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Sample records for brucella canis aislamiento

  1. Aislamiento de Brucella canis en un humano conviviente con caninos infectados. Informe de un caso.

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    Martha Olivera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of bacteremia in a woman living in close contact with dogs infected with Brucella canis. Methods: Previous written consent of the woman a blood sample was taken to perform rapid agglutination test, immunofluorescence, and hemoculture. Results: Brucella canis was isolated and the isolation was confirmed by the Instituto Nacional ANLIS «Carlos G. Malbran» from Argentina. The woman did not present any symptoms associated with brucellosis. Conclusion: There is a risk of contamination by B. canis for people keeping tight contact with infected dogs.

  2. ENCUESTA EXPLORATORIA DE INFECCION POR Brucella canis EN PERROS DE

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    Ana Pardo D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de anticuerpos a B. canis en perros domésticos y callejeros del municipio de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó la prueba de aglutinación rápida en placa con antígeno menos mucoide (M- en 201 muestras de suero. En dos animales seropositivos se realizó intento de aislamiento por hemocultivo en medio selectivo para Brucella (oxoid®. En un animal seropositivo, con crecimiento bacteriano con características morfológicas sugestivas a B. canis se realizó histopatología de testículo, bazo e hígado. Resultados. La seropositividad general fue de 1.49% y correspondió a tres caninos machos, dos de los cuales presentaron signos clínicos de epididimitis y orquitis (unilateral. El cultivo y la histopatología no fueron concluyentes para el diagnostico de B. canis. Conclusiones. La seropositividad fue baja y sugiere que la población estudiada no ha estado en contacto con la bacteria. La presencia de reactores puede estar asociado con falsos positivos. El no aislamiento de la bacteria no indica que la enfermedad no exista por lo que se requiere de nuevos estudios.

  3. Molecular assessment of the transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Brucella canis and Ehrlichia canis in dogs.

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    Taques, Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro; Barbosa, Tatiane Rodrigues; Martini, Andresa de Cássia; Pitchenin, Letícia Camara; Braga, Ísis Assis; de Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-12-01

    Given the fact that numerous microbial species can be detected in pregnant female dogs, the objective of this study was to assess the transplacental transmission of Brucella canis, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in stillborn puppies. This study involved 41 stillborn puppies, 78.6% of which were positive for T. gondii, 52.4% for N. caninum and 59.5% for B. canis. E. canis was not detected in any of the analyzed puppies. Pregnancy is an important physiological condition for the transmission of infectious agents to puppies and transplacental transmission may be epidemiologically relevant in the spread of these opportunistic agents.

  4. Brucella canis: inquéritos sorológico e bacteriológico em população felina Brucella canis: serological and bacteriological surveys in the feline population

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    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available De 134 soros de felinos domésticos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4 (3% foram positivos para Brucella canis, todos com título igual a 100. Não se obteve êxito na tentativa de isolamento de Brucella canis através de hemocultura desses animais.Of the 134 feline sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (3% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies, all with titer 100. It was not possible to isolate Brucella canis by blood culture in the case of these animals.

  5. Soroepidemiologia da brucelose canina causada por Brucella canis e Brucella abortus na cidade de Alfenas, MG Seroepidemiology of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis and Brucella abortus in Alfenas, MG, Brazil

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    A.C. Almeida

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of canine brucellosis was evaluated in the city of Alfenas, MG through the technique of agarose gel imunodifusion for Brucella canis and slow serum agglutination test with 2-mercaptoetanol for Brucella abortus. The prevalence was of 14.2% and 2.8%, respectively, for B. canis and B. abortus. The positives, characterized by animals above one year of age (77.8%, and mongrel dogs (56.2%, showed a prevalence of 50 and 48% for males and females, respectively. The canine brucellosis was prevalent in the city principally in dogs of outskirts.

  6. Identificación por PCR de Brucella canis en sangre y leche canina: Reporte de un caso PCR identification of Brucella canis in canine blood and milk: A case report

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    M Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis canina, producida por Brucella canis, es una enfermedad asociada a problemas reproductivos y de carácter zoonótico. Estas bacterias son excretadas en orina, leche, fetos o semen de los animales infectados y la transmisión ocurre por contacto vía sexual, oral, nasal o conjuntival. El diagnóstico de rutina se realiza por serología, pero la confirmación requiere aislamiento del cultivo bacterial, lo cual es costoso y requiere laboratorios con nivel 3 de bioseguridad. Las técnicas moleculares son una posibilidad reconocida para determinar el ADN bacterial, con alta especificidad y sensibilidad. Este reporte evaluó como prueba de aplicación clínica una técnica de PCR desarrollada para cultivos bacteriales. A una hembra canina asintomática, con historia previa de la enfermedad, amamantando una camada sana de 4 días de nacidos, se le realizó la prueba serológica rápida en placa con 2ß-mercaptoetanol, hemocultivo y PCR, de leche y de sangre. Todas las pruebas fueron positivas a Brucella canis. Este es el primer reporte de diagnóstico en leche por PCR, lo que corrobora que animales clínicamente asintomáticos eliminan la bacteria por esta vía, lo que constituye un riesgo de infección para los neonatos y el riesgo zoonótico para veterinarios, propietarios del animal o personas que intervengan en el parto si no se toman medidas higiénicas preventivas.Canine brucellosis is a disease caused by Brucella canis that is associated to reproductive problems in dogs, and it is also known as zoonosis. These bacteria are excreted in urine, milk, fetus or semen of infected animals, and the transmission occurs via sexual, oral, nasal or conjunctival contact. Diagnosis is usually done through serology but confirmation requires isolation of bacterial culture, a costly process that requires laboratory biosafety level 3. Molecular techniques are a valid method to determine the bacterial DNA, offering high specificity and sensitivity

  7. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

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    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  8. Serosurvey for the Prevalence of Brucella Canis Antibodies in Dogs in Central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    summarized in Table 2. Case #315 involved a 20-year-old, female laboratory technician who, on January 12, 1968, had accidental oral contact with...23-year-old female worker in the same laboratory as Case #3, who experienced an identical episode of accidental contact with Brucella canis on June 3...residuals of an old cerebrovascular accident, and a positive tuberculin skin test. Physical examination revealed his known medical problems and a temperature

  9. Validation of an ELISA method for the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis due to Brucella canis

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    Oliveira, Maria Zoraida Daltro de; Vale, Vera; Keid, Lara; Freire, Songeli Menezes; Nascimento, Roberto José Meyer; Portela, Ricardo Wagner Dias; Melo, Stella Maria Barrouin

    2011-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 425-431. In the present study, the validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis is described. Two different antigenic extracts, obtained by heat or ultrasonic homogenization of microbial antigens from a wild isolate of Brucella canis bacteria, were compared by ELISA and Western blot (WB). A total of 145 canine sera were used to define sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ELISA as f...

