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Sample records for brucella ovis corresponds

  1. Efficacy of Brucella suis strain 2 vaccine against Brucella ovis in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, J M; Marín, C; Jiménez de Bagüés, M P; Barberán, M

    1993-10-01

    The protective efficacy against Brucella ovis of live vaccine Brucella suis strain 2 (S2) and Brucella melitensis strain Rev 1 has been evaluated in rams. Fourteen 4-month-old Brucella-free Aragonesa rams were vaccinated conjunctivally with 2 x 10(9) c.f.u. S2. Sixteen rams of the same breed, condition and age were conjunctivally vaccinated the same day with 1.6 x 10(9) Rev 1. Thirteen rams were unvaccinated controls. Eight months after vaccination all rams were challenged with 6 x 10(9) c.f.u. B. ovis and slaughtered 2 months thereafter for bacteriological and pathological studies. The percentage of infection in the group vaccinated with Rev 1 (43.7%) was significantly lower (p S2-vaccinated animals (78.6%) and unvaccinated controls (84.6%). No significant differences were found when comparing the percentages of infection corresponding to S2-vaccinated and control groups. The degree of infection (percentage of necropsy samples infected) was significantly lower in Rev 1-vaccinated (13%) than in S2-vaccinated (36.9%) or control groups (47.4%) (p S2-vaccinated and control groups. PMID:8296481

  2. Demonstration of IS711 transposition in Brucella ovis and Brucella pinnipedialis

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    García-Lobo Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brucella genome contains an insertion sequence (IS element called IS711 or IS6501, which is specific to the genus. The copy number of IS711 varies in the genome of the different Brucella species, ranging from 7 in B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis to more than 30 in B. ovis and in Brucella strains isolated from marine mammals. At present, there is no experimental evidence of transposition of IS711, but the occurrence of this element with a high copy number in some species, and the isolation of Brucella strains with "ectopic" copies of IS711 suggested that this IS could still transpose. Results In this study we obtained evidence of transposition of IS711 from the B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis chromosomes by using the "transposon trap" plasmid pGBG1. This plasmid expresses resistance to tetracycline only if the repressor gene that it contains is inactivated. The strains B. melitensis 16 M, B. abortus RB51, B. ovis BOC22 (field strain and B. pinnipedialis B2/94, all containing the plasmid pGBG1, were grown in culture media with tetracycline until the appearance of tetracycline resistant mutants (TcR. TcR mutants due to IS711 transposition were only detected in B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis strains. Conclusion Four different copies of IS711 were found to transpose to the same target sequence in the plasmid pGBG1. This demonstrated that IS711 are active in vivo, specially in Brucella species with a high number of IS711 copies as B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis.

  3. Association of Maedi Visna virus with Brucella ovis infection in rams

    OpenAIRE

    Preziuso, S.; E. Sanna; MP Sanna; C Loddo; D Cerri; E Taccini; Mariotti, F.; G Braca; Rossi, G

    2009-01-01

    Maedi Visna Virus (MVV) is the etiological agent of a systemic disease of sheep, which causes lesions in lungs, the central nervous system, joints, and mammary glands. It has been speculated that the association with Brucella ovis may lead to the venereal shedding of the virus. In this work, samples of epididymis from ten rams positive for MVV and infected experimentally with Brucella ovis, were subjected to liquid- phase PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ PCR tests, aimed at identif...

  4. Contagious epididymitis due to Brucella ovis: relationship between sexual function, serology and bacterial shedding in semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Berthelot, Xavier; Champion, Jean Luc; Eon, Laure; Lyazrhi, Faouzi; Marois, Maxime; Peglion, Marceline; Schuster, Aude; Trouche, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Background Contagious Epididymitis (CE) due to Brucella ovis (B. ovis) is a contagious disease that impairs rams’ fertility due to epididymis, testicle and accessory sexual gland alterations. An increased incidence of CE has been observed in South Eastern France (“PACA” region) since the Rev.1 vaccination against B. melitensis has been stopped in 2008. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the infection by B. ovis and the sexual function of rams. Two-hundred eig...

  5. Indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams

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    S.A. França

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis is a major cause of epididymitis in sexually mature rams, resulting in subfertility, infertility, and economic losses for the sheep industry worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect ELISA (iELISA using recombinant proteins, namely rBoP59 and rBP26, as antigens for serological diagnosis of B. ovis infection. The BoP59 and BP26 recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Antigenicity was tested by Western blot and iELISA. Standardization of iELISA was performed with 500ng and 1µg BoP59 and rBP26 per well, testing serum from uninfected and experimentally infected rams. rBP26 was effective in distinguishing positive from negative rams. The rBP26 iELISA developed in this study is the first to use a completely purified rBP26 as antigen resulting in high sensitivity (100% and specificity (90.2%, and an overall accuracy equal to 1.0.

  6. Allergen immunotherapy with nanoparticles containing lipopolysaccharide from Brucella ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sara; Gamazo, Carlos; San Roman, Beatriz; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, Maria Luisa; Espuelas, Socorro; Irache, Juan M

    2008-11-01

    The adjuvant and protective capacity against anaphylactic shock of the association between rough lipopolysaccharide of Brucella ovis (LPS) coencapsulated with ovalbumin (OVA), as a model allergen, in Gantrez AN nanoparticles was investigated. Several strategies were performed in order to study the adjuvant effect of the LPS either encapsulated or coating the nanoparticles. OVA, as well as LPS, was incorporated either during the manufacturing process (OVA-encapsulated or LPS-encapsulated nanoparticles, respectively) or after the preparation (OVA-coated or LPS-coated nanoparticles, respectively). After the administration of 10 microg of OVA incorporated in the different formulations, all the nanoparticles, with or without LPS, were capable of amplifying the immune response (IgG(1) and IgG(2a)). However, in a model of sensitized mice to OVA, the formulation with OVA and LPS-entrapped inside the nanoparticles administered intradermally in three doses of 3 microg of OVA each was the only treatment that totally protected the mice from death after a challenge with an intraperitoneal injection of OVA. In contrast, the control group administered with OVA adsorbed onto a commercial alhydrogel adjuvant showed 80% mortality. These results are highly suggestive for the valuable use of Gantrez nanoparticles combined with rough LPS of B. ovis in immunotherapy. PMID:18582571

  7. Validación operacional de un ELISA comercial para Brucella ovis, Chile Operational validation of a commercial ELISA for Brucella ovis, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    J F Alvarez; R Veneros; González, O.

    2007-01-01

    La sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica se estiman para una población de referencia, estas difieren de la interpretación operacional o de terreno. El objetivo del presente trabajo es validar operacionalmente un ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) comercial para Brucella ovis en la población ovina de Magallanes. Se emplearon 82 sueros de carneros con aislamiento de B. ovis en semen y 421 sueros de animales con cultivo microbiológico de semen negativo e inmunodifusión en agar gel con ...

  8. Association of Maedi Visna virus with Brucella ovis infection in rams

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    S Preziuso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Maedi Visna Virus (MVV is the etiological agent of a systemic disease of sheep, which causes lesions in lungs, the central nervous system, joints, and mammary glands. It has been speculated that the association with Brucella ovis may lead to the venereal shedding of the virus. In this work, samples of epididymis from ten rams positive for MVV and infected experimentally with Brucella ovis, were subjected to liquid- phase PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC and in situ PCR tests, aimed at identifying the pathogens in a tissue context. IHC was carried out using a monoclonal antibody raised against p28 MVV protein and a polyclonal antibody to B. ovis. Liquid phase- and in situ PCR were designed to amplify a portion of MVV proviral DNA Pol sequence. In the animals showing B. ovis-related histopathological changes, IHC clearly demonstrated a positivity for B. ovis and MVV in interstitial and epithelial ductal cells. In situ PCR assessed the presence of MVV proviral DNA in macrophages and elements inside the epithelium. The unaffected and reagent control samples constantly gave negative results. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MVV may affect ovine epididymis, apparently taking advantage of the concurrent infection by B. ovis. The tropism of MVV for the epididymal epithelial cells, may be responsible for its excretion with the semen.

  9. Brucella ovis: invasion, traffic, virulence factors and immune responseBrucella ovis: invasão, tráfego, fatores de virulência e resposta imune

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    João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis remains an economic problem in animals and public health. Worldwide ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is considered a major cause of infertility in sheep. The factors responsible for persistence of the agent in these locations are not known, as well as the mechanisms involved in immune defense and possibly the persistence of the agent. Brucella spp. induces moderate inflammatory response. The nature of the intracellular agent stimulates immune response of the type 1 helper T lymphocytes. Studies of the pathogenesis of ovine brucellosis are scarce. Recent developments have shown that the inflammatory response induced by moderate brucelas represent probably the result of an attempt to escape the immune response and suppression of host immune response. Were reviewed by the mechanisms described by brucelas and Brucella ovis for penetration into the host, escape of the immune response and the immune response generated by the infection. A brucelose permanece como problema econômico em animais e de saúde pública. Em todo o mundo a brucelose ovina ocasionada pela Brucella ovis é considerada uma das principais causas de infertilidade em ovinos. Os fatores responsáveis pela persistência do agente nestes locais não são conhecidos, bem como os mecanismos imunes envolvidos na defesa e eventualmente na persistência do agente. Brucella spp. induz resposta inflamatória moderada. A natureza intracelular do agente estimula resposta imune celular do tipo linfócito T helper 1. Os estudos de patogenia da brucelose ovina são escassos. Recentes avanços demonstraram que a resposta inflamatória moderada induzida pelas brucelas representam provavelmente o resultado de tentativa de escape da resposta imune e supressão da resposta imune hospedeira. Foram revisados os mecanismos descritos pelas brucelas e pela Brucella ovis para penetração no hospedeiro, escape da resposta imune, bem como a resposta imunológica gerada pela infecção.

  10. Epididymitis Caused by Brucella ovis in a Southern Ontario Sheep Flock

    OpenAIRE

    Buckrell, Brian C.; McEwen, Scott A; Johnson, Walter H.; Savage, Neale C.

    1985-01-01

    Epididymitis was diagnosed in three rams in a commercial sheep flock in southern Ontario. The affected rams had palpably enlarged epididymides and two rams had semen which contained inflammatory cells and was of poor quality. Serum compliment fixation titers for Brucella ovis were 1:20, 1:80 and 1:90. Five other rams in the flock were clinically normal and without titers. Two of the affected rams had lesions similar to those produced by experimental infection with B. ovis. The infection in th...

  11. First evidence of Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Pirot Municipality, Serbia

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    Miloš Petrović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a research on Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Pirot Municipality of South Serbia. A positive result with indirect immunoenzyme test (i-ELISA was confirmed in 67 (29.8% and suspicious in 31 (13.8% out of 225 tested rams. Complement fixation test (CFT was used as a confirmation test on 67 ELISA positive sera and gave positive reaction in 41 (61.2% ram serum samples. Rams originated from 113 flocks with 4751 sheep, from 28 villages in the Pirot Municipality of southern Serbia. Clinical examination was performed on epididymis and testes of 12 rams from 7 seropositive flocks by inspection and palpation. The examination showed scrotum asymmetry and unilateral increase of the epididymistail in 5 (41.7% out of 12 seropositive rams. Pathomorphological examination of testes and epididymis confirmed pathological changes in 7 (58.3% of the 12 examined rams. One-sided epididymitis with pronounced hypertrophy of the epididymitis was also confirmed. Twelve rams were tested for the presence of bacteria, i.e. 21 epididymis, testes and lymph nodes samples. We isolated 20 Brucella strains from 11 (91.7% of the 12 examined animals. All isolates were identified with bacteriological and molecular techniques as B. ovis. This is the first evidence of ovine epididymitis (B. ovis in Republic of Serbia.

  12. Species-specific nested PCR as a diagnostic tool for Brucella ovis infection in rams

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    L.F. Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate a species-specific nested PCR based on a previously described species-specific PCR for detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples of experimentally infected rams. The performance of the species-specific nested PCR was compared with the results of a genus-specific PCR. Fourteen rams were experimentally infected with the Brucella ovis REO 198 strain and samples of semen and urine were collected every week up to 180 days post infection. Out of 83 semen samples collected, 42 (50.6% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, and 23 (27.7% were positive for the genus-specific PCR. Out of 75 urine samples, 49 (65.3% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, whereas 11 (14.6% were genus-specific PCR positive. Species-specific nested PCR was significantly more sensitive (P<0.001 than the genus-specific PCR in semen and urine from experimentally infected rams. In conclusion, the species-specific nested PCR developed in this study may be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples from suspected rams.

  13. Aspectos inmunológicos en el diagnóstico y control de la Epidemitis contagiosa del carnero por Brucella ovis Imunological aspects inthe diagnosis and control of contagious epidymitis of rams by Brucella ovis

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    S.M. ESTEIN

    1999-01-01

    Brucella ovis es el agente etiológico de la epididimitis contagiosa de los carneros, enfermedad infectocontagiosa que ocasiona infertilidad en el carnero y ocasionalmente abortos en la oveja. El control de esta enfermedad se apoya en la eliminación de los machos con diagnóstico serológico y/o séminocultivo positivo, y en la vacunación de los animales sanos en lugares de alta prevalencia. La mejor vacuna frente a la brucelosis ovina por B. ovis, es B. melitensis Rev. 1, una cepa atenuada de Br...

  14. Validación operacional de un ELISA comercial para Brucella ovis, Chile Operational validation of a commercial ELISA for Brucella ovis, Chile

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    J F Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica se estiman para una población de referencia, estas difieren de la interpretación operacional o de terreno. El objetivo del presente trabajo es validar operacionalmente un ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay comercial para Brucella ovis en la población ovina de Magallanes. Se emplearon 82 sueros de carneros con aislamiento de B. ovis en semen y 421 sueros de animales con cultivo microbiológico de semen negativo e inmunodifusión en agar gel con resultado negativo. Se estableció un punto de corte de 58,15% de densidad óptica, estimado con el método receiver-operating characteristic; se estimó una sensibilidad de 82,9% y una especificidad de 91,4%; la baja sensibilidad obtenida indica la incapacidad del ELISA para detectar un número considerable de positivos, por lo que en erradicación se deberá utilizar una técnica diagnóstica adicional; el bajo valor predictivo positivo fue influenciado en su mayoría por la baja prevalencia. Los parámetros estimados deberán utilizarse en la interpretación de los futuros análisis diagnósticos y se deberá realizar una validación operacional cuando se adopte una nueva técnica diagnóstica, estableciendo los parámetros con los cuales trabajará el laboratorio y de esta forma minimizar los errores de diagnósticoSensitivity and specificity are usually estimated for a reference population, and these differ from the operational interpretation. The aim of this study was to carry out an operational validation of a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for Brucella ovis in the sheep population of Magallanes Region. The assay was validated using sera from 82 rams with bacterial isolation and 421 sera from rams with culture-negative semen and not reacting to agar gel immunodiffusion test. The cut-off point was 58.15% optical density, estimated by using the receiver-operating characteristic method; with 82.9% of sensibility and 91.4% of

  15. Consideraciones epidemiológicas en la prevalencia serológica de Brucella ovis en Zacatecas, México

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    José Maria Carrera Chávez; Francisco Guadalupe Echavarría Cháirez; Carlos Fernando Aréchiga Flores; Rómulo Bañuelos Valenzuela; Jorge Luis Tórtora Pérez

    2013-01-01

    La epididimitis causada por Brucella ovis es una enfermedad de importancia en los rebaños ovinos de México. En los sementales afectados ocasiona baja productividad por la disminución de la fertilidad. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la relevancia de diferentes posibles factores de riesgo (sistema de producción, densidad de sementales, total de vientres, relación hembras:macho, sistema de empadre y raza del semental) sobre la prevalencia de B. ovis en Zacatecas, México. Se muestrearon 5...

  16. Aspectos inmunológicos en el diagnóstico y control de la Epidemitis contagiosa del carnero por Brucella ovis Imunological aspects inthe diagnosis and control of contagious epidymitis of rams by Brucella ovis

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    S.M. ESTEIN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis es el agente etiológico de la epididimitis contagiosa de los carneros, enfermedad infectocontagiosa que ocasiona infertilidad en el carnero y ocasionalmente abortos en la oveja. El control de esta enfermedad se apoya en la eliminación de los machos con diagnóstico serológico y/o séminocultivo positivo, y en la vacunación de los animales sanos en lugares de alta prevalencia. La mejor vacuna frente a la brucelosis ovina por B. ovis, es B. melitensis Rev. 1, una cepa atenuada de Brucella melitensis. Sin embargo ésta vacuna heteróloga induce una respuesta serológica que interfiere con la interpretación de las pruebas serológicas utilizadas. B. ovis es una especie naturalmente rugosa; carece de la cadena O del lipopolisacárido. Las proteínas de la membrana externa han sido objeto de estudio de varios grupos de investigación por su utilidad como antígenos para el diagnóstico y en la pruebas de protección. Un extracto salino obtenido por calentamiento de B. ovis, posee el lipopolisacárido rugoso y varias proteínas, siendo más abundante el grupo 3 de las proteínas de la membrana externa. Las técnicas más eficientes para el diagnóstico de la infección por B. ovis, son la inmunodifusión doble bidimensional en gel de agar, la fijación del complemento y ELISA. Como antígeno, el extracto salino ha dado los mejores resultados en las tres pruebas; sin embargo se ha observado reacción cruzada con sueros de animales infectados por B. melitensis o vacunados con B. melitensis Rev. 1. Existe menos información disponible respecto de los antígenos internos de B. ovis. Recientemente, se ha desarrollado un ELISA indirecto utilizando la proteína periplásmica BP26 con utilidad para el diagnóstico de la infección por B. ovis, ya que permite diferenciar los carneros infectados de los vacunados. La identificación de los antígenos de B. ovis capaces de inducir una respuesta inmune protectora es de interés para el desarrollo

  17. Assessment of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of an indirect ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams

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    Praud Anne; Champion Jean-Luc; Corde Yannick; Drapeau Antoine; Meyer Laurence; Garin-Bastuji Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Brucella ovis causes an infectious disease responsible for infertility and subsequent economic losses in sheep production. The standard serological test to detect B. ovis infection in rams is the complement fixation test (CFT), which has imperfect sensitivity and specificity in addition to technical drawbacks. Other available tests include the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (I-ELISA) but no I-ELISA kit has been fully evaluated. The study aimed to compare an I-...

  18. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

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    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19 - that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins - was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae. PMID:27016758

  19. The predicted ABC transporter AbcEDCBA is required for type IV secretion system expression and lysosomal evasion by Brucella ovis.

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    Teane M A Silva

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in rams and it is one of the few well-described Brucella species that is not zoonotic. Previous work showed that a B. ovis mutant lacking a species-specific ABC transporter (ΔabcBA was attenuated in mice and was unable to survive in macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this ABC transporter during intracellular survival of B. ovis. In HeLa cells, B. ovis WT was able to survive and replicate at later time point (48 hpi, whereas an ΔabcBA mutant was attenuated at 24 hpi. The reduced survival of the ΔabcBA mutant was associated with a decreased ability to exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, suggesting a failure to establish a replicative niche. The ΔabcBA mutant showed a reduced abundance of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS proteins VirB8 and VirB11 in both rich and acid media, when compared to WT B. ovis. However, mRNA levels of virB1, virB8, hutC, and vjbR were similar in both strains. These results support the notion that the ABC transporter encoded by abcEDCBA or its transported substrate acts at a post-transcriptional level to promote the optimal expression of the B. ovis T4SS within infected host cells.

  20. Consideraciones epidemiológicas en la prevalencia serológica de Brucella ovis en Zacatecas, México

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    José Maria Carrera Chávez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La epididimitis causada por Brucella ovis es una enfermedad de importancia en los rebaños ovinos de México. En los sementales afectados ocasiona baja productividad por la disminución de la fertilidad. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la relevancia de diferentes posibles factores de riesgo (sistema de producción, densidad de sementales, total de vientres, relación hembras:macho, sistema de empadre y raza del semental sobre la prevalencia de B. ovis en Zacatecas, México. Se muestrearon 544 sementales, en 153 rebaños, provenientes de cuatro sistemas de producción. La respuesta serológica se evaluó mediante inmunodifusión doble en gel. El 18.6 % (101/544 de los sementales muestreados resultaron positivos y el 10.5 % (16/153 de los rebaños presentó al menos un semental positivo. El sistema semi-intensivo presentó la mayor prevalencia (P<0.05, con 86.1 % (87/101 de sementales positivos, el extensivo 11.9 % (12/101, el traspatio 2.0 % (2/101, y el intensivo no registró positivos. La prevalencia de B. ovis fue más alta en los rebaños más grandes, con mayor número de vientres y sementales. Los sementales de raza Katahdin mostraron mayor prevalencia (30.8 % (24/78 que los Rambouillet (14.0 % (18/129, Dorper (13.8 % (31/224 y Suffolk (13.8 % (8/58 (P<0.05. La prevalencia se relacionó más con el sistema de producción utilizado que con la relación hembras:macho o el sistema de empadre. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la cantidad de sementales en el rebaño es el factor de mayor relevancia en la prevalencia serológica de B. ovis (OR = 17.38, 95 % IC 7.76 a 38.94, aunque pudiera estar supeditado al sistema de producción.

  1. Rapid serum agglutination and agar gel immunodiffusion tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis Teste de soro aglutinação rápida e do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar associados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis

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    Cristiane Nakada Nozaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agar gel immunodiffusion and the rapid serum agglutination tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis. The serological profile during the 12 months of infection showed a large fluctuation of antibodies that favors the failure in the diagnostic. The evaluation of tests after the experimental infection allowed to suggest that none of the tests were able to detect the infection throughout the period of study. The study reinforces the importance of considering the clinical signs to support the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar e o teste sorológico de aglutinação rápida comparados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis para o diagnóstico confirmatório da brucelose ovina. O perfil sorológico durante os 12 meses pós-infecção mostrou flutuação da resposta por anticorpos, que favorece a falha no diagnóstico. A avaliação dos testes indicou que nenhum dos testes foi capaz de detectar a infecção durante todo o período de estudo. O estudo ressalta a importância de considerar os sinais clínicos para apoiar o diagnóstico confirmatório da infecção por Brucella ovis em carneiros.

  2. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

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    Auricelio A Macedo

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi. In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment.

  3. Caracterização epidemiológica e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Brucella ovis em ovinos deslanados do semiárido paraibano Epidemiological characterization and risk factors associated with Brucella ovis infection in sheep in the Brazilian semiarid

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    Fabrine A. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de rebanhos ovinos positivos (focos e de animais soropositivos para Brucella ovis na mesorregião do Sertão, Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil, bem como identificar fatores de risco. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 1.134 animais procedentes de 103 rebanhos em 17 municípios. Para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por B. ovis foi utilizado o teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA. Um rebanho foi considerado positivo quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das 103 propriedades utilizadas 21 (20,39% apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo e dos 1.134 animais, 59 (5,20% foram soropositivos. Realizar higiene nas instalações com periodicidade anual (odds ratio = 7,13; IC 95% = 1,56-32,47; p=0,011 e aquisição de animais (odds ratio = 6,06; IC 95% = 1,39-26,48; p=0,017 foram identificados como fatores de risco. Com base na análise de fatores de risco, recomenda-se a realização de diagnóstico da infecção por B. ovis previamente à aquisição de animais e realização periódica de higienização das instalações.The aim of this investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella ovis in sheep flocks and individual sheep in the Sertão mesorregion, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 1,134 sheep from 103 flocks in 17 counties. For the serological diagnosis of B. ovis infection the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID was carried out. A flock was considered positive when there was at least one seropositive animal. Of the 103 flocks used, 21 (20.39% presented at least one seropositive sheep, and of the 1,134 sheep examined 59 (5.20% seropositive animals were diagnosed. Cleaning of facilities (odds ratio = 7.13; 95% CI=1.56-32.47; p=0.011 and purchase of animals (odds ratio = 6.06; 95% CI=1.39-26.48; p=0.017 were identified as risk factors. Based on the risk factor

  4. Etude de la relation entre l’infection par Brucella ovis et la fonction sexuelle des béliers

    OpenAIRE

    Trouche, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Une recrudescence de l’épididymite contagieuse à B. ovis dans la région PACA a été observée depuis l’arrêt de la vaccination contre B. melitensis en 2008. En 2011, un dépistage effectué sur 1302 élevages de la région a mis en évidence une forte proportion d’élevages infectés, surtout dans les Bouches-du-Rhône, où 53% des élevages testés possédaient au moins un bélier séropositif. Une étude a donc été initiée pour évaluer la relation entre l’infection par B. ovis et la fonction sexuelle des bé...

  5. Assessment of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of an indirect ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praud Anne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella ovis causes an infectious disease responsible for infertility and subsequent economic losses in sheep production. The standard serological test to detect B. ovis infection in rams is the complement fixation test (CFT, which has imperfect sensitivity and specificity in addition to technical drawbacks. Other available tests include the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (I-ELISA but no I-ELISA kit has been fully evaluated. The study aimed to compare an I-ELISA kit and the standard CFT. Our study was carried out on serum samples from 4599 rams from the South of France where the disease is enzootic. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate tests characteristics (diagnostic sensitivity, Se and diagnostic specificity, Sp. The tests were then studied together in order to optimise testing strategies to detect B. ovis. Results After optimising the cut-off values in order to avoid doubtful results without deteriorating the concordance between the results of the two tests, the I-ELISA appeared to be slightly more sensitive than CFT (Se I-ELISA = 0.917 [0.822; 0.992], 95% Credibility Interval (CrI compared to Se CFT = 0.860 [0.740; 0.967], 95% CrI. However, CFT was slightly more specific than I-ELISA (Sp CFT = 0.988 [0.947; 1.0], 95% CrI compared to Sp I-ELISA =0.952 [0.901; 1.0], 95% CrI. The tests were then associated with two different interpretation schemes. The series association increased the specificity of screening and could be used for pre-movement testing in rams from uninfected flocks. The parallel association increased sequence sensitivity, thus appearing more suitable for eradicating the disease in infected flocks. Conclusions The high sensitivity and acceptable specificity of this I-ELISA kit support its potential interest to avoid the limitations of CFT. The two tests could also be used together or combined with other diagnostic methods such as semen culture to improve the testing strategy

  6. Characterization of Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide and core lipopolysaccharide mutants and demonstration that a complete core is required for rough vaccines to be efficient against Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis in the mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Monreal, D.; Grillo, M.J. (María Jesús); Gonzalez-fernandez, D.; Marin, C.M.; de Miguel, M. J.; Lopez-Goñi, I. (Ignacio); Blasco, J.M. (José); Cloeckaert, A.; Moriyon, I. (Ignacio)

    2003-01-01

    Brucella abortus rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants were obtained by transposon insertion into two wbk genes (wbkA [putative glycosyltransferase; formerly rfbU] and per [perosamine synthetase]), into manB (pmm [phosphomannomutase; formerly rfbK]), and into an unassigned gene. Consistent with gene-predicted roles, electrophoretic analysis, 2-keto-3-manno-D-octulosonate measurements, and immunoblots with monoclonal antibodies to O-polysaccharide, outer and inner core epitopes showed no O-po...

  7. Caracterização epidemiológica e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Brucella ovis em ovinos deslanados do semiárido paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrine A. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de rebanhos ovinos positivos (focos e de animais soropositivos para Brucella ovis na mesorregião do Sertão, Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil, bem como identificar fatores de risco. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 1.134 animais procedentes de 103 rebanhos em 17 municípios. Para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por B. ovis foi utilizado o teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA. Um rebanho foi considerado positivo quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das 103 propriedades utilizadas 21 (20,39% apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo e dos 1.134 animais, 59 (5,20% foram soropositivos. Realizar higiene nas instalações com periodicidade anual (odds ratio = 7,13; IC 95% = 1,56-32,47; p=0,011 e aquisição de animais (odds ratio = 6,06; IC 95% = 1,39-26,48; p=0,017 foram identificados como fatores de risco. Com base na análise de fatores de risco, recomenda-se a realização de diagnóstico da infecção por B. ovis previamente à aquisição de animais e realização periódica de higienização das instalações.

  8. Characterisation of the genetic diversity of Brucella by multilocus sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella species include economically important zoonotic pathogens that can infect a wide range of animals. There are currently six classically recognised species of Brucella although, as yet unnamed, isolates from various marine mammal species have been reported. In order to investigate genetic relationships within the group and identify potential diagnostic markers we have sequenced multiple genetic loci from a large sample of Brucella isolates representing the known diversity of the genus. Results Nine discrete genomic loci corresponding to 4,396 bp of sequence were examined from 160 Brucella isolates. By assigning each distinct allele at a locus an arbitrary numerical designation the population was found to represent 27 distinct sequence types (STs. Diversity at each locus ranged from 1.03–2.45% while overall genetic diversity equated to 1.5%. Most loci examined represent housekeeping gene loci and, in all but one case, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous change was substantially Brucella species, B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis and B. neotomae correspond to well-separated clusters. With the exception of biovar 5, B. suis isolates cluster together, although they form a more diverse group than other classical species with a number of distinct STs corresponding to the remaining four biovars. B. canis isolates are located on the same branch very closely related to, but distinguishable from, B. suis biovar 3 and 4 isolates. Marine mammal isolates represent a distinct, though rather weakly supported, cluster within which individual STs display one of three clear host preferences. Conclusion The sequence database provides a powerful dataset for addressing ongoing controversies in Brucella taxonomy and a tool for unambiguously placing atypical, phenotypically discordant or newly emerging Brucella isolates. Furthermore, by using the phylogenetic backbone described here, robust and rationally selected markers for use in

  9. A duplex PCR for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella spp. in human blood samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Mozafar mohamadi; Vahbeh Piranfar; Seied Mojtaba Mortazavi; Reza Kachuei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To design a duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella species. in human blood samples. Methods: Fifty-two peripheral bloods samples were collected from suspicious patients with brucellosis. Following DNA extraction, PCR assay were performed, using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate three major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Results: Of the 52 peripheral bloods samples tested, 25 sample (48%) showed positive reactions in PCR. Twelve samples were positive for Brucella abortus (B. abortus) (23%), 13 for Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) (25%) and 0 for Brucella ovis (B. ovis) (0%). Conclusions: This work de=monstrates that in case where specific primers were utilized, duplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for simultaneous detection of important species of Brucella in clinical samples.

  10. The immunological properties of Brucella ribosomal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, M J

    1976-01-01

    Ribosomes were isolated from Brucella abortus strains 19 and 45/20 by disruption of the cells followed by differential ultracentrifugation. The ribosome preparations contained 2-3 components reacting in immunodiffusion tests but were free of detectable lipopolysaccharide-protein agglutinogen. They crossreacted with antisera to Br. abortus, Br. melitensis, Br. suis and Br. ovis and elicited intradermal delayed hypersensitivity reactions in animals infected with Br. abortus, Br. melitensis or Br. suis. The ribosomes were antigenic in rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. Those from Br. abortus S19 induced agglutinins reaction with smooth brucella strains whereas those from Br. abortus 45/20 induced agglutinins reacting with rough brucella strains. Cattle vaccinated with S19 or 45/20 vaccines or infected with Br. abortus developed pricipitins to ribosomal components at an early stage in the immune response. PMID:816681

  11. Quantitative analysis of Babesia ovis infection in sheep and ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Wollkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovich, Benjamin; Savitzky, Igor; Zamir, Shmuel; Molad, Thea; Shkap, Varda

    2016-05-15

    A quantitative PCR, based on the gene encoding Babesia ovis Surface Protein D (BoSPD) was developed and applied to investigate the presence of Babesia ovis (B. ovis) in its principal vector, the tick Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa), and in the ovine host. Quantification of B. ovis in experimentally-infected lambs showed a sharp increase in parasitemia 10-11days in blood-inoculated and adult tick-infested lambs, and 24days in a larvae-infested lamb. A gradual decrease of parasitemia was observed in the following months, with parasites detectable 6-12 months post-infection. Examination of the parasite load in adult R. bursa during the post-molting period using the quantitative PCR assay revealed a low parasite load during days 2-7 post-molting, followed by a sharp increase, until day 11, which corresponded to the completion of the pre-feeding period. The assay was then used to detect B. ovis in naturally-infected sheep and ticks. Examination of samples from 8 sheep and 2 goats from infected flocks detected B. ovis in both goats and in 7 out of the 8 sheep. Additionally, B. ovis was detected in 9 tick pools (5 ticks in each pool) and two individual ticks removed from sheep in infected flocks. PMID:27084469

  12. The OVIS analysis architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Gentile, Ann C.; Brandt, James M.; De Sapio, Vincent; Thompson, David C.; Roe, Diana C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-07-01

    This report summarizes the current statistical analysis capability of OVIS and how it works in conjunction with the OVIS data readers and interpolators. It also documents how to extend these capabilities. OVIS is a tool for parallel statistical analysis of sensor data to improve system reliability. Parallelism is achieved using a distributed data model: many sensors on similar components (metaphorically sheep) insert measurements into a series of databases on computers reserved for analyzing the measurements (metaphorically shepherds). Each shepherd node then processes the sheep data stored locally and the results are aggregated across all shepherds. OVIS uses the Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) statistics algorithm class hierarchy to perform analysis of each process's data but avoids VTK's model aggregation stage which uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI); this is because if a single process in an MPI job fails, the entire job will fail. Instead, OVIS uses asynchronous database replication to aggregate statistical models. OVIS has several additional features beyond those present in VTK that, first, accommodate its particular data format and, second, improve the memory and speed of the statistical analyses. First, because many statistical algorithms are multivariate in nature and sensor data is typically univariate, interpolation of data is required to provide simultaneous observations of metrics. Note that in this report, we will refer to a single value obtained from a sensor as a measurement while a collection of multiple sensor values simultaneously present in the system is an observation. A base class for interpolation is provided that abstracts the operation of converting multiple sensor measurements into simultaneous observations. A concrete implementation is provided that performs piecewise constant temporal interpolation of multiple metrics across a single component. Secondly, because calculations may summarize data too large to fit in memory

  13. A repA-based ELISA for discriminating cattle vaccinated with Brucella suis 2 from those naturally infected with Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Ning; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Qiu, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Chi-Young; Chang, Ching-Dong; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The commonest ways of diagnosing brucellosis in animals include the Rose-Bengal plate agglutination test, the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the slide agglutination test, the complement fixation test, and the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). However, these methods cannot discriminate the Brucella vaccine strain (Brucella suis strain 2; B. suis S2) from naturally acquired virulent strains. Of the six common Brucella species, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and B. suis are the commonest species occurring in China. To develop an ELISA assay that can differentiate between cows inoculated with B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis, genomic sequences from six Brucella spp. (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, Brucella canis, Brucella neotomae and Brucella ovis) were compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. One particular gene, the repA-related gene, was found to be a marker that can differentiate B. suis from B. abortus and B. melitensis. The repA-related gene of B. suis was PCR amplified and subcloned into the pET-32a vector. Expressed repA-related protein was purified and used as an antigen. The repA-based ELISA was optimized and used as specific tests. In the present study, serum from animals inoculated with the B. suis S2 vaccine strain had positive repA-based ELISA results. In contrast, the test-positive reference sera against B. abortus and B. melitensis had negative repA-based ELISA results. The concordance rate between B. abortus antibody-negative (based on the repA-based ELISA) and the Brucella gene-positive (based on the 'Bruce ladder' multiplex PCR) was 100%. Therefore, the findings suggest that the repA-based ELISA is a useful tool for differentiating cows vaccinated with the B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis. PMID:24941369

  14. The genome sequence of Brucella pinnipedialis B2/94 sheds light on the evolutionary history of the genus Brucella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the discovery of the Malta fever agent, Brucella melitensis, in the 19th century, six terrestrial mammal-associated Brucella species were recognized over the next century. More recently the number of novel Brucella species has increased and among them, isolation of species B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti from marine mammals raised many questions about their origin as well as on the evolutionary history of the whole genus. Results We report here on the first complete genome sequence of a Brucella strain isolated from marine mammals, Brucella pinnipedialis strain B2/94. A whole gene-based phylogenetic analysis shows that five main groups of host-associated Brucella species rapidly diverged from a likely free-living ancestor close to the recently isolated B. microti. However, this tree lacks the resolution required to resolve the order of divergence of those groups. Comparative analyses focusing on a genome segments unshared between B. microti and B. pinnipedialis, b gene deletion/fusion events and c positions and numbers of Brucella specific IS711 elements in the available Brucella genomes provided enough information to propose a branching order for those five groups. Conclusions In this study, it appears that the closest relatives of marine mammal Brucella sp. are B. ovis and Brucella sp. NVSL 07-0026 isolated from a baboon, followed by B. melitensis and B. abortus strains, and finally the group consisting of B. suis strains, including B. canis and the group consisting of the single B. neotomae species. We were not able, however, to resolve the order of divergence of the two latter groups.

  15. [Evaluation of 2 hemoculture media for the isolation of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, M A; Cipolla, A L; Malena, C R; Paolicchi, F A

    2003-01-01

    The diagnostic efficiency of two hemoculture media for the detection of different species of Brucella strains was evaluated. Strains of Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis, Brucella abortus, Brucella ovis, and Brucella abortus S19 were used. Each strain was diluted in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) to obtain a concentration of 10(5) colony forming units/ml (CFU/ml). Blood from goats, pigs, cattle, and sheep was mixed with the bacterial suspension to obtain a final concentration minor or equal to 10(3) CFU/ml. These blood samples were inoculated into the following media: (i) Hemobrucella (HB), (ii) Tryptose citrated broth 2% (CTB), and (iii) Controls without blood for B. melitensis and B.suis. Subculture in dishes and CFU/ml counts were made at the 1st, 3rd, 8th, 10th, 20th, and 30th post-inoculation (PI) day. Best results were obtained in the HB medium for all strains, except for B. suis, which due to the presence of a contaminant did not reach its maximum development in this medium. All strains were recovered from both media at 24 h PI, except B. ovis that was isolated from HB at 72 h PI and was not recovered from CTB. All strains remained viable for a shorter period in CTB. Under the proposed experimental conditions the HB medium was more sensitive than CTB. Future experiments should evaluate the utility of this commercial medium in clinical cases of animal brucellosis. PMID:14587372

  16. Ovi-esikokoonpanolinjan layout suunnittelu

    OpenAIRE

    Sulkama, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia Valmet Automotive Oy:n Uudenkaupungin autotehtaan ovi-esikokoonpanolinjaa ja parantaa linjan tehokkuutta suunnittelemalla uusi tuotantolinjan layout. Työssä perehdytään oikean puoleiseen ovi-esikokoonpanolinjaan, sen työasemiin ja niissä suoritettaviin työvaiheisiin, jonka jälkeen käydään lävitse suunniteltavan layoutin vaatimuksia ja linjalla työskentelevien työntekijöiden näkemyksiä linjan kehittämisestä. Uusi tuotantolinjan layout suunniteltiin t...

  17. Epitope Mapping of the Brucella melitensis BP26 Immunogenic Protein: Usefulness for Diagnosis of Sheep Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Seco-Mediavilla, Patricia; Verger, Jean-Michel; Grayon, Maggy; Cloeckaert, Axel; Marín, Clara M.; Zygmunt, Michel S; Fernández-Lago, Luis; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2003-01-01

    Sequencing of bp26, the gene encoding the Brucella sp. immunogenic BP26 periplasmic protein, was performed in the reference strains of Brucella abortus, B. suis, and B. ovis. The three bp26 sequences were almost identical to that published for B. melitensis 16M bp26, and only minor nucleotide substitutions, without modifying the amino acid sequence, were observed between species. The bp26 genes of the seven B. abortus biovar reference strains and B. abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains were a...

  18. Genomic fingerprinting and development of a dendrogram for Brucella spp. isolated from seals, porpoises, and dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A E; Cheville, N F; Thoen, C O; MacMillan, A P; Miller, W G

    1999-03-01

    Genomic DNA from reference strains and biovars of the genus Brucella was analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fingerprints were compared to estimate genetic relatedness among the strains and to obtain information on evolutionary relationships. Electrophoresis of DNA digested with the restriction endonuclease XbaI produced fragment profiles for the reference type strains that distinguished these strains to the level of species. Included in this study were strains isolated from marine mammals. The PFGE profiles from these strains were compared with those obtained from the reference strains and biovars. Isolates from dolphins had similar profiles that were distinct from profiles of Brucella isolates from seals and porpoises. Distance matrix analyses were used to produce a dendrogram. Biovars of B. abortus were clustered together in the dendrogram; similar clusters were shown for biovars of B. melitensis and for biovars of B. suis. Brucella ovis, B. canis, and B. neotomae differed from each other and from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. The relationship between B. abortus strain RB51 and other Brucella biovars was compared because this strain has replaced B. abortus strain 19 for use as a live vaccine in cattle and possibly in bison and elk. These results support the current taxonomy of Brucella species and the designation of an additional genomic group(s) of Brucella. The PFGE analysis in conjunction with distance matrix analysis was a useful tool for calculating genetic relatedness among the Brucella species. PMID:10098687

  19. Protective Properties of Rifampin-Resistant Rough Mutants of Brucella melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    R. Adone; Ciuchini, F.; Marianelli, C.; Tarantino, M.; Pistoia, C.; Marcon, G.; Petrucci, P.; De Francia, M.; G. Riccardi; Pasquali, P

    2005-01-01

    Vaccination against Brucella infections in animals is usually performed by administration of live attenuated smooth B. abortus strain S19 and B. melitensis strain Rev1. They are proven effective vaccines against B. abortus in cattle and against B. melitensis and B. ovis in sheep and goats, respectively. However, both vaccines have the main drawback of inducing O-polysaccharide-specific antibodies that interfere with serologic diagnosis of disease. In addition, they retain residual virulence, ...

  20. Brucella microti sp. nov., isolated from the common vole Microtus arvalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Hubalek, Zdenek; Sedlácek, Ivo; Vergnaud, Gilles; Tomaso, Herbert; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Melzer, Falk; Kämpfer, Peter; Neubauer, Heinrich; Cloeckaert, Axel; Maquart, Marianne; Zygmunt, Michel S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Falsen, Enevold; Bahn, Peter; Göllner, Cornelia; Pfeffer, Martin; Huber, Birgit; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Nöckler, Karsten

    2008-02-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains CCM 4915(T) and CCM 4916), isolated from clinical specimens of the common vole Microtus arvalis during an epizootic in the Czech Republic in 2001, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA (rrs) and recA gene sequence similarities, both isolates were allocated to the genus Brucella. Affiliation to Brucella was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. Both strains reacted equally with Brucella M-monospecific antiserum and were lysed by the bacteriophages Tb, Wb, F1 and F25. Biochemical profiling revealed a high degree of enzyme activity and metabolic capabilities not observed in other Brucella species. The omp2a and omp2b genes of isolates CCM 4915(T) and CCM 4916 were indistinguishable. Whereas omp2a was identical to omp2a of brucellae from certain pinniped marine mammals, omp2b clustered with omp2b of terrestrial brucellae. Analysis of the bp26 gene downstream region identified strains CCM 4915(T) and CCM 4916 as Brucella of terrestrial origin. Both strains harboured five to six copies of the insertion element IS711, displaying a unique banding pattern as determined by Southern blotting. In comparative multilocus VNTR (variable-number tandem-repeat) analysis (MLVA) with 296 different genotypes, the two isolates grouped together, but formed a separate cluster within the genus Brucella. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using nine different loci also placed the two isolates separately from other brucellae. In the IS711-based AMOS PCR, a 1900 bp fragment was generated with the Brucella ovis-specific primers, revealing that the insertion element had integrated between a putative membrane protein and cboL, encoding a methyltransferase, an integration site not observed in other brucellae. Isolates CCM 4915(T) and CCM 4916 could be clearly distinguished from all known Brucella species and their biovars by means of both their phenotypic and molecular

  1. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  2. Parallel gene loss and acquisition among strains of different Brucella species and biovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhijun; Wang, Yufei; Xu, Jie; Chen, Yanfen; Ke, Yuehua; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xitong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Yi; Yang, Ruifu; Peng, Guangneng; Jiang, Hai; Yuan, Jing; Song, Hongbin; Cui, Buyun; Huang, Liuyu; Chen, Zeliang

    2012-08-01

    The genus Brucella is divided into six species; of these, B. melitensis and B. abortus are pathogenic to humans, and B. ovis and B. neotomae are nonpathogenic to humans. The definition of gene loss and acquisition is essential for understanding Brucella's ecology, evolutionary history, and host relationships. A DNA microarray containing unique genes of B. melitensis Type strain 16MT and B. abortus 9-941 was constructed and used to determine the gene contents of the representative strains of Brucella. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from sequences of housekeeping genes. Gene loss and acquisition of different Brucella species were inferred. A total of 214 genes were found to be differentially distributed, and 173 of them were clustered into 15 genomic islands (GIs). Evidence of horizontal gene transfer was observed for 10 GIs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 19 strains formed five clades, and some of the GIs had been lost or acquired independently among the different lineages. The derivation of Brucella lineages is concomitant with the parallel loss or acquisition of GIs, indicating a complex interaction between various Brucella species and hosts. PMID:22923103

  3. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of Brucella isolates from marine mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashiruddin John B

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria of the genus Brucella are the causative organisms of brucellosis in animals and man. Previous characterisation of Brucella strains originating from marine mammals showed them to be distinct from the terrestrial species and likely to comprise one or more new taxa. Recently two new species comprising Brucella isolates from marine mammals, B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti, were validly published. Here we report on an extensive study of the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of marine mammal Brucella isolates and on how these characteristics relate to the newly described species. Results In this study, 102 isolates of Brucella originating from eleven species of marine mammals were characterised. Results obtained by analysis using the Infrequent Restriction Site (IRS-Derivative PCR, PCR-RFLP of outer membrane protein genes (omp and IS711 fingerprint profiles showed good consistency with isolates originating from cetaceans, corresponding to B. ceti, falling into two clusters. These correspond to isolates with either dolphins or porpoises as their preferred host. Isolates originating predominantly from seals, and corresponding to B. pinnipedialis, cluster separately on the basis of IS711 fingerprinting and other molecular approaches and can be further subdivided, with isolates from hooded seals comprising a distinct group. There was little correlation between phenotypic characteristics used in classical Brucella biotyping and these groups. Conclusion Molecular approaches are clearly valuable in the division of marine mammal Brucella into subtypes that correlate with apparent ecological divisions, whereas conventional bioyping is of less value. The data presented here confirm that there are significant subtypes within the newly described marine mammal Brucella species and add to a body of evidence that could lead to the recognition of additional species or sub-species within this group.

  5. Improved verification methods for OVI security ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Paul G.; Markantes, Tom

    2000-04-01

    Together, OVP Security Pigment in OVI Security Ink, provide an excellent method of overt banknote protection. The effective use of overt security feature requires an educated public. The rapid rise in computer-generated counterfeits indicates that consumers are not as educate das to banknote security features as they should be. To counter the education issue, new methodologies have been developed to improve the validation of banknotes using the OVI ink feature itself. One of the new methods takes advantage of the overt nature of the product's optically variable effect. Another method utilizes the unique optical interference characteristics provided by the OVP platelets.

  6. BrucellaBase: Genome information resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Khader, L K M Abdul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-09-01

    Brucella sp. causes a major zoonotic disease, brucellosis. Brucella belongs to the family Brucellaceae under the order Rhizobiales of Alphaproteobacteria. We present BrucellaBase, a web-based platform, providing features of a genome database together with unique analysis tools. We have developed a web version of the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (Whatmore et al., 2007) and phylogenetic analysis of Brucella spp. BrucellaBase currently contains genome data of 510 Brucella strains along with the user interfaces for BLAST, VFDB, CARD, pairwise genome alignment and MLST typing. Availability of these tools will enable the researchers interested in Brucella to get meaningful information from Brucella genome sequences. BrucellaBase will regularly be updated with new genome sequences, new features along with improvements in genome annotations. BrucellaBase is available online at http://www.dbtbrucellosis.in/brucellabase.html or http://59.99.226.203/brucellabase/homepage.html. PMID:27164438

  7. Seroprevalance of Babesia ovis in Sheep in Malatya

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Münir

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out in Malatya and vicinity to determine the seroprevalance of Babesia ovis in sheep. A total of 220 sheep sera were tested against B. ovis using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). In addition, peripheral blood smears from these sheep were prepared and examined for B. ovis. The ELISA test showed that 55.9% of sheep were seropositive for B. ovis infection. The infection rate was 49.2% in sheep which were 1-12 months old and 59% in sheep which were older than...

  8. Brucella Endocarditis in Prosthetic Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanic, Snjezana; Mulabdic, Velida; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzovic-Cengic, Meliha; Pinjo, Fikret; Hadziosmanovic, Vesna; Topalovic, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Brucella endocarditis (BE) is a rare but severe and potentially lethal manifestation of brucellosis. Pre-existing valves lesions and prosthetic valves (PV) are favorable for BE. Case report We represent the case of a 46-year-old man who was treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University, as blood culture positive (Brucella melitensis) mitral and aortic PV endocarditis. He was treated with combined anti-brucella and cardiac therapy. Surgical intervention was postponed due to cardiac instability. Four months later he passed away. Surgery was not performed. PMID:24493988

  9. Brucella evasion of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Anna; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The complex immune system of mammals is the result of evolutionary forces that include battles against pathogens, as sensing and defeating intruders is a prerequisite to host survival. On the other hand, microorganisms have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade both arms of immunity: the innate and the adaptive immune systems. The successful pathogenic intracellular bacterium Brucella is not an exception to the rule: Brucella displays mechanisms that allow evasion of immune surveillance in order to establish persistent infections in mammals. In this review, we highlight some key mechanisms that pathogenic Brucella use to evade the adaptive immune system. PMID:23374122

  10. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  11. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  12. Brucella Endocarditis in Prosthetic Valves

    OpenAIRE

    Mehanic, Snjezana; Mulabdic, Velida; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzovic-Cengic, Meliha; Pinjo, Fikret; Hadziosmanovic, Vesna; Topalovic, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Brucella endocarditis (BE) is a rare but severe and potentially lethal manifestation of brucellosis. Pre-existing valves lesions and prosthetic valves (PV) are favorable for BE. Case report We represent the case of a 46-year-old man who was treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University, as blood culture positive (Brucella melitensis) mitral and aortic PV endocarditis. He was treated with combined...

  13. Characterization of Brucella polysaccharide B.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundle, D R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Perry, M B

    1988-01-01

    Polysaccharide B was extracted from Brucella melitensis 16M and from a rough strain of Brucella abortus 45/20 by autoclaving or trichloroacetic acid extraction of whole cells and by a new method involving mild leaching of cells. The material obtained by either of the established procedures was contaminated by O polysaccharide. The new leaching protocol eliminated this impurity and provided a pure glucan, which was regarded as polysaccharide B. This polysaccharide was found by high-performance...

