recurrent attacks of uveitis unresponsive to treatment with steroids. She was found to have systemic brucellosis, and Brucella melitensis was isolated from a paravertebral abscess. The condition responded to systemic antibiotics, and she completely recovered from her uveitis.

  18. Pregnancy Complications: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Syphilis Syphilis Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please ... women are diagnosed with syphilis each year. Can syphilis cause problems during pregnancy and for your baby? ...

  19. Measles (Rubeola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rubeola) is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory system that is caused by a virus. It does ... has measles, particularly if the child is an infant or has any medication or condition that weakens the immune system. Call the doctor immediately if the child has ...

  20. [Ocular syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, C; Khayi, H; Puech, C; Tonini, M; Pavese, P; Aptel, F; Romanet, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Previously known as the "great imitator", this disease can have numerous and complex manifestations. The ophthalmologist should suspect the diagnosis in patients with uveitis or optic neuropathy and high-risk sexual behavior and/or another sexually transmitted disease (such as HIV) or those presenting with posterior placoid chorioretinitis or necrotising retinitis. Ocular involvement in acquired syphilis is rare, tending to occur during the secondary and tertiary stages of the disease. Syphilis may affect all the structures of the eye, but uveitis (accounting for 1-5% of the uveitis in a tertiary referral center) is the most common ocular finding. Granulomatous or non-granulomatous iridocyclitis (71%), panuveitis, posterior uveitis (8%) and keratouveitis (8%) are often described. In the secondary stage, the meninges and the central nervous system can be affected, sometimes with no symptoms, which justifies performing lumbar puncture in patients with uveitis and/or optic neuropathy. The diagnosis of ocular syphilis requires screening with a non-treponemal serology and confirmation with a treponemal-specific test. Parenterally administered penicillin G is considered first-line therapy for all stages of ocular syphilis. Systemic corticosteroids are an appropriate adjunct treatment for posterior uveitis, scleritis and optic neuritis if ocular inflammation is severe. Prolonged follow-up is necessary because of the possibility of relapse of the disease. With proper diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment, the majority of cases of ocular syphilis can be cured. PMID:24655791

  1. Measles -- Recommendations for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... require proof of either two doses of the measles vaccine or evidence of past measles infection at the ... avoided for 28 days following receipt of the measles vaccine or the MMR vaccine. updated July 23, 2008 ...

  2. Towards Measles elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Mark; Sciberras, Maria

    2003-01-01

    In many European countries measles is still a cause of great public health concern. Outbreaks of the disease are still occurring because the degree of vaccination coverage required to interrupt transmission has not yet been achieved. Many countries have started to implement measles elimination strategies. These are primarily based on attaining a very high coverage of measles vaccination and strengthening measles surveillance systems.

  3. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  4. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Home For Patients Search FAQs Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and ... FAQ071, February 2016 PDF Format Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Gynecologic Problems What are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis? ...

  5. Congenital syphilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Hur, Don [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    In recent years, marked increase in incidence of congenital syphilis has occurred throughout the world due to changes in social norms and development of penicillin-resistant strains. Early diagnosis plays an important role in congenital syphilis as the clinical manifestations may simulate many other conditions in the paediatric age group. The authors analyzed 52 cases of congenital syphilis admitted to the department of paediatrics, Chosun University Hospital, clinically and radiologically. Among them, 18 cases were born in this hospital and 34 cases were admitted from OPD, during the period of 8 years from January, 1975 to December, 1982. The results obtained were as follows; 1. In 28 of 34 cases (82%), the first clinical manifestations were below the age of 3 months. 2. Among the 52 cases, a male predominance was observed with a male to female ratio of 2 : 1. 3. The serologic test (VDRL) of the 52 studied cases showed reactive response in 49 cases (94%), and that of syphilitic mothers except 6 cases, reactive in all studied cases. 4. The major manifestations of the 52 cases were bone tenderness (12%) and swelling of the joints (7%) in skeletal system, hepatosplenomegaly (79%) and skin lesions (73%) in extraskeletal one. 5. The radiological skeletal changes were detected in 45 of 52 cases (87%), and the commonest findings were detected in 45 of 52 cases (87%), and the commonest findings were metaphysitis (83%) and periostitis (81%). The most characteristic type of metaphysitis were transverse trophic line (74%) and zone of rarefaction (65%). 6. The commonest bones to be affected were growing metaphyses of the long bones, particulary about the wrist and the knee. The order of frequency were radius (80%), uina (80%), tibia (77%), femur (69%) and humerus (40%)

  6. Congenital syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, marked increase in incidence of congenital syphilis has occurred throughout the world due to changes in social norms and development of penicillin-resistant strains. Early diagnosis plays an important role in congenital syphilis as the clinical manifestations may simulate many other conditions in the paediatric age group. The authors analyzed 52 cases of congenital syphilis admitted to the department of paediatrics, Chosun University Hospital, clinically and radiologically. Among them, 18 cases were born in this hospital and 34 cases were admitted from OPD, during the period of 8 years from January, 1975 to December, 1982. The results obtained were as follows; 1. In 28 of 34 cases (82%), the first clinical manifestations were below the age of 3 months. 2. Among the 52 cases, a male predominance was observed with a male to female ratio of 2 : 1. 3. The serologic test (VDRL) of the 52 studied cases showed reactive response in 49 cases (94%), and that of syphilitic mothers except 6 cases, reactive in all studied cases. 4. The major manifestations of the 52 cases were bone tenderness (12%) and swelling of the joints (7%) in skeletal system, hepatosplenomegaly (79%) and skin lesions (73%) in extraskeletal one. 5. The radiological skeletal changes were detected in 45 of 52 cases (87%), and the commonest findings were detected in 45 of 52 cases (87%), and the commonest findings were metaphysitis (83%) and periostitis (81%). The most characteristic type of metaphysitis were transverse trophic line (74%) and zone of rarefaction (65%). 6. The commonest bones to be affected were growing metaphyses of the long bones, particulary about the wrist and the knee. The order of frequency were radius (80%), uina (80%), tibia (77%), femur (69%) and humerus (40%)

  7. Syphilis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Asrul Abdul; Ali, Umi Kalsom; Mohammad, Marlyn; Md. Monoto, Ezura Madiana; Rahman, M M

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis in pregnancy remains an important medical condition due to its consequences. We present two cases of young pregnant women who were diagnosed syphilis during their antenatal visit. The first case was a 29-year-old Malay lady diagnosed with syphilis during the first trimester of pregnancy, while the second case was a 21-year-old Chinese lady diagnosed with syphilis during the third trimester of pregnancy. The diagnosis and management of the syphilis in pregnancy are discussed.

  8. Cutaneous manifestations in Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Karaali; Birol Baysal; Sule Poturoglu; Mehmet Kendir

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common worldwide zoonotic disease. Cutaneous manifestations are not specific and affect 1–14% of patients with brucellosis. Here, we describe 49-year-old female with fever and a diffuse maculopapular rash due to Brucella melitensis infection. Histopathology of skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis; positive blood cultures for B. melitensis established the diagnosis of brucellosis. We provide a review of the relevant literature.

  9. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Photos Recommend ...

  10. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  11. Unusual manifestations of brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Onur; Avşar, Kemal; Zeynep Akçam, Füsun

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important public health problem in the Mediterranean countries, including our country. Furthermore, because of different symptoms and clinical findings, the disease could be confused with several other diseases. In this article, three unusual findings of brucellosis are presented: pancytopenia, endocarditis and meningitis.

  12. A Rare Case: Atypical Measles

    OpenAIRE

    Ümmü Sena Sarı; Figen Kaptan

    2016-01-01

    Atypical measles has been described in persons who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. Occasionally, it can be caused by live measles vaccines also. It is a clinical picture different from typical measles. In this report, an adult patient with a history of immunization, who presented with high fever, maculopapular rash starting at the palms and soles, and pneumonia, is presented. Atypical measles that was ...

  13. Syphilis Profiles, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD on Facebook Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Profiles, 2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Profiles The following profiles provide an overview of syphilis morbidity in each of the 50 states, the ...

  14. Severe Measles Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rafat, Cédric; Klouche, Kada; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Messika, Jonathan; Roch, Antoine; Machado, Sonia; Sonneville, Romain; Guisset, Olivier; Pujol, Wilfried; Guérin, Claude; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Mrozek, Natacha; Darmon, Michaël; Chemouni, Frank; Schmidt, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract France has recently witnessed a nationwide outbreak of measles. Data on severe forms of measles in adults are lacking. We sought to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, treatment, and prognostic aspects of the disease in adult patients who required admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 36 adults admitted to a total of 64 ICUs throughout France for complications of measles from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011. All cases ...

  15. Meningoencephalitis in brucellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochar D

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis, more specifically neurobrucellosis, is a less commonly reported disease in India; although, animal brucellosis and seroprevalence in specific areas is well reported. We are reporting 4 cases of neurobrucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by serological test and agglutination titre was > 1:320 in all the patients. All these patients had close contact with animals and history of raw milk ingestion was present in 3 cases. The aim of presenting these cases is to create awareness among physicians while treating meningitis in persons, engaged in occupations related to brucellosis or having a history of ingestion of raw milk or milk product.

  16. National Swine Brucellosis Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, Ronald C.; Roe, Richard T.; Kellar, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A national survey was conducted in 1985 to investigate the brucellosis status of the Canadian swine herd. Serum samples were collected from cull sows slaughtered over a forty week period in 1985; 15,707 samples were suitable for brucellosis testing, and 48 (0.31%) gave some degree of reaction on the buffered plate agglutination screening test. All 48 samples were negative on the 2-mercaptoethanol and modified complement fixation test. We therefore conclude that the Canadian swine herd remains...

  17. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  18. Meningoencephalitis in brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kochar D; Kumawat B; Agarwal N; Shubharakaran; Aseri S; Sharma B; Rastogi A

    2000-01-01

    Human brucellosis, more specifically neurobrucellosis, is a less commonly reported disease in India; although, animal brucellosis and seroprevalence in specific areas is well reported. We are reporting 4 cases of neurobrucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by serological test and agglutination titre was > 1:320 in all the patients. All these patients had close contact with animals and history of raw milk ingestion was present in 3 cases. The aim of presentin...

  19. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  20. Measles (lecture, continuing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article discusses differential diagnosis during different measles periods. Routine and confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, including cytological, serological and molecular genetic methods is outlined. Criteria of suspected, probable and proved diagnosis of measles cases are provided. Principles of diagnosis formulation according to WHO criteria are described. Complications of measles ac¬cording to cause (viral and bacterial, by different systems and particularities in high risk patients are considered. Complications of measles from central nervous system are described in details. Therapeutic management of measles is described in details, including indications for hospital admission, etiotropic therapy, strict indications for steroids and immunoglobulins prescription, vitamin A in dosages, therapy of complications, indications for antibiotics usage and other pathogenetic therapy. Specific therapy of measles complications from central nervous system is outlined. Active and passive immunization, anti-epidemic activities, patient follow-up after episode of measles and disease prognosis are described. The literature reference list consists of 121 items, including Cyrillic, Latin articles and electronic resources.

  1. Brucellosis in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku Gul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is still an important infectious disease, being widespread as endemic and sporadic cases in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment modalities and final outcomes of brucellosis in children. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective record review of all patients 0-18 years of age with brucellosis admitted during a 8-year period between January 2003 and September 2010.Results: Of the 62 patients, 39 (63% were male. The mean age and standard deviation of patients was 120±51.7 months (4 months-18 years. Most common symptoms on admission were fever (88%, arthralgia (64% and dizziness (19%. On physical examination, the findings and percentages were as follows; arthritis (29%, lymphadenopathy (25%, hepatomegaly (24% and splenomegaly (17%. Fifty-one percent of the patients had high sedimentation rate, 41% had high transaminase levels, and 40% had positivity for C-Reactive Protein. Brucella agglutination tests were positive in all cases. Brucella spp. was isolated from blood cultures in 27% of the cases. All of the cases were given combined drug therapy. Three of the cases (4.8% had relapses during the follow up period. No mortality was seen in patients with brucellosis.Conclusion: Childhood brucellosis remains an important public health problem in our country. It may cause serious complications in children, and treatment with at least two antibiotics for not less than six weeks appears to be effective.

  2. A Rare Case: Atypical Measles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmü Sena Sarı

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atypical measles has been described in persons who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. Occasionally, it can be caused by live measles vaccines also. It is a clinical picture different from typical measles. In this report, an adult patient with a history of immunization, who presented with high fever, maculopapular rash starting at the palms and soles, and pneumonia, is presented. Atypical measles that was first reported in the 1970s in mostly kids should be considered for differential diagnosis in adult cases presenting with high fever, atypical rash and pneumonia even if patients have a history of immunization

  3. Syphilis management and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst Vader, PC

    1998-01-01

    Syphilis poses a serious health problem in many developing countries and in some areas of North America and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. This article initially addresses the state of the art regarding the interaction between syphilis and HIV infection and its consequences for management and tr

  4. Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources News Newsletters Events Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Measles ... it is eliminated from the body. Who Needs It? Children Children should get 2 doses of MMR ...

  5. The Reemergence of Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, C L; Safdar, N

    2015-12-01

    Measles, or rubeola, is a highly infectious, acute viral illness of childhood that is considered eliminated in the USA but has reemerged in the past few years. Globally, an estimated 20 million cases of measles continue to occur, and it remains a leading cause of death among young children. It is rare in the USA and other first world countries, but numerous outbreaks have occurred in the USA recently, due to a combination of factors including poor vaccine coverage and importation of cases among travelers returning from endemic areas. The diagnosis of measles is usually made clinically, when an individual presents with a constellation of symptoms including cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, high fever, and an erythematous maculopapular rash in a cephalocaudal distribution. Complications are common and include otitis media, pneumonia, encephalitis, and rarely death. A measles vaccine is available in two doses and provides excellent protection against the disease. Despite this, vaccination coverage, especially among young adults, remains poor. Given its resurgence in the USA and other countries, interventions are urgently needed to address low vaccination rates and vaccine hesitancy. Measles awareness should also be a priority among young clinicians, who may have never seen a case or are not familiar with the disease. PMID:26446612

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD on Facebook Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Background Syphilis, ... Table 36B ). Interpreting Rates of Reported Cases of Syphilis Left untreated, infection with syphilis can span decades. ...

  7. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Marangoni; Alessandra Moroni; Elisabetta Tridapalli; Maria Grazia Capretti; Antonietta D’Antuono; Marina Biagi; Sanzio Ruscello; Franca Savioli; Roberto Cevenini

    2011-01-01

    Congenital syphilis (CS) is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was...

  8. Treatment of primary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W C

    1976-12-01

    Reports in the English language of the treatment of primary syphilis are reviewed. Except for benzathine penicillin, the efficacy of the currently recommended dosage schedules are documented only by Schroeter et al. Although these investigators reported generally acceptable failure rates, further study is necessary to determine: (1) if differences in efficacy exist among regimes; (2) if the current schedules are equally effective in both primary and secondary syphilis; and (3) if increased dosages reduce failure rates. PMID:1010777

  9. Brucellosis: a political disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Roffe, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    With the challenges confronting North America's elk herds today, a bacteria that causes a nonfatal disease in a few elk herds seems an unlikely addition to the list. Fragmentation of habitat, dwindling bull-cow ratios, grazing competition from livestock on public rangelands, or the crowding of favorite hunting spots all seem like far more urgent matters to elk junkies. But a twist of fate an a national campaign to eradicate this seemingly innocuous bacterium have put brucellosis on the front burner.

  10. The return of brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Amato-Gauci, Andrew J.

    1995-01-01

    Brucellosis, also known under the names of Undulant fever, Mediterranean fever and Malta fever is closely linked with Malta’s medical history and for long endemic to our Islands. Every reported case was investigated by the medical officers of health who contacted the head of each affected household for an epidemiological enquiry including a food history. All these cases were associated with the consumption of fresh cheeselets made from unpasteurised milk. During the investigation some 900 kgs...

  11. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  12. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  13. Congenital syphilis in the newborn.

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, V.; Pandit, P B; Nkrumah, F K

    1988-01-01

    We studied 53 newborn babies with congenital syphilis. The common clinical features seen were low birth weight, hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia, jaundice, and symmetrical superficial desquamation of the skin affecting palms and soles. The presence of these clinical signs is highly suggestive of early congenital syphilis. Hydrops fetalis without rhesus or ABO isoimmunisation should always arouse the suspicion of congenital syphilis.

  14. Syphilis in the HIV Era

    OpenAIRE

    Kassutto, Sigall; Doweiko, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of syphilis has consistently increased from 2000 to 2002. We report a case of acquired syphilis with symptoms of Tullio phenomenon in a patient concurrently diagnosed with HIV infection. The resurgence of syphilis in HIV-positive groups at high risk has public health implications for prevention of both diseases.

  15. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Notowicz (Alfred)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific diagnos

  16. Unusual presentation of Brucellosis:Afebrile,culture posi-tive Brucellosis and culture positive,seronegative Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Avijgan; Masoud Hafizi; Ardeshir Salemi; Shams al-sadate Izadi Dehkordi

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the unusual presentation of brucellosis.Methods:This prospective study was carried out on 46 patients suspected to brucellosis.The diagnosis was made with isolation of brucella species by Bone Marrow culture.Results:Among 40 culture positive patients,there were two unusual presentations of brucello-sis;Afebrile culture positive and culture positive seronegative brucellosis.Conclusion:Some brucellosis pa-tients would not match with criteria for diagnosis of brucellosis.Although it is needed to have positive serology or culture for diagnosis of brucellosis but sometimes,it is the clinical experiences,which help to diagnose and treat these kinds of patients.

  17. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... ol: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Year Cases 2010 ...

  18. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  19. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas...

  20. Measles Susceptibility in Children in Karachi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Sana; Ali, Asad; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Agha, Ajmal; Khowaja, Asif; Allana, Salim; Qureshi, Shahida; Azam, Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Measles, despite being vaccine preventable is still a major public health problem in many developing countries. We estimated the proportion of measles susceptible children in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan, one year after the nationwide measles supplementary immunization activity (SIA) of 2007–08. Oral fluid specimens of 504 randomly selected children from Karachi, aged 12–59 months were collected to detect measles IgG antibodies. Measles antibodies were detected in only 5...

  1. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qiaozhen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased susceptibility to measles in young infants in China. Measles IgG in 24 measles infants ≤ 9 months of age and their vaccinated mothers was quantitatively measured. The mean measles neutralizing titer in the vaccinated mothers and in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles were compared. Results All the mothers were confirmed to be vaccinated successfully by the presence of measles IgG. Six vaccinated mothers were positive for measles IgM and had high concentrations of measles IgG and the neutralizing antibody, indicating underwent natural boosting. The mean measles neutralizing titer in 18 vaccinated mothers without natural boosting were significantly lower than that in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles (1:37 vs 1:182, P Conclusions Our results suggest that infants born to mothers who acquired immunity to measles by vaccination may get a relatively small amount of measles antibody, resulting in loss of the immunity to measles before the vaccination age. Measures to improve the immunity in young infants not eligible for measles vaccination would be critical to interrupt the measles transmission in China.

  2. Decline of Measles-Specific Immunoglobulin M Antibodies after Primary Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Helfand, Rita F.; Howard E. Gary; Atkinson, William L.; Nordin, James D.; Keyserling, Harry L.; Bellini, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) has become the standard diagnostic method for laboratory confirmation of measles. In outbreaks, the interpretation of an IgM-positive result can be complicated when persons with suspected measles receive a dose of measles vaccine as part of outbreak control measures. This investigation evaluated the decay of measles-specific IgM antibodies 1 to 4 months after primary vaccination with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMRII). Serum sample...

  3. Thrombocytopenia in Brucellosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    A Nikavar; Z Kalbasi

    1997-01-01

    A 6-year old is presented with fever, ecchymosis and knee pain. Positive Wright and 2ME tests were in favor of Brucellosis. Blood culture for Brucella was also positive. Blood cells count showed a Thrombocytopenia of 35.000. Platelets returned to normal by mere antibiotic treatment of Brucellosis. Pancytopenia or any isolated deficiency of hematologic cell lines can be a complication of Brucellosis. This urges the clinicians to think of Brucellosis in patients with Thrombocytopenia.

  4. Brucellosis Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left ...

  5. Thrombocytopenia in Brucellosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikavar

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year old is presented with fever, ecchymosis and knee pain. Positive Wright and 2ME tests were in favor of Brucellosis. Blood culture for Brucella was also positive. Blood cells count showed a Thrombocytopenia of 35.000. Platelets returned to normal by mere antibiotic treatment of Brucellosis. Pancytopenia or any isolated deficiency of hematologic cell lines can be a complication of Brucellosis. This urges the clinicians to think of Brucellosis in patients with Thrombocytopenia.

  6. Epistaxis as the initial manifestation of brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mousa, Abdullah I

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a multisystem disease with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Hematologic complications in the form of mild pancytopenia are occasionally reported in the course of acute brucellosis. Rarely, thrombocytopenia is severe and can be associated with purpura and mucosal bleeding. Epistaxis as the initial manifestation of brucellosis is a rarely reported phenomenon. A case of young adult is being reported who presented with epistaxis due to brucellosis-induced thrombocytopenia.

  7. Syphilis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockman, Solomon; Buescher, Lucinda S; Stone, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis gained notoriety in the 1500s, when it became widespread throughout Europe. While the origins of syphilis are not certain, recent data have shown that it may have originated in the Americas from a close relative that causes Yaws (Treponema pallidum pertenue).(1) For the past 500years, the disease has shown its various faces all over the world. The 19th century saw an entire medical subspecialty-syphilology (sometimes known as syphilography)-devoted to the study of the great disease, then known as "the great imitator." Syphilis has an entire textbook of presentations and can mimic many other infections and immune-mediated processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the many faces of the disease led to Sir William Osler's well-known aphorism, "The physician who knows syphilis knows medicine."(2) When penicillin was discovered, and used to treat syphilis in 1943, some thought that syphilis would go by the wayside, but syphilis continued what it has been doing for so many years . . . inconspicuously infecting humans. The United States has seen the incidence of syphilis increase numerous times throughout the past 70years. Every decrease in the incidence of syphilis is followed shortly by an increase. A marked shift in the epidemiology occurred from 1990 to 2000. In the 1990s, syphilis primarily occurred in heterosexual minority groups. In the new millennium, a majority of cases of syphilis are now transmitted among men who have sex with men (MSM).(3) This contribution discusses the incidence of syphilis in the United States and the reasons these trends continue. PMID:24559556

  8. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Barbosa de Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Known as “the great imitator,” secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions.

  9. 9 CFR 311.15 - Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis. 311.15 Section 311.15... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.15 Brucellosis. Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts...

  10. Eponyms in syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Vashisht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eponym has originated from the Greek word "eponymos" meaning "giving name". It is a tribute to the pioneers in the field who have significantly contributed towards present understanding of the subject. Syphilis has amazed and plagued mankind since eternity. This disease is a great masquerade and can humble best of physicians with its varied presentations. Keen and immaculate observations of these workers have eased our understanding of many signs and phenomenon associated with this disease. This has led to evolution of number of eponyms, perhaps no other disease has as many eponyms associated with it, as does syphilis. Eponyms such as Kassowitz′s law, Clutton′s joints, Higoumenaki sign, Argyll-Robertson pupil etc. help in providing easy milieu for remembering. Besides paying tributes to stalwarts in the field, who dedicated their lives for this cause, they also facilitated our current understanding of the great masquerade.

  11. Oral Secondary Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter N; Capra, Gregory G; Nelson, Brenda L

    2016-06-01

    Secondary syphilis develops in approximately 25 % of patients infected with the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. It typically develops several weeks to several months after the primary infection, which is recognized by a painless chancre. Secondary syphilis is characterized by systemic symptoms, such as malaise and fever as well as a maculopapular rash involving the trunk and extremities including the palms and soles. Condyloma lata, which are raised, fleshy lesions, tend to develop at the site of the primary chancre. Diagnosis is achieved primarily through screening and confirmational serologic testing. Histologic findings seen in condyloma lata are largely non-specific. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and immunohistochemical stains specific for T. pallidum should be utilized. PMID:25776279

  12. Early prenatal syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Rathod; Bela Shah

    2010-01-01

    Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed ea...

  13. Syphilis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Genc, M.; Ledger, W.

    2000-01-01

    Syphilis can seriously complicate pregnancy and result in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, non-immune hydrops, intrauterine growth restriction, and perinatal death, as well as serious sequelae in liveborn infected children. While appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications, the major deterrent has been inability to identify the infected women and get them to undergo treatment. Screening in the first trimester with non-treponemal tests such as rapid plasma reagin...

  14. Biological Basis for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    LaFond, Rebecca E.; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2006-01-01

    Syphilis is a chronic sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Clinical manifestations separate the disease into stages; late stages of disease are now uncommon compared to the preantibiotic era. T. pallidum has an unusually small genome and lacks genes that encode many metabolic functions and classical virulence factors. The organism is extremely sensitive to environmental conditions and has not been continuously cultivated in vitro. Nonetheless, T. pallidum...

  15. Biological basis for syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Rebecca E; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2006-01-01

    Syphilis is a chronic sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Clinical manifestations separate the disease into stages; late stages of disease are now uncommon compared to the preantibiotic era. T. pallidum has an unusually small genome and lacks genes that encode many metabolic functions and classical virulence factors. The organism is extremely sensitive to environmental conditions and has not been continuously cultivated in vitro. Nonetheless, T. pallidum is highly infectious and survives for decades in the untreated host. Early syphilis lesions result from the host's immune response to the treponemes. Bacterial clearance and resolution of early lesions results from a delayed hypersensitivity response, although some organisms escape to cause persistent infection. One factor contributing to T. pallidum's chronicity is the paucity of integral outer membrane proteins, rendering intact organisms virtually invisible to the immune system. Antigenic variation of TprK, a putative surface-exposed protein, is likely to contribute to immune evasion. T. pallidum remains exquisitely sensitive to penicillin, but macrolide resistance has recently been identified in a number of geographic regions. The development of a syphilis vaccine, thus far elusive, would have a significant positive impact on global health. PMID:16418521

  16. Control of brucellosis in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease and considered a great problem of major economic importance in most countries, particularly in those where no eradication programme is applied. In developing countries, ovine brucellosis is still a more frequent source of human infection, and attempts at eradication or campaigns for its control have often met with considerable difficulties. The Iraqi government has long been concerned with the danger brucellosis represents to public health and economy. The Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Baghdad has a long history of work on brucellosis since in 1977-1985 different biotypes of Brucella melitensis, in particular biotype III, were prevalent and isolated from aborted foetuses and from sheep and goat milk. In addition, two biotypes of Brucella abortus were isolated from aborted calves. As a result, goats, sheep and cattle have a very high risk of morbidity. Serious incidences of brucellosis have been observed in 12% of goats, 10% of sheep and 0.5% of cattle. Recently, Iraq has faced an increasing incidence of the disease, because of inadequate observation of the rules and regulations concerning its control. Accordingly, Iraq has initiated action in co-operation with Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic in order to develop a regional project in the framework of the elimination, prevention and eradication programme established in 1995

  17. Immune Response After Measles Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles immunization of 192 under 5 years of age children was undertaken and the overall seroconversion was 76.0%. Seroconversion rate in the age group of 9-12 months was 70.9% and it was 100% after one year. Immune response in malnourished children was more as compared to normal children. There were negligible side reactions after measles vaccination, and this vaccine passed normal potency tests under field conditions.

  18. Three Cases of Reinfection Syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜欣

    2001-01-01

    These three cases of reinfection syphilis all had complete medical histories, clinical symptoms, and laboratory records of prior primary or secondary syphilis infection. The author held that the main reason for reinfection was failure of diagnosis and treatment of sex partners.

  19. Secondary syphilis presenting as vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphilis is a chronic, systemic and sexually transmitted infectious disease affecting most of the organs in the body. A young African man presented with vertigo, unsteadiness of gait and a skin rash suggestive of secondary syphilis. Diagnosis was confirmed on serology and was treated with two shots of long-acting penicillin, following which his symptoms settled. (author)

  20. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qiaozhen; Hu Yali; Lu Pei-Shan; Zhao Hong; Yao Wenhu; Zhou Yi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased...

  1. Mothers' concept of measles and attitudes towards the measles vaccine in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Odebiyi, A I; Ekong, S C

    1982-01-01

    The attitude of Nigerian mothers, mainly Yoruba, towards measles vaccine and other aspects of prevention are influenced by different perceptions of the cause of measles. There is a significant correlation between the literacy of mothers and their belief in the efficacy of measles vaccine but not between their ages and belief. The mothers' perception of measles is a function of their socioeconomic characteristics, with the lower socioeconomic group tending more to define measles within the sup...

  2. Encephalitogenicity of measles virus in marmosets.

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, P; Lorenz, D.; Klutch, M J

    1981-01-01

    Marmosets infected intracerebrally with the wild Edmonston strain of measles virus developed encephalitis, demonstrated histologically and by the fluorescent-antibody technique. The infection remained clinically silent over a 14-day observation period. Animals infected intracerebrally with the JM strain of wild measles virus had only mild encephalitic changes but died of the visceral form of measles infection. Marmosets inoculated with measles vaccine had no encephalitis and remained clinical...

  3. Epidemiology and control of brucellosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deqiu, Shang; Donglou, Xiao; Jiming, Yin

    2002-12-20

    The paper describes the history and evolvement of brucellosis in China. It presents the variation of epidemic situation, epidemiological characteristics, application of vaccines and control in brief. Before 1980s, human and animal brucellosis was quite severe; during 1980s, the incidence of human and animal brucellosis was relatively low, and seemed to decrease during the decade. During 1990s, there were no obvious changes in the incidence of animal brucellosis, but the incidence of human brucellosis increased, especially from 1995 to 2001. There are not only some common characteristics but also some differences in brucellosis epidemiology relative to that reported in the rest of the world. For the entire country, B. melitensis was the predominant strain associated with outbreaks, and the epidemic peak is from February to June. Several Brucella vaccines have been used in China for prevention and control of brucellosis. such as B. abortus 104 M in humans, B. suis S2 in animals. The introduction of comprehensive measures has allowed great progress in the prevention and control of brucellosis in China. Surveillance points were set-up countrywide to estimate the epidemic situation. In addition, we discussed the new characteristics of brucellosis in China, the influence of the El Nino phenomenon on brucellosis epidemic situation, the phenomenon of antigenic interference between Brucella species and some disadvantages of live Brucella vaccines. PMID:12414142

  4. Brucellosis: Epizootiologic and diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been known as a separate etiological entity for almost 150 years, brucellosis is, on a global scale, one of the most frequent diseases that is transferred from animals to humans. It is present as an endemic disease in almost all countries of the Mediterranean Sea, which indicates that a large number of aspects in connection with the control and epizootiology of this disease still remain unexplained. Three of the six types of brucella have been officially confirmed in our country as well. They are Brucella melitensis biotip 3, Brucella suis biotip 2 and Brucella canis. Brucellosis is endemically present in Kosovo and Metohija province and in southern Serbia proper; over the past few years, the spread of brucellosis in sheep and goats as primary hosts for B. melitensis to new territories, mostly in Vojvodina province, has shown that risk analysis is one of the main factors in selecting and implementing control programmes. A correctly selected set of diagnostic tests yields reliable data in most cases, but interpretations of results are prone to result in subjective assessments as well. A special problem in the serological diagnosis of brucellosis is the cross reactivity of brucellas and some other bacteria, often a weak immunological response of the animal, or that the type of brucella that causes the infection determines the sensitivity and specificity of the applied tests, most often screenings tests. Due to the big economic losses resulting from disease control and eradication, and the serious risk to human health, brucellosis still poses an epizootiological, and, in particular, a diagnostic challenge.