  10. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

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    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health

  11. Brucella canis Is an Intracellular Pathogen That Induces a Lower Proinflammatory Response than Smooth Zoonotic Counterparts

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    Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Altamirano-Silva, Pamela; González-Espinoza, Gabriela; Medina, María-Concepción; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Bouza-Mora, Laura; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Wong, Melissa; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Rojas, Norman; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of dogs and a zoonotic risk. B. canis harbors most of the virulence determinants defined for the genus, but its pathogenic strategy remains unclear since it has not been demonstrated that this natural rough bacterium is an intracellular pathogen. Studies of B. canis outbreaks in kennel facilities indicated that infected dogs displaying clinical signs did not present hematological alterations. A virulent B. canis strain isolated from those outbreaks readily replicated in different organs of mice for a protracted period. However, the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12 in serum were close to background levels. Furthermore, B. canis induced lower levels of gamma interferon, less inflammation of the spleen, and a reduced number of granulomas in the liver in mice than did B. abortus. When the interaction of B. canis with cells was studied ex vivo, two patterns were observed, a predominant scattered cell-associated pattern of nonviable bacteria and an infrequent intracellular replicative pattern of viable bacteria in a perinuclear location. The second pattern, responsible for the increase in intracellular multiplication, was dependent on the type IV secretion system VirB and was seen only if the inoculum used for cell infections was in early exponential phase. Intracellular replicative B. canis followed an intracellular trafficking route undistinguishable from that of B. abortus. Although B. canis induces a lower proinflammatory response and has a stealthier replication cycle, it still displays the pathogenic properties of the genus and the ability to persist in infected organs based on the ability to multiply intracellularly. PMID:26438796

  12. Validation of an ELISA method for the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis due to Brucella canis.

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    de Oliveira, Maria Zoraida Daltro; Vale, Vera; Keid, Lara; Freire, Songeli Menezes; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis is described. Two different antigenic extracts, obtained by heat or ultrasonic homogenization of microbial antigens from a wild isolate of Brucella canis bacteria, were compared by ELISA and Western blot (WB). A total of 145 canine sera were used to define sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ELISA as follows: (1) sera from 34 animals with natural B. canis infection, confirmed by blood culture and PCR, as well as 51 sera samples from healthy dogs with negative results by the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for canine brucellosis, were used as the control panel for B. canis infection; and (2) to scrutinize the possibility of cross reactions with other common dog infections in the same geographical area in Brazil, 60 sera samples from dogs harboring known infections by Leptospira sp., Ehrlichia canis, canine distemper virus (CDV), Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Leishmania chagasi (10 in each group) were included in the study. The ELISA using heat soluble bacterial extract (HE-antigen) as antigen showed the best values of sensitivity (91.18%), specificity (100%) and accuracy (96.47%). In the WB analyses, the HE-antigen showed no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs with different infections, while the B. canis sonicate had various protein bands identified by those sera. The performance of the ELISA standardized with the heat soluble B. canis antigen indicates that this assay can be used as a reliable and practical method to confirm infection by this microorganism, as well as a tool for seroepidemiological studies.

  13. Isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis, a Brucella canis-like bacterium, from an edematous canine testicle.

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    Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Wennerdahl, Laura A; Williams, Fred; Evans, Tim J; Ganjam, Irene K; Bowman, Jesse W; Fales, William H

    2014-11-01

    Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti-B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes.

  14. Diagnosis of canine brucellosis by ELISA using an antigen obtained from wild Brucella canis.

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    Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Ribeiro, Marcos Borges; de Alcântara, Adriano Costa; Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; Nascimento, Ivana Lúcia; Schaer, Robert Eduard; Nascimento, Roberto Meyer; Freire, Songelí Menezes

    2007-12-01

    An indirect ELISA test was developed for the diagnosis of Brucella canis infection in dogs. A bacterial whole cell extract was used as a solid phase antigen, using B. canis isolated from an infected animal. Sera from culture-positive and healthy negative animals were used as internal reference controls. The cut-off point was determined by a mathematical formula for a statistically valid value, which defined the upper prediction limit, based on the upper tail of the t-distribution of 21 negative control sera readings, for the confidence level of 99.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test were 95% and 91%, respectively. The ELISA test showed a significant concordance index (K=0.84) with the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The reliability of the ELISA for the detection of infected animals was established by a double blind study testing 280 sera provided by serum banks from different diagnostic and research institutions and analyzed by ROC Curve.

  15. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

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    Duško Ćirović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013 from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9% were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9% were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

  16. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Test to the Diagnosis of Canine Brucellosis Caused by Brucella canis.

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    Keid, L B; Diniz, J A; Oliveira, T M F S; Ferreira, H L; Soares, R M

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the performance of an immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis, comparing its results with that of the rapid slide agglutination test with and without the use of 2-mercaptoethanol and the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). The microbiological culture, PCR and clinical examination were used as reference. According to the results obtained in clinical examination, blood culture, culture of semen and vaginal swab and PCR in blood, semen and vaginal swab, a total of 102 dogs were divided into three groups: B. canis-infected dogs (Group 1), B. canis-non-infected dogs (Group 2) and dogs with suspected brucellosis (Group 3). The diagnostic sensitivity of RSAT, 2ME-RSAT, AGID and ICT in Group 1 was, respectively, 75%, 37.5%, 27.8% and 89.58%. The diagnostic specificity of RSAT, 2ME-RSAT, AGID and ICT in Group 2 was, respectively, 91%, 100%, 100%, and 100%. In dogs with suspected brucellosis, 9.67% were RSAT positive, none was positive by 2ME-RSAT, 3.22% were AGID positive and 6.45% were ICT positive. The main drawback concerning canine brucellosis diagnosis is the lack of a highly sensitive serological assay to be used as a screening test to the rapid identification of infected animals. The ICT showed a high diagnostic specificity and a diagnostic sensitivity value greater than that observed in the RSAT, 2ME-RSAT and AGID. However, 10.41% of infected dogs had negative results by ICT. These dogs were positive by microbiological culture and/or PCR, indicating active infection and consequently a higher potential of spreading Brucella. Although rapid and simple to perform, the ICT lacked sensitivity to be used as a screening test.

  17. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

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    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  18. Early detection of Brucella canis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.

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    Kauffman, L K; Bjork, J K; Gallup, J M; Boggiatto, P M; Bellaire, B H; Petersen, C A

    2014-02-01

    Canine brucellosis is a reportable zoonotic disease that can lead to canine reproductive losses and human infection through contact with infected urine or other genitourinary secretions. Although many locations require testing and euthanasia of positive dogs, current diagnosis is limited by the time required for seroconversion, for example, presence of B. canis-specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic ability of Brucella canis-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect B. canis in field samples prior to serological positivity for faster diagnosis and prevention of transmission within kennels or in households. Two kennels, one of which was located in the owner's home, were sampled following observation of suggestive clinical signs and positive serology of at least one dog. Specimens obtained were comparatively analysed via serology and qPCR analysis. 107 dogs were analysed for B. canis infection via qPCR: 105 via whole-blood samples, 65 via vaginal swab, six via urine and seven via genitourinary tract tissue taken at necropsy. Forty-five dogs were found to be infected with canine brucellosis via qPCR, of which 22 (48.89%) were seropositive. A statistically significant number (P = 0.0228) of qPCR-positive dogs, 5/25 (20.00%), seroconverted within a 30-day interval after initial serologic testing. As compared to serology, qPCR analysis of DNA from vaginal swabs had a sensitivity of 92.31% and specificity of 51.92%, and qPCR analysis of DNA from whole-blood samples had a sensitivity of 16.67% and specificity of 100%. B. canis outer membrane protein 25 DNA qPCR from non-invasive vaginal swab and urine samples provided early detection of B. canis infection in dogs prior to detection of antibodies. This assay provides a critical tool to decrease zoonotic spread of canine brucellosis, its associated clinical presentation(s), and emotional and economic repercussions.