  14. Prevalence and Molecular Diagnosis of Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis in Lohi Sheep at Livestock Experiment Station (LES, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis are among the important and main etiological agents causing ovine babesiosis and ovine theileriosis, causing severe economic losses among sheep and goats. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of B. ovis and T. ovis in Lohi sheep at Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.The prevalence of B. ovis and T. ovis was investigated in 200 Lohi sheep of mixed age and sex by PCR during 2011. The assay was employed using primers Bbo-F & Bbo-R, specific for a 549-bp fragment in B. ovis genomic DNA and primers TSsr 170F & TSsr 670R, specific for a 520-bp fragment in T. ovis genomic DNA. The animals were also screened for both haemoparasites through stained thin blood smears.Thirty two (16%, 48 (24% and 26 (13% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through microscopy. Sixty eight (34%, 73 (37% and 42 (21% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through PCR test.The results indicate the high sensitivity of PCR for surveying babesiosis and theileriosis and there is noteworthy prevalence of these diseases in sheep at an experimental station where environmental conditions are relatively controlled as compared to field conditions.

  15. Full-length cDNA cloning, molecular characterization and differential expression analysis of peroxiredoxin 6 from Ovis aries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Lu, Shi-Ying; Hu, Pan; Li, Yan-Song; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Shou-Yin; Wang, Nan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong-Jie; Tang, Feng; Xu, Yun-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Guo, Xing; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2015-04-15

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), an important antioxidant enzyme that can eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain homeostasis, is a bifunctional protein that possesses the activities of both glutathione peroxidase and phospholipase A2. In this study, a novel full-length Prdx6 cDNA (OaPrdx6) was cloned from Sheep (Ovis aries) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of OaPrdx6 was 1753bp containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 93bp, a 3'-UTR of 985bp with a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 675bp encoding a protein of 224 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 25.07kDa. The recombinant protein OaPrdx6 was expressed and purified, and its DNA protection activity was identified. In order to analyze the Prdx6 protein expression in tissues from O. aries, monoclonal antibodies against OaPrdx6 were prepared. Western blotting results indicated that OaPrdx6 protein could be detected in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine, muscle, lymph node and white blood cells, and the highest expression was found in lung while the lowest expression in muscle. Compared to the normal sheep group, the mRNA transcription level of Prdx6 in buffy coat was up-regulated in the group infected with a virulent field strain of Brucella melitensis, and down-regulated in the group inoculated with a vaccine strain S2 of brucellosis. The results indicated that Prdx6 was likely to be involved in the host immune responses against Brucella infection, and probably regarded as a molecular biomarker for distinguishing between animals infected with virulent Brucella infection and those inoculated with vaccine against brucellosis. PMID:25712755

  16. Optically Variable Inks (OVI): versatility in formulation and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degott, Pierre

    2000-04-01

    Optically Variable Inks (OVI) are printing inks containing high precision, multi-layer interference filters as their constituent pigment. They display a strong and unique color change form a normal to an angled viewing position. During the last 10 years OVI has gained wide acceptance as an overt protection for numerous value documents including banknotes and ID cards. Meanwhile, continuous improvement has taken place over the last two years in a variety of areas.

  17. OVIS 3.2 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Gentile, Ann C.; Brandt, James M.; Houf, Catherine A.; Thompson, David C.; Roe, Diana C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-10-01

    This document describes how to obtain, install, use, and enjoy a better life with OVIS version 3.2. The OVIS project targets scalable, real-time analysis of very large data sets. We characterize the behaviors of elements and aggregations of elements (e.g., across space and time) in data sets in order to detect meaningful conditions and anomalous behaviors. We are particularly interested in determining anomalous behaviors that can be used as advance indicators of significant events of which notification can be made or upon which action can be taken or invoked. The OVIS open source tool (BSD license) is available for download at ovis.ca.sandia.gov. While we intend for it to support a variety of application domains, the OVIS tool was initially developed for, and continues to be primarily tuned for, the investigation of High Performance Compute (HPC) cluster system health. In this application it is intended to be both a system administrator tool for monitoring and a system engineer tool for exploring the system state in depth. OVIS 3.2 provides a variety of statistical tools for examining the behavior of elements in a cluster (e.g., nodes, racks) and associated resources (e.g., storage appliances and network switches). It provides an interactive 3-D physical view in which the cluster elements can be colored by raw or derived element values (e.g., temperatures, memory errors). The visual display allows the user to easily determine abnormal or outlier behaviors. Additionally, it provides search capabilities for certain scheduler logs. The OVIS capabilities were designed to be highly interactive - for example, the job search may drive an analysis which in turn may drive the user generation of a derived value which would then be examined on the physical display. The OVIS project envisions the capabilities of its tools applied to compute cluster monitoring. In the future, integration with the scheduler or resource manager will be included in a release to enable intelligent

  18. Comparative histology of the femur between mouflon (Ovis aries musimon and sheep (Ovis aries aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Giua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mouflon (Ovis aries musimon and sheep (Ovis aries aries are considered as the wild and domestic subspecies of the same species. A comparative study on the microstructure of mouflon and sheep femoral bone diaphysis is here reported. Bone microstructure is described for the first time in the mouflon. More than 200 secondary osteons from both subspecies were analyzed and qualitative evaluation was followed by quantitative determination of perimeter, area, minimum and maximum diameters of secondary osteons and Haversian canals. The basic structural patterns observed in both subspecies can be classified as plexiform and irregular Haversian tissue, in accordance with what reported in the literature for most ruminants. The presence of many secondary osteons in the mouflon means that the bone also consists of dense Haversian bone tissue. Statistical analysis demonstrated that mouflon secondary osteons are larger than in the sheep and made of a greater number of lamellae. Since mouflon and sheep are taxonomically closely related and their body size is very similar, the qualitative and quantitative differences here reported could be primarily explained on account of their different lifestyle. Indeed, the habits of wildlife typical of mouflons may lead to the presence of wide areas of dense Haversian tissue in that subspecies, as mechanical stresses are known to be related to number and size of secondary osteons. Finally, this analysis could provide a useful tool to recognize bones from different species, in forensic exam and archaeozoological studies as well.

  19. Whole genome sequences of four Brucella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiabo; Pan, Yuanlong; Jiang, Hai; Cheng, Junsheng; Liu, Taotao; Qin, Nan; Yang, Yi; Cui, Buyun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Cuihua; Mao, Kairong; Zhu, Baoli

    2011-07-01

    Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis are intracellular pathogens of livestock and humans. Here we report four genome sequences, those of the virulent strain B. melitensis M28-12 and vaccine strains B. melitensis M5 and M111 and B. suis S2, which show different virulences and pathogenicities, which will help to design a more effective brucellosis vaccine. PMID:21602346

  20. Brucella endocarditis on double valvular prosthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lezaun, R; Teruel, J.; Maître, M. J.; De Artaza, M

    1980-01-01

    The case is reported of a 48-year-old man suffering from Brucella endocarditis on a double prosthesis. The successful medical and surgical treatment is described. So far as the authors know, this is the first report of Brucella endocarditis from a heart valve prosthesis.

  1. Identification of new IS711 insertion sites in Brucella abortus field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriyón Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., a group of highly homogeneous bacteria. The insertion sequence IS711 is characteristic of these bacteria, and occurs in variable numbers and positions, but always constant within a given species. This species-associated polymorphism is used in molecular typing and identification. Field isolates of B. abortus, the most common species infecting cattle, typically carry seven IS711 copies (one truncated. Thus far, IS711 transposition has only been shown in vitro and only for B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis, two species carrying a high number of IS711 copies, but never in other Brucella species, neither in vitro nor in field strains. Results We found several B. abortus strains isolated from milk and aborted fetuses that carried additional IS711 copies in two hitherto undescribed insertion sites: one in an intergenic region near to the 3' end of a putative lactate permease gene and the other interrupting the sequence of a marR transcriptional regulator gene. Interestingly, the second type of insertion was identified in isolates obtained repeatedly from the same herd after successive brucellosis outbreaks, an observation that proves the stability and virulence of the new genotype under natural conditions. Sequence analyses revealed that the new copies probably resulted from the transposition of a single IS711 copy common to all Brucella species sequenced so far. Conclusions Our results show that the replicative transposition of IS711 can occur under field conditions. Therefore, it represents an active mechanism for the emergence of genetic diversity in B. abortus thus contributing to intra-species genetic polymorphism.

  2. Characterization of ribonuclease III from Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Xian; Xu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a highly conserved endonuclease, which plays pivotal roles in RNA maturation and decay pathways by cleaving double-stranded structure of RNAs. Here we cloned rncS gene from the genomic DNA of Brucella melitensis, and analyzed the cleavage properties of RNase III from Brucella. We identified Brucella-encoding small RNA (sRNA) by high-throughput sequencing and northern blot, and found that sRNA of Brucella and Homo miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) can be bound and cleaved by B.melitensis ribonuclease III (Bm-RNase III). Cleavage activity of Bm-RNase III is bivalent metal cations- and alkaline buffer-dependent. We constructed several point mutations in Bm-RNase III, whose cleavage activity indicated that the 133th Glutamic acid residue was required for catalytic activity. Western blot revealed that Bm-RNase III was differently expressed in Brucella virulence strain 027 and vaccine strain M5-90. Collectively, our data suggest that Brucella RNase III can efficiently bind and cleave stem-loop structure of small RNA, and might participate in regulation of virulence in Brucella. PMID:26778206

  3. Rapid identification of Brucella isolates to the species level by real time PCR based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Catherine J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis, caused by members of the genus Brucella, remains one of the world's major zoonotic diseases. Six species have classically been recognised within the family Brucella largely based on a combination of classical microbiology and host specificity, although more recently additional isolations of novel Brucella have been reported from various marine mammals and voles. Classical identification to species level is based on a biotyping approach that is lengthy, requires extensive and hazardous culturing and can be difficult to interpret. Here we describe a simple and rapid approach to identification of Brucella isolates to the species level based on real-time PCR analysis of species-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were identified following a robust and extensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus. Results Seven pairs of short sequence Minor Groove Binding (MGB probes were designed corresponding to SNPs shown to possess an allele specific for each of the six classical Brucella spp and the marine mammal Brucella. Assays were optimised to identical reaction parameters in order to give a multiple outcome assay that can differentiate all the classical species and Brucella isolated from marine mammals. The scope of the assay was confirmed by testing of over 300 isolates of Brucella, all of which typed as predicted when compared to other phenotypic and genotypic approaches. The assay is sensitive being capable of detecting and differentiating down to 15 genome equivalents. We further describe the design and testing of assays based on three additional SNPs located within the 16S rRNA gene that ensure positive discrimination of Brucella from close phylogenetic relatives on the same platform. Conclusion The multiple-outcome assay described represents a new tool for the rapid, simple and unambiguous characterisation of Brucella to the species level. Furthermore, being based on a robust phylogenetic framework, the

  4. Sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma ovis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J.; Atkinson, M.W.; Naranjo, V.; Fernandez de Mera, I. G.; Mangold, A.J.; Keating, K.A.; Kocan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is a tick-borne pathogen of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. The genetic diversity of A. ovis strains has not been well characterized due to the lack of sequence information. In this study, we evaluated bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Montana for infection with A. ovis by serology and sequence analysis of the msp4 gene. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. were detected in 37% and 39% of bighorn sheep and mule deer analyzed, respectively. Four new msp4 genotypes were identified. The A. ovis msp4 sequences identified herein were analyzed together with sequences reported previously for the characterization of the genetic diversity of A. ovis strains in comparison with other Anaplasma spp. The results of these studies demonstrated that although A. ovis msp4 genotypes may vary among geographic regions and between sheep and deer hosts, the variation observed was less than the variation observed between A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum strains. The results reported herein further confirm that A. ovis infection occurs in natural wild ruminant populations in Western United States and that bighorn sheep and mule deer may serve as wildlife reservoirs of A. ovis. ?? 2006.

  5. Evaluation of the ability of two multiplex PCR assays (Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder) to distinguish six Brucella species and Brucella suis at the biovar level%应用多重PCR鉴别布鲁氏菌种及猪种5个生物型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 崔步云; 赵鸿雁; 朴东日; 姜海; 邰新平; 田国忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of two types of multiplex PCR assays (Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder) to distinguish six Brucella species and five biovars of Brucella suis. Methods A Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay was performed using 8 pairs of primers to distinguish six Brucella species. A Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assay was performed using 4 pairs of primers to distinguish five biovars of B. suis. The tested strains, which consisted of 27 reference strains of six Brucella species and 239 Brucella isolates, were examined using PCR assays and methods of biological identification. Results The Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay differentiated six Brucella species, including Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis , Brucella suis , Brucella canis , Brucella ovis , and Brucella neotomae , in a single step. The Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assay differentiated five biovars of B. suis in a single step. The electrophoresis patterns of the vaccine strain S2 and biovar 1 of B. suis were identical. The total rate of concordance between methods of biological identification and multiplex PCR assays was 100%. Conclusion The Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assays are rapid and specific methods of respectively identifying Brucella species and B. suis at the biovar level.%目的 应用布鲁氏菌种多重PCR和猪种多重PCR对布鲁氏菌进行鉴定. 方法 对两套多重PCR方法进行条件优化,应用布鲁氏菌参考菌株、疫苗株和临床分离菌株进行评价,并与生物学分型方法进行比较. 结果 布鲁氏菌种多重PCR扩增(包括牛种布鲁氏菌8个生物型,猪种5个生物型,羊种3个生物型,以及绵羊附睾、犬和沙漠森林野鼠种各1个生物型)可获得152~1 682 bp的8个DNA片段,但种间DNA片段数不一.猪种多重PCR扩增猪种5个生物型菌株得到197~774 bp的7个DNA片段,不同生物型的DNA扩增图谱不同;猪种疫苗株S2扩增图谱与猪种生物1型相同,多重PCR分型方法与生物学

  6. Brucella-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide chimeras are less permeable to hydrophobic probes and more sensitive to cationic peptides and EDTA than are their native Brucella sp. counterparts.

    OpenAIRE

    Freer, E; Moreno, E.; Moriyon, I. (Ignacio); Pizarro-Cerda, J. (Javier); Weintraub, A; Gorvel, J P

    1996-01-01

    A rough (R) Brucella abortus 45/20 mutant was more sensitive to the bactericidal activity of polymyxin B and lactoferricin B than was its smooth (S) counterpart but considerably more resistant than Salmonella montevideo. The outer membrane (OM) and isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. montevideo showed a higher affinity for these cationic peptides than did the corresponding B. abortus OM and LPS. We took advantage of the moderate sensitivity of R B. abortus to cationic peptides to construc...

  7. Generation, analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Fiona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is caused by Psoroptes ovis and is arguably the most important ectoparasitic disease affecting sheep in the UK. The disease is highly contagious and causes and considerable pruritis and irritation and is therefore a major welfare concern. Current methods of treatment are unsustainable and in order to elucidate novel methods of disease control a more comprehensive understanding of the parasite is required. To date, no full genomic DNA sequence or large scale transcript datasets are available and prior to this study only 484 P. ovis expressed sequence tags (ESTs were accessible in public databases. Results In order to further expand upon the transcriptomic coverage of P. ovis thus facilitating novel insights into the mite biology we undertook a larger scale EST approach, incorporating newly generated and previously described P. ovis transcript data and representing the largest collection of P. ovis ESTs to date. We sequenced 1,574 ESTs and assembled these along with 484 previously generated P. ovis ESTs, which resulted in the identification of 1,545 unique P. ovis sequences. BLASTX searches identified 961 ESTs with significant hits (E-value P. ovis ESTs. Gene Ontology (GO analysis allowed the functional annotation of 880 ESTs and included predictions of signal peptide and transmembrane domains; allowing the identification of potential P. ovis excreted/secreted factors, and mapping of metabolic pathways. Conclusions This dataset currently represents the largest collection of P. ovis ESTs, all of which are publicly available in the GenBank EST database (dbEST (accession numbers FR748230 - FR749648. Functional analysis of this dataset identified important homologues, including house dust mite allergens and tick salivary factors. These findings offer new insights into the underlying biology of P. ovis, facilitating further investigations into mite biology and the identification of novel methods of intervention.

  8. Brucella serology in abattoir workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is an occupational hazard with those particularly at risk either living in close proximity with animals or handling them. It is a public health problem in developing countries with adverse health implications both for animals and human beings as well as economic implications for individuals and communities. The Objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among abattoir workers of Lahore District and to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job of the workers. Data was collected in April 2008. It was a cross-sectional study in which four main slaughterhouses in Lahore were included. The slaughterhouse workers were divided into seven strata based on their nature of job: meat sellers, slaughterers, animal keepers, drivers, cleaners, loaders and vets/paravets. A total of 360 such workers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Sampling frames for different strata were prepared and from each frame, proportionate numbers, were selected through simple random method using random number tables. Data was obtained using a questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The seroprevalence of anti-Brucella IgG was found to be 21.7%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the immune status of the respondents and their nature of job (p=0.005), age groups (p=0.013), and duration of job (p=0.003). The disease is an important public health problem in Pakistan. The disease can be prevented in the slaughterhouse workers through the use of personal protective devices. Public health authorities should educate the general public regarding prevention of the disease with specific emphasis on people working in slaughterhouses. (author)

  9. Protective properties of rifampin-resistant rough mutants of Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adone, R; Ciuchini, F; Marianelli, C; Tarantino, M; Pistoia, C; Marcon, G; Petrucci, P; Francia, M; Riccardi, G; Pasquali, P

    2005-07-01

    Vaccination against Brucella infections in animals is usually performed by administration of live attenuated smooth B. abortus strain S19 and B. melitensis strain Rev1. They are proven effective vaccines against B. abortus in cattle and against B. melitensis and B. ovis in sheep and goats, respectively. However, both vaccines have the main drawback of inducing O-polysaccharide-specific antibodies that interfere with serologic diagnosis of disease. In addition, they retain residual virulence, being a cause of abortion in pregnant animals and infection in humans. To overcome these problems, one approach is to develop defined rough mutant Brucella strains lacking O antigen of lipopolysaccharide. B. abortus rough strain RB51, a rifampin-resistant mutant of virulent strain B. abortus 2308, is used as a vaccine against B. abortus infection in cattle in some countries. However, RB51 is not effective in sheep, and there is only preliminary evidence that it is effective in goats. In this study, we tested the efficacies of six rifampin-resistant rough strains of B. melitensis in protecting BALB/c mice exposed to B. melitensis infection. The protective properties, as well as both humoral and cellular immune responses, were assessed in comparison with those provided by B. melitensis Rev1 and B. abortus RB51 vaccines. The results indicated that these rough mutants were able to induce a very good level of protection against B. melitensis infection, similar to that provided by Rev1 and superior to that of RB51, without inducing antibodies to O antigen. In addition, all B. melitensis mutants were able to stimulate good production of gamma interferon. The characteristics of these strains encourage further evaluation of them as alternative vaccines to Rev1 in primary host species. PMID:15972510

  10. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  11. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  12. Antibody Reactivity to Omp31 from Brucella melitensis in Human and Animal Infections by Smooth and Rough Brucellae

    OpenAIRE

    Cassataro, Juliana; Pasquevich, Karina; Bruno, Laura; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    2004-01-01

    Group 3 of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Brucella includes Omp25 and Omp31, which share 34% identity. Omp25 is highly conserved in Brucella species, and Omp31 is present in all Brucella species, except Brucella abortus. Antibodies to Brucella melitensis Omp31 have been sought only in infected sheep, and Western blotting of sera from infected sheep did not reveal anti-Omp31 reactivity. We obtained recombinant purified Omp31 (B. melitensis) and tested its recognition by sera from humans and...

  13. Evaluation and selection of tandem repeat loci for a Brucella MLVA typing assay

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    Denoeud France

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classification of Brucella into species and biovars relies on phenotypic characteristics and sometimes raises difficulties in the interpretation of the results due to an absence of standardization of the typing reagents. In addition, the resolution of this biotyping is moderate and requires the manipulation of the living agent. More efficient DNA-based methods are needed, and this work explores the suitability of multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA for both typing and species identification. Results Eighty tandem repeat loci predicted to be polymorphic by genome sequence analysis of three available Brucella genome sequences were tested for polymorphism by genotyping 21 Brucella strains (18 reference strains representing the six 'classical' species and all biovars as well as 3 marine mammal strains currently recognized as members of two new species. The MLVA data efficiently cluster the strains as expected according to their species and biovar. For practical use, a subset of 15 loci preserving this clustering was selected and applied to the typing of 236 isolates. Using this MLVA-15 assay, the clusters generated correspond to the classical biotyping scheme of Brucella spp. The 15 markers have been divided into two groups, one comprising 8 user-friendly minisatellite markers with a good species identification capability (panel 1 and another complementary group of 7 microsatellite markers with higher discriminatory power (panel 2. Conclusion The MLVA-15 assay can be applied to large collections of Brucella strains with automated or manual procedures, and can be proposed as a complement, or even a substitute, of classical biotyping methods. This is facilitated by the fact that MLVA is based on non-infectious material (DNA whereas the biotyping procedure itself requires the manipulation of the living agent. The data produced can be queried on a dedicated MLVA web service site.

  14. Full-Length cDNA Cloning, Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression Analysis of Lysophospholipase I from Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Nan Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lysophospholipase I (LYPLA1 is an important protein with multiple functions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the LYPLA1 gene from Ovis aries (OaLypla1 was cloned using primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE technology. The full-length OaLypla1 was 2457 bp with a 5′-untranslated region (UTR of 24 bp, a 3′-UTR of 1740 bp with a poly (A tail, and an open reading frame (ORF of 693 bp encoding a protein of 230 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 24,625.78 Da. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the OaLypla1 protein shared a high amino acid identity with LYPLA1 of Bos taurus. The recombinant OaLypla1 protein was expressed and purified, and its phospholipase activity was identified. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb against OaLypla1 that bound native OaLypla1 were generated. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that OaLypla1 was constitutively expressed in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and white blood cells of sheep, with the highest level in the kidney. Additionally, the mRNA levels of OaLypla1 in the buffy coats of sheep challenged with virulent or avirulent Brucella strains were down-regulated compared to untreated sheep. The results suggest that OaLypla1 may have an important physiological role in the host response to bacteria. The function of OaLypla1 in the host response to bacterial infection requires further study in the future.

  15. Full-Length cDNA Cloning, Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression Analysis of Lysophospholipase I from Ovis aries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Shi-Ying; Li, Yan-Song; Yang, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Song; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Lysophospholipase I (LYPLA1) is an important protein with multiple functions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the LYPLA1 gene from Ovis aries (OaLypla1) was cloned using primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology. The full-length OaLypla1 was 2457 bp with a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 24 bp, a 3'-UTR of 1740 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 693 bp encoding a protein of 230 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 24,625.78 Da. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the OaLypla1 protein shared a high amino acid identity with LYPLA1 of Bos taurus. The recombinant OaLypla1 protein was expressed and purified, and its phospholipase activity was identified. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against OaLypla1 that bound native OaLypla1 were generated. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that OaLypla1 was constitutively expressed in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and white blood cells of sheep, with the highest level in the kidney. Additionally, the mRNA levels of OaLypla1 in the buffy coats of sheep challenged with virulent or avirulent Brucella strains were down-regulated compared to untreated sheep. The results suggest that OaLypla1 may have an important physiological role in the host response to bacteria. The function of OaLypla1 in the host response to bacterial infection requires further study in the future. PMID:27483239

  16. Establishment of Chronic Infection: Brucella's Stealth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes zoonotic infection known as brucellosis which results in abortion and infertility in natural host. Humans, especially in low income countries, can acquire infection by direct contact with infected animal or by consumption of animal products and show high morbidity, severe economic losses and public health problems. However for survival, host cells develop complex immune mechanisms to defeat and battle against attacking pathogens and maintain a balance between host resistance and Brucella virulence. On the other hand as a successful intracellular pathogen, Brucella has evolved multiple strategies to evade immune response mechanisms to establish persistent infection and replication within host. In this review, we mainly summarize the "Stealth" strategies employed by Brucella to modulate innate and the adaptive immune systems, autophagy, apoptosis and possible role of small noncoding RNA in the establishment of chronic infection. The purpose of this review is to give an overview for recent understanding how this pathogen evades immune response mechanisms of host, which will facilitate to understanding the pathogenesis of brucellosis and the development of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches to treat brucellosis. PMID:27014640

  17. Validation of the Abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR as a Rapid Screening Method for Differentiation of Brucella abortus Field Strain Isolates and the Vaccine Strains, 19 and RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Ewalt, Darla R; Bricker, Betsy J.

    2000-01-01

    The Brucella AMOS PCR assay was previously developed to identify and differentiate specific Brucella species. In this study, an abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR test was evaluated to determine its accuracy in differentiating Brucella abortus into three categories: field strains, vaccine strain 19 (S19), and vaccine strain RB51/parent strain 2308 (S2308). Two hundred thirty-one isolates were identified and tested by the conventional biochemical tests and Brucella AMOS PCR. This included 120 isola...

  18. Case report 469: Spondylitis (lumbar spine) due to Brucella abortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current case is interesting in that, although the plain radiographs were diagnostic of infection and the patient's work history suggested brucellosis, both the negative serum antibody titers to brucella and the CT appearance of large calcified psoas abscesses made the diagnosis of tuberculous spondylitis most probable. Open biopsy with tissue culture proved brucella. From this experience it appears that the presence of large calcified psoas abscesses should not eliminate the diagnosis of brucella spondylitis in the proper clinical setting. (orig.)

  19. Generation of the Brucella melitensis ORFeome Version 1.1

    OpenAIRE

    Dricot, A. (Amélie); Rual, J. J. (Jean François); Lamesch, P; BERTIN, N.; Dupuy, D. (Denis); Hao, T.; Lambert, C; Hallez, R.; Delroisse, J.M. (Jean Marc); Vandenhaute, J; Lopez-Goñi, I. (Ignacio); Moriyon, I. (Ignacio); Garcia-Lobo, J M; Sangari, F.J. (Félix Javier); MacMillan, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    The bacteria of the Brucella genus are responsible for a worldwide zoonosis called brucellosis. They belong to the alpha-proteobacteria group, as many other bacteria that live in close association with a eukaryotic host. Importantly, the Brucellae are mainly intracellular pathogens, and the molecular mechanisms of their virulence are still poorly understood. Using the complete genome sequence of Brucella melitensis, we generated a database of protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs) and cons...

  20. Erythritol triggers expression of virulence traits in Brucella melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Erik; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Eskra, Linda; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar preferentially utilized by Brucella spp. The presence of erythritol in the placentas of goats, cows, and pigs has been used to explain the localization of Brucella to these sites and the subsequent accumulation of large amounts of bacteria, eventually leading to abortion. Here we show that B. melitensis will also localize to an artificial site of erythritol within a mouse, providing a potential model system to study the pathogenesis of Brucella abortion. Immu...

  1. Case report 469: Spondylitis (lumbar spine) due to Brucella abortus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaster, B.J.

    1988-03-01

    The current case is interesting in that, although the plain radiographs were diagnostic of infection and the patient's work history suggested brucellosis, both the negative serum antibody titers to brucella and the CT appearance of large calcified psoas abscesses made the diagnosis of tuberculous spondylitis most probable. Open biopsy with tissue culture proved brucella. From this experience it appears that the presence of large calcified psoas abscesses should not eliminate the diagnosis of brucella spondylitis in the proper clinical setting.

  2. Determination of brucella immunoglobulin G agglutinating antibody titer with dithiothreitol.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, G C; Behan, K A

    1981-01-01

    The routine brucella agglutination test measures both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG brucella antibody titers; however, only an elevated IgG titer is significant for differentiating active from inactive disease in patients with symptoms lasting 3 or more weeks. The IgG antibody titer can be determined by treating the serum wih 2-mercaptoethanol to inactivate the IgM brucella antibodies while leaving the IgG brucella antibodies intact. Dithiothreitol, which also inactivates IgM, was compared w...

  3. The genome sequence of Brucella pinnipedialis B2/94 sheds light on the evolutionary history of the genus Brucella

    OpenAIRE

    Claverie Jean-Michel; Lescot Magali; Audic Stéphane; Cloeckaert Axel; Zygmunt Michel S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the discovery of the Malta fever agent, Brucella melitensis, in the 19th century, six terrestrial mammal-associated Brucella species were recognized over the next century. More recently the number of novel Brucella species has increased and among them, isolation of species B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti from marine mammals raised many questions about their origin as well as on the evolutionary history of the whole genus. Results We report here on the first complete gen...

  4. Simultaneous detection and differentiates of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis by combinatorial PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Reza Hosseini Doust; Reza Kachuei; Seied Mojtaba Mortazavi; Mehdi Khoobdel; Ali Ahamadi

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate simultaneous detection and differentiates of Brucella abortus(B. abortus) and Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) through the combinatorial PCR method. Methods:This study was designed using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate two major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Identification and differentiation of each species using the size of the PCR product were determined. To determine the specificity of the method, bacteria close to the genus Brucella were used. Finally, to confirm PCR products, In addition to the products sequence, RFLP was performed on PCR products using restriction enzymes. Results:The method of optimized combinatorial PCR in this study could simultaneously detect and differentiate B. abortus and B. melitensis with high specificity and sensitivity in clinical samples. Differentiation of species is based on the resulting bands;therefore, the band 494 bp for B. abortus and 733 bp for B. melitensis were obtained. RFLP and sequencing results confirmed PCR results. Conclusions:The results of this study shows that without routine diagnostic methods such as culture and serology tests, using the molecular method of combinatorial PCR, important species of Brucella can be simultaneously identified and differentiated in clinical samples.

  5. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Survey of OVI Absorption in the Disk of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, D V; Tripp, T M; Sembach, K R; Savage, B D; Moos, H W; Oegerle, W R; Friedman, S D; Gry, C; Kruk, J W; Murphy, E; Sankrit, R; Shull, J M; Sonneborn, G; York, D G

    2007-01-01

    To probe the distribution and physical characteristics of interstellar gas at temperatures T ~ 3e5 K in the disk of the Milky Way, we have used the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) to observe absorption lines of OVI toward 148 early-type stars situated at distances 1 kpc. After subtracting off a mild excess of OVI arising from the Local Bubble, combining our new results with earlier surveys of OVI, and eliminating stars that show conspicuous localized X-ray emission, we find an average OVI mid-plane density n_0 = 1.3e-8 cm^-3. The density decreases away from the plane of the Galaxy in a way that is consistent with an exponential scale height of 3.2 kpc at negative latitudes or 4.6 kpc at positive latitudes. Average volume densities of OVI along different sight lines exhibit a dispersion of about 0.26 dex, irrespective of the distances to the target stars. This indicates that OVI does not arise in randomly situated clouds of a fixed size and density, but instead is distributed in regions that have...

  6. The Azimuthal Dependence of Outflows and Accretion Detected Using OVI Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, Glenn G; Churchill, Christopher W; Nielsen, Nikole M; Charlton, Jane C

    2015-01-01

    We report a bimodality in the azimuthal angle ($\\Phi$) distribution of gas around galaxies traced by OVI absorption. We present the mean $\\Phi$ probability distribution function of 29 HST-imaged OVI absorbing (EW>0.1A) and 24~non-absorbing (EW<0.1A) isolated galaxies (0.08OVI covering fraction decreases from 80% within 50kpc to 33% at 200kpc. The presence of OVI absorption is azimuthally dependent and occurs between $\\pm10-20^{\\circ}$ of the galaxy projected major axis and within $\\pm30^{\\circ}$ of the projected minor axis. We find higher EWs along the projected minor axis with weaker EWs along the project major axis. Highly inclined galaxies have the lowest covering fractions due to minimized outflow/inflow cross-section geometry. Absorbing galaxies also have bluer colors while non-absorbers have redder colors, suggesting that star-formation is a key driver in the OVI detection rate. OVI surrou...

  7. Enzymatic, immunological and phylogenetic characterization of Brucella suis urease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriranganathan Nammalwar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequenced genomes of the Brucella spp. have two urease operons, ure-1 and ure-2, but there is evidence that only one is responsible for encoding an active urease. The present work describes the purification and the enzymatic and phylogenomic characterization of urease from Brucella suis strain 1330. Additionally, the urease reactivity of sera from patients diagnosed with brucellosis was examined. Results Urease encoded by the ure-1 operon of Brucella suis strain 1330 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The urease was purified 51-fold with a recovery of 12% of the enzyme activity and 0.24% of the total protein. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5, and showed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 28–35°C. The purified enzyme exhibited a Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics with a Km of 5.60 ± 0.69 mM. Hydroxyurea and thiourea are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki of 1.04 ± 0.31 mM and 26.12 ± 2.30 mM, respectively. Acetohydroxamic acid also inhibits the enzyme in a competitive way. The molecular weight estimated for the native enzyme was between 130–135 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 157 ± 7 kDa using 5–10% polyacrylamide gradient non-denaturing gel. Only three subunits in SDS-PAGE were identified: two small subunits of 14,000 Da and 15,500 Da, and a major subunit of 66,000 Da. The amino terminal sequence of the purified large subunit corresponded to the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by ureC1. The UreC1 subunit was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. By phylogenetic and cluster structure analyses, ureC1 was related to the ureC typically present in the Rhizobiales; in contrast, the ureC2 encoded in the ure-2 operon is more related to distant species. Conclusion We have for the first time purified and characterized an active urease from B. suis. The enzyme was characterized at the kinetic

  8. Phylogenetic position of a copper age sheep (Ovis aries mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Olivieri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheep (Ovis aries were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region about 9,000-8,000 years ago. Currently, few mitochondrial (mt DNA studies are available on archaeological sheep. In particular, no data on archaeological European sheep are available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the first portion of mtDNA sequence of a Copper Age European sheep. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the clothes of the so-called Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present. Mitochondrial DNA (a total of 2,429 base pairs, encompassing a portion of the control region, tRNA(Phe, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene, and the whole cytochrome B gene was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplification and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We have compared the sequence with the corresponding sequence of 334 extant lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A phylogenetic network based on a new cladistic notation for the mitochondrial diversity of domestic sheep shows that the Ötzi's sheep falls within haplogroup B, thus demonstrating that sheep belonging to this haplogroup were already present in the Alps more than 5,000 years ago. On the other hand, the lineage of the Ötzi's sheep is defined by two transitions (16147, and 16440 which, assembled together, define a motif that has not yet been identified in modern sheep populations.

  9. Brucella Dissociation Is Essential for Macrophage Egress and Bacterial Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Ficht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been observed that smooth Brucella can dissociate into rough mutants that are cytotoxic to macrophages. However, the in vivo biological significance and/or mechanistic de-tails of Brucella dissociation and cytotoxicity remain incomplete. In the current report, a plaque assay was developed using Brucella strains exhibiting varying degrees of cytotoxicity. Infected monolayers were observed daily using phase contrast microscopy for plaque formation while Brucella uptake and replication were monitored using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Vis-ible plaques were detected at 4-5 days post infection (p.i. with cytotoxic Brucella 16M∆manBA at an MOI of 0.1. IFA staining demonstrated that the plaques consisted of macrophages with replicating Brucella. Visible plaques were not detected in monolayers infected with non-cytotoxic 16M∆manBA∆virB2 at an MOI of 0.1. However, IFA staining did reveal small groups of macrophages (foci with replicating Brucella in the monolayers infected with 16M∆manBA∆virB2. The size of the foci observed in macrophage monolayers infected with rough Brucella correlated directly with cytotoxicity measured in liquid culture, suggesting that cytotoxicity was essential for Brucella egress and dissemination. In monolayers infected with 16M, small and large foci were observed. Double antibody staining revealed spontaneous rough mutants within the large, but not the small foci in 16M infected monolayers. Furthermore, plaque formation was observed in the large foci derived from 16M infections. Finally, the addi-tion of gentamicin to the culture medium inhibited plaque formation, suggesting that the cell-to-cell spreading occurred only following release of the organisms from the cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Brucella induced cytotoxicity is critical for Brucella egress and dissemination.

  10. Galactic and Circumgalactic OVI and its Impact on the Cosmological Metal and Baryon Budgets at 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Nicolas; Fox, Andrew J; Howk, J Christopher; Prochaska, J Xavier; Burns, Vincent; Armstrong, Ashley A

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results from our NASA KODIAQ survey, which aims to characterize the properties of the highly ionized gas associated with absorbers that are optically thick at the Lyman limit at 2 17 and both transitions of the OVI doublet have little contamination. We found 20 absorbers that satisfy these rules, the sample being divided in 7 Lyman limit systems (LLSs, here with 17.7 20.3). The OVI detection rate in this sample is 100% for the DLAs, 71% for the LLSs, and 63% for the SLLSs. When OVI is detected, we find log=14.9+/-0.3, which is much larger and with a smaller dispersion than in blind OVI surveys. Strong OVI absorption is therefore nearly ubiquitous in the CGM of z~2-3 galaxies. The total velocity widths of the OVI profiles are also large (200< Delta v(OVI)<400 km/s). These properties strongly suggest these OVI absorbers probe gas associated with outflows of star-forming galaxies at 2OVI absorption have properties consistent with those seen in c...

  11. Brucella suis strain 2 vaccine is safe and protective against heterologous Brucella spp. infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangquan; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Nan; Ding, Jiabo; Suo, Xun

    2016-01-12

    Brucellosis is a wide spread zoonotic disease that causes abortion and infertility in mammals and leads to debilitating, febrile illness in humans. Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis are the major pathogenic species to humans. Vaccination with live attenuated B. suis strain 2 (S2) vaccine is an essential and critical component in the control of brucellosis in China. The S2 vaccine is very effective in preventing brucellosis in goats, sheep, cattle and swine. However, there are still debates outside of China whether the S2 vaccine is able to provide protection against heterologous virulent Brucella species. We investigated the residual virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the S2 vaccine in BALB/c mice by determining bacteria persistence in spleen, serum antibody response, cellular immune response and protection against a heterologous virulent challenge. The S2 vaccine was of low virulence as there were no bacteria recovered in spleen four weeks post vaccination. The vaccinated mice developed Brucella-specific IgG in 2-3 weeks, and a burst production of IFN-γ at one week as well as a two-fold increase in TNF-α production. The S2 vaccine protected mice from a virulent challenge by B. melitensis M28, B. abortus 2308 and B. suis S1330, and the S2 vaccinated mice did not develop any clinical signs or tissue damage. Our study demonstrated that the S2 vaccine is of low virulence, stimulates good humoral and cellular immunity and protects animals against infection by heterologous, virulent Brucella species. PMID:26626213

  12. Brucella abortus Infection Acquired in Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Pier Luigi; Mastrandrea, Scilla; Rappelli, Paola; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2000-01-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated.

  13. Progress in the evolution and taxonomy of Brucella%布鲁菌进化和分类学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志军; 杜昕颖; 彭广能; 黄克和; 陈泽良; 于爽; 徐杰; 王玉飞; 白耀霞; 陈燕芬; 付思美; 王同坤; 汪舟佳

    2011-01-01

    Brucellae are Gram-negative,facultative intracellular bacteria that can infect many species of animals and man.Six species are currently recognized within the genus Brucella:B.melitensis,B.abortus,B.suis,B.neotomae,B.ovis,and B.canis.This classification is mainly based on differences in pathogenicity and in host preferences.Although the six species can be differentiated by conventional phenotypic tests,these species display a high degree of DNA homology in DNA-DNA hybridization assays(90% identity).Therefore it has been proposed that the Brucella genus should comprise only one species i.e.B.melitensis and that the other species should be considered as biovars.However,several molecular genotyping methods have shown of significant DNA polymorphism Brucella species allowing the species to be correctly differentiated.This is also true for the recent marine mammal Brucella isolates,which two new species names have been proposed,i.e.B.pinnipediae and B.cetaceae,according to the classical criteria of host preferentialism(pinnipeds and cetaceans respectively) and specific molecular markers.This article reviews the evolution and taxonomy of Brucella.%布鲁菌属革兰氏阴性兼性胞内寄生菌,能感染多种宿主动物和人。该属可分为6个典型种,包括羊种、牛种、猪种、沙林鼠种、绵羊附睾种以及犬种布鲁菌等。此分类是基于其致病性以及宿主偏好性的差异划分。尽管6个种通过传统表型试验能区分,但布鲁菌种内采用DNA-DNA杂交证明DNA同源性高度一致(相似性大于90%)。因此有人提议布鲁菌由单一种组成,即布鲁菌属中只有羊种布鲁菌,其他种都是羊种菌的生物亚型之一。然而基于其他分子技术的基因分型表明其DNA多态性表现明显,说明目前对这个种的分型还是比较准确。而最近分离的海洋种布鲁氏

  14. Identification of Recombination and Positively Selected Genes in Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-12-01

    Brucella is a facultative intracellular bacterium belongs to the class alpha proteobacteria. It causes zoonotic disease brucellosis to wide range of animals. Brucella species are highly conserved in nucleotide level. Here, we employed a comparative genomics approach to examine the role of homologous recombination and positive selection in the evolution of Brucella. For the analysis, we have selected 19 complete genomes from 8 species of Brucella. Among the 1599 core genome predicted, 24 genes were showing signals of recombination but no significant breakpoint was found. The analysis revealed that recombination events are less frequent and the impact of recombination occurred is negligible on the evolution of Brucella. This leads to the view that Brucella is clonally evolved. On other hand, 56 genes (3.5 % of core genome) were showing signals of positive selection. Results suggest that natural selection plays an important role in the evolution of Brucella. Some of the genes that are responsible for the pathogenesis of Brucella were found positively selected, presumably due to their role in avoidance of the host immune system. PMID:26543263

  15. Whole Genome Sequences of Four Brucella Strains ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Jiabo; Pan, Yuanlong; Jiang, Hai; Cheng, Junsheng; Liu, Taotao; Qin, Nan; Yi YANG; Cui, Buyun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Cuihua; Mao, Kairong; Zhu, Baoli

    2011-01-01

    Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis are intracellular pathogens of livestock and humans. Here we report four genome sequences, those of the virulent strain B. melitensis M28-12 and vaccine strains B. melitensis M5 and M111 and B. suis S2, which show different virulences and pathogenicities, which will help to design a more effective brucellosis vaccine.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp. serological reagents. (a)...

  17. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucella Abortus Vaccine. 113.65 Section 113.65 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.65 Brucella...

  18. The use of green fluorescent protein as a marker for Brucella vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Melissa; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Grilló, María Jesús; Moreno, Edgardo

    2011-01-10

    Brucellosis is an important malady of productive and wildlife animals and a worldwide zoonosis. The use of effective vaccines and the corresponding diagnostic tests that allow differentiating infected from vaccinated animals are essential tools to control the disease. For this, a prototype of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine expressing green fluorescent protein (S19-GFP) was constructed. The S19-GFP was readily identified under ultraviolet light by macroscopic and microscopic examination and maintained all the biochemical characteristics of the parental S19 vaccine. S19-GFP replicated ex vivo and in vivo, and protected mice against challenge with virulent B. abortus to the same extent as the isogenic S19. An immunoenzymatic assay designed to measure anti-GFP antibodies allowed the discrimination between mice vaccinated with S19-GFP and those immunized with S19. Both vaccines raised antibodies against lipopolysaccharide molecule to similar levels. This experimental model constitutes a "proof of concept" for the use of Brucella-GFP vaccines and associated diagnostic tests to distinguish vaccinated from naturally Brucella infected animals. PMID:21056079

  19. Mouse cytokine profile skewed towards Th2 in pregnancy during infection with Brucella abortus S19 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamonje, Francis O; Waihenya, Rebecca K; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngeranwa, Joseph N

    2011-04-01

    The two classes of cytokines Th1 and Th2 determine the type of immune response elicited. The Th2 immune response is associated with successful pregnancy. Brucellosis is an intracellular bacterium that elicits the Th1 response and is known to cause spontaneous abortion in mammalian species. This study sought to determine if Brucella infection causes spontaneous abortion by causing the circulating cytokine profile be Th1 dominant during pregnancy. Forty-eight Swiss white mice were used in this murine model and the S19 strain of Brucella abortus was used in as the infective agent. Pregnant mice in the test group were injected intraperitoneally with 10(5-8) CFU of Brucella and cytokine profile evaluated over the three trimesters of pregnancy. Pregnant mice in the control group were left to go through normal pregnancy and their cytokine profile evaluated over the three trimesters of pregnancy. Cytokines in serum samples were analyzed by Cytometric Bead Array. The data was analyzed using the Paired T- test and p Brucella abortus cannot cause spontaneous abortion by altering the mouse cytokine profile towards Th1 in pregnancy. Elevated IL-4 levels with corresponding suppression of IFN-γ can be used as a marker for successful pregnancy in Brucellosis. PMID:25566611

  20. Culture Positive Brucella Endocarditis in a Case of Baloon Mitral Valvotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Satyajeet K. Pawar; MV Ghorpade; Swati Aundhkar

    2011-01-01

    Brucella endocarditis is a rare condition which occurs as a focal complication in chronic brucellosis cases. We report a rare brucella endocarditis case in a RVHD patient. A 26 years old male was admitted with fever on off for almost one year. The blood culture yielded growth of Brucella melitensis after ten days of incubation. Isolated colonies were reconfirmed as Brucella species by PCR study. Patient’s serum tested positive for brucella slide agglutination test and STAT titer was 640IU. Ec...

  1. Nucleotide sequences specific to Brucella and methods for the detection of Brucella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, Paula M. (Tracy, CA); Radnedge, Lyndsay (San Mateo, CA); Andersen, Gary L. (Berkeley, CA); Ott, Linda L. (Livermore, CA); Slezak, Thomas R. (Livermore, CA); Kuczmarski, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-02-24

    Nucleotide sequences specific to Brucella that serves as a marker or signature for identification of this bacterium were identified. In addition, forward and reverse primers and hybridization probes derived from these nucleotide sequences that are used in nucleotide detection methods to detect the presence of the bacterium are disclosed.

  2. Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

    2008-05-01

    Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA variation of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Adriana; Gonçalves, Joana; Muigai, Anne W T; Pereira, Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The history of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Africa remains largely unknown. After being first introduced from the Near East, sheep gradually spread through the African continent with pastoral societies. The eastern part of Africa was important either for the first diffusion of sheep southward or for putative secondary introductions from the Arabian Peninsula or southern Asia. We analysed mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 91 domestic sheep from Kenya and found a high diversity of matrilines from the widespread haplogroup B, whereas only a single individual from haplogroup A was detected. Our phylogeography analyses of more than 500 available mitochondrial DNA sequences also identified ancestral haplotypes that were probably first introduced in Africa and are now widely distributed. Moreover, we found no evidence of an admixture between East and West African sheep. The presence of shared haplotypes in eastern and ancient southern African sheep suggests the possible southward movement of sheep along the eastern part of Africa. Finally, we found no evidence of an extensive introduction of sheep from southern Asia into Africa via the Indian Ocean trade. The overall findings on the phylogeography of East African domestic sheep set the grounds for understanding the origin and subsequent movements of sheep in Africa. The richness of maternal lineages in Kenyan breeds is of prime importance for future conservation and breeding programmes. PMID:26765790

  4. Minimal requirements for growth of Brucella suis and other Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plommet, M

    1991-10-01

    Minimal nutritional requirements and temperature limits of growth were studied in Brucella suis and, comparatively, in a few other Brucella species. In a saline basic medium including thiosulphate, ammonium sulphate and glucose with addition of 2 or 4 vitamins (nicotinic acid, thiamin and panthotenic acid, biotin), 24 out of 25 B. suis, 4/6 B. melitensis and 1/6 B. abortus strains were able to grow. Some strains, however, needed to be initially induced to grow by other ingredients, CO2, other vitamins, or amino acids, or by a prolonged incubation. In the saline basic medium without ammonium, glutamic acid and/or alanine and arginine, with or without glucose, supported the growth of all the B. suis and B. melitensis strains, except 2 which required a sulphur amino acid. Five out of 6 B. abortus strains did not grow in either medium without addition of one or several aromatic amino acids or, for one strain, aspartic acid, or valine. One strain could also be induced to grow in ammonium medium by other amino acids. In a rich medium with yeast extract, all Brucella species grew at 18 degrees C and 42.5 degrees (except one) while most B. suis (14/17) grew also at 15 degrees C and 44 degrees C, in contrast to other brucellae of which a few strains only grew at these temperatures. In saline ammonium glucose medium, yeast extract at 0.1 g/l provided all the required vitamins and amino acids for all brucellae and at 1 g/l, it even provided enough nitrogen to support growth without ammonium. Such basic saline medium with yeast extract may be advantageously used in routine Brucella culture, instead of the classic undefined peptone mediums. B. suis biovar 1 strains did not differ significantly in their minimal nutritional requirements, precluding the use of these requirements to differentiate the strains, in particular the Chinese vaccine strain S2 from the reference strain 1330 or from other strains from different parts of the world. Finally, B. suis which is endowed with a

  5. On the OVI Abundance in the Circumgalactic Medium of Low-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, Joshua; Kannan, Rahul; Werk, Jessica K; Hernquist, Lars; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mass, temperature, metal enrichment, and OVI abundance of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around $z\\sim 0.2$ galaxies of mass $10^9 M_\\odot OVI column density profile of $\\sim 0.5$ dex with each $0.5$ dex increase in stellar mass. Observed OVI column density profiles exhibit a weaker mass dependence than predicted: the simulated OVI abundance profiles are consistent with those observed for star-forming galaxies of mass $M_\\bigstar = 10^{10.5-11.5} M_\\odot$, but underpredict the observed OVI abundances by $\\gtrsim 0.8$ dex for lower-mass galaxies. We suggest that this discrepancy may be alleviated with additional heating of the abundant cool gas in low-mass halos, or with increased numerical resolution capturing turbulent/conductive mixing layers between CGM phases. Quenched galaxies of mass $M_\\b...

  6. First molecular detection of Theileria ovis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali; Hosseini Vasoukolaei Nasibeh; Yaghoobi Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Babamahmoudi Farhang; Mohtarami Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine tick infestation of domestic ruminants and their infection to ovine theileriosis in northern Iran. Methods:About 425 domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr city in northern Iran were inspected for tick infestations. Twenty tick specimens (13 females and 7 males) of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (R. sanguineus), the most common tick in the study area, were tested by PCR amplification against 18s rRNA genome of Theileria spp using specie specific primers and then the PCR products were sequenced for species identification by comparison with data base available in GenBank. Results:About 323 ticks were collected from 102 animals (88 sheep, 12 goats and 2 cattle). The prevalence of ticks infesting animals was R. sanguineus (82.35%), Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa) (0.3%), Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) (15.2%), Boophilus annulatus (B. annulatus) (1.2%), Haemaphysalis punctata (H. punctata) (0.3%) and Haemaphysalis numidiana (H. numidiana) (0.6%). Eleven (55%) tick specimens were PCR positive against genome of Theileria ovis (T. ovis). Sequence analysis of the PCR products confirmed presence of T. ovis in one R. sanguinus. Conclusions:This is the first report of tick infection to T. ovis in Iran. Due to dominant prevalence of R. sanguineus as well as its infection to T. ovis, it is postulated this tick is the main vector of ovine theileriosis in northern Iran.

  7. Investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters in small ruminants naturally infected with Babesia ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Esmaeilnejad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ovis plays an important role in causing anemia and kidney dysfunction in affected animals. There are few extensive studies about hematological and biochemical findings of small ruminants' babesiosis caused by B. ovis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on some hematological and biochemical parameters in infected small ruminants with B. ovis. A total of 280 sheep and 122 goats from 40 herds were randomly examined for the presence of B. ovis in blood samples. Of 402 samples, 67 animals (16.7% were positive for B. ovis of which 52 (18.5% were sheep and 15 (12.2% goats, respectively. The infected animals were divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1%, 2%, and 3%. As a control group, 67 uninfected animals were also selected from the same farms. With increase in parasitemia rates, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs, mean corpuscular volume (MCV and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC significantly decreased (P < 0.05, while, total leukocyte count, number of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil showed a significant increase (P < 0.05. Infected animals presented a significant elevation (P < 0.05 of total proteins and significantly lower level (P < 0.05 of albumin compared to non-infected animals. Significant elevation (P < 0.05 of BUN, creatinine, cholestrol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL level were found with parasitemia progression.