  5. Etiological role of brucellosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colakoglu Onder; Taskiran Bengur; Adnan Kirci; Tunakan Mine; Buyrac Zafer; Unsal Belkis; Aksoz Kadir; Yorukoglu Gazi

    2005-01-01

    To show that brucellosis may trigger autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), in addition to nonspecific liver involvement and toxic hepatitis, due to a class effect of tetracycline family used for treatment. We present a female patient admitted to our hospital due to partially improved fatigue and elevated liver enzymes following doxycycline and streptomycin usage for brucellosis. Brucellosis is endemic in our country, Turkey. It may involve any organ in the body. Liver is frequently involved. Doxycycline used for treatment occasionally may lead to hepatotoxicity. AIH is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver. Certain drugs (e.g. Minocycline), toxins, and viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, EBV, etc.) can trigger AIH. Only one case of AIH probably caused by doxycycline and brucellosis was reported. We discuss the relationship between brucellosis, AIH, and hepatotoxicity of doxycycline. Brucellosis may trigger AIH.

  6. Prediction Analysis for Measles Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Ohtomo, Norio; Tanaka, Yukio; Sawamura, Sadashi; Olsen, Lars Folke; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2003-12-01

    A newly devised procedure of prediction analysis, which is a linearized version of the nonlinear least squares method combined with the maximum entropy spectral analysis method, was proposed. This method was applied to time series data of measles case notification in several communities in the UK, USA and Denmark. The dominant spectral lines observed in each power spectral density (PSD) can be safely assigned as fundamental periods. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated using these fundamental periods can essentially reproduce the underlying variation of the measles data. An extension of the LSF curve can be used to predict measles case notification quantitatively. Some discussions including a predictability of chaotic time series are presented.

  7. Brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely distributed throughout the developing countries.In this review, an overview of the epidemiological and epizootic status of brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran is presented. In Iran, the disease was first recognized in 1932, which is now endemic in the entire country. The first animal vaccination program was carried out in 1949. Brucellosis has been found in humans, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, buffaloes, dogs and the prevalence of ...

  8. Syphilis: presentations in general medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyatsanza, Farai; Tipple, Craig

    2016-04-01

    Syphilis is caused by the spirochete bacteriumTreponema pallidumand can be transmitted both sexually and from mother to child.T pallidumcan infect any organ and produces a clinical disease with a relapsing and remitting course. It is not hard to see, therefore, why it is often described as the great mimic. In this review, we provide an update of modern syphilis epidemiology, clinical presentations, and testing and treatment strategies. PMID:27037391

  9. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This web ... MSM accounted for 75% of P&S syphilis cases. Syphilis—All Stages (P&S, Early Latent, Late, Late Latent, ...

  10. Not all that rashes is measles:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is a major cause of infant mortality in third world countries, leading to approximately one million deaths each year. The WHO aims to globally eradicate measles virus at the beginning of the next century, which will need a major effort in particular in countries like Sudan. To achieve goal epidemiological studies I am needed to estimate the magnitude of the problem for which accurate diagnostic test are needed. We therefore conducted a study in El hag Yousif area (population 500 000) in Khartoum North where measles is prevalent despite vaccination effort by EPI. We studied the accuracy of the WHO criteria for clinical diagnosis in comparison with laboratory diagnosis during a one-year period. A total of 145 under five suspected measles cases were identified by active, case finding and examined. 111 cases fully complied with the WHO criteria for diagnosis of clinical measles. Out of 103 clinical measles cases, tested using prototype rapid measles test IgM Elisa and Pcr, 77(75%) were measles positive. A battery of virus test was run on 21 sera out of the 26(25%) measles negatives: Herpes virus-6, Epstein-Bar and Dengue viruses were detected in five, one and one case, respectively. It was concluded that one out of every four cases diagnosed by the clinical as measles rash is probably caused by other viruses. (Author)

  11. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir Stay safe and healthy when traveling abroad. Measles spreads easily through coughing and sneezing. It ... vaccinated for measles before you travel . Are you traveling abroad? You might not think about measles when you ...

  12. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed...

  13. 9 CFR 78.22 - Brucellosis reactor bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor bison. 78.22... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.22 Brucellosis reactor bison....

  14. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  15. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  16. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  17. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  18. 9 CFR 78.43 - Validated brucellosis-free States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Wyoming. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 78.43, see the List of CFR Sections... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validated brucellosis-free States. 78... BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.43 Validated brucellosis-free States. Alabama,...

  19. Virginia Tech receives NIH funds brucellosis research

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Virginia Tech researchers from Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) and Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM) have received $300,000 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study brucellosis. Caused by Brucella bacteria, a potential bioterrorism agent, brucellosis is common to animals and some strains infect humans.

  20. Acute Brucellosis Presenting as Gastroenteritis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Bin Salih; Adel Alothman

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a systemic infection with multiple presentations. In spite of its oral mode of transmission and gastrointestinal pathogenesis, systemic symptoms are usually more prominent than gastrointestinal ones. Acute brucellosis presenting as gastroenteritis is rare in adults and could be the only manifestation of the disease. We report a case of gastroenteritis caused by Brucella species.

  1. Syphilis infection among homosexual men reporting contact with syphilis: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Weerakoon, Ajith P; Christopher K Fairley; Read, Tim RH; Bradshaw, Catriona; Forrester, Catherine; Bissessor, Melanie; Denham, Ian; Chen, Marcus Y

    2012-01-01

    Objective High rates of syphilis have been reported among men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally. Guidelines recommend presumptive treatment of sexual contacts of individuals with syphilis at the point of care. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion who were infected with syphilis and the factors predictive of infection among men reporting contact with a man with syphilis. Design Contacts who were syphilis infected (cases) were compared with those who were uninfected (...

  2. Congenital syphilis after treatment of maternal syphilis with a penicillin regimen exceeding CDC guidelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, C S; Rend, C A; Miller, G B; Schmid, G P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although congenital syphilis usually occurs as a result of a failure to detect and treat syphilis in pregnant women, failures of the currently recommended regimen to prevent congenital syphilis have been reported. CASE: This report describes an infant with congenital syphilis despite maternal treatment with a regimen exceeding current CDC guidelines. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the regimen used to treat syphilis during pregnancy, clinicians should recognize the possibility of occasi...

  3. Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease

    OpenAIRE

    McPhee, Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural h...

  4. Brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely distributed throughout the developing countries.In this review, an overview of the epidemiological and epizootic status of brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran is presented. In Iran, the disease was first recognized in 1932, which is now endemic in the entire country. The first animal vaccination program was carried out in 1949. Brucellosis has been found in humans, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, buffaloes, dogs and the prevalence of bovine brucellosis is estimated 0.3%. The successful implementation of a national brucellosis control program requires enough compensation, farmers’ cooperation, accurate diagnosis of infected animals and impetus of health system is required to overcome thedisease.

  5. Parotitis with secondary syphilis: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Hira, S. K.; Hira, R S

    1984-01-01

    Painless swelling of the parotid salivary gland was observed in a patient presenting with secondary syphilis. This case is of special interest to venereologists and surgeons as parotitis associated with syphilis may be mistaken for common tumours of the parotid glands. A diagnosis of syphilitic parotitis should be considered in patients presenting with swollen parotid salivary glands in countries where syphilis is prevalent.

  6. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Brito, Arival Cardoso de; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  7. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...

  8. Low molecular weight measles immunoglobulin M in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and acute measles.

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, J. H.; Simpson, D. M.; Trudgett, A.; Hopkins, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty eight patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were investigated. Five patients who previously had measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) detected in unfractionated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had measles IgM exclusively in the low molecular weight (LMW) fractions of serum and CSF. Measles IgM had previously not been found in unfractionated serum from 33 patients but was detected exclusively in the LMW fractions of serum from 30 patients. Seven children with acute measl...

  9. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  10. Chest Wall Involvement as a Manifestation of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    K Rahmdel; R Golsha; Golshah, E; R Rezaie Shirazi; N Sadre Momtaz

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis continues to be a common infectious disease in some parts of the world. Although the disease has different presentations, but chest wall involvement, as a manifestation of brucellosis is rare. In this study, we report three cases of chest wall involvement as manifesting feature of Brucellosis in Iran. They presented with a history of parasternal masses revealed to a diagnosis of Brucellosis and responded well to the treatment. Brucellosis may present with strange and unpredictable...

  11. Case Based Measles Surveillance in Pune: Evidence to Guide Current and Future Measles Control and Elimination Efforts in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V. M.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Banpel, R. V.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Methods Standard protocols w...

  12. CD46 Measles Virus Receptor Polymorphisms Influence Receptor Protein Expression and Primary Measles Vaccine Responses in Naive Australian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Holly D.; Hayden, Catherine M.; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Zhang, Guicheng; Le Souëf, Peter N.; Richmond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of measles vaccines, infants continue to die from measles. Measles vaccine responses vary between individuals, and poor immunogenicity is likely to preclude protection against measles. CD46 is a ubiquitously expressed specific receptor for vaccine strains of measles virus. CD46 polymorphisms have not been functionally investigated but may affect CD46 protein expression, which in turn may mediate primary measles antibody responses in infants. In a cohort of children ag...

  13. Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive sup...

  14. Eradication of measles: remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by >90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demanding a >95 % vaccination rate based on two doses to avoid primary vaccine failure as well as the installation of catch-up vaccination programmes to fill immunity gaps and to achieve herd immunity, (3) the implications of sporadic cases of secondary vaccine failure, (4) organisation, acceptance and drawbacks of modern vaccination campaigns, (5) waning public attention to measles, but increasing concerns from vaccine-associated adverse reactions in societies with high socio-economic standards and (6) clinical

  15. Did Adolf Hitler have syphilis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Wessels, A

    2005-10-01

    The evidence that Adolf Hitler might have suffered from incapacitating syphilis is reviewed. Rumors that he acquired syphilis from a prostitute at the age of 20 years, with possible re-infection during World War I, can no longer be verified. Evidence is that he was sexually rather inactive throughout his life. Suggestions that Hitler's cardiac lesion and complaints such as transitory blindness, tremor of his left arm and leg, recurring abdominal pain and a skin lesion of the leg were of syphilitic aetiology cannot be supported. Hitler's progressive mental and physical deterioration after 1942, his growing paranoia, fits of rage, grandiosity and symptoms of possible dementia would fit in neurosyphilis. There are, however, also other explanations for his terminal syndrome, and evidence that repeated clinical examinations did not show the characteristic signs of dementia paralytica or tabes dorsalis, swings the balance of probability away from tertiary syphilis. PMID:16341329

  16. Congenital syphilis: The continuing scourge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi G Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis is a severe, disabling infection that occurs due to the transmission of Treponema pallidum across the placenta during pregnancy or from contact with an infectious genital lesion during delivery. However, its early diagnosis is often difficult because more than half of the affected infants are asymptomatic, and the signs in symptomatic infants may be subtle and nonspecific. Although its incidence is declining, this long-forgotten disease continues to affect pregnant women, resulting in considerable perinatal morbidity and mortality. We hereby report a case of a 2-month-old infant with early congenital syphilis presenting with joint swellings and Parrot′s pseudoparalysis, a comparative rarity in the present scenario. The report also stresses upon the importance of implementing the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention recommendation that all the pregnant women should be screened for syphilis in the first antenatal visit in the first trimester and again in late pregnancy.

  17. Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive supportive care. Our case and a review of literature show that measles pneumonitis is routinely fatal in patients with cancer. We suggest that antiviral drugs should be considered as soon as the diagnosis has been established. PMID:24105383

  18. Anorectal syphilis mimicking Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mesut; Memisoglu, Reşat; Aydin, Selda; Tabak, Omur; Mete, Bilgül; Memisoglu, Necat; Tabak, Fehmi

    2011-10-01

    Anorectal syphilis, one of the great masqueraders in medicine, can be difficult to diagnose not only because of its variable symptoms but also because it is hard to think of unless a detailed history about sexual preferences and practices, including homosexuality, has been gathered. With increasing acceptance of sexual activity in our culture, despite moral and religious issues, various forms of sex have led to many different clinical conditions of sexually transmitted diseases. In this report, we describe a rare case of primary anorectal syphilis with clinical, endoscopic and histologic features that was misdiagnosed as Crohn's disease. PMID:21437679

  19. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...... measles antibody and 14.5 per 1000 person-years without measles antibody (MRR, 0.29; 95% CI, .09-.91). Possible confounding factors did not explain the difference. In a combined analysis, children who had measles antibody detected when they received their first dose of MV at 4-6 months of age had lower...

  20. Brucellosis: An Unrecognized Zoonotic Disease in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis, is a disease caused by members of the genus Brucella . In Indonesia, brucellosis has known as a contagious reproductive disease in animals, however, only certain people know that brucellosis can be transmitted to human . Bovine brucellosis is characterised by one or more of the following signs : abortion, retained placenta . orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk . The Brucella organism is transmitted to human most commonly by ingestion of untreated milk or milk products or through the mucous membranes and wound of the skin . The severity of human disease varies, depending largely upon the infecting strain . Brucella abortus, B . melitensis. B . suis and B. canis are highly pathogenic for humans . Clinical symptoms of human brucellosis may include an intermittent fever, headaches, weakness, arthalgia, myalgia and weight loss . Occasional complications include arthritis, endocarditis, hepatitis granuloma, meningitis, orchitis dan osteomyelitis have also been reported . Brucellosis can also produce spontaneous abortion in pregnant woman . Diagnosis is based on the isolation of the organism and serology . Antibiotics are usually the mainstay of treatment and long-term treatment may be required . Brucellosis can be controlled by comprehensive campaigns to eradicate the disease by vaccination programme followed by test and slaughter of domestic animals which exhibit positive serologic reactions to brucellae.

  1. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj; Edmond Puca; Sadie Namani; Muharem Bajrami; Valbon Krasniqi; Lindita Ajazaj Berisha; Xhevat Jakupi; Bahrie Halili; Dhimiter Kraja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the diseas...

  2. Persistence of brucellosis in pastoral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, V; Schelling, E; Chitnis, N; Roth, F; Zinsstag, J

    2013-04-01

    Regarded as a highly contagious, zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, brucellosis is endemic in many countries and settings and is responsible for a considerable economic and health-related burden. Limited information is available on the persistence and prevalence of brucellosis in pastoral communities, due to the difficulty in gathering information and to their mobility. However, since these communities are economically and culturally dependent on livestock, it is important to further determine the cause of persistent disease and develop possible methods for its management. The two main objectives of this paper are to review the literature, identifying various epidemiological and social factors that affect the persistence of brucellosis in pastoral ecosystems, and determine prevalence estimates within these communities. The general trend of the summarised studies indicates low-level, relatively stable transmission of brucellosis in pastoral areas, when compared to transmission in intensive and semi-intensive peri-urban production systems. A formal mathematical analysis can be undertaken using matrix models or coupled differential equations. This allows an examination of the various conditions under which the number of diseased, infected or exposed animals remains stable. The authors examined an existing mathematical differential equation model for brucellosis in Mongolia for its equilibrium conditions and found it reasonably robust, though clearly more data are needed to estimate threshold densities for brucellosis transmission in other regions of the world. However, the results indicate the importance of livestock demographic determinants for brucellosis persistence. The paper concludes that brucellosis remains largely persistent in pastoral areas of the world, despite (varying) control efforts. Plans to control brucellosis in pastoral settings should include ecological considerations, such as sustaining ecosystem services in pastoral areas. This

  3. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  4. Spread of Measles Virus in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-06

    Dr. Paul Rota, team lead for the Measles Laboratory, Division of Viral Diseases, at CDC, talks about a measles virus survey in Europe, 2008-2011.  Created: 10/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/6/2011.

  5. Arthritis after mumps and measles vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    Nussinovitch, M; Harel, L; Varsano, I

    1995-01-01

    Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine carries a risk of joint symptoms particularly in children under 5 years. A boy who presented with an inflamed knee after measles and mumps vaccination is reported; synovial fluid aspirated from the joint contained 4.3 x 10(9)/l leucocytes. It is thought that the mumps component is the aetiological cause of acute monoarthritis.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and...

  7. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Pınar; Kıdır, Mehtap; Namdar, Nazlı Dizen; Özmen, Ahmet; Uyar, Cemile; Değer, Ayşe Nur

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where brucellosis is endemic, brucellosis should be kept in mind necessarily in the differential diagnosis of vasculitis. PMID:27042369

  8. Imaging findings of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the chest radiography and MSCT findings of measles pneumonia in adults. Methods: One hundred and sixty three measles patients underwent chest radiography, MSCT was performed in 3 of them. Measles pneumonia was confirmed in 10 patients (6.13%). Results: Eight of 10 patients had abnormal appearances in initial chest radiography. The characteristic chest radiographic findings were ground-glass opacities (n=6) and bronchial wall thickening (n=2). MSCT showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities in 1 patient, unilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with lobular distribution in the right upper lung in 2 patients. Conclusions: Familiarizing with radiographic and MSCT appearances of measles pneumonia in adults is very important for the differential diagnosis and appropriate management of measles pneumonia. Normal initial chest radiography cannot exclude the involvement of the lungs. (authors)

  9. Pedro Pons′ sign as a Brucellosis complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Tuna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases. Several complications may be seen during its clinical course. Here, we describe a patient who presented with complaints of fatigue, malaise, and intensive lumbar pain. He had been suffering from these complaints for nearly 1 month. It was learned that he lived in rural area, made and ate his own cheese. The Rose Bengal test was positive and Brucella standard tube agglutination was positive at 1/320 titer. Pedro Pons′ sign, an osteoarticular complication of brucellosis, was revealed with the aid of radiologic imaging. Osteoarticular involvement is common in the course of brucellosis. Deformation in vertebrae formerly known as Pedro Pons′ sign should be thought in brucellosis patients suffering from lumbar pain.

  10. Laboratory Animal Models for Brucellosis Research

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Teane M. A.; Erica A Costa; Tatiane A. Paixão; Renée M. Tsolis; Santos, Renato L

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Brucella spp., a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that affects humans and animals, leading to significant impact on public health and animal industry. Human brucellosis is considered the most prevalent bacterial zoonosis in the world and is characterized by fever, weight loss, depression, hepato/splenomegaly, osteoarticular, and genital infections. Relevant aspects of Brucella pathogenesis have been intensively investigated...

  11. Brucellosis: The Case for Live, Attenuated Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ficht, Thomas A.; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa M.; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Rice-Ficht, Allison C.

    2009-01-01

    The successful control of animal brucellosis and associated reduction in human exposure has limited the development of human brucellosis vaccines. However, the potential use of Brucella in bioterrorism or biowarfare suggests that direct intervention strategies are warranted. Although the dominant approach has explored the use of live attenuated vaccines, side-effects associated with their use has prevented widespread use in humans. Development of live, attenuated Brucella vaccines that are sa...

  12. Advanced diagnostic methods for human brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Kunguloski, Dzoko

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a typical zoonotic disease caused by organisms of genus brucella. Humans become infected by ingestion of animal food products, direct contact with infected animals or inhalation of infectious aerosols. Variable symptoms, sub-clinical and atypical infections make diagnosis of human brucellosis difficult. Objective of this paper is to evaluate specificity and sensitivity of different diagnostic methods, on large number of samples, in patients at different stages of...

  13. Diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife.

    OpenAIRE

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. METHODS: The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wi...

  14. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sekhar Bose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  15. Immune status of health care workers to measles virus: evaluation of protective titers in four measles IgG EIAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Hall, M.A.; Vreeswijk, J.; Vries, J.J. de; Vossen, A.C.; Hulscher, H.I. Ten; Kerkhof, J.; Smits, G.P.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.; Binnendijk, R.S. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition of a measles case in a hospital in The Netherlands, health care workers (HCW) from the premises were screened by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measles IgG to identify persons at risk for measles. At least 10% of the HCW were tested measles IgG-negati

  16. The origin of syphilis-still controversial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Živorad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by spiral-shaped bacterium, Treponema pallidum The disease has been known under many names during history, and has had a prominent role in history and literature for the last several hundred years. Since its recognition in 15th-century Europe as a new disease, syphilis has been the subject of great mystery and legend. there are three main theories. These are the Columbian theory, the Pre-Columbian theory and the Evolutionary theory. The Columbian theory is most accepted. Syphilis exist nowadays, the World Health Organization estimats that 12 million new cases of syphilis occur each year. While syphilis eradication seems a biologically plausible goal, the major political, cultural, and logistic difficulties involved make it unlikely. Regrettably, rather than become an infection of historical significance, syphilis in the era of HIV continues to challenge researchers and clinicians.

  17. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  18. Alopecia as the Presenting Symptom of Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ornelas, Jennifer; Agbai, Oma N; Kiuru, Maija; Sivamani, Raja K.

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be one of the many symptoms of secondary syphilis and the clinical presentations include essential syphilitic alopecia or symptomatic syphilitic alopecia. In this report, we present a case of a patient with essential syphilitic alopecia whose sole presenting symptom of syphilis was alopecia. Despite an initial negative rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, he was ultimately found to have syphilis on scalp biopsy. His alopecia improved following treatment with benzathine penicillin. Thi...

  19. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  20. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Elen A; Bolella, Valdes R; Nardin, Maria Estela P; Habib-Simao, Maria Lucia; Furtado, João Marcelo; Moyses-Neto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  1. Alopecia as the Presenting Symptom of Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Jennifer; Agbai, Oma N; Kiuru, Maija; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia can be one of the many symptoms of secondary syphilis and the clinical presentations include essential syphilitic alopecia or symptomatic syphilitic alopecia. In this report, we present a case of a patient with essential syphilitic alopecia whose sole presenting symptom of syphilis was alopecia. Despite an initial negative rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, he was ultimately found to have syphilis on scalp biopsy. His alopecia improved following treatment with benzathine penicillin. This presentation serves as a reminder to clinicians to be cognizant of alopecia as a presenting sign of syphilis. A review of the specificity and sensitivity of the typical tests used for the diagnosis is presented. PMID:26436969

  2. Maternal and congenital syphilis in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, B R; Prasad, S R; Beena, P M; Okade, R; Sheela, S R; Beeregowda, Y C

    2014-03-01

    Screening women for syphilis during pregnancy and providing proper treatment are the cornerstones of congenital syphilis prevention. During 2008-2011, 6,221 pregnant women were screened for syphilis using the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination (TPHA) tests at R.L. Jalappa Hospital, Kolar, Karnataka, India. The seroprevalence of syphilis during pregnancy ranged from 0.57% to 0.78% during the study. Of the 35 women with a positive test, 26 (74.28%) were detected at the time of labor and 9 (25.71%) were detected during antenatal care. None of the women detected at the time of labor received penicillin therapy for syphilis. Adverse fetal outcomes due to untreated syphilis during pregnancy were seen in many of the cases. During the study 26 infants (3.69/1,000) were diagnosed with congenital syphilis. Our findings show detection and treatment of syphilis during pregnancy needs to be strengthened in the study area to reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis. PMID:24968685

  3. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koranne R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  4. Measles vaccine effectiveness and risk factors for measles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Akramuzzaman Syed M.; Cutts Felicity T.; Hossain Md J.; Wahedi Obaidullah K.; Nahar Nazmun; Islam Darul; Shaha Narayan C.; Mahalanabis Dilip

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vaccine effectiveness and to assess risk factors for measles in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHOD: A case-control study, involving 198 cases with 783 age-matched neighbourhood controls and 120 measles cases with 365 age-matched hospital controls, was conducted in 1995-96 in three large hospitals in Dhaka. FINDINGS: Measles vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 80% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 60-90%) using neighbourhood controls; very similar results were obtained using hos...

  5. Acute Prostatitis Due to Brucellosis; Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Alper Ozorak

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Turkey. The clinical features of brucellosis are not disease specific; and almost every organ can be affected. In males, genitourinary localization is reported in 2%-20% of cases. Unilateral epididiymo-orchitis is the usual manifestation. Prostatitis due to brucellosis is a very rare condition. In this article we reported two cases exhibit acute prostatitis due to Brucellosis.

  6. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Araj, G F; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings ...

  7. Ocular manifestations in a child with systemic brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Mohammadi; Alireza Dehghani; Heshmat Ollah Ghanbari; Mohammad Reza Akhlaghi; Kobra Nasrollahi; Hasan Salam

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with widespread prevalence. It presents with in various range and often with the presence of non-specific clinical signs and symptoms. Brucellosis also may cause different manifestations in eyes such as uveitis, keratitis, conjunctivitis and neuro-ophthalmic defects. Ocular brucellosis is rare among children. Herein, we present a 7-year-old girl with systemic and ocular brucellosis. After treatment with systemic steroid and antibiotics, her signs and symptoms...

  8. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Korkmaz; Mehtap Kıdır; Nazlı Dizen Namdar; Ahmet Özmen; Cemile Uyar; Ayşe Nur Değer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where ...

  9. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype or a...... antibiotic treatment, signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure resolved completely. Syphilis is a rare, but very important, differential diagnosis that in this case was clinically indistinguishable from IIH....

  10. Screening of Household Family Members of Brucellosis Cases and Neighboring Community Members in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis ca...

  11. Brucellosis Presenting with Pericarditis: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Lopes Pedro; Fernanda Paula Franchini; Leonardo Muraro Wildner

    2013-01-01

    Pericarditis is a rare manifestation during the course of brucellosis. This paper describes a case of pericarditis associated with brucellosis in a 31-year-old veterinary physician with a past medical history of testicular tumor and reviews the cases of pericarditis associated with brucellosis in medical English literature.

  12. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial of...... different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of...... children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4...

  13. Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines: randomized trials in Mexican schoolchildren.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett John V.; Fernandez de Castro Jorge; Valdespino-Gomez Jose Luis; Garcia-Garcia Ma de Lourdes; Islas-Romero Rocio; Echaniz-Aviles Gabriela; Jimenez-Corona Aida; Sepulveda-Amor Jaime

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare antibody responses and side-effects of aerosolized and injected measles vaccines after revaccination of children enrolling in elementary schools. METHODS: Vaccines for measles (Edmonston-Zagreb) or measles-rubella (Edmonston-Zagreb with RA27/3) were given by aerosol or injection to four groups of children. An additional group received Schwarz measles vaccine by injection. These five groups received vaccines in usual standard titre doses. A sixth group received only 1000 ...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keilbach Baer, N.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vacci

  15. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  16. Nephrotic syndrome and hepatitis in early syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, A. L.; Thin, R N; Croft, D N

    1989-01-01

    A 54 year old man presented with features of acute hepatitis and the nephrotic syndrome. A diagnosis of active syphilis was only made by chance after extensive investigation. Syphilis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of both acute hepatitis and the nephrotic syndrome occurring separately as well as together.

  17. Cardiovascular syphilis with coronary stenosis and aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Satyendra; Moorthy, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular manifestations of tertiary syphilis include aortitis, aortic root dilation, aneurysm formation, aortic regurgitation, and coronary ostial stenosis. Coronary ostial lesions have been detected in as many as 26% of patients with syphilitic aortitis. However nonostial coronary stenosis and coronary aneurysms in same patient is rarely described in cardiovascular syphilis. PMID:25634420

  18. Oral manifestations of syphilis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is an infectious disease presenting stages associated with specific oral lesions. Therefore, health professionals should be familiar with the different syphilis oral manifestations at each stage and be prepared to refer any suspected patient for further evaluation. This report describes the most important clinical factors of each stage, emphasizing the oral manifestations.

  19. Ocular syphilis presenting as unilateral chorioretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a multi systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Ocular manifestations of Syphilis have a myriad of presentations and severity. A 31year old male patient was referred from ophthalmology department as a case of chorioretinitis for screening for syphilis. Patient had diminished vision and redness of right eye for 2 months duration. History of premarital exposure and extramarital contact was present. Ocular examination revealed - Rt eye: conjunctival congestion and Argyll Robertson pupil; Lt eye: normal. Fundoscopy of right eye showed yellowish white retinal lesions, macular edema and hyperaemia and left eye was normal .No genital lesion, scars or cutaneous lesion was present.VDRL was reactive in 1 dilution,TPHA was positive ; HIV test was negative ; CSF revealed VDRL - Negative and TPHA -Negative.Patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin 1.2 Million units intramuscularly daily for 21 days. The patient responded well to treatment and there was improvement in his vision. Ocular Syphilis can occur at any stage of Syphilis and may be the only presenting sign. Syphilis serology was positive confirming the disease.This case highlights the importance of syphilis with ocular manifestation - there by proving that diagnosis of syphilis based on ocular finding is clinically challenging.

  20. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with

  1. Attenuated Measles Virus as a Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Armando; Wang, Zili; Liniger, Matthias; Hangartner, Lars; Caballero, Michael; Pavlovic, Jovan; Wild, Peter; Viret, Jean Francois; Glueck, Reinhard; Billeter, Martin A.; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2007-01-01

    Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have an impressive record of safety, efficacy and ability to induce life-long immunity against measles infection. Using reverse genetics technology, such negative-strand RNA viruses can now be rescued from cloned DNA. This technology allows the insertion of exogenous genes encoding foreign antigens into the MV genome in such a way that they can be expressed by the MV vaccine strain, without affecting virus structure, propagation and cell targeting. ...

  2. Modeling seasonal measles transmission in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenguo; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    A discrete-time deterministic measles model with periodic transmission rate is formulated and studied. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined and used as the threshold parameter in determining the dynamics of the model. It is shown that the disease will die out if R0 1 . Parameters in the model are estimated on the basis of demographic and epidemiological data. Numerical simulations are presented to describe the seasonal fluctuation of measles infection in China.

  3. A Case of Secondary Syphilis With Liver and Kidney Involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Shanchuan(雷山川); YU Yi(余艺); YE Yuhong(叶玉鸿)

    2002-01-01

    @@ SYPHILIS IS A chronic sexually transmitted diseasecaused by Treponum Pallidum spreading to the wholebody. Late Syphilis can encroach on most of the organs,but early syphilis has less damage to the internal organs.Here is a case of secondary syphilis with liver andkidney involvement reported as follows:

  4. [Injury by skull osteolytic secundary syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Lucas; Camporro, Julieta Piar; Arakaki, Naomi; Orellana, Nora; Mora, Claudia Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Bone involvement of syphilis can be observed in tertiary and congenital syphilis. It is infrequent during the secondary stage. The skull is the most affected bone in secondary syphilis, and its most frequent form of presentation is proliferative osteitis. If the skull is affected, headache is usual and can be as intense as in meningitis. Osteolyitic lesions may be seen in complimentary imaging studies, with a moth eaten aspect. These lesions raise concern over a number of differential diagnoses, among which are infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The definitive diagnosis is made by bone biopsy of the compromised bone. Molecular techniques in the affected tissues increases diagnostic performance. There is no standardized treatment protocol for syphilis since there are no guidelines available. We report a case of a 19 year old female, presenting with a unique osteolytic lesion in the skull due to secondary syphilis. PMID:27315003

  5. Acute Brucellosis in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease primarily affecting cattle, goats, sheep and other animals occasionally transmitted to man. The clinical manifestations are protean and often missed. A case of acute brucellosis in a young adult male who presented primarily with loss of weight, malaise, fatigue and with no known risk factors is reported here. Brucella melitensis was isolated from blood culture and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Brucella IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA test and the patient was treated successfully with injection Amikacin for two weeks and oral Doxycycline for a period of six weeks.

  6. Secondary Syphilis With Hepatitis and Nephrotic Syndrome: A Rare Concurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis, a chronic multisystem disease, is caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Clinical presentation may expand to several stages including primary, secondary and latent syphilis, which may present as early or late syphilis. Nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis are well-known complications of secondary syphilis. To the best of our knowledge, secondary syphilis with coexisting renal and hepatic complications has rarely been reported. Here we present a rare case of concurrent nephrot...

  7. The estimation of serological assays for latent syphilis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņš, Dzintars

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of serological assays for latent syphilis patients Abstract The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate how informative are serological assays for syphilis screening, the confirmation diagnosis of the late latent syphilis and for monitoring of the serological activity and treatment efficacy. Conclusions SED, TPHA, ELISA IgG, IgM and syphilis imunoblot IgG are useful for the late latent syphilis screening diagnostics. We do not recommend to use RPR for thi...

  8. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  9. Serological evaluation of a measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, C. M.; Bennett, V J; Jefferson, N; Mayon-White, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    Combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination is soon to become available in Britain in the routine immunisation programme. A controlled study was performed in 319 children, aged 13 months, to assess the antibody response and clinical reactions to a new combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in comparison with a single component measles vaccine. In the children who received the combined vaccine, seroconversion was established in 93% for measles, 99% for rubella, and 100% for mumps. I...