  19. Pesquisa de aglutininas anti Brucella canis em soros humanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Research on agglutinins for Brucella canis in human sera in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available De 330 soros humanos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4(1,21% apresentaram aglutininas anti Brucella canis em diluição 1:100 (1 reagente com título 100, 2 reagentes com título 200 e 1 reagente com título 400.Of the 330 human sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (1.21% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies with tilers 1:100 or higher (1 reagent with titer of 1:100, 2 reagents with titer of 1:200, and 1 reagent with tiler of 1:400.

  20. A polymerase chain reaction for detection of Brucella canis in vaginal swabs of naturally infected bitches.

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    Keid, L B; Soares, R M; Vasconcellos, S A; Chiebao, D P; Salgado, V R; Megid, J; Richtzenhain, L J

    2007-12-01

    A PCR assay for the detection of Brucella canis in canine vaginal swab samples was evaluated, comparing its performance with that of bacterial isolation, serological tests, and a blood PCR assay. One hundred and forty-four female dogs were clinically examined to detect reproductive problems and they were tested by the rapid slide agglutination test, with and without 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME-RSAT and RSAT, respectively). In addition, microbiological culture and PCR were performed on blood and vaginal swab samples. The results of the vaginal swab PCR were compared to those of the other tests using the Kappa coefficient and McNemar test. Of the 144 females that were examined, 66 (45.8%) were RSAT positive, 23 (15.9%) were 2ME-RSAT positive, 49 (34.02%) were blood culture positive, 6 (4.1%) were vaginal swab culture positive, 54 (37.5%) were blood PCR positive, 52 (36.2%) were vaginal swab PCR positive, and 50.69% (73/144) were positive by the combined PCR. The PCR was able to detect as few as 3.8 fg of B. canis DNA experimentally diluted in 54 ng of canine DNA, extracted from vaginal swab samples of non-infected bitches. In addition, the PCR assay amplified B. canis genetic sequences from vaginal swab samples containing 1.0 x 10(0) cfu/mL. In conclusion, vaginal swab PCR was a good candidate as a confirmatory test for brucellosis diagnosis in bitches suspected to be infected, especially those negative on blood culture or blood PCR; these animals may be important reservoirs of infection and could complicate attempts to eradicate the disease in confined populations.

  1. Reporte de primer caso humano de aislamiento y tipificación de Brucella abortus RB 51: first report in Chile Isolation and identification of Brucella abortus RB 51 in human

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    M. Villarroel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Microbiología del Hospital Base de Osorno, se aisló una cepa de Brucella sp, que posteriormente se tipificó en el Laboratorio Regional de Diagnósticos del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero, SAG Osorno. Esta cepa fue aislada de un hemocultivo realizado a un paciente con sintomatología clínica compatible con Brucelosis. El resultado de la tipificación fue Brucella abortus RB 51, cepa vaccinal que se presumía apatógena para el hombre. Este es el primer reporte a nivel mundial de un aislamiento de B. abortus RB 51 en humanosA Brucella strain was isolated from a haemoculture of a clinically ill veterinarian practitioner, at the Laboratory of Microbiology, Hospital Base Osorno, Chile. This strain was identified as Brucella abortus RB 51 at Laboratorio de Diagnósticos from the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG, Osorno, based mainly in the following characteristics: resistence to Rifampicin, aerobic growth and the production of only rough colonies. The strain RB 51 was confirmed by PCR analysis

  2. Brucella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Brucella encompasses a group of gram negative bacteria that survive almost exclusively in infected hosts with preference for localization in intracellular compartments of cells. The genus has traditionally been divided into species based on microbe characteristics and host preference, bu...

  3. Factores asociados con la seropositividad a Brucella canis en criaderos caninos de dos regiones de Antioquia, Colombia

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    Laura Castrillón-Salazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar la seroprevalencia a Brucella canis en perros y humanos convivientes en criaderos caninos y explorar los factores de riesgo asociados a la seropositividad. Se tomaron 20 criaderos, en los cuales se realizó diagnóstico serológico por PARP-2ME de 428 caninos y 91 humanos. Se aplicó una encuesta para determinar los factores de riesgo y se analizaron los datos mediante regresión logística. Se determinó una seroprevalencia de 15% en caninos y 9% en humanos convivientes. Se determinaron como factores asociados a la seropositividad canina el historial de seropositividad canina, conservar los caninos seropositivos, historial de aborto, higiene y protección del operario deficientes durante el servicio reproductivo, y procedimiento inseguro durante la atención de abortos. Como factores protectores se establecieron la ubicación rural de los criaderos, facilidad de aseo de los caniles, PARP-2ME premonta, y procedimiento seguro durante la atención de partos. En humanos se determinaron factores asociados: criaderos ubicados en el Valle Aburrá y de tipo urbano.

  4. Estudio fitoquímico de extractos con actividad antimicrobiana contra Brucella canis obtenidos a partir de plantas nativas y naturalizadas de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

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    Ardoino, Silvia Marina

    2014-01-01

    La brucelosis canina es una enfermedad infecciosa zoonótica causada por Brucella canis, la cual se trata con una combinación de antibióticos tales como tetraciclina, doxiciclina, minociclina y estreptomicina. A pesar de ello las recidivas son comunes. Se planteó investigar la presencia de efecto inhibitorio sobre Brucella canis en extractos vegetales obtenidos de plantas nativas y naturalizadas de la Provincia de La Pampa. Se evaluó el efecto antimicrobiano de extractos metanólicos de 164 es...

  5. Serological detection of Brucella canis in shelter dogs from Northern ParanáDetecção sorológica de Brucella canis em cães de abrigos da região Norte do Paraná

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    Luiz César Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the presence of circulating antibodies of anti-Brucella canis and anti-B. abortus in shelter dogs maintained in four cities of Northern Paraná. Serum samples of 100 dogs, of both sexes, from the cities of Apucarana, Arapongas, Londrina and Rolândia were collected for the determination of the serological presence of B. canis by the utilization of agarose gel immunodiffusion and B. abortus by the buffered acidified antigen assay. Only 4% (4/100 of the samples evaluated demonstrated seroreactivity to B. canis, with seropositivity varying between 4.17 – 10%. However, positive samples originated only from the cities of Apucarana (4.17%; 2/48 and Londrina (10%; 2/20. Seroreactivity to B. abortus antibodies was not verified within the canine population evaluated. These results suggest that B. canis is circulating within the dog population of Northern Paraná. Este estudo avaliou a presença de anticorpos circulantes anti-Brucella canis e anti-B. abortus em cães mantidos em abrigos situados em quatro municípios da região Norte do Paraná. Amostras séricas de 100 cães, de ambos os sexos, oriundos das cidades de Apucarana, Arapongas, Londrina e Rolândia foram colhidas para determinação sorológica da presença de anticorpos contra B. canis por meio da técnica de imunodifusão em gel de agarose e de anticorpos contra B. abortus por meio da prova do antígeno acidificado tamponado. Somente 4% (4/100 das amostras avaliadas foram sororreagentes a B. canis, com soropositividade variando entre 4.17 – 10%. Contudo, as amostras positivas foram oriundas somente das cidades de Apucarana (4.17%; 2/48 e Londrina (10%; 2/20. Não foram verificadas amostras sororreagentes a B. abortus na população canina avaliada. Esses resultados sugerem que B. Canis circula na população de cães da região Norte do Paraná.