  8. Circulating strains of Brucella abortus in cattle in the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas - Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richar Ivan Rodríguez Hidalgo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, the Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas represents the largest informal market of livestock due to its strategic position in the country; thus, given the high mobility of cattle in this region, the aim of this study was to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp.. Part of the study was the isolation, biotyping and genotyping of Brucella species isolated from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines. Protocols used for isolation, biotyping and genotyping of Brucella species were selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR and HOOF-Prints techniques, respectively. In total, 656 animals from sero-positive dairy herds and from the slaughterhouse of the province were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright’s Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. From these animals, 50 animals were found sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were cultured and growth. Isolation was possible in 4 (16% and 9 (36%, respectively; and of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All 4 isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, biochemically showed a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%.

  9. Two Unusual Presentations of Childhood Brucella Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Altuğ Şen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellozis is still a common infectious disease in our country and sometimes it may be presented with uncommon clinical manifestations.Case 1: A ten years old male was presented to our clinic with complaints of malaise, weight loss, petechia, and bleeding of gums. On physical examination cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly had been detected and in complete blood count pancytopenia was found.admitted to our clinic. In bone marrow aspiration hypocellular bone marrow was seen. His Brucella agglutination test was positive at 1:1280 titer and the blood culture was positive for Brucella mellitensis. The pancytopenia was resolved after the antibiotherapy. Case 2: A nine-year-old female was referred to our clinic with tachycardia, who had the cardiac rate of 136/min. The electrocardiography showed sinusal tachycardia and echocardiography was normal, no endocarditis or pericarditis was present. She had complaints of fatigue and lassitude for the last month. Her brucella agglutination test was positive at 1:1280 titer and blood culture was negative. After antibiotherapy her symptoms regressed, cardiac rate decreased to 80-100/min. Isolated tachycardia may be the early manifestaion of brucellosis in children which has not been reported previously. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a rare cause of pancytopenia, it should be considered in differential diagnosis with pancytopenia of children. Brucellosis was known to be involved cardiovascular system, but tachycardia which was not due to fever as the only sign of disease has not been reported previously made our case very interesting. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 39-43

  10. Whole-genome analyses of speciation events in pathogenic Brucellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Comerci, Diego J. [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Tolmasky, Marcelo E. [California State University; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Vergez, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Aguero, Fernan [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Ugalde, Rodolfo A. [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Garcia, Emilio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2005-12-01

    Despite their high DNA identity and a proposal to group classical Brucella species as biovars of Brucella melitensis, the commonly recognized Brucella species can be distinguished by distinct biochemical and fatty acid characters, as well as by a marked host range (e.g., Brucella suis for swine, B. melitensis for sheep and goats, and Brucella abortus for cattle). Here we present the genome of B. abortus 2308, the virulent prototype biovar 1 strain, and its comparison to the two other human pathogenic Brucella species and to B. abortus field isolate 9-941. The global distribution of pseudogenes, deletions, and insertions supports previous indications that B. abortus and B. melitensis share a common ancestor that diverged from B. suis. With the exception of a dozen genes, the genetic complements of both B. abortus strains are identical, whereas the three species differ in gene content and pseudogenes. The pattern of species-specific gene inactivations affecting transcriptional regulators and outer membrane proteins suggests that these inactivations may play an important role in the establishment of host specificity and may have been a primary driver of speciation in the genus Brucella. Despite being nonmotile, the brucellae contain flagellum gene clusters and display species-specific flagellar gene inactivations, which lead to the putative generation of different versions of flagellum-derived structures and may contribute to differences in host specificity and virulence. Metabolic changes such as the lack of complete metabolic pathways for the synthesis of numerous compounds (e.g., glycogen, biotin, NAD, and choline) are consistent with adaptation of brucellae to an intracellular life-style.

  11. Brucella meningoencephalitis with hydrocephalus masquerading as tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwanath Sathyanarayanan; Bekur Ragini; Abdul Razak; M Mukhya prana Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    Neurobrucellosis is a rare form of localized brucellosis usually with no systemic manifestations. We report a rare case of brucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis associated with hydrocephalus. This patient had a lymphocytic predominantCSF and was initially treated with empirical anti tubercular therapy and steroids.A week later, when hisCSF culture grew Brucella species, the treatment was changed to a combination of streptomycin, doxycycline and rifampicin and the patient improved with this therapy. This case illustrates the need to consider neurobrucellosis as a close differential diagnosis of neurotuberculosis in endemic areas when the patient presents with meningo encephalitis with lymphocyticCSF.

  12. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  13. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Sonune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

  15. OVIS 2.0 user%3CU%2B2019%3Es guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Gentile, Ann C.; Brandt, James M.; Thompson, David C.; Roe, Diana C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-04-01

    This document describes how to obtain, install, use, and enjoy a better life with OVIS version 2.0. The OVIS project targets scalable, real-time analysis of very large data sets. We characterize the behaviors of elements and aggregations of elements (e.g., across space and time) in data sets in order to detect anomalous behaviors. We are particularly interested in determining anomalous behaviors that can be used as advance indicators of significant events of which notification can be made or upon which action can be taken or invoked. The OVIS open source tool (BSD license) is available for download at ovis.ca.sandia.gov. While we intend for it to support a variety of application domains, the OVIS tool was initially developed for, and continues to be primarily tuned for, the investigation of High Performance Compute (HPC) cluster system health. In this application it is intended to be both a system administrator tool for monitoring and a system engineer tool for exploring the system state in depth. OVIS 2.0 provides a variety of statistical tools for examining the behavior of elements in a cluster (e.g., nodes, racks) and associated resources (e.g., storage appliances and network switches). It calculates and reports model values and outliers relative to those models. Additionally, it provides an interactive 3D physical view in which the cluster elements can be colored by raw element values (e.g., temperatures, memory errors) or by the comparison of those values to a given model. The analysis tools and the visual display allow the user to easily determine abnormal or outlier behaviors. The OVIS project envisions the OVIS tool, when applied to compute cluster monitoring, to be used in conjunction with the scheduler or resource manager in order to enable intelligent resource utilization. For example, nodes that are deemed less healthy, that is, nodes that exhibit outlier behavior in some variable, or set of variables, that has shown to be correlated with future failure

  16. Brucella abortus S19 genome sequenced, points toward virulence genes

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech; the National Animal Disease Center in Ames, Iowa; and collaborators at 454 Life Sciences, Branford, Conn., have sequenced the genome of Brucella abortus strain S19.

  17. [The application and research advances of Brucella vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jia-Bo; Mao, Kai-Rong; Cheng, Jun-Sheng; Dai, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Yu-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Brucellosis is a crucial zoonosis caused by Brucella, which has some traits of wide hosts, great infectivity and difficulty in cure. Brucellosis caused great losses to farming and people's health. Vaccination is the main measure used to control Brucellosis, and some attenuated Brucella strains were often used as vaccines. To find more effective vaccines, Scientists are now constructing recombinant strains, DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines, as well as inducing new attenuated strains from isolations. The present applications of B. abortus strain 19 (S19) , B. melitensis Rev. 1 (Rev. 1), B. suis strain 2 (S2), B. abortus strain 45/20 (45/20) and rough strain B. abortus 51 (RB51) were discussed. And some recent research work on Brucella vaccines, such as Brucella recombinant vaccines, DNA vaccines and so on, were reviewed in this paper. PMID:17172046

  18. A History of the Development of Brucella Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Daniel Avila-Calderón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis affecting animal and human health. In the last several decades, much research has been performed to develop safer Brucella vaccines to control the disease mainly in animals. Till now, no effective human vaccine is available. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the importance of methodologies used to develop Brucella vaccines in pursuing this challenge.

  19. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaraj, Govindasamy; Chinchkar, Shankar R.; Rajendra, Lingala; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  20. Detection of Brucella abortus in Chiredzi district in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Gomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Zimbabwe caused by the genus Brucella. Brucella seroprevalence was recently reported to be high in the wildlife-livestock interface in the Chiredzi district and the neighbouring Gonarezhou National Park (GNP in Zimbabwe, and higher amongst communal cattle with an abortion history and access to grazing in GNP than amongst communal cattle with no abortion history or access to grazing in GNP. The aim of this study was to investigate Brucella species in brucellosis seropositive cattle in the Chiredzi district with access to GNP using isolation and identification. Isolation of Brucella species from whole blood (n = 18 and milk samples (n = 10 from seropositive animals with an abortion history was based on the rose Bengal test (RBT and enzyme-linked immunoassays (enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]; indirect ELISA and complement ELISA, using microbiology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Brucella abortus was cultured and identified from blood and milk collected from seropositive cows in both communal areas. The Brucella-specific 16-23S intergenic spacer (ITS PCR and multiplex AMOS-PCR assays verified the identification of the cultures. Our results confirmed that B. abortus is present in cattle on communal farms in the Chiredzi district in Zimbabwe and might cause cattle abortions. The need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on zoonotic transmission of brucellosis are recommended.

  1. Brucella alters endocytic pathway in J774 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Graciela N; Grilli, Diego J; Samartino, Luis E; Magadán, Javier; Mayorga, Luis S

    2010-01-01

    Brucella is a facultative intracellular bacterium which causes chronic infections in mammals by surviving and replicating within host cells. The putative role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the formation of the phagosome in non-professional phagocytes is supported by several research groups, but still leaves open the question of the fate of Brucella inside professional phagocytes and its resistance mechanisms therein. Macrophages are particularly important for the survival and spreading of Brucella during infection. The intracellular transport of Brucella in these cells has not been thoroughly characterized. To study the maturation process of Brucella-containing phagosomes in phagocytes, we comparatively monitored the intracellular transport of a virulent strain (2308) with two vaccine strains (S19 and RB51) in J 774 macrophages. Then, we compared the behavior of all three strains studied through transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the virulent strain not only occupies two different kinds of compartments but also alters the endocytic pathway of the cell it parasitizes, unlike what has been reported for non-professional phagocytes, like HeLa cell. Besides, differences are observed in the behavior of both Brucella abortus vaccine strains. PMID:21178473

  2. Červené vápence z lomu Branžovy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faměra, M.; Bábek, O.; Poukarová, H.; Šimíček, D.; Weiner, T.; Hladil, Jindřich

    Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2015 - (Weiner, T.; Poukarová, H.; Kumpan, T.). s. 7-8 ISBN 978-80-210-7731-7. [Moravskoslezské paleozoikum /18./. 05.02.2015, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : limestones * geology * Branžovy Quarry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8-100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from mouflon sheep (Ovis ammon) from Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of Toxoplasma gondii isolates circulating in wildlife. The mouflon (Ovis ammon) is very popular game animal, hunted for its trophy horns. Here, we report the isolation and genetic characterization of T. gondii from two mouflon from Hawaii, USA. Both sheep had antibodies titers of 1: ...

  5. On the connection between the metal-enriched intergalactic medium and galaxies: an OVI-galaxy cross-correlation study at $z < 1$

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Charles W; Tejos, Nicolas; Crighton, Neil H M; Perry, Robert; Fumagalli, Michele; Bielby, Rich; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Shanks, Tom; Liske, Jochen; Gunawardhana, Madusha L P; Bartle, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    We present new results on the auto- and cross-correlation functions of galaxies and OVI absorbers in a $\\sim 18~\\textrm{Gpc}^3$ comoving volume at $z < 1$. We use a sample of 51,296 galaxies and 140 OVI absorbers in the column density range $13 \\lesssim \\log N \\lesssim 15$ to measure two-point correlation functions in the two dimensions transverse and orthogonal to the line-of-sight $\\xi(r_{\\perp}, r_{\\parallel})$. We furthermore infer the corresponding 'real-space' correlation functions, $\\xi(r)$, by projecting $\\xi(r_{\\perp}, r_{\\parallel})$ along $r_{\\parallel}$, and assuming a power-law form, $\\xi(r) = (r / r_0)^{-\\gamma}$. Comparing the results from the absorber-galaxy cross-correlation function, $\\xi_{\\textrm{ag}}$, the galaxy auto-correlation function, $\\xi_{\\textrm{gg}}$, and the absorber auto-correlation function, $\\xi_{\\textrm{aa}}$, we constrain the statistical connection between galaxies and the metal-enriched intergalactic medium as a function of star-formation activity. We also compare these ...

  6. Correspondence Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMS is EPA's correspondence tracking and workflow management system. It scans, logs, routes, tracks, and stores incoming and outgoing correspondence in all Program...

  7. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nymo Ingebjørg H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population.

  8. Recent advances in Brucella abortus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-01-01

    Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susceptible species of animals. In this paper, we present a review of the main aspects of the vaccines that have been used in the brucellosis control over the years and the current research advances in the development of new B. abortus vaccines. PMID:26155935

  9. Recombinant Brucella abortus gene expressing immunogenic protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, J.E.; Tabatabai, L.B.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes a synthetic recombinant DNA molecule containing a DNA sequence. It comprises a gene of Brucella abortus encoding an immunogenic protein having a molecular weight of approximately 31,000 daltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, the protein having an isoelectric point around 4.9, and containing a twenty-five amino acid sequence from its amino terminal end consisting of Gln-Ala-Pro-Thr-Phe-Phe-Arg-Ile-Gly-Thr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Ala-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Ala, wherein Gln, Ala, Pro, Thr, Phe, Arg, Ile, Gly, Tyr, and Leu, respectively, represent glutamine, alanine, proline, threonine, phenylalanine, arginine, isolecuine, glycine, tyrosine, and leucine.

  10. Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae in sheep in Botucatu, State of São Paulo Epidemiologia de Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae em ovinos em Botucatu, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal factors that influence Oestrus ovis infestation in sheep were determined in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Southwestern Brazil, from April 2008 to March 2011. Two tracer lambs were monthly exposed to natural infestation by O. ovis larvae for 28 consecutive days, by grazing with a sheep flock. Tracer animals were then euthanized and the larvae of O. ovis recovered from nasal and sinus cavities. Of the 72 tracer lambs, 50% were infested with O. ovis larvae and the mean intensity of infestation per head infested was 16.8 larvae, with an average of 7.8 L1, 5.3 L2 and 3.7 L3. O. ovis larvae were present during the four seasons of the year, but the mean larval burden was significantly higher during the spring and summer months, compared to winter (P Os fatores sazonais que influenciam a infestação por larvas de Oestrus ovis, foram determinados no período de abril de 2008 a março de 2011, em ovinos criados em Botucatu, São Paulo, região Sudeste do Brasil. Mensalmente, dois cordeiros traçadores permaneceram em pastejo com um rebanho ovino durante 28 dias consecutivos, expostos à infestação natural por larvas de O. ovis. Em seguida, os cordeiros foram sacrificados, e as larvas de O. ovis recuperadas da cavidade nasal e seios frontais. Dos 72 cordeiros traçadores, 50% estavam infestados por larvas de O. ovis, com intensidade média de infestação de 16,8 larvas/cabeça infestada, com média de 7,8 L1, 5,3 L2 e 3,7 L3. As larvas de O. ovis foram recuperadas durante as quatro estações do ano, mas o número médio de larvas foi significativamente superior durante os meses de primavera e verão comparado aos meses de inverno (P < 0,05. A maior taxa de recuperação larval coincidiu com temperaturas médias entre 20 °C e 25 °C e umidade relativa do ar por volta de 70%. Os resultados sugerem que a evolução e desenvolvimento de O. ovis ocorre praticamente durante o ano inteiro, mas a infestação é mais frequente nos meses de

  11. Olematu olemine. Kulešovi efektist seoses Eisensteini juubeliga / Lauri Kärk ; tõlkinud Kaia Sisask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    1998-01-01

    Kieli "Cinachea" festivali raames peetud filmiajaloo seminari (22. aprill 1998) teeside põhjal; lisa : Lev Kulešovi elulugu ja filmograafia, tõlge Ephraim Katzi raamatust "The Film Encyclopedia". New York, 1998

  12. Controlled Correspondence Tracking

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information on external and internal correspondence addressed to the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, or Chief of Staff. Data include information...

  13. Brucella abortus ornithine lipids are dispensable outer membrane components devoid of a marked pathogen-associated molecular pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Palacios-Chaves

    Full Text Available The brucellae are α-Proteobacteria facultative intracellular parasites that cause an important zoonosis. These bacteria escape early detection by innate immunity, an ability associated to the absence of marked pathogen-associated molecular patterns in the cell envelope lipopolysaccharide, lipoproteins and flagellin. We show here that, in contrast to the outer membrane ornithine lipids (OL of other Gram negative bacteria, Brucella abortus OL lack a marked pathogen-associated molecular pattern activity. We identified two OL genes (olsB and olsA and by generating the corresponding mutants found that olsB deficient B. abortus did not synthesize OL or their lyso-OL precursors. Liposomes constructed with B. abortus OL did not trigger IL-6 or TNF-α release by macrophages whereas those constructed with Bordetella pertussis OL and the olsB mutant lipids as carriers were highly active. The OL deficiency in the olsB mutant did not promote proinflammatory responses or generated attenuation in mice. In addition, OL deficiency did not increase sensitivity to polymyxins, normal serum or complement consumption, or alter the permeability to antibiotics and dyes. Taken together, these observations indicate that OL have become dispensable in the extant brucellae and are consistent within the trend observed in α-Proteobacteria animal pathogens to reduce and eventually eliminate the envelope components susceptible of recognition by innate immunity.

  14. Erythritol triggers expression of virulence traits in Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Erik; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Eskra, Linda; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar preferentially utilized by Brucella spp. The presence of erythritol in the placentas of goats, cows, and pigs has been used to explain the localization of Brucella to these sites and the subsequent accumulation of large amounts of bacteria, eventually leading to abortion. Here we show that Brucella melitensis will also localize to an artificial site of erythritol within a mouse, providing a potential model system to study the pathogenesis of Brucella abortion. Immunohistological staining of the sites of erythritol within infected mice indicated a higher than expected proportion of extracellular bacteria. Ensuing experiments suggested intracellular B. melitensis was unable to replicate within macrophages in the presence of erythritol and that erythritol was able to reach the site of intracellular bacteria. The intracellular inhibition of growth was found to encourage the bacteria to replicate extracellularly rather than intracellularly, a particularly interesting development in Brucella pathogenesis. To determine the effect of erythritol on expression of B. melitensis genes, bacteria grown either with or without erythritol were analyzed by microarray. Two major virulence pathways were up-regulated in response to exposure to erythritol (the type IV secretion system VirB and flagellar proteins), suggesting a role for erythritol in virulence. PMID:23421980

  15. In vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis isolates to eleven antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukaides Feidias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease present in many countries worldwide, but it is rare in Europe and North America. Nevertheless brucella is included in the bacteria potentially used for bioterrorism. The aim of this study was the investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of brucella isolates from areas of the eastern Mediterranean where it has been endemic. Methods The susceptibilities of 74 Brucella melitensis isolates derived from clinical samples (57 and animal products (17 were tested in vitro. The strains originate from Crete (59, Cyprus (10, and Syria (5. MICs of tetracycline, rifampicin, streptomycin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and erythromycin were detected by E-test method. The NCCLS criteria for slow growing bacteria were considered to interpret the results. Results All the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin. Two isolates presented reduced susceptibility to rifampicin (MIC value: 1.5 mg/l and eight to SXT (MIC values: 0.75–1.5 mg/l. Erythromycin had the highest (4 mg/l MIC90value and both norfloxacin and erythromycin the highest (1.5 mg/l MIC50 value. Conclusion Brucella isolates remain susceptible in vitro to most antibiotics used for treatment of brucellosis. The establishment of a standardized antibiotic susceptibility method for Brucella spp would be useful for resistance determination in these bacteria and possible evaluation of bioterorism risks.

  16. Importance of Lipopolysaccharide and Cyclic β-1,2-Glucans in Brucella-Mammalian Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucella species are the causative agents of one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases: brucellosis. Infections by Brucella species cause major economic losses in agriculture, leading to abortions in infected animals and resulting in a severe, although rarely lethal, debilitating disease in humans. Brucella species persist as intracellular pathogens that manage to effectively evade recognition by the host's immune system. Sugar-modified components in the Brucella cell envelope play an important role in their host interaction. Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS, unlike Escherichia coli LPS, does not trigger the host's innate immune system. Brucella produces cyclic β-1,2-glucans, which are important for targeting them to their replicative niche in the endoplasmic reticulum within the host cell. This paper will focus on the role of LPS and cyclic β-1,2-glucans in Brucella-mammalian infections and discuss the use of mutants, within the biosynthesis pathway of these cell envelope structures, in vaccine development.

  17. Neutrophils exert a suppressive effect on Th1 responses to intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Martirosyan, Anna; Ordoñez-Rueda, Diana; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Lepidi, Hubert; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2013-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immunity, PMNs may also regulate events related to adaptive immunity. To investigate the influence of PMNs in the immune response during chronic bacterial infections, we explored the course of brucellosis in antibody PMN-depleted C57BL/6 mice and in neutropenic mutant Genista mouse model. We demonstrate that at later times of infection, Brucella abortus is killed more efficiently in the absence of PMNs than in their presence. The higher bacterial removal was concomitant to the: i) comparatively reduced spleen swelling; ii) augmented infiltration of epithelioid histiocytes corresponding to macrophages/dendritic cells (DCs); iii) higher recruitment of monocytes and monocyte/DCs phenotype; iv) significant activation of B and T lymphocytes, and v) increased levels of INF-γ and negligible levels of IL4 indicating a balance of Th1 over Th2 response. These results reveal that PMNs have an unexpected influence in dampening the immune response against intracellular Brucella infection and strengthen the notion that PMNs actively participate in regulatory circuits shaping both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:23458832

  18. The influence of gamma-radiation on cysticerci T.ovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of γ-radiation (0.2 to 2 kGy) on T. ovis custicerci has been studied. Irradiation of flesh peaces invaded with T. ovis with dose ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 kGy does not affect the viability of cysticerci; the doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 kGy does not affect the viability of cysticerci; the doses of 1.4 to 1.8 kGy have a minor effect, and the dose of 2 kGy produces a 100-per cent effect on the viability and invasive capacity of cysticerci. This effect of radiation is not influenced by the volume of the muscular flesh mass exposed, age and localization of cysticerci. With lower doses, the radiation effect is manifested 15-20 days following irradiation

  19. Darwin's Irish correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    DEARCE, MIGUEL

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Searches of Darwin?s correspondence show that some 160 letters crossed between him and naturalists and others with an Irish address. While few in number, compared to Darwin?s 14,000 other known letters, some of this correspondence provoked frequent exchanges between Darwin and his closest collaborators, occasionally leading to amendments to The origin of species or becoming material for Darwin?s other publications. The absence of Darwin references in the contemporaneo...

  20. Conservation genetics in Chinese sheep: diversity of fourteen indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    E, Guang‐Xin; Zhong, Tao; Ma, Yue‐Hui; Gao, Hui‐Jiang; He, Jian‐Ning; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong‐Ju; Zhang, Jia‐Hua; Huang, Yong‐Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has been an economically and culturally important farm animal species since its domestication around the world. A wide array of sheep breeds with abundant phenotypic diversity exists including domestication and selection as well as the indigenous breeds may harbor specific features as a result of adaptation to their environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the population structure of indigenous sheep in a large geographic location of...

  1. Hematologic and Clinical Aspects of Experimental Ovine Anaplasmosis Caused by Anaplasma Ovis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gharabaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplasma ovis infections can cause clinical symptoms in acute phase and lead to huge economic losses in flocks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological and parasito­logical changes in experimental anaplasmosis in sheep with Iranian strain of A. ovis.Method: Five male sheep without any blood parasite infection were selected. One hundred ml hepari­nized blood was collected from splenectomised sheep that showed 6% A. ovis parasitemia. Inocu­lums of 20 ml blood were administered intravenously to each test animal. Hematological, parasito­logical and clinical changes of experimental anaplasmosis were studied in 0-38 days post infec­tion.Result: Parasitemia was detected 3 days post infection and reached its maximum level on the day 12 of experiment in test animals. Then the parasitemia was declined, but the organism could be found persistently until the last day of study. The red cell counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentra­tion were decreased and mean corpuscular volume was increased significantly during the infection period. Reticulocytosis and basophilic stippling were also detected. No significant changes were observed in total and differential leukocyte count and animal body temperature.Conclusion: Experimental A. ovis infection in sheep resulted in marked normocytic normochromic anemia at the beginning of the infection which became macrocytic normochromic by the develop­ment of the disease. There were negative correlations between parasitemia and RBC, PCV and Hb values, therefore hematological assessment can be considered as a practical diagnostic tool in ovine anaplasmosis.

  2. Evaluation of an Inhouse Rapid ELISA Test for Detection of Giardia in Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-01-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent sheddin...

  3. External Ophthalmomyiasis Presenting to an Emergency Department: Corneal Findings as a Sign of Oestrus ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhossein, Yaghoubi; Behrouz, Heydari

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to determine the frequency of opthalmyomyiasis externa and the ocular findings of disease in Southern Khorasan. Methods All patients referred to the emergency department of Valiaser hospital during the year 2011 with external ophthalmomyiasis were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis was made according to clinical findings and the presence of Oestrus ovis larvae. Results There were 18 cases of external ophthalmomyiasis in the emergency dep...

  4. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella. PMID:25011712

  5. NIHAO VIII: Circum-galactic medium and outflows - The puzzles of HI and OVI gas distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Gutcke, Thales A; Macciò, Andrea V; Wang, Liang; Dutton, Aaron A

    2016-01-01

    We study the hot and cold circum-galactic medium (CGM) of galaxies of the cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation suite NIHAO. NIHAO allows a study of how the z = 0 CGM varies across 5 orders of magnitude of stellar mass using OVI and HI as proxies for hot and cold gas. The cool Hi covering fraction and column density profiles match observations well, particularly in the inner CGM. OVI shows increasing column densities with mass, a trend seemingly echoed in the observations. As in multiple previous simulations, the OVI column densities in simulations are lower than observed and optically thick HI does not extend as far out as in observations. We make observable predictions of the bipolarity of outflows and their effect on the general shape of the CGM. Bipolar outflows can be seen out to around 40 kpc, but outside that radius, the CGM is too well mixed to detect an elongated shape. The simulated CGM is remarkably spherical even in low mass simulations. The chemical enrichment of both halo and disc gas follow e...

  6. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervás, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain. The major macroscopic lesions were a icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood samples were collected for haematological and parasitological analyses, as well as samples from various organs for histopathological examination. Infection by B. ovis was confirmed by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction test (PCR. Histopathological examination revealed tubulonephrosis associated with thickening of the basal membrane of the convoluted portions of the renal tubules (both proximal and distal, which took on an intense brownish pigmentation. These renal lesions have been described as "cloisonné" kidney. Cloisonné kidneys show uncommon coloring of the renal tubular system, associated with ferritin and hemosiderin deposits in these structures resulting from a chronic hemolitic process (hemoparasites, toxins, etc.. In our case, hemolitic phenomena are associated with infection by B. ovis. The seroprevalence of this hemoparasite in wild mouflon populations in other regions of Spain (Catalonia is up to 15%.

    [fr]
    Nous étudions un cas de rein cloisonné associé à l'infection par Babesia ovis sur un mouflon sauvage (Ovis orientalis musimon qui a été trouvé la même année dans la partie orientale de la Sierra Morena (Andalousie, Espagne. Les principales lésions macroscopiques étaient: a coloration ictérique sur les muqueuses oculaire et orale, et b coloration métallique foncée sur la partie extérieure du rein. Cette coloration foncée intense alternait avec des bandes grisâtres dans les sections du cortex rénal. Nous avons pris

  7. Neglected case of osteoarticular Brucella infection of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgancigil, Huseyin; Yayli, Guler; Oyar, Orhan

    2003-12-01

    A 49-year-old farmer had a history of recurrent knee effusion for 20 years. He did not report undergoing any diagnostic or therapeutic procedures apart from repeated aspirations of the joint fluid. After the isolation of Brucella melitensis from the joint fluid, computed tomography-guided bone biopsy was performed and histopathologic examination of the biopsy sample confirmed the diagnosis of chronic Brucella osteomyelitis. Arthroscopic synovectomy combined with antimicrobial therapy with doxycyclin, rifampicin, and ciprofloxacin for six months resulted in clinical recovery. This case indicates that brucellosis should be suspected in patients with non-specific and chronic osteoarticular symptoms, especially in endemic regions. PMID:14652892

  8. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia in Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, A; Sica, S; Zini, G; Salutari, P; Leone, G

    1995-01-01

    A case of Brucella septicemia presenting at the onset as a severe microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with coexisting dramatic hemorrhagic syndrome (severe epistaxis, gross hematuria, and skin purpura) is reported. A hemogram showed severe thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukopenia. Bone marrow morphology showed the typical features associated with Brucella infection: numerous histiocytes with signs of activation, multiple granulomata, giant cells, and hemophagocytosis. After appropriate antimicrobial therapy, the clinical and hematological status of the patient improved, and he is alive and well 1 year later with disappearance of all hematological abnormalities. PMID:7827209

  9. Brucella suis S2, brucella melitensis Rev. 1 and Brucella abortus S19 living vaccines: residual virulence and immunity induced against three Brucella species challenge strains in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosseray, N; Plommet, M

    1990-10-01

    Live attenuated Brucella suis S2 vaccine was compared to living vaccines B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 in mice. Residual virulence was estimated by ability to multiply and persist in spleen and lymph nodes. Immunogenicity was estimated by spleen counts of control and vaccinated mice challenged either with the reference B. abortus 544 strain or with virulent B. melitensis H38 and B. suis 1330 strains. S2 vaccine had lower residual virulence; expressed as 50% recovery time, persistence was 4.3 weeks, compared to 7.1 and 9.0 weeks for S19 and Rev. 1 vaccines. Immunity induced by the three vaccines was similar 45 days after vaccination. At 150 days, immunity by S19 and Rev.1 was still similar against the three challenge strains. In contrast, immunity induced by S2 had declined against the B. melitensis strain. Thus, a recall vaccination may be required for vaccination of sheep to confer a long-lasting immunity. PMID:2123586

  10. A Study of Brucella Infection in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is the most usual zoonotic disease around the world especially in the Middle East, Mediterranean and Indian sub-continent areas. This bacterium has ten species that Brucella melitensis among them recognized as the most important cause of human brucellosis. This infection transfer ways to human include of wounds, bacteria inhalation and consumption of septic dairy such as raw milk, cream and butter. Brucellosis as a systemic disease can involve more organs of patients that have symptoms such as fever, night sweating, and backache. This infection can be divided as acute, sub-acute and chronic forms according to the manner of clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: This research is a review study and conducted by reviewing of the literature, which is related to this issue and also visiting, PubMed, and other linked websites. Results: In human brucellosis domestic animals are the main natural reservoir of infection. Whenever incidence rate of this infection in domestic and wild animals is reduced on the other hand incidence rate in human also will reduce. Conclusion: Blood cultures, serological tests and molecular tests are common laboratory methods of this infection. Diminution of relapse and therapeutic failure rates are as most important aim, which is researcher’s regards.

  11. Inverse correspondence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, PJF; van de Velden, M

    2004-01-01

    In correspondence analysis (CA), rows and columns of a data matrix are depicted as points in low-dimensional space. The row and column profiles are approximated by minimizing the so-called weighted chi-squared distance between the original profiles and their approximations, see for example, [Theory

  12. Diagnostic characterization of a feral swine herd enzootically infected with Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, William C; Olsen, Steven C; Jack Wheeler, C; Bricker, Betsy J; Palmer, Mitchell V; Jensen, Allen E; Halling, Shirley M; Alt, David P

    2007-05-01

    Eighty feral swine were trapped from a herd that had been documented to be seropositive for Brucella and which had been used for Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine trials on a 7,100-hectare tract of land in South Carolina. The animals were euthanized and complete necropsies were performed. Samples were taken for histopathology, Brucella culture, and Brucella serology. Brucella was cultured from 62 (77.5%) animals. Brucella suis was isolated from 55 animals (68.8%), and all isolates were biovar 1. Brucella abortus was isolated from 28 animals (35.0%), and isolates included field strain biovar 1 (21 animals; 26.3%), vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 (8 animals, 10.0%), and vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 (6 animals, 7.5%). Males were significantly more likely to be culture positive than females (92.9% vs. 60.6%). Thirty-nine animals (48.8%) were seropositive. Males also had a significantly higher seropositivity rate than females (61.9% vs. 34.2%). The relative sensitivity rates were significantly higher for the standard tube test (44.6%) and fluorescence polarization assay (42.6%) than the card agglutination test (13.1%). Lesions consistent with Brucella infection were commonly found in the animals surveyed and included inflammatory lesions of the lymph nodes, liver, kidney, and male reproductive organs, which ranged from lymphoplasmacytic to pyogranulomatous with necrosis. This is the first report of an apparent enzootic Brucella abortus infection in a feral swine herd suggesting that feral swine may serve as a reservoir of infection for Brucella abortus as well as Brucella suis for domestic livestock. PMID:17459850

  13. Analyses of Brucella pathogenesis, host immunity, and vaccine targets using systems biology and bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun eHe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucella is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes zoonotic brucellosis in humans and various animals. Out of ten classified Brucella species, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, and B. canis are pathogenic to humans. In the past decade, the mechanisms of Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity have been extensively investigated using the cutting edge systems biology and bioinformatics approaches. This article provides a comprehensive review of the applications of Omics (including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and bioinformatics technologies for the analysis of Brucella pathogenesis, host immune responses, and vaccine targets. Based on more than 30 sequenced Brucella genomes, comparative genomics is able to identify gene variations among Brucella strains that help to explain host specificity and virulence differences among Brucella species. Diverse transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression studies have been conducted to analyze gene expression profiles of wild type Brucella strains and mutants under different laboratory conditions. High throughput Omics analyses of host responses to infections with virulent or attenuated Brucella strains have been focused on responses by mouse and cattle macrophages, bovine trophoblastic cells, mouse and boar splenocytes, and ram buffy coat. Differential serum responses in humans and rams to Brucella infections have been analyzed using high throughput serum antibody screening technology. The Vaxign reverse vaccinology has been used to predict many Brucella vaccine targets. More than 180 Brucella virulence factors and their gene interaction networks have been identified using advanced literature mining methods. The recent development of community-based Vaccine Ontology and Brucellosis Ontology provides an efficient way for Brucella data integration, exchange, and computer-assisted automated reasoning.

  14. English Business Correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯仁爱

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of economic globalization and regional integration, nations with their respective competitive advantages and disadvantages are becoming increasingly interdependent. Any country should learn how to utilize foreign resources as a source of its raw materials, a market of its finished products and an opportunity of obtaining the most advanced technology to improve its own comprehensive national strength. China has undergone more than twenty years’ reform and opening to the outside world, with China’s entry into WTO,international economic and technological cooperation and exchanges become more and more popular in China. People in business, whatever their titles are,spend a lot of time exchanging information with their foreign counterparts.Whenever there is an exchange, misunderstanding which is costly to business is likely to occur. However, appropriate business correspondence is given high evaluation and facilitates the achievement of business transaction. The competence of communicating effectively in business correspondence may bring great benefit for both the individuals and organizations.

  15. Identification of Brucella spp. isolated from human brucellosis in Malaysia using high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Zahidi, Jama'ayah; Bee Yong, Tay; Hashim, Rohaidah; Mohd Noor, Azura; Hamzah, Siti Hawa; Ahmad, Norazah

    2015-04-01

    Molecular approaches have been investigated to overcome difficulties in identification and differentiation of Brucella spp. using conventional phenotypic methods. In this study, high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis was used for rapid identification and differentiation of members of Brucella genus. A total of 41 Brucella spp. isolates from human brucellosis were subjected to HRM analysis using 4 sets of primers, which identified 40 isolates as Brucella melitensis and 1 as Brucella canis. The technique utilized low DNA concentration and was highly reproducible. The assay is shown to be a useful diagnostic tool, which can rapidly differentiate Brucella up to species level. PMID:25641125

  16. An Aerosolized Brucella spp. Challenge Model for Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    To characterize the optimal aerosol dosage of Brucella abortus strain 2308 (S2308) and B. melitensis (S16M) in a laboratory animal model of brucellosis, dosages of 10**3 to 10**10 CFU were nebulized to mice. Although tissue weights were minimally influenced, total colony-forming units (CFU) per tis...

  17. 9 CFR 113.32 - Detection of Brucella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Brucella contamination. 113.32 Section 113.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.32...

  18. Comparison of the efficacy of Brucella suis strain 2 and Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 live vaccines against a Brucella melitensis experimental infection in pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, J M; Grayon, M; Zundel, E; Lechopier, P; Olivier-Bernardin, V

    1995-02-01

    The comparative efficacy of Brucella suis strain 2 (S2) and Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 (Rev. 1) live vaccines in protecting sheep against B. melitensis infection was evaluated by clinical and bacteriological examination of ewes vaccinated conjunctivally with a dose of 1 x 10(9) c.f.u. when 4 months old and then challenged with 5 x 10(7) c.f.u. of the B. melitensis virulent strain 53H38 (H38) at the middle of the first or second pregnancy following vaccination. Animals were considered to be protected when no abortion, no excretion of the challenge strain and no infection at slaughter occurred. The percentages of protection in Rev. 1-vaccinated groups challenged during either first (80%) or second (62%) pregnancy were significantly different (p S2-vaccinated and control groups. PMID:7625115

  19. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R Brucella abortus Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga; Edith Barrantes-Valverde; Patricia Monge-Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la válvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un ree...

  20. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R Brucella abortus Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la válvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un reemplazo valvular aórtico; 4 meses después ingresó con dolor torácico que se atribuyó a una oclusión de la arteria descendente anterior, demostrada angiográficamente, por posible embolismo. En la actualidad cursa clínicamente estable con manejo médico para su cardiopatía, sin recaída infecciosa.The case of a 36-year-old patient from a rural area is presented. He came with an 8 month history of fever, myalgias, arthralgias, weight loss and lower back pain; who also had an aortic insufficiency murmur detected. The diagnosis of aortic valve endocarditis was made by echocardiography, and had 4 positive blood cultures for Brucella abortus biotype 3, and negative serologic test for brucellosis. He was started on antibiotics and later on underwent aortic valve replacement, with a late coronary cardioembolism as a complication.

  1. MLVA Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus Isolates from Different Animal Species and Humans and Identification of Brucella suis Vaccine Strain S2 from Cattle in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Jiang; Heng Wang; Liqing Xu; Guiying Hu; Junying Ma; Pei Xiao; Weixing Fan; Dongdong Di; Guozhong Tian; Mengguang Fan; Jingchuan Mi; Ruiping Yu; Litao Song; Hongyan Zhao; Dongri Piao

    2013-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3) is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals wer...

  2. Identification of Bacterial Species Associated with the Sheep Scab Mite (Psoroptes ovis) by Using Amplified Genes Coding for 16S rRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, J.C.; Lehane, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis.

  3. [A meningitis case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsen, Hasan; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasim; Irmak, Hasan; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2008-10-01

    Turkey is located at an endemic area for brusellosis and tuberculosis which are both important public health problems. Meningitis caused by Brucella and Mycobacterium spp. may be confused since the clinical and laboratory findings are similar. In this report, a meningitis case with Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection has been presented. A 19-years-old woman was admitted to our clinic with severe headache, fever, vomiting, meningeal irritation symptoms, confusion and diplopia. The patient was initially diagnosed as Brucella meningitis based on her history (stockbreeding, consuming raw milk products, clinical symptoms concordant to brucellosis lasting for 4-5 months), physical examination and laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/80 titer in CSF and at 1/640 titer in serum, whereas no growth of Brucella spp. was detected in CSF and blood cultures. Antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone, rifampicin and doxycyclin was started, however, there was no clinical improvement and agitation and confusion of the patient continued by the end of second day of treatment. Repeated CSF examination yielded acid-fast bacteria. The patient was then diagnosed as meningitis with double etiology and the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone, streptomycin, morphozinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid for thirty days. Tuberculosis meningitis was confirmed with the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the 14th day of cultivation (BACTEC, Becton Dickinson, USA) of the CSF sample. On the 30th day of treatment she was discharged on anti-tuberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin for 12 months. The follow-up of the patient on the first and third months of treatment revealed clinical and laboratory improvement. Since this was a rare case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection, this report emphasizes that such co-infections should be kept in mind especially in the endemic areas for tuberculosis and brucellosis

  4. Genotyping of Brucella species using clade specific SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Jeffrey T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a worldwide disease of mammals caused by Alphaproteobacteria in the genus Brucella. The genus is genetically monomorphic, requiring extensive genotyping to differentiate isolates. We utilized two different genotyping strategies to characterize isolates. First, we developed a microarray-based assay based on 1000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were identified from whole genome comparisons of two B. abortus isolates , one B. melitensis, and one B. suis. We then genotyped a diverse collection of 85 Brucella strains at these SNP loci and generated a phylogenetic tree of relationships. Second, we developed a selective primer-extension assay system using capillary electrophoresis that targeted 17 high value SNPs across 8 major branches of the phylogeny and determined their genotypes in a large collection ( n = 340 of diverse isolates. Results Our 1000 SNP microarray readily distinguished B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis, differentiating B. melitensis and B. suis into two clades each. Brucella abortus was divided into four major clades. Our capillary-based SNP genotyping confirmed all major branches from the microarray assay and assigned all samples to defined lineages. Isolates from these lineages and closely related isolates, among the most commonly encountered lineages worldwide, can now be quickly and easily identified and genetically characterized. Conclusions We have identified clade-specific SNPs in Brucella that can be used for rapid assignment into major groups below the species level in the three main Brucella species. Our assays represent SNP genotyping approaches that can reliably determine the evolutionary relationships of bacterial isolates without the need for whole genome sequencing of all isolates.

  5. Culture Positive Brucella Endocarditis in a Case of Baloon Mitral Valvotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajeet K. Pawar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucella endocarditis is a rare condition which occurs as a focal complication in chronic brucellosis cases. We report a rare brucella endocarditis case in a RVHD patient. A 26 years old male was admitted with fever on off for almost one year. The blood culture yielded growth of Brucella melitensis after ten days of incubation. Isolated colonies were reconfirmed as Brucella species by PCR study. Patient’s serum tested positive for brucella slide agglutination test and STAT titer was 640IU. Echocardiography showed vegetation on mitral valve. Patient was treated with both medical and surgical intervention. After chemotherapy, patient’s blood culture was sterile, slide agglutination & STAT (40IU were negative. Repeat echocardiography showed no fresh vegetation. Considering high mortality rate (80% in Brucella endocarditis, it is very important for clinicians to suspect it. Prompt antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention is life saving in fatal cases.

  6. Protective role of antibodies induced by Brucella melitensis B115 against B. melitensis and Brucella abortus infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adone, Rosanna; Francia, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Pesciaroli, Michele; Pasquali, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that antibodies specific for O-PS antigen of Brucella smooth strains are involved in the protective immunity of brucellosis. Since the rough strain Brucella melitensis B115 was able to protect mice against wild Brucella strains brucellosis despite the lack of anti-OPS antibodies, in this study we evaluated the biological significance of antibodies induced by this strain, directed to antigens other than O-PS, passively tranferred to untreated mice prior to infection with Brucella abortus 2308 and B. melitensis 16M virulent strains. The protective ability of specific antisera collected from mice vaccinated with B. melitensis B115, B. abortus RB51 and B. abortus S19 strains was compared. The results indicated that antibodies induced by B115 were able to confer a satisfactory protection, especially against B. abortus 2308, similar to that conferred by the antiserum S19, while the RB51 antiserum was ineffective. These findings suggest that antibodies induced by B115 could act as opsonins as well as antibodies anti-O-PS, thus triggering more efficient internalization and degradation of bacteria within phagocytes. This is the first study assessing the efficacy of antibodies directed to antigens other than O-PS in the course of brucellosis infection. PMID:22521283

  7. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers. PMID:26093199

  8. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity

  9. Evaluation of the effects of erythritol on gene expression in Brucella abortus

    OpenAIRE

    María Cruz Rodríguez; Cristina Viadas; Asunción Seoane; Félix Javier Sangari; Ignacio López-Goñi; Juan María García-Lobo

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella have the unusual capability to catabolize erythritol and this property has been associated with their virulence mainly because of the presence of erythritol in bovine foetal tissues and because the attenuated S19 vaccine strain is the only Brucella strain unable to oxydize erythritol. In this work we have analyzed the transcriptional changes produced in Brucella by erythritol by means of two high throughput approaches: RNA hybridization against a microarray cont...

  10. Mutant Brucella abortus Membrane Fusogenic Protein Induces Protection against Challenge Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V.; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-01-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In t...

  11. Virulent Brucella abortus Prevents Lysosome Fusion and Is Distributed within Autophagosome-Like Compartments

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Moreno, Edgardo; Sanguedolce, Veronique; Mege, Jean-Louis; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Virulent and attenuated Brucella abortus strains attach to and penetrate nonprofessional phagocytic HeLa cells. Compared to pathogenic Brucella, the attenuated strain 19 hardly replicates within cells. The majority of the strain 19 bacteria colocalized with the lysosome marker cathepsin D, suggesting that Brucella-containing phagosomes had fused with lysosomes, in which they may have degraded. The virulent bacteria prevented lysosome-phagosome fusion and were found distributed in the perinucl...

  12. In vitro assay for the anti-Brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-07-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50-400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study. PMID:20593515

  13. Population dynamics in echinococcosis and cysticercosis: economic assessment of control strategies for Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia ovis and T. hydatigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, J R; Roberts, M G; Gemmell, M A; Best, S J

    1988-08-01

    An official control programme against Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena has been in operation in New Zealand for more than 28 years and against Taenia ovis for more than 18 years. This unique effort to control three metazoan parasites at the same time has led to a change from endemic to extinction status for E. granulosus but only a change from hyperendemic to endemic status for T. hydatigena and T. ovis. This has presented problems in determining the most cost-effective future control strategies. To facilitate this, a benefit/cost analysis of 20 options for the combined control of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and T. ovis in New Zealand was undertaken. This showed that for E. granulosus a future change from the current non-targeted to a targeted approach is strongly indicated. For T. ovis 6 options were cost-effective using a discount rate of 10%. These were (1) a targeted control package using a vaccine in the non-targeted attack phase; (2) a targeted control package using a larvicide in the attack phase; (3) the transfer of all losses due to and responsibility for the control of T. ovis to the producer who administers a larvicide to sheep to be killed for dog food; (4) the transfer of all losses due to and responsibility for the control of T. ovis to the producer who administers praziquantel every 6 weeks to dogs; (5) and (6) two options involving the discontinuation of control. Control of T. hydatigena was assumed to be an incidental outcome of the policies for the other two parasites. PMID:3140196

  14. Molecular cloning, purification and immunogenicity of recombinant Brucella abortus 544 malate dehydrogenase protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Kim, Suk

    2016-03-01

    The Brucella mdh gene was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant malate dehydrogenase protein (rMDH) was reactive to Brucella-positive bovine serum in the early stage, but not reactive in the middle or late stage, and was reactive to Brucella-positive mouse serum in the late stage, but not in the early or middle stage of infection. In addition, rMDH did not react with Brucella-negative bovine or mouse sera. These results suggest that rMDH has the potential for use as a specific antigen in serological diagnosis for early detection of bovine brucellosis. PMID:27051349

  15. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    OpenAIRE

    T. Meintjies; L. J. Fourie; I.G. Horak

    2002-01-01

    Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of th...

  16. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  17. Acute Brucella Hepatitis in an Urban Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man was referred to our center because of low grade fever, vomiting, yellow sclera, and tenderness in the upper-right quadrant of his abdomen. Laboratory tests showed a white blood cell (WBC of 7100/µL, a platelet of 184,000/µL, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR of 4 mm/h, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT of 525 U/L, an aspartate aminotransferase AST of 142 U/L, a total bilirubin level of 4.23 mg/dL, and a direct bilirubin level of 3.16 mg/dL. Viral hepatitis markers, immunoglobuline M antibody to cytomegalovirus (anti-CMV IgM, Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV IgM, and immunologic markers of autoimmune hepatitis were negative. The patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis. Alkaline phosphatase was in the normal range throughout the course of the disease. Because of the patient's occupation as a butcher and his history of eating semi-cooked sheep testes, serologic tests of brucellosis were conducted; the tests came out positive. We were concerned about the hepatotoxicity of standard regimens; therefore, we started treatment with streptomycin and ciprofloxacin regimens. Although liver enzyme had fallen and fever discontinued, the total and direct bilirubin concentrations in the patient's serum both increased in spite of using 2 weeks of the abovementioned drug regimen. The elevation of bilirubin could have been due to drug hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, a regimen containing ciprofloxacin may have not have been efficient enough and may have had effects on the direct bilirubin concentration. Fortunately, within 8 weeks, progressive recovery was noticed. Brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever and hepatitis for those who live in endemic areas, especially if his/her job was at high risk for acquiring brucellosis. We recommend taking a careful occupational and behavioral history for patients with acute hepatitis syndrome. We assumed that ciprofloxacin was not suitable for brucella hepatitis treatment and

  18. Immunization of Mice with Recombinant Protein CobB or AsnC Confers Protection against Brucella abortus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Simei Fu; Jie Xu; Xianbo Li; Yongfei Xie; Yefeng Qiu; Xinying Du; Shuang Yu; Yaoxia Bai; Yanfen Chen; Tongkun Wang; Zhoujia Wang; Yaqing Yu; Guangneng Peng; Kehe Huang; Liuyu Huang

    2012-01-01

    Due to drawbacks of live attenuated vaccines, much more attention has been focused on screening of Brucella protective antigens as subunit vaccine candidates. Brucella is a facultative intracellular bacterium and cell mediated immunity plays essential roles for protection against Brucella infection. Identification of Brucella antigens that present T-cell epitopes to the host could enable development of such vaccines. In this study, 45 proven or putative pathogenesis-associated factors of Bruc...

  19. Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress that affects intracellular replication in goat trophoblast cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangguo eWang; pengfei elin; yang eli; caixia exiang; yanlong eyin; zhi echen; yue edu; dong ezhou; yaping ejin; Aihua eWang

    2016-01-01

    Brucella has been reported to impair placental trophoblasts, a cellular target where Brucella efficiently replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ultimately trigger abortion in pregnant animals. However, the precise effects of Brucella on trophoblast cells remain unclear. Here, we describe the infection and replication of Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 (B.suis.S2) in goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) and the cellular and molecular responses induced in vitro. Our studies...

  20. Brucella suis vaccine strain S2-infected immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell lines induce non-apoptotic ER-stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, PengFei; Yin, Yanlong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lei, Lanjie; Zhou, Xudong; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Brucella, which is regarded as an intracellular pathogen responsible for a zoonotic disease called brucellosis, survives and proliferates within several types of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Brucella infects not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, inducing abortion and infertility. Therefore, the interaction between uterine cells and Brucella is important for understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we describe the Brucella...