  10. Outbreak of measles in a highly vaccinated secondary school population.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, P A; Rea, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with measles vaccine effectiveness and the effect of two doses of vaccine on measles susceptibility during an outbreak. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A secondary school in the City of Toronto. SUBJECTS: The entire school population (1135 students 14 to 21 years of age). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of measles during an outbreak associated with age at first measles vaccination, length of time since vaccination, vaccination before 1980 ...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Liashenko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were ...

  12. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues; Celia Landmann Szwarcwald; Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Junior; Maria do Carmo Leal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during ...

  13. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Marques de Oliveira Soeiro; Angélica Espinosa Miranda; Valeria Saraceni; Marcelo Cordeiro dos Santos; Sinesio Talhari; Luiz Carlos Lima Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of s...

  14. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  15. Measles Virus Induces Functional TRAIL Production by Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Azocar, Olga; Lamouille, Barbara; Astier, Anne; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Servet-Delprat, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Measles virus infection induces a profound immunosuppression that can lead to serious secondary infections. Here we demonstrate that measles virus induces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA and protein expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Moreover, measles virus-infected dendritic cells are shown to be cytotoxic via the TRAIL pathway. PMID:10590149

  16. Measles Virus Induces Functional TRAIL Production by Human Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Azocar, Olga; Lamouille, Barbara; Astier, Anne; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Servet-Delprat, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Measles virus infection induces a profound immunosuppression that can lead to serious secondary infections. Here we demonstrate that measles virus induces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA and protein expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Moreover, measles virus-infected dendritic cells are shown to be cytotoxic via the TRAIL pathway.

  17. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  18. Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Scholz, H.; Sedláček, I.; Melzer, F.; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Nesvadbová, Jiřina

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2007), s. 679-688. ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common vole * brucellosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2007

  19. Brucellosis in India – a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basappa G Mantur; Satish K Amarnath

    2008-11-01

    Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. It is still an uncontrolled serious public health problem in many developing countries including India. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. Currently, Brucella melitensis accounts for most recorded cases globally with cattle emerging as a important reservoir with the few cases of B. suis. Isolated cases of non-terrestrial brucellosis and continuing transmission from wild animals have raised important epidemiological issues. Routine serological surveillance along with high clinical suspicion and screening of family members of index cases would be essential in delineating the real magnitude of human brucellosis in endemic countries. Increased business and leisure travel to endemic countries have led to diagnostic challenge in non-endemic areas. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Advances in newer rapid, sensitive, and specific testing methodologies and alternate treatment strategies are urgently needed. A safe and effective vaccine in human is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon increasing public awareness through health education programmes and safe livestock practices. Active co-operation between health and veterinary services should be promoted. This review collates world literature and its impact to the discovery, isolation and diagnosis and epidemiology along with the control measures adapted in the Indian scenario.

  20. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  1. Mass measles rubella immunization campaign: Bhutan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta R Giri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bhutan has attained universal child immunization since 1991. Since then, immunization coverage is maintained at high level through routine immunization, periodic National Immunization Days, and mop up campaigns. Despite high immunization coverage, every year, significant numbers of clinically suspected measles cases were reported. Objective: To assess the cause of continuing high "suspected measles cases" and take appropriate public health measures. Materials and Methods: Febrile rash outbreaks occurred in several districts in 2003. These episodes were investigated. Simultaneously, a retrospective data search revealed evidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in the country. Results: Thirty five percent of the tested samples were positive for rubella but none for measles. There were evidences of the presence of CRS. This was discussed in the annual health conference 2004, amongst health policy makers and district heads who recommended that a possibility of inclusion of rubella as an antigen be looked into. A nationwide measles and rubella immunization campaign was conducted in 2006 followed by introduction of rubella vaccine in the immunization schedule. Conclusion: Febrile rash can be caused by a host of viral infections. Following universal measles immunization, it is pertinent that febrile rash be looked in the light of rubella infections. Following the introduction of rubella vaccination in the national immunization schedule, there has been significant reduction of febrile rash episodes, cases of rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome.

  2. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.

  3. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    In May 1997, President Bill Clinton apologized for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The President's action underscores that in the 25 years since its public revelation, the study has moved from a singular historical event to a powerful metaphor that symbolizes racism in medicine, misconduct in human research, the arrogance of physicians, and government abuse of black people. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study also has implications for women's health. Discussion of the study usually ignores its impact on the wives of the victims. In addition, African-American women may be more reluctant to participate in clinical trials because of the shadow cast by the syphilis study and other incidents of medical abuse. Finally, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study reminds us that the battle against racism must be an integral part of the campaign to improve women's health. PMID:9354052

  4. Natural killer cell activity during measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D E; Ward, B J; Jauregui, E; Johnson, R T; Vaisberg, A

    1990-01-01

    Natural killer cells are postulated to play an important role in host anti-viral defences. We measured natural killer cell activity in 30 individuals with acute measles (73 +/- 21 lytic units (LU)/10(7) cells) and 16 individuals with other infectious diseases (149 +/- 95 LU) and found it reduced compared with values for adults (375 +/- 70 LU; P less than 0.001) or children (300 +/- 73 LU, P less than 0.01) without infection. Reduced natural killer cell activity was found in measles patients with (84 +/- 30 LU) and without (55 +/- 18 LU) complications and was present for at least 3 weeks after the onset of the rash. Activity was increased by in vitro exposure of cells to interleukin-2. Depressed natural killer cell activity parallels in time the suppression of other parameters of cell-mediated immunity that occurs during measles. PMID:1696863

  5. Perforation of the palate in secondary syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged woman with secondary syphilis-diagnosed clinically and serologically was prescribed oral tetracyline. She did not complete the course of treatment. Recurrent mucosal erosions in the mouth she developed subsequently as manifestation of relapsing secondary syphilis were wrongly diagnosed as ′aphthous stomatitis′ and were treated with betamethasone gargling. The erosions progressed to ulcerations and finally resulted in perforation of the soft palate.

  6. Secondary Syphilis With Hepatitis and Nephrotic Syndrome: A Rare Concurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Syphilis, a chronic multisystem disease, is caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Clinical presentation may expand to several stages including primary, secondary and latent syphilis, which may present as early or late syphilis. Nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis are well-known complications of secondary syphilis. To the best of our knowledge, secondary syphilis with coexisting renal and hepatic complications has rarely been reported. Here we present a rare case of concurrent nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis in a patient with secondary syphilis. PMID:27298666

  7. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  8. Transient electrocardiographic changes during two episodes of relapsing brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, H; Gefel, D.; Tur-Kaspa, R

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac involvement in the course of acute brucellosis is rare and, when present, is usually manifested by endocarditis. Myocarditis is very infrequent and in the few reported cases, the course of the disease was fulminant. A patient with recurrent brucellosis who presented transient electrocardiographic T wave changes during two episodes of acute illness is reported. It is suggested that the patient had minor asymptomatic myocarditis in the course of recurrent brucellosis.

  9. A case of brucellosis complicated with acute pyelonephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Cemal Üstün; Tümer Güven

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, is an endemic disease in our country, may lead to bacteremia and cause different clinic manifestations.A 44-year-old male patient admitted to our policlinic with high fever, shivering, chilling, pollacuria, and left costovertebral pain, and interned with diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Subsequently, acute pyelonephritis due to acute brucellosis was detected in the clinical and laboratoryexamination. Antibiotic treatment for brucellosis was given to patient for eight week and a...

  10. Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum s...

  11. Practical approaches for the control and eradication of bovine brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Enright, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Outline: * A short history of the Brucellosis problems in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana. * A summary of results of the field studies on the control of brucellosis in the marsh herds. * The U.S. Brucellosis Program in the mid 1970s: A program in turmoil. * Questions for Argentina's animal health officials, beef and dairy producers and veterinarians. * Scientific factors and a disease control program: prevalence, reservoirs and transmission. A very long incubation pe...

  12. Laboratory confirmation of rubella infection in suspected measles cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M

    2016-10-01

    As a part of measles outbreak based surveillance undertaken by the World Health Organization India, suspected measles cases were referred for the laboratory diagnosis at National Institute of Virology (NIV) Pune and NIV Unit Bengaluru. Altogether, 4,592 serum samples were referred during 2010-2015 from the States of Karnataka (n = 1,173), Kerala (n = 559), and Maharashtra (n = 2,860). Initially, serum samples were tested in measles IgM antibody EIA and samples with measles negative and equivocal results (n = 1,954) were subjected to rubella IgM antibody detection. Overall, 62.9% (2,889/4,592) samples were laboratory confirmed measles, 27.7% (542/1,954) were laboratory confirmed rubella and remaining 25.2% (1,161/4,592) were negative for measles and rubella. The measles vaccination status was available for 1,206 cases. Among the vaccinated individuals, 50.7% (612/1,206) were laboratory confirmed measles. The contribution of laboratory confirmed measles was 493 (40.8%) from Maharashtra, 90 (7.5%) from Karnataka, and 29 (2.4%) from Kerala. Since, 1/3rd of suspected measles cases were laboratory confirmed rubella, an urgent attention needed to build rubella surveillance in India. Additional efforts are required to rule out other exanthematous disease including Dengue and Chikungunya in measles and rubella negatives. J. Med. Virol. 88:1685-1689, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018071

  13. Cotreatment of Congenital Measles with Vitamin A and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the measles vaccine has been part of routine national childhood vaccination programs throughout Europe, measles remains a public health concern. High numbers of cases and outbreaks have occurred throughout the European continent since 2011, and an increasing number of cases have been reported in Turkey since 2012. During a recent measles outbreak in Turkey, 2 pregnant women contracted measles prior to delivering preterm infants at Hacettepe University Hospital. Measles virus genomic RNA and IgM antibodies against measles were detected in the cord blood of infants and mothers in both cases. The infants were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and vitamin A. Transient thrombocytopenia was present in 1 infant and treated with an additional dose of IVIG and vitamin A. The infants were discharged, without complications, within 10 days of birth. The successful treatment of these cases suggests that infants who have been exposed to, or infected with, measles may benefit from cotreatment of vitamin A and IVIG.

  14. Brucellosis among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Andrew J; Biggs, Holly M; Stoddard, Robyn A; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Afwamba, Isaac A; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A

    2012-12-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  15. Gum and Nose Bleeding as a Presentation of Pediatric Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseininasab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Brucellosis symptoms are nonspecific; the most common complaints include fever, sweats, anorexia, headache, malaise, and arthralgia. Hematological manifestations of active brucellosis vary from mild anemia and leukopenia to thrombocytopenia and rarely pancytopenia. Case Presentation We report on an eight-year-old boy who presented epistaxis and gum bleeding. The physical examination revealed petechiae, purpura, ecchymosis, and cervical while inguinal lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were noted. Brucella agglutinin titer was positive. After five days of specific therapy for brucellosis, fever was controlled, clinical signs and symptoms were improved and platelet count was dramatically increased. Conclusions Sever thrombocytopenia and bleeding may be the presentation of brucellosis.

  16. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Claudia Marques de Oliveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Saraceni, Valeria; Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Talhari, Sinesio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of syphilis in pregnant women, including 224 in 2007 (3.8/1,000), 244(4.5/1,000) in 2008, and 198(4.0/1,000) in 2009. The study found 486 cases of congenital syphilis, of which 153 in 2007 (2.1/1,000), 193 in 2008 (2.6/1,000), and 140 in 2009 (2.0/1,000). After linkage of the SINAN databases, 237 pregnant women (35.6%) had cases of congenital syphilis reported. The SIM recorded 4,905 perinatal deaths, of which 57.8% were stillbirths. Probabilistic record linkage between SIM and SINAN-Congenital Syphilis yielded 13 matched records. The use of SINAN and SIM may not reflect the total magnitude of syphilis, but provide the basis for monitoring and analyzing this health problem, with a view towards planning and management. PMID:24896047

  17. Measles virus hemagglutinin: structural insights into cell entry and measles vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    TakaoHashiguchi; KatsumiMaenaka

    2011-01-01

    Measles is one of the most contagious viral diseases, and remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, enters cells through a cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), CD46 or nectin-4. Entry is mediated by two MV envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and the fusion (F) protein. The H protein mediates receptor attachment, while the F protein causes membrane fusion. Th...

  18. Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis%妊娠梅毒与先天梅毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯存军; 李中伟

    2013-01-01

    近十年来妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的发病率呈上升趋势.未经治疗的孕妇可将梅毒传染给胎儿,引起生长受限、肝肿大、血液与转氨酶异常,进而导致早产、死产、先天梅毒.早期先天梅毒以皮肤、脏器炎症反应为主;晚期先天梅毒,主要是慢性炎症导致的畸形.对妊娠梅毒患者的及时诊断和治疗可有效避免先天梅毒的发生.此文对妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的临床特征、诊断、治疗及随访做一综述,以期为临床工作提供参考.%Morbidity of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis has been rising during the past ten years.Untreated syphilis infection can infect fetus and leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes,including growth resriction,hepatomegaly,blood and transaminase disorder,and then premature birth,stillbirth and congenital syphilis.Early congenital syphilis presents with cutaneous covering and organ inflammatory reaction.Late congenital syphilis presents with anisotrophy causing by chronic inflammation.Timely diagnosis and treatment syphilis in pregnancy can avoid the incidence of congenital syphilis.The clinical characters,diagnosis,treatment and follow-up visit of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis are reviewed in this article,so as to provide reference for clinical practice.

  19. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  20. Cleft lip as a presentation of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis may present with unusual symptoms in early stages which needs to be identified for prompt treatment. Here, we present a case of 13-day-old female child with congenital syphilis presenting with cleft lip.

  1. Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Syphilis & MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men) - CDC ... Share Compartir Once nearly eliminated in the U.S., syphilis is increasing, especially among gay, bisexual, and other ...

  2. Epidemic Models for SARS and Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Recent events have led to an increased interest in emerging infectious diseases. This article applies various deterministic models to the SARS epidemic of 2003 and a measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 1999-2000. We take a historical approach beginning with the well-known logistic curve and a lesser-known extension popularized by Pearl and Reed…

  3. Brucellosis in buffalos from Corrientes northeast (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s production represents an important option as input source in livestock systems located in areas with little profitability by cattle. In mostly farms, cattle and buffalos are breeding together, due that in Argentina, to carry out buffalo’s production is in an extensive way, with the aim to produce meat – mostly- milk – for this production nutritional supplements are used- and leathers. Brucellosis is zoonic illnesses from bacteria belong to Brucella which caused human human health problems by contaminated food ingestion or to those who are in touch with cattle. In Argentina, exist the National Control an Elimination Program for cattle Brucellosis, which include buffalos also, there is inclosed female vaccination and serologic segregation of positive reactants. Diagnosis techniques ruled for cattle brucellosis are BPA (Buffered Plate Agglutination, Tube seroaglutination and 2MercaptoEthanol. International reference test is Complement Fixation. By means of this present work, we pretend to evaluate the serologic diagnosis utility, ruled to the buffalos and compare obtained results by BPA, SAT and 2ME with Complement Fixation Test. In the present communication are presented results from the use of diagnosis techniques recommended by SENASA (National Service of Sanity and Quality Agro-Food to buffalo’s serums which belong to nine farms from NE Corrientes State. Obtained results show that association o BPA as Screening Test and SAT and 2ME as Confirmated Test has a valid correlation for the detection of positive animals with the reference technique Complement Fixation.

  4. Congenital syphilis in Switzerland: gone, forgotten, on the return

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M.; Trück, Johannes; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Tomaske, Maren; Morán Cadenas, Francisca; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Goetschel, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acquired syphilis has re-emerged in many Western European countries. In contrast to international guidelines, screening for syphilis in pregnancy is not generally recommended in Switzerland. There has been an increase in the incidence of laboratory syphilis notifications in recent years, regardless of gender and age. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study, evaluating the total numbers of pregnant women with positive syphilis serology (Treponema pallidum Particle Ag...

  5. Barriers to antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Kouanda, Seni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite advances in treatment and management, syphilis remains a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. Syphilis in pregnancy poses major health risks for the mother and the fetus and also increases the risk for HIV transmission. Despite its potential benefits, antenatal syphilis screening is often poorly implemented in many sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of the study is to identify and understand barriers affecting health system performance for syphilis screeni...

  6. Progress toward regional measles elimination - worldwide, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert T; Murray, Jillian S; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2015-11-13

    In 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), with MDG4 being a two-thirds reduction in child mortality by 2015, and with measles vaccination coverage being one of the three indicators of progress toward this goal.* In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to fewer than five cases per million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1).† In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan§ with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. WHO member states in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. This report updates the 2000–2013 report (2) and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000–2014. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 73% worldwide, from 146 to 40 cases per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 79%, from 546,800 to 114,900. However, progress toward the 2015 milestones and elimination goals has slowed markedly since 2010. To resume progress toward milestones and goals for measles elimination, a review of current strategies and challenges to improving program performance is needed, and countries and their partners need to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems. PMID:26562349

  7. Congenital syphilis in the Russian Federation: magnitude, determinants, and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhonova, L.; Salakhov, E; Southwick, K.; Shakarishvili, A; Ryan, C.; Hillis, S

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Reported cases of congenital syphilis in the Russian Federation increased 26-fold from 1991–9. Our objectives were to describe the frequency, risk factors, and consequences of delivering an infant with congenital syphilis among pregnant women with active syphilis.

  8. Internal quality control in serological tests for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wasley, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of syphilis serological tests demands that laboratory reports are reliable. Internal quality control applied to the organisation of a syphilis serology service improves laboratory bench performance and reporting. Described here are internal quality control procedures of a department that serves a genitourinary medicine clinic and conducts 70 000 tests a year to investigate for syphilis.

  9. Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV infected because STDs are a marker for behaviors associated with HIV transmission. g What is the treatment for syphilis? Syphilis ... alcohol and drug use may also help prevent transmission of syphilis because these ... risky sexual behavior. It is important that sex partners talk to ...

  10. 77 FR 42256 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Collection; Brucellosis Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... State-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program, contact Dr. Debbi Donch, Brucellosis Program Manager,...

  11. Meningoencephalitis, pancytopenia, pulmonary insufficiency and splenic abscess in a patient with brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complicated case of brucellosis with some rare features is reported. Brucellosis is a multisystematic disease. However, disseminated brucellosis with cerebral, pulmonary, hematopoietic and splenic involvement in an otherwise healthy patient is a rare event. In this article, we report a case of disseminated brucellosis who was initially diagnosed as myeldoplastic syndrome (MDS) and meningoencephalitis, pulmonary symptoms, and splenic abscess formation occurred thereafter. (author)

  12. Syphilis on the rise: A prolonged syphilis outbreak among HIV-infected patients in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachouridou, Olga; Skoura, Lemonia; Christaki, Eirini; Kollaras, Panagiotis; Sidiropoulou, Eleni; Zebekakis, Pantelis; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Margariti, Apostolia; Metallidis, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health issue in Europe. Numerous outbreaks of syphilis have been described recently and an increased prevalence of high-risk sexual practices has raised concern about the transmission of HIV and other STDs. Similarly, an increase in sexually transmitted infections has been recorded in Northern Greece. Methods This report describes a recent outbreak of syphilis in people living with HIV. The demographic, clinical, and serologic data of HIV patients diagnosed with syphilis were recorded and analyzed. Data on syphilis incidence from the general population was also compared to HIV patients’ data. Results Fifty-eight HIV-patients of the Infectious Diseases Unit of a tertiary hospital (5.2%) were diagnosed with syphilis during a three-year period (2008-2010). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coexistence of other STDs were independent predictors of syphilis (OR: 2.4, 95CI%: 1.26, 4.63, p=0.008; OR: 9.4, 95%CI: 4.49, 19.64, pOrigin from a country other than Greece (p=0.005), and homosexual contact (p=0.003), were separate risk factors for syphilis in the general population in the same area. Conclusion Diagnosis of a sexually transmitted disease in an HIV patient is a crucial clinical event that should trigger the clinician’s suspicion for high-risk sexual behavior. Sexual health assessments should be a routine process for HIV patients.

  13. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  14. Control Measures for Brucellosis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis in domestic livestock remains a significant human health threat in many areas of the world. The brucellosis eradication program in the United States is based on trained personnel and laboratories, market surveillance, epidemiologic traceback from infected herds, calfhood vaccination, sa...

  15. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis...-5256. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 6, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  16. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is currently developing proposed revisions to its programs regarding...

  17. Human Brucellosis: Still an Unfamiliar and Misdiagnosed Disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Mangalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a disease with protean clinical manifestations. Despite many awareness programmes, it is still missed or wrongly diagnosed. This leads to chronic morbidity leading to misery and loss of working days. Aim and Objectives: To assess the microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of human brucellosis. Materials and Methods: Patients with positive brucella screening test constituted the study material. A detailed laboratory, clinical, epidemiological study along with response to the treatment was analyzed. Results: Seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be 1.75%. Brucellosis was clinically diagnosed in only 12.73% of cases. Fever, joint pain and low backache were the commonest symptoms. Close contact with animals and raw milk ingestion were the major sources of infection. Knowledge regarding brucellosis and its prevention was lacking in patients. Brucellosis was not considered as one of the differential diagnosis by the treating physicians. Conclusion: Brucellosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in cases presenting with fever, low backache, arthritis and arthralgia. Laboratories should screen all the serum samples for brucella agglutinins by Rose Bengal Plate Test. Awareness regarding the prevention of brucellosis in the general population and regarding the existence of the disease among the doctors practicing in rural areas is needed

  18. Brucellosis in pregnancy: clinical aspects and obstetric outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Vilchez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: This is the largest series of brucellosis in pregnancy reported in the literature. Brucella presents adverse obstetric outcomes including fetal and maternal/neonatal death. Cases with unexplained spontaneous abortion should be investigated for brucellosis. Prompt treatment is paramount to decrease the devastating outcomes.

  19. A case of brucellosis complicated with thromboflebitis and pulmonary emboli

    OpenAIRE

    TEKİN, S. Başol; ÇETİNKAYA, Ramazan; Gündoğdu, Mehmet; Kaya, Hasan; İNCE, Aynur

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease. It may effect both circulatory and respiratory system as well. This disease could be observed as plorezi and alveolit in respiratory system while it may appear as pericardit, myocardit, and endocardit in circulatory system. It would rarely occur with thrombophlebit and pulmonary embolism. In this article, We discuss a brucellosis event which goes along thrombophlebit and pulmary embolism

  20. ALGORITHM OF LABORATORY CONFIRMATION AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MEASLES INFECTION AT THE STAGE OF THE MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Mamaeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified algorithm for laboratory confirmation and differential diagnosis of measles infection was developed and used in the laboratory studies of the Russian Laboratory Network (RLN on Measles/Rubella Surveillance within the routine and active measles infection control. The algorithm consists in detecting the IgM, IgG and IgG avidity measles virus antibodies. To approve the modified algorithm sera samples of 637 patients with the measles diagnosis and 423 patients with rush and fever were studied. The IgG avidity measles testing is advisable in the following cases: a only one serum sample is available, b the recommended time interval between the 1st and 2nd sera samples taking is not observed, c no diagnostic increase in titers of the IgG measles virus antibodies is evidenced, d for determination of the type of immune response (primary or secondary and e to exclude the “false positive” results at the stage of detecting the measles virus IgM antibodies. Moreover the data obtained evidenced the involvement of the nonvaccinated (79.7% as well as of vaccinated with 1 or 2 doses of measles vaccine (20.3% population into the measles epidemical process. 

  1. Cross-reactivity between Lyme and syphilis screening assays: Lyme disease does not cause false-positive syphilis screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, Glenn; LeBlanc, Jason; Heinstein, Charles; Roberts, Catherine; Lindsay, Robbin; Hatchette, Todd F

    2016-03-01

    Increased rates of Lyme disease and syphilis in the same geographic area prompted an assessment of screening test cross-reactivity. This study supports the previously described cross-reactivity of Lyme screening among syphilis-positive sera and reports evidence against the possibility of false-positive syphilis screening tests resulting from previous Borrelia burgdorferi infection. PMID:26707064

  2. Historical perspective of brucellosis: a microbiological and epidemiological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The historical process of brucellosis extends back to humankind's first contact with animals. Although brucellosis is a sporadic disease observed in animals in certain regions of the world, it is an important disease in humans that can affect many organs and systems due to the consumption of contaminated milk or milk products. Studies have shown that the presence of Brucella dates back to 60 million years ago. In 450 BC, Hippocrates described a disease similar to brucellosis. Since Hippocrates' time, brucellosis has been characterized by fever. Our aim is to investigate selfless work undertaken by scientists on the epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical findings of brucellosis until today, and to gain a historical perspective about the disease that is as old as human history, still has importance today, causes economic losses in treated animals and harms human health. PMID:27031903

  3. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Italy during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Magurano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In view of the goal of measles elimination, it is of great importance to assess the circulation of wild-type measles virus (MV. Genetic analysis is indispensable to understand the epidemiology of measles. A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2008, with over 4000 cases reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system introduced in 2007, 37% of which were laboratory confirmed. METHODS. Urine and saliva samples were collected during 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of measles sequences was performed in order to understand the epidemiological situation of wild-type (MV circulation in that period. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Data showed predominant circulation of the genotype D4. Genotypes A, D8, D9 and H1 were also detected in a small number of samples, probably representing imported cases.

  4. 76 FR 6322 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal and... in order to maintain Class Free status. Finally, the interim rule provided an alternative...

  5. 75 FR 81090 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal and... testing and movement mitigation activities before regulated animals are permitted to move interstate....

  6. [Treatment of syphilis with malaria or heat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhave, J P

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the Second World War, syphilis was a common sexually transmitted infection. This stigmatising infectious disease caused mental decline, paralysis and eventually death. The history of syphilis was given public attention because of 'malaria therapy', which had been applied from the First World War onwards in patients with paralytic dementia. In 1917, the Austrian physician Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) induced fever in these patients by infecting them with malaria parasites; in 1927, he received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the healing properties of malarial fever. One source, not cited anywhere, is an interview that the American bacteriologist and science writer/medical journalist Paul de Kruif conducted with Wagner-Jauregg in 1930. The reporting of this meeting, and De Kruif's later involvement in the mechanical heat treatment of patients with syphilis, form the inspiration for this article. When penicillin became available, both treatments became obsolete. PMID:27165455

  7. Immune response to measles vaccine in Peruvian children.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-López Norma L.; Vaisberg Abraham; Kanashiro Rosa; Hernández Herminio; Ward Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response in Peruvian children following measles vaccination. METHODS: Fifty-five Peruvian children received Schwarz measles vaccine (about 10(3) plaque forming units) at about 9 months of age. Blood samples were taken before vaccination, then twice after vaccination: one sample at between 1 and 4 weeks after vaccination and the final sample 3 months post vaccination for evaluation of immune cell phenotype and lymphoproliferative responses to measles and non-m...

  8. Live measles vaccine: a 21 year follow up.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, C

    1987-01-01

    21 years after receiving Schwartz strain live measles vaccine 4500 trial participants showed a continuing high level of protection compared with those who were unvaccinated. Over the last seven years of the follow up no cases of measles were reported in vaccinated participants who had had close contact with the disease. Immunity induced by the vaccine seems to survive the challenge of close contact with measles in young children, even after 21 years.

  9. A short clinical review of vaccination against measles

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, Leen Khader; Barlow, Gavin; Metcalfe, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    Major epidemics of measles are again in the news across the UK because of our failure to maintain population herd immunity. This situation has occurred primarily because of a loss of public confidence in the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine, which was never restored following the Wakefield debacle, and a lack of awareness of the potential morbidity and mortality associated with measles. This article provides healthcare professionals with a succinct overview of important clinical aspec...

  10. Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; Navar, Ann Marie; Halsey, Neal A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The current strategy utilized by WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to reach the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy 2010 measles reduction goal includes increasing coverage of measles vaccine, vitamin A treatment and supplementation in addition to offering two doses of vaccine to all children. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental (QE) studies in order to determine effect estimates of measles v...

  11. Western blot analyses of measles virus antibody in normal persons and in patients with multiple sclerosis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, or atypical measles.

    OpenAIRE

    Hankins, R W; Black, F L

    1986-01-01

    A version of the Western blot was developed to detect serum antibodies against measles virus polypeptides. With this technique, a seroepidemiological survey of antibodies to the several measles virus proteins in diverse measles-related conditions was conducted. The sera were obtained from individuals with a recent or long-past history of natural measles, from persons with a history of immunization with live attenuated measles vaccine, and from patients with multiple sclerosis, subacute sclero...

  12. Congenital syphilis: subtle presentation of fulminant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M L; Lynn, A W; Klein, L E; Balkowiec, K S

    1997-02-01

    The incidence of congenital syphilis has experienced a fourfold to fivefold increase in 6 years. It is a completely preventable disease whose clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection, to fulminant sepsis, to death. Congenital syphilis was diagnosed in a 6-week-old infant whose mother was negative for the disease by prenatal screen. The otherwise well child presented with a generalized, papulosquamous eruption of 3 weeks' duration but within hours multisystem failure developed from overwhelming treponemal sepsis. Factors related to increased incidence, problems in serodiagnosis, manifestations of the early versus late forms of the disease, and recommendations for evaluation and treatment are illustrated by this patient and are discussed. PMID:9039217

  13. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, clinical presentations, serological test, serum biochemistry and reatment were collected from hospital medical records. The diagnosis of brucellosis based on clinical and laboratory findings. Results: This descriptive study included 47 patients, who 33 of them (70.2% were males. The mean age was 37.9 ± 19.3 years. The route of transmission of the disease was known in 28 59.5% of them. Direct contact with livestock in 22 (46.8% and ingestion of dairy products in six cases (12.7% were reported as the transmission route. The majority of patients (27 patients, 57.4% were from rural area. The main presenting symptoms were atigue, fever and arthralgia. Osteoarticular manifestations were the common forms of localized disease. Regarding to the therapy, 45 (95.7% of patients were treated with streptomycin and doxycycline for the first three weeks. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is not a common in Kosovo but there is a potential risk. Osteoarticular symptoms were the most common presentation reasons. The most effective and preferred treatment regimen was Streptomycin plus Doxycycline for the first three weeks, and Doxycycline plus Rifampicin thereafter. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 147-150

  14. Immunogenicity of UV-inactivated measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the antigen extinction limit test it was shown that a triple dose vaccination of guinea pigs with UV-inactivated measles virus gave better results, than a single dose vaccination which was proved by the very low immunogenicity index. For both vaccination schemes (single and triple) the immune response was only sligthly influenced by a change of dose from 105 to 106 HadU50/ml or by the addition of aluminum adjuvant. In the antigen extinction limit test the antibody levels were determined by two methods (HIT and NT) the results of which were statistically equivalent. The UV-inactivated measles virus was also found to induce hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (orig.)