  6. Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella canis em cães rurais e urbanos do Município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, Brasil

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    Aguiar Daniel Moura de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 304 cães de ambiente rural e urbano do município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, através do Antígeno Acidificado Tamponado (AAT, Soroaglutinação Lenta em Tubos (SAL e 2-Mercaptoetanol (2-ME para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e da Imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA e Imunodifusão em gel de ágar com soro tratado com 2-Mercaptoetanol (IDGA-ME para Brucella canis. Foram consideradas positivas as amostras reagentes nas provas confirmatórias do 2-ME e IDGA-ME. Verificaram-se 56 (18,4% animais reagentes ao AAT e 12 (4,0% reagentes a SAL. Apenas um cão (0,3% foi considerado positivo, confirmado pela prova do 2-ME. Foram observadas 11 (3,6% reações á IDGA, porém não houve confirmação na prova do IDGA-ME. Ressalta-se a baixa ocorrência de cães positivos ao 2-ME e a ausência de animais reagentes á IDGA-ME.

  7. Evaluación de un modelo de infección murino para la evaluación de vacunas homólogas y heterólogas contra Brucella canis Evaluation of a mouse infection model to evaluate homologue and heterologue vaccines against Brucella canis in mouse model

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    M Clausse

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis canina es una enfermedad zoonótica que afecta a los caninos y provoca importantes pérdidas económicas en criaderos. En la actualidad, no existe una vacuna para la prevención de esta enfermedad. Una limitante en el desarrollo de una vacuna eficaz es la falta de un modelo experimental que permita evaluar la infección con Brucella canis. En este trabajo, se desarrolló un modelo ratón para evaluar la infección esplénica por B. canis empleando distintas dosis, tiempos de sacrificio y vías de inoculación. Además, se ensayaron inmunógenos homólogos (B. canis inactivada y heterólogos (B. ovis inactivada y viva como potenciales vacunas control. Las bacterinas fueron formuladas en Marcol 52, Montanide o Quil A. La inoculación de 106-107 UFC (unidades formadoras de colonias de B. canis por las vías intraperitoneal o intravenosa no mostró diferencias en la carga bacteriana esplénica. El recuento de UFC en bazo fue similar cuando los ratones se sacrificaron a 14, 21 o 30 días post-inoculación. B. ovis PA76250 viva confirió el mejor nivel de protección contra B. canis mientras que una protección menor, pero significativa, fue obtenida cuando se administró la bacterina B. canis M- formulada en Marcol 52 o Montanide. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el modelo ratón es adecuado para evaluar, en el futuro, la eficacia de potenciales inmunógenos contra la brucelosis canina.The development of an effective vaccine against brucellosis is a research area of much interest since there is no available vaccine against canine brucellosis. One limitation in testing any immunization strategy is the lack of a suitable laboratory animal that is permissive to the infection. In this work, a mouse model was developed to study splenic B. canis RM6/66 infection using different doses, times of sacrifice and inoculation routes. In addition, homologous (B. canis M- bacterin and heterologous (live or B. ovis bacterin rough whole cell

  8. Brucella spp. isolation from dogs from commercial breeding kennels in São Paulo state, Brazil Detecção de Brucella em cães provenientes de canis comerciais do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Lara B. Keid

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dogs from 12 commercial breeding kennels were submitted to clinical investigation and laboratorial tests for diagnosis of Brucella spp. infection. The sampling was carried out between April 2000 and February 2002 and the laboratorial tests employed were agar gel immunediffusion test (AGID and blood culture. From 171 dogs examinated, 39 (22.8% showed at least one clinical sign compatible with brucellosis, 58 (33.91% were AGID positive and 24 (14.03% were positive by blood culture. Gram negative bacterial cells with a biochemical pattern compatible with that of bacteria belonging to genus Brucella were isolated from blood specimens of 24 animals. According to Kappa index and McNemar test, the association between AGID and blood culture (k=0.360 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=25.93, p=0.000, between AGID and clinical test (k=0.248 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=6.11, p=0.013, and between blood culture and clinical examination (k=0.442 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=6.76, p=0.009 were not statistically significant. Qui-Square test indicated no association of sex and the results of clinical examination (X²=1.35 and p=0.2447, AGID (X²=1.58 and p=0.2086 or bacterial isolation (X²=1.48 and p=0.2230. Within 12 kennels, seven had at least one dog positive by blood culture and nine had at least one animal positive by AGID. The association of epidemiological data with direct and indirect methods of diagnosis is necessary to perform a definitive diagnosis of Brucella infection in dogs, as positive results by AGID can be consequence of non-specific reactions and must be confirmed by blood culture. Negative results by AGID must also be confirmed using direct methods of diagnosis or repeating the serologic test after 30 days, because of the low sensitivity of this test.Cães provenientes de 12 canis comerciais do estado de São Paulo foram submetidos à investigação clínica e a provas laboratoriais para o diagnóstico de infecção por

  9. Booster vaccination with safe, modified, live-attenuated mutants of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine confers protective immunity against virulent strains of B. abortus and Brucella canis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Kim, Kiju; Park, Bo-Kyoung; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2015-11-01

    Brucella abortus attenuated strain RB51 vaccine (RB51) is widely used in prevention of bovine brucellosis. Although vaccination with this strain has been shown to be effective in conferring protection against bovine brucellosis, RB51 has several drawbacks, including residual virulence for animals and humans. Therefore, a safe and efficacious vaccine is needed to overcome these disadvantages. In this study, we constructed several gene deletion mutants (ΔcydC, ΔcydD and ΔpurD single mutants, and ΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD double mutants) of RB51 with the aim of increasing the safety of the possible use of these mutants as vaccine candidates. The RB51ΔcydC, RB51ΔcydD, RB51ΔpurD, RB51ΔcydCΔcydD and RB51ΔcydCΔpurD mutants exhibited significant attenuation of virulence when assayed in murine macrophages in vitro or in BALB/c mice. A single intraperitoneal immunization with RB51ΔcydC, RB51ΔcydD, RB51ΔcydCΔcydD or RB51ΔcydCΔpurD mutants was rapidly cleared from mice within 3 weeks, whereas the RB51ΔpurD mutant and RB51 were detectable in spleens until 4 and 7 weeks, respectively. Vaccination with a single dose of RB51 mutants induced lower protective immunity in mice than did parental RB51. However, a booster dose of these mutants provided significant levels of protection in mice against challenge with either the virulent homologous B. abortus strain 2308 or the heterologous Brucella canis strain 26. In addition, these mutants were found to induce a mixed but T-helper-1-biased humoral and cellular immune response in immunized mice. These data suggest that immunization with a booster dose of attenuated RB51 mutants provides an attractive strategy to protect against either bovine or canine brucellosis.

  10. ATP-Binding Cassette Systems of Brucella

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    Dominic C. Jenner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a prevalent zoonotic disease and is endemic in the Middle East, South America, and other areas of the world. In this study, complete inventories of putative functional ABC systems of five Brucella species have been compiled and compared. ABC systems of Brucella melitensis 16M, Brucella abortus 9-941, Brucella canis RM6/66, Brucella suis 1330, and Brucella ovis 63/290 were identified and aligned. High numbers of ABC systems, particularly nutrient importers, were found in all Brucella species. However, differences in the total numbers of ABC systems were identified (B. melitensis, 79; B. suis, 72; B. abortus 64; B. canis, 74; B. ovis, 59 as well as specific differences in the functional ABC systems of the Brucella species. Since B. ovis is not known to cause human brucellosis, functional ABC systems absent in the B. ovis genome may represent virulence factors in human brucellosis.