  1. Brucella suis Vaccine Strain 2 Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress that Affects Intracellular Replication in Goat Trophoblast Cells In vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, PengFei; Li, Yang; Xiang, Caixia; Yin, Yanlong; Chen, Zhi; Du, Yue; Zhou, dong; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Brucella has been reported to impair placental trophoblasts, a cellular target where Brucella efficiently replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ultimately trigger abortion in pregnant animals. However, the precise effects of Brucella on trophoblast cells remain unclear. Here, we describe the infection and replication of Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 (B.suis.S2) in goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) and the cellular and molecular responses induced in vitro. Our studies...

  2. Perversely categorified Lagrangian correspondences

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, Lino

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we construct a 2-category of Lagrangians in a fixed shifted symplectic derived stack S. Objects, 1-morphisms and 2-morphisms are all given by Lagrangians living on various fiber products and composition is given by composition of Lagrangian correspondences. A special case of this gives a 2-category of n-shifted symplectic derived stacks Symp^n. This is a 2-category version of Weinstein's symplectic category in the setting of shifted symplectic (algebraic) geometry. We introduce another 2-category Symp^{or} of 0-shifted symplectic derived stacks and the morphisms in Symp^0 enhanced with orientation data. Using this, we define a partially linearized 2-category LSymp. Joyce et. al. defined a certain perverse sheaf living on any oriented (-1)-shifted symplectic derived stack. In LSymp, the 2-morphisms in Symp^{or} are replaced by the cohomology of the perverse sheaf assigned to (-1)-shifted symplectic derived Lagrangian intersections. For each fixed 0-shifted symplectic derived stack X, the morph...

  3. Differences in two-component signal transduction proteins among the genus Brucella: implications for host preference and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binnewies, Tim Terence; Ussery, David; Lavín, JL;

    2010-01-01

    . anthropi lacks orthologs of the Brucella TCSs NodVW, TceSR and TcfSR, suggesting that these TCS proteins could be necessary for the adaptation of Brucella as an intracellular pathogen. This genomic analysis revealed the presence of a differential distribution of TCS pseudogenes among Brucella species...

  4. Prediction of T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluation of their protective role in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afley, Prachiti; Dohre, Sudhir K; Prasad, G B K S; Kumar, Subodh

    2015-09-01

    Brucellae are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause an important zoonotic disease called brucellosis. The animal vaccines are available but have disadvantage of causing abortions in a proportion of pregnant animals. The animal vaccines are also pathogenic to humans. Recent trend in vaccine design has shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are safe and specific. In this study, efforts were made to identify MHC-I- and MHC-II-restricted T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluate their vaccine potential in mice. The peptides were designed using online available immunoinformatics tools, and five MHC-I- and one MHC-II-restricted T cell peptides were selected on the basis of their ability to produce interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in in vivo studies. The selected peptides were co-administered with poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with peptides either entrapped in PLG microparticles (EPLG-Pep) or adsorbed on PLG particles (APLG-Pep) showed significantly higher splenocyte proliferation and IFN-γ generation to all selected peptides than the mice immunized with corresponding irrelevant peptides formulated PLG microparticles or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A significant protection compared to PBS control was also observed in EPLG-Pep and APLG-Pep groups. A plasmid DNA vaccine construct (pVaxPep) for peptides encoding DNA sequences was generated and injected to mice by in vivo electroporation. Significant protection was observed (1.66 protection units) when compared with PBS and empty vector control group animals. Overall, the MHC-I and MHC-II peptides identified in this study are immunogenic and protective in mouse model and support the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine for brucellosis. PMID:26150246

  5. Prevalence and intensity of Oestrus ovis in Akkaraman sheep in the Konya region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, U; Dik, B

    2006-09-01

    Slaughterhouse surveys to determine the prevalence and intensity of larval Oestrus ovis Linnaeus (Diptera: Oestridae) in sheep, were conducted monthly for 1 year in Konya, Turkey. A total of 624 sheep, selected at random, were examined and 59% were found to be infested by O. ovis. A total of 8801 larvae were collected, of which 68.9% were first-stage, 19.1% second-stage and 12% third-stage larvae. All three larval stadia were seen in each month of the year. The larval intensity for infected sheep was 23.9, with 16.48 L(1), 4.55 L(2) and 2.87 L(3). The monthly prevalence ranged from 34.6% in January to 76.9% in October. The largest number of larvae (180) was obtained from a sheep in August (122 L(1), 52 L(2) and 6 L(3)). The infestation rate was higher in 4 - 6-year-old sheep, at 72.6%. The infestation rates were 64.4% in female and 47.5% in male sheep. PMID:17044888

  6. Anti-Brucella Antibodies in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeli H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Brucellosis is a zoonosis that can affect all the systems and organs in the body. Although brucellae have been recovered from the urine of patients with brucellosis, renal involvement appears to be uncommon. In this study, anti brucella antibodies were investigated among hemodialysis patients of Qom. Material & methods: Blood samples were obtained from 200 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Kamkar Hospital, Qom city. All serum samples were tested by rose Bengal initially. Positive Samples in this test were examined by writing tests, 2 mercaptoethanol (2-ME and Coombs. Results: In this study, the Rose Bengal test of 6 patients (3 male and 3 female of these 200 patients, were positive. Wright and Coombs test was positive for 5 patients. Conclusion: Considering the significant prevalence of the disease in the country, especially in endemic areas, it is suggested further research in this area continues.

  7. BRUCELLA ENDOCARDITIS IN IRANIAN PATIENTS: COMBINED MEDICAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nematipour

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella endocarditis is a Tare but serious complication ofbrucellosis and is the main cause of death reuuedto thisdisease: Itis not rare in the endemic areas and aaualiy accounts for up to 8~lO% ofendocarditis infections: We report seven adult cases of brucella endocarditis in lmam-Khorneini Hospual: Contrary to previous independent reports, female patients were not rare in this study and accountedfor three out ofseven. Four patients were cared for by combined medical and surgical treatment and were recovered Three of the patients that did not receive the combined theraPl could not he saved This report confirms the necessity of prompt combined medical and surgical treatment ofbrucella endocarditis.

  8. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Differentiate the Antibody Responses of Animals Infected with Brucella Species from Those of Animals Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9

    OpenAIRE

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  9. In Vitro Activities of Six New Fluoroquinolones against Brucella melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillano-Martín, Ignacio; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martínez, Isaías Montes; Fresnadillo, María José; García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Rodríguez, JoséÁngel

    1999-01-01

    We have tested the in vitro activities of eight fluoroquinolones against 160 Brucella melitensis strains. The most active was sitafloxacin (MIC at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 0.12 μg/ml). In decreasing order, the activities (MIC90s) of the rest of the tested fluoroquinolones were as follows: levofloxacin, 0.5 μg/ml; ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin, and moxifloxacin, 1 μg/ml; and ofloxacin, grepafloxacin, and gatifloxacin, 2 μg/ml.

  10. The comparison of Brucella gel agglutination test with other Brucella tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mine Turhanoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the sensitivity of diagnostic tests in patients with a preliminary diagnosis of brucellosis. Methods: We have compared the serological methods, standard tube agglutination test (STA, Coombs Test (CT, Rose Bengal (RBT, and the gel centrifugation test. In patients with a preliminary diagnosis of brucellosis, subjects with a positive test result of RBT has been included in the research and other diagnostic tests STA, CT and Coombs Gel centrifugation tests were performed within the range of same titration. Results: Total 132 patient’s serums were studied. In RBT positive 92 patients’ serums, negative test results were found in 11 with STA, in 9 with CT and in 6 with gel test. While 35 patients were identified to be positive by using Brucella gel test at 1/5120 titer, no positive test results were seen with STA and CT at the same titer. Generally, CT results were one titration below the gel centrifugation test results. Conclusion: In conclusion, RBT and STA were not always adequate to determine the diagnosis of brucellosis. Low titer STA results should be supported by tests such as CT or gel centrifugation and the seroconversion must be monitored. Due to giving fast results, gel centrifugation test can be preferred in diagnosis of Brucellosis.

  11. The Effects of Babesiosis on Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Anatolian Black Goats Naturally Infected with Babesia ovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Kucukkurt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediate produced during an inflammatory response is the important part of host-defense strategies of organisms to kill the parasite. However, it is not well known whether these intermediates cause DNA damage and oxidative stress in goats infected with Babesia ovis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of babesiosis on basal levels of DNA damage and oxidative status of goats naturally infected with B.ovis.DNA damage and antioxidant parameters were determined in B. ovis infected goats. Ten infected Anatolian Black Goats with B. ovis diagnosed via clinical signs and microscopic findings and ten healthy were used in the study.The Babesia infection increased the levels of DNA damage, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl content (PCO and plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NOx, and decreased total antioxidant activities (AOA and reduced glutathione (GSH. A significant positive correlation between DNA damage, MDA, PCO, and NOx concentrations was found in the infected goats. DNA damage showed a negative association with AOA and GSH concentrations in the infected goats.The Babesia infection increases oxidative stress markers and DNA damage and decreases AOA in goats. These results suggest that the increases in the production of free radicals due to Babesia infection not only contribute to host-defense strategies of organisms to kill the parasite but also induce oxidative damage in other cells.

  12. Genotipos de aislados de campo de Brucella abortus de distintas regiones geográficas de Chile Genotypes of Brucella abortus field isolates from different geographical regions of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mancilla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis bovina es una enfermedad zoonótica, endémica de alto impacto económico. La identificación genética de las cepas prevalentes de Brucella abortus, el patógeno, es clave para establecer estrategias epidemiológicas de control de la enfermedad. La secuencia de inserción IS711 ha sido utilizada como un marcador genético para diferenciar entre especies de Brucella, miembros de una misma especie y dentro de un mismo biovar. Hemos analizado los perfiles de IS711-RFLP de 46 aislados de B. abortus, recolectados durante el periodo 1997-2005, provenientes de 16 áreas geográficas diferentes de Chile. Todos los aislados fueron previamente identificados como B. abortus biovar 1, utilizando las técnicas convencionales. De estos, el 87% compartieron el mismo perfil de IS711-RFLP, mientras que el 8,7% correspondió al patrón de la cepa vacuna RB51. En este trabajo se informa el hallazgo de dos cepas indistinguibles por PCR AMOS con perfiles nuevos de IS711-RFLP, no reportados previamente.Bovine brucellosis is an endemic, zoonotic disease of high economic impact. The genetic identification of the prevalent Brucella abortus strains, the pathogen, is key to pursue further epidemiological strategies for disease control. The insertion sequence IS711 has been used as genetic marker to differentiate among Brucella species, members of the same specie and within the same biovar. We have analyzed the IS711-RFLP pattern for 46 B. abortus isolates, collected during the period of 1997-2005 from 16 different geographical areas of Chile. All isolates were previously identified by conventional techniques as B. abortus biovar 1. Of these, 87% sharedthesame IS711 DNA profile, while an 8.7 % corresponded to the pattern of RB51 vaccine strain. We report the finding of two new strains, not differentiated by AMOS PCR, which showed unreported patterns of IS711-RFLP.

  13. Evidence of Brucella sp. infection in marine mammals stranded along the coast of southern New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratea, Jennifer; Ewalt, Darla R; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence; De Guise, Sylvain; Szkudlarek, Lech; St Aubin, David J; French, Richard A

    2003-09-01

    After recent isolations of Brucella sp. from pinnipeds and cetaceans, a survey was initiated to investigate the prevalence of Brucella sp. infections and serologic evidence of exposure in marine mammals stranded along the coasts of Connecticut and Rhode Island. One hundred and nineteen serum samples from four species of cetaceans and four species of pinnipeds were collected from 1985 to 2000 and tested for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the brucellosis card test, buffered acidified plate antigen test, and rivanol test. In addition, 20 of these were necropsied between 1998 and 2000, with lymphoid and visceral tissues cultured for Brucella sp. Three of 21 (14%) harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and four of 53 (8%) harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) were seropositive. Brucella sp. was isolated from two of four (50%) harbor seals and three of nine (33%) harp seals. Of the five animals with positive cultures, two were seropositive and three seronegative. Brucella sp. was most frequently cultured from the lung and axillary, inguinal, and prescapular lymph nodes. Tissues from which Brucella sp. was isolated showed no gross or histopathologic changes. These results indicate that marine mammals stranded along the coast of southern New England can be exposed to and infected with Brucella sp. PMID:14582787

  14. Development of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification assay for detection of Brucella in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hang; Yang, Mingjuan; Zhang, Guoxia; Liu, Shiwei; Wang, Xinhui; Ke, Yuehua; Du, Xinying; Wang, Zhoujia; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay, Bruce-RPA, was developed for detection of Brucella. The assay could detect as few as 3 copies of Brucella per reaction within 20 min. Bruce-RPA represents a candidate point-of-care diagnosis assay for human brucellosis. PMID:26911890

  15. Analysis of pan-genome to identify the core genes and essential genes of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaowen; Li, Yajie; Zang, Juan; Li, Yexia; Bie, Pengfei; Lu, Yanli; Wu, Qingmin

    2016-04-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens, that cause a contagious zoonotic disease, that can result in such outcomes as abortion or sterility in susceptible animal hosts and grave, debilitating illness in humans. For deciphering the survival mechanism of Brucella spp. in vivo, 42 Brucella complete genomes from NCBI were analyzed for the pan-genome and core genome by identification of their composition and function of Brucella genomes. The results showed that the total 132,143 protein-coding genes in these genomes were divided into 5369 clusters. Among these, 1710 clusters were associated with the core genome, 1182 clusters with strain-specific genes and 2477 clusters with dispensable genomes. COG analysis indicated that 44 % of the core genes were devoted to metabolism, which were mainly responsible for energy production and conversion (COG category C), and amino acid transport and metabolism (COG category E). Meanwhile, approximately 35 % of the core genes were in positive selection. In addition, 1252 potential essential genes were predicted in the core genome by comparison with a prokaryote database of essential genes. The results suggested that the core genes in Brucella genomes are relatively conservation, and the energy and amino acid metabolism play a more important role in the process of growth and reproduction in Brucella spp. This study might help us to better understand the mechanisms of Brucella persistent infection and provide some clues for further exploring the gene modules of the intracellular survival in Brucella spp. PMID:26724943

  16. SAFETY OF REVACCINATION OF PREGNANT BISON WITH BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN RB51 DURING PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    From December of 1998 through February of 1999, a study was conducted in a Brucella-infected bison herd to evaluate the safety of booster vaccination of adult bison with 6 x 10**9 CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51), in bison which had previously been vaccinated as yearlings with 1 x 10**10 ...

  17. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH tes

  18. Oral Vaccination with Brucella melitensis WR201 Protects Mice against Intranasal Challenge with Virulent Brucella melitensis 16M

    OpenAIRE

    Izadjoo, Mina J.; Bhattacharjee, Apurba K.; Paranavitana, Chrysanthi M.; Hadfield, Ted L.; Hoover, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Human brucellosis can be acquired from infected animal tissues by ingestion, inhalation, or contamination of conjunctiva or traumatized skin by infected animal products. In addition, Brucella is recognized as a biowarfare threat agent. Although a vaccine to protect humans from natural or deliberate infection could be useful, vaccines presently used in animals are unsuitable for human use. We tested orally administered live, attenuated, purine auxotrophic B. melitensis WR201 bacteria for their...

  19. Enhancement of the Brucella AMOS PCR assay for differentiation of Brucella abortus vaccine strains S19 and RB51.

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, B J; Halling, S. M.

    1995-01-01

    Because the brucellosis eradication program uses slaughter and quarantine as control measures, it would benefit from faster methods of bacterial identification. Distinguishing vaccine strains from strains that cause infections among vaccinated herds in the field is essential. To accomplish this, our PCR-based, species-specific assay (B. J. Bricker and S. M. Halling, J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:2660-2666, 1994) was updated to identify Brucella abortus vaccine strains S19 and RB51. Three new oligonu...

  20. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Caporale; Barbara Bonfini; Elisabetta Di Giannatale; Andrea Di Provvido; Simona Forcella; Armando Giovannini; Manuela Tittarelli; Massimo Scacchia

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 250 000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150 000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) has become the official vacci...

  1. Coincidence of acute Brucella hepatitis and dengue fever or serologic cross-reactivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzeizi Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not uncommon since 10-20% of patient infected with brucella species can have abnormal liver function tests. The usual presentation of brucella hepatitis is in the form of chronic granulomatous hepatitis with mild to moderate elevation of liver enzymes, while acute hepatitis is rare. We report a young patient who presented with acute brucella-induced hepatitis and co-infection with dengue hemorrhagic virus resulting in severe elevation of liver enzymes and absence of granuloma on histology. His mother also simultaneously tested positive for both infections. The patient responded well to anti-brucella therapy with normalization of his liver profile. We discuss, herein, the hepatic involvement of these two infections and discuss the possible serological cross-reactivity between brucella and dengue fever virus.

  2. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  3. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Wang, Heng; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Guiying; Ma, Junying; Xiao, Pei; Fan, Weixing; Di, Dongdong; Tian, Guozhong; Fan, Mengguang; Mi, Jingchuan; Yu, Ruiping; Song, Litao; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Cui, Buyun

    2013-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3) is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82) belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal). The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70) were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs. PMID:24124546

  4. Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia, concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Erdős, András; Hajtós, István; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia, concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection HUNGARY (Hornok, Sandor) HUNGARY Received: 2008-08-03 Revised: 2008-10-27 Accepted: 2008-10-29

  5. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Maboni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  6. Kooperatinės bendrovės „Daržovių centras“ produktų pardavimo rėmimo strategijos formavimas

    OpenAIRE

    Pranckevičiūtė, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    The object of research – cooperative “Daržovių centras”. The subject of research – promotion and forces having influence on it. The aim of the work – to prepare promotion strategy for cooperative “Daržovių centras”. The tasks: 1) to estimate forces, influencing marketing and promotion strategy in organization; 2) to analyze theoretical aspects of promotion instrumentality and define relations between them; 3) to identify promotion strategy stages; 4) to analyze environmental forces, influenci...

  7. Molecular surveillance of Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata infection in sheep and ixodid ticks in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Razmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A molecular study was undertaken to detect Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulatain sheep and tick vectors. Investigation was conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the south of Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from 30 different sheep flocks. In addition, ixodid ticks were sampled from the same flocks. The stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of piroplasms and a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction (PCR was used for subsequent molecular speciation. Salivary glands were isolated from the ticks and subsequently analysed by semi-nested PCR. polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate between T. lestoquardi and T. annulata from PCR-positive samples. Theileria species infection was microscopically detected in 18.6% of blood smears. The presence of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi or T. annulata was detected by semi-nested PCR in 58.6% and 6.6% of blood samples respectively. In total, 169 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 155; 91.7% of the total, followed by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 8; 4.7% and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 6; 3.5%. From an organ pooling of 33 ticks, three pools of salivary glands from R. turanicus were positive for Theileria species by semi-nested PCR. Of the three R. turanicus samples testing positive for Theileria species, two (6.1% were positive for T. ovis and one (3.0% for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata. Amongst the 11 PCR-positive samples for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata, 10 were positive for T. lestoquardi and one sample was positive for both T. lestoquardi and T. annulata using PCR-RFLP. The results also demonstrated that PCR-RFLP could be used for the detection of T. ovis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that T. ovis has a higher

  8. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended. PMID:24803576

  9. Construction of pTM series plasmids for gene expression in Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingxing; Qu, Jing; Bao, Yanqing; Gao, Jianpeng; Liu, Jiameng; Wang, Shaohui; Sun, Yingjie; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, the most common widespread zoonotic disease, is caused by Brucella spp., which are facultative, intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria. With the development of molecular biology techniques, more and more virulence-associated factors have been identified in Brucella spp. A suitable plasmid system is an important tool to study virulence genes in Brucella. In this study, we constructed three constitutive replication plasmids (pTM1-Cm, pTM2-Amp, and pTM3-Km) using the replication origin (rep) region derived from the pBBR1-MCS vector. Also, a DNA fragment containing multiple cloning sites (MCSs) and a terminator sequence derived from the pCold vector were produced for complementation of the deleted genes. Besides pGH-6×His, a plasmid containing the groE promoter of Brucella spp. was constructed to express exogenous proteins in Brucella with high efficiency. Furthermore, we constructed the inducible expression plasmid pZT-6×His, containing the tetracycline-inducible promoter pzt1, which can induce expression by the addition of tetracycline in the Brucella culture medium. The constructed pTM series plasmids will play an important role in the functional investigation of Brucella spp. PMID:26851674

  10. Radiology changes in brucella spondylitis, experience with 26 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background/objective: brucellosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Middle East and despite all public health efforts it has not yet been eradicated in Iran. We aimed to highlight and categorize the imaging features of Brucella spondylitis. Material and method: twenty six cases of Brucella spondylitis were treated by the authors from 1982 up to 2003. The available imaging studies of all the cases are reviewed and include X-ray films, conventional myelography, computerized tomographic (CT Scan) and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: there were 21 male and 5 female patients with an age range of 5 to 62 years and the majority (60 %) in the 4 Th and 5 Th decades of life. Wright hemagglutination tests were positive in all cases. Plain x-ray films typically showed lysis of the end plates with osteophyte formation involving affected vertebrae, followed by narrowing of the inter spaces and destruction or collapse of the vertebral bodies in 7 cases. Myelography demonstrated various types of epidural filling defects and obstruction to the flow of contrast material in 10 cases. CT scan, available in 3 cases, showed erosion and cauliflower-like proliferation at the bony edges of the vertebral bodies and end plates. MRI findings varied depending upon the acute or chronic stages of the illness with hypo- or hyper-intense changes on T1 sequences, and primarily hyper-intense changes of T2 sequences in 8 cases. Conclusion: The findings in this series of patients suggest that imaging findings of Brucella spondylitis are scarcely specific. However when considering the medical history, place of origin of the patients, clinical presentation and laboratory findings, the early diagnosis of the illness may be possible before proceeding to surgical intervention

  11. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H.; Arias, Maykel A.; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea. PMID:26959235

  12. Isolation, purification, and partial characterization of Brucella abortus matrix protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyon, I; Berman, D T

    1983-01-01

    Peptidoglycan sacculi with peptidoglycan-associated proteins were prepared from cell envelopes of Brucella abortus by extraction with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 50 degrees C. On extraction of these preparations with SDS at 100 degrees C, a protein was obtained whose removal from peptidoglycan was confirmed by electron microscopy. Incubation of the 50 degrees C SDS-extracted cell envelopes with 50 mM MgCl2 in SDS-2-beta-mercaptoethanol at 37 degrees C also extracted the protein, along wit...

  13. Immunological response to the Brucella abortus GroEL homolog.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J.; Adams, L G; Ficht, T A

    1996-01-01

    Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of sera from cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 exhibit an elevated serologic response to Hsp62, the GroEL homolog (BaGroEL). Serologic screening of individual cows vaccinated with B. abortus S19 revealed no correlation between the immune response to BaGroEL and protection against a challenge with virulent organisms. The humoral immune response to BaGroEL was restricted to a region of the mature protein which mapped to amino acids 317 to 355 and may...

  14. Brucella canis causing infection in an HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nidia E; Maldonado, Patricia I; Kaufman, Sara; Escobar, Gabriela I; Boeri, Eduardo; Jacob, Néstor R

    2010-06-01

    From the blood culture of an HIV-positive patient with a febrile syndrome (CD4 count 385 cells/microL and viral load nondetectable), Brucella canis was isolated. The patient was presumptively infected from his dogs, which tested positive, and showed good outcome after the therapy with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin, and the HIV infection would seem not to have been influenced by brucellosis. To our knowledge, no other case of B. canis in the setting of HIV infection has been reported in the literature, and the emerging zoonotic potential of the disease in urban areas should be considered. PMID:19725766

  15. Brucella beta 1,2 cyclic glucan is an activator of human and mouse dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    A Martirosyan; Perez-Gutierrez, C. (Camino); Banchereau, R; Dutartre, H; Lecine, P.; Dullaers, M. (Melissa); Mello, M.; Pinto, S; Muller, A; Leserman, L; Levy, Y.; Zurawski, G; Zurawski, S; Moreno, E; Moriyon, I

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cyclic glucans are glucose polymers that concentrate within the periplasm of alpha-proteobacteria. These molecules are necessary to maintain the homeostasis of the cell envelope by contributing to the osmolarity of Gram negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that Brucella beta 1,2 cyclic glucans are potent activators of human and mouse dendritic cells. Dendritic cells activation by Brucella beta 1,2 cyclic glucans requires TLR4, MyD88 and TRIF, but not CD14. The Brucella cyclic glu...

  16. Vector Development for the Expression of Foreign Proteins in the Vaccine Strain Brucella abortus S19

    OpenAIRE

    Diego J Comerci; Pollevick, Guido D.; Vigliocco, Ana M.; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    1998-01-01

    A vector for the expression of foreign antigens in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 was developed by using a DNA fragment containing the regulatory sequences and the signal peptide of the Brucella bcsp31 gene. This fragment was cloned in broad-host-range plasmid pBBR4MCS, resulting in plasmid pBEV. As a reporter protein, a repetitive antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. The recombinant fusion protein is stably expressed and secreted into the Brucella periplasmic space, inducing a goo...

  17. Virulence Criteria for Brucella abortus Strains as Determined by Interferon Regulatory Factor 1-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Jinkyung; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Thomas A Ficht; Gary A Splitter

    2002-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 1-deficient (IRF-1−/−) mice infected with virulent Brucella abortus 2308 at 5 × 105 CFU developed acute hepatitis similar to many natural hosts but, unlike natural hosts, IRF-1−/− mice were unable to resolve infection and died. In contrast, IRF-1−/− mice survived when infected at 5 × 105 CFU with several attenuated Brucella strains (S19, RB51, cbp, and cyd). The survival of infected IRF-1−/− mice is likely a function of the level of virulence of each Brucella stra...

  18. Genomic comparisons of Brucella spp. and closely related bacteria using base compositional and proteome based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, Jon; Snipen, Lars; Cloeckaert, Axel; Lagesen, Karin; Ussery, David; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of bacteria within the genus Brucella has been difficult due in part to considerable genomic homogeneity between the different species and biovars, in spite of clear differences in phenotypes. Therefore, many different methods have been used to assess Brucella taxonomy...... differences could be detected between all genera included in this study using the codon and amino acid frequencies based methods. Proteome comparisons were found to be in strong accordance with current Brucella taxonomy indicating a remarkable association between gene gain or loss on one hand and mutations in...

  19. The Connection between a Lyman Limit System, a very strong OVI Absorber, and Galaxies at z~0.203

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, N; Kobulnicky, H A; Cooksey, K L; Howk, J C; Williger, G M; Cales, S L

    2008-01-01

    With a column density log N(OVI) = 14.95+/-0.05, the OVI absorber at z_abs~0.2028 observed toward the QSO PKS0312-77 (z_em=0.223) is the strongest yet detected at z<0.5. At nearly identical redshift (z_abs=0.2026), we also identify a Lyman limit system (LLS, log N(HI)=18.22). Combining FUV and NUV spectra of PKS0312-77 with optical observations of galaxies in the surrounding field (15'x32'), we present an analysis of these absorbers and their connection to galaxies. The observed OI/HI ratio and photoionization modelling of other low ions indicate the metallicity of the LLS is [Z/H]_LLS=-0.6 and that the LLS is nearly 100% photoionized. In contrast, the OVI-bearing gas is collisionally ionized at T~(3-10)x10^5 K as derived from the high-ion ratios and profile broadenings. Our galaxy survey reveals 13 (0.3

  20. Purification and characterization of an immunogenic aminopeptidase of Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Ramirez-Zavala, Bernardo; Contreras, Andrea; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lopez-Merino, Ahide

    2003-09-01

    An immunogenic aminopeptidase was purified from Brucella melitensis strain VTRM1. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation and three chromatographic steps. This procedure resulted in a yield of 29% and a 144-fold increase in specific activity. The aminopeptidase appeared to be a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 96 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.8. Its activity was optimal at pH 7.0 at 40 degrees C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA, 1,10-phenathroline, and divalent cations (Zn(2+) and Hg(2+)), suggesting that this protein was a metalloaminopeptidase. The enzyme showed preference for alanine at the N termini of aminoacyl derivatives. The K(m) values for L-alanine-p-nitroanilide (Ala-pNA) and Lys-pNA were 0.35 and 0.18 mM, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of aminopeptidase was used for a homologous search in the genomes of B. melitensis 16M and Brucella suis 1330. The analysis revealed an exact match of the probe sequence (36 bp) with an open reading frame of 2,652 bp encoding a protein predicted to be alanyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase N). Collectively, these data suggest designation of the B. melitensis enzyme as an aminopeptidase N. The aminopeptidase was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis, suggesting that the enzyme may have important diagnostic implications. PMID:12933870

  1. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Govindasamy; Chinchkar, Shankar R; Rajendra, Lingala; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2009-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards against IBR. B. abortus S19 alone and in combination with IBR vaccine gave more than 2 log protection in mice two weeks post challenge. Fluorescence polarization assay analysis with sera samples of calves vaccinated with B. abortus S19 monovalent vaccine alone and in combination with IBR vaccine revealed the presence of B. abortus antibodies. The components of the combined vaccine did not show any evidence of interference in the development of immunity. This combined vaccine may provide economical and affordable biological for the control of brucellosis and IBR. PMID:23100765

  2. Texture-Based Correspondence Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  3. Kinetic study of cytokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to Brucella DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Ardestani, Sussan K; Kariminia, Amina; Ziaee, Abed-Ali; Torkabadi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    In spite of reports on cytokines induction by the Brucella DNA in murine model, there is no comparison between pathogenic and appropriate vaccine strains in human. We investigated the cytokines profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by DNA extracted from pathogenic isolates of Brucella melitensis and B. abortus as well as Rev1 and S19; the appropriate vaccine strains. It was observed that despite differential induction of Interleukin(IL)-12 and IL-10 production, identical IL-12/IL-10 concentration ratio was obtained by all Brucella strains DNAs that was 2 after 24 h and 4 after 5 days of incubation. In addition, IL-2 and Interferon(IFN)-gamma production were profoundly increased compared to the medium at day 3 and 5 respectively but IFN-alpha was not induced. Therefore, Brucella strains DNAs are Th1 inducing component with similar pattern in human PBMCs. PMID:17008080

  4. Brucella canis: inquéritos sorológico e bacteriológico em população felina Brucella canis: serological and bacteriological surveys in the feline population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available De 134 soros de felinos domésticos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4 (3% foram positivos para Brucella canis, todos com título igual a 100. Não se obteve êxito na tentativa de isolamento de Brucella canis através de hemocultura desses animais.Of the 134 feline sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (3% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies, all with titer 100. It was not possible to isolate Brucella canis by blood culture in the case of these animals.

  5. Correspondence Education and the Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospital Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, IL.

    Based primarily on questionnaire responses from 423 hospitals in the United States, this study dealt with noncredit correspondence courses designed to upgrade hospital personnel job skills and raise job performance and/or job level. It inquired into uses of correspondence as noted in the literature; awareness and use of the method in hospitals;…

  6. Detection of Antibodies to Brucella Cytoplasmic Proteins in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurobrucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Pablo C.; Araj, George F.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis usually relies on the detection of antibodies to Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by agglutination tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to cytoplasmic proteins (CP) of Brucella spp. by ELISA and Western blotting in seven CSF samples from five patients with neurobrucellosis. While IgG to CP (titers of 200 to 12,800) and IgG to...

  7. Identification of Brucella abortus virulence proteins that modulate the host immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yufei; Chen, Zeliang; Qiu, Yefeng; Ke, Yuehua; Xu, Jie; Yuan, Xitong; Li, Xianbo; Fu, Simei; Cui, Mingquan; Xie, Yongfei; Du, Xinying; Wang, Zhoujia; Huang, Liuyu

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of almost worldwide distribution. One significant immune phenomenon of this disease is the ability of the pathogen to hide and survive in the host, establishing long lasting chronic infections. Brucella was found to have the ability to actively modulate the host immune response in order to establish chronic infections, but the mechanism by which the pathogen achieves this remains largely unknown. In our screening for protective antigens of Brucella...

  8. Brucella discriminates between mouse dendritic cell subsets upon in vitro infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Alexia; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Degos, Clara; de Chastellier, Chantal; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide re-emerging zoonosis. Brucella has been shown to infect and replicate within Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) in vitro grown bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). In this cell model, Brucella can efficiently control BMDC maturation. However, it has been shown that Brucella infection in vivo induces spleen dendritic cells (DC) migration and maturation. As DCs form a complex network composed by several subpopulations, differences observed may be due to different interactions between Brucella and DC subsets. Here, we compare Brucella interaction with several in vitro BMDC models. The present study shows that Brucella is capable of replicating in all the BMDC models tested with a high infection rate at early time points in GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs. GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs are more activated than the other studied DC models and consequently intracellular bacteria are not efficiently targeted to the ER replicative niche. Interestingly, GMCSF-DC and GMCSF-Flt3l DC response to infection is comparable. However, the key difference between these 2 models concerns IL10 secretion by GMCSF DCs observed at 48 h post-infection. IL10 secretion can explain the weak secretion of IL12p70 and TNFα in the GMCSF-DC model and the low level of maturation observed when compared to GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs. These models provide good tools to understand how Brucella induce DC maturation in vivo and may lead to new therapeutic design using DCs as cellular vaccines capable of enhancing immune response against pathogens. PMID:26606688

  9. Brucella vulpis sp. nov., isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hammerl, Jens A; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Vergnaud, Gilles; Witte, Angela; Aistleitner, Karin; Hofer, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Two slow-growing, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains F60T and F965), isolated in Austria from mandibular lymph nodes of two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. In a recent study, both isolates were assigned to the genus Brucella but could not be attributed to any of the existing species. Hence, we have analysed both strains in further detail to determine their exact taxonomic position and genetic relatedness to other members of the genus Brucella. The genome sizes of F60T and F965 were 3 236 779 and 3 237 765 bp, respectively. Each genome consisted of two chromosomes, with a DNA G+C content of 57.2 %. A genome-to-genome distance of >80 %, an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 97 % and an average amino acid identity (AAI) of 98 % compared with the type species Brucella melitensis confirmed affiliation to the genus. Remarkably, 5 % of the entire genetic information of both strains was of non-Brucella origin, including as-yet uncharacterized bacteriophages and insertion sequences as well as ABC transporters and other genes of metabolic function from various soil-living bacteria. Core-genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions placed the novel species well separated from all hitherto-described species of the genus Brucella, forming a long-branched sister clade to the classical species of Brucella. In summary, based on phenotypic and molecular data, we conclude that strains F60T and F965 are members of a novel species of the genus Brucella, for which the name Brucella vulpis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain F60T ( = BCCN 09-2T = DSM 101715T). PMID:26928956

  10. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of Brucella isolates from Egypt between 1999 and 2007 and evidence of probable rifampin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Maksoud Mohamed; House Brent; Wasfy Momtaz; Abdel-Rahman Bassem; Pimentel Guillermo; Roushdy Gehan; Dueger Erica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Brucellosis poses a significant public health problem in Mediterranean countries, including Egypt. Treatment of this disease is often empirical due to limited information on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella spp. in this region of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella blood isolates in Egypt, a country endemic for brucellosis. Methods Brucella spp. isolates were identified from the blood cultur...

  11. Effect of P39 Gene Deletion in Live Brucella Vaccine Strains on Residual Virulence and Protective Activity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor, Anne; Jacques, Isabelle; Guilloteau, Laurence; Verger, Jean-Michel; Grayon, Maggy; Wansard, Valerie; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    1998-01-01

    The 39-kilodalton protein (P39) has previously been shown to be an immunodominant protein in Brucella infections. P39 gene deletion mutants of vaccine strains Brucella abortus S19 and Brucella melitensis Rev.1 were constructed by gene replacement. This deletion did not significantly modify the residual virulence of both vaccine strains in CD-1 mice. CD-1 mice vaccinated with the parent or mutant strains were protected against a virulent challenge. Mutant vaccine strains devoid of P39 could pr...

  12. Brucella sp. antibodies in polar bears from Svalbard and the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, M; Derocher, A E; Wiig, Y; Godfroid, J

    2001-07-01

    A prevalence of 5.4% of anti-Brucella sp. antibodies was found in plasma samples from 297 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea. Plasma was tested by the classical brucellosis tests Slow Agglutination of Wright (SAW), EDTA modified SAW and Rose Bengal test, as well as by an indirect Protein A ELISA. Only samples classified as positive in all tests were regarded as containing anti-Brucella sp. antibodies. A significant west to east increase in the proportion of bears with anti-Brucella sp. antibodies was found, with 3.6% (n = 253) at Svalbard (Spitsbergen, Nordaustlandet, Edgeøya, Barentsøya and Hopen), and 15.9% (n = 44) in the central Barents Sea. Anti-Brucella sp. antibodies were previously found in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from the same geographical areas. The ringed seal is an important prey species for the Svalbard polar bear population, and may thus be a source of brucellosis for the bears. There are no indications of reproductive disorders caused by Brucella sp. or other infectious agents in our study polar bear population. Potential impacts of Brucella sp. exposure on individuals or the population are unknown. PMID:11504225

  13. Evaluation of the effects of erythritol on gene expression in Brucella abortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cruz Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Brucella have the unusual capability to catabolize erythritol and this property has been associated with their virulence mainly because of the presence of erythritol in bovine foetal tissues and because the attenuated S19 vaccine strain is the only Brucella strain unable to oxydize erythritol. In this work we have analyzed the transcriptional changes produced in Brucella by erythritol by means of two high throughput approaches: RNA hybridization against a microarray containing most of Brucella ORF's constructed from the Brucella ORFeome and next generation sequencing of Brucella mRNA in an Illumina GAIIx platform. The results obtained showed the overexpression of a group of genes, many of them in a single cluster around the ery operon, able to co-ordinately mediate the transport and degradation of erythritol into three carbon atoms intermediates that will be then converted into fructose-6P (F6P by gluconeogenesis. Other induced genes participating in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate shunt and the TCA may collaborate with the ery genes to conform an efficient degradation of sugars by this route. On the other hand, several routes of amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis are up-regulated whilst amino acid transport and catabolism genes are down-regulated. These results corroborate previous descriptions indicating that in the presence of erythritol, this sugar was used preferentially over other compounds and provides a neat explanation of the the reported stimulation of growth induced by erythritol.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of erythritol on gene expression in Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Cruz; Viadas, Cristina; Seoane, Asunción; Sangari, Félix Javier; López-Goñi, Ignacio; García-Lobo, Juan María

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella have the unusual capability to catabolize erythritol and this property has been associated with their virulence mainly because of the presence of erythritol in bovine foetal tissues and because the attenuated S19 vaccine strain is the only Brucella strain unable to oxydize erythritol. In this work we have analyzed the transcriptional changes produced in Brucella by erythritol by means of two high throughput approaches: RNA hybridization against a microarray containing most of Brucella ORF's constructed from the Brucella ORFeome and next generation sequencing of Brucella mRNA in an Illumina GAIIx platform. The results obtained showed the overexpression of a group of genes, many of them in a single cluster around the ery operon, able to co-ordinately mediate the transport and degradation of erythritol into three carbon atoms intermediates that will be then converted into fructose-6P (F6P) by gluconeogenesis. Other induced genes participating in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate shunt and the TCA may collaborate with the ery genes to conform an efficient degradation of sugars by this route. On the other hand, several routes of amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis are up-regulated whilst amino acid transport and catabolism genes are down-regulated. These results corroborate previous descriptions indicating that in the presence of erythritol, this sugar was used preferentially over other compounds and provides a neat explanation of the the reported stimulation of growth induced by erythritol. PMID:23272076

  15. Brucella abortus: inmunidad, vacunas y estrategias de prevención basadas en ácidos nucleicos Brucella abortus: immunity, vaccines and prevention strategies based on nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rivers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucelosis, enfermedad causada por la bacteria intracelular facultativa Brucella abortus, es una zoonosis ampliamente distribuida a nivel mundial que afecta principalmente al ganado bovino, causando esterilidad en machos y abortos en hembras en gestación. La resistencia depende del desarrollo de una inmunidad mediada por células, con la participación de células T CD4+ de tipo Th1, que secreten interferón gama (-INF, citosina que estimula la actividad bactericida por macrófagos y la actividad citotóxica de linfocitos T CD8+, que son capaces de matar células infectadas con Brucella. Brucella posee como componentes antigénicos importantes el lipopolisacárido (LPS y las proteínas, entre las que se destaca por su demostrada capacidad inmune la superóxido dismutasa (SOD. La prevención de la diseminación de la brucelosis se fundamenta en el desarrollo de vacunas eficientes contra B. abortus, utilizándose cepas atenuadas de Brucella abortus como la cepa 19, cepa 45/20 y la cepa RB51; vacunas subcelulares en base a antígenos que forman parte de la estructura de la bacteria y vacunas basadas en moléculas de ácidos nucleicos, como las vacunas ADN y las vacunas ARN. En la presente revisión se pretende dar una visión actualizada sobre la brucelosis, su patogenia y cuadro clínico. Se hace un análisis de las características genéticas, antigénicas e inmunológicas de Brucella. Luego, una exposición de las vacunas actualmente en uso para su prevención y los estudios con vacunas subcelulares para finalizar con las nuevas tendencias en la generación de vacunas, como las vacunas ADN y ARN para Brucella.Brucellosis, a disease caused by the intracellular facultative bacteria Brucella abortus, is a widely distributed zoonosis throughout the world, affecting mainly cattle and causing sterility in males and abortion in pregnant females. Protection against B. abortus relies on the activation of cellular immunity involving lymphocytes T CD4

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR TYPING OF BRUCELLA STRAINS CIRCULATING IN GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidamonidze, K; Ramishvili, M; Kalandadze, I; Tsereteli, D; Nikolich, M P

    2015-10-01

    In 2009-2013, 851 cases of brucellosis were registered in Georgia. Most cases of brucellosis were found in eastern Georgia (91.3% of cases). Mainly men were infected with brucellosis (81.0%).The age group with the most frequent cases of brucellosis is 30-59 years (48.5%). Brucellosis is rarely found among children(0-4 years - 2.0%, 5-14 years - 8.0%). Brucellosis cases were linked to professional activity; mainly by farmers (33.0% of those infected) and shepherds (27.0%). Biotyping Brucella by microbiological methods alone has limitations, so molecular typing was implemented in this study to confirm species. Isolates from human blood and ruminant milk or blood were identified by a bacteriological algorithm and confirmed by real-time PCR (Brucella T1, Idaho Technology). Species identity was confirmed using the AMOS conventional PCR assay, which differentiates four human pathogenic species but cannot recognize certain biovars within them. This gap was addressed by using more universal species-specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) assays. Real-time PCR was used to confirm 86 Brucella strains (48 human, 38 animal isolates) obtained 2009-2011. AMOS PCR supported the biochemical test results for 53 B. melitensis and four B. abortus strains, but not for 29 suspected B. abortus human and animal isolates. SNP typing of all 86 isolates supported the AMOS PCR results but also confirmed the species of the 29 strains not amplified by AMOS PCR. In 2009-2013 years the prevalence of brucellosis was still high. Nowadays cases of brucellosis are higher in the western part of Georgia than in the 1991-2005 period by a factor of 2.62. Brucellosis continues to be mainly an infection in males, because men are mostly engaged in sheep and cattle care. Combined AMOS PCR and SNP typing in this study provided the first genetic confirmation that both B. abortus and B. melitensis are actively circulating in humans and animals in Georgia. PMID:26483376

  17. Host Interferon-Gamma Inducible Protein Contributes to Brucella Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eRitchie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. are highly adapted intracellular pathogens of mammals that cause chronic infections while surving and replicating in host monocytes and macrophages. Although monocytes are normally susceptible to infection, pretreatment with pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon- (IFN- activates cellular defense mechanisms that increase intracellular killing of Brucella and prevents bacterial replication. We examined the contribution of the IFN- inducible GTPase, LRG-47, to B. abortus 2308 infection in in vitro and in vivo murine models. Infecting nonactivated macrophages from LRG-47-/- mice revealed that loss of this host protein negatively effected the intracellular survival and replication of IgG opsonized B. abortus. In contrast, survival and replication of non-opsonized B. abortus was the same in both C57/B6 and LRG-47-/- peritoneal macrophages. Following IFN-γ activation of LRG-47-/- monocytes, IgG opsonized B. abortus survived better than non-opsonized bacteria. Similar experiments using macrophages from BALB/c and C57/B6 mice found no difference in intracellular survival or replication between non-opsonized and IgG opsonized B. abortus in either resting or IFN-γ activated monocytes. The differential fate of opsonized and non-opsonized B. abortus was only observed in macrophages collected from LRG-47-/- mice. Given the specific nature of the relationship between this host protein and the mechanism of Brucella internalization, LRG-47-/- mice were infected with B. abortus to assess whether the loss of the lrg47 protein would affect the ability of the bacteria to colonize or persist within the host. B. abortus were able to establish and maintain similar numbers of bacteria in both C57/B6 mice and LRG-47-/- through 3 weeks post intraperitoneal infection. By nine weeks p.i. fewer B. abortus were recovered from LRG-47-/- mice than controls, suggesting that the host protein has a positive role in maintaining long term persistence of the

  18. Efficacy of amitraz plus inactivated parapoxvirus ovis in the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezci, D; Pekmezci, G Z; Guzel, M; Cenesiz, S; Gurler, A T; Gokalp, G

    2014-05-31

    Canine generalised demodicosis (CGD) is a challenging disease to treat effectively. Inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) could help to accelerate treatment with acaricidial therapy by altering the immune response. This study was designed to investigate the effects of treating CGD with amitraz plus iPPVO in terms of clinical outcomes and blood parameters. The study involved 16 dogs ranging in age from eight months to six years and weighing between 10 and 40 kg. Eight dogs were treated with amitraz and eight with amitraz plus iPPVO. Biochemical analysis of whole blood and serum, including serum C reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA), was performed. Skin scrapings were conducted on days 0, 10, 40, 80 and 120 of treatment, and mite numbers were recorded. Clinical remission was determined according to mite numbers and clinical scores. The difference in mean whole remission days between the amitraz group (104.3 days) and the amitraz+iPPVO group (84.5 days) was statistically significant (PCGD. PMID:24771532

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of insects infesting domestic sheep (ovis aries) of district toba tek singh, punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a cross-sectional prospective epidemiological survey, a total of 2412 sheep were screened for the prevalence of insects. Out of which, 333 (13.80%) were harbored for insects including lice (36.57%), fleas (3.23%) and flies (1.62%). Among the identified species of lice, Haematopinus spp. (44.14%) was predominant followed in order by Damalinia ovis (26.42%) and Linognathus spp. (17.71%). The flea Ctenocepahlides (Ct). felis was more common (4.50%) than Ct. canis (3.30%). Stomoxys calcitrans (3.90%) was the only prevalent specie of fly in the study area. Infestation rate was higher in young sheep (72.68%) as compared to adults (27.32%) and level of infestation was significantly higher in females (75.37%) than males (24.62%). Amongst various breeds of sheep, Cholistani (19.81%) had the highest prevalence followed by Kajli (13.49%), Thalli (12.94%) and Lohi (11.80%). Prevalence of flies (37%) and lice (47%) was highest in December and January, respectively; whereas,that of fleas (39%) reached a peak in April. Among various associated determinants, stall feeding, closed housing, tethered animals and non-cemented floor were found positively associated (P<0.05) with insect infestation. The results showed that insect abundance and the variety of genera were wide in this part of Pakistan. This also causes concern over the emergence of insect-borne diseases in domestic animals. (author)

  20. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Raghavan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3 with previously exposed rams (n=2. Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were ‘protective’ (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease; however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia.

  1. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Bindu; Erickson, Kayla; Kugadas, Abirami; Batra, Sai A; Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3) with previously exposed rams (n=2). Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae), with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each) acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were 'protective' (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease); however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective) titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia. PMID:27185269

  2. Exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens among Soay sheep (Ovis aries) of the St Kilda archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A L; Nussey, D H; Lloyd-Smith, J O; Longbottom, D; Maley, M; Pemberton, J M; Pilkington, J G; Prager, K C; Smith, L; Watt, K A; Wilson, K; McNEILLY, T N; Brülisauer, F

    2016-07-01

    We assessed evidence of exposure to viruses and bacteria in an unmanaged and long-isolated population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting Hirta, in the St Kilda archipelago, 65 km west of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The sheep harbour many metazoan and protozoan parasites but their exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens is unknown. We tested for herpes viral DNA in leucocytes and found that 21 of 42 tested sheep were infected with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). We also tested 750 plasma samples collected between 1997 and 2010 for evidence of exposure to seven other viral and bacterial agents common in domestic Scottish sheep. We found evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp., with overall seroprevalence of 6·5%. However, serological evidence indicated that the population had not been exposed to border disease, parainfluenza, maedi-visna, or orf viruses, nor to Chlamydia abortus. Some sheep tested positive for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) but, in the absence of retrospective faecal samples, the presence of this infection could not be confirmed. The roles of importation, the pathogen-host interaction, nematode co-infection and local transmission warrant future investigation, to elucidate the transmission ecology and fitness effects of the few viral and bacterial pathogens on Hirta. PMID:26829883

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on the virulence and the immunogenic properties of Babesia ovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was followed up of ionizing radiation of 20, 25, 30, 32, 35, 40 and 50 krad on the virulence and the immunigenic properties of B.ovis. The experiments were carried out with 22 sheep (20 test and 2 donor) according to the rate of treatment into 7 test groups with a total of 17 animals, and 1 control with 3 sheep. One month after infection with irradiated blood reinfection was carried out of 8 animals (of different groups) that had recovered, using virulent untrated blood. The titer of the antibodies in the remaining sheep was followed up by means of the complement fixation test. It was found that irradiation at 20 - 25 krad lowered the virulence of the Babesia organisms, but these could provoke the disease in an acute form and cause death. The animals that survived after being infected with the indicated doses developed a comparatively good immunity. It is considered that the most appropriate dose of irradiation is 30 krad. 32 and 35 krad do not kill Babesiae; the parasites thus irradiated, however, cannot protect the animals ar reinfection. It has been found that Babesiae irradiated at the rates of 40 and 450 krad do not cause an infection process, and at reinfection the animals respond almost in the same way as the controls. (author)

  4. Massive Warm/Hot Galaxy Coronae as Probed by OVI, OVII and OVIII Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Faerman, Yakov; McKee, Christopher F

    2016-01-01

    We construct an analytic phenomenological model for extended warm/hot gaseous coronae of L* galaxies. We aim to reproduce the column densities of highly ionized oxygen ions observed in the ultraviolet and X-ray, as evidence for warm/hot gas in a wide range of temperatures and ionization states. We consider OVI data from the COS-Halos sample of galaxies in combination with the nearby OVII and OVIII absorption that we interpret as arising in an extended corona around the Milky Way. We fit these data sets with a single representative model. The gas in our model is multiphased, with hot and warm components. Each component has a (turbulent) log-normal distribution of temperatures and densities. The hot gas is traced by the OVII and OVIII and is in hydrostatic equilibrium in a Milky Way gravitational potential. The median temperature of the hot gas is $1.8*10^6$ K and the resulting mean hydrogen density is $\\sim 5*10^{-5}~cm^{-3}$, consistent with ram-pressure stripping observed in Milky Way satellites. The warm co...