  15. Various clinical manifestations of brucellosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkulov Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Brucellosis is an acute, subacute or chronical disease, from the zoonosis group, caused by various types of bacteria belonging to genus Brucellae. It is transmitted to humans from domestic animals: goats, sheep, cattle, pigs and dogs. The course of the disease may either be asymptomatic, or produce a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from light ones to extremely severe clinical forms. The aim of the study was to follow the clinical features of brucella infection in the hospital-treated patients, as well as its course and outcome. Material and Methods. The investigation included 15 patients, treated for brucella infection at the Clinic for infectious diseases during the last two years (2004 and 2005. Results. All patients were adults, their age ranged from 18 to 71, 49.96 on average. The epidemiological questionnaire was positive in all patients, confirming contacts with the ailing animals, or consumption of cheese made from milk of diseased animals. They all exhibited the classic symptoms - increased body temperature and shiver, fever, sweating, malaise and headache, the so called flu like state. The serum agglutination test was positive in respect to brucellosis, the titre ranged from 1:80 to 1:1280. Eight patients suffered excessive back pain, accompanied with impeded walk. In half of them magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the spondylodiscitis diagnosis. Three patients had clinical features of knee arthritis, two had bronchopneumonia, one pancreatitis, and one developed the signs of an acute kidney insufficiency. The outcome was favorable in all patients - They recuperated or healed completely. In one patient a relapse occurred, leading to the chronic course of the illness. Discussion. Although predominantly Mediterranean Brucellosis is a worldwide spread disease. During the last two years, an increased incidence of the disease has been observed. Conclusion. Due to the variety of clinical futures and the possibility

  16. [Maternal syphilis and congenital syphilis in Latin America: big problem, simple solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Julia; Zacarías, Fernando; Mazin, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    From the data submitted to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) by nationwide programs against sexually transmitted diseases (STD), HIV infection, and AIDS (2002), one can estimate the overall prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women to be 3.1% and to range from 1.00% in Peru to 6.21% in Paraguay. According to these data, the incidence of congenital syphilis ranges from 1.4 per 1000 live births in El Salvador to 12.0 per 1000 live births in Honduras. Among men who engage in sex with other men, who often classify themselves as heterosexual, as well as in female sex workers, the prevalence of syphilis ranged from 5% to 15%. Factors that determine the persistence of congenital syphilis as public health problem include a lack of awareness of the seriousness of the problem among politicians, health officials, and health care providers, difficult access to prenatal care, and screening services, a low demand for the test among users, and the stigma and discrimination that surround sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This paper seeks to focus the attention of health professionals on maternal and congenital syphilis so they will undertake actions, using an interprogrammatic approach, to eliminate congenital syphilis from Latin America and the Caribbean. Eliminating congenital syphilis will only become possible if interventions targeting vulnerable groups are also implemented. PAHO's role in eliminating congenital syphilis includes determining the baseline situation in the Region as a whole and in each country, developing communication and procurement strategies, supporting nationwide programs, promoting operational research, and facilitating interprogrammatic coordination. PMID:15507190

  17. Measles virus hemagglutinin: structural insights into cell entry and measles vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TakaoHashiguchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measles is one of the most contagious viral diseases, and remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The measles virus (MV, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, enters cells through a cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD46 or nectin-4. Entry is mediated by two MV envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H and the fusion (F protein. The H protein mediates receptor attachment, while the F protein causes membrane fusion. The interaction between the H and F proteins is essential to initiate the cell entry process. Recently determined crystal structures of the MV H protein unbound and bound to SLAM or CD46 have provided insights into paramyxovirus entry and the effectiveness of measles vaccine.

  18. A Study for Brucellosis Seroprevelance in Agri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated retrospectively laboratory test results of 520 patient who has brucellosis suspect between 2002-2004 years. METHOD: We use to Rose-Bengal test, Wright agglutination test and the other laboratory results and demographic properties for diagnosis. RESULTS: Rose-Bengal test was positive in 39 patients (11.3 % sera. Wright agglutination test was found positive for 1/160 or higher titers in 18 (3.4% sera. CONCLUSION: Wright agglutination test gave higher positive results in summer and autumn months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 485-488

  19. Measles in India: Challenges & recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by Morbillivirus, with a secondary attack rate in excess of 80%, that usually affects children (1). However, multiple outbreaks of the disease have even been reported among adults in heterogeneous settings (urban areas, university campuses, disaster sites, during international travel, etc.) (2–5). The disease is characterized by the presence of fever, cough, and coryza, followed by the appearance of a typical rash (1, 6). The disease is generally transm...

  20. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Stittelaar, Koert

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise, sneezing and coughing lasting for about 1 week. Fever precedes the typical rash consisting of generalised maculopapular lesions that first appear on the face and soon after on the trunk and the extrem...

  1. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  2. An Epidemiological Situation of an Animal Brucellosis in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nyamdorj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., infects domestic and wild animals worldwide, as well as humans who have contact with infected animals or contaminated dairy products. In present-day epidemiological situation in Mongolia is not quiet, especially, zoonoses such us brucellosis have been broadly spreaded.Recently, we developed agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test with polysaccharide (Poly-B antigen and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA using soluble antigen extracted from B. abortus 544 by n-lauroylsarcosine (sarcosine extracts and these tests could be used to differentiate naturally infected animals from vaccinated and Y. enterocolitica O9-infected ones; this assay simply and specifically diagnoses brucellosis. To validate the method in the field and to test the effectiveness of the vaccination program in Mongolia, a serological survey of brucellosis in nomadic animal husbandry in Mongolia was performed in 2010 and 2011. In this study had been determined an animal brucellosis prevalence in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag. The result showed that 1.25% and 0.4% of cattle and 0.04 % and 0.01% of small ruminants were positive for brucellosis in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag respectively.These results showed that B.abortus 159 N5R can be used as an alternative vaccine against bovine brucellosis.

  3. The Julius Rosenwald Fund syphilis seroprevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, B

    1996-05-01

    In 1929 the Julius Rosenwald Fund, in conjunction with the Public Health Service (PHS), sponsored a syphilis seroprevalence study in the South characterized as a humanitarian effort to benefit the health of rural African Americans. The study reported extraordinarily high rates of positive Wassermann tests, even among children. Despite the unreliability and nonspecificity of this test, modern authors continue to indict these subjects as syphilitic. However, there was no consistent relationship between syphilis and a positive Wassermann test. Additional treponemal pathogens that potentially caused false-positive tests could explain the results. After public outcry to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, the Rosenwald study acquired new significance. It was used as evidence to bolster the argument that Tuskegee was a consequence of humanitarian motives that became captive to misguided methods of researchers at the Venereal Disease Division of the PHS. Humanitarianism implies the acknowledgement of a right invested in the recipient; health is an end in itself. However, African Americans were necessary as a source of cheap labor for competition in the world cotton markets and as a restraint on the market value of white labor in manufacturing. The administrative structure of the PHS, not zealous individuals, adopted utilitarianism as its paradigm for human research. Syphilis seroprevalence was a calculated use of public health as a means to economic development. PMID:8667443

  4. Bone scintigraphy in two cases of chronic brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown in the case reports, bone scintigraphy plays an important part considering the diagnosis of chronic brucellosis, an infectious disease which occurs rarely in Germany. To establish the diagnosis knowledge of symptoms and signs of the disease is necessary. Chronic brucellosis may occur in each organ, ionvolving especially bones and joints. The disease may manifest as spondilytis (especially of the lumbar spine) or arthritis of large joints, sacroiliacal joints or costotransverse joints. Chronic brucellosis has to be considered if a bone scan reveals a typical pattern even without a typical history. (orig.)

  5. Cattle producers' economic incentives for preventing bovine brucellosis under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P

    2012-12-01

    Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and

  6. A 60-year review on the changing epidemiology of measles in capital Beijing, China, 1951-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juan; Lu, Li; Pang, Xinghuo; Sun, Meiping; MA, RUI; Liu, Donglei; Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background China pledged to join the global effort to eliminate measles by 2012. To improve measles control strategy, the epidemic trend and population immunity of measles were investigated in 1951–2011 in Beijing. Methods The changing trend of measles since 1951 was described based on measles surveillance data from Beijing Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The measles vaccination coverage and antibody level were assessed by routinely reported measles vaccination data and twenty...

  7. Brucellosis in high risk group individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agasthya A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among high-risk group individuals, consisting of veterinarians and para-veterinarians, shepherds, butchers and animal owners. Methods: The present work was carried out at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance, Bangalore, by using the recently developed indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to Brucella abortus. Results: The results were compared with the conventional serological tests, Rose Bengal plate test and standard tube agglutination test. The result showed that the indirect ELISA was more sensitive than the conventional tests. Of 618 tested, the disease of prevalence was at 41.23% in veterinary inspectors, 30.92% in veterinary assistants, 12.37% in veterinary officers, 6.18% in veterinary supervisors, 6.18% in Group D workers, 2.06% in shepherds and 1.03% in butchers. Conclusions: This study results highlight the immediate necessity to institute control measures to control Brucellosis.

  8. Seroprevalence of caprine brucellosis in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Avinash Reddy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the seroprevalence of caprine bruellosis in Karnataka and compare the relative sensitivity and specificity among the different serological tests used. Materials and Methods: A total of 252 serum samples were collected from the goats of Karnataka and subjected to 5 different serological tests, i.e., Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT, 2-mercaptoethanol test (2-MET, Indirect ELISA (I-ELISA and Dot-ELISA to detect the Brucella antibodies. Results: Test-wise, the seroprevalence in goats was 5.15% by RBPT, 6.34% by STAT, 1.98% by 2-MET, 9.52% by I-ELISA and 7.14% by Dot-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be highest among goats of northeast Karnataka followed by northwest Karnataka, central Karnataka and south Karnataka. I-ELISA detected maximum number of positive samples. Conclusions: The study used five serological tests to determine the apparent seroprevalence of caprine brucellosis in Karnataka. Taking I-ELISA as reference, the tests revealed the relative sensitivity values in the following order: Dot-ELISA>STAT>RBPT>2-MET.

  9. Epidemiology of human brucellosis in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbaghian, H; Nadim, A

    1974-10-01

    Studies on brucellosis were carried out to elucidate the epidemiology of the disease in Isfahan province, where Brucella melitensis is highly prevalent in animals and man. A positive milk ring test of 32% and 23% was found in unvaccinated goats and sheep respectively. Card and tube agglutination tests showed an infection rate of about 12% in sheep and goats and 42% in cattle. B. melitensis was isolated from 8% of 677 samples of fresh cheese examined.Of 1526 clinically suspected human cases, 476 showed laboratory evidence of brucellosis. Of these patients, 291 cases were from urban and 185 cases from rural areas. Cases from urban and rural areas were seen principally in the younger age groups. The median age of infection was 19.7 in urban and 15.7 in rural patients respectively. The infection was encountered mainly from April to August. This correlates with animal parturition and the greatest amount of sheep and goat milk production, which is introduced to the local market as fresh cheese. Raw dairy product consumption is the most probable way of Brucella transmission in urban patients. In rural areas, both dairy product consumption and contact with animals are sources of infection. PMID:4529097

  10. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political in

  11. Four years of measles elimination in the Czech Socialist Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejda, J

    1987-01-01

    In 1982, Czechoslovakia succeeded in eliminating measles infection throughout the country. The paper describes the strategy of the measles immunization program following its introduction in 1969, showing it to reflect the objective epidemiological situation as revealed by the regular immunological surveys carried out in a broad population sample. As it turned out, decisive for achieving and maintaining a permanent measles elimination in the country was the introduction of second vaccination into the regular immunization schedule. Since 1982, its timing of is from 6 to 10 months after primary immunization. Over the 4-year period between 1982 and 1985, confirmed measles occurred only sporadically in the CSR, 115 cases altogether, and of these as many as 67 were classified as imported or their immediate contacts (38 measles patients were tourists from abroad). Of these 115 measles cases, 52 had had vaccination prior to acquiring the disease, 46 were individuals who had never before been vaccinated and in the remaining 17 patients no vaccination data were available. The vaccine failures, at least in 18 cases, could have been explained by the primary immunization prior to reaching 15 months of age. According to the estimates, at least 670 thousand cases of measles, 470 deaths, 100 thousand complications and some 33 thousand hospitalizations had been averted between 1972 and 1985 on the territory of CSR as a result of the introduction of the measles immunization program in Czechoslovakia. PMID:3429851

  12. Clinical outcome in measles patients hospitalized with complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is a highly communicable viral illness and is common cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Keeping in view the high prevalence of measles in the developing world, we carried out this study to look into the complicated measles cases and clinical outcome in patients admitted in children ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital. Detailed history and physical examination of all the hospitalized patients with complication of measles were recorded in a proforma. Immunization and nutritional status of each admitted patient was assessed and the clinical outcome of measles was compared with demographic profile. one hundred thirty six hospitalized patients with complications of measles were studied. There was 60.3% male and 57.3% of patients were vaccinated against measles. Malnourished patients were 71.35% and had longer hospital stay (>5 days). Pneumonia (39.7%) and diarrhoea (38.2%) were the commonest complications. Seven children died and encephalitis (57.1%) was the commonest cause of death. The most common complications of measles are pneumonia and diarrhoea with dehydration requiring admission. Malnutrition results in more complications and longer hospital stay. Mortality is significantly associated with encephalitis. (author)

  13. The influence of the school year on measles epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Viggo

    The measles incidence record for Copenhagen 1880-1966 shows that the date of admission of new pupils has major impact on the structure of the epidemics, suggesting that measles transmission should be modelled in a way that accounts for the pulsed influx of new pupils. Assuming that the school year...

  14. Syphilis and the endemic treponematoses : clinical, (histo-) pathological and laboratory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.H. Engelkens (Herman)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTreponemal diseases important to mankind are sexually transmitted syphilis and the endemic nonvenereally transmitted treponematoses (yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis). Historically, the most important disease caused by treponemes is syphilis. During the last few decades, yaws, endemic s

  15. Measles, One of the Re-emerging Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Türe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to stand out the measles which is a highly contagious re-emerging viral illness and may cause severe complications in susceptible population. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on patients who were diagnosed with measles in the department of Infectious Diseases, Erciyes University Hospital, between January 2013 and February 2014. The diagnosis of measles was confirmed by measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody positivity in serum samples. Results: Nine patients were included the study. Three patients had a co-morbid condition including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pregnancy and diabetes mellitus. Four of the patients had hepatitis and one of them had pneumonia as a complication. Conclusion: Susceptible population, especially immunocompromised people are still at risk about measles. Adherence to universal vaccination programs is determinative in terms of breaking out of an outbreak. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 19-22

  16. Measles in Italy, laboratory surveillance activity during 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fortuna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. This study describes the measles laboratory surveillance activity performed by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità during 2010. METHODS: Urine, oral fluid and capillary blood samples from 211 suspected measles cases arrived to the NRL from different regions of Italy for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Serological and/or molecular assays were performed; after molecular detection, positive samples were sequenced and genotyped. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 85% (180/211 of the specimens were confirmed as measles cases and 139 of these were analyzed phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of D4 and D8 genotypes for the reviewed period.

  17. Preventable measles among U.S. residents, 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-26

    Elimination of endemic measles has been achieved in the United States; however, measles continues to be imported from areas of the world where the disease remains endemic, resulting in substantial morbidity and expenditure of local, state, and federal public health resources. Measles among U.S. residents results from returning residents who become infected while living or traveling abroad, from contact or association with an infected traveler, or from an unknown source. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC by state and local health departments regarding confirmed measles cases among U.S. residents during 2001-2004; an illustrative case report is included. The majority of measles cases occurring among U.S. residents can be prevented by following current recommendations for vaccination, including specific guidelines for travelers. PMID:16121120

  18. Epidemiological Analysis of Syphilis in China From 1985 to 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚向东; 张国成; 叶顺章; 张君炎; 邵长庚; 梁国钧; 俞进

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To understand trends and epidemiological features of syphilis over the recent years in China and provide a scientific basis for developing prevention strategies. Methods: From 1985 to 2000, syphilis case-reporting data collected from all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were analyzed by applying epidemiological methods. Results: (1) Epidemic trends: syphilis incidence has steadily risen in China from 1985 to 2000, especially after 1993, when it assumed an exponential growth pattern. 80,406 cases of syphilis were reported in the country in 1999, which was almost 40 times the number reported in 1993. During the period of 1993-1999, the annual average growth of the syphilis incidence rate was 83.55%. Perhaps due to a recent national law enforeement campaign, the number of reported syphilis cases dropped slightly in 2000. (2) Geographical distribution: Syphilis spread from coastal, ""open"" cities (especially some cities in Fujian province) to inland urban areas, then to rural areas.Regions with a high incidence rate of syphilis in China were the Minjiang, Yangtze, and Zhujiang River Deltas, Beijing and Tianjin municipalities, and Northeast China. There was a significant difference of syphilis incidence rates and growth rates between these areas. A serious epidemic occurred in some areas, with an incidence rate reaching over 200 cases out of 100,000. (3) Population distribution: the ratio of male and female cases gradually changed from 1.57:1 in 1993 to 1.02:1 in 2000. The rate was the highest in the 20-29 age group and the lowest in 10-14 age group. A great difference existed in prevalence between different population groups and different areas,and some areas with serious epidemics had high prevalence rates even amoung the general population. (4) Clinical stage of syphilis: Primary and secondary syphilis cases have been dominating with a percentage of 90% of all syphilis cases. Primary syphilis was the most common in males and secondary

  19. Measles Epidemics Among Children in Vietnam: Genomic Characterization of Virus Responsible for Measles Outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van H. Pham

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Measles viruses responsible for outbreaks in Southern Vietnam belonged to a genotype D8 variant group which had unique amino acid sequences in the N gene. Our report provides important genomic information about the virus for measles elimination in Southeast Asia.

  20. Levels of Acute Phase Reactants in Patients with Acute Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Uluğ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infection, tissue damage, immunologic reactions and the inflammatory process rapidly cause a systemic response in the organism, generally termed as acute phase response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP, ferritin and fibrinogen in patients with acute brucellosis.Methods: This study was carried out in 48 patients (27 female, 21 male with acute brucellosis who were followed at the Departments of Infectious Diseases and Neurology, between April 2007 and August 2008, and in 42 healthy controls (22 female, 20 male.Results: Serum albumin levels significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas CRP and ferritin levels significantly increased (p<0.001 and p=0.03 in patients with acute brucellosis.Conclusions: It was concluded that serum levels of CRP and ferritin increased, while albumin decreased in patients with acute brucellosis.

  1. Congenital and maternal syphilis in the capital of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Muricy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: ​This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of congenital and maternal syphilis in the Brazilian Federal District in 2010. ​ METHODS: ​A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on the basis of the cases recorded in the System of Notifiable Disease Information. RESULTS: ​The study population comprised 133 cases of congenital syphilis; of these, 116 (52.6% mothers received prenatal care, and 70 (60.4% were diagnosed with syphilis during pregnancy. Only 1 mother was adequately treated, and 100 (75.2% of the pregnant women's partners did not undergo treatment for syphilis. ​ CONCLUSIONS: Although mothers attended prenatal care, not all were diagnosed during pregnancy or received adequate treatment for syphilis, as their partners did not undergo treatment for syphilis.

  2. Clinical manifestations of primary syphilis in homosexual men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Bjekić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of a new millennium, syphilis incidence has been increasing worldwide, occurring primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM. The clinical features of primary syphilis among MSM is described, a case-note review of the primary syphilis (PS patients who attended the Institute of Skin and Venereal Diseases. The diagnosis was assessed based upon the clinical features and positive syphilis serology tests. Among 25 patients with early syphilis referred during 2010, PS was diagnosed in a total of 13 cases. In all patients, unprotected oral sex was the only possible route of transmission, and two out of 13 patients had HIV co-infection. Overall, 77% of men presented with atypical penile manifestation. The VDRL test was positive with low titers. The numerous atypical clinical presentations of PS emphasize the importance of continuing education of non-experienced physicians, especially in countries with lower reported incidence of syphilis.

  3. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  4. Quantifying Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Rural Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    John, Kunda; Fitzpatrick, Julie; French, Nigel; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kambarage, Dominic; Godfrey S. Mfinanga; MacMillan, Alastair; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission ...

  5. An overview of the brucellosis epidemic conditions in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    fallah rostami Fatemeh; Borzoueisileh Sajad; Ebrahimpour Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is as one of the most important infection common disease between human and cattle, which nowadays considered as one of serious health systems dilemma specifically in developing countries.Among brucellosis different species are the cause of infection, 4 species namely B.melitensis, BSuis, B.abortus , B.canis are the most major cause of disease in human(1).Indeed, in Iran that is considered as an endemic area of hygienic organization, B. melitensis is as the most prevalent cause ...

  6. Neonatal Brucellosis: Two Cases with Two Different Transmissions

    OpenAIRE

    İlke Mungan Akın; Özlem Kalaycık Şengül; Sibel Sevük Özümüt

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis remains as an endemic infection of humans in many parts of the world; Latin America, Asia including Middle East and Mediterranean region including Turkey. Neonatal brucellosis is very rare and clinical manifestations as well as transmission route are not well-defined. The neonate can be either infected transplacentally, or by ingestion of mother’s secretions and blood during delivery, or by ingestion of breast milk. Here, we present two cases with two different t...

  7. Clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hartady, Tyagita; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Salisi, Mohd Shahrom

    2014-01-01

    Clinical human brucellosis is quite rare in Malaysia although seroconverters are relatively more. This report describes a case of clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia. This case involved a 29-year-old research assistant in a veterinary microbiology laboratory. She complained of intermittent fever, anorexia, profuse sweating, malaise, headache, normotensive (110/60 mm Hg), muscle pain, and arthralgia for 3 d. Blood tests against dengue and malaria were negative thus she was prescribed vitami...

  8. Osteoarticular Involvement among Brucellosis Cases in Konya City

    OpenAIRE

    Özden, Hale Turan; Togan, Turhan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Brucellosis is a systemic disease that can affect many organs and tissues. Musculoskeletal system is one of the most commonly affected systems. Disease may present itself with sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, paraspinal abscess, bursitis or osteomyelitis. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency, types and clinical features of osteoarticular involvement among cases with brucellosis in Konya city and to establish the differences between patient...

  9. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test and 41.2% (two tests, and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25. A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%, who self-reported as black (1.8% or mixed (1.2%, those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%, and those attending public (1.37% or mixed (0.93% health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions

  10. Molecular strategies for the detection of measles virus in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Hypotheses. i) Atypical exposure to measles virus is a factor in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). ii) Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is a factor in the aetiology of autistic enteropathy. Aims. i) To compare a range of molecular techniques for measles RNA amplification. ii) To develop a sensitive and robust method for the detection of measles RNA. iii) To analyse clinical samples from IBD patients for the presence of measles RNA. iv) To analyse...

  11. Predicting and comparing long-term measles antibody profiles of different immunization policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Min-Shi; Nokes D. James

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Measles outbreaks are infrequent and localized in areas with high coverage of measles vaccine. The need is to assess long-term effectiveness of coverage. Since 1991, no measles epidemic affecting the whole island has occurred in Taiwan, China. Epidemiological models are developed to predict the long-term measles antibody profiles and compare the merits of different immunization policies on the island. METHODS: The current measles immunization policy in Taiwan, China, is 1 dose of m...

  12. Measles--mumps--rubella immunization: the role of the general practitioner in achieving a high uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D.; Roworth, M; Carter, H; Jones, I G

    1989-01-01

    A survey of all general practitioners in Fife conducted prior to the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella immunization on a pilot basis in May 1987 showed that 85% considered mumps worth preventing and 94% believed the rubella programme worth augmenting with universal childhood immunization. Ninety seven per cent considered measles worth preventing and 98% were prepared to recommend measles-mumps-rubella immunization to parents instead of measles vaccine. One year after introducing the measl...

  13. Primary and secondary syphilis, 20 years' experience. 2. Clinical features.

    OpenAIRE

    Mindel, A; Tovey, S J; Timmins, D J; Williams, P.

    1989-01-01

    The notes of 946 patients with primary and 854 with secondary syphilis were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 184 heterosexual men with primary syphilis, 182 (99%) had chancres affecting the penis, compared with 467 (64%) of the 728 homosexual men (p less than 0.0001). Anorectal chancres occurred in 249 (34%) of homosexual men. The commonest features of secondary syphilis included a rash, lymphadenopathy, and mucous patches of the mouth or genital area. Hepatitis, meningitis, other neurologica...

  14. Syphilis serology and HIV infection in Harare, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gwanzura, L; A. Latif; Bassett, M.; Machekano, R; Katzenstein, D A; Mason, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of serological tests in detecting syphilis in a factory worker cohort and examine the impact of concurrent HIV infection on serological tests for syphilis. METHOD: Reactions to non-treponemal and treponemal antigens were tested using sera from a cohort of 3401 factory workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. The participants consented to regular testing for syphilis, by VDRL, and HIV using two ELISAs. All sera from men who were VDRL positive, and a random sam...

  15. Cost utility analysis of diagnostic method of syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Presently, the diagnosis of syphilis is dependent mainly on serological tests. The most widely used screening tests for syphilis are the VDRL and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and for confirmation, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA) and the treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) tests. The four alternative modes for diagnosis of syphilis can be a) VDRL + FTA, b) VDRL + TPHA, c) RPR + FTA and d) RPR + TPHA. Here the author reports an evaluation of cost utility of these tests in medi...

  16. Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, CM; Deutsch, R; Collier, AC; Morgello, S.; Letendre, S; Clifford, D; Gelman, B.; McArthur, J.; McCutchan, JA; Simpson, DM; Duarte, NA; Heaton, RK; Grant, I.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in HIV-infected individuals, as is syphilis. Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, invades the central nervous system early in disease. We hypothesized that HIV-infected patients with a history of syphilis or neurosyphilis would have more cognitive impairment than HIV-infected individuals without these infections. Eighty-two of 1574 enrollees in CHARTER, a prospective, observational study, had reactive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. The...

  17. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications. PMID:26581424

  18. [Pediatric brucellosis : A case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, C; Ray, S; Honorat, R; Prère, M-F; Bicart-See, A; Claudet, I; Grouteau, E

    2016-07-01

    Brucellosis is an overlooked infection of widespread geographic distribution. This disease is rarely evoked when assessing unexplained pediatric fever, and only 20-30 cases (children and adults) are confirmed per year. Risk factors for contracting brucellosis are exposure to bodily fluids and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products from infected animals. Most cases of brucellosis are associated with traveling to or importing contaminated goods from endemic areas. Here, we report a case of brucellosis in a 16-month-old patient hospitalized for an acute febrile illness in a French general pediatric ward. An antibiotic regimen of rifampicin and co-trimoxazole given over 6 weeks led to successful cure without relapse. The child had eaten a cake made from unpasteurized goat's milk and imported from Oran, a region in Algeria. His mother had consumed the same cake and was hospitalized for brucellosis 15 days later. Clinicians should suspect brucellosis when encountering febrile patients who have traveled to endemic areas, been exposed to body fluids or products of abortion of farm animals, or consumed unpasteurized products. PMID:27266645

  19. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Nepal, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sudhir; Sedai, Tika Ram; Choudary, Ganga Ram; Giri, Jagat Narain; Bohara, Rajendra; Pant, Rajendra; Gautam, Mukunda; Sharapov, Umid M; Goodson, James L; Alexander, James; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Perry, Robert T; Bah, Sunil; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Thapa, Arun

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) established a goal to eliminate measles and to control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)* in SEAR by 2020 (1,2). Current recommended measles elimination strategies in the region include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)(†); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets minimum recommended performance indicators(§); 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. In 2013, Nepal, one of the 11 SEAR member states, adopted a goal for national measles elimination by 2019 (3). This report updates a previous report (4) and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in Nepal during 2007-2014. During 2007-2014, estimated coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 81% to 88%. Approximately 3.9 and 9.7 million children were vaccinated in SIAs conducted in 2008 and 2014, respectively (1). Reported suspected measles incidence declined by 13% during 2007-2014, from 54 to 47 cases per 1 million population. However, in 2014, 81% of districts did not meet the measles case-based surveillance performance indicator target of ≥2 discarded non-measles cases(¶) per 100,000 population per year. To achieve and maintain measles elimination, additional measures are needed to strengthen routine immunization services to increase coverage with MCV1 and a recently introduced second dose of MCV (MCV2**) to ≥95% in all districts, and to enhance sensitivity of measles case-based surveillance by adopting a more sensitive case definition, expanding case-based surveillance sites nationwide, and

  20. Case series of syphilis and HIV co-infections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wahab, Asrul; Rahman, M. M.; Mohammad, Marlyn; Hussin, Salasawati

    2013-01-01

    Syphilis and HIV co-infection are indeed dangerous combinations. The present communication describes three different cases of syphilis and HIV co-infection in young men. The first case is a 25-year-old medical graduate with a primary and secondary syphilis lesions at time of presentation. The second case is a 24-year-old government officer with right eye posterior uveitis where the serology tests for syphilis were reactive. His HIV tests were also positive. The final case is a 25-year-old hom...

  1. Serum Treponema IgM Antibody Test for Syphilis Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑占才; 张荣富; 溪茜

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical utility of testing serum anti-treponema pallidum IgM antibody in the diagnosis of syphilis patients. Methods: Seventy-two cases of syphilis were tested for specific IgM antibody with ELISA, and the results were compared with RPR and TPPA.Results: The sensitivity of IgM antibody was 73.3 %(11/15) in primary syphilis, 88.9% (16/18) in sec-ondary syphilis, and there was no significant differ-ence between these values (x2=1.6363, P>0.10). The sensitivity of IgM antibody in diagnosing latent syphi-lis was only 26.1% (6/23), much lower than the detec-tion rate in symptomatic earlv svDhilis (x2=17.6189. P<0.005). RPR and TPPA were both 100% sensitive in latent and early symptomatic syphilis. Two were posi,five for IgM in the 16 cases who had received regular treatments 2 to 24 months before enrolled.Conclusions: Specific IgM antibody detection doees not appear superior to RPR and TPPA in diagnosing primary syphilis. The diagnosis of latent syphilis should mainly rely on RPR and TPPA, since there are low titers of IgM antibody at that stage. IgM antibody testing alone should not be recommended for monitor-ing syphilis development or treatment efficacy. Fur-ther studies should be concerned.

  2. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: biotechnology and the administrative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, B

    1995-01-01

    The central issue of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was property: property in the body and intellectual property. Once removed from the body, tissue and body fluids were not legally the property of the Tuskegee subjects. Consequently, there was not a direct relationship between a patient and research that used his sera. The Public Health Service (PHS) was free to exercise its property right in Tuskegee sera to develop serologic tests for syphilis with commercial potential. To camouflage the true meaning, the PHS made a distinction between direct clinical studies and indirect studies of tissue and body fluids. This deception caused all reviews to date to limit their examination to documents labeled by the PHS as directly related to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. This excluded other information in the public domain. Despite the absence of a clinical protocol, this subterfuge led each to falsely conclude that the Tuskagee Syphilis Experiment was a clinical study. Based on publications of indirect research using sera and cerebrospinal fluid, this article conceives a very history of the Tuskagee Syphilis Experiment. Syphilis could only cultivate in living beings. As in slavery, the generative ability of the body made the Tuskegee subjects real property and gave untreated syphilis and the sera of the Tuskegee subjects immense commercial value. Published protocols exploited the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment to invent and commercialize biotechnology for the applied science of syphilis serology. PMID:7869408

  3. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  4. ADP and brucellosis indemnity systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, W.M.; Harlan, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Our initial study of the USDA/TAHC Brucellosis Indemnity Program in Texas has shown that both the efficiency and rate of claim payments can be increased by the application of present day computer technologies. Two main factors contribute to these increases: the number of discrepancies that are caused by poor penmanship, transposition of numbers, and other human errors can be monitored and minimized; and the documented information can be indexed, sorted, and searched faster, more efficiently, and without human error. The overall flow of documentation that is used to control the movement of infected or exposed animals through commerce should be studied. A new system should be designed that fully utilizes present day computer and electronic technologies.

  5. Direct Comparison of the Traditional and Reverse Syphilis Screening Algorithms in a Population with a Low Prevalence of Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Binnicker, Matthew J.; Jespersen, Deborah J.; Rollins, Leonard O.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first direct comparison of the reverse and traditional syphilis screening algorithms in a population with a low prevalence of syphilis. Among 1,000 patients tested, the results for 6 patients were falsely reactive by reverse screening, compared to none by traditional testing. However, reverse screening identified 2 patients with possible latent syphilis that were not detected by rapid plasma reagin (RPR).

  6. Recurrent tamponade and aortic dissection in syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansal, Audrey; Mirault, Tristan; Rossi, Aude; Dupin, Nicolas; Bruneval, Patrick; Bel, Alain; Azarine, Arshid; Minozzi, Catherine; Deman, Anne Laure; Messas, Emmanuel

    2013-11-01

    Syphilitic cardiovascular disease has been described since the 19th century, mainly on autopsy series. Major clinical manifestations are aortic aneurysm, aortic insufficiency, and coronary ostial stenosis. The diagnosis of syphilitic cardiovascular disease is based mainly on positive serologic tests and overt clinical manifestations. We present here a rare and unusual clinical presentation of a tertiary syphilis with recurrent tamponade and type B aortic dissection, whose positive diagnosis was made by polymerase chain reaction on pericardial fluid analysis. PMID:24182507

  7. Malignant syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiby Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant syphilis or Lues maligna, commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, has now seen a resurgence with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Immunosuppression and sexual promiscuity set the stage for this deadly association of HIV and Treponema pallidum that can manifest atypically and can prove to cause diagnostic problems. We report one such case in a 30-year-old female who responded favorably to treatment with penicillin.