  11. Advancement of knowledge of Brucella over the past 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Palmer, M V

    2014-11-01

    Fifty years ago, bacteria in the genus Brucella were known to cause infertility and reproductive losses. At that time, the genus was considered to contain only 3 species: Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella suis. Since the early 1960s, at least 7 new species have been identified as belonging to the Brucella genus (Brucella canis, Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella microti, Brucella neotomae, Brucella ovis, and Brucella pinnipedialis) with several additional new species under consideration for inclusion. Although molecular studies have found such high homology that some authors have proposed that all Brucella are actually 1 species, the epidemiologic and diagnostic benefits for separating the genus based on phenotypic characteristics are more compelling. Although pathogenic Brucella spp have preferred reservoir hosts, their ability to infect numerous mammalian hosts has been increasingly documented. The maintenance of infection in new reservoir hosts, such as wildlife, has become an issue for both public health and animal health regulatory personnel. Since the 1960s, new information on how Brucella enters host cells and modifies their intracellular environment has been gained. Although the pathogenesis and histologic lesions of B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis in their preferred hosts have not changed, additional knowledge on the pathology of these brucellae in new hosts, or of new species of Brucella in their preferred hosts, has been obtained. To this day, brucellosis remains a significant human zoonosis that is emerging or reemerging in many parts of the world.

  12. Properties of Brucella-phages lytic for non-smooth Brucella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, M J

    1984-01-01

    A series of host-range mutants has been selected for brucella-phage R. Two of these mutants designated R/O and R/C have been used for typing purposes. Phage R/O is lytic for non-smooth strains of Brucella abortus and for B. ovis. It is genetically unstable however and produces mutants lytic for smooth B. obortus and B. suis. Phage R/C is lytic for non-smooth B. abortus and for B. ovis and B. canis. It is much more stable than phages R or R/O and shows little or no lytic activity on smooth Brucella strains. It has been effective in differentiating B. canis from B. suis in tests on a limited number of strains. In their properties, all of the brucella-phages of the R series resemble their parent phage.

  13. Aislamiento acústico

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    Tobío, J. M.

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a very specific subject in the field of architectural acoustics, namely, insulation'. Emphasis is placed on the theoretical foundations of this phenomenon, and the most simple formula are developed to calculate easily the transmission losses of a material or the constructional insulating arrangements. The practical aspect of insulation can be considered by means of several graphs and charts, without the use of mathematics, and utilising common materials, that will not substantially increase the cost of the project. Finally this papers offers a critical discussion of building codes, and their reference to the acoustical insulation of dwellings, and data is included on the new regulations of the Madrid Municipality.Se trata un tema muy concreto de la Acústica Arquitectónica, el aislamiento, haciendo hincapié en los fundamentos teóricos del fenómeno y estableciendo las fórmulas más sencillas que permiten calcular fácilmente las pérdidas de transmisión de un material o disposición constructiva aislante. Varias gráficas y abacos permiten abordar, sin ningún tratamiento matemático, el problema práctico del aislamiento, aprovechando los materiales comunes y sin ocasionar gastos que graven sustancialmente el importe del proyecto. Por último, se hace un estudio crítico de las normas y su incidencia en los problemas del aislamiento de viviendas, incluyendo datos referentes a la nueva Ordenanza del Ayuntamiento de Madrid.

  14. Hombre, calor y aislamiento

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    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-11-01

    Full Text Available Con los nuevos tipos estructurales y con los adelantos de las ciencias biológicas en lo que se refiere a los procesos orgánicos, mis ideas sobre aislamiento, y las de casi todos los demás arquitectos y constructores, han sufrido una evolución interesantísima en los últimos veinticinco años. Y me complace subrayar que los que, como yo, estudiamos el decorado humano, podemos hacer mucho en beneficio de nuestros clientes. No hace aún mucho tiempo toda la protección de una casa contra el peligro de transferencia térmica se confiaba exclusivamente a muros y cubiertas no aislantes. Los propietarios se limitaban a culpar al tiempo de su falta de confort. Pero esta falta de comodidad en cuanto a calefacción no era la única consecuencia; tras ella aparecían daños de efectos duraderos y patológicos.

  15. de diversas fuentes de aislamiento

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    María Guadalupe Morales Meza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó la resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus obtenidas de diversas fuentes de aislamiento para comparar los patrones de resistencia alcanzados de acuerdo con su origen y así establecer si la resistencia a los antibióticos está asociada al origen de aislamiento. Para esto se aislaron 187 cepas a partir de 483 muestras que incluyeron alimentos, ambiente, portadores sanos y portadores enfermos; se realizó la identificación de las cepas por métodos bioquímicos y aquéllas confirmadas como S.aureus se conservaron a –20°C. Con las cepas obtenidas se realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana por el método de Bauer-Kirby a los antibióticos comúnmente utilizados para Gram (+. Después de interpretar la prueba se realizó un análisis estadístico de los resultados mediante la prueba c2 de Pearson. La frecuencia de aislamiento fue de 38.7% de S.aureus de todas las muestras manejadas, lo que confirma el hecho de que esta bacteria se encuentra ampliamente distribuida. De los antibióticos probados, en la dicloxacilina, tetraciclina y eritromicina, según el análisis estadístico, se encontró que la resistencia es dependiente del origen de aislamiento. En el caso de la dicloxacilina, este es un antibiótico muy usado en animales, lo que selecciona cepas resistentes que se mantienen en productos de origen animal como los cárnicos y lácteos. El origen de las cepas resistentes a la tetraciclina y eritromicina se considera humano, ya que éstas se encontraron en los alimentos que tienen mucha manipulación durante su proceso y comercialización (jamón, tocino. Para otros antibióticos como lo fueron la penicilina, pefloxacina, cefuroxima, gentamicina, cefotaxima, ampicilina, ceftazidima y cefalotina se encontró que la resistencia es independiente del origen, lo que implica que los genes de resistencia en las cepas de S. aureus para estos antibióticos están ampliamente distribuidos

  16. The genome sequence of Brucella pinnipedialis B2/94 sheds light on the evolutionary history of the genus Brucella

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    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the discovery of the Malta fever agent, Brucella melitensis, in the 19th century, six terrestrial mammal-associated Brucella species were recognized over the next century. More recently the number of novel Brucella species has increased and among them, isolation of species B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti from marine mammals raised many questions about their origin as well as on the evolutionary history of the whole genus. Results We report here on the first complete genome sequence of a Brucella strain isolated from marine mammals, Brucella pinnipedialis strain B2/94. A whole gene-based phylogenetic analysis shows that five main groups of host-associated Brucella species rapidly diverged from a likely free-living ancestor close to the recently isolated B. microti. However, this tree lacks the resolution required to resolve the order of divergence of those groups. Comparative analyses focusing on a genome segments unshared between B. microti and B. pinnipedialis, b gene deletion/fusion events and c positions and numbers of Brucella specific IS711 elements in the available Brucella genomes provided enough information to propose a branching order for those five groups. Conclusions In this study, it appears that the closest relatives of marine mammal Brucella sp. are B. ovis and Brucella sp. NVSL 07-0026 isolated from a baboon, followed by B. melitensis and B. abortus strains, and finally the group consisting of B. suis strains, including B. canis and the group consisting of the single B. neotomae species. We were not able, however, to resolve the order of divergence of the two latter groups.