  5. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Besser, Thomas H.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating nai¨ve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  6. Oestrus ovis larval infestation among sheep and goats of Green Mountain areas in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Negm-Eldin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heads of sheep (n=180 and goats (n=120 slaughtered at four regions (Labraq, Shahat, Elbeida, and Masa of Green Mountain areas in Libya were investigated for the presence of larvae of Oestrus ovis. The animals were divided into sex and age groups. The heads were cut along longitudinal and sagittal axes, and the larvae (L1, L2, and L3 were collected. The infestation rate was significantly higher in sheep (51.66%; n=93/180 as compared to goats (28.33%; n=34/120. In sheep, the rate was higher during May (100%, while in goat, it was higher during August (70%. The incidence of L1 peaked in April (90% for sheep and October (100% for goats, while L2 reached to maximum in May for sheep (26.95% and goats (75%. L3 reached to peak in February (50% for sheep, and June (25% for goats. Mean intensity of larval burden was higher in sheep than goat, reaching to peak in June (9.1 larvae/head for sheep and March (3.5 larvae/head for goats. The infestation rate was significantly higher in males than females. The older animals were mostly affected as compared to younger animals. Highest infestation rate was recorded in Masa (45.83%, and the lowest rate was found in Labraq (40.27%. In conclusion, these findings may be used in designing the control strategies of myiasis in Libya.

  7. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested. PMID:21205445

  8. Coherence and correspondence in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Tape

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many controversies in medical science can be framed as tension between a coherence approach (which seeks logic and explanation and a correspondence approach (which emphasizes empirical correctness. In many instances, a coherence-based theory leads to an understanding of disease that is not supported by empirical evidence. Physicians and patients alike tend to favor the coherence approach even in the face of strong, contradictory correspondence evidence. Examples include the management of atrial fibrillation, treatment of acute bronchitis, and the use of Vitamin E to prevent heart disease. Despite the frequent occurrence of controversy stemming from coherence-correspondence conflicts, medical professionals are generally unaware of these terms and the philosophical traditions that underlie them. Learning about the coherence-correspondence distinction and using the best of both approaches could not only help reconcile controversy but also lead to striking advances in medical science.

  9. Valentine Wilderness Proposal Conflict Correspondence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Correspondence on the issue of grazing permits at Valentine National Wildlife Refuge in relation witht the proposed wilderness. Document also contains the Public...

  10. An ultrasensitive electrochemical genosensor for Brucella based on palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, A; Sattarahmady, N; Heli, H

    2016-10-01

    Palladium nanoparticles were potentiostatically electrodeposited on a gold surface at a highly negative potential. The nanostructure, as a transducer, was utilized to immobilize a Brucella-specific probe and the process of immobilization and hybridization was detected by electrochemical methods. The proposed method for detection of the complementary sequence and a non-complementary sequence was applied. The fabricated genosensor was evaluated for the assay of the bacteria in the cultured and human samples with and without PCR. The genosensor could detect the complementary sequence with a sensitivity of 0.02 μA dm(3) mol(-1), a linear concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-12) to 1.0 × 10(-19) mol dm(-3), and a detection limit of 2.7 × 10(-20) mol dm(-3). PMID:27423961

  11. The Differential Interaction of Brucella and Ochrobactrum with Innate Immunity Reveals Traits Related to the Evolution of Stealthy Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Quesada-Lobo, Lucía; Martirosyan, Anna; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Iriarte, Maite; Mancek-Keber, Mateja; Jerala, Roman; Gorvel, Jean Pierre; Moriyón, Ignacio; Moreno, Edgardo; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    Background During evolution, innate immunity has been tuned to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. However, some α-Proteobacteria are stealthy intracellular pathogens not readily detected by this system. Brucella members follow this strategy and are highly virulent, but other Brucellaceae like Ochrobactrum are rhizosphere inhabitants and only opportunistic pathogens. To gain insight into the emergence of the stealthy strategy, we compared these two phylogenetically close but biologically divergent bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings In contrast to Brucella abortus, Ochrobactrum anthropi did not replicate within professional and non-professional phagocytes and, whereas neutrophils had a limited action on B. abortus, they were essential to control O. anthropi infections. O. anthropi triggered proinflammatory responses markedly lower than Salmonella enterica but higher than B. abortus. In macrophages and dendritic cells, the corresponding lipopolysaccharides reproduced these grades of activation, and binding of O. anthropi lipopolysaccharide to the TLR4 co-receptor MD-2 and NF-κB induction laid between those of B. abortus and enteric bacteria lipopolysaccharides. These differences correlate with reported variations in lipopolysaccharide core sugars, sensitivity to bactericidal peptides and outer membrane permeability. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that Brucellaceae ancestors carried molecules not readily recognized by innate immunity, so that non-drastic variations led to the emergence of stealthy intracellular parasites. They also suggest that some critical envelope properties, like selective permeability, are profoundly altered upon modification of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and that this represents a further adaptation to the host. It is proposed that this adaptive trend is relevant in other intracellular α-Proteobacteria like Bartonella, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Wolbachia. PMID:19529776

  12. The gravity/CFT correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Henrique [University of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Gryb, Sean [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koslowski, Tim [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); University of New Brunswick, Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada); Mercati, Flavio [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Zaragoza (Spain); University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    General Relativity can be formulated in terms of a spatially Weyl invariant gauge theory called Shape Dynamics. Using this formulation, we establish a ''bulk/bulk'' duality between gravity and a Weyl invariant theory on spacelike Cauchy hypersurfaces. This duality has two immediate consequences: (i) it leads trivially to a corresponding ''bulk/boundary'' duality between General Relativity and a boundary CFT, and (ii) the boundary can be defined in a gauge-invariant way. Moreover, the corresponding bulk/boundary duality is sufficient to explain a large portion of the evidence in favor of gauge/gravity duality and provides independent evidence for the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)

  13. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control. PMID:27075847

  14. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Wareth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B. species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  15. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D.; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies. PMID:27144565

  16. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies. PMID:27144565

  17. Determination of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection with Babesia ovis in Small Ruminants from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Esmaeilnejad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small ruminants’ babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis, is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out to to estimate the infection rate of B. ovis in sheep and goats by PCR. We have analysed risk factors that might influence infection of sheep and goats with B. ovis.Methods: A total 402 blood samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Babesia infection. All samples were tested by PCR. During sampling, whole body of each animal and farm dogs was examined for the presence of ticks.Results: Forty-two animals (10.4% were positive for Babesia spp. upon microscopic examination, whereas 67 animals (16.7% yielded the specific DNA for B. ovis of which 52 animals were sheep and 15 animals were goats.Twenty-nine farms (72.5% were found positive for B. ovis. The percentage of positive animals in each location varied from 13 % to 20 %. The relative risk of the presence of ticks in sheep and goats (P< 0.01 and farm dogs (P< 0.01 for PCRpositive results forB. ovis in sheep and goats was found 3.8 and 2.9, respectively. A total of 747 ticks identified as Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus on the basis of morphological features.Conclusion: Other animal species besides dogs may also be risk factors for babesiosis in sheep and goats. Also, R. bursa may play an important role as a vector of the parasite in Iran.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of modern, ancient and wild sheep(Ovis gmelinii anatolica) from Turkey: new insights on the evolutionary history of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Sevgin; Koban Baştanlar, Evren; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Pişkin, Evangelia; Engin, Atilla; Ozer, Füsun; Yüncü, Eren; Doğan, Sükrü Anıl; Togan, Inci

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, to contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary history of sheep, the mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymorphisms occurring in modern Turkish native domestic (n = 628), modern wild (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) (n = 30) and ancient domestic sheep from Oylum Höyük in Kilis (n = 33) were examined comparatively with the accumulated data in the literature. The lengths (75 bp/76 bp) of the second and subsequent repeat units of the mtDNA control region (CR) sequences differentiated the five haplogroups (HPGs) observed in the domestic sheep into two genetic clusters as was already implied by other mtDNA markers: the first cluster being composed of HPGs A, B, D and the second cluster harboring HPGs C, E. To manifest genetic relatedness between wild Ovis gmelinii and domestic sheep haplogroups, their partial cytochrome B sequences were examined together on a median-joining network. The two parallel but wider aforementioned clusters were observed also on the network of Ovis gmelenii individuals, within which domestic haplogroups were embedded. The Ovis gmelinii wilds of the present day appeared to be distributed on two partially overlapping geographic areas parallel to the genetic clusters that they belong to (the first cluster being in the western part of the overall distribution). Thus, the analyses suggested that the domestic sheep may be the products of two maternally distinct ancestral Ovis gmelinii populations. Furthermore, Ovis gmelinii anatolica individuals exhibited a haplotype of HPG A (n = 22) and another haplotype (n = 8) from the second cluster which was not observed among the modern domestic sheep. HPG E, with the newly observed members (n = 11), showed signs of expansion. Studies of ancient and modern mtDNA suggest that HPG C frequency increased in the Southeast Anatolia from 6% to 22% some time after the beginning of the Hellenistic period, 500 years Before Common Era (BCE). PMID:24349158

  19. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of modern, ancient and wild sheep(Ovis gmelinii anatolica from Turkey: new insights on the evolutionary history of sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgin Demirci

    Full Text Available In the present study, to contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary history of sheep, the mitochondrial (mt DNA polymorphisms occurring in modern Turkish native domestic (n = 628, modern wild (Ovis gmelinii anatolica (n = 30 and ancient domestic sheep from Oylum Höyük in Kilis (n = 33 were examined comparatively with the accumulated data in the literature. The lengths (75 bp/76 bp of the second and subsequent repeat units of the mtDNA control region (CR sequences differentiated the five haplogroups (HPGs observed in the domestic sheep into two genetic clusters as was already implied by other mtDNA markers: the first cluster being composed of HPGs A, B, D and the second cluster harboring HPGs C, E. To manifest genetic relatedness between wild Ovis gmelinii and domestic sheep haplogroups, their partial cytochrome B sequences were examined together on a median-joining network. The two parallel but wider aforementioned clusters were observed also on the network of Ovis gmelenii individuals, within which domestic haplogroups were embedded. The Ovis gmelinii wilds of the present day appeared to be distributed on two partially overlapping geographic areas parallel to the genetic clusters that they belong to (the first cluster being in the western part of the overall distribution. Thus, the analyses suggested that the domestic sheep may be the products of two maternally distinct ancestral Ovis gmelinii populations. Furthermore, Ovis gmelinii anatolica individuals exhibited a haplotype of HPG A (n = 22 and another haplotype (n = 8 from the second cluster which was not observed among the modern domestic sheep. HPG E, with the newly observed members (n = 11, showed signs of expansion. Studies of ancient and modern mtDNA suggest that HPG C frequency increased in the Southeast Anatolia from 6% to 22% some time after the beginning of the Hellenistic period, 500 years Before Common Era (BCE.

  20. Computing effects for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they...

  1. Ação anti-inflamatória da fração lipídica do Ovis aries associado ao ultrassom terapêutico em modelo experimental de tendinite em ratos (Rattus norvegicus Anti-inflammatory action of the Ovis aries lipidic fraction associated to therapeutic ultrasound in an experimental model of tendinitis in rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Martins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstram o efeito benéfico da aplicação tópica de ácidos graxos como agentes cicatrizantes. A fração lipídica do Ovis aries apresenta uma ação anti-inflamatória que acelera o processo de cicatrização. O ultrassom aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo bem como a extensibilidade das estruturas de colágeno e tendões. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a ação anti-inflamatória da fração lipídica do Ovis aries associado ao ultrassom terapêutico (UST pulsado e à fricção em modelo de tendinite induzida. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta ratos Wistar foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: controle, gel Ovis aries - uso tópico - UST pulsátil + loção estéril (oil free, UST pulsátil + gel Ovis aries, loção estéril (oil free - uso tópico. Para induzir a tendinite, utilizou-se uma injeção intratendínea de 10µL de colagenase no tendão do calcâneo direito. O tratamento consistiu em aplicações diárias de ultrassom, com os seguintes parâmetros: modo pulsado 10%, frequência de 1 MHz, pulsátil a 10% com intensidade de 0,5W/cm², durante sete ou 14 dias. RESULTADOS: A variação do número de células inflamatórias, para os animais tratados por 14 dias, com relação aos grupos controle, UST + oil free e UST + Ovis aries, apresentou resultados significativos pBACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of topical application of fatty acids as healing agents. The lipid fraction of Ovis aries have an anti-inflammatory action that accelerates the healing process. Ultrasound increases blood flow and the extensibility of collagen structures and tendons. OBJECTIVES: To assess the anti-inflammatory action of the Ovis aries lipid fraction associated to pulsed therapeutic ultrasound and friction in an induced tendinitis model. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control that consisted of Ovis aries gel for topical use; pulsed ultrasound plus oil free sterile lotion; pulsed ultrasound plus Ovis

  2. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  3. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth;

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular...... typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due...

  4. Reversible switch from hemoglobin A to C in sheep and recovery from anemia following experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Pieragostini; Ferruccio Petazzi; Anna Caroli; Alessandra Torina; Giuseppe De Ruvo; Ingrid Alloggio

    2010-01-01

    Anemia causes a change in the type of circulating hemoglobin (Hb) in sheep carrying the βA-globin haplotype, where the Hb A is replaced with Hb C, unlike Hb B. The effect of the substitution of Hb A with Hb C on the recovery from anemia was investigated by comparing the hematological picture of sheep, following experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis. The blood values were obtained from 3 AB and 3 BB Hb sheep after the development of the disease where anemia is a pathognomonic symptom...

  5. Effect of supplementation with maca (Lepidium meyenii) in libido and semen characteristics in hair sheep rams (Ovis aries)

    OpenAIRE

    Abi LAVANA; Reyes VÁZQUEZ; Marie PALMA-IRIZARRY; Agustín ORIHUELA

    2013-01-01

    El propósito del presente estudio fue el evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con maca (Lepidium meyenii) sobre la libido y características del semen de carneros de pelo (Ovis aries). Treinta machos Santa cruz con 15 meses de edad se alimentaron con una dieta control (alimento concentrado; n=15) durante 16 semanas o con una dieta suplementada con maca (233 mg de hipocótilos secos de maca negra/kg de peso vivo/día, integrados al alimento concentrado) durante 8 semanas, seguidas de 8 semanas ...

  6. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  7. Argali sheep Ovis ammon trophy hunting in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgalanbaatar, S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Argali sheep Ovis ammon in Mongolia are highly sought by foreign hunters because of their impressive size and long, spiraling horns. To be sustainable, hunting programs must be well managed and have the support of local communities. Argali numbers in Mongolia seems to be declining rapidly due primarily to poaching and competition with domestic livestock, which have increased over the past decade. Laws, regulations, and revenue disbursement associated with argali trophy hunting in Mongolia are described. Argali trophy hunting is lucrative and the number of argali licenses and hunting organizations has been increasing over the past decade. Controversy surrounds the program. This controversy has been manifested in growing local opposition and accusations of corruption by the media. To help address this controversy, we suggest a reform of argali trophy hunting management in Mongolia that will better conserve the argali, as well as enjoy enduring public support. A reformed trophy hunting program should be characterized by 1 openness and transparency, 2 external review and oversight, 3 a mix of top-down and bottom-up authority that enjoys local support, and 4 active and adaptive argali conservation and management using funds generated by trophy hunters.

    [fr]
    L’argali Ovis ammon de Mongolie est un trophée très apprécié par les chasseurs étrangers du fait de ses grandes cornes spiralées. La gestion de la chasse, si on la veut soutenable, doit être bien planifiée et doit faire participer les populations locales. Le nombre d'argalis en Mongolie a beaucoup baissé ces dernières années surtout du fait du braconnage et de la compétition avec les animaux domestiques, ces derniers ayant augmenté au cours de la dernière décade. Nous étudions les lois, les réglementations et les revenus associés à la chasse en Mongolie. Cette chasse au trophée se montre lucrative et le nombre de licences et d'associations de

  8. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p cows. In conclusion, the finding discloses the strong association of N. caninum with reproductive disorders compared to Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. PMID:24781154

  9. Characterization of some Brucella species from Zimbabwe by biochemical profiling and AMOS-PCR

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    Skjerve Eystein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is endemic in most large commercial and smallholder cattle farms of Zimbabwe, while brucellosis in other domestic animals is rare. The diagnosis of brucellosis is mainly accomplished using serological tests. However, some Brucella spp. have been isolated from clinical cases in the field and kept in culture collection but their biochemical profiles were not documented. We report biochemical profiling and AMOS-PCR characterization of some of these field isolates of Brucella originating from both commercial and smallholder cattle farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Findings Fourteen isolates of Brucella from culture collection were typed using biochemical profiles, agglutination by monospecific antisera, susceptibility to Brucella-specific bacteriophages and by AMOS-PCR that amplifies species- specific IS711. The results of the biochemical profiles for B. abortus biovar 1 (11 isolates and biovar 2 (2 isolates were consistent with those of reference strains. A single isolate from a goat originating from a smallholder mixed animal farm was identified as B. melitensis biovar 1. The AMOS-PCR produced DNA products of sizes 498 bp and 731 bp for B. abortus (biovar 1 and 2 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Conclusion We concluded that the biochemical profiles and AMOS-PCR characterization were consistent with their respective species and biovars. B. abortus biovar 1 is likely to be the predominant cause of brucellosis in both commercial and smallholder cattle farms in Zimbabwe.

  10. N-Formyl-Perosamine Surface Homopolysaccharides Hinder the Recognition of Brucella abortus by Mouse Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Cristina; Gurdián-Murillo, Stephany; Lomonte, Bruno; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Moreno, Edgardo

    2016-06-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and placental trophoblasts. This bacterium causes a chronic disease in bovines and in humans. In these hosts, the bacterium also invades neutrophils; however, it fails to replicate and just resists the killing action of these leukocytes without inducing significant activation or neutrophilia. Moreover, B. abortus causes the premature cell death of human neutrophils. In the murine model, the bacterium is found within macrophages and dendritic cells at early times of infection but seldom in neutrophils. Based on this observation, we explored the interaction of mouse neutrophils with B. abortus In contrast to human, dog, and bovine neutrophils, naive mouse neutrophils fail to recognize smooth B. abortus bacteria at early stages of infection. Murine normal serum components do not opsonize smooth Brucella strains, and neutrophil phagocytosis is achieved only after the appearance of antibodies. Alternatively, mouse normal serum is capable of opsonizing rough Brucella mutants. Despite this, neutrophils still fail to kill Brucella, and the bacterium induces cell death of murine leukocytes. In addition, mouse serum does not opsonize Yersinia enterocolitica O:9, a bacterium displaying the same surface polysaccharide antigen as smooth B. abortus Therefore, the lack of murine serum opsonization and absence of murine neutrophil recognition are specific, and the molecules responsible for the Brucella camouflage are N-formyl-perosamine surface homopolysaccharides. Although the mouse is a valuable model for understanding the immunobiology of brucellosis, direct extrapolation from one animal system to another has to be undertaken with caution. PMID:27001541

  11. Study of respiratory burst in patients with Brucella infection by using chemiluminescence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabir M

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Although cellular immunity involving activated macrophage is important in resistance to Brucella infections, serum factors and polymorphonuclears (PMNs play some role in the initial responses to Brucella infections. In this research, we studied respiratory burst of PMNs against opsonized yeast and opsonized inactivated Brucella melitensis in chronic Brucellosis patients and controls with no previous history of Brucellosis. A group of 41 patients and another group of 20 blood donors as control, were included. The other 2 groups included 10 cases and 6 controls. Mean responses of PMNs of patients and controls to opsonized yeast were 110.3 and 129.3 milivolt respectively and the difference was not statistically significant. No statistically significant difference was observed between respiratory burst of PMNs exposed to inactivated Brucella in 10 patients with chronic Brucellosis (Mean 67.2 and 6 control blood donors (Mean 112.5, so we concluded that inactivated Brucella melitensis can't inhibit activity of myeloproxidase enzyme. 

  12. Rindler/Contracted-CFT Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Fareghbal, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Taking flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of the Rindler-AdS spacetime results in the Rindler metric. According to the proposal of Flat/contracted-CFT correspondence, flat-space limit in the bulk side of asymptotically AdS spacetimes corresponds to the contraction of boundary conformal field theory. We use this proposal for the Rindler-AdS/CFT correspondence and propose a dual theory for the Rindler spacetime which is a contracted conformal field theory(CCFT. We show that the two dimensional CCFT symmetries exactly predict the same two-point functions which one may find by taking the flat-space limit of three dimensional Rindler-AdS holographic results. Using the Flat/CCFT proposal, we also calculate the three dimensional Rindler energy-momentum tensor. Since the near horizon geometry of non-extreme black holes has a Rindler part, it would be plausible to find a dual CCFT at the horizon of non-extreme black holes. Specifically, we find the correct mass of non-rotating BTZ by using our energy-...

  13. Application of fluorescence based molecular assays for improved detection and typing of Brucella strains in clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril Krstevski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Brucella are causative agents of brucellosis – a zoonotic disease which affects many wild and domestic animal species and humans. Taking into account the significant socio-economic and public health impact of brucellosis, its control is of great importance for endemic areas. The chosen control strategy could be successful only if adapted to the current epidemiological situation. This implies that a choice of appropriate diagnostic procedures for detection and typing of Brucella spp. strains are of essential importance. Significant advancement of molecular techniques and their advantages compared to classical methods, give strong arguments in promotion of these techniques as a powerful tool for comprehensive diagnostics of brucellosis. Considering this, the major tasks of the study were to select and implement molecular tests for detection and genotyping Brucella spp. and evaluate their performances using DNA from cultivated brucellae (islolates and limited number of tissue samples from seropositive animals. The obtained results confirmed that implemented real time PCR for Brucella spp. detection, as well as MLVA-16 used for genotyping, have excellent analytical sensitivity (4.2 fg of Brucella DNA were successfully detected and genotyped. Furthermore, compared to bacteriological cultivation of Brucella spp., real time PCR and MLVA-16 protocols showed superior diagnostic sensitivity and detected Brucella DNA in tissues from which Brucella could not be cultivated. Based on the summarized study results, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for detection and genotyping of Brucella spp. bacteria. Routine use of proposed diagnostic algorithm will improve the effectiveness of infection confirmation and help for accurate evaluation of epidemiological situation.

  14. Systems biology analysis of Brucella infected Peyer's patch reveals rapid invasion with modest transient perturbations of the host transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rossetti

    Full Text Available Brucella melitensis causes the most severe and acute symptoms of all Brucella species in human beings and infects hosts primarily through the oral route. The epithelium covering domed villi of jejunal-ileal Peyer's patches is an important site of entry for several pathogens, including Brucella. Here, we use the calf ligated ileal loop model to study temporal in vivo Brucella-infected host molecular and morphological responses. Our results document Brucella bacteremia occurring within 30 min after intraluminal inoculation of the ileum without histopathologic traces of lesions. Based on a system biology Dynamic Bayesian Network modeling approach (DBN of microarray data, a very early transient perturbation of the host enteric transcriptome was associated with the initial host response to Brucella contact that is rapidly averted allowing invasion and dissemination. A detailed analysis revealed active expression of Syndecan 2, Integrin alpha L and Integrin beta 2 genes, which may favor initial Brucella adhesion. Also, two intestinal barrier-related pathways (Tight Junction and Trefoil Factors Initiated Mucosal Healing were significantly repressed in the early stage of infection, suggesting subversion of mucosal epithelial barrier function to facilitate Brucella transepithelial migration. Simultaneously, the strong activation of the innate immune response pathways would suggest that the host mounts an appropriate protective immune response; however, the expression of the two key genes that encode innate immunity anti-Brucella cytokines such as TNF-α and IL12p40 were not significantly changed throughout the study. Furthermore, the defective expression of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling pathways may partially explain the lack of proinflammatory cytokine production and consequently the absence of morphologically detectable inflammation at the site of infection. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the in vivo pathogenesis of the early infectious process

  15. Human ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by the sheep botfly Oestrus ovis:a case report from Karachi,Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naima; Fasih; Kanza; Noor; Qaiser; Syeda; Aisha; Bokhari; Bushra; Jamil; Mohammad; Asim; Beg

    2014-01-01

    Ocular myiasis due to Oestrus ovis larvae infestation is an eye infection in humans.A case of ophthalmomyiasis externa in a young male from Karachi,Pakistan in winter(December 2012),without history of close proximity to domestic animals or visit to any rural area was reported.The condition is self-limiting and the disease is confined to the conjunctiva.The eye was locally anesthetized and washed with 5%povidine iodine solution.A total number of 27 first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis were removed with fine forceps.The patient received 0.5%moxifloxacin and diclofenac eye drops for one week.His eye was examined after one day,one week and one month and the recovery status was favorable.The present case raise the awareness among ophthalmologists regarding larval conjunctivitis as one of the causes of conjunctivitis and it can occur throughout the year in any season including winter.Moreover,it can occurr in any area either rural or urban with or without close proximity to domestic animals especially in subtropical regions with high parasitic burden.

  16. The use of ELISA to detect antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally infected cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect ELISA using the immunodominant antigen, smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS) of Brucella abortus, was used to detect antibodies in a statistically selected dairy cattle population from the Sabana of Bogota (Colombia). Based on the FAO/IAEA Brucella ELISA kit, the test was standardized in terms of plates, reagents and reference sera. Quality control for routine testing was also established. Calculation of the appropriate cut-off optical density (O.D) value for negativity was made after discriminant analysis and examination of the frequency of the sera distributed as positive or negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for diagnosis of Brucella infection were compared to the complement fixation (CF) test results and were 94.8% and 96.0% respectively. The use of ELISA for monitoring bovine populations undergoing an eradication of brucellosis is recommended. The application of an ELISA using B. bovis outer membrane proteins (OMP) as antigen is discussed. (author). 38 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Brucella Isolates in Cattle Milk in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Rwabiita Mugizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is endemic in livestock and humans in Uganda and its transmission involves a multitude of risk factors like consumption of milk from infected cattle. To shed new light on the epidemiology of brucellosis in Uganda the present study used phenotypic and molecular approaches to delineate the Brucella species, biovars, and genotypes shed in cattle milk. Brucella abortus without a biovar designation was isolated from eleven out of 207 milk samples from cattle in Uganda. These isolates had a genomic monomorphism at 16 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR loci and showed in turn high levels of genetic variation when compared with other African strains or other B. abortus biovars from other parts of the world. This study further highlights the usefulness of MLVA as an epidemiological tool for investigation of Brucella infections.

  18. Lab on a chip genotyping for Brucella spp. based on 15-loci multi locus VNTR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianelli Cinzia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an important zoonosis caused by the genus Brucella. In addition Brucella represents potential biological warfare agents due to the high contagious rates for humans and animals. Therefore, the strain typing epidemiological tool may be crucial for tracing back source of infection in outbreaks and discriminating naturally occurring outbreaks versus bioterroristic event. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 15 polymorphic markers was previously described. The obtained MLVA band profiles may be resolved by techniques ranging from low cost manual agarose gels to the more expensive capillary electrophoresis sequencing. In this paper a rapid, accurate and reproducible system, based on the Lab on a chip technology was set up for Brucella spp. genotyping. Results Seventeen DNA samples of Brucella strains isolated in Sicily, previously genotyped, and twelve DNA samples, provided by MLVA Brucella VNTR ring trial, were analyzed by MLVA-15 on Agilent 2100. The DNA fragment sizes produced by Agilent, compared with those expected, showed discrepancies; therefore, in order to assign the correct alleles to the Agilent DNA fragment sizes, a conversion table was produced. In order to validate the system twelve unknown DNA samples were analyzed by this method obtaining a full concordance with the VNTR ring trial results. Conclusion In this paper we described a rapid and specific detection method for the characterization of Brucella isolates. The comparison of the MLVA typing data produced by Agilent system with the data obtained by standard sequencing or ethidium bromide slab gel electrophoresis showed a general concordance of the results. Therefore this platform represents a fair compromise among costs, speed and specificity compared to any conventional molecular typing technique.

  19. Expression, purification and immunochemical characterization of recombinant OMP28 protein of Brucella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Manat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the lion’s share of infectious disease of animals and it has a particular socio-economic importance for the Republic of Kazakhstan. Sixty percent of epizootic outbreaks of brucellosis identified in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS originated from Kazakhstan in recent years. Definitive diagnosis of brucellosis remains a difficult task. Precisely for this reason, we evaluated a purified recombinant out membrane protein 28 (rOMP28 of Brucella species (Brucella spp. produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli as a diagnostic antigen in an Indirect ELISA (I-ELISA for bovine brucellosis. The gene encoding OMP28 was synthesized using a two-round PCR procedure. In order to produce the rOMP28, the de novo synthesized DNA was cloned into the expression vector pET-22b(+. Then, the rOMP28 was expressed in E. coli system and characterized in the present study. We further estimated the diagnostic potential of purified rOMP28 of Brucella spp. for screening bovine sera. To determine if rOMP28 has a valuable benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rOMP28-based I-ELISA was performed. Brucella spp. positive (n=62 and Brucella spp. negative (n=28 samples from tube agglutination test (TAT were positive (n=59 and negative (n=27 by I-ELISA, respectively. These findings show that the rOMP28 of Brucella spp. could be a good candidate for improving serological diagnostic methods for bovine brucellosis.

  20. Whole-genome analyses of the speciation events in the pathogenic Brucellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, P; Comerci, D; Tolmasky, M; Larimer, F; Malfatti, S; Vergez, L; Aguero, F; Land, M; Ugalde, R; Garcia, E

    2005-07-14

    Despite their high DNA identity and a proposal to group classical Brucella species as biovars of B. melitensis, the commonly recognized Brucella species can be distinguished by distinct biochemical and fatty acid characters as well as by a marked host range (e.g. B. suis for swine, B. melitensis for sheep and goats, B. abortus for cattle). Here we present the genome of B. abortus 2308, the virulent prototype biovar 1 strain, and its comparison to the two other human pathogenic Brucellae species and to the B. abortus field isolate 9-941. The global distribution of pseudogenes, deletions and insertions support previous indications that B. abortus and B. melitensis share a common ancestor that diverged from B. suis. With the exception of a dozen genes, the genetic complement of both B. abortus strains is identical, whereas the three species differ in gene content and pseudogenes. The pattern of species-specific gene inactivations affecting transcriptional regulators and outer membrane proteins suggest that these inactivations may play an important role in the establishment of host-specificity and may have been a primary driver of speciation in the Brucellae. Despite being non-motile, the Brucellae contain flagellum gene clusters and display species-specific flagellar gene inactivations, which lead to the putative generation of different versions of flagellum-derived structures, and may contribute to differences in host-specificity and virulence. Metabolic changes such as the lack of complete metabolic pathways for the synthesis of numerous compounds (e.g. glycogen, biotin, NAD, and choline) are consistent with adaptation of Brucellae to an intracellular lifestyle.

  1. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  2. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Corrie H; Parrott, Lael; Kyle, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from wildlife overpasses were

  3. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Corrie H.; Kyle, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from wildlife overpasses were

  4. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  5. Isolation of Brucella melitensis from a human case of chronic additive polyarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellar arthritis remains under diagnosed owing to non-specific clinical manifestations. Here, we report isolation of Brucella melitensis from synovial fluid of 5 th metatarsophalangeal joint of a 39-year-old lady having unusually chronic asymmetric, additive, peripheral polyarthritis. This isolation was confirmed by Bruce-Ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The patient had a history of contact with an aborted goat. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (SAT were positive for Brucella-specific antibodies both for patient and in contact with sheep and goats. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampicin for 16 weeks and was recovered fully.

  6. BrucellaCapt versus Classical Tests in the Serological Diagnosis and Management of Human Brucellosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Aurora; Ariza, Javier; Rubio, Manuel; Masuet, Cristina; Díaz, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    The BrucellaCapt test is an immunocapture agglutination test suggested as a possible substitute for the Coombs test in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. Here it is compared with classical tests using 321 samples from 48 patients with brucellosis (6.9 ± 1.7 samples per patient), including 20 patients with focal disease and 8 patients with a total of 9 relapse episodes (mean follow-up, 18 months). The BrucellaCapt test was used according to the manufacturer's instructions, and we also used a ...

  7. Aislamiento de Brucella canis en un humano conviviente con caninos infectados. Informe de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Olivera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of bacteremia in a woman living in close contact with dogs infected with Brucella canis. Methods: Previous written consent of the woman a blood sample was taken to perform rapid agglutination test, immunofluorescence, and hemoculture. Results: Brucella canis was isolated and the isolation was confirmed by the Instituto Nacional ANLIS «Carlos G. Malbran» from Argentina. The woman did not present any symptoms associated with brucellosis. Conclusion: There is a risk of contamination by B. canis for people keeping tight contact with infected dogs.

  8. Plasmid transfer and plasmid-mediated genetic exchange in Brucella abortus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, C E; Fraser, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Naturally-occurring plasmids and gene transfer mechanisms have not yet been reported in brucellae. Here we show that Brucella abortus is capable of maintaining and transferring the broad-host-range plasmids pTH10 (IncP), pSa (IncW) and R751 (IncP), and describe pTH10-mediated transfer of B. abortus chromosomal genes to Escherichia coli. All three plasmids transferred by conjugation from E. coli to B. abortus S19, and from B. abortus S19 to B. abortus 292 (biovar 4). They were stably maintaine...

  9. Rapid identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis by chip-based continuous flow PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, Michael; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    To combat the threat of biological agents like Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis in bioterroristic scenarios requires fast, easy-to-use and safe identification systems. In this study we describe a system for rapid amplification of specific genetic markers for the identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis. Using chip based PCR and continuous flow technology we were able to amplify the targets simultaneously with a 2-step reaction profile within 20 minutes. The subsequent analysis of amplified fragments by standard gel electrophoresis requires another 45 minutes. We were able to detect both pathogens within 75 minutes being much faster than most other nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  10. The Effect of Irradiation on the Immunogenity of Brucella Abortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiation on the immunogenity of B. abortus. The B. abortus were irradiated by Gamma Cells (60Co). An experiment were divided into four groups. The first group (V1) was inoculated by irradiated B. abortus with the dose of 0.25 kGy. The second group (V2) was inoculated by irradiated B. abortus with the dose of 0.50 kGy. The third group (V3) was inoculated by irradiated B. abortus with the dose of 0.75 kGy. The fourth group (V4) was inoculated by Brucella vaccine 8.19. The observation respectively were included purely test, safety test, RBT serological test, diffusion test, development the colony of B. abortus in lien, and pathology anatomic inspection. The results obtained showed that 0.25 kGy was the expectantly dose of irradiation which could not only decreasing the infectivity of B. abortus but also has the ability to become a good immunogen for stimulating the immune response in the experiment animals. (author)

  11. Importance of nonspecific laboratory tests in Brucella diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Ağca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Brucella infection doesn’t have spesific clinicalevidences, for this reason it can be confused with febrilediseases. In this study we aimed investigating theimportance of diagnosis with nonspesific laboratory testsin brucellosis.Materials and methods: We retrospectively screenedclinically compatible with brucellosis, standard tube agglutination(STA and STA tests with coombs of patientssera which came to Uşak State Hospital Central Laboratorybetween December 2010-May 2011. As controlgroup, we determined random 62 patients attended to thelaboratory between December 2010-May 2011 with STAtest results are negative and not diagnosed brucellosis.Results: C-reactive protein elevated in 54 patients(87.0%, ESR elevated in 44 patients (70.9%, AST elevatedin 22 patients (35.4%, ALT elevated in 7 patients(11.2%, ferritin elevated in 19 patients (30.6%, 8 patientshad anemia (12.9% of patient group. In control group,7 patients elevated CRP (11.2%, 10 patients elevatedESR (16.1%, 1 patient elevated AST (1.6%, 1 patientelevated ALT (1.6%, 6 patients had anemia (9.6% anddecrease in ferritin level wasn’t detected.Conclusion: We concluded statistically significant highlevel of CRP, ESR, ALT, AST and ferritin support the testresults too beside the spesific brucellosis tests. J Clin ExpInvest 2012; 3(1: 87-90

  12. Evaluation of oxidative stress in brucella infected cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kataria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress can influence the metabolism of cells in vital organs of the body. Oxidative stress is extremely dangerous as it does not exhibit any symptom and is recognisable with great difficulty by means of laboratory methods. It can be monitored with several biomarkers like antioxidants and pro-oxidants which can be assessed in serum. The inexorableness of exposure of cows to brucella infection makes oxidative stress associated with this infection an appropriate field of investigation. There is paucity of work to detect stress, which is essential to take timely corrective measures and to save the animal population. Therefore the investigation was carried out to evaluate oxidative stress in the cows suffering from brucellosis. For this serum iomarkers of oxidative stress viz. vitamin C, vitamin E, catalase, monoamine oxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, xanthine oxidase, oxidase and peroxidase were determined. Results indicated that vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione activity decreased significantly in affected cows as compared to healthy cows. Serum catalase, superoxide dismutase, monoamine oxidase, glutathione reductase, xanthine oxidase, oxidase and peroxidase activities increased significantly in affected cows as compared to healthy cows. Decreased activity of vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione indicated towards their depletion which generally occurs in the oxidative stress to scavenge the free radicals. It was concluded that oxidative stress was there in the animals. This study recommends the use of antioxidants in affected cows

  13. Brucella abortus RB51 in milk of vaccinated adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Resende, Thiago Magalhães; Vaz, Adil Knackfuss; Ferraz, Sandra Maria; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shedding of Brucella abortus in the milk of cows vaccinated with a full dose of RB51 during lactation. Eighteen cows, nine previously vaccinated with S19 as calves and nine non-vaccinated, were immunized subcutaneously with 1.3×10(10)CFU of B. abortus RB51, 30-60days after parturition. Milk samples from all animals were collected daily until day 7, and at weekly interval for the next 9 weeks after vaccination. To evaluate the shedding of B. abortus, milk samples were submitted for culture and PCR. No B. abortus was isolated from any sample tested. Only one sample, collected on first day after vaccination from a cow previously vaccinated, was faintly positive in the PCR. In conclusion, the public health hazard associated with milk consumption from cows vaccinated with RB51 in post-partum is very low, despite vaccination with the full dose and regardless of previous S19 vaccination. PMID:27143220

  14. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.

  15. Magnetised Kerr/CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Astorino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The tools of Kerr/CFT correspondence are applied to the Kerr black hole embedded in an axial external magnetic field. Its extremal near horizon geometry remains a warped and twisted product of $AdS_2\\times S^2$. The central charge of the Virasoro algebra, generating the asymptotic symmetries of the near horizon geometry, is found. It used to reproduce, via the Cardy formula, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the magnetised Kerr black hole as the statistical microscopic entropy of a dual CFT. The presence of the background magnetic field makes available also a second dual CFT picture, based on the $U(1)$ electromagnetic symmetry, instead of the only rotational one of the standard non-magnetised Kerr spacetime.

  16. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only if...... it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  17. The Schwarzschild/CFT Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajiee, Vahid Reza

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the holographic description of the Schwarzschild black hole is investigated. Since the Schwarzschild solution could be mapped to the near horizon limit of the Reissner-Nordstrom solution, the dual metric is obtained by using hidden conformal symmetry. Because the near horizon spacetime admits an A d S 2 factor, a well-defined 2D (quantum) gravity, dimensionally reduced from near horizon metric, is elected. It is demonstrated that the dual CFT has a central charge c=96 M 3 which is an asymptotic conserved charge of the near horizon solution. As the most important consequence of AdS/CFT correspondence for a black hole, the entropy of Schwarzschild black hole is obtained by using Cardy formula. It is shown that the microscopic entropy of CFT is equal to the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the Schwarzschild black hole.

  18. Magnetized Kerr/CFT correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-08-01

    We extend the conjectured Kerr/CFT correspondence to the case of extremal Kerr black holes immersed by a magnetic field, namely the extremal Melvin–Kerr black holes. We compute the central charge which appears in the associated Virasoro algebra generated by a class of diffeomorphisms that satisfies a set of boundary conditions in the near horizon of an extremal Melvin–Kerr black hole. Our results support the Kerr/CFT conjecture, where the macroscopic Bekenstein–Hawking entropy for an extremal Melvin–Kerr black hole matches the result obtained from a dual 2D CFT microscopic computation using Cardy formula. Interestingly, the dual CFT description could be non-unitary, due to the possibility of negative central charge.

  19. Immunization with Recombinant Brucella Species Outer Membrane Protein Omp16 or Omp19 in Adjuvant Induces Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells as Well as Systemic and Oral Protection against Brucella abortus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquevich, Karina A.; Estein, Silvia M.; Samartino, Clara García; Zwerdling, Astrid; Coria, Lorena M.; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Cassataro, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    Available vaccines against Brucella spp. are live attenuated Brucella strains. In order to engineer a better vaccine to be used in animals and humans, our laboratory aims to develop an innocuous subunit vaccine. Particularly, we are interested in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. abortus: Omp16 and Omp19. In this study, we assessed the use of these proteins as vaccines against Brucella in BALB/c mice. Immunization with lipidated Omp16 (L-Omp16) or L-Omp19 in incomplete Freund's adjuvan...

  20. In silico design, cloning and high level expression of L7/L12-TOmp31 fusion protein of Brucella antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Golshani, Maryam; Rafati, Sima; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Nejati-Moheimani, Mehdi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Globally, Brucella melitensis and B. abortus are the most common cause of human brucellosis. The outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) and L7/L12 are immunodominant and protective antigens conserved in human Brucella pathogens which are considered as potential vaccine candidates. We aimed to design the fusion protein from Brucella L7/L12 and truncated Omp31proteins, in silico, clone the fusion in pET28a vector, and express it in Escherichia coli host. Two possible fusion forms, L7/L12-TOmp31 and ...

  1. Magnetised Kerr/CFT correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The tools of Kerr/CFT correspondence are applied to the Kerr black hole embedded in an axial external magnetic field. Its extremal near horizon geometry remains a warped and twisted product of AdS2 ×S2. The central charge of the Virasoro algebra, generating the asymptotic symmetries of the near horizon geometry, is found. It is used to reproduce, via the Cardy formula, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the magnetised Kerr black hole as the statistical microscopic entropy of a dual CFT. The presence of the background magnetic field makes available also a second dual CFT picture, based on the U (1) electromagnetic symmetry, instead of the only rotational one of the standard non-magnetised Kerr spacetime. A Meissner-like effect, where at extremality the external magnetic field is expelled out of the black hole, allows us to infer the value of the mass for these magnetised extremal black holes. The generalisation to the CFT dual for the magnetised extreme Kerr-Newman black hole is also presented.

  2. Correspondence Truth and Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Karakostas, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    The logic of a physical theory reflects the structure of the propositions referring to the behaviour of a physical system in the domain of the relevant theory. It is argued in relation to classical mechanics that the propositional structure of the theory allows truth-value assignment in conformity with the traditional conception of a correspondence theory of truth. Every proposition in classical mechanics is assigned a definite truth value, either 'true' or 'false', describing what is actually the case at a certain moment of time. Truth-value assignment in quantum mechanics, however, differs; it is known, by means of a variety of 'no go' theorems, that it is not possible to assign definite truth values to all propositions pertaining to a quantum system without generating a Kochen-Specker contradiction. In this respect, the Bub-Clifton 'uniqueness theorem' is utilized for arguing that truth-value definiteness is consistently restored with respect to a determinate sublattice of propositions defined by the state...

  3. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health o...

  4. Valutazione dell’efficacia del vaccino Brucella abortus ceppo RB51 rispetto al vaccino di referenza Brucella abortus ceppo 19 nel bufalo

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Scacchia; Armando Giovannini; Manuela Tittarelli; Simona Forcella; Andrea Di Provvido; Elisabetta Di Giannatale; Barbara Bonfini; Vincenzo Caporale

    2010-01-01

    Il patrimonio zootecnico della specie bufalina (Bubalus bubalis) della regione Campania, è di 250 000 capi, di questi 150 000 allevati in aziende zootecniche della provincia di Caserta. In queste aziende, nel 2007, l’infezione da Brucella abortus ha avuto la prevalenza media, per allevamento, del 20%. Complessivamente, i 2/3 degli allevamenti positivi hanno evidenziato una prevalenza superiore al 10% e, di questi, i 3/4 una prevalenza superiore al 20%. Prendendo il 20% come valore di riferime...

  5. The genus Brucella and clinical manifestations of brucellosis O gênero Brucella e as manifestações clínicas de brucelose

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Noyma Xavier; Érica Azevedo Costa; Tatiane Alves Paixão; Renato de Lima Santos

    2009-01-01

    Infection with bacteria of the genus Brucella results in major economic and political impact by causing reproductive diseases in a significant number of domestic animal species. Moreover, it has a great social significance, since many species are capable of causing human infection, with severe consequences. Dissemination of knowledge on a specific disease is an essential step for its control. Considering that brucellosis is still the most prevalent zoonosis in the world, information about tax...

  6. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  7. Brucella microti sp. nov., isolated from the common vole Microtus arvalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, H. C.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Sedláček, I.; Vergnaud, G.; Tomaso, H.; Al Dahouk, S.; Melzer, F.; Kämpfer, P.; Neubauer, H.; Cloeckaert, A.; Maquart, M.; Zygmunt, M. S.; Whatmore, A. M.; Falsen, E.; Bahn, P.; Göllner, C.; Pfeffer, M.; Huber, B.; Busse, H.-J.; Nöckler, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 375-382. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common vole * Brucella microti * rodent brucellosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.222, year: 2008

  8. An evaluation of ELISA using recombinant Brucella abortus bacterioferritin (Bfr) for bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-04-01

    To date, detection of antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide portion is the backbone of most serodiagnostic methods for brucellosis screening. However this pose a risk for false positive reactions related to other pathogens especially that of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 which has the most prominent cross reactivity with Brucella spp. In this study, cloning and expression of Brucella abortus bacterioferritin (Bfr) was accomplished by PCR amplification into an expression vector system, and purification of a recombinant B. abortus Bfr (rBfr). The immunogenicity of rBfr was confirmed by Western blot with Brucella-positive bovine serum. To determine whether rBfr has a potential benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rBfr-based ELISA was performed. Interestingly, rBfr was able to detect anti-Brucella antibodies in positive sera in a dependent manner of TAT values but did not show an immunoreaction with negative samples. Particularly, average OD492 values at the lowest, medium and highest TAT titer levels were 1.4, 2.2 and 2.6-fold increase compared with the cutoff value, respectively. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of rBfr showed 89.09%, 93.6% and 85.33%, respectively. These findings suggest that rBfr might be a good candidate for serological diagnosis development of bovine brucellosis. PMID:27012915

  9. Reduction of Brucella species and Francisella tularensis cross-reacting agglutinins by dithiothreitol.

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, K A; Klein, G C

    1982-01-01

    Cross-reaction agglutinin titers to Brucella abortus antigen were found in 42 of 128 tularemia serum specimens, and cross-reaction titers to Francisella tularensis antigen were found in 8 of 34 brucellosis serum specimens. The cross-reaction titers were reduced to 10 or less by dithiothreitol, suggesting that the titers are due to immunoglobulin M antibody.

  10. Meningoencephalitis and Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. coinfection in a dolphin in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattarola, Carla; Giorda, Federica; Iulini, Barbara; Pintore, Maria Domenica; Pautasso, Alessandra; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Maria; Romano, Angelo; Peletto, Simone; Varello, Katia; Garibaldi, Fulvio; Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Marsili, Letizia; Bozzetta, Elena; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dondo, Alessandro; Mignone, Walter; Casalone, Cristina

    2016-02-25

    Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. can infect a wide range of species, including humans. In cetaceans, meningoencephalitis has been associated with T. gondii and Brucella spp. infection, whereas to our knowledge, L. monocytogenes infection has not previously been reported. Meningoencephalitis and L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. were identified by means of both direct and indirect laboratory techniques in an adult female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in January 2015 on the Ligurian Sea coast, northwestern Italy. The animal was emaciated, and histopathology disclosed severe meningoencephalitis. The nature of the inflammatory response and intra-lesional protozoa were consistent with a mixed infection by L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. We believe this is an unprecedented case of infection by 3 zoonotic pathogens and also the first bacteriologically confirmed case report of neurolisteriosis in cetaceans. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and neurobrucellosis may have led to the animal's disorientation and stranding, with L. monocytogenes having likely exacerbated the coinfection leading to the demise of this dolphin. PMID:26912047

  11. Experimental Infection of Richardson's Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) with Attenuated and Virulent Strains of Brucella abortus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of non-target species to wildlife vaccines is an important concern when evaluating a candidate vaccine for use in the field. A previous investigation of the safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (sRB51) in various non-target species suggested that Richardson’s ground squirrels (Spermophil...

  12. Comparative in vitro activities of ofloxacin, difloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other selected antimicrobial agents against Brucella melitensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Y.; Dizon, M; Kiel, F W

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro activities of three quinolones (ofloxacin, difloxacin, and ciprofloxacin) were compared with those of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline, and rifampin against 47 Brucella melitensis strains. Ofloxacin was the most active of the test antimicrobial agents. It inhibited 90% of B. melitensis strains at a concentration of 0.02 micrograms/ml.