  8. 75 FR 53979 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Service announces the reopening of the public comment period on the Bison Brucellosis Remote...

  9. Frequency of Measles Virus-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Subjects Seronegative or Highly Seropositive for Measles Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Dhiman, Neelam; Jacobson, Robert M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of measles immunization is due to humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Little is known about cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to measles vaccine virus, the relative contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to variability in such immune responses, and the immunologic longevity of the CMI after measles vaccination in humans. Our study characterizes cellular immune response in subjects seronegative or highly seropositive for measles vaccine immunoglobulin G-specific antibod...

  10. Identification of Primary and Secondary Measles Vaccine Failures by Measurement of Immunoglobulin G Avidity in Measles Cases during the 1997 São Paulo Epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Pannuti, Cláudio S.; Morello, Ricardo José; José Cássio de MORAES; Curti, Suely Pires; Ana Maria S. Afonso; Camargo, Maria Cláudia Corrêa; de Souza, Vanda A. U. F.

    2004-01-01

    Despite almost universal use of measles vaccines in recent decades, epidemics of the disease continue to occur. Understanding the role of primary vaccine failure (failure to seroconvert after vaccination) and secondary vaccine failures (waning immunity after seroconversion) in measles epidemics is important for the evaluation of measles control programs in developing countries. After a measles epidemic in São Paulo, Brazil, 159 cases previously confirmed by detection of specific immunoglobuli...

  11. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 μg of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells. (Auth.)

  12. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  13. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, M. E.; Moffatt, D; O'Connor, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles...

  14. Investigation of Brucellosis Seroprevalence in Artvin City According to the Laboratory Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Inci

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in our country.In this study, we aimed seroprevalence of brucellosis was determined by Rose Bengal and standart tube agglutination tests. Matherial and Method: Serologic data of 1580 brucellosis prediagnosed patients admitted to %u2026.. State Public Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between January 2010 and March 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Seropositivity for brucellosis in patients by RB were (132)8.35% respectively.among the...

  15. A Prospective Study of Brucellosis in Children: Relative Frequency of Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El Koumi; Mona Afify; Salha Al-Zahrani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Hematological complications of brucellosis are common. Pancytopenia, although mainly reported in adults, has also been described in children with brucellosis. This investigation was conducted to estimate the relative frequency of pancytopenia in children with brucellosis. Methods The current study was conducted in Al-Khafji Joint Operations Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Sixty patients with brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Complete blood count (CBC) and blood culture were p...

  16. Comparison of Plasma Copper Concentrations in Patients with Brucellosis and Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Mobaien; S. Jafari; M. Haji Abdolbaghi; A. Aliporan; A.A. Saiedi; P Eini

    2008-01-01

    Introduction & Objective : There are some reports about influence of the rare nutrients such as copper and zinc on immune system. Serum concentrations of copper alter in patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis is a common and endemic disease and a health problem in Iran. We compared serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis and healthy individuals.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study, serum concentrations of copper was measured in patients with brucellosis and cont...

  17. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Özgün Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet İlker; Kuscu, Ferit

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube ...

  18. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Associated with Brucellosis in Two Patients with Fever and Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Eser, Bulent; Altuntas, Fevzi; Soyuer, Isin; Er, Ozlem; Canoz, Ozlem; COSKUN, HASAN SENOL; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Brucellosis is a disease involving the lymphoproliferative system, which may lead to changes in the hematological parameters; however, pancytopenia is a rare finding. However, malignant diseases in association with brucellosis are rarely the cause of pancytopenia. Herein, two cases with fever and pancytopenia, diagnosed as simultaneous acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brucellosis are presented. Anti-leukemic therapy and brucellosis treatment were administered simultaneously, and normal blood ...

  19. Acute abdomen as atypical presentation of brucellosis: report of two cases and review of literature.

    OpenAIRE

    al Faraj, S

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal involvement in brucellosis is seen in the acute, subacute and chronic disease. It is not typical, however, that acute abdomen is the presenting feature of brucellosis. In this paper, two cases of serologically diagnosed brucellosis are reported, both presenting initially with acute abdomen and fever. In brucella-endemic regions of the world, brucellosis has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen and fever. With definitive diagnosis, unnecessary laparotomy ca...

  20. Evaluation of an Immunocapture-Agglutination Test (Brucellacapt) for Serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Orduña, Antonio; Almaraz, Ana; Prado, Ana; Gutierrez, M. Purificación; Garcia-Pascual, Agustina; Dueñas, Ana; Cuervo, Milagros; Abad, Ramon; Hernández, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Belen; Bratos, Miguel A.; Torres, Antonio Rodriguez

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the validity and the usefulness of a new test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique. A total of 315 sera from 82 patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, 157 sera from patients in whom brucellosis was suspected but not confirmed, and 412 sera from people living in rural areas with endemic brucellosis were studied. The seroagglutination test (SAT), Coombs anti-Brucella test, and Brucellacapt test were evaluated. All the initial s...

  1. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. PMID:26984975

  2. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible...

  3. Relevance of a pre-existing measles immunity prior immunization with a recombinant measles virus vector

    OpenAIRE

    Knuchel, Marlyse C.; Marty, René R.; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Ilter, Orhan; Zuniga, Armando; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2013-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) vectors are promising candidates for designing new recombinant vaccines since the parental live vaccines have a well-known safety and efficacy record. Like all viral vectors, the MV vector efficacy in inducing a protecting immune answer could be affected by the pre-existing immunity among the human population. In order to determine the optimal immunization route and regimen, we mimicked a MV pre-immunity by passively administrating MV neutralizing antibodies (MV-nAb) prior ...

  4. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gee, S

    2010-01-01

    Measles cases are increasing in Ireland, with 320 cases notified since August 2009. Nearly two-thirds of these cases (n=206) were unvaccinated. In the early stages of the outbreak a substantial number of cases were linked to the Traveller community with some cases also reported among the Roma community, other citizens from eastern Europe and children whose parents objected to vaccination. By February 2010, there had been considerable spread to the general population.

  5. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2 is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.54, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.41, P<0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.42, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.49, P<0.001. Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs.

  6. An estimate of syphilis incidence in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam J. Herbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Europe experienced epidemic levels of syphilis after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Presently data are less comprehensive outside the European Union (EU and European Free Trade Association (EFTA. This review aims to identify published papers with suitable data to estimate a regional burden of disease for syphilis in the 19 member countries of Eastern Europe.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  8. Syphilis oculaire : à propos de deux cas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauthier, A; Graffe, A; Beucher, A-B;

    2011-01-01

    Whereas syphilis is a classical cause of uveitis, it is still often under-recognized. Treatment recommendations are not based on specific clinical studies.......Whereas syphilis is a classical cause of uveitis, it is still often under-recognized. Treatment recommendations are not based on specific clinical studies....

  9. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

  10. Reemergence of Syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Cabié, André; Rollin, Bruno; Pierre-François, Sandrine; Abel, Sylvie; Desbois, Nicole; Richard, Pascale; Hochedez, Patrick; Théodose, Raphaëlle; Quist, Danielle; Hélénon, Raymond; Derancourt, Christian; Cavelier, Annick; Liautaud, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Syphilis reemerged in Martinique in 2004 and initially affected 3 HIV-infected patients. By March 2008, syphilis was diagnosed for 37 men and 18 women. As of October 31, 2009, this outbreak had not yet been brought under control. It initially affected mainly men who had sex with men before it spread to heterosexual persons, minority group members, and crack cocaine users.

  11. Ocular Complications of Brucellosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Reza Lashay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A 21-year-old female was referred for severe bilateral visual loss 3 weeks after a diagnosis of brucellosis. On ocular examination she had bilateral optic nerve head swelling, preretinal hemorrhages and retinal vasculitis. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral optic neuritis secondary to brucellosis and developed optic atrophy and severe visual loss despite medical treatment. Brucellosis can lead to various types of ocular involvement including vasculitis, optic neuritis and retinal hemorrhage.

  1. Characteristics of patients with measles admitted to allied hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles, a virus borne droplet infection, is one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite presence of a safe and cost-effective vaccine. Objective of our study was to identify the characteristics of measles patients admitted to Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst patients admitted with measles in paediatric units of Rawalpindi Medical College Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. A standard proforma was used to collect data from the respondents. Results: A total of 55 patients (mean age-29.36 months) with measles were included in the study. 65.5% children were vaccinated while 34.5% were not vaccinated. Among those vaccinated 14 were male. Out of the vaccinated children 52.6% were residents of middle class areas, 31.6% lower middle class area, 10.5% upper middle class areas and 5.3% rural areas. In 55.0% of patients who were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles at nine month of age the estimated calendar months of vaccination was March to April while in 30% the overall climatic period of vaccination was of summer (May to September). Twenty one study subjects were exposed to a case of measles in the family and thirty five out of all developed at least one known complication of the disease. Pneumonia was the most common complication reported in patients (63.6%) followed by diarrhoea (27.3%). Conclusion: Majority of the patients suffering from measles were not vaccinated and the most common reason for failure to immunize children was lack of awareness. Educated and well off fathers were more likely to get their children immunized. The vaccinated children who developed measles majority were vaccinated during months of March, April and May. (author)

  2. Measles virus: A pathogen, vaccine, and a vector

    OpenAIRE

    Naim, Hussein Y.

    2014-01-01

    Measles was an inevitable infection during the human development with substantial degree of morbidity and mortality. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely contained by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. However, all efforts to eradicate the disease failed and continued to annually result in significant deaths. The development of molecular biology techniques allowed the rescue of MV from cDNA that enabled important...

  3. Genotyping of circulating measles strains in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Baggieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. In Italy, laboratory surveillance activity is implemented by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. The role of the National Reference Laboratory is to strengthen surveillance systems through rigorous case investigation and laboratory confirmation of suspected sporadic cases and outbreaks. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus is an essential component of the laboratory-based surveillance. This study describes the molecular characterization of measles virus strains isolated during 2010. METHODS: Dried blood spots, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from patients with a suspected measles infection. Serological tests were performed on capillary blood, and viral detection was performed on urine and oral fluid samples through molecular assay. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phylogenetic analysis showed a co-circulation of genotypes D4 and D8, and sporadic cases associated to genotypes D9 and B3. Then, molecular epidemiology of measles cases permitted to establish that D4 and D8 were the endemic genotypes in Italy during 2010.

  4. INFLUENCE OF PROCESS CONDITIONS ON MEASLES VIRUS STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant measles viruses are currently tested in clinical trials as oncolytic agent to be applied in cancer therapy. Contrary to their use as vaccine where 103 infectious virus particles per dose are needed, for cancer therapy 109 virus particles should be provided per dose. This leads to other challenges for the production process when compared to vaccine production. This study presents measles virus stability with regard to conditions during production and storage of the virus. Relevant process parameters such as temperature (4-37°C, pH (pH 4-11, conductivity (1.5 to 137.5 mS cm-1 and oxygen partial pressure were analyzed. The infectivity of measles virus particles decreased highly at 37 and 32°C, while at 22 and 4°C it remained stable for several hours or even days, respectively. The thermal inactivation reactions followed first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters enthalpy and entropy were estimated. Towards changes in pH measles virus particles were very sensitive, while no inactivation could be observed with varying conductivity. Measles virus incubation at an oxygen partial pressure of 100% did not lead to any loss of infectivity. The results show which parameters should be considered and controlled strongly in the production process to further raise measles virus yields for the high amount needed in cancer therapy approaches.

  5. Measles: United States, January--May 20, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to serious complications and death. Endemic or sustained measles transmission has not occurred in the United States since the late 1990s, despite continued importations (1). During 2001--2008, a median of 56 (range: 37--140) measles cases were reported to CDC annually (2); during the first 19 weeks of 2011, 118 cases of measles were reported, the highest number reported for this period since 1996. Of the 118 cases, 105 (89%) were associated with importation from other countries, including 46 importations (34 among U.S. residents traveling abroad and 12 among foreign visitors). Among those 46 cases, 40 (87%) were importations from the World Health Organization (WHO) European and South-East Asia regions. Of the 118, 105 (89%) patients were unvaccinated. Forty-seven (40%) patients were hospitalized and nine had pneumonia. The increased number of measles importations into the United States this year underscores the importance of vaccination to prevent measles and its complications. PMID:21617634

  6. A population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 μl of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with 125I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed. (author)

  7. Acute encephalitis associated with measles: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.Y.; Cho, W.H.; Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, H.D. [Department of Paediatrics, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, I.O. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110744 (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    We document the MRI features in six patients aged 5-14 years with acute encephalitis following measles. The diagnosis was made on a characteristic morbiliform rash and detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The symptoms of encephalitis occurred 1-11 days after the appearance of the rash. All patients underwent MRI within 1-4 days of the onset of neurological symptoms. Diffusion weighted images (DWI) were obtained in three patients. In all patients, T2-weighted images showed widely distributed, multifocal high signal in both cerebral hemispheres with swelling of the cortex, with bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the putamen and caudate nucleus. The lesions had showed low apparent diffusion coefficients. Three patients showed subacute gyriform haemorrhage, and asymmetrical gyriform contrast enhancement on follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  8. Maternal and congenital syphilis in Bolivia, 1996: prevalence and risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Southwick, K. L.; Blanco, S.; Santander, A.; Estenssoro, M.; Torrico, F; Seoane, G.; Brady, W; Fears, M.; Lewis, J; Pope, V.; Guarner, J.; Levine, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out in seven maternity hospitals to determine the prevalence of maternal syphilis at the time of delivery and the associated risk factors, to conduct a pilot project of rapid syphilis testing in hospital laboratories, to assure the quality of syphilis testing, and to determine the rate of congenital syphilis in infants born to women with syphilis at the time of delivery--all of which would provide baseline data for a national prevention programme in B...

  9. Potentialities of the X-ray endoscopic diagnosis of stomach syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of roentgenoendoscopic diagnostics of stomach syphilis are demonstrated by disease cases. Three forms of the stomach syphilis: tumor-like, infiltration and ulcerous ones are identified both roentgenological and endoscopic. Any infiltration process in the stomach of a young patient determined roentgenological should be reasoned as a sign of alterness relative to the syphilis. To perform endoscopic diagnosis of the stomach syphilis is easier than roentgenological one. The final syphilis diagnosis is impossible without blood test

  10. Multigenic Control of Measles Vaccine Immunity Mediated by Polymorphisms in Measles Receptor, Innate Pathway, and Cytokine Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; O’Byrne, Megan; Jacobson, Robert M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Measles infection and vaccine response are complex biological processes that involve both viral and host genetic factors. We have previously investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms on vaccine immune response, including measles vaccines, and have shown that polymorphisms in HLA, cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate immune response genes are associated with variation in vaccine response but do not account for all of the inter-individual variance seen in vaccinated populations. In...

  11. A study of brucellosis in a diary group in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study formed part of a large currently examining the prevalence of brucellosis in the Jakarta area of Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to validate serological tests, including the Balitvet and FAO/IAEA ELISAs, by comparing isolation of Brucella abortus from cultured milk samples with serological test results. In addition the tests were used to undertake limited epidemiological investigations of factors which may affect the prevalence of brucellosis. The bulk milk ring test (BMRT) was used as a tool to detect infected farms and follow up serological and bacteriological studies were undertaken. The results of this study show that the BMRT is an effective means of detecting bovine Brucella-infected farms. It also highlights the needs for the proper handling and pasteurization of the milk produced by dairy farmer plus the fact that the complicated patterns of cattle movement is a constraint to eradication and control of brucellosis in the Jakarta area. 17 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. [A case of human infection with brucellosis from a cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repina, L P; Nikulina, A I; Kosilov, I A

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiological study of a focus of Brucella infection revealed that an outbreak of brucellosis occurred in a small town, and the source of this infection was a domestic cat. As the result of contacts with this cat, six persons, among them three children aged 3, 8 and 12 years, had brucellosis. In all these patients acute brucellosis was diagnosed. Simultaneously with the clinical manifestations of the disease, a rise in antibody titer from 1:50 to 1:1,600 was observed. Brucella cultures isolated from the blood of one of the patients and from the internal organs of the cat exhibited the properties, similar to those of "rodent" strains, i. e. their differential signs permit their classification with B. suis, serovar 5. PMID:8067119

  13. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures. PMID:23516823

  14. Human brucellosis occurrences in inner mongolia, China: a spatio-temporal distribution and ecological niche modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Peng; Joyner, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease and remains a major burden in both human and domesticated animal populations worldwide. Few geographic studies of human Brucellosis have been conducted, especially in China. Inner Mongolia of China is considered an appropriate area for the study of human Brucellosis due to its provision of a suitable environment for animals most responsible for human Brucellosis outbreaks. Methods The aggregated numbers of human Brucellosis cases from 1951 t...

  15. Incidence of human brucellosis in a rural area in Western Greece after the implementation of a vaccination programme against animal brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos Chrysanthos; Bikas Christos; Jelastopulu Eleni; Leotsinidis Michalis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Brucellosis continues to be an important source of morbidity in several countries, particularly among agricultural and pastoral populations. The purpose of this study was to examine if there is an effect on the incidence of human brucellosis after the implementation of an animal brucellosis control programme. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Tritaia in the Prefecture of Achaia in Western Greece during the periods 1997–1998 and 2000–2002. Health educat...

  16. Brucellosis and tuberculosis:Clinical overlap and pitfalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sowjanya Dasari; Kushal Naha; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify characteristic features of tuberculosis in patients with culture proven brucellosis.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on patients diagnosed with culture proven brucellosis betweenJanuary andDecember2011, based on review of their medical records.Patients with demonstrable co-infection with tuberculosis were excluded.Clinical features, laboratory parameters and tissue histopathology reports where available were noted. Results:Thirty-two patients with brucellosis were included in the study.Twenty-one(65.63%) patients had chronic fever, thirteen(40.63%) had a productive cough, while significant weight loss, evening rise of temperature and night sweats were reported by eight(25.00%), eleven(34.38%) and five(15.63%) patients respectively.Nine(28.13%) patients had atleast three of these symptoms. Lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were noted on examination in seven(21.88%), fifteen(46.88%) and twelve(37.50%) patients respectively.Eight(25.00%) patients had hepato-splenomegaly, of these only two had associated significant lymphadenopathy.Respiratory examination was normal in all patients.ElevatedESR greater than50 mm/hr was seen in eight (25.00%), it was greater than100 mm/hr in five(15.63%) patients.Hypergammaglobulinemia was seen in eight(25.00%) cases.Bone marrow biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas in three (9.38%) cases, lymph node biopsy showed granulomas in one case.Overall, three(9.38%) patients had known risk factors for tuberculosis, while six(18.75%) had risk factors for brucellosis. Conclusions:There is a clear overlapbetween brucellosis and tuberculosis both in terms of clinical presentation and laboratory parameters.It is essential to carefully rule out tuberculosis in all cases of suspected or proven brucellosis before initiating antimicrobial therapy, in order to forestall development of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  17. Monitoring progress toward measles elimination by genetic diversity analysis of measles viruses in China 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wang, H; Xu, S; Mao, N; Zhu, Z; Shi, J; Huang, G; Liu, C; Bo, F; Feng, D; Lu, P; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Lei, Y; Chen, M; Chen, H; Wang, C; Fu, H; Li, C; He, J; Gao, H; Gu, S; Wang, S; Ling, H; Liu, Y; Ding, Z; Ba, Z; Feng, Y; Zheng, H; Tang, X; Lei, Y; Xiong, Y; Bellini, W J; Rota, P A; Jee, Y; Xu, W

    2014-09-01

    With the achievement of high coverage for routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), measles incidence in mainland China reached its lowest level in 2010. The proportion of measles cases in the vaccination-targeted population decreased during 2007-2010 after the SIAs. More than 60% of measles cases were in adults or infants, especially in the coastal and eastern provinces during 2009 and 2010. A total 567 isolates of measles virus were obtained from clinical specimens from 27 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2009 and 2010. Except for two vaccine-associated cases, one genotype D4 strain, two genotype D9 strains, and four genotype D11 strains, the other 558 strains were genotype H1 cluster H1a. Genotype H1 has been the only endemic genotype detected in China since surveillance began in 1993. Only genotype H1 was found in mainland China during 1993-2008, except for one detection of genotype H2. More recently, multiple genotypes of imported measles were detected even with the background of endemic genetotype H1 viruses. Analysis of the 450-nucleotide sequencing window of the measles virus N gene showed that the overall genetic diversity of the recent geneotype H1 strains decreased between 2008 and 2010. The lower genetic diversity of H1 strains suggested that enhanced vaccination may have reduced the co-circulating lineages of endemic genotype H1 strains in mainland China. PMID:24438091

  18. Antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis%妊娠梅毒与先天梅毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林松; 全钰平

    2013-01-01

    Antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis have gradually become one of the important infectious diseases threatening maternal and child health .During pregnancy , treponema pallidum can induce fetal dysplasia or even stillbirth .Risk factors of antenatal syphilis include age , education degree , history of many sexual partner and address .The intrauterine infection of fetus is related to the infection course and treatment course of pregnant women .Thus, it is very necessary to further understand risk factors , criteria of screening and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis , which could effectively control mother-to-child transmission, prevent bad pregnant outcomes and reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis .%妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒逐渐成为危害母婴健康的重要传染性疾病之一。妊娠期梅毒螺旋体能通过胎盘引起胎儿发育不良,甚至死胎、死产。妊娠期梅毒感染的危险因素与发病年龄、文化程度、多性伴史、居住地等有关。胎儿宫内感染状况与感染母亲的病程及妊娠期治疗时间有关。因此,进一步了解妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的感染危险因素,明确妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的筛查和诊断标准、治疗方法及预后效果,对于有效地控制梅毒的母婴传播,预防和治疗梅毒宫内感染的不良后果,降低先天梅毒的发病率具有重要意义。

  19. Gastric syphilis: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Del Duca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CLINICAL CASE A 43-year-old Romanian woman was referred with the clinical suspicion of gastric lymphoma; she had complained from two months nausea, vomiting and weight loss (7 kg; 3 esophagogastroduodenoscopic examinations had evidenced reduced distensibility of stomach body and antrum, ulcered and congestive mucosa, the histopathological examinations revealed a non specific inflammation. There was no response to therapy with omeprazolo. A computer-assisted tomoghraphy scan of the thorax and abdomen, obtained after the oral and intravenous administration of contrast material, showed diffuse thickening of the gastric wall, lymphadenopathies were seen in the retrocrural space, lesser curvature, and paraaortic region. It was performed another upper endoscopy with “deep” biopsy specimen, comprehensive of spirochetal immunohistochemistry, that was diagnostic for gastric syphilis. DISCUSSION Even though gastritis is a rare clinical manifestations of the secondary stage of syphilis, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of erosive gastritis unresponsive to medical therapy, especially in young patients; screening tests like VDRL (routinely used until few years ago in internal medicine divisions may be useful to identify those patients needing a further diagnostic evaluation.

  20. Measles reporting completeness during a community-wide epidemic in inner-city Los Angeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewert, D P; S Westman; Frederick, P D; Waterman, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of measles underreporting among preschool-age children. In two community surveys conducted in inner-city Los Angeles during 1990 and 1991, respondents were asked whether preschool-age children in their households had ever been ill with measles. Information about measles episodes was obtained and medical records were reviewed, when available. A probable measles case was defined as having 3 or more days of rash with fever of 38.3 degrees centigrade...

  1. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, 2004–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariyam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection causing large outbreaks all over the world. Despite the availability of safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remained endemic with persistent periodic outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. The aim of this study is to characterize laboratory confirmed measles cases in Amhara Regional State, which was one of the highly affected regions in Ethiopia. Method A suspected measles case was defined as any person presenting with fever, maculopapu...

  2. Nucleoprotein gene analysis of the wild-type measles viruses circulated in Beijing in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正德; 申昆玲; 许文波; 照日格图; 朱贞

    2004-01-01

    @@ The hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes are the most variable regions on the genome of the measles virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the H and/or N genes has been used to describe different genetic groups of wild-type measles virus.1-3 This genetic information has been used in molecular epidemiological studies to identify the transmission pathways of measles virus. The present study was conducted to reveal the genotype of measles viruses which circulated in Beijing in 2001.

  3. Protein-protein and protein-small-molecule inhibitor interactions in the measles virus replication complex

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie A Krumm

    2013-01-01

    The disease measles is caused by the highly contagious measles virus (MeV). MeV belongs to the paramyxovirus family together with respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza viruses and metapneumovirus. Paramyxoviruses are responsible for major pediatric morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of an effective MeV vaccine, measles case numbers increased alarmingly in the past few years especially in Europe. The return of endemic measles in the European population can directly be...

  4. Misplaced loss of confidence in measles vaccination: an investigation in a primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, N R

    1989-01-01

    Doubts were expressed about the effectiveness of measles vaccination during a measles outbreak in a Bristol primary school. Investigation of this outbreak showed that the vaccine uptake rate was 89%, vaccine effectiveness was 84% and that 57% of children developing measles had a history of previous measles vaccination. This apparent paradox arises because, for any vaccine that is not 100% effective, as the vaccine uptake rate rises so the percentage of cases previously vaccinated also rises. ...

  5. Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: A mathematical model to inform optimal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Verguet, Stéphane; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K.; Gauvreau, Cindy L.; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden. Methods We develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of mea...

  6. Wild-type Measles Virus in Brain Tissue of Children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero, Paola Roxana; Grippo, Jorge; Viegas, Mariana; Mistchenko, Alicia Susana

    2003-01-01

    We studied eight children who had measles at 6 to 10 months of age during the 1998 Argentine measles outbreak and in whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developed 4 years later. We report the genetic characterization of brain tissue–associated measles virus samples from three patients. Phylogenetic relationships clustered these viruses with the wild-type D6 genotype isolated during the 1998 outbreak. The children received measles vaccine; however, vaccinal strains were not found.

  7. Independence of Measles-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Robert M.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    With a larger, independent cohort and more sophisticated measures, we sought to confirm our work that indicated independence of humoral and cellular immunity following measles vaccination. We recruited an age-stratified random cohort of 764 healthy subjects from all socio-economic strata, all with medical-record documentation of two age-appropriate doses of measles-containing vaccine. We quantified measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels and assayed the IFN-γ ELISPOT response to measles...

  8. Congenital and maternal syphilis in the capital of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Lucia Muricy; Vitor Laerte Pinto Júnior

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: ​This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of congenital and maternal syphilis in the Brazilian Federal District in 2010. ​ METHODS: ​A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on the basis of the cases recorded in the System of Notifiable Disease Information. RESULTS: ​The study population comprised 133 cases of congenital syphilis; of these, 116 (52.6%) mothers received prenatal care, and 70 (60.4%) were diagnosed with syphilis during pregnancy. Only 1 mother was adeq...

  9. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rura...

  10. CLINICAL PROFILE OF MEASLES IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles affects about 20 million people a year. Even with greater than 80% immunization cover, the number of children with measles has registered a steep rise. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases of measles admitted to the paediatric wards of a tertiary care medical college hospital in a rural area in north Kerala. A total of 31 cases of measles (n=31 were admitted to the paediatric ward. Age at admission of 67.8% of the patients was above 6 years. The average age of the sample was 7.52 years (S. D = 3.19. Amongst the clinical features, fever and rash were seen in 100%, coryza in 83.8% and conjunctivitis in 67.7%. Koplik spots, pathognomonic of measles were seen only in 32.3%. About 61.3% of those with measles were previously immunized. Regarding the vitamin A supplementation status , only 19.4% of the childr en were administered vitamin A. The fact that 61% of children who developed measles had actually received measles vaccination during infancy , and that majority (67% of them were >6 years at the time of presentation , points to the drop in the protective im munity , after a single dose of measles vaccine, as age advances. To conclude , Measles is now a re - emerging infectious disease and a second dose of measles vaccine to boost up the existing immunity would turn out to be a corner stone in subsequent measles e limination.

  11. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities. PMID:22647743

  12. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS(®) Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS(®) CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  13. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  14. Measles outbreak investigation in Zaka, Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomerai Kufakwanguzvarova W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A measles outbreak was detected at Ndanga Hospital in Zaka district Masvingo Province on the 5th of May 2010 and there were five deaths. Source of infection was not known and an investigation was carried out to determine factors associated with contracting measles in Zaka district. Materials and methods A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a person residing in Zaka district who developed signs and symptoms of measles or tested IgM positive from 06 May 2010 to 30 August 2010. A control was a person residing in the same community who did not have history of signs and symptoms of measles during the same period. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire (translated into shona was used to solicit information from cases and controls. Ethical consideration like written consent from all participants, respect and confidentiality were observed. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the medical research Council of Zimbabwe and the provincial Medical Directors Masvingo. Epi info was used to calculate frequencies, odds ratios and perform logistic regression to control for confounding variables. Findings A total of 110 cases and 110 controls were recruited. Most cases (63.03% were from the apostolic sect while 44.7% of controls were from orthodox churches. Contact with a measles case [AOR= 41.14, 95% CI (7.47-226.5],being unvaccinated against measles [AOR= 3.96, 95%CI (2.58-6.08] and not receiving additional doses of measles vaccine [AOR 5.48, 95% CI (2.16-11.08] were independent risk factor for contracting measles. Measles vaccination coverage for Zaka district was 75%. The median duration for seeking treatment after onset of illness was three days (Q1=2; Q3=7. There were no emergency preparedness plans in place. Conclusion This outbreak occurred due to a large number of unvaccinated children and a boarding school that facilitated person to person transmission. We recommend mandatory

  15. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  16. A model of animal-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, J; Roth, F; Orkhon, D; Chimed-Ochir, G; Nansalmaa, M; Kolar, J; Vounatsou, P

    2005-06-10

    We developed a dynamic model of livestock-to-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. The compartmental model considers transmission within sheep and cattle populations and the transmission to humans as additive components. The model was fitted to demographic and seroprevalence data (Rose Bengal test) from livestock and annually reported new human brucellosis cases in Mongolia for 1991-1999 prior to the onset of a mass livestock-vaccination campaign (S19 Brucella abortus for cattle and Rev 1 Brucella melitensis for sheep and goat). The vaccination effect was fitted to livestock- and human-brucellosis data from the first 3 years of the vaccination campaign (2000-2002). Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (assessed by the deviance). The simultaneously fitted sheep-human and cattle-human contact rates show that 90% of human brucellosis was small-ruminant derived. Average effective reproductive ratios for the year 1999 were 1.2 for sheep and 1.7 for cattle. PMID:15899298

  17. An interesting case of childhood brucellosis with unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksugur, Sevil Bilir; Bekdas, Mervan; Gurel, Safiye; Tas, Tekin; Sarac, Esma Gokcen; Demircioglul, Fatih; Kismet, Erol

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection, which is still a major public health concern worldwide. Common clinical findings are usually nonspecific involving fever, arthralgia, myalgia, weakness and malaise. Since none of the symptoms of brucellosis is pathognomonic, it may have a similar course with various multisystemic diseases. In terms of focal involvement, sacroiliitis is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adult patients, while it is quite rare in pediatric patients. Blood culture is the gold standard in the diagnosis of brucellosis. In the absence of culture facilities, the diagnosis traditionally relies on serologic testing with a variety of agglutination tests such as the Rose Bengal test and the serum agglutination test. However, these agglutination tests are accompanied by frequent false negative results such as seen in prozone phenomenon, which may lead to diagnostic delays. In this article we present a rarely encountered pediatric brucellosis patient who had sacroiliitis-spondylitis, which are rarely reported in children, and exhibited prozone phenomenon in agglutination tests. PMID:26058253

  18. Brucellosis in Milk and Milk Products and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Dilek; TOROĞLU, Sevil

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp, is a zoonotic disease which is patogenic to human. Brucella spp especially can be host cattle, sheep, goats, water bufalo pigs, dogs, camel, deer, certain poultry and human even tick and some artropod. Brucella spp are very important for public health because, along causing important economical losses, they infect man via milk and milk products of infected animals.