  17. Detecting brucella species in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Jarrín, Ligia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brucelosis is an emerging zoonotic disease in many countries around the world. There are some reports of Brucella abortus infections in cattle and humans in Ecuador, nevertheless, other Brucella species have not been identified. This study was designed to identify circulating Brucella species in 300 goat samples and one canine fetus from 8 different provinces of the highland Andes of the country. The results showed isolates from Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis, Brucella abortus y Brucella ...

  18. Analyses of Brucella pathogenesis, host immunity, and vaccine targets using systems biology and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes zoonotic brucellosis in humans and various animals. Out of 10 classified Brucella species, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, and B. canis are pathogenic to humans. In the past decade, the mechanisms of Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity have been extensively investigated using the cutting edge systems biology and bioinformatics approaches. This article provides a comprehensive review of the applications of Omics (including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) and bioinformatics technologies for the analysis of Brucella pathogenesis, host immune responses, and vaccine targets. Based on more than 30 sequenced Brucella genomes, comparative genomics is able to identify gene variations among Brucella strains that help to explain host specificity and virulence differences among Brucella species. Diverse transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression studies have been conducted to analyze gene expression profiles of wild type Brucella strains and mutants under different laboratory conditions. High throughput Omics analyses of host responses to infections with virulent or attenuated Brucella strains have been focused on responses by mouse and cattle macrophages, bovine trophoblastic cells, mouse and boar splenocytes, and ram buffy coat. Differential serum responses in humans and rams to Brucella infections have been analyzed using high throughput serum antibody screening technology. The Vaxign reverse vaccinology has been used to predict many Brucella vaccine targets. More than 180 Brucella virulence factors and their gene interaction networks have been identified using advanced literature mining methods. The recent development of community-based Vaccine Ontology and Brucellosis Ontology provides an efficient way for Brucella data integration, exchange, and computer-assisted automated reasoning.

  19. Identification of Protective Brucella Antigens and their Expressions in Vaccinia Virus to Prevent Disease in Animals and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    cattle, sheep, goats , dogs, and camels. Important species of Brucella are: suis, abortus, ovis, melitensis , canis, and neotomae, each with certain...B. abortus is strain 19 and for protecting goats against B. melitensis is strain Rev 1. Vaccination with these strains leads to seroconversion...encoding the C-terminus portion of the Brucella protein. Western blot analysis of B. abortus and B. melitensis was performed using antibodies raised against

  20. Brucella Endocarditis Caused by Brucella Melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Simsek, Hakki; Sahin,Musa; Yaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present a rare case of brucella endocarditis, forming a vegetation on the mitral valve. The definitive diagnosis has been made with clinical suspicion, positive serology, the demonstration of the vegetation with the echocardiography and with the production from the multiple blood culture of Brucella melitensis and from the excised valve. Our patient has been successfully treated with specific antibiotherapy and the surgery of replacement of mitral valve. Our aim in presenting the...

  1. Characterisation of the genetic diversity of Brucella by multilocus sequencing

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    MacMillan Alastair P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella species include economically important zoonotic pathogens that can infect a wide range of animals. There are currently six classically recognised species of Brucella although, as yet unnamed, isolates from various marine mammal species have been reported. In order to investigate genetic relationships within the group and identify potential diagnostic markers we have sequenced multiple genetic loci from a large sample of Brucella isolates representing the known diversity of the genus. Results Nine discrete genomic loci corresponding to 4,396 bp of sequence were examined from 160 Brucella isolates. By assigning each distinct allele at a locus an arbitrary numerical designation the population was found to represent 27 distinct sequence types (STs. Diversity at each locus ranged from 1.03–2.45% while overall genetic diversity equated to 1.5%. Most loci examined represent housekeeping gene loci and, in all but one case, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous change was substantially Brucella species, B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis and B. neotomae correspond to well-separated clusters. With the exception of biovar 5, B. suis isolates cluster together, although they form a more diverse group than other classical species with a number of distinct STs corresponding to the remaining four biovars. B. canis isolates are located on the same branch very closely related to, but distinguishable from, B. suis biovar 3 and 4 isolates. Marine mammal isolates represent a distinct, though rather weakly supported, cluster within which individual STs display one of three clear host preferences. Conclusion The sequence database provides a powerful dataset for addressing ongoing controversies in Brucella taxonomy and a tool for unambiguously placing atypical, phenotypically discordant or newly emerging Brucella isolates. Furthermore, by using the phylogenetic backbone described here, robust and rationally selected markers for use in

  2. Microbiology of Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, Duygu

    2013-04-01

    The genus Brucella is a member of family Brucellaceae and includes ten species which are small, non-motile, non-sporing, aerobic, gram-negative intracellular coccobacilli. They are catalase, oxidase and urea positive bacteria. Members of the genus can grow on enriched media like blood agar or chocolate agar. Identification in species level can be done by agglutination with monospecific serum, cultivating the strains in the presence of dyes and/or with PCR methods. Antigenic structure of the Brucella is composed of surface, intracellular, and in vivo antigens. Thanks to various virulence factors that act as metabolic regulators, Brucella strains can protect themselves from immune system of the host, adapt easily to different environmental conditions, and multiply intracellular. Classification, epidemiological features, isolation and identification, antigenic structure and virulence factors of Brucella species along with the discussion of very few patents associated with Brucellosis have been reviewed in this paper.

  3. Contención sin aislamiento

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    Mario Sánchez Gumiel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available En febrero de 2012 se cumplieron cuarenta años de la visita de Richard Nixon a China y, por tanto, de la reanudación de las relaciones sino-americanas que habían sido interrumpidas en 1949. Desde entonces, Estados Unidos y China han mantenido una recíproca política de contención y aislamiento, conscientes de sus diferencias, pero sabedores también de la necesidad de un entendimiento mutuo. Como consecuencia dicha política de contención y aislamiento, el océano Pacífico está transformándose, como el Atlántico después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en el nuevo escenario geopolítico del siglo XXI.Palabras Clave: Estados Unidos, China, Nixon, Mao, Deng Xiaoping, Taiwán, Chiang Kai-Shek, Contención, Aislamiento, Corea, Vietnam, Tian’anmen, URSS, Comunismo, Capitalismo.___________________Abstract:On February 2012 took place the fourtieth anniversary of President Nixon’s visiting to China and, as a consequence, of the resumption of the Sino-American relations which had been interrupted in 1949. Since then, the United States and China have experienced a reciprocal policy of containment without isolation, both being aware of their mutual differences but knowing of the necessity of mutual understanding as well. As a result, the Pacific ocean is making changes, just as the Atlantic after the Second World War, in order to become the new geopolitical place of the Twenty First century.Keywords: United States, China, Nixon, Mao, Deng Xiaoping, Taiwán, Chiang Kai-Shek, Containment, Isolation, Korea, Vietnam, Tian’anmen, USSR, Communism, Capitalism.