  13. The attenuation effect of UVc radiation doses in gram-negative bacteria (Brucella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gram-negative bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica sero group O:3 and O:9, and Brucella (Melitensis and abortus) together with Escherichia coli (O:157, DH5α-pEt15b), were investigated to evaluate their susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. If the dose of UVc was 18.7 mW/cm2, the time required for inactivation of Y. enterocolitica and E. coli DH5α-pEt15b and O:157 was 240s and 360s in the dark and light respectively; where if the dose was 19.5 mW/cm2, the time required was 60s in the dark and 120s in light respectively. The time required for inactivation of Brucella strains (melitensis and abortus) if the dose was 18.7 mW/cm2 was 240s in both dark and light, whereas it was 120s(dark) and 240s (light) respectively, when the dose was 19.5 mW/cm2. Using E. coli O:157 as control, it appears that Y. enterocolitica sero group O:3 and O:9 and vaccinal strains of Brucella (Rev. 1 and S19) are more sensitive to UV than wild Brucella strains. No relation was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence or absence of a pYV+ virulence plasmid. (author)

  14. A novel recombinant multi-epitope protein against Brucella melitensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dehui; Li, Li; Song, Dandan; Liu, Yushen; Ju, Wen; Song, Xiuling; Wang, Juan; Pang, Bo; Xu, Kun; Li, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Live, attenuated Brucella vaccines are considered effective but can induce abortions in pregnant animals and are potentially infectious to humans. There is a strong need to improve the immunoprotective effects and safety of vaccines against Brucella. Currently, subunit vaccines have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious alternatives in both humans and animals. In this study, we employed bioinformatics tools to predict B and T cell epitopes to aid development of a novel recombinant multi-epitope antigen for brucellosis vaccination. To evaluate the protective capacity of the recombinant antigen, the antigen's efficacy was studied in a mouse model of brucellosis. Our results indicated that BALB/c mice immunized with this recombinant multi-epitope antigen showed mixed Th1-Th2 immune responses with high levels of specific IgG and exhibited high degrees of IFN-γ and IL-6 and significantly higher CD3, CD4, and CD8 frequencies compared to the control group. The recombinant antigen and vaccine strain M5-90 also provided protection against Brucella melitensis 16 M infection. Using bioinformatics tools to develop candidate vaccines is a promising strategy for the development of Brucella vaccines. PMID:27133932

  15. Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucan is an activator of human and mouse dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Anna; Pérez-Gutierrez, Camino; Banchereau, Romain; Dutartre, Hélène; Lecine, Patrick; Dullaers, Melissa; Mello, Marielle; Salcedo, Suzana Pinto; Muller, Alexandre; Leserman, Lee; Levy, Yves; Zurawski, Gerard; Zurawski, Sandy; Moreno, Edgardo; Moriyón, Ignacio; Klechevsky, Eynav; Banchereau, Jacques; Oh, Sangkon; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cyclic glucans are glucose polymers that concentrate within the periplasm of alpha-proteobacteria. These molecules are necessary to maintain the homeostasis of the cell envelope by contributing to the osmolarity of Gram negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans are potent activators of human and mouse dendritic cells. Dendritic cells activation by Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans requires TLR4, MyD88 and TRIF, but not CD14. The Brucella cyclic glucans showed neither toxicity nor immunogenicity compared to LPS and triggered antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo. These cyclic glucans also enhanced antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses including cross-presentation by different human DC subsets. Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans increased the memory CD4(+) T cell responses of blood mononuclear cells exposed to recombinant fusion proteins composed of anti-CD40 antibody and antigens from both hepatitis C virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus cyclic glucans represent a new class of adjuvants, which might contribute to the development of effective antimicrobial therapies. PMID:23166489

  16. Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucan is an activator of human and mouse dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Martirosyan

    Full Text Available Bacterial cyclic glucans are glucose polymers that concentrate within the periplasm of alpha-proteobacteria. These molecules are necessary to maintain the homeostasis of the cell envelope by contributing to the osmolarity of Gram negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans are potent activators of human and mouse dendritic cells. Dendritic cells activation by Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans requires TLR4, MyD88 and TRIF, but not CD14. The Brucella cyclic glucans showed neither toxicity nor immunogenicity compared to LPS and triggered antigen-specific CD8(+ T cell responses in vivo. These cyclic glucans also enhanced antigen-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses including cross-presentation by different human DC subsets. Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans increased the memory CD4(+ T cell responses of blood mononuclear cells exposed to recombinant fusion proteins composed of anti-CD40 antibody and antigens from both hepatitis C virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus cyclic glucans represent a new class of adjuvants, which might contribute to the development of effective antimicrobial therapies.

  17. Identification of Brucella abortus virulence proteins that modulate the host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Chen, Zeliang; Qiu, Yefeng; Ke, Yuehua; Xu, Jie; Yuan, Xitong; Li, Xianbo; Fu, Simei; Cui, Mingquan; Xie, Yongfei; Du, Xinying; Wang, Zhoujia; Huang, Liuyu

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of almost worldwide distribution. One significant immune phenomenon of this disease is the ability of the pathogen to hide and survive in the host, establishing long lasting chronic infections. Brucella was found to have the ability to actively modulate the host immune response in order to establish chronic infections, but the mechanism by which the pathogen achieves this remains largely unknown. In our screening for protective antigens of Brucella abortus, 3 proteins (BAB1_0597, BAB1_0917, and BAB2_0431) were found to induce significantly higher levels of gamma interferon (IFNγ) in splenocytes of PBS immunized mice than those immunized with S19. This finding strongly implied that these three proteins inhibit the production of IFNγ. Previous studies have shown that LPS, PrpA, and Btp1/TcpB are three important immunomodulatory molecules with the capacity to interfere with host immune response. They have been shown to have the ability to inhibit the secretion of IFNγ, or to increase the production of IL-10. Due to the role of these proteins in virulence and immunomodulation, they likely offer significant potential as live, attenuated Brucella vaccine candidates. Understanding the mechanisms by which these proteins modulate the host immune responses will deepen our knowledge of Brucella virulence and provide important information on the development of new vaccines against Brucellosis. PMID:22743689

  18. Immune responses and protection induced by Brucella suis S2 bacterial ghosts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Yi; Sun, Yang; Ji, Xue; Zhu, Lingwei; Guo, Xuejun; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Ruian; Feng, Shuzhang

    2015-08-15

    With the purpose of generating Brucella suis bacterial ghosts and investigating the immunogenicity of bacterial ghosts as a vaccine candidate, the lysis gene E and temperature-sensitive regulator cassette were cloned into a shuttle plasmid, pBBR1MCS-2, for construction of a recombinant temperature-sensitive shuttle lysis plasmid, pBBR1MCS-E. pBBR1MCS-E was then introduced into attenuated B. suis live vaccine S2 bacteria, and the resultant transformants were used for production of B. suis ghosts (BSGs) by inducing lysis gene E expression. The BSGs were characterized by observing their morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The safety and immunogenicity of BSGs were further evaluated using a murine model, the result suggested that BSG was as safe as formalin-killed B. suis. In mice, BSG demonstrated a similar capacity of inducing pathogen-specific serum IgG antibody response, spleen CD3(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses, induce secretion of gamma interferon and interleukin-4, and protection levels against Brucella melitensis 16M challenge, as the attenuated B. suis live vaccine. These data suggesting that BSG could confer protection against Brucella infection in a mouse model of disease and may be developed as a new vaccine candidate against Brucella infection. PMID:26022514

  19. Delta-pgm, a new live-attenuated vaccine against Brucella suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czibener, Cecilia; Del Giudice, Mariela Giselda; Spera, Juan Manuel; Fulgenzi, Fabiana Rosa; Ugalde, Juan Esteban

    2016-03-18

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonosis in the world affecting many domestic and wild animals including bovines, goats, pigs and dogs. Each species of the Brucella genus has a particular tropism toward different mammals being the most relevant for human health Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis that infect bovines, goats/camelids and swine respectively. Although for B. abortus and B. melitensis there are vaccines available, there is no efficient vaccine to protect swine from B. suis infection so far. We describe here the construction of a novel vaccine strain that confers excellent protection against B. suis in a mouse model of infection. This strain is a clean deletion of the phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene that codes for a protein that catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-P to glucose-1-P, which is used as a precursor for the biosynthesis of many polysaccharides. The Delta-pgm strain lacks a complete lipopolysaccharide, is unable to synthesize cyclic beta glucans and is sensitive to several detergents and Polymyxin B. We show that this strain replicates in cultured cells, is completely avirulent in the mouse model of infection but protects against a challenge of the virulent strain inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This novel strain could be an excellent candidate for the control of swine brucellosis, a disease of emerging concern in many parts of the world. PMID:26899373

  20. Modeling the survivability of brucella to exposure of Ultraviolet radiation and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, R.

    Accumulated summation of daily Ultra Violet-B (UV-B = 290? to 320 ? ) data? from The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program show good correlation (R^2 = 77%) with daily temperature data during the five month period from February through June, 1998. Exposure of disease organisms, such as brucella to the effects of accumulated UV-B radiation, can be modeled for a 5 month period from February through June, 1998. Estimates of a lethal dosage for brucell of UV-B in the environment is dependent on minimum/maximum temperature and Solar Zenith Angle for the time period. The accumulated increase in temperature over this period also effects the decomposition of an aborted fetus containing brucella. Decomposition begins at some minimum daily temperature at 27 to 30 degrees C and peaks at 39 to 40C. It is useful to view the summation of temperature as a threshold for other bacteria growth, so that accumulated temperature greater than some value causes decomposition through competition with other bacteria and brucella die from the accumulated effects of UV-B, temperature and organism competition. Results of a study (Cook 1998) to determine survivability of brucellosis in the environment through exposure of aborted bovine fetuses show no one cause can be attributed to death of the disease agent. The combination of daily increase in temperature and accumulated UV-B radiation reveal an inverse correlation to survivability data and can be modeled as an indicator of brucella survivability in the environment in arid regions.

  1. Et tilfælde af brucella spondylodiscitis efter rejse til Libanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread endemic zoonotic infection affecting more than 500,000 people per year. The disease is very uncommon in Denmark and almost always imported. We present a case of a 57 year-old male with blood culture and magnetic resonance imaging verified brucella spondylodiscitis. Prior...

  2. Identification of biovars of Brucella abortus in aborted cattle and buffaloes herd in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. R. Priyantha

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is an endemic disease in Sri Lanka, caused by Brucella abortus and had been reported all part of the country for last six decades. Since available biovar is still unknown, the objective of the study was to identify the biovar of B.abortus from sporadically aborted cattle and buffaloes. Samples were collected from 18 aborted herds out of 19 herds of Cattle and Buffaloes in the year 2010. Rose Bengal plate test and Compliment Fixation test were carried out. Milk, vaginal swabs, placental contents and aborted fetus were collected and cultured by conventional bacteriological methods. The detection of biovars were based on growth on Thionin and Bacto fuschin,CO2 requirement, H2S production, serum agglutination with Brucella negative, A,M and R reference antiserum. Eighteen herds investigated out of 19 herds reported, 11 herds were serologically positive for brucellosis (61.11% and only Brucella abortus were isolated from 8 individuals from six herds. All were identified as Biovar 3 of Brucella abortus. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 542-545

  3. Brucella spp. in equines slaughtered in the south region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacteria of the genus Brucella are widespread in many countries. These microorganisms can infect humans and many wild and domestic animal species. These bacteria have zoonotic potential, and can cause economic and public health problems since they can be transmitted by direct contact with sick animals, through consumption of contaminated milk, raw meat and its derivatives (Soares et al., 2015. Brucellosis is considered a chronic evolving disease, unusual in horses, predominantly caused by Brucella abortus. However, it is not characterized by reproductive disorders in horses, but primarily by abscess in the cervical region, bursa, tendons, and joints. Transmission is likely to occur via ingestion of contaminated water and pastures, especially in areas endemic for bovine brucellosis (Ribeiro et al., 2008. The slaughterhouse is a strategic point for obtaining information about the animal and animal products, edible or not. This study investigated the presence of anti-Brucella spp. immunoglobulins in the serum samples from horses slaughtered in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil, to estimate the frequency of Brucella spp. antibodies and determine the spatial distribution of the cases.

  4. Antibody Production From Immunized Rabbits By Brucella Abortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research Brucella abortus was used as antigen which was made by killing the bacteria in boiling water for 1 hour and then add 0.5% phenol. The suspension of bacteria of 6x108 cells/mm3 was used as antigen. Rabbits of about 3 months old were injected with 0.50 mI of the antigen by intradermal route with an interval of two weeks. The animals were divided in three groups i.e. A (control group), B (immunization group) and C (immunization and irradiation group). In C group, the animals were first immunized by the antigen and then 2 days later were irradiated by a low dose of 0.50 Gy of gamma rays. Each group consisted of 3 animals. Parameters were observed by weighing the animals, counting leucocyte and lymphocyte cells, and anaIysing the antisera. The research were done two times, included immunization I x, boostered 4 x and analysed 5x. The results obtained were as follows: A (control group) yielded 2.34 g/dl of non specific antibody, B (immunization group) yielded 3.22 g/dI of specific antibody, C (immunization and irradiation group) yielded 3.50 g/dl of spesific antibody. The leucocyte cells of A, B , and C group were 8.240, 7.887, and 8.120 cells/mm3, respectively. The lymphocyte cells of A, B, and C group were 69%, respectively. The weigh of A, B, and C group were 1.44; 1.53; and l.41 kg, respectively. The purpose of this research was prepared to produce the diagnostic reagen (RIA Kit) for a rapid detection of animals disease especially brucellosis. It seemed that C group (the combination of immunization and irradiation treatments) yielded the highest value of antibody production compared to another group

  5. High throughput MLVA-16 typing for Brucella based on the microfluidics technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giannatale Elisabetta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by the genus Brucella, has been eradicated in Northern Europe, Australia, the USA and Canada, but remains endemic in most areas of the world. The strain and biovar typing of Brucella field samples isolated in outbreaks is useful for tracing back source of infection and may be crucial for discriminating naturally occurring outbreaks versus bioterrorist events, being Brucella a potential biological warfare agent. In the last years MLVA-16 has been described for Brucella spp. genotyping. The MLVA band profiles may be resolved by different techniques i.e. the manual agarose gels, the capillary electrophoresis sequencing systems or the microfluidic Lab-on-Chip electrophoresis. In this paper we described a high throughput system of MLVA-16 typing for Brucella spp. by using of the microfluidics technology. Results The Caliper LabChip 90 equipment was evaluated for MLVA-16 typing of sixty-three Brucella samples. Furthermore, in order to validate the system, DNA samples previously resolved by sequencing system and Agilent technology, were de novo genotyped. The comparison of the MLVA typing data obtained by the Caliper equipment and those previously obtained by the other analysis methods showed a good correlation. However the outputs were not accurate as the Caliper DNA fragment sizes showed discrepancies compared with real data and a conversion table from observed to expected data was created. Conclusion In this paper we described the MLVA-16 using a rapid, sophisticated microfluidics technology for detection of amplification product sizes. The comparison of the MLVA typing data produced by Caliper LabChip 90 system with the data obtained by different techniques showed a general concordance of the results. Furthermore this platform represents a significant improvement in terms of handling, data acquiring, computational efficiency and rapidity, allowing to perform the strain genotyping in a time equal to

  6. Lietuvos gyventojų daržovių ir vaisių vartojimo įpročiai

    OpenAIRE

    Petkevičienė, Janina; Kriaučionienė, Vilma

    2005-01-01

    Pateikiami tarptautinio NORBAGREEN tyrimo, kurio tikslas buvo įvertinti daržovių ir vaisių vartojimą Šiaurės Europos ir Baltijos valstybėse, duomenys. Lietuvoje apklausti 1076 15-74 m. atsitiktinai pasirinkti žmonės. Tyrimas atliktas pagal vienodą, specialiai šiam projektui parengtą klausimyną, kurio tinkamumas įvertintas Lietuvoje, Suomijoje ir Švedijoje. Lietuvos gyventojai daržoves valgė vidutiniškai 32, vaisius – 22 kartus per mėnesį. Kasdien valgė daržoves 61,4 proc. vyrų ir 66,5 proc. m...

  7. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  8. Reversible switch from hemoglobin A to C in sheep and recovery from anemia following experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pieragostini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia causes a change in the type of circulating hemoglobin (Hb in sheep carrying the βA-globin haplotype, where the Hb A is replaced with Hb C, unlike Hb B. The effect of the substitution of Hb A with Hb C on the recovery from anemia was investigated by comparing the hematological picture of sheep, following experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis. The blood values were obtained from 3 AB and 3 BB Hb sheep after the development of the disease where anemia is a pathognomonic symptom. The expression of the silent gene encoding for Hb C was detected by isoelectric focusing and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Both Hb AB genotype and Hb C occurrence were involved in the lower recovery from anemia in the trial.

  9. Application and evaluation of the MLVA typing assay for the Brucella abortus strains isolated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Suk-Chan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Brucella eradication program has been executed in Korea. To effectively prevent and control brucellosis, a molecular method for genetic identification and epidemiological trace-back must be established. As part of that, the MLVA typing assay was evaluated and applied to B. abortus isolates for analyzing the characteristics of the regional distribution and relationships of foreign isolates. Results A total of 177 isolates originating from 105 cattle farms for the period 1996 to 2008 were selected as representatives for the nine provinces of South Korea. A dendrogram of strain relatedness was constructed in accordance with the number of tandem repeat units for 17 loci so that it was possible to trace back in the restricted areas. Even in a farm contaminated by one source, however, the Brucella isolates showed an increase or decrease in one TRs copy number at some loci with high DI values. Moreover, those 17 loci was confirmed in stability via in-vitro and in-vivo passage, and found to be sufficiently stable markers that can readily identify the inoculated strain even if minor changes were detected. In the parsimony analysis with foreign Brucella isolates, domestic isolates were clustered distinctively, and located near the Central and Southern American isolates. Conclusion The MLVA assay has enough discrimination power in the Brucella species level and can be utilized as a tool for the epidemiological trace-back of the B. abortus isolates. But it is important to consider that Brucella isolates may be capable of undergoing minor changes at some loci in the course of infection or in accordance with the changes of the host.

  10. Mutant Brucella abortus membrane fusogenic protein induces protection against challenge infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; de Paulo Martins, Vicente; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-04-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we showed that B. abortus Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan deletion mutant strains have reduced persistence in vivo in C57BL/6 and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, 24 h after macrophage infection with a Δmfp::kan or Δomp19::kan strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) approximately 80% or 65% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1, respectively, whereas around 60% of BCVs containing wild-type S2308 were found in LAMP-1-negative compartments. B. abortus Δomp19::kan was attenuated in vivo but had a residual virulence in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, whereas the Δmfp::kan strain had a lower virulence in these same mouse models. Furthermore, Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan strains were used as live vaccines. Challenge experiments revealed that in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, the Δmfp::kan strain induced greater protection than the vaccine RB51 and protection similar that of vaccine S19. However, a Δomp19::kan strain induced protection similar to that of RB51. Thus, these results demonstrate that Brucella Mfp and Omp19 are critical for full bacterial virulence and that the Δmfp::kan mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies. PMID:25644010

  11. Mutant Brucella abortus Membrane Fusogenic Protein Induces Protection against Challenge Infection in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V.; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we showed that B. abortus Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan deletion mutant strains have reduced persistence in vivo in C57BL/6 and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, 24 h after macrophage infection with a Δmfp::kan or Δomp19::kan strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) approximately 80% or 65% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1, respectively, whereas around 60% of BCVs containing wild-type S2308 were found in LAMP-1-negative compartments. B. abortus Δomp19::kan was attenuated in vivo but had a residual virulence in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, whereas the Δmfp::kan strain had a lower virulence in these same mouse models. Furthermore, Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan strains were used as live vaccines. Challenge experiments revealed that in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, the Δmfp::kan strain induced greater protection than the vaccine RB51 and protection similar that of vaccine S19. However, a Δomp19::kan strain induced protection similar to that of RB51. Thus, these results demonstrate that Brucella Mfp and Omp19 are critical for full bacterial virulence and that the Δmfp::kan mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies. PMID:25644010

  12. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  13. Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F

    2015-01-01

    We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity. PMID:26505344

  14. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Caporale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 250 000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150 000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51 has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19. The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  15. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Vincenzo; Bonfini, Barbara; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Provvido, Andrea; Forcella, Simona; Giovannini, Armando; Tittarelli, Manuela; Scacchia, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 250,000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150,000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19). The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT) and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group. PMID:20391363

  16. Effect of Early Antibiotic Treatment on the Antibody Response to Cytoplasmic Proteins of Brucella melitensis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, Raul A.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    1999-01-01

    To test whether antibiotic therapy hampers the antibody response to Brucella antigens, 30 BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella melitensis H38 and randomized for treatment with doxycycline administered intraperitoneally for 42 days starting at 7 or 28 days postinfection (p.i.) (groups DOX7 and DOX28, respectively) or for no treatment (control group). Antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reached peak levels (mean optical density [OD] = 2.618) between days...

  17. Brucella 'HOOF-Prints': strain typing by multi-locus analysis of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs)

    OpenAIRE

    Halling Shirley M; Ewalt Darla R; Bricker Betsy J

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Currently, there are very few tools available for subtyping Brucella isolates for epidemiological trace-back. Subtyping is difficult because of the genetic homogeneity within the genus. Sequencing of the genomes from three Brucella species has facilitated the search for DNA sequence variability. Recently, hypervariability among short tandem repeat sequences has been exploited for strain-typing of several bacterial pathogens. Results An eight-base pair tandem repeat sequenc...

  18. In Vitro Activities of Antibiotics Alone and in Combination against Brucella melitensis at Neutral and Acidic pHs

    OpenAIRE

    Akova, Murat; Gür, Deniz; Livermore, David M; Kocagöz, Tanil; Akalin, H. Erdal

    1999-01-01

    Brucellae survive acidic pHs in phagolysosomes. Azithromycin, streptomycin, and quinolones were active against Brucella melitensis at pH 7.0 but not at pH 5.0; rifampin and doxycycline retained activity at pH 5.0. Regardless of pH, azithromycin-rifampin and ofloxacin-rifampin showed less synergy than established streptomycin-doxycycline and rifampin-doxycycline combinations.

  19. Antigens of Brucella abortus S19 immunodominant for bovine lymphocytes as identified by one- and two-dimensional cellular immunoblotting.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks-Worrell, B M; Splitter, G A

    1992-01-01

    Cellular immune responses are influential for protection against intracellular bacteria such as brucellae. Therefore, identification of Brucella abortus antigens that activate primed bovine lymphocytes is fundamental for discerning the breadth of cellular response in bovine brucellosis. Potentially antigenic components of B. abortus S19 were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by nitrocellulose blotting. Specific one-dimensional blot segments induced...

  20. Genome sequence of Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19 compared to virulent strains yields candidate virulence genes

    OpenAIRE

    Crasta, Oswald R.; Folkerts, Otto; Fei, Zhangjun; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Evans, Clive; Martino-Catt, Susan; Bricker, Betsy; Yu, GongXin; Du, Lei; Sobral, Bruno W.

    2008-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain S19, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in vaccination of cattle against brucellosis for six decades. Despite many studies, the physiological and molecular mechanisms causing the attenuation are not known. We have applied pyrosequencing technology together with conventional sequencing to rapidly and comprehensively determine the complete genome sequence of the attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19. The main goal of this st...

  1. Cloning of Brucella abortus gene and characterization of expressed 26-kilodalton periplasmic protein: potential use for diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, O L; Arese, A I; Boschiroli, M L; Cravero, S L

    1996-01-01

    Brucella spp. are the causative agents of brucellosis in many different hosts, including humans. Most of the serological methods of diagnosis are based on the detection of antilipopolysaccharide antibodies, which makes the differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals difficult. By using molecular biology techniques, a gene that encodes a 26-kDa protein (BP26) was isolated from a Brucella abortus S19 genome lambda gt11 library. This protein is in the periplasm of B. abortus and ...

  2. The Brucella abortus Cyclic β-1,2-Glucan Virulence Factor Is Substituted with O-Ester-Linked Succinyl Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Roset, Mara S.; Ciocchini, Andrés E.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.; Iñón de Iannino, Nora

    2006-01-01

    Brucella periplasmic cyclic β-1,2-glucan plays an important role during bacterium-host interaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry analysis, thin-layer chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex chromatography were used to characterize Brucella abortus cyclic glucan. In the present study, we report that a fraction of B. abortus cyclic β-1,2-glucan is substituted with succinyl residues, which confer anionic character on the cyclic β-1,2-glucan. The oligosaccharide backbone is substituted at C-...

  3. Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus Vaccine Strain S19 Compared to Virulent Strains Yields Candidate Virulence Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Crasta, Oswald R.; Otto Folkerts; Zhangjun Fei; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Clive Evans; Susan Martino-Catt; Betsy Bricker; GongXin Yu; Lei Du; Sobral, Bruno W.

    2008-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain S19, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in vaccination of cattle against brucellosis for six decades. Despite many studies, the physiological and molecular mechanisms causing the attenuation are not known. We have applied pyrosequencing technology together with conventional sequencing to rapidly and comprehensively determine the complete genome sequence of the attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19. The main goal of this st...

  4. Identification and Characterization of a Brucella abortus ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Homolog to Rhizobium meliloti ExsA and Its Role in Virulence and Protection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    G.M.S. Rosinha; Freitas, Daniela A.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Campos, Eleonora; Cravero, Silvio L; Rossetti, Osvaldo; Splitter, Gary; S.C. Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not fully understood yet. Furthermore, genes that allow Brucella to reach the intracellular niche and to interact with host cells need to be identified. Using the genomic survey sequence (GSS) approach, we identified the gene encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter of B. abortus strain S2308. The ded...

  5. Ammonia concentrations in different size classes of ovarian follicles of sheep (Ovis aries): Possible mechanisms of accumulation and its effect on oocyte and granulosa cell growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Gupta, P S P; Mondal, S

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the concentrations and the mechanisms of accumulation of ammonia in different sizes of ovarian follicles and the effect of ammonia on oocyte and granulosa cell growth and functions in vitro with sheep (Ovis aries) as an animal model. The effects of cyclicity, seasonality, phases of the estrous cycle, and seasons (environmental) on ammonia concentrations in follicular fluid were also investigated. The effect of ammonia on in vitro development of oocytes (maturation rate, viability rate, cleavage rate, morulae/blastocysts yield) recovered from different sizes of follicles was examined at the levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 300, and 500 μM. Same concentrations of ammonia were examined on growth parameters (metabolic activity, viability, cell number increment, monolayer formation, apoptosis rate) and hormone (progesterone, estrogen) secretion activity of granulosa cells in vitro. Results suggested as the follicle size increased, ammonia concentrations decreased. The ammonia concentrations in ovine follicular fluid were found to be 261.5 ± 32.4, 157.7 ± 19.2, and 42.9 ± 8.3 μM, respectively, for small, medium, and large follicles. The corresponding ranges were 290 to 238 μM, 184 to 142 μM, and 70 to 22 μM. The differences were due to more accumulation of fluid, less metabolic activity of granulosa cells, and elevation of protein, potassium, and chloride as the follicle size increased. The seasonality and phases of the estrous cycle did not have any effect on ammonia level in ovarian follicles. Ammonia concentrations in all size classes of follicles examined were significantly reduced in ewes during hot seasons compared to cold seasons and in acyclic animals compared to cyclic ones. Ammonia impaired oocyte development at 300 μM when the oocytes were isolated from small follicles and at 250 μM when the oocytes were isolated from medium and large follicles. In contrast, ammonia caused the negative impact on granulosa cells growth

  6. Isolation and identification of Brucella suis biotype 2 from epididymal puncture performed on a boar affected with brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogožarski Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The causal agent of swine brucellosis is Brucella suis. Within the scope of the kinds of Brucella suis, there are five biotypes, but only biotypes 1, 2 and 3 lead to swine infections. Human infections with Brucella suis biotype 2 are rarely registered. Swine brucellosis is widespread all over the world. It has been noted that the incidence of swine population infected with Brucella suis in Western Europe has been increasing during the recent years. The goal of this project was to isolate, identify and typify the causal agent from epididymal puncture performed on a boar with conditions suspicious of brucellosis, using standard microbiological methods. The results of the research show that Brucella suis biotype 2 can be successfully isolated and identified from a sample obtained by means of epididymal puncture of live animals. Therefore, epididymal puncture gives us a certain, reliable and important sample derived from a live animal for a direct diagnostic of boar brucellosis. The above mentioned first isolate of Brucella suis biotype 2 epididymal puncture, has been marked as K-1.

  7. Identification and expression of Babesia ovis secreted antigen 1 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Ferda; Cao, Shinuo; Xuan, Xuenan; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify immunoreactive proteins that are usable for the immunological diagnosis of Babesia ovis infections, a phage lambda cDNA expression library was constructed and screened using parasite-specific immune serum. Immunoscreening resulted in the identification of a full-length cDNA clone encoding a secreted protein designated Babesia ovis secreted antigen 1 (BoSA1). The full-length BoSA1 cDNA contained a 1,137-bp open reading frame that encoded a protein of 378 amino acids, with a signal peptide and 2 internal repeat domains. The theoretical molecular mass of the mature protein was 42.5 kDa. Recombinant BoSA1 (rBoSA1) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli strain DH5α cells as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatography. Purified rBoSA1 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally or naturally infected with B. ovis, in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that specific antibodies against rBoSA1 were detectable on days 7 and 8 of the experimental infection and were maintained during the sampling period. Additionally, 38 field sera taken from sheep naturally infected with B. ovis gave strong positive reactions in the ELISA between day 20 and day 30 of treatment. As a result, the identified recombinant BoSA1 protein seems to be a promising diagnostic antigen that is usable for the development of serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. This is the first report on the molecular cloning, expression, and potential use of a recombinant antigen for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. PMID:25694531

  8. Comparison of brucella and non-specific epididymorchitis: gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to differentiate between brucellar and non-specific epididymorchitis by comparing ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings. Material and methods: Fifty-six patients diagnosed to have epididymorchitis both clinically and ultrasonographically were included to study. All of the patients were investigated serologically for brucella. Twenty-eight of those patients were admitted brucella epididymorchitis because of high agglutinations titers for brucella. The other 28 patients were admitted non-specific epididymorchitis because of normal agglutinations titers for brucella. Testicular size, echogenicity, hydrocele, internal echoes and/or septations within hydrocele, and scrotal skin thickness of normal and involved testis were compared by ultrasonography. Besides, pick systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and pick systolic velocity ratio values were measured by bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasonography in both groups. When the p-value is <0.05, the difference between groups is accepted as statistically significant. Results: Thickening of scrotal skin was seen in 17 of 28 patients with brucella epididymorchitis (BEPO) (67%) and in 25 of 28 patients with non-specific epididymorchitis (NEPO) (89.2%) (p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding presence of hydrocele. However hydrocele seen in all patients was anechoic except for two patients (8.6%). Hydrocele seen in 18 of 22 patients with BEPO and hydrocele had internal echogenicity or septation (p < 0.001). Sizes of testes and epididymis were found to be increased in involved testis compared to normal testis. Testes of all patients with NEPO were homogenous with decreased echogenicity except for five patients (17.8%). However, 23 patients with BEPO (82%) found to have heterogenous testis (p < 0.001). Spectral measurements showed increased PSV and EDV values and decreased RI values in

  9. Comparison of brucella and non-specific epididymorchitis: gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Adil [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozturka26@hotmail.com; Ozturk, Ebru [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Zeyrek, Fadile [Department of Microbiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Onur, Kahraman [Department of Urology, SSK Sanliurfa Hastanesi, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Sirmatel, Ocal [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Kat, Nurcan [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2005-11-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to differentiate between brucellar and non-specific epididymorchitis by comparing ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings. Material and methods: Fifty-six patients diagnosed to have epididymorchitis both clinically and ultrasonographically were included to study. All of the patients were investigated serologically for brucella. Twenty-eight of those patients were admitted brucella epididymorchitis because of high agglutinations titers for brucella. The other 28 patients were admitted non-specific epididymorchitis because of normal agglutinations titers for brucella. Testicular size, echogenicity, hydrocele, internal echoes and/or septations within hydrocele, and scrotal skin thickness of normal and involved testis were compared by ultrasonography. Besides, pick systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and pick systolic velocity ratio values were measured by bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasonography in both groups. When the p-value is <0.05, the difference between groups is accepted as statistically significant. Results: Thickening of scrotal skin was seen in 17 of 28 patients with brucella epididymorchitis (BEPO) (67%) and in 25 of 28 patients with non-specific epididymorchitis (NEPO) (89.2%) (p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding presence of hydrocele. However hydrocele seen in all patients was anechoic except for two patients (8.6%). Hydrocele seen in 18 of 22 patients with BEPO and hydrocele had internal echogenicity or septation (p < 0.001). Sizes of testes and epididymis were found to be increased in involved testis compared to normal testis. Testes of all patients with NEPO were homogenous with decreased echogenicity except for five patients (17.8%). However, 23 patients with BEPO (82%) found to have heterogenous testis (p < 0.001). Spectral measurements showed increased PSV and EDV values and decreased RI values in

  10. Monitoring of Brucella reactor does following milk examination using different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Razik, K A Abd; Ghazi, Y A; Salama, E M

    2007-01-15

    Milk samples from 129 does were collected and monitored for Brucella antibodies using immunological tests such as Milk Ring Test (MRT), Whey Agglutination Test (WAT), Whey Antiglobulin Coombs Test (WCT) and milk ELISA (m ELISA) using Brucella Periplasmic protein antigen. Results obtained from these tests were compared to PCR and bacterial isolation. The highest incidence of positive reactors was given by Whey Antiglobulin and Whey Agglutination Test (9.3%) while the lowest incidence was given by bacterial isolation (Br. melitensis biovars 3, 3.8%). PCR showed the highest agreement with the bacterial isolation, while WAT and WCT showed the lowest one. PCR showed a high sensitivity of 1 x 10 B. melitensis CFU mL(-1) of milk. The results of mELISA here suggests its efficiency to be used as a screening test and/or confirmatory test, while the modified MRT still need more investigations to diagnosis caprine brucellosis. PMID:19070022

  11. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and B. canis in household dogs in southwestern Nigeria: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. B. Cadmus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary serological study of 366 household dogs in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, was carried out to determine antibodies due to exposure to Brucella abortus and B. canis, using the rose bengal test (RBT and the rapid slide agglutination (RSA test, respectively. Results showed that 5.46 % (20/366 and 0.27 % (1/366 of the dogs screened were seropositive to B. abortus and B. canis, respectively.Of all dogs, 36 had a history of being fed foetuses from cows and 11 (30.6 % of these tested positive in the RBT. Our findings, although based on a limited sample size and a dearth of clinical details, revealed that dogs in Nigeria may be infected with Brucella spp. given the wide range of risk factors. Further studies are recommended to elucidate the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in the country.

  12. Immunogenic response induced by wzm and wzt gene deletion mutants from Brucella abortus S19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ran; Yan, Guang-Mou; Zhang, Rui; Lang, Xu-Long; Yang, Yan-Ling; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Si; Qian, Jing; Wang, Xing-Long

    2014-02-01

    Brucellosis is an infectious disease affecting humans and animals worldwide. Effective methods of control include inducing immunity in animals by vaccination and elimination. Brucella abortus S19 is one of the popular vaccines for control of cattle brucellosis, as it has low virulence. In this paper, allelic exchange plasmids of wzm and wzt genes were constructed and partially knocked out to evaluate the effects on the induction of immunity to Brucella abortus S19 mutants. Cytokine secretion in vitro, INF-γ induction in vivo and antibody dynamics were evaluated. These data suggested that the immunity-eliciting ability of the wzm and wzt gene deletion mutants was similar, although reduced compared with the S19 strain. The results demonstrated that the wzt gene may be more important in the regulation of the induction of immunity than the wzm gene. PMID:24247358

  13. Immune Reactivity of Brucella Melitensis–Vaccinated Rabbit Serum with Recombinant Omp31 and Dnak Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Brucella melitensis infection is still a major health problem for human and cattle in developing countries and the Middle East.Materials and Methods: In this study, in order to screen immunogenic candidate antigens for the development of a Brucella subunit vaccine, a cytoplasmic protein (DnaK and an outer membrane protein (Omp31 of B. melitensis were cloned, expressed in E.coli BL21 and then purified using Ni-NTA agarose. Immunized serum was prepared from a rabbit inoculated with attenuated B. melitensis.Results and Conclusion: It was proved that immunized serum contains antibodies against recombinant Omp31 (rOmp31 and DnaK (rDnaK by Western blot and ELISA assays. The results may suggest the importance of these proteins as subunit vaccines against B. melitensis as well as targets for immunotherapy.

  14. Study of Nitric Oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages induced by Brucella Lipopolysaccharide

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    Kavoosi G

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Brueclla is a gram negative bacteria that causes Brucellosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS ", the pathogenic agent of Brucella is composed of O-chain, core oligosaccharide and lipid A. in addition, the structural and biological properties of different LPS extracted from different strains are not identical. The first defense system against LPS is nonspecific immunity that causes macrophage activation. Activated macrophages produce oxygen and nitrogen radicals that enhance the protection against intracellular pathogens.In this experiment LPS was extracted by hot phenol- water procedure and the effect of various LPSs on nitric oxide prodution by peritoneal mouse macrophages was examined.Our results demonstrated that the effect of LPS on nitric oxide production is concentration-dependent we observed the maximum response in concentration of 10-20 microgram per milliliter. Also our results demonstrate that LPS extracted from vaccine Brucella abortus (S 19 had a highe effect on nitric oxide production than the LPS from other strains

  15. Genetic Characterization and Comparative Genome Analysis of Brucella melitensis Isolates from India

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    Sarwar Azam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonotic disease worldwide, with over 500,000 new human infections every year. Brucella melitensis, the most virulent species in humans, primarily affects goats and the zoonotic transmission occurs by ingestion of unpasteurized milk products or through direct contact with fetal tissues. Brucellosis is endemic in India but no information is available on population structure and genetic diversity of Brucella spp. in India. We performed multilocus sequence typing of four B. melitensis strains isolated from naturally infected goats from India. For more detailed genetic characterization, we carried out whole genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis of one of the B. melitensis isolates, Bm IND1. Genome analysis identified 141 unique SNPs, 78 VNTRs, 51 Indels, and 2 putative prophage integrations in the Bm IND1 genome. Our data may help to develop improved epidemiological typing tools and efficient preventive strategies to control brucellosis.

  16. Association of Brucella Meningoencephalitis with Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt in A Child: A Case Report

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    Babak ABDINIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic zoonosis in Iran. It is a systemic infection that can involve any organs or systems of the body and have variable presentations. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt infections due to brucellosis have been rarely reported in the literatures.This is the history of a four years old boy who developed Brucella meningoencephalitis at the age of 42 months, whilst he had a VP shunt in situ for hydrocephalus treatment. Also, he presented brucellosis as acute abdomen. This patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and rifampicin. The shunt was extracted and all clinical and laboratory test abnormalities subsided through this management.We propose that in a patient with Brucella meningoencephalitis, the cerebrospinal fluid shunt system can be extracted and treatment with appropriate combination of antibiotics could be successful. Moreover, it shows that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute abdomen and ascites in endemic regions.

  17. Use of an indirect elisa for Brucella abortus diagnosis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introducing immunoassays in Brucella diagnosis requires a comparative study with reference techniques such as the complement fixation reaction (CFR). Sensitivity and relative specificity studies allowed us to observe the behaviour of this immunoassay, using samples from free of disease, free by vaccination and affected areas. Sensitivity results for a cut-off point of 40PP and a confidence interval of 95% ranged from 94.8 to 99.5% and the specificity between 94.1 and 97.5%. For free of disease areas a cut-off point of 22 PP was calculated that reached a 99% specificity. This immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus must be used with two different cut-off points, depending on the epidemiologic conditions of the country, with CFR in affected or vaccinated areas as a confirmative method. (author)

  18. Estimating the population density of Iberian wild goat Capra pyrenaica and mouflon Ovis aries in a Mediterranean forest environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Tinoco Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To manage and conserve wild populations effectively, a good understating of population density is critical. During 2010, the density of Iberian wild goat Capra pyrenaica and mouflon Ovis aries were estimated.Area of study: The area is situated in Muela de Cortes Game Reservation (Spain, a Mediterranean forest plateau, after a mange Sarcoptes scabiei outbreak that affected both species. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, sex ratio and productivity of the Iberian wild goat and mouflon. Field work was conducted during spring (after parturition and autumn (during rut by walking along itineraries, using a Distance Sampling approach. Main results: Based on DS, the best relative fit of model and adjustment term for Iberian wild goat was hazard-rate cosine, based on the lowest AIC score. The average density for Iberian wild goat was 4 km-2 (95% CI: 2,3 – 6,9 (after parturition and 3,6 km-2 (95% CI: 2 – 6.6 (during rut. Average estimation was 1,422 goats (95% CI: 813 – 2,487 after parturition and 1,308 during rut (95% CI: 725 – 2,362. Mouflon best relative fit of model and adjustment term was uniform cosine after parturition, based on the lowest AIC score. The best relative fit of model and adjustment term for mouflon was hazard-rate cosine, based on the lowest AIC score. The average density was 6.8 mouflon km-2 (95% CI: 4.7 – 9,9 after parturition and 7,4 mouflon km-2 (95% CI: 4,4 – 12,5 during rut. Average estimation was 2,440 mouflon after parturition (95% CI: 1,673 – 3,558 and 2,678 during rut (95% CI: 1,589 – 4,515. Research highlights: The area represents one of the largest continental free-living populations of mouflon in Europe and a relevant area for Iberian wild goat, where it has survived for centuries and spread into the East Iberia. This study suggests that the survey methods used are suitable and sustainable with available field personnel for quantifying changes in wild goat and mouflon populations

  19. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus genome

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    McGuire Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration

  20. Transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to brucella abortus biotype 1 in sprague-dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the investigation on the transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to Brucella abortus biotype 1 in Sprague- Dawley rats, neither any stillbirth, abortion or premature birth nor any abnormality of fetus was observed in the infected group or in the control group. B. abortus biotype was isolated from the fetus of infected rats only. Only one band of 498 base pair DNA was obtained in polymerase chain reaction products from DNA of the fetuses of infected SD rats. (author)

  1. Sacroiliitis as a sole manifestation of Brucella melitensis infection in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of a 12-year-old boy with sacroiliitis documented by positive Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 scans is described. Isolation of brucella melitensis from the blood and bone marrow established the diagnosis. He responded promptly to docycycline therapy. Throughout the course of his disease this boy had neither fever nor other signs of brucellosis, and x-ray was normal

  2. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Diego, Juana L; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Buret, Andre G; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2015-05-01

    Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS) release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN. PMID:25946018

  3. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Barquero-Calvo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs, enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN.

  4. Entrance and survival of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages and epithelial cells.

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    Anett K Larsen

    Full Text Available Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis and cetaceans (B. ceti from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17 by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1, two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1, and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3 were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72-96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3, suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary.

  5. Biotyping and Genotyping (MLVA16) of Brucella abortus Isolated from Cattle in Brazil, 1977 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Minharro, Sílvia; Silva Mol, Juliana P.; Elaine M. S. Dorneles; Pauletti, Rebeca B; Neubauer, Heinrich; Melzer, Falk; Poester, Fernando P.; Dasso, Maurício G.; Pinheiro, Elaine S.; Soares Filho, Paulo M.; Santos, Renato L.; Marcos B. Heinemann; Andrey P. Lage

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that causes important economic losses to animal production. In Brazil, information on the distribution of biovars and genotypes of Brucella spp. is scarce or unavailable. This study aimed (i) to biotype and genotype 137 Brazilian cattle isolates (from 1977 to 2008) of B. abortus and (ii) to analyze their distribution. B. abortus biovars 1, 2 and 3 (subgroup 3b) were confirmed and biovars 4 and 6 were first described in Brazil. Genotyping by the ...

  6. Isolation & characterization of Brucella melitensis isolated from patients suspected for human brucellosis in India

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    Anita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present study showed an overall isolation rate of 17.64 per cent for B. melitensis. There is a need to establish facilities for isolation and characterization of Brucella species for effective clinical management of the disease among patients as well as surveillance and control of infection in domestic animals. Further studies are needed from different geographical areas of the country with different level of endemicity to plan and execute control strategies against human brucellosis.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation and azathioprine on Brucella abortus infection in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublethal irradiation of BALB/c mice 4 hours prior to inoculation with 5 x 10(4) virulent Brucella abortus, caused significant (P less than 0.01) reductions in bacterial numbers in comparison with numbers in unirradiated controls. Numbers of brucellae in the spleen were significantly lower by 5 days after inoculation and decreased thereafter, so that at 2 and 3 weeks after inoculation, there were up to 1,000-fold fewer organisms in the spleen of irradiated mice. The number of brucellae in the spleen increased in irradiated mice thereafter. The course of events in the liver was similar, but developed more slowly, and peak differences in bacterial numbers were about 1 log less. These phenomena were not attributable to differences in implantation of brucellae in the liver or spleen, nor to an abnormal distribution of organisms in other organs of irradiated mice. Irradiation of mice during the plateau phase of infection also resulted in significant (P less than 0.05) reductions in bacterial counts in the spleen during the succeeding 4 weeks. Macrophage activation in the spleen, measured by a Listeria monocytogenes-killing assay, was significantly (P less than 0.01) increased by irradiation alone at 1 week after inoculation and at that time was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater in B abortus-infected, irradiated mice than in B abortus-infected controls. Histologic, cytologic, and immunologic studies revealed that the decrease in numbers of organisms between 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation in irradiated mice occurred at a time when their immune response to B abortus was suppressed and when numbers of neutrophils and monocytes infiltrating the spleen were significantly (P less than 0.01) diminished

  8. Safety of the novel influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine in pregnant heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaissar Tabynov; Sholpan Ryskeldinova; Zhailaubay Kydyrbayev; Abylai Sansyzbay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study provides the first information about the safety of a new influenza viral vector vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or Omp16 containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in pregnant heifers. Immunization of pregnant heifers was conducted via the conjunctival (n=10) or subcutaneous (n=10) route using cross prime and booster vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. The vector vaccine was evaluated in comparison with positive control groups vac...

  9. Interferon-γ promotes abortion due to Brucella infection in pregnant mice

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Hiroshi; Furuoka Hidefumi; Watanabe Kenta; Lee Dong; Kim Suk; Watarai Masahisa

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The mechanisms of abortion induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated abortion induced by Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in a mouse model. Results High rates of abortion were observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Regardless of whether fetuses were aborted or stayed alive, the transmission of bacteria into the fetus and bacte...

  10. Brucella abortus transits through the autophagic pathway and replicates in the endoplasmic reticulum of nonprofessional phagocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro-Cerda, J. (Javier); Meresse, S. (Stéphane); Parton, R G; van der Goot, G; Sola-Landa, A.; Lopez-Goñi, I. (Ignacio); Moreno, E.; Gorvel, J P

    1998-01-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen that replicates within a membrane-bounded compartment. In this study, we have examined the intracellular pathway of the virulent B. abortus strain 2308 (S2308) and the attenuated strain 19 (S19) in HeLa cells. At 10 min after inoculation, both bacterial strains are transiently detected in phagosomes characterized by the presence of early endosomal markers such as the early endosomal antigen 1. At approximately 1 h postinoculation, bacteria are loc...

  11. Protection against infection in mice vaccinated with a Brucella abortus mutant.

    OpenAIRE

    Boschiroli, M L; Cravero, S L; Arese, A I; Campos, E.; Rossetti, O L

    1997-01-01

    This study determines whether a genetically engineered mutant of Brucella abortus, strain M-1, possesses differences in protective properties compared to the parental strain, vaccine S19. M-1 is a mutant unable to express BP26, a periplasmic protein with potential use in diagnosis. Mice vaccinated with S19 developed antibodies against BP26, while those vaccinated with M-1 did not. However, mice vaccinated with S19 or M-1 were similarly protected against challenge with pathogenic strain 2308, ...

  12. Evaluation of Brucella abortus Phosphoglucomutase (pgm) Mutant as a New Live Rough-Phenotype Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ugalde, Juan Esteban; Comerci, Diego José; Leguizamón, M. Susana; Ugalde, Rodolfo Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Brucella abortus S19 is the vaccine most frequently used against bovine brucellosis. Although it induces good protection levels, it cannot be administered to pregnant cattle, revaccination is not advised due to interference in the discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals during immune-screening procedures, and the vaccine is virulent for humans. Due to these reasons, there is a continuous search for new bovine vaccine candidates that may confer protection levels comparable to th...

  13. Study of Nitric Oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages induced by Brucella Lipopolysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Kavoosi G; Kabodanian Ardestani S; Kariminia A

    2001-01-01

    Brueclla is a gram negative bacteria that causes Brucellosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ", the pathogenic agent of Brucella is composed of O-chain, core oligosaccharide and lipid A. in addition, the structural and biological properties of different LPS extracted from different strains are not identical. The first defense system against LPS is nonspecific immunity that causes macrophage activation. Activated macrophages produce oxygen and nitrogen radicals that enhance the protection again...

  14. The Complete Genome of Brucella Suis 019 Provides Insights on Cross-Species Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanzhi Wang; Zhen Wang; Xin Chen; Hui Zhang; Fei Guo; Ke Zhang; Hanping Feng; Wenyi Gu; Changxin Wu; Lei Ma; Tiansen Li; Chuangfu Chen; Shan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Brucella species are the most important zoonotic pathogens worldwide and cause considerable harm to humans and animals. In this study, we presented the complete genome of B. suis 019 isolated from sheep (ovine) with epididymitis. B. suis 019 has a rough phenotype and can infect sheep, rhesus monkeys and possibly humans. The comparative genome analysis demonstrated that B. suis 019 is closest to the vaccine strain B. suis bv. 1 str. S2. Further analysis associated the rsh gene to the pathogeni...

  15. Effects of gamma radiation and azathioprine on Brucella abortus infection in BALB/c mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzer, P.H.; Rowe, G.E.; Enright, F.M.; Winter, A.J. (Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Sublethal irradiation of BALB/c mice 4 hours prior to inoculation with 5 {times} 10(4) virulent Brucella abortus, caused significant (P less than 0.01) reductions in bacterial numbers in comparison with numbers in unirradiated controls. Numbers of brucellae in the spleen were significantly lower by 5 days after inoculation and decreased thereafter, so that at 2 and 3 weeks after inoculation, there were up to 1,000-fold fewer organisms in the spleen of irradiated mice. The number of brucellae in the spleen increased in irradiated mice thereafter. The course of events in the liver was similar, but developed more slowly, and peak differences in bacterial numbers were about 1 log less. These phenomena were not attributable to differences in implantation of brucellae in the liver or spleen, nor to an abnormal distribution of organisms in other organs of irradiated mice. Irradiation of mice during the plateau phase of infection also resulted in significant (P less than 0.05) reductions in bacterial counts in the spleen during the succeeding 4 weeks. Macrophage activation in the spleen, measured by a Listeria monocytogenes-killing assay, was significantly (P less than 0.01) increased by irradiation alone at 1 week after inoculation and at that time was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater in B abortus-infected, irradiated mice than in B abortus-infected controls. Histologic, cytologic, and immunologic studies revealed that the decrease in numbers of organisms between 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation in irradiated mice occurred at a time when their immune response to B abortus was suppressed and when numbers of neutrophils and monocytes infiltrating the spleen were significantly (P less than 0.01) diminished.

  16. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Al-Mariri; George Saour; Razan Hamoud

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil ext...

  17. Sacroiliitis as a sole manifestation of Brucella melitensis infection in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miron, D.; Garty, I.; Tal, I.; Horovitz, Y.; Kedar, A.

    1987-06-01

    A case of a 12-year-old boy with sacroiliitis documented by positive Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 scans is described. Isolation of brucella melitensis from the blood and bone marrow established the diagnosis. He responded promptly to docycycline therapy. Throughout the course of his disease this boy had neither fever nor other signs of brucellosis, and x-ray was normal.

  18. EXPRESSION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS PROTECTIVE ANTIGEN IN VACCINE STRAIN BRUCELLA ABORTUS RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Poff, Sherry Ann

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated im...

  19. Virulence Effects and Signaling Partners Modulated by Brucella melitensis Light-sensing Histidine Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Christopher R.

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis utilizes diverse virulence factors. A Brucella light sensing histidine kinase can influence in vitro virulence of the bacteria during intracellular infection. First, we demonstrated that the B. melitensis light sensing kinase (BM-LOV-HK) affects virulence in an IRF-1-/- mouse model of infection. Infection with a Δ BM-LOV-HK strain resulted in less bacterial colonization of IRF-1-/- spleens and extended survivorship compared to mice infected with wild type B. melitensis 16M. Second, using PCR arrays, we observed less expression of innate and adaptive immune system activation markers in ΔBM-LOV-HK infected mouse spleens than wild type B. melitensis 16M infected mouse spleens 6 days after infection. Third, we demonstrated by microarray analysis of B. melitensis that deletion of BM-LOV-HK alters bacterial gene expression. Downregulation of genes involved in control of the general stress response system included the alternative sigma factor RpoE1 and its anti-anti sigma factor PhyR. Conversely, genes involved in flagella production, quorum sensing, and the type IV secretion system (VirB operon) were upregulated in the Δ BM-LOV-HK strain compared to the wild type B. melitensis 16M. Analysis of genes differentially regulated in Δ BM-LOV-HK versus the wild type strain indicated an overlap of 110 genes with data from previous quorum sensing regulator studies of Δ vjbR and/ΔblxR(babR) strains. Also, several predicted RpoE1 binding sites located upstream of genes were differentially regulated in the ΔBM-LOV-HK strain. Our results suggest BM-LOV-HK is important for in vivo Brucella virulence, and reveals that BM-LOV-HK directly or indirect regulates members of the Brucella quorum sensing, type IV secretion, and general stress systems.