  19. Polymyositis-like syndrome with rhabdomyolysis in association with brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kushal Naha; Suman Karanth; Sowjanya Dasari; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse myositis with progression to rhabdomyolysis has been reported in association with wide range of viral infections.We report a case of polymyositis-like syndrome complicated by rhabdomyolysis secondary to brucellosis.This case report thus contributes yet another atypical presentation to a disease already infamous for its protean manifestations.

  20. Bovine Brucellosis: Old and New Concepts with Pakistan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar*, Mehwish Mansoor and Muhammad Javed Arshed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered to be one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. According to OIE, it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats, camels and dogs. It may also infect other ruminants and marine mammals. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and characteristic lesions are primarily placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis. The organism is excreted in uterine discharges and milk. The disease is economically important, is one of the most devastating transboundary animal diseases and also a major trade barrier. Although not yet reported, some species of Brucella (e.g., B. abortus are zoonotic and could be used as bioweapons. Brucellosis has a considerable impact on animal and human health, as well as wide socio-economic impacts, especially in countries in which rural income relies largely on livestock breeding and dairy products. Considering the poor health infrastructure and manpower in rural areas, the focus should be on preventive measures coupled with strengthening the curative health care services for early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing particularly in large dairy herds in Pakistan. Several studies have been conducted using sero-diagnostic techniques to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in different provinces, districts and livestock farms in government and private sector.

  1. ELISA versus Conventional Methods of Diagnosing Endemic Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa; Parande, Aisha; Amarnath, Satish; Patil, Giridhar; Walvekar, Ravindra; Desai, Arun; Parande, Mahantesh; Shinde, Rupali; Chandrashekar, Masiyappa; Patil, Satish

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic value of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated when blood specimens of 92 patients suspected of brucellosis underwent the ELISA (IgM and IgG), standard tube agglutination (SAT), and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) tests and blood cultures; 38 sera from non-brucellosis patients and 34 sera from blood donors were also subjected to ELISA, SAT, and 2-ME tests. SAT was able to pinpoint only 23 (25%), whereas ELISA confirmed the etiology in 56 (60.9%; P < 0.001) patients with brucellosis, including 31 culture-confirmed cases. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 100% and 71.31%, respectively. Because they were confirmed by ELISA, the diagnosis could never be excluded with SAT in 33 cases. ELISA has been found to be more sensitive in acute (28% higher sensitivity; P < 0.02) and chronic (55% higher sensitivity; P < 0.01) cases. For accurate diagnosis in suspected brucellosis cases detection, we recommend both ELISA IgM and IgG tests. ELISA IgG and 2-ME tests seem to be promising tools in judging prognosis. PMID:20682874

  2. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. ELISA for epidemiology of brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a travel report of a three-week mission (from October 13 to November 1, 1991) to Indonesia within the framework of ''The implementation of ELISA technology for the sero-diagnosis of important livestock diseases''. The mission evaluated the implementation of ELISA technology at the Regional Laboratories and its role in the surveillance and control of bovine brucellosis

  3. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA ROBO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with fever”. The diagnosis was established by clinical signs, confirmed by serologic results. Sera samples from all the suspected cases were tested for Measles IgM by ELISA and molecular genotyping of virus by the regional reference laboratory. Results: According to the case definition 16 cases were actively found, 13 (77% were female and 3 (23% male. The mean age was 7.1 years (range: three months to 23 years. Most of the patients had Koplik spots, coryza and conjunctivitis. All cases were unvaccinated. All patients recovered and no fatal cases. Conclusion: Gaps of low vaccine coverage facilitated the measles infection to spread. The vaccination of this community it difficult despite the commitement of the health staff. Families with their children are in ongoing migration all over the country and abroad. As a response to stop the spread of the measles outbreak, the district epidemiological service in Elbasan with the support from the national institute of public health, organised a mass vaccination campaign.

  4. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  5. Assessment of coverage levels of single dose measles vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the consequences of low coverage levels of a single dose of measles vaccine. Results: mean age observed in measles cases was 2 years and 8 months with a range from 3 months to 8 years. Maximum number of cases reported were <1 year of age (n=22,32%). Fifty percent of cases were seen among vaccinated children. Seventy-five percent (n=51) had history of contact with a measles case. Pneumonia was the commonest complication followed by acute gastroenteritis, encephalitis, febrile convulsions, oral ulcers, oral thrush, eye changes of vitamin-A deficiency and pulmonary tuberculosis (T.B.) in descending order of frequency. Fifty four cases were successfully treated for complications of measles and discharged. Nine cases left against medical advice. Five patients died all of them had encephalitis either alone (n=1) or in combination with pneumonia and acute gastroenteritis (n=4). Conclusion: There is a dire need to increase the immunization coverage to reduce the rate of vaccine failure and achieve effective control of measles.(author)

  6. [The atypical course of syphilis in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrle, G; Rasokat, H; Kurz, K; Steigleder, G K

    1989-05-15

    We report on 3 HIV patients showing atypical courses of syphilis. Both the history and serology of the first patient proved a recent re-infection with T. pallidum, whereas the histopathological findings corresponded to an advanced stage of the disease (S II-III). The second patient showed the clinical picture of syphilis maligna with slowly converting and slightly positive serological reactions. The third patient had a refractory syphilis and an early relapse. Our observations suggest that syphilis might take an unusual course in HIV patients. Considering our total HIV clientèle (800 patients greater than or equal to WR 2) the frequency of these atypical cases must be rated very low (0.38%). PMID:2741530

  7. Oral Syphilis: A Reemerging Infection Prompting Clinicians' Alertness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybeck Udd, Sebastian; Lund, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is a rare but increasing disease. Due to changing sexual habits, presentation of oral manifestations may rise. Since syphilis may mimic other oral manifestations, diagnoses can be difficult. Clinicians need to be aware that ambiguous oral manifestations may in fact be caused by oral syphilis. Here, we present a case of extended diagnostic delay highlighting the importance of consulting an expert in infectious diseases in case of obscure oral lesions not responding to standard treatment. Despite seven visits to six different medical doctors, a patient who presented with oral syphilis was continuously misdiagnosed. After 6 months of increasing complaints and deteriorating severity of disease, the patient was referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon where the correct diagnosis was determined and proper treatment initiated. PMID:27293914

  8. A case of rupioid syphilis masquerading as aggressive cutaneous lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braue, Jonathan; Hagele, Thomas; Yacoub, Abraham Tareq; Mannivanan, Suganya; Sokol, Lubomir; Glass, Frank; Greene, John N

    2015-01-01

    Secondary syphilis has been known since the late 19th century as the great imitator; however, some experts now regard cutaneous lymphoma as the great imitator of skin disease. Either disease, at times an equally fastidious diagnosis, has reported to mimic each other even. It is thus vital to consider these possibilities when presented with a patient demonstrating peculiar skin lesions. No other manifestation of secondary syphilis may pose such quandary as a rare case of rupioid syphilis impersonating cutaneous lymphoma. We present such a case, of a 36-year-old HIV positive male, misdiagnosed with aggressive cutaneous lymphoma, actually exhibiting rupioid syphilis thought secondary to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). PMID:25960854

  9. A Case of Rupioid Syphilis Masquerading as Aggressive Cutaneous Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Braue

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary syphilis has been known since the late 19th century as the great imitator; however, some experts now regard cutaneous lymphoma as the great imitator of skin disease. Either disease, at times an equally fastidious diagnosis, has reported to even mimic each other. It is thus vital to consider these possibilities when presented with a patient demonstrating peculiar skin lesions. No other manifestation of secondary syphilis may pose such quandary as a rare case of rupioid syphilis impersonating cutaneous lymphoma. We present such a case, of a 36-year-old HIV positive male, misdiagnosed with aggressive cutaneous lymphoma, actually exhibiting rupioid syphilis thought secondary to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS.

  10. Periostitis in secondary syphilis: a place for bone scintigraphy.

    OpenAIRE

    Veerapen, K; Bruckner, F E; Halsey, J P; Davidson, F; Saeed, A

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of secondary syphilis are reported with periostitis as the main presenting feature. Technetium-99m bone scintigraphy was found to be superior to radiography in both defining the extent of involvement and in picking up early lesions.

  11. Ultrastructural Study of Dermatic Tissues in Secondary Syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓东; 脱朝伟; 张庆瑞; 宋芳吉

    2001-01-01

    Objective: For the purpose of understanding the changing process of syphilis histomorphology and its injury mechanism,the ultrastructure of dermatic tissues of secondary syphilis was studied.Methods: Different skin injury tissues of secondary syphilis patients, whose serum RPR and TPHA tests in the lab both appeared positive reaction, were observed through transmission electron microscope (TEM).Results: Inflammations appeared on epidermides and coria,a great deal of neutrocytes, lymphocytes and a small amount of plasma infiltrated them. Karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis,epicyte lysis and mitochondrion vacular degeneration occurred. Spirocheta pallida was distributed on intercellular substances, epicytes and coilagenous fibers. The epicytes were pressed to foveation. Conclusion The pathological change of characteristic tissue ultrastructure reported here is a histomorphological foundation to study the organism injury mechanism caused by syphilis.

  12. Cost utility analysis of diagnostic method of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the diagnosis of syphilis is dependent mainly on serological tests. The most widely used screening tests for syphilis are the VDRL and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR and for confirmation, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA and the treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA tests. The four alternative modes for diagnosis of syphilis can be a VDRL + FTA, b VDRL + TPHA, c RPR + FTA and d RPR + TPHA. Here the author reports an evaluation of cost utility of these tests in medical practice. It is shown that the cost per accurate diagnosis with VDRL + TPH is the least expensive choice. Therefore, this alternative is the best method for serological diagnosis for syphilis, based on medical laboratory economics principles

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  15. Oral Syphilis: A Reemerging Infection Prompting Clinicians' Alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybeck Udd, Sebastian; Lund, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is a rare but increasing disease. Due to changing sexual habits, presentation of oral manifestations may rise. Since syphilis may mimic other oral manifestations, diagnoses can be difficult. Clinicians need to be aware that ambiguous oral manifestations may in fact be caused by oral syphilis. Here, we present a case of extended diagnostic delay highlighting the importance of consulting an expert in infectious diseases in case of obscure oral lesions not responding to standard treatment. Despite seven visits to six different medical doctors, a patient who presented with oral syphilis was continuously misdiagnosed. After 6 months of increasing complaints and deteriorating severity of disease, the patient was referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon where the correct diagnosis was determined and proper treatment initiated. PMID:27293914

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  17. The radiographic diagnosis of early attacking congenital syphilis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the method of radiological diagnosis of early attacking congenital syphilis. Methods: Seven cases of early attacking congenital syphilis of bone were retrospectively analyzed, diagnosed serologically, and were taken X-rays of the long bones. Results: Bone radiographs abnormalities were identified in 6 of 7 cases. Five cases suffered periotities, six cases metaphysitis, and three cases combined with diaphysitis. Seven cases had swollen soft tissue. The vertebraes, craniums and epiphysitis were not found abnormal in 7 cases. Diffusion, multiple and symmetric metaphysitis, periosteitis and osteitis were the radiological characters of congenital syphilis of bone. Conclusion: Radiography can affirm the diagnose of early attacking congenital syphilis and definite the arrange and depth. Radiographs of the extremities should be routinely taken in suspected infants. (authors)

  18. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  19. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  20. Lipopolysaccharide as a target for brucellosis vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Gil-Ramírez, Yolanda; Iriarte, Maite; Grilló, María-Jesús; Gorvel, Jean Pierre; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    The gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella are facultative intracellular parasites that cause brucellosis, a world wide-distributed zoonotic disease that represents a serious problem for animal and human health. There is no human-to-human contagion and, since there is no human vaccine, animal vaccination is essential to control brucellosis. However, current vaccines (all developed empirically) do not provide 100% protection and are infectious in humans. Attempts to generate new vaccines by obtaining mutants lacking the lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide, in purine metabolism or in Brucella type IV secretion system have not been successful. Here we propose a new approach to develop brucellosis vaccines based on the concept that Brucella surface molecules evade efficient detection by innate immunity, thus delaying protective Th1 responses and opening a time window to reach sheltered intracellular compartments. We showed recently that a branch of the core oligosaccharide section of Brucella lipopolysaccharide hampers recognition by TLR4-MD2. Mutation of glycosyltransferase WadC, involved in the synthesis of this branch, results in a lipopolysaccharide that, while keeping the O-polysaccharide essential for optimal protection, shows a truncated core, is more efficiently recognized by MD2 and triggers an increased cytokine response. In keeping with this, the wadC mutant is attenuated in dendritic cells and mice. In the mouse model of brucellosis vaccines, the Brucella abortus wadC mutant conferred protection similar to that provided by S19, the best cattle vaccine available. The properties of the wadC mutant provide the proof of concept for this new approach and open the way for more effective brucellosis vaccines. PMID:23219811

  1. Neonatal Brucellosis: Two Cases with Two Different Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Mungan Akın

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis remains as an endemic infection of humans in many parts of the world; Latin America, Asia including Middle East and Mediterranean region including Turkey. Neonatal brucellosis is very rare and clinical manifestations as well as transmission route are not well-defined. The neonate can be either infected transplacentally, or by ingestion of mother’s secretions and blood during delivery, or by ingestion of breast milk. Here, we present two cases with two different transmission route and clinical findings. First case is a premature infant born after 31 weeks of gestation and hospitalized for respiratory distress in addition to hepatosplenomegaly and leukocytosis. Brucella species were isolated from the initial blood culture obtained just after birth. Clinical and laboratory findings improved with decreased ventilatory support after replacement of antibiotherapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX and rifampicin. Second case was a 28 days old, term infant. Her sibling was diagnosed as brucellosis and during evaluation of the family members, her mother was found to have brucellosis just before delivery. Initial evaluation of the baby after birth was totally normal. Beside medical advice, she was breastfed and in the 4th week of life she was found to have leucopenia and neutropenia, and brucella tube agglutination test turned to be positive. After antibiotherapy, laboratory findings were normalized. Breastfeeding was ceased during the treatment periods of both mothers. Both families were from rural regions of Turkey, who were using unpasteurized dairy products. Both patients were treated with TMP-SMX and rifampicin for 6 weeks without any complication. Brucella spp must be sought as a causative agent in the differential diagnosis of intrauterine and neonatal infections in endemic countries. Family members of patients from rural areas of the country must be questioned about traditional food consumption, as findings of neonatal

  2. Seroepidemiological survey of human brucellosis in and around Ludhiana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moti Yohannes Gemechu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been done on public health significance of brucellosis using serology with little or no emphasis to risk factors. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and assess epidemiological variables associated with human brucellosis. After obtaining verbal consent, 241 peripheral blood samples were collected from occupationally exposed groups with and without pyrexia of unknown origin. A structured questionnaire was prepared to gather risk factors, such as occupation, age, sex, history of consuming raw milk and other unpasteurised dairy products, direct contact with domestic animals, general knowledge about the route of transmission and awareness level. Purposive sampling was used to select the key informants. All serum samples were first screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and further analysed by Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT. The results revealed that 24.5% were positive by RBPT and diagnosis was established in 26.6% using STAT with a titre range between 80 and 1,280 IU/ml. Among occupational groups, prevalence was 17.8% in veterinarians and pharmacists but was not statistically significant. The most common clinical symptoms at presentation were fever, headache, back pain, arthralgia and myalgia. No female reactor was found and the mean age and standard deviation of seropositive patients was 34.69±10.97 years. Risk factors such as residence in rural area, participation in vaccination of animals and eating during working hours were significantly associated (P<0.05 with brucellosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. In conclusion, to deal with occupation-related disease like brucellosis, awareness on risk factors must be part of extension education campaign. Besides, regular surveillance of the disease needs to be integrated into control and prevention programme at a local and national level.

  3. Primary and secondary syphilis - Jefferson county, Alabama, 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In June 2006, the Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) requested assistance from CDC to investigate and control a multiyear epidemic of syphilis in Jefferson County. The county had experienced a decrease in primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis cases, from 279 in 1995 to nine in 2002. By 2005, the incidence had begun to rise substantially, culminating with 238 cases in 2006 and 166 in 2007. Beginning in August 2006, CDC assisted the Jefferson County Department of Health (JCDH) in investigating the increase in cases and in planning control measures. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that the characteristics of cases during 2002-2004 differed substantially from cases during 2005-2007. Declines in U.S. syphilis rates, which reached their lowest point in 2000, led to optimism that syphilis elimination (defined as the absence of sustained syphilis transmission) in the United States was possible, and CDC's National Syphilis Elimination Plan was launched in 1999. Although increased U.S. syphilis rates in the early 2000s have been reported to be associated primarily with transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), the findings from this investigation indicate reemergence of syphilis among women and heterosexual men in Jefferson County. Public health officials in other areas should remain alert for similar epidemiologic shifts. Public health departments should facilitate access to effective treatment in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or other settings, consider selective screening in high-prevalence populations (e.g., in correctional settings), and ensure adequate partner notification and treatment. PMID:19444149

  4. Ultrasound examination in diagnostic of early congenital syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    V. D. Zavadovskaya; A. V. Zuyev; S. V. Fateyeva

    2016-01-01

    A peculiarity of the congenital syphilis of recent years is an increase of the number of cases of latent forms of the disease, marked with osteopathy. With the help of an examination of 50 children with early congenital syphilis, the following ultrasonic signs of a musculoskeletal system lesion were revealed: osteochondritis 90%, osteosclerosis 80%, and periostitis 30%.The comparison of the nature of a musculoskeletal system lesion with serological data of the specific process activity showed...

  5. Prevalence of syphilis among HIV-seroreactive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Turbadkar D; Mathur M; Gaikwad S

    2007-01-01

    Presence of genital ulcer disease facilitates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and their -diagnosis is essential for the proper management. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is used as a screening test for the diagnosis of syphilis. However, unusual VDRL test results have been reported in HIV-infected persons with syphilis. There are reports showing higher than expected VDRL titers as well as biological false positive in most of the studies. A negative Rapid Plas...

  6. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  7. Incidence of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Anie Savi Serafim; Gustavo Pasquali Moretti; Guilherme Savi Serafim; Cintia Vieira Niero; Maria Inês da Rosa; Maria Marlene de Souza Pires; Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo Simões

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish the incidence rates of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil from 2001 to 2009. Methods Temporal ecological and descriptive study based on the cases recorded by the System of Information of Notifiable Diseases. Results The incidence of congenital syphilis has been increasing in the South Region of Brazil since 2004; the highest incidence rates were in women who received prenatal care (113.5 new cases per 100,000 births, p

  8. Reemergence of Syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bruno; Pierre-François, Sandrine; Abel, Sylvie; Desbois, Nicole; Richard, Pascale; Hochedez, Patrick; Théodose, Raphaëlle; Quist, Danielle; Hélénon, Raymond; Derancourt, Christian; Cavelier, Annick; Liautaud, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Syphilis reemerged in Martinique in 2004 and initially affected 3 HIV-infected patients. By March 2008, syphilis was diagnosed for 37 men and 18 women. As of October 31, 2009, this outbreak had not yet been brought under control. It initially affected mainly men who had sex with men before it spread to heterosexual persons, minority group members, and crack cocaine users. PMID:20031052

  9. Integrated syphilis/HIV screening in China: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yue-Pin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last decade has seen enormous advances in HIV treatment and care, but how to implement scaled up HIV testing, prevention, and treatment in low-income areas still presents a formidable public health challenge. South China faces expanding syphilis and sexually transmitted HIV epidemics, but health systems characteristics important for scaling up syphilis and HIV testing have not been defined. Methods A purposive sample to ensure public, private, and public-private hybrid STI clinic inclusion was selected in a South China city. Eight key informant interviews were conducted with the STI clinic manager, followed by eight focus group discussions with physicians. Data collection relied on a semi-structured format that included questions in each of the following domains: 1 clinical facilities; 2 laboratory capacity with a focus on syphilis/HIV diagnosis; 3 clinic personnel; 4 physical space with a focus on locations to disclose confidential results; 5 financial support. Results Public STI clinics had free syphilis testing/treatment and laboratory facilities to perform essential syphilis and HIV tests. However, despite serving a large number of STI patients, private STI clinics lacked nontreponemal syphilis testing, HIV testing, and had fewer connections to the public health infrastructure. Formally trained assistant physicians were 2.5 times as common as physicians at STI clinics. Only one of the 8 sites had onsite voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services available. Conclusion These STI case studies reveal the potential for expanding integrated syphilis/HIV services at public STI clinics in China. More health services research is needed to guide scale-up of syphilis/HIV testing in China.

  10. Stability of further-attenuated measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G F; Allison, L M; Lloyd, J S; Tam, P; Zuckerman, A J; Perkins, F T

    1983-01-01

    Accelerated stability tests on lyophilized measles vaccines show two distinct mechanisms of virus inactivation. A rapid initial loss of infectivity occurs only on exposure to temperatures above the ambient temperature. This loss is temperature related and may be attributable to the movement of residual moisture from the virus pellet into the void space of the vial. Subsequent inactivation of virus occurs at all temperatures as a first-order reaction that follows Arrhenius kinetics. Integration of values for these two components allows precise prediction of vaccine stability at any temperature. Analysis of the results obtained for greater than 30 vaccines shows that those which are stable for one week at 37 C have a predicted life of more than one year at 8 C. This simple test is now being applied to the identification of unstable products. The rate of this reaction is closely, if conservatively, matched by a time-temperature color indicator, which may be useful for monitoring vaccine quality. PMID:6879003

  11. A mathematical model of syphilis transmission in an MSM population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2016-07-01

    Syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, and is a sexually transmitted disease with multiple stages. A model of transmission of syphilis in an MSM population (there has recently been a resurgence of syphilis in such populations) that includes infection stages and treatment is formulated as a system of ordinary differential equations. The control reproduction number is calculated, and it is proved that if this threshold parameter is below one, syphilis dies out; otherwise, if it is greater than one, it is shown that there exists a unique endemic equilibrium and that for certain special cases, this equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Using data from the literature on MSM populations, numerical methods are used to determine the variation and robustness of the control reproduction number with respect to the model parameters, and to determine adequate treatment rates for syphilis eradication. By assuming a closed population and no return to susceptibility, an epidemic model is obtained. Final outbreak sizes are numerically determined for various parameter values, and its variation and robustness to parameter value changes is also investigated. Results quantify the importance of early treatment for syphilis control. PMID:27071977

  12. Measles immune suppression: lessons from the macaque model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    Full Text Available Measles remains a significant childhood disease, and is associated with a transient immune suppression. Paradoxically, measles virus (MV infection also induces robust MV-specific immune responses. Current hypotheses for the mechanism underlying measles immune suppression focus on functional impairment of lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells, caused by infection with or exposure to MV. We have generated stable recombinant MVs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein, and remain virulent in non-human primates. By performing a comprehensive study of virological, immunological, hematological and histopathological observations made in animals euthanized at different time points after MV infection, we developed a model explaining measles immune suppression which fits with the "measles paradox". Here we show that MV preferentially infects CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, resulting in high infection levels in these populations. After the peak of viremia MV-infected lymphocytes were cleared within days, followed by immune activation and lymph node enlargement. During this period tuberculin-specific T-lymphocyte responses disappeared, whilst strong MV-specific T-lymphocyte responses emerged. Histopathological analysis of lymphoid tissues showed lymphocyte depletion in the B- and T-cell areas in the absence of apoptotic cells, paralleled by infiltration of T-lymphocytes into B-cell follicles and reappearance of proliferating cells. Our findings indicate an immune-mediated clearance of MV-infected CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, which causes temporary immunological amnesia. The rapid oligoclonal expansion of MV-specific lymphocytes and bystander cells masks this depletion, explaining the short duration of measles lymphopenia yet long duration of immune suppression.

  13. An assessment of measles vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pillsbury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccine effectiveness analysis serves as a critical evaluation for immunization programmes and vaccination coverage. It also contributes to maintaining public confidence with the vaccine providers. This study estimated measles vaccine effectiveness at the population level using Australian national notifications data between 2006 and 2012. Methods: Notification data were obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Vaccination status was classified according to whether a case had received zero, one or two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Cases aged less than 1 year and those with unknown vaccination status were excluded. All children with disease onset between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012 who were born after 1996 were included. Cases were matched to controls extracted from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register according to date of birth and jurisdiction of residence. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated by conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test data robustness. Results: Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.5–98.0% for one dose and 99.7% (95% CI: 99.2–99.9% for two doses of measles vaccine. For at least one dose, effectiveness was estimated at 98.7% (95% CI: 97.9–99.2%. Sensitivity analyses did not significantly alter the base estimates. Discussion: Vaccine effectiveness estimates suggested that the measles vaccine was protective at the population level between 2006 and 2012. However, vaccination coverage gaps may have contributed to recent measles outbreaks and may represent a serious barrier for Australia to maintain measles elimination status.

  14. The genetic basis for interindividual immune response variation to measles vaccine: new understanding and new vaccine approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Kennedy, Richard B.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The live-attenuated measles vaccine is effective, but measles outbreaks still occur in vaccinated populations. This warrants elucidation of the determinants of measles vaccine-induced protective immunity. Interindividual variability in markers of measles vaccine-induced immunity, including neutralizing antibody levels, is regulated in part by host genetic factor variations. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of measles vaccine immunogenetics relative to the perspectiv...

  15. Measles in children with HIV infection: report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia de Carvalho

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with AIDS have a high incidence of skin problems due to the immunosuppression and malnourishment that are inherent to the progression of this disease. Clinical manifestation of these skin lesions and their severity are different in AIDS patients. We made a prospective study of five cases of measles in children with HIV infection during a community outbreak, and there were typical as well as atypical forms of the disease, including one case with negative serology. There were pulmonary complications, but none of the patients died. The anti-retroviral treatment may have contributed to the decrease in measles morbidity in these pediatric AIDS patients.

  16. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Measles Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the measles effect observed in WFPC observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Look for changes in measle numbers/characteristics 2. Have before/after images in place for decontaminations. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every two weeks. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  17. Epidemiology Of Measles And Its Complications In Non- Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal N

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 1985-86 amongst non-hospitalized children of jaipur city in33 investigative units having 3791 families with 6183 children in the 0-9 years age group. Measles vaccine coverage was only 21.7% Measles developed in 189 cases. Maximum incidence occurred in the 1-2 years olds and during the first half of the years (January to June. Complication developed in 50 (26.5% children. The most frequent was diarrohea (14.3% followed by respiratory infection (6.9%. No case fatality was reported.

  18. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L; Kristiansen, H; Thårup, J; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Knudsen, K; Clotilde da Silva, M

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units) of...... Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  19. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.; Ajay D. Pathak; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil P.; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Dewanand R. Kalorey; Nitin V. Kurkure; Naik, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed indivi...

  20. Mean platelet volume may not be a biomarker monitoring of brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Beyan, Cengiz; Beyan, Esin

    2014-01-01

    To the editorWe read with great interest the research article by Kader et al. [1] entitled with evaluation of mean platelet volume (MPV) levels in brucellosis patients. They retrospectively investigated the complete blood count parameters in patients with brucellosis. They found that MPV values were statistically significantly low in pre-treatment group compared with post-treatment group and healthy controls. They suggested that MPV levels might be useful in the follow-up of brucellosis patie...

  1. Predictive Contribution of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated ...

  2. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome secondary to brucellosis — A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Seetharam; Lingadakai, Ramachandra; Chethan, Kishanchand; Abdul, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare condition characterized by duodenal obstruction due to extrinsic compression by SMA. Any condition which results in rapid, significant weight loss can cause SMA syndrome. Brucellosis is a common cause of pyrexia of unknown origin which can result in loss of appetite and weight loss. Brucellosis resulting in SMA syndrome has not been described in literature. We present a case of SMA syndrome resulting from weight loss due to brucellosis along...

  3. Optimal Control of Brucellosis in Bison in the Yellowstone National Park Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fang; Horan, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly infectious bacterial disease that causes infected females to abort their calves. It has caused devastating losses to U.S. farmers over the last century. The only known focus of Brucellosis left in the nation is wildlife such as bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Vaccination and test-and-slaughter have been applied to brucellosis management in bison, and there has been discussion that a combination of both could potentially eradicate the disease in the Yello...

  4. An evaluation of Irish cattle herds with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes M; Ashe S; Collins DM; Power S; Kenny K; Sheahan M; O'Hagan G; More SJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory ...

  5. Seroprevalence Study of Human Brucellosis by Conventional Tests and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Agasthya, Annapurna S.; Srikrishna Isloor; Prabhudas Krishnamsetty

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart ...

  6. Acute Brucellosis with Splenic Infarcts: A Case Report from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishal Alyousef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic infarction is an extremely rare and unique presentation of brucellosis. Only few cases have been reported worldwide. We here report a case of a young man, presenting with acute onset of fever, left hypochondial pain, and vomiting. Further evaluation revealed multiple splenic infarcts and positive blood culture for brucellosis despite negative transesophageal echocardiography for endocarditis. Significant improvement in clinical symptoms and splenic lesions was achieved after six weeks of combination therapy against brucellosis.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of syphilis infection among drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhlmann Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent epidemiological data show an increased trend of official estimates for syphilis infection in the general population. Many of the infected cases remain undetected leaving an underestimation of the true prevalence of syphilis in the general population, but also among subpopulations such as illicit drug users. There is limited epidemiological data published on the proportion and risk factors of syphilis infections associated with illicit drug abuse. Methods Illicit drug addicts (n = 1223 in inpatients units in Germany were screened (2000–01 for syphilis and interviewed regarding patterns of drug use and sexual behaviour. TPHA-test for initial screening and FTA-ABS-IgM test in TPHA-positive patients were used. Results In total, TPHA-tests were positive in 39 (3.3% and 7 patients (0.6% were IgM positive. The prevalence rate for syphilis in males was 1.9% and for women it was 8.5%. Female patients were 4.56 (CI 95% 2.37–8.78 times more likely to have a positive TPHA test than males. Sexual behaviours such as high number of sexual partners, sex for drugs/money, sex on the first day were associated with syphilis infection only in women. Females with frequent sex for drugs or money had 4.31 (CI 95% 2.32–8.52 times more likely a reactive TPHA test than remaining patients. Neither the sociodemographic factors nor sexual behaviour were statistically significant associated with syphilis infection among men at all. Conclusion Our data suggest the need for screening for syphilis among these illicit drug users in inpatient settings, in particular among sexual active women. This conclusion is corroborated by the finding of increasing numbers of syphilis infections in the general population. The identification of syphilis cases among drug addicts would give treatment options to these individuals and would help to reduce the spread of infection in this population, but also a spread into heterosexual populations related to

  8. The combination of psoriasis and secondary syphilis. Role of dermatoscopy in differential diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Sherstobitova K.Yu.; Schnaider D.A.; Utz S.R.

    2015-01-01

    A clinical case of the combination of psoriasis and secondary syphilis is presented. The problem of differential diagnostics of the clinical manifestations of syphilis and psoriasis, including the dermatoscopy usage are considered.