  4. Brucella, nitrogen and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, Severin; Moussa, Simon; Barbier, Thibault; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Zuniga-Ripa, Amaia; Moriyon, Ignacio; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2016-08-01

    The brucellae are α-Proteobacteria causing brucellosis, an important zoonosis. Although multiplying in endoplasmic reticulum-derived vacuoles, they cause no cell death, suggesting subtle but efficient use of host resources. Brucellae are amino-acid prototrophs able to grow with ammonium or use glutamate as the sole carbon-nitrogen source in vitro. They contain more than twice amino acid/peptide/polyamine uptake genes than the amino-acid auxotroph Legionella pneumophila, which multiplies in a similar vacuole, suggesting a different nutritional strategy. During these two last decades, many mutants of key actors in nitrogen metabolism (transporters, enzymes, regulators, etc.) have been described to be essential for full virulence of brucellae. Here, we review the genomic and experimental data on Brucella nitrogen metabolism and its connection with virulence. An analysis of various aspects of this metabolism (transport, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, respiration and regulation) has highlighted differences and similarities in nitrogen metabolism with other α-Proteobacteria. Together, these data suggest that, during their intracellular life cycle, the brucellae use various nitrogen sources for biosynthesis, catabolism and respiration following a strategy that requires prototrophy and a tight regulation of nitrogen use.

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Brucella suis Biovar 4 Strain NCTC 10385, Brucella ceti Strain NCTC 12891T , Brucella inopinata Strain CAMP 6436T, and Brucella neotomae Strain ATCC 23459T

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Tara; Ferrari, Sevinc; Lindberg, Martina; Bäckman, Stina; Kaden, Rene

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing quantitative PCR methods for the detection and differentiation of Brucella species, the genomes of Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella netotomae, and Brucella suis biovar 4 were sequenced and analyzed.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Brucella suis Biovar 4 Strain NCTC 10385, Brucella ceti Strain NCTC 12891T, Brucella inopinata Strain CAMP 6436T, and Brucella neotomae Strain ATCC 23459T

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Tara; Ferrari, Sevinc; Lindberg, Martina; Bäckman, Stina; Kaden, Rene

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing quantitative PCR methods for the detection and differentiation of Brucella species, the genomes of Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella netotomae, and Brucella suis biovar 4 were sequenced and analyzed.

  7. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  8. Consideraciones sobre aislamientos térmicos

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    García Arroyo, A.

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available The yearly change in ambient temperature, and also the daily variations, become notably evident inside buildings. In extreme cases they cause considerable discomfort. This can be avoided by two means: insulation and heating or air conditioning. As each of these factors covers a wide range of possibilities, a detailed study of the physical factors, such as location, cost, climate, etc., makes it possible to find the most suitable materials, with the best overall thermal transmission factor (Ue, and the cheapest thickness (te of the insulating material.La variación anual de la temperatura externa, así como la diaria, se manifiesta de una manera notable en el interior de los edificios creando, en condiciones extremas, un inconfort evitable mediante la combinación apropiada de dos elementos: aislamientos y sistemas de calefacción o aire acondicionado. Dada la extensa gama de variación de cada uno de estos factores, haciendo un estudio detallado de sus propiedades físicas, situación, costes y clima de la región, encontramos el material más idóneo a emplear, coeficiente global de transmisión térmica (Ue del aislamiento y espesor (te más económico del material aislante.

  9. Differential phenotyping of Brucella species using a newly developed semi-automated metabolic system

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    Appel Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A commercial biotyping system (Taxa Profile™, Merlin Diagnostika testing the metabolization of various substrates by bacteria was used to determine if a set of phenotypic features will allow the identification of members of the genus Brucella and their differentiation into species and biovars. Results A total of 191 different amines, amides, amino acids, other organic acids and heterocyclic and aromatic substrates (Taxa Profile™ A, 191 different mono-, di-, tri- and polysaccharides and sugar derivates (Taxa Profile™ C and 95 amino peptidase- and protease-reactions, 76 glycosidase-, phosphatase- and other esterase-reactions, and 17 classic reactions (Taxa Profile™ E were tested with the 23 reference strains representing the currently known species and biovars of Brucella and a collection of 60 field isolates. Based on specific and stable reactions a 96-well "Brucella identification and typing" plate (Micronaut™ was designed and re-tested in 113 Brucella isolates and a couple of closely related bacteria. Brucella species and biovars revealed characteristic metabolic profiles and each strain showed an individual pattern. Due to their typical metabolic profiles a differentiation of Brucella isolates to the species level could be achieved. The separation of B. canis from B. suis bv 3, however, failed. At the biovar level, B. abortus bv 4, 5, 7 and B. suis bv 1-5 could be discriminated with a specificity of 100%. B. melitensis isolates clustered in a very homogenous group and could not be resolved according to their assigned biovars. Conclusions The comprehensive testing of metabolic activity allows cluster analysis within the genus Brucella. The biotyping system developed for the identification of Brucella and differentiation of its species and biovars may replace or at least complement time-consuming tube testing especially in case of atypical strains. An easy to handle identification software facilitates the

  10. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  11. BrucellaBase: Genome information resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Khader, L K M Abdul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-09-01

    Brucella sp. causes a major zoonotic disease, brucellosis. Brucella belongs to the family Brucellaceae under the order Rhizobiales of Alphaproteobacteria. We present BrucellaBase, a web-based platform, providing features of a genome database together with unique analysis tools. We have developed a web version of the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (Whatmore et al., 2007) and phylogenetic analysis of Brucella spp. BrucellaBase currently contains genome data of 510 Brucella strains along with the user interfaces for BLAST, VFDB, CARD, pairwise genome alignment and MLST typing. Availability of these tools will enable the researchers interested in Brucella to get meaningful information from Brucella genome sequences. BrucellaBase will regularly be updated with new genome sequences, new features along with improvements in genome annotations. BrucellaBase is available online at http://www.dbtbrucellosis.in/brucellabase.html or http://59.99.226.203/brucellabase/homepage.html.

  12. Geographic pattern of serum antibody prevalence for Brucella spp. in caribou, grizzly bears, and wolves from Alaska, 1975-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, Randall L; Ver Hoef, Jay M; DeLong, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 2,635 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 1,238 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 930 wolves (Canis lupus) from throughout mainland Alaska during 1975-98. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Brucella spp. Serum antibody prevalences were highest in the northwestern region of the state. In any specific area, antibody prevalences for caribou and wolves were of a similar magnitude, whereas antibody prevalence for bears in these same areas were two to three times higher.

  13. ESCUELAS-ISLA: UN AISLAMIENTO INSTITUCIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vergara Reyes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata acerca de un tipo de escuela en la realidad educativa chilena, denominada "escuela-isla", caracterizada por su aislamiento institucional del entorno social, económico, político, religioso y cultural. El concepto nace de una serie de reflexiones bajo el marco formativo de las prácticas pedagógicas tempranas, a partir de un conjunto de experiencias que configuran al centro de enseñanza y que resultan clave para la comprensión de la naturaleza del término. El documento hace una caracterización de este tipo de escuela, reconociendo cualidades que no son propias de una institución social. Asimismo, se propone y justifica la necesidad de un tipo de "alianza simbiótica" entre la organización educativa y el resto de organizaciones de la comunidad (red de enlace para complementar y potenciar su función educativa (formativa. Por último, se destaca la importancia de la interacción de la escuela con otras instituciones de la sociedad, y que tales vínculos constituyen una estrategia educativa para el desarrollo social y comunitario.