  20. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A.; Idrissi, A.H. El; Doumbia, A.; de Balogh, K.

    2014-01-01

    A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10) consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12) composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 × 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels. PMID:26623347

  1. The domain-wall/QFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Boonstra, H J; Townsend, P K

    1999-01-01

    We extend the correspondence between adS-supergravities and superconformal field theories on the adS boundary to a correspondence between gauged supergravities (typically with non-compact gauge groups) and quantum field theories on domain walls.

  2. Relationships of systemic IgG antibody response and lesions caused by Oestrus ovis L. larvae (Diptera: Oestridae in infected goats - Interacciones de la respuesta sistémica de anticuerpos IgG y las lesiones causadas por larvas de Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae en cabras infectadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available SummaryThis is the abstract, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae is a nasosinusalparasite of sheep and goats that affects the wellbeing andperformance of the hosts. Our objectives were (1 to analyzeassociations of host phenotypic characteristics (age, weight, sex, O.ovis larval characteristics, systemic antibody IgG response, andlesions in sinusal and horn cavities in naturally infected goats, and (2to estimate the serodiagnostic value of salivary gland antigens foroestrosis diagnosis by ELISA test in goats naturally exposed to O.ovis infection. O. ovis third-instar larvae (L3 were collected, thendissected to remove the salivary gland and to obtain the antigenssource (SGC. A total of 251 goats were necropsied. The host’sweight, age and sex were individually recorded. The sinusal and horncavities were examined for the presence of O. ovis larvae. Cavitarylesions and lesion intensity in infected goats (n=38 were scoredaccording to a severity table. Sera (n=125 were analyzed by ELISAto detect specific humoral IgG responses. Annual prevalence of goatoestrosis was 73.9%. A low positive association (r=0.38, P<0.05was observed between larval burden and severity of sinus lesions. Ingeneral, high sensitivity (90.82% and low specificity (25.93% wereobserved in ELISA. As conclusions, major pathological damages caused by O. ovis were associated with the presence of early L2 andearly L3 larvae, probably enhanced by larval molting. SGC antigenswere proven valuable antigens for oestrosis diagnosis by ELISA test ingoats.ResumenOestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae es un parásito nasosinusal de lascabras y las ovejas que afecta el bienestar y el rendimiento de sushospedadores. Nuestros objetivos fueron (1 analizar las asociacionesde características fenotípicas del hospedador (peso, sexo, edad,características larvarias de O. ovis, la respuesta de IgG, y las lesionesen las cavidades sinusales y cornuales de cabras infectadas, y (2estimar el valor de los antígenos de

  3. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education... RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Determination of Awards § 691.66 Correspondence study... program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not including any...

  4. 34 CFR 686.25 - Correspondence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 686.25 Section 686.25 Education... Determination of Awards § 686.25 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates a TEACH Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but...

  5. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not including...

  6. Comparative Brucella abortus antibody prevalence in cattle under contrasting husbandry practices in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Nizeyimana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the Luwero and Nakasongola districts in central Uganda to determine and compare the prevalence and distribution of antibodies against Brucella abortus in cattle under contrasting husbandry practices, using two serological tests. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were systematically sampled from 29 farms and subsequently tested using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT and Indirect Antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA. The overall prevalence of antibodies against Brucella abortus in the Nakasongola and Luwero districts was 2.4% and 4.7% on RBPT, compared with 1.2% and 3.34 % on I-ELISA. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by RBPT and indirect antibody ELISA (p > 0.05. It was noted that antibodies against Brucella abortus were widely spread over different farms regardless of the cattle grazing system (p > 0.05. Based on the findings, it is feasible to use RBPT as a cheaper screening alternative for brucellosis. A comprehensive national brucellosis study should be undertaken to study the epidemiology and prevalence of brucellosis in Uganda.

  7. A serological diagnostic survey for Brucella canis infection in Turkish patients with Brucellosis-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Murat; Erdenlig, Sevil; Stack, Judy; Kilic, Selcuk; Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Aksoy, Yavuz; Baklan, Ayhan; Etiler, Nilay

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of Brucella canis infection in humans is unknown in Turkey. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B. canis infection in human sera obtained from six regions in Turkey and comparatively evaluated the results obtained by agglutination-based techniques using standardized antigens made from B. canis. The patients (n = 1,746) presented with clinical symptoms that were similar to those of brucellosis. All patients who tested negative in the Rose Bengal test for the smooth Brucella strains (abortus, melitensis, and suis) were screened for evidence of B. canis infection using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT), the microagglutination test (MAT), and the 2-mercaptoethanol RSAT test (2ME-RSAT). Of the samples tested, 157 (8.9%), 68 (3.8%), and 66 (3.7%) were positive for B. canis, as determined by RSAT, MAT, and 2ME-RSAT, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RSAT were 100%, 94.6%, 42%, and 100%, respectively, and of MAT were 100%, 99.9%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. We recommend the routine use of MAT and 2ME-RSAT to check the sera of all patients with symptoms of brucellosis who are negative for brucellosis using a smooth Brucella antigen. PMID:22116333

  8. Cloning and molecular characterization of Omp31 gene from Brucella melitensis Rev 1 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi, S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, caused by the genus Brucella bacterium, is a well-known infection among domestic animals. Considering the serious economic and medical consequences of this infection, various preventive efforts have been made through using recombinant vaccines, based on outer membrane protein (OMP antigens of Brucella species. The objective of the present study was to clone, analyze the sequence, and predict the epitopes of Omp31 gene as a major B. melitensis antigen. The full-length open reading frame (ORF for this gene was amplified by specific primers and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector. The gene sequence of B. melitensis Rev 1 strain was submitted to NCBI database. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that Omp31 is almost similar in different Brucella species. Online prediction software programs were also used to predict B- and Tcell epitopes, secondary and tertiary structures, antigenicity, and enzymatic degradation sites. The bioinformatic tools in the current study were confirmed by the results of three different experimental epitope prediction studies. Bioinformatic analysis identified one T-cell and three B-cell epitopes for Omp31 antigen. Finally, based on the antigenicity and proteosome recognition sites, common B- and T-cell epitopes were predicted for Omp31 (amino acids 191-204. Bioinformatic analysis showed that these regions had proper epitope characterization and could be useful for recombinant vaccine development.

  9. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Marchesini

    Full Text Available Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24 is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  10. Ferrochelatase is present in Brucella abortus and is critical for its intracellular survival and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirón, M; Martínez, M; Sanjuan, N; Ugalde, R A

    2001-10-01

    Brucella spp. are pathogenic bacteria that cause brucellosis, an animal disease which can also affect humans. Although understanding the pathogenesis is important for the health of animals and humans, little is known about virulence factors associated with it. In order for chronic disease to be established, Brucella spp. have developed the ability to survive inside phagocytes by evading cell defenses. It hides inside vacuoles, where it then replicates, indicating that it has an active metabolism. The purpose of this work was to obtain better insight into the intracellular metabolism of Brucella abortus. During a B. abortus genomic sequencing project, a clone coding a putative gene homologous to hemH was identified and sequenced. The amino acid sequence revealed high homology to members of the ferrochelatase family. A knockout mutant displayed auxotrophy for hemin, defective intracellular survival inside J774 and HeLa cells, and lack of virulence in BALB/c mice. This phenotype was overcome by complementing the mutant strain with a plasmid harboring wild-type hemH. These data demonstrate that B. abortus synthesizes its own heme and also has the ability to use an external source of heme; however, inside cells, there is not enough available heme to support its intracellular metabolism. It is concluded that ferrochelatase is essential for the multiplication and intracellular survival of B. abortus and thus for the establishment of chronic disease as well. PMID:11553564

  11. Immunoassays for the diagnosis of Brucella suis infection in pigs. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serological procedures to detect antibody against Brucella were developed for diagnosing bovine brucellosis and have been adapted for testing swine sera. The original tube and plate agglutination test and additional, more specific tests such as the buffered plate antigen (BPAT) or 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) utilize Brucella abortus whole cells as antigen. Regardless of the serological test used for swine diagnosis, detection of 80-90% of individual infected swine must be regarded as the best result that can be achieved at present. A primary binding assay such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) improved sensitivity and specificity of the measurement of bovine antibody to B. abortus. Limited investigation has been reported about the use of immunoassays for the diagnosis of swine brucellosis. The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate the immunoassays developed by K. Nielsen and collaborators for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using swine sera by comparing test results of BPAT and ME assays now available in diagnostic laboratories. Sera from brucellosis free herds (from Canada) and from swine infected groups (from Argentina) where Brucella suis was isolated were tested

  12. Proteomic analysis of Brucella abortus cell envelope and identification of immunogenic candidate proteins for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph P; Comerci, Diego; Alefantis, Timothy G; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian; Chafin, Ryan; Grewal, Paul; Mujer, Cesar V; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; DelVecchio, Vito G

    2006-07-01

    Brucella abortus is the etiologic agent of bovine brucellosis and causes a chronic disease in humans known as undulant fever. In livestock the disease is characterized by abortion and sterility. Live, attenuated vaccines such as S19 and RB51 have been used to control the spread of the disease in animals; however, they are considered unsafe for human use and they induce abortion in pregnant cattle. For the development of a safer and equally efficacious vaccine, immunoproteomics was utilized to identify novel candidate proteins from B. abortus cell envelope (CE). A total of 163 proteins were identified using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. Some of the major protein components include outer-membrane protein (OMP) 25, OMP31, Omp2b porin, and 60 kDa chaperonin GroEL. 2-DE Western blot analyses probed with antiserum from bovine and a human patient infected with Brucella identified several new immunogenic proteins such as fumarate reductase flavoprotein subunit, F0F1-type ATP synthase alpha subunit, and cysteine synthase A. The elucidation of the immunome of B. abortus CE identified a number of candidate proteins for developing vaccines against Brucella infection in bovine and humans. PMID:16739129

  13. A genome-wide SNP-based phylogenetic analysis distinguishes different biovars of Brucella suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-07-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis. B. suis is the most genetically diverged species within the genus Brucella. We present the first large-scale B. suis phylogenetic analysis based on an alignment-free k-mer approach of gathering polymorphic sites from whole genome sequences. Genome-wide core-SNP based phylogenetic tree clearly differentiated and discriminated the B. suis biovars and the vaccine strain into different clades. A total of 16,756 SNPs were identified from the genome sequences of 54 B. suis strains. Also, biovar-specific SNPs were identified. The vaccine strain B. suis S2-30 is extensively used in China, which was discriminated from all biovars with the accumulation of the highest number of SNPs. We have also identified the SNPs between B. suis vaccine strain S2-30 and its closest homolog, B. suis biovar 513UK. The highest number of mutations (22) was observed in the phosphomannomutase (pmm) gene essential for the synthesis of O-antigen. Also, mutations were identified in several virulent genes including genes coding for type IV secretion system and the effector proteins, which could be responsible for the attenuated virulence of B. suis S2-30. PMID:27085292

  14. Brucella suis bacteremia misidentified as Ochrobactrum anthropi by the VITEK 2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Andrea; Pagella, Hugo; Vera Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Ochrobactrum and Brucella are genetically related genera of the family Brucellaceae, sharing 98.8% rRNA similarity. Because of their phenotypic similarity, Ochrobactrum can be miscoded as Brucella by automated identification systems. The misidentification on blood cultures (BCs) of B. suis as O. anthropi by the VITEK 2 system is herein described. A 67-year-old male with a prosthetic mitral valve and fever was admitted with bacteremia due to a Gram-negative coccobacillus identified as O. anthropi by VITEK 2. The patient's fever persisted along with positive blood cultures despite specific antimicrobial treatment. Due to this adverse outcome, the patient was interrogated again and admitted having domestic swine. Serological tests were positive for acute brucellosis. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of BC strains identified B. suis biovar 1. Timely identification of Brucella is essential for providing proper treatment to the patient and for advising safe handling of laboratory cultures in biological safety cabinets to prevent laboratory-acquired infection. Countries where brucellosis is endemic must be aware of this possibility. PMID:27131010

  15. BigA is a novel adhesin of Brucella that mediates adhesion to epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czibener, Cecilia; Merwaiss, Fernando; Guaimas, Francisco; Del Giudice, Mariela Giselda; Serantes, Diego Armando Rey; Spera, Juan Manuel; Ugalde, Juan Esteban

    2016-04-01

    Adhesion to cells is the initial step in the infectious cycle of basically all pathogenic bacteria, and to do so, microorganisms have evolved surface molecules that target different cellular receptors. Brucella is an intracellular pathogen that infects a wide range of mammals whose virulence is completely dependent on the capacity to replicate in phagocytes. Although much has been done to elucidate how Brucella multiplies in macrophages, we still do not understand how bacteria invade epithelial cells to perform a replicative cycle or what adhesion molecules are involved in the process. We report the identification in Brucella abortus of a novel adhesin that harbours a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain and demonstrate that this protein is involved in the adhesion to polarized epithelial cells such as the Caco-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney models targeting the bacteria to the cell-cell interaction membrane. While deletion of the gene significantly reduced adhesion, over-expression dramatically increased it. Addition of the recombinant protein to cells induced cytoskeleton rearrangements and showed that this adhesin targets proteins of the cell-cell interaction membrane in confluent cultures. PMID:26400021

  16. Pyruvate kinase is necessary for Brucella abortus full virulence in BALB/c mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianpeng; Tian, Mingxing; Bao, Yanqing; Li, Peng; Liu, Jiameng; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by a facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella, is one of the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. Host infection relies on several uncanonical virulence factors. A recent research hotpot is the links between carbon metabolism and bacterial virulence. In this study, we found that a carbon metabolism-related pyruvate kinase (Pyk) encoded by pyk gene (locus tag BAB_RS24320) was associated with Brucella virulence. Determination of bacterial growth curves and resistance to environmental stress factors showed that Pyk plays an important role in B. abortus growth, especially under the conditions of nutrition deprivation, and resistance to oxidative stress. Additionally, cell infection assay showed that Pyk is necessary for B. abortus survival and evading fusion with lysosomes within RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, animal experiments exhibited that the Pyk deletion significantly reduced B. abortus virulence in a mouse infection model. Our results elucidated the role of the Pyk in B. abortus virulence and provided information for further investigation of Brucella virulence associated carbon metabolism. PMID:27561260

  17. Purification and properties of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase extracted from Brucella abortus strain 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, L.B. (ARS-USDA, Ames, IA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Recent work showed that a recombinant 20 kDa protein from Brucella abortus expressed in E. coli is a Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Western blot and ELISA results indicated that cattle with brucellosis have antibody to SOD. Here the authors report the purification and properties of the native B. abortus Cu-Zn SOD. SOD was extracted from methanol-killed Brucella abortus strain 19 with 0.1 M sodium citrate-1.0 M sodium chloride solution. The extract was dialyzed and protein precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 70-100% saturation was collected. The SOD was purified by HPLC anion exchange chromatography. SOD activity was assayed with a coupled enzyme assay using xanthine oxidase-cytochrome C reduction assay. The authors determined that the Brucella SOD is present in two molecular forms both inhibitable with KCN with Ki's of 0.32 mM and 4.98 mM, respectively. No other form of SOD was identified in the extract. Polyclonal antibody to SOD and polyclonal antibody to SOD synthetic peptide residues 134-143 inhibited SOD activity by 50% and 13%, respectively. Both SOD and the synthetic peptide inhibited binding of anti-SOD antibody to SOD by 60% and 20%, respectively. Based on these results the SOD and its amphipathic peptide will be considered as candidates for the design of synthetic multiple peptide vaccines and diagnostic reagents for bovine brucellosis.

  18. Microbiological study and antimicrobial susceptibilities of brucella isolates in serologic diagnosed cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abtin Heidarzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 25 Nov, 2008 ; Accepted 4 Mar, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution that is endemic in Iran. Worldwide, brucellosis remains a major cause of morbidity in humans and domesticated animals. The disease has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestation and can affect a variety of organs and systems. This study focused on blood culture of serologic diagnosed brucellosis and antimicrobial susceptibility test.Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study, microbiologic survey was done on a total of 30 serum samples with STA titer of 1:160 or greater and 2ME titer of 1:40 or greater, which were presumptive for brucellosis. Blood cultures were done by lysis centrifugation and antimicrobial susceptibility test, against 9 antimicrobial agents by disk method. The data was analyzed by stata V8.0 software.Results: At the end this study, the blood culture isolation rate was 23.3 %( 7 cases out of 30 patients and all of the isolates were brucella melitensis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed high in vitro activity of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline and also, low in vitro activity of streptomycin and cotrimoxazole.Conclusion: Brucellosis is endemic in Iran. Brucella melitensis was the most common strain of brucella in our patients. Except cotrimoxazole and streptomycin, high in vitro activity was found with other antibrucella agents, especially with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68: 74-78 (Persian

  19. Detección de anticuerpos Anti-brucella en focas de Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii de Cabo Shirref, Antártica Detection of anti-brucella antibodies in Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii from cape Shirref, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. BLANK

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior al hallazgo de anticuerpos anti-Brucella en muestras de lobo fino antártico (Arctocephalus gazella, el estudio serológico en Pinnipedia Antárticos se continuó con el fin de determinar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Brucella en otras especies. Se colectaron muestras de sangre y de fluido extravascular de 12 ejemplares de foca de Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii encontrados en el Sitio de Especial Interés Científico (SEIC Nº 32 y sitio CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP N° 2, "Cabo Shirreff e Islotes San Telmo" (62º 47' S; 60º 27' W, localizado en la costa Noroeste de la isla Livingston (Shetland del Sur, Antártica. Las muestras obtenidas fueron analizadas por la técnica convencional Rosa de Bengala (RB y dos inmunoensayos enzimáticos de competencia: Compelisa®, y c-ELISA. De las muestras estudiadas se identificaron cinco con anticuerpos anti-Brucella, siendo las pruebas inmunoenzimáticas las técnicas más sensibles. Estos resultados muestran una alta probabilidad de presencia de infección por una bacteria del género Brucella en ejemplares L. weddellii y plantean la necesidad de realizar estudios complementarios, que permitan conocer la etiología y entender la epidemiología de Brucella en esta región del mundoAfter the finding of anti-Brucella antibodies in samples of Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella, the serological study on Antarctic Pinniped was continued in order to determine the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in other species. Blood and extra vascular fluid samples were taken from 12 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii at the Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI Nº 32 and CCAMLR* Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP site N° 2 "Cape Shirreff and San Telmo Islets" (62º 47' S; 60º 27' W, located on the Norwest coast Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The samples were tested by the conventional Rose Bengal test (RB and two competitive enzymatic immunoassay

  20. Brucella DNA is not detected in in-vitro produced embryos derived from ovaries of naturally infected Brucella DNA is not detected in in-vitro produced embryos derived from ovaries of naturally infected buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Manna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for Brucella spp. buffalo embryos produced in- vitro, by using cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs recovered from ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes naturally infected with Brucella spp. Ovaries were collected from 5 female pluriparous buffaloes slaughtered in a local abattoir. EDTA-blood samples and nasal swabs collected from each animal were used for Brucella spp. DNA detection by real-time PCR. Buffalo ovaries (n = 10 were transported to the laboratory and maintained strictly separated throughout laboratory processing. Recovered COCs were matured, fertilized and cultured in vitro until day 7. Some immature COCs, all uncleaved COCs, all blocked cleaved embryos (2 to 16 cells and all transferable embryos (tight morulae and blastocysts were separately analysed by real-time PCR assay. Brucella spp. DNA was detected in both blood and nasal mucus of all subjects, whereas no trace of DNA of Brucella spp. was found on either COCs or embryos. Currently, the infected or seropositive buffaloes have to be slaughtered for sanitary reasons. Interestingly, the results of this preliminary trial suggest a possible utilization of the COCs from the infected subjects of high genetic value to obtain safe embryos.

  1. Evaluation of the PANBIO Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Araj, George F.; Kattar, Mireille M.; Fattouh, Layla G.; Bajakian, Kayane O.; Kobeissi, Sara A.

    2005-01-01

    PANBIO Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were assessed against Brucella standard agglutination tube and Coombs tests. The sensitivities of ELISA IgG and IgM were 91% and 100%, respectively, while the specificity was 100% for both. These ELISAs are simple, rapid, and reliable for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

  2. The efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus to detect brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.; Muskens, J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated Brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (SDTH) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a rnucoid strain of Brucella abortus. An increase in skinfol

  3. Maintenance of Brucella abortus free herds; a review with emphasis on the epidemiology and the problems in diagnosing brucellosis in areas of low prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This review covers some epidemiological aspects that allow Brucella to survive, spread, and maintain itself in the environment. Because the success of maintaining Brucella-free herds is determined by the efficiency of the serological tests to detect a single infected animal the limitations of the tr

  4. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events.

  5. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  6. Descripción de características reproductivas en tres perros seropositivos a Brucella canis Description of reproductive characteristics of three Brucella canis seropositive dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BORIE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las características reproductivas a nivel histológico y seminal en tres perros seropositivos a Brucella canis. A nivel seminal se observaron alteraciones en volumen y en la morfología espermática, encontrándose en un perro ausencia total de espermatozoides. Esta situación concordó con los estudios histológicos, donde se encontró alteración de la línea espermatogénica, además de infiltración eritrocitaria tubular indicativo de alteración de la barrera hematotesticular. Los resultados confirman el impacto negativo de esta bacteria sobre la funcionalidad reproductiva, alterando seriamente la fertilidadSeminal and histological reproductive characteristics in three Brucella canis seropositive dogs are described. Seminal volume and sperm morphology were altered and no sperm was seen in one dog. This agrees with histological findings where spermatozoid development was altered and eritrocites inside tubular lumen were seen indicating hemo-testicular barrier failure. These results confirm the negative impact of the disease on reproductive performance with subsequent infertility

  7. Novel vector vaccine against Brucella abortus based on influenza A viruses expressing Brucella L7/L12 or Omp16 proteins: evaluation of protection in pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Yespembetov, Bolat; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2014-10-14

    The present study provides the first information about the protection of a novel influenza viral vector vaccine expressing the Brucella proteins ribosomal L7/L12 or Omp16 containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in pregnant heifers. Immunization of pregnant heifers was conducted via the conjunctival (n=10) or subcutaneous (n=10) route using cross prime and booster vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. The vector vaccine was evaluated in comparison with positive control groups vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 (n=10) or B. abortus RB51 (n=10) and a negative (PBS+Montanide Gel01; n=10) control group. Via both the conjunctival or subcutaneous route, evaluation of protectiveness against abortion, effectiveness of vaccination and index of infection (in heifers and their fetuses or calves) demonstrated the vector vaccine provided good protection against B. abortus 544 infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01) and comparable protection to commercial vaccines B. abortus S19 or B. abortus RB51. PMID:25218295

  8. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Amira E. F.; Hassan, Abdullahi N.; Ali, Ali E.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors. Methods One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates. Results Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease. Conclusions The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed. PMID:25938483

  9. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira E F Osman

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors.One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates.Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease.The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed.

  10. A Survey of the Metal Content of the Intergalactic Medium at High-redshift (II) : OVI line density, space density and gas metallicity at z_abs = 3.0

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, S; York, D G

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed a large data set of OVI absorber candidates in the spectra of 3800 SDSS quasars, focusing on a sample of 387 AGN sightlines with S/N>5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W_r>0.19 A for the OVI 1032A component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking OVI doublets, we derive for the first time a lower limit for the redshift number density for redshifts z>2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the Ly_a forest lines, and estimate the success rate of retrieving individual candidates as a function of absorber redshift, emission redshift of the quasar, strength of the absorber and S/N of the spectrum. These correction factors allow us to derive the incompleteness and S/N-corrected redshift number densities of OVI absorbers : Delta_N/Delta_ z (2.81.9 x 10^{-8} h^{-1}. We show that the strong lines account for over 65% of the mass in OVI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant i...

  11. Immunogenicity Analysis of a Novel Subunit Vaccine Candidate Molecule-Recombinant L7/L12 Ribosomal Protein of Brucella suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xin; Wang, Jian-Ying

    2016-08-01

    Brucella was an intracellular parasite, which could infect special livestock and humans. After infected by Brucella, livestock's reproductive system could be affected and destroyed resulting in huge economic losses. More seriously, it could be contagious from livestock to humans. So far, there is no available vaccine which is safe enough for humans. On this point, subunit vaccine has become the new breakthrough of conquering brucellosis. In this study, Brucella rL7/L12-BLS fusion protein was used as an antigen to immunize rabbits to detect the immunogenicity. The results of antibody level testing assay of rabbit antiserum indicated rL7/L12-BLS fusion protein could elicit rabbits to produce high-level IgG. And gamma interferon (IFN-γ) concentrations in rabbit antiserum were obviously up-regulated in both the rL7/L12 group and rL7/L12-BLS group. Besides, the results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed the IFN-γ gene's expression levels of both the rL7/L12 group and rL7/L12-BLS group were obviously up-regulated. All these results suggested Brucella L7/L12 protein was an ideal subunit vaccine candidate and possessed good immunogenicity. And Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) molecule was a favorable transport vector for antigenic protein. PMID:27075455

  12. Structural Insights into the HWE Histidine Kinase Family: The Brucella Blue Light-Activated Histidine Kinase Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Jimena; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; Sycz, Gabriela; Cerutti, María Laura; Berguer, Paula M; Paris, Gastón; Estrín, Darío Ariel; Martí, Marcelo Adrián; Klinke, Sebastián; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto

    2016-03-27

    In response to light, as part of a two-component system, the Brucella blue light-activated histidine kinase (LOV-HK) increases its autophosphorylation, modulating the virulence of this microorganism. The Brucella histidine kinase (HK) domain belongs to the HWE family, for which there is no structural information. The HWE family is exclusively present in proteobacteria and usually coupled to a wide diversity of light sensor domains. This work reports the crystal structure of the Brucella HK domain, which presents two different dimeric assemblies in the asymmetric unit: one similar to the already described canonical parallel homodimers (C) and the other, an antiparallel non-canonical (NC) dimer, each with distinct relative subdomain orientations and dimerization interfaces. Contrary to these crystallographic structures and unlike other HKs, in solution, the Brucella HK domain is monomeric and still active, showing an astonishing instability of the dimeric interface. Despite this instability, using cross-linking experiments, we show that the C dimer is the functionally relevant species. Mutational analysis demonstrates that the autophosphorylation activity occurs in cis. The different relative subdomain orientations observed for the NC and C states highlight the large conformational flexibility of the HK domain. Through the analysis of these alternative conformations by means of molecular dynamics simulations, we also propose a catalytic mechanism for Brucella LOV-HK. PMID:26851072

  13. Nasal vaccination stimulates CD8(+) T cells for potent protection against mucosal Brucella melitensis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Beata; Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis remains a significant zoonotic threat worldwide. Humans and animals acquire infection via their oropharynx and upper respiratory tract following oral or aerosol exposure. After mucosal infection, brucellosis develops into a systemic disease. Mucosal vaccination could offer a viable alternative to conventional injection practices to deter disease. Using a nasal vaccination approach, the ΔznuA B. melitensis was found to confer potent protection against pulmonary Brucella challenge, and reduce colonization of spleens and lungs by more than 2500-fold, with >50% of vaccinated mice showing no detectable brucellae. Furthermore, 10-fold more brucellae-specific, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing CD8(+) T cells than CD4(+) T cells were induced in the spleen and respiratory lymph nodes. Evaluation of pulmonary and splenic CD8(+) T cells from mice vaccinated with ΔznuA B. melitensis revealed that these expressed an activated effector memory (CD44(hi)CD62L(lo)CCR7(lo)) T cells producing elevated levels of IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, perforin and granzyme B. To assess the relative importance of these increased numbers of CD8(+) T cells, CD8(-/-) mice were challenged with virulent B. melitensis, and they showed markedly increased bacterial loads in organs in contrast to similarly challenged CD4(-/-) mice. Only ΔznuA B. melitensis- and Rev-1-vaccinated CD4(-/-) and wild-type mice, not CD8(-/-) mice, were completely protected against Brucella challenge. Determination of cytokines responsible for conferring protection showed the relative importance of IFN-γ, but not interleukin-17 (IL-17). Unlike wild-type (wt) mice, IL-17 was greatly induced in IFN-γ(-/-) mice, but IL-17 could not substitute for IFN-γ's protection, although an increase in brucellae dissemination was observed upon in vivo IL-17 neutralization. These results show that nasal ΔznuA B. melitensis vaccination represents an attractive means to stimulate systemic and mucosal immune protection via CD

  14. On the Magnetohydrodynamics/Gravity Correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Lysov, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    The fluid/gravity correspondence relates solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation to metrics which solve the Einstein equations. In this paper we extend this duality to a new magnetohydrodynamics/gravity correspondence, which translates solutions of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (describing charged fluids) into geometries that satisfy the Einstein-Maxwell equations. We present an explicit example of this new correspondence in the context of flat Minkowski space. We show ...

  15. Correspondence analysis theory, practice and new strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Beh, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the internationalisation of correspondence analysis Correspondence Analysis: Theory, Practice and New Strategies examines the key issues of correspondence analysis, and discusses the new advances that have been made over the last 20 years. The main focus of this book is to provide a comprehensive discussion of some of the key technical and practical aspects of correspondence analysis, and to demonstrate how they may be put to use.  Particular attention is given to the history and mathematical links of the developments made. These links include not just those majo

  16. Ação anti-inflamatória da fração lipídica do Ovis aries associado ao ultrassom terapêutico em modelo experimental de tendinite em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) Anti-inflammatory action of the Ovis aries lipidic fraction associated to therapeutic ultrasound in an experimental model of tendinitis in rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelino Martins; Antonio L. M. Maia Filho; Charllyton L. S. Costa; Nayana P. M. F. Coelho; Maricilia S. Costa; Regiane A. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstram o efeito benéfico da aplicação tópica de ácidos graxos como agentes cicatrizantes. A fração lipídica do Ovis aries apresenta uma ação anti-inflamatória que acelera o processo de cicatrização. O ultrassom aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo bem como a extensibilidade das estruturas de colágeno e tendões. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a ação anti-inflamatória da fração lipídica do Ovis aries associado ao ultrassom terapêutico (UST) pulsado e à fricção em modelo de tendinite ind...

  17. Crystallographic and kinetic study of riboflavin synthase from Brucella abortus, a chemotherapeutic target with an enhanced intrinsic flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports crystal structures of trimeric riboflavin synthase from the pathogen B. abortus both as the apo protein and in complex with several ligands of interest. It is shown that ligand binding drives the assembly of the unique active site of the trimer, and these findings are complemented by a detailed kinetic study on this enzyme, in which marked inhibition by substrate and product was observed. Riboflavin synthase (RS) catalyzes the last step of riboflavin biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants, which corresponds to the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine to yield one molecule of riboflavin and one molecule of 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Owing to the absence of this enzyme in animals and the fact that most pathogenic bacteria show a strict dependence on riboflavin biosynthesis, RS has been proposed as a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Eubacterial, fungal and plant RSs assemble as homotrimers lacking C3 symmetry. Each monomer can bind two substrate molecules, yet there is only one active site for the whole enzyme, which is located at the interface between two neighbouring chains. This work reports the crystallographic structure of RS from the pathogenic bacterium Brucella abortus (the aetiological agent of the disease brucellosis) in its apo form, in complex with riboflavin and in complex with two different product analogues, being the first time that the structure of an intact RS trimer with bound ligands has been solved. These crystal models support the hypothesis of enhanced flexibility in the particle and also highlight the role of the ligands in assembling the unique active site. Kinetic and binding studies were also performed to complement these findings. The structural and biochemical information generated may be useful for the rational design of novel RS inhibitors with antimicrobial activity

  18. Crystallographic and kinetic study of riboflavin synthase from Brucella abortus, a chemotherapeutic target with an enhanced intrinsic flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serer, María I.; Bonomi, Hernán R. [IIBBA–CONICET, Avenida Patricias Argentinas 435, C1405BWE Buenos Aires (Argentina); Guimarães, Beatriz G. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Rossi, Rolando C. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Klinke, Sebastián, E-mail: sklinke@leloir.org.ar [IIBBA–CONICET, Avenida Patricias Argentinas 435, C1405BWE Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-05-01

    This work reports crystal structures of trimeric riboflavin synthase from the pathogen B. abortus both as the apo protein and in complex with several ligands of interest. It is shown that ligand binding drives the assembly of the unique active site of the trimer, and these findings are complemented by a detailed kinetic study on this enzyme, in which marked inhibition by substrate and product was observed. Riboflavin synthase (RS) catalyzes the last step of riboflavin biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants, which corresponds to the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine to yield one molecule of riboflavin and one molecule of 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Owing to the absence of this enzyme in animals and the fact that most pathogenic bacteria show a strict dependence on riboflavin biosynthesis, RS has been proposed as a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Eubacterial, fungal and plant RSs assemble as homotrimers lacking C{sub 3} symmetry. Each monomer can bind two substrate molecules, yet there is only one active site for the whole enzyme, which is located at the interface between two neighbouring chains. This work reports the crystallographic structure of RS from the pathogenic bacterium Brucella abortus (the aetiological agent of the disease brucellosis) in its apo form, in complex with riboflavin and in complex with two different product analogues, being the first time that the structure of an intact RS trimer with bound ligands has been solved. These crystal models support the hypothesis of enhanced flexibility in the particle and also highlight the role of the ligands in assembling the unique active site. Kinetic and binding studies were also performed to complement these findings. The structural and biochemical information generated may be useful for the rational design of novel RS inhibitors with antimicrobial activity.

  19. Brucella suis Vaccine Strain 2 Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress that Affects Intracellular Replication in Goat Trophoblast Cells In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, Pengfei; Li, Yang; Xiang, Caixia; Yin, Yanlong; Chen, Zhi; Du, Yue; Zhou, Dong; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Brucella has been reported to impair placental trophoblasts, a cellular target where Brucella efficiently replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ultimately trigger abortion in pregnant animals. However, the precise effects of Brucella on trophoblast cells remain unclear. Here, we describe the infection and replication of Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 (B.suis.S2) in goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) and the cellular and molecular responses induced in vitro. Our studies demonstrated that B.suis.S2 was able to infect and proliferate to high titers, hamper the proliferation of GTCs and induce apoptosis due to ER stress. Tunicamycin (Tm), a pharmacological chaperone that strongly mounts ER stress-induced apoptosis, inhibited B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. In addition, 4 phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA), a pharmacological chaperone that alleviates ER stress-induced apoptosis, significantly enhanced B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) chaperone molecule GRP78 also promoted B.suis.S2 proliferation in GTCs by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. We also discovered that the IRE1 pathway, but not the PERK or ATF6 pathway, was activated in the process. However, decreasing the expression of phosphoIRE1α and IRE1α proteins with Irestatin 9389 (IRE1 antagonist) in GTCs did not affect the proliferation of B.suis.S2. Although GTC implantation was not affected upon B.suis.S2 infection, progesterone secretion was suppressed, and prolactin and estrogen secretion increased; these effects were accompanied by changes in the expression of genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes. This study systematically explored the mechanisms of abortion in Brucella infection from the viewpoint of pathogen invasion, ER stress and reproductive endocrinology. Our findings may provide new insight for understanding the mechanisms involved in goat abortions caused by Brucella infection. PMID:26904517

  20. Improving image registration by correspondence interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Pedersen, Henrik; Hansen, Michael Sass; Larsson, Henrik; Larsen, Rasmus

    This paper presents how using a correspondence-based interpolation scheme for 3D image registration improves the registration accuracy. The interpolator takes into account correspondences across slices, which is an advantage, particularly when the volume has thick slices, and where anatomies lie...... downsampled data, increasing the registration accuracy of original data to 5.8% on average with respect to a standard interpolator....

  1. The para-HK/QK correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Dyckmanns, Malte

    2016-01-01

    We generalise the hyper-Kahler/quaternionic Kahler (HK/QK) correspondence to include para-geometries, and present a new concise proof that the target manifold of the HK/QK correspondence is quaternionic Kahler. As an application, we construct one-parameter deformations of the temporal and Euclidean supergravity c-map metrics and show that they are para-quaternionic Kahler.

  2. Robot Self-Location by Line Correspondences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡占义; 雷成; 徐孔达

    2001-01-01

    This paper thoroughly investigates the problem of robot self-location by line correspondences. The original contributions are three-fold: (1) Obtain the necessary and sufficient condition to determine linearly the robot's pose by two line correspondences. (2) Show that if the space lines are vertical ones, it is impossible to determine linearly the robot's pose no matter how many line correspondences we have, and the minimum number of line correspondences is 3 to determine uniquely (but non-linearly) the robot's pose. (3) Show that if the space lines are horizontal ones, the minimum number of line correspondences is 3 for linear determination and 2 for non-linear determination of the robot's pose.

  3. Functoriality for Lagrangian correspondences in Floer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrheim, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    We generalize Lagrangian Floer theory to sequences of Lagrangian correspondences and establish an isomorphism between the Floer homology groups of sequences that are related by the geometric composition of Lagrangian correspondences. On these Floer homologies, we define relative invariants arising from ``quilted pseudoholomorphic surfaces'': Collections of pseudoholomorphic maps to various target spaces with ``seam conditions'' in Lagrangian correspondences and boundary conditions in Lagrangian submanifolds. Using these new invariants, we define a composition functor for categories of Lagrangian correspondences in monotone and exact symplectic Floer theory. We show that this functor agrees with geometric composition in the case that the composition is smooth and embedded. As a consequence we obtain ``categorification commutes with composition'' for Lagrangian correspondences.

  4. Characterization of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis native haptens as outer membrane O-type polysaccharides independent from the smooth lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, V; Díaz, R; Moreno, E; Moriyón, I

    1996-02-01

    Brucella native haptens (NHs) extracted with hot water from smooth (S)-type B. abortus and B. melitensis were purified to high levels of serological activity and compared with the polysaccharide obtained by acid hydrolysis (PS) of the S lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS). By 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, NHs showed the spectrum of a homopolymer of alpha-1,2- or alpha-1,2- plus alpha-1,3-linked 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-mannose (N-formylperosamine) previously reported for the LPS O chain. However, while PS contained up to 0.6% 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonate, this LPS-core marker was absent from NH. High performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography showed heterogeneity in NH purified from whole cells but not in PS. By immunoprecipitation, polysaccharides indistinguishable from NH were demonstrated in extracts obtained with phenol-water, saline at 60 degrees C, and ether-water treatments, and none of these treatments caused S-LPS hydrolysis detectable with antibodies to the O chain and lipid A. Two lines of evidence showed that NH was in the cell surface. First, NH became biotinylated when B. abortus live cells were labelled with biotin-hydrazide, and the examination of cell fractions and electron microscopy sections with streptavidin-peroxidase and streptavidin-coloidal gold, respectively, showed that labelling was extrinsic. Moreover, whereas only traces of NH were found in cytosols, the amount of NH was enriched in cell envelopes and in the outer membrane blebs spontaneously released by brucellae during growth. Interactions between NH and S-LPS were observed in crude cell extracts, and such interactions could be reconstituted by using purified NH and LPS. The results demonstrate that NH is not a hydrolytic product of S-LPS and suggest a model in which LPS-independent O-type polysaccharides (NH) are intertwined with the O chain in the outer membrane of S-type brucellae. PMID:8576040

  5. Tenazität von hochpathogenen Erregern in Lebensmitteln und Schnellmethoden zu deren Nachweis am Beispiel Brucella

    OpenAIRE

    Falenski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In case of a deliberate contamination of the food chain with brucellae it is important to know the survival of the bacteria in relevant food matrices. Therefore, the survival of Brucella abortus 1119-3 was investigated in raw milk as well as in commercially available foods like UHT-milk, certified raw milk, yogurt and still mineral water at general storage conditions. B. abortus 1119-3 and B. melitensis 16M survived longest in UHT-milk in which the total cell count multiplied to more than 10^...

  6. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Straube Eberhard; Al Dahouk Sascha; Wernery Ulrich; Eickhoff Meike; Kattar Mireille; Tomaso Herbert; Neubauer Heinrich; Scholz Holger C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN), peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab), UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio), DNA...

  7. Deletion of znuA Virulence Factor Attenuates Brucella abortus and Confers Protection against Wild-Type Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinghong; Becker, Todd; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W.

    2006-01-01

    znuA is known to be an important factor for survival and normal growth under low Zn2+ concentrations for Escherichia coli, Haemophilus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pasteurella multocida. We hypothesized that the znuA gene present in Brucella melitensis 16 M would be similar to znuA in B. abortus and questioned whether it may also be an important factor for growth and virulence of Brucella abortus. Using the B. melitensis 16 M genome sequence, primers were designed to construct a B. abortu...

  8. DNA vaccine encoding L7/L12-P39 of Brucella abortus induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO De-yan; LI Peng; XING Li; ZHAO Guang-yu; SHI Wei; ZHANG Song-le; WANG Xi-liang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Brucella abortus is a gram-negative, facultative, intracellular bacterium that infects both cattle and humans, causing abortion and infertility in the former and undulant fever, endocarditis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis. Resistance to Brucella depends on acquired cell-mediated immunity (CMI).1 Live attenuated vaccines can stimulate strong CMI response, which are usually very effective against brucellosis and are used to control brucellosis in domestic animals. However, there is no safe and effective vaccine available for human because the vaccine strains used for animals are considered too virulent for humans. A vaccine that will be noninfectious to humans but effective in stimulating a broad protective immune response is needed.2

  9. THE INVESTIGATION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODY WITH MILK RING TEST AND AGGLUTINATION TEST IN MILK COLLECTED FROM SAMSUN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Goknur TERZI

    2006-01-01

    In this study Brucella antibodies were investigated with agglutination test (Whey-AT) and Milk Ring Test (MRT) in a total of 100 milk samples as 50 of cow milk and 50 of goat milk collected from center and villages of Samsun. According to MRT Brucella antibodies was positive at 10 samples (20 %) of cow milk and 6 samples (12 %) of goat milk. In cow milk, 4 (8 %) positive, 3 (6 %) suspicious and 43 (86 %) negative samples; in goat milk 3 (6 %) positive, 2 (4 %) suspicious and 45 (90 %) negativ...

  10. Proposal of Histophilus somni gen. nov., sp nov for the three species incertae sedis 'Haemophilus somnus', 'Haemophilus agni' and 'Histophilus ovis'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Ahrens, Peter; Kuhnert, P.; Christensen, H.; Mutters, R.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier investigations have shown that 'Haemophilus somnus','Haemophilus agni' and' Histophilus ovis' represent the same species. In the present investigation, the taxonomic position of this species is explored further by sequencing the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes of strains that were investigated pr...... similarity to any other taxon within the family is 93.4%. The type strain, 8025(T) = ATCC 43625(T) CCUG 36157(T), was isolated in the USA from a bovine brain with lesions of thromboembolic meningoencephalitis....

  11. Conserved Genetic Architecture Underlying Individual Recombination Rate Variation in a Wild Population of Soay Sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Susan E; Bérénos, Camillo; Slate, Jon; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic recombination breaks down linkage disequilibrium (LD) and forms new haplotypes, meaning that it is an important driver of diversity in eukaryotic genomes. Understanding the causes of variation in recombination rate is important in interpreting and predicting evolutionary phenomena and in understanding the potential of a population to respond to selection. However, despite attention in model systems, there remains little data on how recombination rate varies at the individual level in natural populations. Here we used extensive pedigree and high-density SNP information in a wild population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) to investigate the genetic architecture of individual autosomal recombination rates. Individual rates were high relative to other mammal systems and were higher in males than in females (autosomal map lengths of 3748 and 2860 cM, respectively). The heritability of autosomal recombination rate was low but significant in both sexes (h(2) = 0.16 and 0.12 in females and males, respectively). In females, 46.7% of the heritable variation was explained by a subtelomeric region on chromosome 6; a genome-wide association study showed the strongest associations at locus RNF212, with further associations observed at a nearby ∼374-kb region of complete LD containing three additional candidate loci, CPLX1, GAK, and PCGF3 A second region on chromosome 7 containing REC8 and RNF212B explained 26.2% of the heritable variation in recombination rate in both sexes. Comparative analyses with 40 other sheep breeds showed that haplotypes associated with recombination rates are both old and globally distributed. Both regions have been implicated in rate variation in mice, cattle, and humans, suggesting a common genetic architecture of recombination rate variation in mammals. PMID:27029733

  12. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines

  13. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kreutz, L.C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

  14. Coherence and correspondence in engineering design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available I show how the coherence/correspondence distinction can inform the conversation about decision methods for engineering design. Some engineers argue for the application of multi-attribute utility theory while others argue for what they call heuristics. To clarify the differences among methods, I first ask whether each method aims at achieving coherence or correspondence. By analyzing statements in the design literature, I argue that utility theory aims at achieving coherence and heuristics aim at achieving correspondence. Second, I ask if achieving coherence always implies achieving correspondence. It is important to provide an answer because while in design the objective is correspondence, it is difficult to assess it, and coherence that is easier to assess is used as a surrogate. I argue that coherence does not always imply correspondence in design and that this is also the case in problems studied in judgment and decision-making research. Uncovering the conditions under which coherence implies, or does not imply, correspondence is a topic where engineering design and judgment and decision-making research might connect.

  15. Assessment of Correspondent Banks Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer F.A.A. Abbadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims at evaluating corresponding banks in Jordan. Characterizing the goals, instruments and profitability under unfavorable conditions of financial setbacks and unfair competition among banks. Focuses on the feasibility and profitability of Philadelphia Investment Bank in its international trade via its Correspondent banks. Approach: Problems and setbacks shall be screened out; reasoned and appropriate optimal recommendations are to be presented. Results: The study followed the analytical approach and depended on “History Documents” and “In depth Interview” techniques and puts a major emphasis on the fact that correspondent banking has become an essential cornerstone of international business amid the new era of world trade, globalization, external competition and cartels from the major opponents to Jordanian Banks, the main conclusion is realized the importance of correspondent banks in the international trade, so Philadelphia bank benefited from correspondent banks for the cheap cost of market entry and services were tailored to the scale of required locale. But there was no big investment in staff facilities. And there are setbacks in dealing with correspondent banks, such as fund delay in reaching destinations on time. Moreover, Jordanian banks have suffered in general from these correspondent banks because they deal with these correspondent banks individually. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendation of the study is, it is the time to consider solidification and forming one financial block, or a sort of cartel and face these correspondent banks in one unit. They are also called for developing collective strategies. Small banks should merge and form huge capital blocks. Another strategy is that Jordanian banks should minimize the reliance on foreign banks and should develop their own, by establishing international branches abroad to help financing their international activities.

  16. AdS/CFT correspondence: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A review on the AdS/CFT correspondence is presented. A gauge theory in d-dimensions and a gravity theory in (d+1)-dimensions can be related through the AdS/CFT correspondence in the name of the holography. In the precise limit of the correspondence, a strongly coupled gauge theory can be analyzed by a classical theory of gravity. This nonperturbative duality opens windows to access to strongly coupled systems. Starting by giving some basics of string theory, possible applications including QCD could be discussed. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic Properties from Corresponding States Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    —Leland corresponding-states theory. Different fluid approximations for mixtures have been applied to the various corresponding states approaches. The resulting computation methods have been applied to calculate saturation properties of pure fluids and separation factors in binary mixtures for some fluids commonly......A corresponding states approach has been applied to the two-constant equations of state by Wilson, Soave, Peng—Robinson, Hamam et al., Lu et al., Simonet—Behar, and Chaudron et al. in order to obtain the equivalent shape-factor correlations. The correlations derived are compared with the Leach...