  9. Management of syphilis in HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Fiona V; Fisher, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Since the turn of the millennium a sustained outbreak of syphilis among men who have sex with men continues, approximately 20-50% of whom have concurrent HIV infection. In this paper we aim to explore the controversies that exist around the management of syphilis in HIV-positive individuals. Not only do HIV-positive people have different clinical manifestations of syphilis they have higher rates of asymptomatic neurological involvement, slower serological response to treatment and higher serological failure than HIV-negative individuals in most studies. Whether long-term clinical outcomes are different or affected by the antibiotic regimen selected remains to be established. The optimal antimicrobial regimen to treat syphilis in HIV is unknown due to a dearth of randomised controlled trial data. International guidelines state that the antibiotic management of syphilis is the same regardless of HIV status, with early syphilis treated with a single dose of benzathine penicillin G 2.4mU intrmuscularly. In practice, however, the majority of surveyed clinicians do treat HIV-positive people with more intensive antibiotics suggesting a lack of faith in guidelines. Factors which appear to affect the likelihood of developing neurological disease include CD4(+) count of RPR) or venereal diseases reference laboratory titre (VDRL) >1:32, late-latent disease or lack of response to standard antibiotic treatment. We recommend a low-threshold for offering antibiotic treatment effective against neurosyphilis in HIV-positive people with syphilis, especially if they exhibit any of the above factors. PMID:25621462

  10. Syphilis and the endemic treponematoses : clinical, (histo-) pathological and laboratory studies

    OpenAIRE

    Engelkens, Herman

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTreponemal diseases important to mankind are sexually transmitted syphilis and the endemic nonvenereally transmitted treponematoses (yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis). Historically, the most important disease caused by treponemes is syphilis. During the last few decades, yaws, endemic syphilis and pinta have been largely ignored. These diseases, however, have not been eradicated (1-10). The causative agents of these chronic bacterial diseases belong to the order Spirochaewles, th...

  11. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis According to Disease Stage and HIV Status

    OpenAIRE

    Knaute, Damaris Fröhlich; Graf, Nicole; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Weber, Rainer; Bosshard, Philipp P.

    2012-01-01

    Background.  Serology is the mainstay for syphilis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We investigated serological response to treatment of syphilis according to disease stage and HIV status. Methods.  A retrospective cohort study of 264 patients with syphilis was conducted, including 90 primary, 133 secondary, 33 latent, and 8 tertiary syphilis cases. Response to treatment as measured by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and a specific IgM (immunoglobulin M) capture enzyme...

  12. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis According to Disease Stage and HIV Status

    OpenAIRE

    Knaute, Damaris Fröhlich; Graf, Nicole; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Weber, Rainer; Bosshard, Philipp P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Serology is the mainstay for syphilis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We investigated serological response to treatment of syphilis according to disease stage and HIV status. Methods. A retrospective cohort study of 264 patients with syphilis was conducted, including 90 primary, 133 secondary, 33 latent, and 8 tertiary syphilis cases. Response to treatment as measured by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and a specific IgM (immunoglobulin M) capture enzyme-l...

  13. EVALUATION OF MICRO-TPHA, VDRL AND RPR TESTS IN THE SERODIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS

    OpenAIRE

    Santhi; Jhansi Lakshmi; Lavanya; Raju; Guru Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is one of the most fascinating diseases of humans. Widespread use of antibiotics now has reduced the incidence of early syphilis and recognized new cases of late syphilis have decreased. Serological tests are the basis for the diagnosis of latent syphilis. They vary in their sensitivity and specificity. While non-treponemal tests (VDRL and RPR) are most frequently used as screening procedures, treponemal tests (FTA-ABS and TPHA) are considered to be highly sensitive and s...

  14. Evaluation of preventative and control measures for congenital syphilis in State of Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Regina de Oliveira; Maria da Conceição Nascimento Costa; Florisneide Rodrigues Barreto; Susan Martins Pereira; Inês Dourado; Maria Glória Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital syphilis is an important health problem in Brazil. This study assessed measures aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis in the State of Mato Grosso and its capital, Cuiabá. Methods A descriptive study cross-sectional and of time trends assessing the congenital syphilis was performed in Cuiabá and Mato Grosso between 2001 and 2011. We compared maternal sociodemographic characteristics and health care utilization related to cases of congenital syphilis during t...

  15. VACCINATION OF PATIENTS WITH ONCOLOGY DISEASES AGAINST MEASLES AND MUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and seven children (45 girls and 62 boys in the age of 20 months — 14 years old (mean 9,62±0,37 suffered from acute lymphoblast leukosis and solid tumors in history have been examined in the clinic of Research Institute of children infections of FMBA. The vaccination history was studied in all children and the titers of specific antibodies to measles and mumps viruses as well as immune status were determined. 83,8% and 85,4% of studied children had no protection against measles and mumps respectively or had low titers of antibodies. Immunological examination of these children conducted within 4 months after finishing of therapy revealed absence of immunodeficiency. It gave opportunities to vaccinate or revaccinate these children against mentioned infections. Fifty three children were immunized against measles and 47 — against mumps. Application of live vaccines was safe because majority of vaccinated against measles (81,1% and mumps (82,9% children had mild vaccination process. It was established that to increase immunological efficacy of vaccination using of polyoxidony during 5 days before vaccination and 5 days after vaccination is reasonable.

  16. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  17. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Brucellosis Among Animal Farmers of Yazd Province"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis has remained a great problem of health in most of countries, which have failed in control of zoonosis infections. This disease is caused by species of Brucella and usually is transferred from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal farmers of Yazd province. In this descriptive study, 933 animal farmers were investigated by serological tests and blood culture method. Then the data were analyzed by SPPS statistical program. The results showed that the frequency distribution of seropositive cases by MAT and STAT were 35 (3.2%; 25 (2.7% males and 10 (1.1% females. The highest and lowest incidences of seropositive cases were among age group of 21-30 (1% and more than 60 (0.3% years old, respectively. Of the 35 seropositive cases, 2MET positive were 5 (0.5%, while all blood cultures were negative.

  18. Increase of infectious syphilis among heterosexuals in Amsterdam: its relationship to drug use and prostitution.

    OpenAIRE

    van den Hoek, J A; van der Linden, M M; Coutinho, R A

    1990-01-01

    Since 1986, an increase in heterosexually acquired syphilis cases has been seen in Amsterdam. The proportion of syphilis patients who reported using hard drugs, increased from 7% in 1985 to 23% in 1988, which was mainly due to increased numbers of addicted prostitute women with syphilis.

  19. High Incidence of Asymptomatic Syphilis in HIV-Infected MSM Justifies Routine Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Branger; J.T.M. van der Meer; R.J. van Ketel; S. Jurriaans; J.M. Prins

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, the incidence of syphilis has risen, mainly among men having sex with men (MSM), many of whom are coinfected with HIV. Current guidelines recommend at least yearly syphilis testing in this group. In this study, we assessed the yield of routine syphilis screening in outpatient H

  20. Penicillin treatment for gonorrhoea in relation to early syphilis in prostitutes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbeer, C S; Thin, R N; Tan, T; Thirumoorthy, T

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of prostitutes in Singapore showed that they had received less antigonorrhoeal treatment with penicillin derivatives during the three month period before early syphilis was diagnosed than in other three month periods when they had not developed syphilis. This suggests that penicillin derivatives in doses sufficient to treat gonorrhoea will abort coincidental early syphilis.

  1. Rapid laboratory confirmation of human brucellosis by PCR analysis of a target sequence on the 31-kilodalton Brucella antigen DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    MATAR, G.M.; Khneisser, I A; Abdelnoor, A M

    1996-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay for the rapid and specific laboratory diagnosis of human brucellosis directly from whole blood. Specimens were collected in EDTA tubes from 17 patients with acute serologic brucellosis and 3 patients with chronic relapsing brucellosis as determined by serologic tests and the patient's clinical picture. DNA was extracted from peripheral mononuclear cells obtained from the blood of patients with brucellosis and control individuals. Specific primers for the PCR amp...

  2. A study on bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bhanu Rekha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the status of bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy with a past history of Brucella abortions and where Brucella control measures including test and removal, calf-hood vaccination (already present adult animals were not vaccinated, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures helps in the control of brucellosis in the farm have been implemented for the past four years.Materials and Methods: A total of 195 samples including 89 blood samples, 89 serum samples and 17 milk samples were collected and analysed by isolation and identification, Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR, Milk Ring Test (MRT, Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and Enzyme Linked Immnuno-Sorbent assay ELISA.Results: On analysis, all the 89 blood and 17 milk samples turned out to be negative for culture and PCR. MRT and ELISA tests on all the 17 milk samples and STAT on all the 89 serum samples were also negative. The percent positives for Brucella antibodies in serum samples were 4.5 and 6.7 by RBPT and ELISA, respectively. Of the 17 vaccinated animals, 14 were negative by all the Brucella antigen and antibody diagnostic tests employed. Amongst the three vaccinated animals, one animal was positive by RBPTand I-ELISAand, two animals were positive by I-ELISAalone. On the other hand, of the 72 nonvaccinated animals, 65 were negative by all the diagnostic tests employed, three animals were positive by RBPTand 4 animals were positive by I-ELISA. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that a combination of RBPT and I-ELISA can be successfully used for screening for brucellosis when the prevalence is low. Implementation of control measures including test and removal of the affected, calf-hood vaccination, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures help in the control of brucellosis in the farm.

  3. Investigation of Canine Brucellosis in Klang Valley Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Bahaman; Ardhy-Adnan; Khairani-Bejo

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty three (123) blood samples were collected from dogs in Klang Valley Malaysia to investigate the present of brucellosis. On culture, all blood samples were negative for Brucella sp. The serological tests carried out were Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and 2-mercaptoethanol tube agglutination test (ME-TAT). The RBPT found that all serum samples were negative for Brucella infection. However, ME-TAT shown six serum samples were positive to Brucella infection with a high antib...

  4. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  5. The Global Epidemiology of Syphilis in the Past Century – A Systematic Review Based on Antenatal Syphilis Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris Richard; Osbak, Kara; Tsoumanis, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Background How can we explain the uneven decline of syphilis around the world following the introduction of penicillin? In this paper we use antenatal syphilis prevalence (ASP) to investigate how syphilis prevalence varied worldwide in the past century, and what risk factors correlate with this variance. Methods 1) A systematic review using PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted to identify countries with published data relating to ASP estimates from before 1952 until the present. Eleven countries were identified (Canada, Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, Singapore, South Africa, United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK) and Zimbabwe). The ASP epidemic curve for each population was depicted graphically. In South Africa and the USA, results are reported separately for the black and white populations. 2) National antenatal syphilis prevalence estimates for 1990 to 1999 and 2008 were taken from an Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation database on the prevalence of syphilis in low risk populations compiled for the Global Burden of Diseases study and from a recent review paper respectively. National ASPs were depicted graphically and regional median ASPs were calculated for both time periods. 3) Linear regression was used to test for an association between ASP in 1990–1999 and 2008 and four risk factors (efficacy of syphilis screening/treatment, health expenditure, GDP per capita and circumcision prevalence). WHO world regions were included as potential explanatory variables. Results In most populations, ASP dropped to under 1% before 1960. In Zimbabwe and black South Africans, ASP was high in the pre-penicillin period, dropped in the post-penicillin period, but then plateaued at around 6% until the end of the 20th century when ASP dropped to just above 1%. In black Americans, ASP declined in the post penicillin period, but plateaued at 3–5% thereafter. ASP was statistically significantly higher in sub-Saharan Africa in 1990–1999 and 2008

  6. Toward measles elimination in Bahrain--a Middle East country experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Jaleela S; Al-Sayyad, Adel S; Sataih, Fathiya; Naouri, Boubker; Alexander, James P

    2011-07-01

    Measles was a leading cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality in Bahrain before the introduction of measles vaccine in 1974. With the establishment of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1981 and the introduction of a second dose of measles vaccine in 1985, coverage for first and second doses of measles vaccine increased to 94% by 1997 and has been sustained >97% since 2001. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunization campaigns targeting 12-year-old students were conducted annually during 1998-2006 and achieved coverage of >95%. As a result, the incidence of measles in Bahrain has declined markedly over the past 4 decades, to 2.7 cases per million persons in 2009. Recent confirmed measles cases have occurred sporadically, in undervaccinated children or in infants too young or adults too old to receive measles vaccine. Bahrain has made significant progress toward measles elimination by sustaining high immunization coverage and strengthening case-based measles surveillance activities. Further success will depend on improved identification and immunization of undervaccinated expatriate workers and their families. PMID:21666177

  7. Health burden and economic impact of measles-related hospitalizations in Italy in 2002–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massari Marco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2002–2003. This study evaluates the health burden and economic impact of measles-related hospitalizations in Italy during the specified period. Methods Hospital discharge abstract data for measles hospitalizations in Italy during 2002–2003 were analysed to obtain information regarding number and rates of measles hospitalizations by geographical area and age group, length of hospital stay, and complications. Hospitalization costs were estimated on the basis of Diagnosis-Related Groups. Results A total of 5,154 hospitalizations were identified, 3,478 (67% of which occurred in children Conclusion The nationwide health burden associated with measles during the 2002–2003 outbreak was substantial and a high cost was incurred by the Italian National Health Service for the thousands of measles-related hospitalizations which occurred. By assuming that hospital costs represent 40–50% of the direct costs of measles cases, direct costs of measles for the two years combined were estimated to be between €17.6 – 22.0 million, which equates to the vaccination of 1.5–1.9 million children (3–4 birth cohorts with one dose of MMR. The high cost of measles and the severity of its complications fully justify the commitment required to reach measles elimination.

  8. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Al-Kindi, Hanan; Meki, Nabil; Al-Maani, Amal

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis. PMID:27168928

  9. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Al-Kindi, Hanan; Meki, Nabil; Al-Maani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis.

  10. Histopathologic ear findings of syphilis: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Hızlı, Pelin; Kaya, Serdar; Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, histopathologic studies of syphilitic ears have generally focused on hydropic changes; so far, no such studies have investigated peripheral vestibular otopathology using differential interference contrast microscopy, in patients with syphilis. For this study, we examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with a history of syphilis. Using conventional light microscopy, we performed qualitative histopathologic assessment. In addition, using differential interference contrast microscopy, we performed type I and type II vestibular hair cell counts on each vestibular sense organ with minimal autolysis; in which the neuroepithelium was oriented perpendicular to the plane of section. We then compared vestibular hair cell densities (cells per 0.01 mm² surface area) in the syphilis group vs. the control group. In the syphilis group, we observed precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces in 1 (7.7 %) of the samples and endolymphatic hydrops in eight (61.5 %) of the samples. Hydrops involved the cochlea (four samples) and/or saccule (four samples). In addition, the syphilis group experienced a significant loss of type II vestibular hair cells in the maculae of the utricle and saccule, and in the cristae of the lateral and posterior semicircular canals, as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). PMID:26573155

  11. Serodiagnosis of syphilis in a community: An evaluatory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse the prevalence of syphilis in the apparently healthy population and to provide data for implementation of the joint STD/HIV control programme, a population based study was undertaken by using ′probability proportional to size′ cluster survey method in three randomly chosen districts of Tamil Nadu, India namely Dindigul, Ramnad and Tanjore. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from adults (n=1873 aged 15-45 years, from the selected households enrolled in this study. The sera were tested parallelly by rapid plasma reagin (RPR and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA tests. Reactive samples by RPR and/or TPHA were later analysed by fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS test. RESULTS: The prevalence of syphilis in the community of Tamil Nadu as per RPR positivity was 2.7% (50/1873 as against 0.7% by TPHA (13/1873. FTA-ABS positivity was observed in only 12 out of 48 (25% RPR/TPHA reactive samples tested. By taking the positivity by two of the three tests, the community prevalence of acute ongoing syphilis in Tamil Nadu was determined as 1.1% (20/1873. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed that no single serological test for syphilis can act as the marker of ongoing acute infection in an apparently healthy population. The study suggests that for specific diagnosis of ongoing syphilis, the FTA-ABS test may be performed along with RPR and TPHA.

  12. Prevalence of syphilis among HIV-seroreactive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turbadkar D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of genital ulcer disease facilitates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and their -diagnosis is essential for the proper management. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL test is used as a screening test for the diagnosis of syphilis. However, unusual VDRL test results have been reported in HIV-infected persons with syphilis. There are reports showing higher than expected VDRL titers as well as biological false positive in most of the studies. A negative Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR test or VDRL test result may not rule out syphilis in patients with HIV infection. For laboratory confirmation of syphilis, one specific Treponemal test, namely, Fluroscent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA-ABS test or Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA should be done along with VDRL. In the present study, 88 HIV-seropositive patients with history of high-risk behaviour were screened for syphilis by VDRL test. Out of these 88 cases, 42 (47.7% patients were positive for TPHA and eight (9.1% patients were reactive for VDRL in various titers. All the eight patients who were reactive for VDRL test were also positive for TPHA test. Persons with HIV infection acquired through sexual route should be screened for sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and all patients with STIs should be counselled for HIV testing. This will help in proper management of patients having STIs and HIV coinfection.

  13. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL......-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included. IL-10 levels increased significantly in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis from a median of 12.8 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 11.0-27.8] before...... infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P <0.001). TNF-alpha levels showed no significant change from before to during syphilis in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis (median 3.9 pg...

  14. [Syphilis. Part 1: Introduction, pathology and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Flaig, B; Rode, S

    2013-10-01

    In Germany more than 3,500 people become infected with syphilis annually. As elsewhere in Western Europe there is a low level endemicity with a concentration among population subgroups with high rates of partner exchange, such as men who have sex with other men. In Germany after initially reduced numbers of cases, the incidence rate has increased after the turn of the millennium. In 2011 the incidence reached 4.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest incidence since the introduction of the Infection Protection Act of 2001. Syphilis, like other sexually transmitted infections and diseases with its manifold clinical manifestations and complex diagnostics, is a large global problem for public health systems. The recent resurgence of syphilis presents a challenge for all physicians but particularly for dermatologists and venereologists because the skin and adjacent mucous membranes are initially affected. Rapid diagnosis, differential diagnosis, consequent treatment and monitoring can cure the disease. Prevention of misdiagnosis is essential otherwise severe, sometimes fatal cardiovascular complications, neurosyphilis and transfer to unborn and newborn children can occur. The synergy of syphilis and sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of special importance. Syphilis together with genital herpes and other sexually transmitted genital and oral ulcers is an important pacemaker for HIV. PMID:24150827

  15. Field trial of brucellosis competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance characteristics of the competitive (C) ELISA for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis and the differentiation of Brucella infected from Brucella vaccinated cattle to the indirect (I) ELISA and the conventional serological techniques used in Argentina. The diagnostic specificity and relative sensibility of ELISA was comparable to CFT and 2ME, which are the official complementary tests in Argentina. Besides, C-ELISA showed the best performancein analysing vaccinated animals. The application of the ELISA test is largely feasible because of its reproducibility and easy standardization. In addition, although CFT has a great performance, its application is cumbersom; the 2ME test lasted for 48 h and is toxic. Both the C-ELISA, using MAb M84, and the I-ELISA, using MAb M23, have been demonstrated to have the best performance. Owing to our field conditions (brucellosis prevalence and mandatory vaccination of female calves) the competitive ELISA should be applied as a complement of the official screening tests such as BP. These results suggest that the ELISA test would be very useful in contributing to the control and eradication programme of bovine brucellosis in Argentina

  16. Recurrent Epistaxis and Bleeding as the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Davari, Kambiz; Eftekhari, Kambiz

    2016-03-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding is rarely reported in children with brucellosis, and recurrent epistaxis is extremely rare. Brucellosis with hemorrhage should be differentiated from viral hemorrhagic fever, malignancy, and other blood disorders. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is mandatory to differentiate from other blood diseases. An 8-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent epistaxis, petechiae and purpura on face and extremities and bleeding from the gums. During the hospitalization, he was febrile and complained of muscle pain. Leukopenias associated with thrombocytopenia were observed. BMA showed to be normal. Among the multiple tests requested, only serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-MercaptoEthanol test (2-ME) were positive. He was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) associated with co-trimoxazole and rifampin. Finally, fever subsided, and he was discharged with good condition and normal platelet count. Brucellosis should be a differential diagnosis in patients with fever and bleeding disorders and a history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, in endemic areas. PMID:27107528

  17. An analysis of children with brucellosis associated with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Kamuran; Akbayram, Sinan; Kaba, Sultan; Karaman, Serap; Garipardiç, Mesut; Aydin, Ilyas; Öner, Ahmet Fayik

    2016-06-01

    This retrospective study included seven paediatric cases aged from 4 to 14 (10.2±3.4) years with pathologically proved haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from a single institution during 2009 and 2013. Over this time period, 496 patients with brucellosis were diagnosed. None of the patients (3 boys and 4 girls) had a history of any haematologic disorder. All patients had an anamnesis for recently consumed unpasteurised homemade dairy products or had a contact history with sheep and/or cows. The diagnosis of brucellosis was confirmed by standard tube agglutination test in all patients; titres were 1: 1280 in seven patients. Blood culture was positive for Brucella melitensis in three patients (42%). Bone marrow cultures were positive for B. melitensis in four patients (57%). Fever was present in all patients (100%) with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The other most common symptoms were malaise, myalgia, anorexia, sweating and weight loss. In addition, sweating was observed in five patients, and lymphadenopathy, petechiae, and weight loss were observed in one patient. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly were found in four (57%), six (85%) and four (57%), patients, respectively. Haemophagocytosis was documented in bone marrow examinations of all children except in two cases. All patients recovered completely, and their peripheral blood counts returned to normal by 2 to 4 weeks after antibiotic treatment of brucellosis. PMID:27367321

  18. Brucellosis: Development and success using ELISAs for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a highly infectious disease of a substantial number of animal species. Because of its pathogenicity to humans, the cost and time involved, classical diagnosis by isolation of the causative microorganism is not commonly used for diagnosis of individual animals. Presumptive diagnosis has been made for about 100 years by using serological tests. Initially, a slow agglutination test was developed and later modified to increase the sensitivity and to decrease the time. Complement fixation and gel diffusion tests were also developed and, in some cases, widely used. The development of primary binding assays, in particular, enzyme immunoassays, has provided tools for diagnosis that are more accurate than conventional serological tests. The enzyme immunoassays, the indirect and competitive formats, have different uses but are both potent additions to the diagnosis of brucellosis in that they may be used for rapid and accurate assessment of antibody in milk and serum in the absence of interference by antibodies resulting from vaccination. Another type of primary binding assay, a fluorescence polarization assay, was also developed for the diagnosis of brucellosis. This assay, which is a homogeneous format, has the added advantages of being simple to perform, very rapid, potentially inexpensive and capable of being performed outside the laboratory. (author)

  19. Epididymoorchitis as the First Finding in Patients with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Karaköse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acute scrotal pain as the first symptom of brucellosis is rarely observed. We aimed to evaluate the data of male patients with brucellosis and epididymoorchitis as the initial diagnosis. Material and Methods. The data of seven patients presented with testicular pain, hyperemia, swelling, and increased fever were reviewed. Concomitant focal diseases as well as clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Results. The mean age of the patients was 22.28 ± 7.78 (16–35 years. All patients presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and increased sweating. Additional findings included fever, asthenia, arthralgia, dysuria, shiver and rash, weight loss, and vomiting in 6, 5, 4, 4, 3, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. In all of 7 patients, the agglutination tests of Rose-Bengal and Wright were positive. Coombs test was positive only in 3 patients. The patients underwent antibiotic and conservative treatment. No relapse was observed following the treatment. Conclusion. In endemic regions, epididymoorchitis caused by brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotal pain. Clinical and serological findings are sufficient for the diagnosis. Conservative management combined with antibiotic therapy is adequate for managing brucellar epididymoorchitis.

  20. Human Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia by Regions Depending on Vaccination Procedures in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharko Stojmanovski

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Decline of the incidence of human brucellosis is one of the major indicators for successfully implemented new control programs and strategies for prevention and eradication of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Vaccination was good measure to control brucellosis in the 3 regions.

  1. Reasons for measles cases not being vaccinated with MMR: investigation into parents' and carers' views following a large measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, P; Keenan, A; Ghebrehewet, S

    2016-03-01

    Uptake rates for the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine have been below the required 95% in the UK since a retracted and discredited article linking the MMR vaccine with autism and inflammatory bowel disease was released in 1998. This study undertook semi-structured telephone interviews among parents or carers of 47 unvaccinated measles cases who were aged between 13 months and 9 years, during a large measles outbreak in Merseyside. Results showed that concerns over the specific links with autism remain an important cause of refusal to vaccinate, with over half of respondents stating this as a reason. A quarter stated child illness during scheduled vaccination time, while other reasons included general safety concerns and access issues. Over half of respondents felt that more information or a discussion with a health professional would help the decision-making process, while a third stated improved access. There was clear support for vaccination among respondents when asked about current opinions regarding MMR vaccine. The findings support the hypothesis that safety concerns remain a major barrier to MMR vaccination, and also support previous evidence that experience of measles is an important determinant in the decision to vaccinate. PMID:26265115

  2. Nonfebrile Seizures after Mumps, Measles, Rubella, and Varicella-Zoster Virus Combination Vaccination with Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Serum, Throat, and Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Eckerle, Isabella; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Santibanez, Sabine; Buderus, Stephan; Hillmann, Matthias; Drosten, Christian; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a child presenting with nonfebrile seizures 6 and 13 days after the first vaccination with a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine. Measles virus RNA was detected in the patient's serum, throat, and urine. Genotyping revealed the Schwarz vaccine virus strain.

  3. A Randomized Trial of a Standard Dose of Edmonston-Zagreb Measles Vaccine Given at 4.5 Months of Age: Effect on Total Hospital Admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesario L.; Benn, Christine S.; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non–measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine ...

  4. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantur B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on

  5. Osteoarticular Involvement among Brucellosis Cases in Konya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Turan Ozden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brucellosis is a systemic disease that can affect many organs and tissues. Musculoskeletal system is one of the most commonly affected systems. Disease may present itself with sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, paraspinal abscess, bursitis or osteomyelitis. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency, types and clinical features of osteoarticular involvement among cases with brucellosis in Konya city and to establish the differences between patients with and without osteoarticular involvement. Material and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen patients with Brucellosis who presented between June 2003 and June 2014 were included in the study. Brucellosis was diagnosed by positive Brucella Standard Agglutination Test ( and #61619;1/160 titer and/or growth of Brucella spp. in blood culture in addition to the presence of clinical signs and findings. Diagnosis of osteoarticular system complications was established by physical examination and radiological findings obtained by diagnostic imaging tools. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic, lumbar or sacral vertebrae were acquired in patients with back pain, low back pain and sacro-iliac joint pain. Results: Osteoarticular involvement was noted in 129 patients (40.8% (females: 52% and males: 48%. The most common route of transmission was employment in farming and/or consumption of un-pasteurized milk or dairy products, especially fresh cheese, in 97 (75% cases. Mean age was 46 and #61617;18 years. Sacroiliitis was the most frequent osteoarticular involvement (n: 68, 52.7%, 70.5% of which were bilateral. Sacroiliitis was followed by spondylodiscitis in 35 (38.7%, peripheral arthritis in 20 (15.5%, bursitis in 1 (0.8% cases. Patients with osteoarticular involvement received medical treatment for at least three months. Discussion: Ratio and anatomical region of osteoarticular involvement in brucellosis shows variability among areas. In the present study, we

  6. UK national guidelines on the management of syphilis 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, M; French, P; Higgins, S; McQuillan, O; Sukthankar, A; Stott, C; McBrien, B; Tipple, C; Turner, A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, Keith; Cousins, Darren; FitzGerald, Mark; Fisher, Martin; Grover, Deepa; Higgins, Stephen; Kingston, Margaret; Rayment, Michael; Sullivan, Ann

    2016-05-01

    These guidelines are an update for 2015 of the 2008 UK guidelines for the management of syphilis. The writing group have piloted the new BASHH guideline methodology, notably using the GRADE system for assessing evidence and making recommendations. We have made significant changes to the recommendations for screening infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology and to facilitate accurate and timely communication between the teams caring for mother and baby we have developed a birth plan. Procaine penicillin is now an alternative, not preferred treatment, for all stages of syphilis except neurosyphilis, but the length of treatment for this is shortened. Other changes are summarised at the start of the guideline. PMID:26721608

  7. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (78 FR 9028-9029, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0086) a notice that made a proposed action plan describing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will...

  8. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  9. BOCI-Egypt : Brucellosis and Tuberculosis control 21- 25 March 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, A.J.; Vugt, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the report of the first mission to Egypt for the project: Impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on animal production and public health (BO-10-009-118). The objective of this mission was: to make an assessment of the current needs and problems in Egypt related to brucellosis and tuberculosis

  10. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent da

  11. Analysis of the incidence of syphilis in the Leningrad region and St. Petersburg: the current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Agaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996–2009, the incidence of syphilis in the North-West region of Russia has declined and changed its structure. The frequency of neurosyphilis and latent forms increased, especially of late and unspecified latent syphilis. Differences in the structure of syphilis between the Leningrad region and St. Petersburg have been identified, which consisted in the reduction of primary syphilis and an increase in early latent syphilis in comparison with the city.

  12. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.;

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat to...

  13. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated hemato-biochemical changes in pakistani horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and hemato-biochemical manifestations of brucellosis in horses. Serum samples were screened for Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT). Blood samples were evaluated for hemato-biochemical parameters following standard procedures. Results indicated seroprevalence of brucellosis 20.13 and 16.23% in horses by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Brucellosis does not lead to any significant change in hematological and biochemical parameters in relation to age, sex, body condition and lactation except few parameters. The values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil, basophil and alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in brucellosis positive animals as compared to healthy animals whereas lymphocytes and alanine aminotransferase were in opposite order. It was concluded from the results that prevalence of brucellosis in horse population is of concern; therefore, control measures should be opted so that its zoonotic threat is curtailed. (author)

  14. A case report of brucellosis with fever and abdominal pain at onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU He-Ling; YANG Fei-Fei; HUANG Yu-Xian; JIN Jia-Lin; ZHANG Wen-Hong; WENG Xin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella ,with an acute or chronic clinical infection .Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are various or atypical ,and it is easily misdiagnosed and miss-diagnosed .The case we have reported had an onset of fever and abdominal pain ,associated with arthralgia ,headache and rashes during the course , and was initially misdiagnosed as “acute cholangitis , associated with biliary pancreatitis” . According to epidemiologic survey , radiological evidence , as well as blood culture and agglutination test showing Brucella positive ,the diagnosis of brucellosis associated with splenic infarction and multi-systemic involvement including lungs , skin and brain was made . After regular anti-brucellosis treatment , the patient’s symptoms were significantly improved . Brucellosis associated with splenic infarction is rare ,which is possibly due to vasculitis resulting from Brucella infection .

  15. A Case of Brucellosis Associated with Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dalton Wheeler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of brucellosis are rare in the United States and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a young female who underwent a diagnostic investigation of fever of unknown origin, which included a lymph node biopsy. The biopsy was consistent with Kikuchi’s Disease, or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, an entity where the major differential diagnosis is systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, serologic studies supported the diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucellosis has rarely been associated with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. This association has never been reported in the United States, thus suggesting that brucellosis should be considered in the differential for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, along with lupus-like autoimmune disease. As the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, brucellosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus are distinct, it is important to differentiate these entities. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 274-279

  16. Antilipide antibodies cofactor in syphilis, Lyme borreliosis and autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    B Voicechovskaya; J Zabek

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To study (32 glycoprotein 1 contribution to frequency of aCL in pts with autoimmune and some infectious diseases. Methods. Antibodies to different phospholipids were tested by immune-enzyme method (IEM) in serum of 92 pts: 20 of them had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 15 Sjogren’s disease (SD), 20 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 20 syphilis and 17 Lyme disease (LD). Pts with syphilis and LD did not have clinical signs of autoimmune disease. Stimulation of aCL test in IEM was perfor...

  17. Ultrasound examination in diagnostic of early congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zavadovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A peculiarity of the congenital syphilis of recent years is an increase of the number of cases of latent forms of the disease, marked with osteopathy. With the help of an examination of 50 children with early congenital syphilis, the following ultrasonic signs of a musculoskeletal system lesion were revealed: osteochondritis 90%, osteosclerosis 80%, and periostitis 30%.The comparison of the nature of a musculoskeletal system lesion with serological data of the specific process activity showed that complex manifestations of lesions with periostitis being a component were of the greatest clinical significance.

  18. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G; Thårup, J; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; da Silva, M C; Whittle, H

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.6%,...... vaccination. These data suggest that it will be necessary to vaccinate before age 9 months to control measles in hyperendemic urban African areas....