  18. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  19. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30–32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from −39 to −13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log10), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log10). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B.melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers

  20. Cervical Lymph Nodes as a Selective Niche for Brucella during Oral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bargen, Kristine; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Bovis, Béatrice; Baudimont, Fannie; Chasson, Lionel; Bosilkovski, Mile; Papadopoulos, Alexia; Martirosyan, Anna; Henri, Sandrine; Mège, Jean-Louis; Malissen, Bernard; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph nodes (CLN) are the first lymph nodes encountered by material taking the oral route. To study their role in orally acquired infections, we analyzed 307 patients of up to 14 years treated in the university clinic of Skopje, Macedonia, for brucellosis, a zoonotic bacterial disease frequently acquired by ingestion of contaminated dairy products. From these children, 36% had lymphadenopathy. Among orally infected children, lymphadenopathy with CLN being the only lymph nodes affected was significantly more frequent as compared to those infected by contact with animals (83% vs. 63%), suggesting a possible involvement of CLN during orally acquired human brucellosis. Using a murine model where bacteria are delivered into the oral cavity, we show that Brucella quickly and selectively colonize the CLN where they proliferate and persist over long periods of time for up to 50 days post-infection. A similar efficient though less specific drainage to CLN was found for Brucella, Salmonella typhimurium and fluorescent microspheres delivered by gavage, a pathway likely representing a mixed infection mode of intragastric and oral infection, suggesting a central pathway of drained material. Microspheres as well as bacteria drained to CLN predominately reside in cells expressing CD68 and no or low levels of CD11c. Even though no systemic response could be detected, Brucella induced a locally restricted inflammatory reaction with increased expression levels of interferon γ, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, granzyme B and a delayed induction of Nos2. Inflammation led to pronounced lymphadenopathy, infiltration of macrophages/monocytes expressing high levels of major histocompatibility complex II and to formation of epitheloid granulomas. Together, these results highlight the role of CLN in oral infections as both, an initial and efficient trap for bacterial invaders and as possible reservoir for chronic pathogens. They likewise cast a new light on the significance of oral

  1. The Diagnostic Value of MRI in Brucella Spondylitis With Comparison to Clinical and Laboratory Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Ali Baradaran; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Chokan, Niaz Mohamad Jafari; Abbasi, Bita; Akhavan, Reza; Bolvardi, Ehsan; Soroureddin, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease, especially in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions and can involve many organs and tissue. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication. Spondylitis is its most prevalent clinical form in adults, and there may be difficult in diagnosis and treatment. In present study, we aimed to assess these diagnostic value of MRI, in patients with spondylitis due to brucella, comparing with clinical and laboratory findings. Method: Patients with low back pain who were admitted to Sheikhol-raees MRI center were included in this study. None of these patients had any documented infectious disease. Diagnosis of brucellosis was made, based on MRI findings, which would be approved by serology. After confirmation with serology, the group with positive serology were compared with the negative group, in sex, age, MRI findings level of vertebral involvements, signal intensity in T1 weighted and T2 weighted. Results: Among 53 patients with diagnosis of brucella spondylitis, 33 underwent serology study, 20 were positive and 13 were negative and the others consider out of study. From these 20, 3 had tuberculosis spondylitis, whose mean age was 56 and the 67% of them were male. Mean age in the positive brucella spondylitis were 46 and 67% of them were male. In negative group mean age was 55, and of whom 57% were male. There was no statistically significant difference in MRI findings such as changes in signal intensity, disk space narrowing, Intracanalicular mass, Abscess formation. Level of invlovment in vertebrae. Conclusion: The results of this study shows that although MRI is Modality of choice in diagnosis of spondylitis, it is not enough specific to diagnosis the reasons of spondylitis. PMID:27147801

  2. [Expression and identification of eukaryotic expression vectors of Brucella melitensis lipoprotein OMP19].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuoping; Luo, Peifang; Hu, Feihuan; Weng, Yunceng; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Chengyao

    2016-04-01

    Objective To construct eukaryotic expression vectors carrying Brucella melitensis outer membrane protein 19 (OMP19), express them in transfected Huh7.5.1 and JEG-3 cells, and analyze their role in cell apoptosis. Methods Brucella melitensis lipidated OMP19 (L-OMP19) gene and unlipidated OMP19 (U-OMP19) gene were amplified by PCR and inserted into the vector pZeroBack/blunt. The correct L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 genes verified by XbaI and BamHI double digestion and sequencing were cloned into the lentivirus expression vector pHAGE-CMV-MCS-IZsGreen to construct vectors pHAGE-L-OMP19 and pHAGE-U-OMP19, which were separately transfected into 293FT cells, Huh7.5.1 and JEG-3 cells. L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 in the cells were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence technique. Flow cytometry combined with annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis. Results The lentiviral vectors pHAGE-L-OMP19 and pHAGE-U-OMP19 were constructed correctly and the recombinant lipoproteins L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 expressed in the above cells were well recognized by the specific antibodies against L-OMP19 in Western blotting and immunofluorescence technique. L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 induced JEG-3 cell death, but did not induce the apoptosis of Huh7.5.1 cells. Conclusion The eukaryotic expression vectors of L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 have been constructed successfully. Recombinant lipoproteins L-OMP19 and U-OMP19 expressed in cells have a good antigenicity, which could be used as experimental materials for the research on the relationship between host cells and lipoproteins in Brucella infection. PMID:27053612

  3. The milk delivery chain and presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bulk milk in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kim Toeroek; Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Ståhl, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence of informal milk delivery chains on the risk of human exposure to Brucella spp. through milk consumption in two regions of Uganda (Gulu and Soroti Districts). The work involved describing milk delivery chains, investigating brucellosis awareness amongst milk deliverers and determining the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in cattle milk on delivery to primary collection points (boiling points and dairies). Milk samples (n = 331) were collected from deliverers at primary collection points and from street vendors at point of sale and analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). A written questionnaire was used to collect data from deliverers (n = 279) on their milk delivery chains and their brucellosis awareness. The most common delivery points in Gulu District were small dairies and in Soroti District boiling points. The presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in milk samples was higher in Soroti (40 %) than in Gulu (11 %) (P < 0.0001). There are possible public health risk consequences of this finding as 42 % of deliverers in Soroti District reported drinking raw milk, compared with 15 % in Gulu District (P < 0.0001). Awareness of brucellosis was low, with 70 % of all milk deliverers reporting not having heard of the disease or the bacterium. Application of quality controls for milk (colour and odour) along the delivery chain varied depending upon supply and demand. This study provides evidence of the diversity of informal milk markets in low-income countries and of the potential public health risks of consuming unpasteurised milk. These results can be useful to those planning interventions to reduce brucellosis. PMID:27026231

  4. Transcriptome analysis of the Brucella abortus BvrR/BvrS two-component regulatory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Viadas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component BvrR/BvrS system is essential for Brucella abortus virulence. It was shown previously that its dysfunction alters the expression of some major outer membrane proteins and the pattern of lipid A acylation. To determine the genes regulated by BvrR/BvrS, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis using B. abortus RNA obtained from wild type and bvrR mutant cells grown in the same conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 127 differentially expressed genes were found: 83 were over expressed and 44 were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Two operons, the phosphotransferase system and the maltose transport system, were down-regulated. Several genes involved in cell envelope or outer membrane biogenesis were differentially expressed: genes for outer membrane proteins (omp25a, omp25d, lipoproteins, LPS and fatty acid biosynthesis, stress response proteins, chaperones, flagellar genes, and twelve genes encoding ABC transport systems. Ten genes related with carbon metabolism (pckA and fumB among others were up-regulated in the bvrR mutant, and denitrification genes (nirK, norC and nosZ were also regulated. Notably, seven transcriptional regulators were affected, including VjbR, ExoR and OmpR that were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Finally, the expression of eleven genes which have been previously related with Brucella virulence was also altered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All these data corroborate the impact of BvrR/BvrS on cell envelope modulation, confirm that this system controls the carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and suggest a cross-talk among some regulators to adjust the Brucella physiology to the shift expected to occur during the transit from the extracellular to the intracellular niche.

  5. Excretion of Brucella abortus vaccine B19 strain during a reproductive cycle in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Pacheco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to determine the excretion period of B19 vaccine strain during a complete reproductive cycle (from estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, pregnancy and until 30 days after parturition of dairy cows from 3 to 9 years old that were previously vaccinated from 3 to 8 months. Three groups were monitored with monthly milk and urine collection during 12 months: G1 with seven cows from 3 to 4 years old; G2 with three cows from 5 to 6 years old; and G3 with four cows from 7 to 9 years old. Urine and milk samples were submitted to bacteriological culture and urine and PCR reactions for detection of Brucella spp. and PCR-multiplex for B19 strain identification. Ring test (RT was also performed in the milk samples, and serum samples were tested by buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPA. All animals were serologically negative at BAPA and Brucella spp. was not isolated from both urine and milk samples. RT revealed 13/210 (6.2% positive milk samples. PCR reactions detected DNA of Brucella spp. in 86/420 (20.5% samples. In urine it was found a significantly higher frequency (35.2%; 74/210 than in milk (5.7%; 12/210, more frequently from the estrus to 150 days of pregnancy and after parturition (6.7%; 10/150, and from 150 days of pregnancy to parturition (3.4%; 2/60, and they were all identified as B19 strain. In three groups, intermittent excretion of B19 strain was detected mainly in urine samples, which confirmed its multiplication and persistence in cows for until 9 years.

  6. Brucella melitensis in France: persistence in wildlife and probable spillover from Alpine ibex to domestic animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Mick

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is a major zoonosis, mainly caused by Brucella abortus, more rarely by Brucella melitensis. France has been bovine brucellosis officially-free since 2005 with no cases reported in domestic/wild ruminants since 2003. In 2012, bovine and autochthonous human cases due to B. melitensis biovar 3 (Bmel3 occurred in the French Alps. Epidemiological investigations implemented in wild and domestic ruminants evidenced a high seroprevalence (>45% in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex; no cases were disclosed in other domestic or wild ruminants, except for one isolated case in a chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra. These results raised the question of a possible persistence/emergence of Brucella in wildlife. The purpose of this study was to assess genetic relationships among the Bmel3 strains historically isolated in humans, domestic and wild ruminants in Southeastern France, over two decades, by the MLVA-panel2B assay, and to propose a possible explanation for the origin of the recent bovine and human infections. Indeed, this genotyping strategy proved to be efficient for this microepidemiological investigation using an interpretation cut-off established for a fine-scale setting. The isolates, from the 2012 domestic/human outbreak harbored an identical genotype, confirming a recent and direct contamination from cattle to human. Interestingly, they clustered not only with isolates from wildlife in 2012, but also with local historical domestic isolates, in particular with the 1999 last bovine case in the same massif. Altogether, our results suggest that the recent bovine outbreak could have originated from the Alpine ibex population. This is the first report of a B. melitensis spillover from wildlife to domestic ruminants and the sustainability of the infection in Alpine ibex. However, this wild population, reintroduced in the 1970s in an almost closed massif, might be considered as a semi-domestic free-ranging herd. Anthropogenic factors could therefore

  7. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L. [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Sriranganathan, Nammalwar, E-mail: nathans@vt.edu [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30–32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from −39 to −13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log{sub 10}), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log{sub 10}). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B.melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers.

  8. 75 FR 23764 - Correspondent Concentration Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... management committee. Managing Correspondent Concentrations Institutions should establish prudent internal... prudent risk management practices. Institutions also should be aware of their affiliates' exposures to... prudent ] risk management policies and procedures.\\2\\ Credit (asset) risk is the potential that...

  9. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge RAMOS correspondence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains correspondence between John Findlay of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and P. H. Kutschenreuter of the National Weather Service....

  10. Crossmodal Correspondences: Standing Issues and Experimental Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V

    2016-01-01

    Crossmodal correspondences refer to the systematic associations often found across seemingly unrelated sensory features from different sensory modalities. Such phenomena constitute a universal trait of multisensory perception even in non-human species, and seem to result, at least in part, from the adaptation of sensory systems to natural scene statistics. Despite recent developments in the study of crossmodal correspondences, there are still a number of standing questions about their definition, their origins, their plasticity, and their underlying computational mechanisms. In this paper, I will review such questions in the light of current research on sensory cue integration, where crossmodal correspondences can be conceptualized in terms of natural mappings across different sensory cues that are present in the environment and learnt by the sensory systems. Finally, I will provide some practical guidelines for the design of experiments that might shed new light on crossmodal correspondences. PMID:27311289

  11. The AdS/CFT Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, Veronika E

    2015-01-01

    We give a brief review of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which posits the equivalence between a certain gravitational theory and a lower-dimensional non-gravitational one. This remarkable duality, formulated in 1997, has sparked a vigorous research program which has gained in breadth over the years, with applications to many aspects of theoretical (and even experimental) physics, not least to general relativity and quantum gravity. To put the AdS/CFT correspondence in historical context, we start by reviewing the relevant aspects of string theory (of which no prior knowledge is assumed). We then develop the statement of the correspondence, and explain how the two sides of the duality map into each other. Finally, we discuss the implications and applications of the correspondence, and indicate some of the current trends in this subject. The presentation attempts to convey the main concepts in a simple and self-contained manner, relegating supplementary remarks to footnotes.

  12. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docters, E.H.; Smolko, E.E. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Direccion de Radioisotopos y Radiaciones); Suarez, C.E. (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Castelar (Argentina))

    1990-01-01

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All these grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA). (author).

  13. Cleavage of bovine immunoglobulin G1 in whey by an extracellular material from Brucella abortus.

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, K.

    1985-01-01

    Culture extracts of in vitro grown Brucella abortus were demonstrated to cleave a part of the Fc portion of bovine immunoglobulin G1 in whey but not in serum or as a purified protein from serum. Supernates from Strains 19 and 2308 of B. abortus were both capable of this hydrolysis whereas living cells were not. The cleavage process was independent of antibody activity to B. abortus, appeared to require factor(s) found only in some whey samples and was ineffective with the other bovine immunog...

  14. Deletion of the BCSP31 gene of Brucella abortus by replacement.

    OpenAIRE

    Halling, S. M.; Detilleux, P G; Tatum, F M; Judge, B A; Mayfield, J E

    1991-01-01

    The 31-kDa salt-extractable immunogenic protein, BCSP31, was deleted from several Brucella abortus strains by replacement with a marker gene encoding resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and neomycin. The BCSP31 gene replacement plasmids, constructed with ColE1-derived vectors, were introduced by electroporation into B. abortus strain 19 (S19), into a rough variant of B. abortus S19, and into B. abortus S2308, and antibiotic-resistant transformants were isolated. B. abortus S19 is an atten...

  15. Comparison of Biological and Immunological Characterization of Lipopolysaccharides From Brucella abortus RB51 and S19

    OpenAIRE

    Kianmehr, Zahra; Kaboudanian Ardestani, Sussan; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Alamian, Saeed; Ahmadian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brucella abortus RB51 is a rough stable mutant strain, which has been widely used as a live vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in cattle instead of B. abortus strain S19. B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has unique properties in comparison to other bacterial LPS. Objectives: In the current study, two types of LPS, smooth (S-LPS) and rough (R-LPS) were purified from B. abortus S19 and RB51, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological and immunological prope...

  16. Occupational infection due to Brucella abortus S19 among workers involved in vaccine production in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, J C; Ferrero, M C; Victoria Delpino, M; Fossati, C A; Baldi, P C

    2008-08-01

    The pathological consequences of exposure to the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 were evaluated in 30 employees from vaccine-manufacturing plants. Active brucellosis was diagnosed in 21 subjects, of whom only five recalled an accidental exposure. Clinical manifestations were mild, and only one patient presented a complication. After antimicrobial therapy, initially symptomatic patients either experienced clinical remission or had mild persistent symptoms. This is the first study reporting infection by B. abortus S19 among workers from vaccine-manufacturing plants, which in many cases was acquired from unnoticed exposures. Measures to improve the safety of B. abortus S19 handling should be implemented. PMID:18727806

  17. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docters, E. H.; Smolko, E. E.; Suarez, C. E.

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All this grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA).

  18. Black hole qubit correspondence from quantum circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Prudencio, Thiago; Silva, Edilberto O; Belich, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    We propose a black hole qubit correspondence (BHQC) from quantum circuits, taking into account the BHQC formulations of wrapped brane qubits. With base on BHQC, we implement the corresponding gate operations to realize any given quantum circuit. In particular, we implement cases of the generation of Bell states, quantum teleportation and GHZ states circuits. Finally, we give an interpretation of the BHQC from quantum circuits with base on the BHQC classification of entanglement classes.

  19. Parameterized games, minimal Nash correspondences, and connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Economics and game theory are replete with examples of parameterized games. We show that all minimal Nash payoff USCOs belonging to the Nash equilibrium correspondence of a parameterized game with payoff functions that are uniformly equicontinuous in players’ action choices with respect to parameters have minimal Nash USCOs that are essentially-valued as well as connected-valued. We also show that in general for any uniformly equicontinuous parameterized game, the Nash equilibrium corresponde...

  20. Finding email correspondents in social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Email correspondents play an important role in many people's social networks. Finding email correspondents in social networks accurately, though may seem to be straightforward at a first glance, is challenging. To the best of our knowledge, this problem has not been carefully and thoroughly addressed in research. Most of the existing online social networking sites recommend possible matches by comparing the information of email accounts and social network profiles. However, as shown empirical...

  1. Asa Gray and Charles Darwin: Corresponding Naturalists

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Janet E

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the rise of science in the nineteenth century has encouraged historians to look again at the role of correspondence. Naturalists relied extensively on this form of contact and correspondence was a major element in generating a community of experts who agreed on what comprised valid knowledge. As a leading figure in the development of North American botany, Asa Gray found that letters with botanists and collectors all over the world greatly expanded his areas of influence. La...

  2. Correspondence between Ricci and other dark energies

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Debnath, Ujjal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the present paper is to view the correspondence between Ricci and other dark energies. We have considered the Ricci dark energy in presence of dark matter in non-interacting situation. Subsequently, we have derived the pressure and energy density for Ricci dark energy. The equation of state parameter has been generated from these pressure and energy density. Next, we have considered the correspondence between Ricci and other dark energy models, namely tachyonic field, DBI-essence a...

  3. Entropic Metric Alignment for Correspondence Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Justin; Peyré, Gabriel; Kim, Vladimir,; Sra, Suvrit

    2016-01-01

    Many shape and image processing tools rely on computation of correspondences between geometric domains. Efficient methods that stably extract "soft " matches in the presence of diverse geometric structures have proven to be valuable for shape retrieval and transfer of labels or semantic information. With these applications in mind, we present an algorithm for probabilistic correspondence that optimizes an entropy-regularized Gromov-Wasserstein (GW) objective. Built upon recent developments in...

  4. Factorization of correspondence and camera error for unconstrained dense correspondence applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoblauch, D; Hess-Flores, M; Duchaineau, M; Kuester, F

    2009-09-29

    A correspondence and camera error analysis for dense correspondence applications such as structure from motion is introduced. This provides error introspection, opening up the possibility of adaptively and progressively applying more expensive correspondence and camera parameter estimation methods to reduce these errors. The presented algorithm evaluates the given correspondences and camera parameters based on an error generated through simple triangulation. This triangulation is based on the given dense, non-epipolar constraint, correspondences and estimated camera parameters. This provides an error map without requiring any information about the perfect solution or making assumptions about the scene. The resulting error is a combination of correspondence and camera parameter errors. An simple, fast low/high pass filter error factorization is introduced, allowing for the separation of correspondence error and camera error. Further analysis of the resulting error maps is applied to allow efficient iterative improvement of correspondences and cameras.

  5. Immune reactivity of sera obtained from brucellosis patients and vaccinated-rabbits to a fusion protein from Brucella melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Amani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens which can stay alive and multiply in professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. Immunity against Brucella melitensis involves antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells activation and humoral immune responses. Due to negative aspects of live attenuated vaccines, much attention has been focused on finding Brucella-protective antigens to introduce them as potential subunit vaccine candidates. Materials and Methods: A chimeric gene encoding trigger factor (TF, Omp3148-74 and BP2687-111 fragments (TOB from B. melitensis was successfully cloned, expressed in Escherichia coliBL21-DE3 and purified by Ni-NTA agarose column. Antibodies to recombinant TOB (rTOB have been investigated in Brucella-infected human sera and a pool serum prepared from B. melitensis-vaccinated rabbits. Results: Our results showed that the immunized rabbit pool serum strongly reacted with rTOB. In addition, antibodies against rTOB were detectable in 76.5% of sera obtained from infected patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest that rTOB may provide a potential immunogenic candidate which could be considered in future vaccine studies.

  6. Effect of Early Antibiotic Treatment on the Antibody Response to Cytoplasmic Proteins of Brucella melitensis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Raul A.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    1999-01-01

    To test whether antibiotic therapy hampers the antibody response to Brucella antigens, 30 BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella melitensis H38 and randomized for treatment with doxycycline administered intraperitoneally for 42 days starting at 7 or 28 days postinfection (p.i.) (groups DOX7 and DOX28, respectively) or for no treatment (control group). Antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reached peak levels (mean optical density [OD] = 2.618) between days 56 and 70 p.i. in the control group, and similar peak levels (mean OD = 2.486) were observed in the DOX28 group, but significantly lower peak levels (mean OD = 0.821) were observed at 28 days p.i. in the DOX7 group. The antibody response against cytoplasmic proteins depleted of LPS (CPs) reached maximal levels (mean OD = 2.402) between days 56 and 70 p.i. in the control group, but no response was detected in the DOX7 group. Anti-CP antibodies were detected in only three animals from the DOX28 group, at levels significantly lower than those in the control group (mean maximal OD = 0.791). The pattern of antibody response to an 18-kDa cytoplasmic protein of Brucella spp. was similar to that against the CP antigen. This study shows that early antibiotic treatment affects the antibody response of mice to cytoplasmic proteins of Brucella and, to a lesser extent, to LPS. PMID:10225853

  7. A Live Vaccine from Brucella abortus Strain 82 for Control of Cattle Brucellosis in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first half of the 20th century, widespread regulatory efforts to control cattle brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were essentially nonexistent, and control was limited to selective test and slaughter of serologic agglutination reactors. By the 1950...

  8. Development and evaluation of TUMS medium, a novel biphasic culture medium for isolation of Brucella spp. from patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Hejazi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: There are limitations in time and technique for isolation of Brucella from patients. We developed a new Brucella culture medium and evaluated its efficiency compared to BACTEC blood culture system and serology."nMaterials and Methods: A bi-phasic medium containing Urea agar and Brain Heart Infusion was formulated. Appearance of clear red color in liquid phase was the basis of positivity for Brucella. The new medium which is designated as TUMS medium (TUMS refers to Tehran University of Medical Sciences and BACTEC blood culture vials were inoculated with different concentrations of 20 Brucella strains. The blood samples from 58 suspected patients were tested by both media and serology (Wright and Coombs. Any growth was sub-cultured and suspected colonies were identified by standard methods."nResults: The TUMS medium detected more positive samples (100% than BACTEC (85% when the organism was suspended at lower concentration (10 CFU. Of 58 blood cultures, 47 (81% samples tested on TUMS medium (incubation period =4.2 days and 39 (67.2 % samples tested on BACTEC (incubation period =3.3 days were found positive."nConclusion: The TUMS medium was superior to others in detecting the organism from patients with clinical signs or who took medications for >1year. The TUMS medium is easy to prepare and use in endemic areas where resources are limited.

  9. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  10. Studies into laboratory animals for clearance rate of 32P-labelled Brucellae, using antigen elimination test after biotechnological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were performed for the purpose of assessment of the immune status of mice, with regard to literature data and taking into consideration the large-scale use of veterinary pharmaceuticals for biotechnological control of reproduction. The antigen elimination test with Brucellae was applied to ICR mice but no influence on the immune status of 6 consecutive generations could be demonstrated. (author)

  11. A potent Brucella abortus 2308 Δery live vaccine allows for the differentiation between natural and vaccinated infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbo; Yin, Shuanghong; Guo, Fei; Meng, Ren; Chen, Chuangfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhiqiang; Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Hu, Shengwei; Ni, Wei; Li, Tiansen; Zhang, Ke

    2014-08-01

    Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease that causes animal and human diseases. However, the current Brucella abortus vaccines (S19 and RB51) are deficient; they can cause abortion in pregnant animals. Moreover, when the vaccine S19 is used, tests cannot differentiate natural from vaccinated infection. Therefore, a safer and more potent vaccine is needed. A Brucella abortus 2308 ery promoter mutant (Δery) was constructed to overcome these drawbacks. The growth of the Δery mutant was significantly attenuated in macrophages and mice and induced high protective immunity in mice. Moreover, Δery induced an anti-Brucella-specific IgG (immunoglobulin G) response and stimulated the expression of interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, the expression of EryA antigen allowed for the serological differentiation between natural and vaccinated infection in mice. These results indicate that the Δery mutant is a potential attenuated live vaccine candidate against virulent Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308) infection. PMID:24994009

  12. Genome sequences of three live attenuated vaccine strains of Brucella species and implications for pathogenesis and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Zhoujia; Yuan, Xitong; Qiu, Yefeng; Zhen, Qing; Xu, Jie; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Huang, Liuyu; Chen, Zeliang

    2012-11-01

    Live attenuated vaccines play essential roles in the prevention of brucellosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three vaccine strains, Brucella melitensis M5-10, B. suis S2-30, and B. abortus 104M. Primary genome sequence analysis identified mutations, deletions, and insertions which have implications for attenuation and signatures for differential diagnosis. PMID:23045513

  13. Genome Sequences of Three Live Attenuated Vaccine Strains of Brucella Species and Implications for Pathogenesis and Differential Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yufei; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Zhoujia; Yuan, Xitong; Qiu, Yefeng; Zhen, Qing; Xu, Jie; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Huang, Liuyu; Chen, Zeliang

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines play essential roles in the prevention of brucellosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three vaccine strains, Brucella melitensis M5-10, B. suis S2-30, and B. abortus 104M. Primary genome sequence analysis identified mutations, deletions, and insertions which have implications for attenuation and signatures for differential diagnosis.

  14. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in rural and suburban communities in three provinces of Turkey: Need for improved diagnosis and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kose; H.L. Smits; T.H. Abdoel; Y. Ozbel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of Brucella-specific antibodies in rural and suburban communities in different provinces of Anatolia. Method: Cross-sectional seroepidemiological study on serum samples collected in communities in two relatively developed provinces in west Anatolia with an

  15. Brucella 'HOOF-Prints': strain typing by multi-locus analysis of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halling Shirley M

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are very few tools available for subtyping Brucella isolates for epidemiological trace-back. Subtyping is difficult because of the genetic homogeneity within the genus. Sequencing of the genomes from three Brucella species has facilitated the search for DNA sequence variability. Recently, hypervariability among short tandem repeat sequences has been exploited for strain-typing of several bacterial pathogens. Results An eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence was discovered in nine genomic loci of the B. abortus genome. Eight loci were hypervariable among the three Brucella species. A PCR-based method was developed to identify the number of repeat units (alleles at each locus, generating strain-specific fingerprints. None of the loci exhibited species- or biovar-specific alleles. Sometimes, a species or biovar contained a specific allele at one or more loci, but the allele also occurred in other species or biovars. The technique successfully differentiated the type strains for all Brucella species and biovars, among unrelated B. abortus biovar 1 field isolates in cattle, and among B. abortus strains isolated from bison and elk. Isolates from the same herd or from short-term in vitro passage exhibited little or no variability in fingerprint pattern. Sometimes, isolates from an animal would have multiple alleles at a locus, possibly from mixed infections in enzootic areas, residual disease from incomplete depopulation of an infected herd or molecular evolution within the strain. Therefore, a mixed population or a pool of colonies from each animal and/or tissue was tested. Conclusion This paper describes a new method for fingerprinting Brucella isolates based on multi-locus characterization of a variable number, eight-base pair, tandem repeat. We have named this technique "HOOF-Prints" for Hypervariable Octameric Oligonucleotide Finger-Prints. The technique is highly discriminatory among Brucella species, among

  16. On the Causal Set-Continuum Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Saravani, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    We present two results which concern certain aspects of the question: when is a causal set well approximated by a Lorentzian manifold? The first result is a theorem which shows that the number-volume correspondence, if required to hold even for arbitrarily small regions, is best realized via Poisson sprinkling. The second result concerns a family of lattices in $1+1$ dimensional Minkowski space, known as Lorentzian lattices, which we show provide a much better number-volume correspondence than Poisson sprinkling for large volumes. We argue, however, that this feature should not persist in higher dimensions. We conclude by conjecturing a form of the aforementioned theorem that holds under weaker assumptions, namely that Poisson sprinkling provides the best number-volume correspondence in $3+1$ dimensions for spacetime regions with macroscopically large volumes.

  17. Fully Automatic Expression-Invariant Face Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Augusto; Shu, Chang; Prieto, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing accurate point-to-point correspondences among a set of human face scans with varying expressions. Our fully automatic approach does not require any manually placed markers on the scan. Instead, the approach learns the locations of a set of landmarks present in a database and uses this knowledge to automatically predict the locations of these landmarks on a newly available scan. The predicted landmarks are then used to compute point-to-point correspondences between a template model and the newly available scan. To accurately fit the expression of the template to the expression of the scan, we use as template a blendshape model. Our algorithm was tested on a database of human faces of different ethnic groups with strongly varying expressions. Experimental results show that the obtained point-to-point correspondence is both highly accurate and consistent for most of the tested 3D face models.

  18. Detection of Brucella antigen in the aborted ovine fetal stomach contents using a modified ELISA test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. M. Al-Nima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two flocks of sheep suffering from abortion in Mosul city, Iraq. The clinical findings in ewes were abortion during the 3-4 months of gestation period in the both flocks. The total percentage of abortion was 11.7 %, whereas stillbirth percentage was 4 %. Brucella spp. was isolated from four (33.3 % of the 12 samples (stomach contents of the aborted fetuses. All culture – positive samples had also positive with direct smears. By a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Brucella antigens were detected in the fetal stomach contents of 5 samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified ELISA were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The test had a good negative predictive value but only a moderate positive predictive value. Therefore, the test would be useful for confirming the existence of suspect disease. Comparison of modified ELISA with bacterial isolation demonstrated a close agreement (Kappa value = 0.92. Of the 12 serum samples from aborted ewes, eight samples were positive with Rose Bengle test (66.7 %, more than 10 samples (83.3 % were detected by indirect ELISA test.

  19. Using of competitive ELISA in detection of brucella antibodies in cattle sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive ELISA test was used in this study to identify brucella antibodies in cattle sera in Mosul, and assessing the results that are given by Rose-Bengal test. Results of testing 126 cattle sera revealed that the seroprevalence was 16.7% using C-ELISA and 18.3% using RBT. There were differences in seroprevalence according to sex of animals, females showed higher seroprevalence than males, it was 19.1% and 20.2% in females and 9.4% and 12.5% in males by C-ELISA and RBT respectively. Also there were differences in seroprevalence according to age of animals and pregnancy status of females. Kappa value revealed that there was little agreement between C-ELISA and RBT, (Kappa value was 0.229. RBT was not accurate in giving real seroprevalence, since there were 13 false-negative samples from 21 samples positive with C-ELISA, and there were 15 false-positive samples from 105 samples negative with C-ELISA. Results of tube agglutination test and 2-Mercaptoethanol test indicated a decline of titers from those of previous studies, lower titer of TAT was 1/10 (19.05% and most of titers were lower than 1/40 (76.2% in 2-Me test. This study concluded that the brucella antibodies in cattle sera in Mosul was increased from previous years and most of cases were acute.

  20. Detection of Antibodies to Brucella Cytoplasmic Proteins in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurobrucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C.; Araj, George F.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis usually relies on the detection of antibodies to Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by agglutination tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to cytoplasmic proteins (CP) of Brucella spp. by ELISA and Western blotting in seven CSF samples from five patients with neurobrucellosis. While IgG to CP (titers of 200 to 12,800) and IgG to LPS (800 to 6,400) were found in the CSF of these patients, these antibodies were not detected in CSF samples from two patients who had systemic brucellosis without neurological involvement. The latter, however, had serum IgG and IgM to both LPS and CP. No reactivity to these antigens was found in CSF samples from 14 and 20 patients suffering from nonbrucellar meningitis and noninfectious diseases, respectively. These findings suggest that, in addition to its usefulness in the serological diagnosis of human systemic brucellosis, the ELISA with CP antigen can be used for the specific diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis. PMID:10473531

  1. Selective amplification of Brucella melitensis mRNA from a mixed host-pathogen total RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Cristi L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a worldwide anthropozoonotic disease caused by an in vivo intracellular pathogen belonging to genus Brucella. The characterization of brucelae transcriptome's during host-pathogen interaction has been limited due to the difficulty of obtaining an adequate quantity of good quality eukaryotic RNA-free pathogen RNA for downstream applications. Findings Here, we describe a combined protocol to prepare RNA from intracellular B. melitensis in a quantity and quality suitable for pathogen gene expression analysis. Initially, B. melitensis total RNA was enriched from a host:pathogen mixed RNA sample by reducing the eukaryotic RNA..Then, to increase the Brucella RNA concentration and simultaneously minimize the contaminated host RNA in the mixed sample, a specific primer set designed to anneal to all B. melitensis ORF allows the selective linear amplification of sense-strand prokaryotic transcripts in a previously enriched RNA sample. Conclusion The novelty of the method we present here allows analysis of the gene expression profile of B. melitensis when limited amounts of pathogen RNA are present, and is potentially applicable to both in vivo and in vitro models of infection, even at early infection time points.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of IgM, IgG, and IgA brucella antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (R.I.A.) has been devised to measure the serum antibody against Brucella abortus in each of the immunoglobulin classes IgM, IgG, and IgA. This test was applied to 46 sera from individuals with various clinical types of brucellosis, and the results were compared with the results of conventional direct and indirect agglutination and complement-fixation tests. The R.I.A. provided a highly sensitive primary-type assay which avoided the difficulties with blocking or non-agglutinating antibody, and thus has many advantages in the diagnosis of acute and chronic stages of brucella infection in man. The R.I.A. was successful in detection of antibody in many instances in which conventional serological tests were negative, and such antibody could (if IgM) be associated with acute or (if IgG or IgA) with chronic cases of brucellosis. One case in which B.abortus was isolated by blood culture but which failed to yield antibody by conventional tests, nevertheless showed substantial levels of IgM and IgG antibody by R.I.A. In other cases the R.I.A. test helped to eliminate the diagnosis of brucellosis by revealing absent or low antibody levels. (author)

  3. Cervical intramedullary granuloma of Brucella: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Kemal; Tasdemir, Nebahat; Cakmak, Erkan; Kemaloglu, Mustafa Serdar; Bukte, Yasar; Geyik, Mehmet Faruk

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present a unique case of intramedullary brucellar granuloma (IBG) and to discuss the diagnosis and management. To our knowledge, only one case of thoracic IBG has been reported previously, and our case is the first in cervical spine. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted with headache, pain and weakness in her four extremities. She had no gastrointestinal symptoms and fever. She had been diagnosed with Brucella meningitis 3 months ago and a triple therapy of doxycyclin, rifampicin and trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol (TMP/SMZ) had been started. Medical history revealed that she had ingested raw cheese and taken her medication improperly. Loss of strength was detected in her four extremities, which led us to assume the formation of a mass lesion at cervical level. Therefore, we performed a magnetic resonance imaging scan and found enhancement of an intramedullary mass lesion at cervical 1-2 level. Diagnosis of neurobrucellosis was confirmed by titer of >1/160 Brucella antibodies both in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Based on these findings, brucellar granuloma of cervical spine was diagnosed and a combination therapy of doxycyclin, TMP/SMZ and rifampicin was administered for additional 6 months. At the ninth month of treatment, the patient recovered both radiologically and clinically. Our case is unique, in terms of cervical IBG formation. The excellent response to antimicrobial therapy in our patient suggests that, a trial of medical treatment for 6 months may be effective in such cases. PMID:17103231

  4. First report of Brucella suis biovar 2 in a semi free-range pig farm, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlozzari, Giulia; Franco, Alessia; Macrì, Gladia; Lorenzetti, Serena; Maggiori, Fabiana; Dottarelli, Samuele; Maurelli, Marina; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Tittarelli, Manuela; Battisti, Antonio; Gamberale, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes the isolation of Brucella suis (B. suis) biovar 2 in semi‑free‑range pigs located in the province of Rome, Italy. Sera of 28 pigs from a herd with reproductive problems were tested for brucellosis. Twenty-five sera (89%) were found positive to Rose Bengal Test (RBT), while 22 (79%) were positive to Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Two positive pigs were slaughtered, organs were collected and tested for the presence of bacteria. Brucella spp. was isolated from the spleens and the abdominal lymph nodes of the 2 subjects. The isolates were identified as B. suis biovar 2 by biochemical and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests. The frequent infringement in the fences of the premises and the birth of striped piglets provided evidence that sows mated with wild boar, the major reservoir of B. suis biovar 2. Conversely, the isolation of B. suis biovar 2 from spleens and lymphnodes of seropositive slaughtered animals only, as well as the constant negative results from all vaginal swabs and the abortion materials tested, raise doubts on the implication of B. suis biovar 2 in the infertility of the holding. PMID:26129667

  5. [Construction and characterization of a brucella suis S2 strain with a chloramphenicol resistance marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Kai-Rong; Ding, Jia-Bo; Cheng, Jun-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Wen; Yao, Wen-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    Vaccination has not been used widely because of the interference in the discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals in immune-screening procedures. In the present study, chloramphenicol resistance gene (Cm(r)) was cloned into the genomic DNA of brucella suis S2 strain by homologous recombination with knocking out the WbkC gene, and obtained the recombinant rS2-WbkC. Further study confirmed that rS2-WbkC was conversed into rough-phenotype form smooth-phenotype. The recombinant keeps the ability to chloramphenicol resistance after 25 passages in tryptic soy agar (TSA). Mice tests showed rS2-WbkC offered similar protection to S2 strain, but more safe than S2. Serum collected form rS2-WbkC immunized mice could be easily distinguished from antiserum produced by smooth-phenotype brucella abortus. In view of these result, rS2-WbkC is a promising candidate for vaccine strain. PMID:18271249

  6. Identification at Biovar Level of Brucella Isolates Causing Abortion in Small Ruminants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results showed that 246 isolates (92.8% were B. melitensis biovar 1, 18 isolates (6.8% were B. melitensis biovar 2, and, interestingly, one isolate (0.4% obtained from Mazandaran province was B. abortus biovar 3. In this study, B. melitensis biovar 3 was isolated in none of the selected provinces, and all isolates from 3 provinces (i.e., Chehar-mahal Bakhtiari, Markazi, and Ilam were identified only as B. melitensis biovar 1. In conclusion, we found that B. melitensis biovar 1 remains the most prevalent cause of small ruminant brucellosis in various provinces of Iran.

  7. Smooth to rough dissociation in Brucella: the missing link to virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos eMancilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociation encompasses changes in a series of phenotypes: colony and cell morphology, inmunological and biochemical reactions and virulence. The concept is generally associated to the in vitro transition between smooth (S and rough (R colonies, a phenotypic observation in Gram-negative bacteria commonly made since the beginning of microbiology as a science. It is also well known that the loss of the O-polysaccharide, the most external lipopolysaccharide (LPS moiety, triggers the change in the colony phenotype. Although dissociation is related to one of the most basic features used to distinguish between species, i.e. colony morphology, and, in the case of pathogens, predict their virulence behaviour, it has been considered a laboratory artifact and thus did not gain further attention. However, recent insights into genetics and pathogenesis of members of Brucella, causative agents of brucellosis, have brought a new outlook on this experimental fact, suggesting that it plays a role beyond the laboratory observations.In this perspective article, the current knowledge on Brucella LPS genetics and its connection with dissociation in the frame of evolution is discussed. Latest reports support the notion that, by means of a better understanding of genetic pathways linked to R phenotype and the biological impact of this intriguing old phenomenon, unexpected applications can be achieved.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Brucella abortus in Northern Ireland-1991 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Allen

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide. Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus has far reaching animal health and economic impacts at both the local and national levels. Alongside traditional veterinary epidemiology, the use of molecular typing has recently been applied to inform on bacterial population structure and identify epidemiologically-linked cases of infection. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat VNTR analysis (MLVA was used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a well-characterised Brucella abortus epidemic in Northern Ireland involving 387 herds between 1991 and 2012.MLVA identified 98 unique B. abortus genotypes from disclosing isolates in the 387 herds involved in the epidemic. Clustering algorithms revealed the relatedness of many of these genotypes. Combined with epidemiological information on chronology of infection and geographic location, these genotype data helped to identify 7 clonal complexes which underpinned the outbreak over the defined period. Hyper-variability of some VNTR loci both within herds and individual animals led to detection of multiple genotypes associated with single outbreaks. However with dense sampling, these genotypes could still be associated with specific clonal complexes thereby permitting inference of epidemiological links. MLVA- based epidemiological monitoring data were congruent with an independent classical veterinary epidemiology study carried out in the same territory.MLVA is a useful tool in ongoing disease surveillance of B. abortus outbreaks, especially when combined with accurate epidemiological information on disease tracings, geographical clustering of cases and chronology of infection.

  9. A Portable Algorithm for Mapping Bitext Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed, I D

    1997-01-01

    The first step in most empirical work in multilingual NLP is to construct maps of the correspondence between texts and their translations ({\\bf bitext maps}). The Smooth Injective Map Recognizer (SIMR) algorithm presented here is a generic pattern recognition algorithm that is particularly well-suited to mapping bitext correspondence. SIMR is faster and significantly more accurate than other algorithms in the literature. The algorithm is robust enough to use on noisy texts, such as those resulting from OCR input, and on translations that are not very literal. SIMR encapsulates its language-specific heuristics, so that it can be ported to any language pair with a minimal effort.

  10. Brucella infections in high-risk population and in patients hospitalized for fever: A serological study at Kolar, Karnataka

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    Dhanalaxmi Aniyappanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis, one of the world′s major zoonoses, is endemic in many parts of India. It is an occupational hazard for veterinary employees, butchers, dairy personnel, and laboratory workers. There is no information available on human brucellosis from Kolar region of southern India. Methods and Materials: Serum samples from 154 adults, at high risk for brucellosis and residing in and around Kolar, Karnataka, India, were screened for antibodies to brucella by the Rose Bengal plate agglutination test and immunoglobulin (IgG Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Sera detected to be positive by these screening tests were further tested by standard tube agglutination test (SAT, SAT with 2 Mercaptoethanol, and IgM ELISA. In addition, serum samples from 100 hospitalized patients with prolonged fever were also subjected to the above tests to detect acute brucella infections among patients. Results: Among the 154 individuals at high-risk screened, brucella antibodies were detected in 15 (9.74% of the subjects. The seropositivity rate was 30.76% among veterinarians, 14.28 among cattle businessmen, 9.67% among butchers, and 3.79% among animal owners. Seropositivity was associated with drawing blood and exposure to animals during parturition. Symptoms such as myalgia, low back ache, and joint pains were significantly more among seropositives. When the results of all the tests were taken together, 33.3% seropositives could be classified as past brucella infections and 66.6% as possible chronic brucella infections. Among the 100 hospitalized patients with prolonged fever acute brucellosis was diagnosed in one patient. Conclusion: Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in Kolar region. Among individuals at high risk many have serological profile of possible chronic brucellosis; such individuals may need treatment and follow-up.

  11. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of Brucella isolates from Egypt between 1999 and 2007 and evidence of probable rifampin resistance

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    Abdel-Maksoud Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis poses a significant public health problem in Mediterranean countries, including Egypt. Treatment of this disease is often empirical due to limited information on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella spp. in this region of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella blood isolates in Egypt, a country endemic for brucellosis. Methods Brucella spp. isolates were identified from the blood cultures of acute febrile illness (AFI patients presenting to a network of infectious disease hospitals from 1999–2007. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for tetracycline, gentamicin, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampin using the E-test. Interpretations were made according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results A total of 355 Brucella spp. isolates were analyzed. All were susceptible to tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin; probable resistance to rifampin and ceftriaxone was observed among 277 (64% and 7 (2% of the isolates, respectively. Percentages of isolates showing probable resistance to rifampin were significantly lower before 2001 than in the following years (7% vs. >81%, p  Conclusions Despite the high burden of brucellosis in Egypt and frequent empirical treatment, isolates have remained susceptible to the majority of tested antibiotics. However, this is the first report of high rates of probable resistance to rifampin among Brucella isolates from Egypt. Patients should be closely monitored while following standard treatment regimens. Continued surveillance, drug susceptibility studies and updated CLSI interpretive criteria are needed to monitor and update antibiotic prescribing policies for brucellosis.

  12. Outer membrane vesicles from Brucella abortus promote bacterial internalization by human monocytes and modulate their innate immune response.

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    Cora N Pollak

    Full Text Available Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by some gram-negative bacteria have been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects that favor the establishment of the infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction of OMVs from Brucella abortus with human epithelial cells (HeLa and monocytes (THP-1, and the potential immunomodulatory effects they may exert. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, FITC-labeled OMVs were shown to be internalized by both cell types. Internalization was shown to be partially mediated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with Brucella OMVs inhibited some cytokine responses (TNF-α and IL-8 to E. coli LPS, Pam3Cys or flagellin (TLR4, TLR2 and TLR5 agonists, respectively. Similarly, pretreatment with Brucella OMVs inhibited the cytokine response of THP-1 cells to B. abortus infection. Treatment of THP-1 cells with OMVs during IFN-γ stimulation reduced significantly the inducing effect of this cytokine on MHC-II expression. OMVs induced a dose-dependent increase of ICAM-1 expression on THP-1 cells and an increased adhesion of these cells to human endothelial cells. The addition of OMVs to THP-1 cultures before the incubation with live B. abortus resulted in increased numbers of adhered and internalized bacteria as compared to cells not treated with OMVs. Overall, these results suggest that OMVs from B. abortus exert cellular effects that promote the internalization of these bacteria by human monocytes, but also downregulate the innate immune response of these cells to Brucella infection. These effects may favor the persistence of Brucella within host cells.

  13. Immunization of mice with recombinant protein CobB or AsnC confers protection against Brucella abortus infection.

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    Simei Fu

    Full Text Available Due to drawbacks of live attenuated vaccines, much more attention has been focused on screening of Brucella protective antigens as subunit vaccine candidates. Brucella is a facultative intracellular bacterium and cell mediated immunity plays essential roles for protection against Brucella infection. Identification of Brucella antigens that present T-cell epitopes to the host could enable development of such vaccines. In this study, 45 proven or putative pathogenesis-associated factors of Brucella were selected according to currently available data. After expressed and purified, 35 proteins were qualified for analysis of their abilities to stimulate T-cell responses in vitro. Then, an in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-γ assay was used to identify potential T-cell antigens from B. abortus. In total, 7 individual proteins that stimulated strong IFN-γ responses in splenocytes from mice immunized with B. abortus live vaccine S19 were identified. The protective efficiencies of these 7 recombinant proteins were further evaluated. Mice given BAB1_1316 (CobB or BAB1_1688 (AsnC plus adjuvant could provide protection against virulent B. abortus infection, similarly with the known protective antigen Cu-Zn SOD and the license vaccine S19. In addition, CobB and AsnC could induce strong antibodies responses in BALB/c mice. Altogether, the present study showed that CobB or AsnC protein could be useful antigen candidates for the development of subunit vaccines against brucellosis with adequate immunogenicity and protection efficacy.

  14. Immunization of mice with recombinant protein CobB or AsnC confers protection against Brucella abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Simei; Xu, Jie; Li, Xianbo; Xie, Yongfei; Qiu, Yefeng; Du, Xinying; Yu, Shuang; Bai, Yaoxia; Chen, Yanfen; Wang, Tongkun; Wang, Zhoujia; Yu, Yaqing; Peng, Guangneng; Huang, Kehe; Huang, Liuyu; Wang, Yufei; Chen, Zeliang

    2012-01-01

    Due to drawbacks of live attenuated vaccines, much more attention has been focused on screening of Brucella protective antigens as subunit vaccine candidates. Brucella is a facultative intracellular bacterium and cell mediated immunity plays essential roles for protection against Brucella infection. Identification of Brucella antigens that present T-cell epitopes to the host could enable development of such vaccines. In this study, 45 proven or putative pathogenesis-associated factors of Brucella were selected according to currently available data. After expressed and purified, 35 proteins were qualified for analysis of their abilities to stimulate T-cell responses in vitro. Then, an in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-γ) assay was used to identify potential T-cell antigens from B. abortus. In total, 7 individual proteins that stimulated strong IFN-γ responses in splenocytes from mice immunized with B. abortus live vaccine S19 were identified. The protective efficiencies of these 7 recombinant proteins were further evaluated. Mice given BAB1_1316 (CobB) or BAB1_1688 (AsnC) plus adjuvant could provide protection against virulent B. abortus infection, similarly with the known protective antigen Cu-Zn SOD and the license vaccine S19. In addition, CobB and AsnC could induce strong antibodies responses in BALB/c mice. Altogether, the present study showed that CobB or AsnC protein could be useful antigen candidates for the development of subunit vaccines against brucellosis with adequate immunogenicity and protection efficacy. PMID:22383953

  15. The Brucella abortus cyclic beta-1,2-glucan virulence factor is substituted with O-ester-linked succinyl residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roset, Mara S; Ciocchini, Andrés E; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; Iñón de Iannino, Nora

    2006-07-01

    Brucella periplasmic cyclic beta-1,2-glucan plays an important role during bacterium-host interaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry analysis, thin-layer chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex chromatography were used to characterize Brucella abortus cyclic glucan. In the present study, we report that a fraction of B. abortus cyclic beta-1,2-glucan is substituted with succinyl residues, which confer anionic character on the cyclic beta-1,2-glucan. The oligosaccharide backbone is substituted at C-6 positions with an average of two succinyl residues per glucan molecule. This O-ester-linked succinyl residue is the only substituent of Brucella cyclic glucan. A B. abortus open reading frame (BAB1_1718) homologous to Rhodobacter sphaeroides glucan succinyltransferase (OpgC) was identified as the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for cyclic glucan modification. This gene was named cgm for cyclic glucan modifier and is highly conserved in Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that B. abortus cgm consists of a 1,182-bp open reading frame coding for a predicted membrane protein of 393 amino acid residues (42.7 kDa) 39% identical to Rhodobacter sphaeroides succinyltransferase. cgm null mutants in B. abortus strains 2308 and S19 produced neutral glucans without succinyl residues, confirming the identity of this protein as the cyclic-glucan succinyltransferase enzyme. In this study, we demonstrate that succinyl substituents of cyclic beta-1,2-glucan of B. abortus are necessary for hypo-osmotic adaptation. On the other hand, intracellular multiplication and mouse spleen colonization are not affected in cgm mutants, indicating that cyclic-beta-1,2-glucan succinylation is not required for virulence and suggesting that no low-osmotic stress conditions must be overcome during infection. PMID:16816173

  16. Identification of Immune Effectors Essential to the Control of Primary and Secondary Intranasal Infection with Brucella melitensis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Machelart, Arnaud; Potemberg, Georges; De Trez, Carl; Ryffel, Bernhard; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2016-05-01

    The mucosal immune system represents the first line of defense against Brucella infection in nature. We used genetically deficient mice to identify the lymphocytes and signaling pathways implicated in the control of primary and secondary intranasal infection with B. melitensis Our analysis of primary infection demonstrated that the effectors implicated differ at the early and late stages and are dependent on the organ. TCR-δ, TAP1, and IL-17RA deficiency specifically affects early control of Brucella in the lungs, whereas MHC class II (MHCII) and IFN-γR deficiency impairs late control in the lungs, spleen, and liver. Interestingly, IL-12p35(-/-) mice display enhanced Brucella growth in the spleen but not in the lungs or liver. Secondary intranasal infections are efficiently contained in the lung. In contrast to an i.p. infectious model, in which IL-12p35, MHCII, and B cells are strictly required for the control of secondary infection, we observed that only TCR-β deficiency or simultaneous neutralization of IL-12p35- and IL-17A-dependent pathways impairs the memory protective response against a secondary intranasal infection. Protection is not affected by TCR-δ, MHCII, TAP1, B cell, IL-17RA, or IL-12p35 deficiency, suggesting that CD4(+) and CD8(+) α/β(+) T cells are sufficient to mount a protective immune response and that an IL-17A-mediated response can compensate for the partial deficiency of an IFN-γ-mediated response to control a Brucella challenge. These findings demonstrate that the nature of the protective memory response depends closely on the route of infection and highlights the role of IFN-γ-and IL-17RA-mediated responses in the control of mucosal infection by Brucella. PMID:27036913

  17. Coombs Antiglobulin Test Using Brucella abortus 99 as Antigen To Detect Incomplete Antibodies Induced by B. abortus RB51 Vaccine in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuchini, Franco; Adone, Rosanna; Pasquali, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    This study showed that vaccination of cattle with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 induces incomplete antibodies that can be detectable by a Coombs antiglobulin test using the B. abortus 99 smooth strain.

  18. Correspondence Analysis and Optimal Structural Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Lawrence; Arabie, Phipps

    1992-01-01

    A method is proposed for comparison of distinct partitions of the same set of n objects through a simple cross-product index defined between corresponding entries from two proximity matrices providing particular a priori codings of the within-class and between-class relationships for the partitions. (SLD)

  19. Quantum principal bundles and corresponding gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A generalization of classical gauge theory is presented, in the framework of a noncommutative-geometric formalism of quantum principal bundles over smooth manifolds. Quantum counterparts of classical gauge bundles, and classical gauge transformations, are introduced and investigated. A natural differential calculus on quantum gauge bundles is constructed and analyzed. Kinematical and dynamical properties of corresponding gauge theories are discussed.

  20. Annotated Spelling-to-Sound Correspondence Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronnell, Bruce

    As part of the development of the phonics-based reading component of the SWRL Model 2 Communication Skills Program for kindergarten through third grade, this set of 166 spelling-to-sound correspondence rules for one- and two-syllable words was created. Designed to accompany a lexicon for beginning reading instruction, this booklet includes an…