  19. German measles outbreak bursts in two unvaccinated border hilly districts of Northern Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Surender N Gupta; Naveen Gupta; Nirankar S Neki

    2012-01-01

    Background: We investigated German measles outbreak as a suspected one of measles to confirm diagnosis and recommend for control and prevention. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of German measles as the occurrence of febrile rash in any resident of the eight villages from 20 th October to 16 th January, 2007. Case patients were line listed and information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, traveling, treatment history, vaccination status, and pregnancy status were...

  20. Post-vaccine measles in a child with concomitant influenza, Sicily, Italy, March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramuto, F; Dones, P; D Angelo, C; Casuccio, N; Vitale, F

    2015-01-01

    We describe the occurrence of measles in an 18 month-old patient in Sicily, Italy, in March 2015, who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine seven days before onset of prodromal symptoms. Measles virus infection was confirmed by PCR and detection of specific immunoglobulin; viral genotyping permitted the confirmation of a vaccine-associated illness. The patient had a concurrent influenza virus infection, during a seasonal epidemic outbreak of influenza. PMID:26027483

  1. Evolution and Use of Dynamic Transmission Models for Measles and Rubella Risk and Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-07-01

    The devastation caused by periodic measles outbreaks motivated efforts over more than a century to mathematically model measles disease and transmission. Following the identification of rubella, which similarly presents with fever and rash and causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in infants born to women first infected with rubella early in pregnancy, modelers also began to characterize rubella disease and transmission. Despite the relatively large literature, no comprehensive review to date provides an overview of dynamic transmission models for measles and rubella developed to support risk and policy analysis. This systematic review of the literature identifies quantitative measles and/or rubella dynamic transmission models and characterizes key insights relevant for prospective modeling efforts. Overall, measles and rubella represent some of the relatively simplest viruses to model due to their ability to impact only humans and the apparent life-long immunity that follows survival of infection and/or protection by vaccination, although complexities arise due to maternal antibodies and heterogeneity in mixing and some models considered potential waning immunity and reinfection. This review finds significant underreporting of measles and rubella infections and widespread recognition of the importance of achieving and maintaining high population immunity to stop and prevent measles and rubella transmission. The significantly lower transmissibility of rubella compared to measles implies that all countries could eliminate rubella and CRS by using combination of measles- and rubella-containing vaccines (MRCVs) as they strive to meet regional measles elimination goals, which leads to the recommendation of changing the formulation of national measles-containing vaccines from measles only to MRCV as the standard of care. PMID:27277138

  2. An ongoing measles outbreak linked to a suspected imported case, Ireland, April to June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Peter; Chaintarli, Katerina; Ryan, Fiona; Cotter, Suzanne; Cronin, Anthony; Carlton, Louise; MacSweeney, Mary; McDonnell, Mairead; Connell, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Rose; Hamilton, Douglas; Ward, Mary; Glynn, Ronan; Migone, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    We report an outbreak of measles which started in April 2016 and which, by 13 June, has resulted in 22 confirmed and five probable measles cases occurring in four regions of Ireland. Genotype B3 was identified. We describe the identification, ongoing investigation and control measures being implemented. This outbreak occurs during a period of very low measles transmission in Ireland, with only one confirmed case (imported) notified in 2016 before this event. PMID:27416848

  3. Local public health response to vaccine-associated measles: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hau, Monica; Schwartz, Kevin L; Frenette, Crystal; Mogck, Isabelle; Jonathan B Gubbay; Severini, Alberto; Hiebert, Joanne; Shelley L Deeks; Shaun K Morris

    2013-01-01

    Background The most appropriate public health approach to vaccine-associated measles in immunocompromised patients is unknown, mainly because these cases are rare and transmission of vaccine-associated measles has not been previously documented. In this case report, we describe Peel Public Health’s response to a vaccine-associated measles case in an immunocompromised child in Ontario, Canada. Case presentation A five-year-old Canadian-born boy with a history of a hematopoetic stem cell transp...

  4. Antigen mimicry involving measles virus hemagglutinin and human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Norrby, E; Sheshberadaran, H; Rafner, B

    1986-01-01

    Intergenic antigenic relationships between measles virus and respiratory syncytial (RS) virus-specific structural components were studied by using monoclonal antibodies. Of 75 monoclonal antibodies against these components, only one, an anti-measles virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody, cross-reacted. Immunofluorescence analysis of measles virus- and RS virus-infected cells with this monoclonal antibody showed qualitatively different staining patterns which indicated that the antigen invol...

  5. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation : analysis of mortality studies from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aaby, P; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zair...

  6. Successful respiratory immunization with dry powder live-attenuated measles virus vaccine in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wen-Hsuan; Griffin, Diane E.; Rota, Paul A.; Papania, Mark; Cape, Stephen P.; Bennett, David; Quinn, Brian; Sievers, Robert E.; Shermer, Charles; Powell, Kenneth; Adams, Robert J.; Godin, Steven; Winston, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Measles remains an important cause of childhood mortality worldwide. Sustained high vaccination coverage is the key to preventing measles deaths. Because measles vaccine is delivered by injection, hurdles to high coverage include the need for trained medical personnel and a cold chain, waste of vaccine in multidose vials and risks associated with needle use and disposal. Respiratory vaccine delivery could lower these barriers and facilitate sustained high coverage. We developed a novel single...

  7. Antibody response and clinical reactions in children given measles vaccine with immunoglobulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lingam, S.; Miller, C L; Clarke, M; Pateman, J

    1986-01-01

    Antibody responses and clinical reactions to three measles vaccines (Attenuvax, Mevilin, and Rimevax) injected into the opposite arm to immunoglobulin were assessed in 45 children with brain disorders making them susceptible to fits if given measles vaccine alone. In this small study no unacceptable reactions occurred and in only three cases was the antibody response minimal or absent. More children in this special category should be considered for vaccination against measles in this way.

  8. A measles epidemic threshold in a highly vaccinated population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against measles has successfully lowered the incidence of the disease and has changed the epidemic pattern from a roughly biennial cycle to an irregular sequence of outbreaks. A possible explanation for this sequence of outbreaks is that the vaccinated population is protected by solid herd immunity. If so, we would expect to see the fraction of susceptible individuals remaining below an epidemic threshold. An alternative explanation is the occurrence of occasional localised lapses in herd immunity that allow for major outbreaks in areas with a low vaccine coverage. In that case, we would expect the fraction of susceptible individuals to exceed an epidemic threshold before outbreaks occur. These two explanations for the irregular sequence of measles outbreaks can be tested against observations of both the fraction of susceptible individuals and infection attack rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have estimated both the fraction of susceptible individuals at the start of each epidemic year and the infection attack rates for each epidemic year in the Netherlands over a 28-y period. During this period the vaccine coverage averaged 93%, and there was no sustained measles transmission. Several measles outbreaks occurred in communities with low vaccine coverage, and these ended without intervention. We show that there is a clear threshold value for the fraction of susceptible individuals, below which only minor outbreaks occurred, and above which both minor and major outbreaks occurred. A precise, quantitative relationship exists between the fraction of susceptible individuals in excess of this threshold and the infection attack rate during the major outbreaks. CONCLUSION: In populations with a high but heterogeneous vaccine coverage, measles transmission can be interrupted without establishing solid herd immunity. When infection is reintroduced, a major outbreak can occur in the communities with low vaccine coverage. During

  9. Syphilis Infection: An Uncommon Etiology of Infectious Nonimmune Fetal Hydrops with Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Florent; Michaux, Katell; Rousseau, Céline; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Audibert, François

    2016-01-01

    An increased prevalence of syphilis has been observed in many developed countries over the last decade. During pregnancy, syphilis can affect the fetus through development of nonspecific symptoms such as microcephaly, ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, dilated and echogenic bowel, placentomegaly, and, uncommonly, fetal hydrops. Congenital syphilis also leads to hematologic abnormalities such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and leukocytosis. We present a case of nonimmune fetal hydrops with anemia related to syphilis infection. Diagnosis was confirmed by a maternal serological test and microbiological testing on amniotic fluid, umbilical cord, and placental tissues. The patient was treated with penicillin and the fetus received an intrauterine red blood cell transfusion, but fetal death occurred shortly after. Such a presentation is mostly related to parvovirus B19, and syphilis etiology is poorly mentioned because physicians have rarely seen early congenital syphilis in the past. However, given the increasing prevalence of this disease in the adult population, clinicians should remain alert to the various presentations of congenital syphilis. PMID:25138225

  10. Lives Saved Tool supplement detection and treatment of syphilis in pregnancy to reduce syphilis related stillbirths and neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Stuart

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally syphilis is an important yet preventable cause of stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives This review sought to estimate the effect of detection and treatment of active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU benzathine penicillin (or equivalent on syphilis-related stillbirths and neonatal mortality. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of multiple databases to identify relevant studies. Data were abstracted into standardised tables and the quality of evidence was assessed using adapted GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. Results Moderate quality evidence (3 studies supports a reduction in the incidence of clinical congenital syphilis of 97% (95% c.i 93 – 98% with detection and treatment of women with active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU penicillin. The results of meta-analyses suggest that treatment with penicillin is associated with an 82% reduction in stillbirth (95% c.i. 67 – 90% (8 studies, a 64% reduction in preterm delivery (95% c.i. 53 – 73% (7 studies and an 80% reduction in neonatal deaths (95% c.i. 68 – 87% (5 studies. Although these effect estimates were large and remarkably consistent across studies, few of the studies adjusted for potential confounding factors and thus the overall quality of the evidence was considered low. However, given these large observed effects and a clear biological mechanism for effectiveness the GRADE recommendation is strong. Conclusion Detection and appropriate, timely penicillin treatment is a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse syphilis-related pregnancy outcomes. More research is required to identify the most cost-effective strategies for achieving maximum coverage of screening for all pregnant women, and access to treatment if required.

  11. CLINICAL PROFILE OF MEASLES IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Measles affects about 20 million people a year. Even with greater than 80% immunization cover, the number of children with measles has registered a steep rise. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases of measles admitted to the paediatric wards of a tertiary care medical college hospital in a rural area in north Kerala. A total of 31 cases of measles (n=31) were admitted to the paediatric ward. Age at admission of 67.8% of the patients was above 6 years. ...

  12. Assessment of the Utility of Whole Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus in the Characterisation of Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Penedos, Ana Raquel; Myers, Richard; Hadef, Besma; Aladin, Farah; Brown, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly infectious disease caused by measles virus (MeV). Despite the availability of a safe and cost-effective vaccine, measles is one of the world-leading causes of death in young children. Within Europe, there is a target for eliminating endemic measles in 2015, with molecular epidemiology required on 80% of cases for inclusion/exclusion of outbreak transmission chains. Currently, MeV is genotyped on the basis of a 450 nucleotide region of the nucleoprotein gene (N-4...

  13. Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M B; Addiss, D G; McPherson, J T; Berg, J L; Circo, S R; Davis, J P

    1990-05-01

    A prolonged school-based outbreak of measles provided an opportunity to study "vaccine-modified" mild measles and secondary vaccine failure. Thirty-six (97%) of 37 unvaccinated patients had rash illnesses that met the Centers for Disease Control clinical case definition of measles, but 29 (15%) of 198 vaccinated patients did not, primarily because of low-grade or absent fever. Of 122 patients with seroconfirmed measles, 10 patients (all previously vaccinated) had no detectable measles-specific IgM and significantly milder illness than either vaccinated or unvaccinated patients with IgM-positive serum. Of 108 vaccinated patients with seroconfirmed measles, 17 patients (16%) had IgM-negative serology or rash illnesses that failed to meet the clinical case definition; their mean age (13 years), age at the time of vaccination, and time since vaccination did not differ from those of other vaccinated patients. The occurrence of secondary vaccine failure and vaccine-modified measles does not appear to be a major impediment to measles control in the United States but may lead to underreporting of measles cases and result in overestimation of vaccine efficacy in highly vaccinated populations. PMID:2278542

  14. Syphilis serology in patients with primary syphilis and non-treponemal sexually transmitted diseases in southern Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Sischy, A; da L'Exposto, F; Y. Dangor; Fehler, H G; Radebe, F.; Walkden, D D; Miller, S. D.; Ballard, R C

    1991-01-01

    The reactivity of a non-specific reagin (RPR) test and a specific treponemal (FTA-ABS) test were determined in 21 patients with primary syphilis, 430 patients with proven non-treponemal genital ulcerations and 719 patients with acute urethritis presenting at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in southern Africa. Excluding those 21 cases of primary syphilis, 358 of 1149 tests performed (31%) were found to be reactive by at least one test. The rate of false positive RPR tests was very l...

  15. The Role of Sphingomyelin Breakdown in Measles Virus Immunmodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Avota

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV efficiently causes generalized immunosuppression which accounts to a major extent for cases of measles-asscociated severe morbidity and mortality. MV infections alter many functions of antigen presenting cells (APC (dendritic cells (DCs and lymphocytes, yet many molecular targets of the virus remain poorly defined. Cellular interactions and effector functions of DCs and lymphocytes are regulated by surface receptors. Associating with other proteins involved in cell signaling, receptors form part of receptosomes that respond to and transmit external signals through dynamic interctions with the cytoskeleton. Alterations in the composition and metabolism of membrane sphingolipids have a substantial impact on both processes. In this review we focus on the regulation of sphingomyelinase activity and ceramide release in cells exposed to MV and discuss the immunosuppressive role of sphingomyelin breakdown induced by MV.

  16. Mitigating measles outbreaks in West Africa post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Shaun A; Moss, William J; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 devastated the populations, economies and healthcare systems of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. With this devastation comes the impending threat of outbreaks of other infectious diseases like measles. Strategies for mitigating these risks must include both prevention, through vaccination, and case detection and management, focused on surveillance, diagnosis and appropriate clinical care and case management. With the high transmissibility of measles virus, small-scale reactive vaccinations will be essential to extinguish focal outbreaks, while national vaccination campaigns are needed to guarantee vaccination coverage targets are reached in the long term. Rapid and multifaceted strategies should carefully navigate challenges present in the wake of Ebola, while also taking advantage of current Ebola-related activities and international attention. Above all, resources and focus currently aimed at these countries must be utilized to build up the deficit in infrastructure and healthcare systems that contributed to the extent of the Ebola outbreak. PMID:26489536

  17. Reduced childhood mortality after standard measles vaccination at 4-8 months compared with 9-11 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Gomes, J; Fernandes, Marcellino Christian

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age.......To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age....

  18. Measles immunisation in children with allergy to egg.

    OpenAIRE

    Aickin, R.; Hill, D.; A. Kemp

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the occurrence of adverse reactions to measles vaccine given as a single dose to children with egg allergy, and to determine if the administration of single dose to children with a positive result in an intradermal skin prick test with the vaccine is associated with adverse reactions. DESIGN--Review of results of immunisation and prospective study of 96 consecutively presenting children given intradermal skin testing with the vaccine. SETTING--Children's allergy centre. ...

  19. Bone lesions in early syphilis detected by bone scintigraphy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, K.; Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Lindewald, H; Sørensen, P S; Weismann, K

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of early syphilis with multiple bone lesions which all resolved after treatment with penicillin. We discuss why bone lesions may be more prevalent than generally believed and why 99m-Tc-MDP-bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiography in detecting syphilitic periostitis.

  20. Syphilis seroprevalence estimates of Santa Catarina blood donors in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysla Marcelino Baião

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knowledge of blood donor characteristics is essential to better guide clinical and serological screening for hemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine the syphilis seroprevalence and the associated factors of blood donors in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods This population-based study from the State of Santa Catarina used information obtained from blood donation records. We analyzed 83,396 blood donor records generated from donors who were considered eligible to donate between January and August 2010. The aim of the study was to estimate the syphilis seroprevalence and its relationship with educational level, age, gender, geographical region and having donated blood in the past 12 months. We used descriptive analyses and a Poisson regression to calculate the prevalence ratios for the variables of interest. Results We found a 0.14% overall seroprevalence and significant differences among the following: first-time blood donors (0.19% versus repeat donors (0.03% to 0.08%; low educational levels (0.30% versus medium and high educational levels (0.08% to 0.19%; and donors who did not report their residence (0.88% or age (6.94% versus those who did. Increased syphilis seroprevalence was also significantly associated with increased age. Conclusion High syphilis seroprevalence was associated with lower educational level, age, first-time donation and the failure to provide age or residence information.

  1. Serological analysis and therapy in patients with early syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty one patients with early syphilis were treated with benzathine penicillin under guide of serological analysis, the results showed that benzathine penicilline was able to cure indurated chancre and skin rashes in a month, flat condyloma in one and a half month, and PRP were all negative in 18 month

  2. Evaluation of a new chemiluminescence immunoassay for diagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Xiaohui

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of a new chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA in the diagnosis of syphilis. Methods At first, a retrospective study was conducted, using 135 documented cases of syphilis and 30 potentially interfering samples and 80 normal sera. A prospective study was also performed by testing 2, 071 unselected samples for routine screening for syphilis. CLIA was compared with a nontreponemal test (TRUST and a treponemal test (TPPA. Results There was an agreement of 100% between CLIA and TPPA in the respective study. The percentage of agreement among the 245 sera tested was 100.0%. Compared with TPPA, the specificity of CLIA was 99.9% (1817/1819, the sensitivity of CLIA was 100.0% (244/244 in the prospective study. CLIA showed 99.5% agreement with TPPA by testing 2, 071 unselected samples. And CLIA seemed to be more sensitive than TPPA in detecting the samples of primary syphilis. Conclusions CLIA is easy to perform and the indicator results are objective and unequivocal. It may be suitable for large-scale screening as a treponemal test substituted for TPPA.

  3. Syphilis and HIV co-infection (PhD-afhandling)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    the Copenhagen area, we observed that syphilis was diagnosed in the primary, secondary, early and late latent stage. These patients were treated with either doxycycline or penicillin and the rate of treatment failure was similar in the two groups, indicating that doxycycline can be used as a treatment...

  4. CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEASLES AT SIR RONALD ROSS INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth Bhatt; Kalyani; Shankar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles remain a leading vaccine - preventable cause of child mortality worldwide and is still a public health problem. According to the World Health Organization ( WHO ), more than 20 million people are affected by measles each year with 95% of measles deaths occurring in countries that have weak health infrastructures. Out breaks of Measles are still common in India. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of th e present study were to determi...

  5. Childhood brucellosis--a microbiological, epidemiological and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, B G; Akki, A S; Mangalgi, Smita S; Patil, S V; Gobbur, R H; Peerapur, B V

    2004-06-01

    A total of 5726 blood specimens (from children aged 14 years and younger) were studied for the serological evidence of brucellosis. Ninety-three (1.6 per cent) showed diagnostic agglutinin titres with a geometric mean titre of 403 (SD +/- 547). Forty-three (59.7 per cent) blood specimens yielded the growth of Brucella melitensis. Thirty-nine patients (41.93 per cent) were shepherds, who constituted the major occupational group affected in the present series. More than 60 per cent of the patients had a history of both consumption of fresh goat's milk and close animal contact. The habit of consuming fresh goat's milk to obtain relief from chronic ailments was noted in nine patients. Seventy-three (78.49 per cent) were males and 20 (21.51 per cent) were females, with a male to female ratio of 3:1. The disease occurred mainly in the school age group (mean age 10.3 years). All the patients had an acute history of less than 2 months. Forty-nine (52.68 per cent) patients presented with persistent fever, 19 (20.43 per cent) with joint pain, and the rest with a combination of fever and joint pain with and without low backache, fever being the commonest complaint. One case presented with involuntary movements of limbs alone and the other with burning feet only. Pityriasis alba was the consistent physical finding, with fever in the majority of the patients. The major joint found to be involved was the knee (52.77 per cent). The synovial fluid obtained from the knee joint of five patients demonstrated Brucella agglutinins and also three grew B. melitensis. Eight patients presented with complications that included skin lesions (3), carditis (2), neurobrucellosis such as chorea (1), peripheral neuritis (1), and meningitis (1). Brucella melitensis biotype 1 was successfully isolated from the papular eruption of one out of three cases who presented with skin lesions. To our knowledge this is the fourth confirmed isolation of B. melitensis from skin lesions with brucellosis

  6. Unacceptably high mortality related to measles epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Grais

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the comprehensive World Health Organization (WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF measles mortality-reduction strategy and the Measles Initiative, a partnership of international organizations supporting measles mortality reduction in Africa, certain high-burden countries continue to face recurrent epidemics. To our knowledge, few recent studies have documented measles mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of our study was to investigate measles mortality in three recent epidemics in Niamey (Niger, N'Djamena (Chad, and Adamawa State (Nigeria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted three exhaustive household retrospective mortality surveys in one neighbourhood of each of the three affected areas: Boukoki, Niamey, Niger (April 2004, n = 26,795; Moursal, N'Djamena, Chad (June 2005, n = 21,812; and Dong District, Adamawa State, Nigeria (April 2005, n = 16,249, where n is the total surveyed population in each of the respective areas. Study populations included all persons resident for at least 2 wk prior to the study, a duration encompassing the measles incubation period. Heads of households provided information on measles cases, clinical outcomes up to 30 d after rash onset, and health-seeking behaviour during the epidemic. Measles cases and deaths were ascertained using standard WHO surveillance-case definitions. Our main outcome measures were measles attack rates (ARs and case fatality ratios (CFRs by age group, and descriptions of measles complications and health-seeking behaviour. Measles ARs were the highest in children under 5 y old (under 5 y: 17.1% in Boukoki, 17.2% in Moursal, and 24.3% in Dong District. CFRs in under 5-y-olds were 4.6%, 4.0%, and 10.8% in Boukoki, Moursal, and Dong District, respectively. In all sites, more than half of measles cases in children aged under 5 y experienced acute respiratory infection and/or diarrhoea in the 30 d following rash onset. Of measles cases, it was reported that 85

  7. Seroprevalence of measles and natural rubella antibodies among children in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Daba Régis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passively acquired maternal antibodies are necessary to protect infants against circulating measles virus until they reach the eligible age of vaccination. Likewise, high levels of population immunity must be achieved and maintained to reduce measles virus transmission. This study was undertaken to (1 assess the presence of maternally acquired measles-specific IgG antibodies among infants less than 9 months of age in Bangui, Central African Republic and (2 determine the immune status of vaccination-age children and the concordance with reported vaccination status. A secondary objective was to describe the presence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the study population. Methods Vaccination history and blood samples were collected from 395 children using blotting paper. Samples were analyzed for the presence of measles-specific IgG antibodies using commercial ELISA kits. Results Measles-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 51.3% of vaccinated children and 27.6% of non-vaccinated children. Maternally derived measles IgG antibodies were present in only 14.8% of infants aged 0-3 months and were absent in all infants aged 4-8 months. The presence of IgG-specific measles antibodies varied among children of vaccination age, from 57.3% for children aged 9 months to 5 years, to 50.6% for children aged 6-9 years and 45.6% for chidren aged 10 years and above. The overall prevalence of rubella-specific IgG was 55.4%, with a high prevalence (87.4% among children over 10 years of age. Conclusion The findings suggest that despite efforts to accelerate measles control by giving a second dose of measles vaccine, a large number of children remain susceptible to measles virus. Further research is required to determine the geographic extent of immunity gaps and the factors that influence immunity to measles virus in the Central African Republic.

  8. Descriptive Study of the Presentation of Human Brucellosis in Colombia (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopez Guarnizo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to conduct a descriptive study of the occurrence of human brucellosis in Colombia between 2000 and 2012, and, based on previous studies, to determine the prevalence and incidence of the disease, and the limitations for its timely diagnosis and recognition by the Colombian labor system. The research consisted of searching for and analyzing articles on human brucellosis published between 2000 and 2012 in Colombia. It included a phase of information gathering and unstructured interviews with representatives of brucellosis control programs and experienced professionals. We analyzed 17 studies of human brucellosis cases in personnel at risk in slaughterhouses, retailers and vaccinators for animal brucellosis programs: 10 of them reported prevalences between 0.14% and 10.4%, and seven evidenced seropositivity. Information revealed the limitations of the diagnosis, and it demonstrated the little knowledge of the medical community about this disease. In Colombia, there is no clear policy regarding this occupational zoonosis. Brucellosis is mentioned only in Decree 2566 of 2009, in which the new table of occupational diseases is established. The paper concludes that human brucellosis in Colombia is an underdiagnosed, and therefore underreported, disease since there is no mandatory reporting system on the subject.

  9. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ismayilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19% reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan.

  10. Performance evaluation of the Elecsys syphilis assay for the detection of total antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Martin; Hunjet, Andrea; Gleich, Michael; Imdahl, Roland; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Schennach, Harald; Chaiwong, Kriangsak; Sakuldamrongpanich, Tasanee; Turhan, Ajda; Sertöz, Rüchan; Wolf, Eva; Mayer, Wolfgang; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lan Lan; Semprini, Simona; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a health problem of increasing incidence in recent years that may have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. There are many diagnostic tests available for syphilis, but there is no gold standard, and diagnosis therefore usually relies upon a combination of tests. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the treponemal Elecsys syphilis assay for use in the diagnosis of syphilis in routine samples, i.e., when syphilis is suspected or during antenatal or blood donation screening. The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay were compared head to head with those of other treponemal assays used in routine clinical practice and were assessed in potentially cross-reactive samples from patients with Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, and Lyme disease. In a total of 8,063 syphilis-negative samples collected from routine diagnostic requests and blood donations, the Elecsys syphilis assay had a specificity of 99.88%. In 928 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 99.57 to 100% (the result is presented as a range depending on whether four initially indeterminate samples are included in the assessment). The specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay in patients with other infections was 100%; no false-positive samples were identified. PMID:25355799

  11. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Materials and Methods: Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. Results: The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Conclusions: Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  12. Factors associated with syphilis infection: a comprehensive analysis based on a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Li, S-L; Lin, H-L; Lin, Z-F; Zhu, X-Z; Fan, J-Y; Gao, K; Zhang, H-L; Lin, L-R; Liu, L-L; Tong, M-L; Niu, J-J; Yang, T-C

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of syphilis infection from risk-taking behaviours and medical conditions. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by enrolling 664 syphilis inpatients (excluding 11 congenital syphilis patients) and 800 sex- and age-matched controls. Medical histories, clinical data and patient interview data were collected and subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of syphilis in the study population was 3·9% (675/17 304). By univariate analysis, syphilis infection was associated with migration between cities, marital status, smoking, reproductive history, hypertension, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (P syphilis-HBV co-infection was observed in HIV-negative patients and further research revealed an association between syphilis and specific HBV serological reactivity. Syphilis was also associated with the frequency, duration and status of tobacco use. Multivariate analysis indicated that syphilis infection was independently associated with migration between cities [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·368, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·048-1·785], current smoking (aOR 1·607, 95% CI 1·177-2·195), elevated BUN (aOR 1·782, 95% CI 1·188-2·673) and some serological patterns of HBV infection. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, inpatients and blood donors should be tested for HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV simultaneously. PMID:26467944

  13. The study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The participation of minorities in clinical studies is the subject of much discussion and has even become the subject of Federal law. The project known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and officially titled 'The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male', is one of the great debacles of American medicine and a national shame. Despite the fact that its existence is well known, many do not know the historical facts of the study nor the context of the study. My purpose here is to recount the facts of the study and its historical context. Methods: The history recounted here is taken from documents gathered during a U.S. Senate investigation of the study, original papers located in National Library of Medicine, and books about the trial. Results: The trial began in 1931 as a survey of the natural history of untreated tertiary syphilis in Black men. This study enrolled 399 men with syphilis and 201 uninfected men to serve as controls. All were at least 25 years old at enrollment. The men were told they were in a study, but never educated about the implications. Later, men were not informed that there was a treatment for effective treatment for their disease - a treatment that was being withheld from them. This trial continued till 1972. Conclusion: Many of the issues that led to the study and caused it to continue for 40 years still exist. The lessons of the Public Health Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Untreated Negro include the dangers of paternalism, arrogance, blind loyalty, and misuse of science. 'Those who do not appreciate history are condemned to repeat it' (Alfred North Whitehead)

  14. Simultaneous chickenpox and measles infection among migrant children who stayed in Italy during the second half of June 2011

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    Igor Ivi?-Hofman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting on a household outbreak of measles, in which cases of simultaneous measles and chickenpox infection occured in children of a family who resided in Italy during the incubation period (June 2011. In three children, fever and generalized confluent macular rash were the dominant symptoms. Serology testing revealed simultaneous measles and chickenpox infection in four children.

  15. Risk of HIV or second syphilis infection in Danish men with newly acquired syphilis in the period 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    in men diagnosed with one of these sexually transmitted diseases indicate a high frequency of unsafe sex in the Danish MSM population. As one-third of the HIV-infected persons diagnosed with syphilis had high viral loads, our data support initiation of antiretroviral therapy in all HIV-infected MSM...

  16. Relevance of a pre-existing measles immunity prior immunization with a recombinant measles virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuchel, Marlyse C; Marty, René R; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Ilter, Orhan; Zuniga, Armando; Naim, Hussein Y

    2013-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) vectors are promising candidates for designing new recombinant vaccines since the parental live vaccines have a well-known safety and efficacy record. Like all viral vectors, the MV vector efficacy in inducing a protecting immune answer could be affected by the pre-existing immunity among the human population. In order to determine the optimal immunization route and regimen, we mimicked a MV pre-immunity by passively administrating MV neutralizing antibodies (MV-nAb) prior intramuscular (i.m.) and/or intranasal (i.n.) immunization with recombinant MV expressing the SIV-gag antigen (rMV-SIVgag). Our results revealed that 500 mIU of MV-nAb allowed the induction of a humoral and cellular immune response against the vector and the transgene, while higher titers of the MV-nAb were significantly inhibitory. In a prime-boost regimen, in the presence of MV-nAb, the intranasal-intramuscular (i.n.-i.m.) or intramuscular-intramuscular (i.m.-i.m.) routes induced higher humoral immune responses against the vector and the transgene (SIV-gag). In naive animals, cellular immune response was significantly higher by i.m. immunization; however, MV pre-immunity did not seem to affect the cellular immune response after an i.n. immunization.   In summary, we show that a pre-existing immunity of up to 500 mIU anti-MV neutralizing antibodies had little effect on the replication of rMV and did not inhibit the induction of significant humoral and cellular immune responses in immune-competent mice. PMID:23324399

  17. Mean platelet volume may not be a biomarker monitoring of brucellosis

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    Cengiz Beyan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To the editor We read with great interest the research article by Kader et al. [1] entitled with evaluation of mean platelet volume (MPV levels in brucellosis patients. They retrospectively investigated the complete blood count parameters in patients with brucellosis. They found that MPV values were statistically significantly low in pre-treatment group compared with post-treatment group and healthy controls. They suggested that MPV levels might be useful in the follow-up of brucellosis patients. We would like to comment on this study.

  18. Co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle in Ibadan, Nigeria: a case report

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    Judy A. Stack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case report on co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered at the Bodija abattoir in Ibadan, Nigeria. Out of 32 animals that were seropositive for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and competitive ELISA, six were also demonstrated as being infected with tuberculosis through mycobacterial culture. This is the first report of co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Nigeria. There is a need for further studies to investigate this occurrence.

  19. Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in sera from patients with brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Refik M.; Mehmet N.; Durmaz R.; Ersoy Y.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the serum levels of some cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8] and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with untreated brucellosis and to test the correlation of these parameters with each other. The study was conducted on 67 subjects, 37 patients with brucellosis and 30 healthy individuals with no history of Brucella infection. Brucellosis was identified by a positive blood culture and/or ...

  20. Non-Traumatic Subcapsular Spleen Hematoma in a Patient with Brucellosis

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    Murat Söker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease. A characteristic clinical findings are fever, headache, arthralgia and splenomegali. Brucellosis occurs after direct contact with an infected animal or consumption of products of an infected animal. Subcapsular hematoma in the spleen is very rare complication of brucella infection. We report here, an 11 year old patient with brucellosis who admitted to our clinic with subcapsular non-traumatic spleen hematoma. Hematoma and clinical findings were resolved with doxicyclin and streptomycin combination. We emphasised that brucella infection should be keept in mind when non-traumatic subcapsular spleen hematoma occur.