  14. [MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BRUCELLA PERSISTENCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov Yu K

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a dangerous zoonotic disease of animals and humans caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, which are able to survive, multiply, and persist in host cells. The review is devoted to the Brucella species persistence connected to the molecular mechanisms of escape from innate and adaptive immunity of the host and active interaction of effector proteins of the type IV secretion system with the host's signaling pathways. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by Brucella for the intracellular persistence in the host organism can allow us to develop new and effective means for the prevention and treatment of chronic brucellosis infection.

  15. Sensibilidad al fluconazol de aislamientos de Trichophyton rubrum

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    Norma T Gross-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Trichophyton rubrum es el dermatofito más frecuentemente aislado a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente: piel glabra, uñas de las manos y de los pies. El fluconazol es utilizado con frecuencia para el tratamiento de las onicomicosis en nuestra población, por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar la sensibilidad a este antifúngico, de aislamientos costarricenses de T. rubrum. Métodos: se investigó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol de 80 aislamientos de T. rubrum, obtenidos de muestras de piel y sus anexos. El método utilizado fue el de microdilución M-38A, descrito por el “National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards”. Las diluciones finales del fluconazol fueron de 0,25 a 128 μg/ml. Resultados: la mayoría de los aislamientos fueron obtenidos de uñas de los pies (68,75%. El 86,25% de los aislamientos analizados presentaron una concentración mínima inhibitoria entre 0,25-8 μg/ml, el 8,75% entre 16-32 μg/ml y un 5% > 64 μg/ml. De estos aislamientos resistentes, dos fueron de uñas de los pies y dos de plantas de pie. Conclusión: debido a que la mayoría de los aislamientos de T. rubrum demostraron ser sensibles al fluconazol, solo se recomienda realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a este antifúngico en casos de falla terapéutica, especialmente en pacientes con onicomicosis en la cual el tratamiento es prolongado.

  16. Giardia canis: ultrastructural analysis of G. canis trophozoites transfected with full length G. canis virus cDNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia canis virus (GCV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the family Totiviridae. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the G. canis virus was constructed in pPoly2/sfinot vector and RNA was transcribed in vitro. Virus-free G. canis trophozoites were transfected with in vitro transcribed ...

  17. Application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction to identify Brucella%应用多重聚合酶链式反应鉴别布鲁杆菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽红; 刘志国; 王妙; 刘日宏; 崔步云

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨应用多重聚合酶链式反应(Muhiple-PCR)进行布鲁杆菌株种型的鉴别.方法 以6株布鲁杆菌标准菌株(牛种、羊种、猪种、犬种、绵羊附睾种、沙林鼠种布鲁杆菌标准菌株)作为阳性对照,以大肠埃希菌O∶157和小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌O∶9作为阴性对照,待测布鲁杆菌株29株.先用布鲁杆菌属特异性聚合酶链式反应(BCSP31-PCR)扩增上述待测布鲁杆菌株,扩增结果为阳性的菌株再用Muhiple-PCR方法进行布鲁杆菌种型鉴别.结果 29株待测布鲁杆菌株BCSP31-PCR方法扩增均为阳性,进一步Multiple-PCR方法扩增均为阳性,其中有20株鉴定为羊种菌,5株鉴定为猪种菌、3株鉴定为牛种菌、1株鉴定为犬种菌.结论 Multiple-PCR方法是一种快速、特异、简便、低风险的布鲁杆菌种型鉴定方法.%Objective To evaluate the effect of multiplex polymerase chain reaction(Multiple-PCR) in identification of Brucella strains.Methods Six standard Brucella strains (Brucella abortus,Brucella melitensis,Brucella suis,Brucella canis,Brucella ovis,Brucella neotomae) were used as positive controls and Escherichia coli O∶157 and Yersinia enterocolitica O∶9 were used as negative controls.A total of 29 Brucella strains were tested.Brucella strains were amplified by BCSP31-PCR and the species of Brucella with positive results were identified with Multiple-PCR method.Results The results of all 29 amplified Brucella strains were positive with BCSP31-PCR.The identified results of all Brucella strains were positive with Multiple-PCR,including 20 strains of Brucella melitensis,5 isolates of Brucella suis,3 strains of Brucella abortus and 1 strain of Brucella canis.Conclusion Multiple-PCR method is a rapid,specific,simple and low risk method for identification of Brucella species.

  18. Fatal Babesia canis canis infection in a splenectomized Estonian dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-25

    A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness.

  19. Estudio bacteriológico y serológico de brucelosis en vacas revacunadas con dosis reducida de cepa 19 de brucella abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Bustamante Sánchez; Fernando Israel Salazar Hernández; Efrén Díaz Aparicio; Carlos Manzano Cañas; Rafael Pérez González; Laura Hernández Andrade

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar mediante pruebas diagnósticas, si los anticuerpos que se presentan en bovinos revacunados con dosis reducida de cepa 19 de Brucella abortus son debidos a infección o a vacunación, e intentar el aislamiento para determinar su especie y biotipo. El muestreo se realizó en 25 establos de Tizayuca, Hidalgo. Se utilizaron 100 vacas Holstein positivas a la prueba de tarjeta (PT), que habían sido vacunadas de tres a seis meses de edad con cepa 19 de B. abortus a dosis clási...

  20. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Fast and reliable identification from agar plates and blood cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS is a reliable method for bacteria identification. Some databases used for this purpose lack reference profiles for Brucella species, which is still an important pathogen in wide areas around the world. We report the creation of profiles for MALDI-TOF Biotyper 2.0 database (Bruker Daltonics, Germany and their usefulness for identifying brucellae from culture plates and blood cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We created MALDI Biotyper 2.0 profiles for type strains belonging to B. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3; B. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9; B. suis, B. canis, B ceti and B. pinnipedialis. Then, 131 clinical isolates grown on plate cultures were used in triplicate to check identification. Identification at genus level was always correct, although in most cases the three replicates reported different identification at species level. Simulated blood cultures were performed with type strains belonging to the main human pathogenic species (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis, and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles.

  1. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Fast and Reliable Identification from Agar Plates and Blood Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Laura; Vega Castaño, Silvia; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; González-Cabrero, Sandra; Menegotto, Fabiola; Orduña-Domingo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) is a reliable method for bacteria identification. Some databases used for this purpose lack reference profiles for Brucella species, which is still an important pathogen in wide areas around the world. We report the creation of profiles for MALDI-TOF Biotyper 2.0 database (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) and their usefulness for identifying brucellae from culture plates and blood cultures. Methodology/Principal Findings We created MALDI Biotyper 2.0 profiles for type strains belonging to B. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3; B. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9; B. suis, B. canis, B ceti and B. pinnipedialis. Then, 131 clinical isolates grown on plate cultures were used in triplicate to check identification. Identification at genus level was always correct, although in most cases the three replicates reported different identification at species level. Simulated blood cultures were performed with type strains belonging to the main human pathogenic species (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis), and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. Conclusions/Significance MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles. PMID:21151913

  2. Heterocigosis y aislamiento: el caso de las poblaciones andinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acreche, Noemí

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Poblaciones de la Puna y del Valle Calchaquí de la Provincia de Salta, de las que se conoce su condición de aislamiento reproductivo, fueron estudiadas con el objeto de analizar si existe asociación entre los niveles de heterocigosis por individuo para grupos sanguíneos eritrocitarios y STRs y el lugar de origen de sus padres. A tales efectos se considera para acda individuo la proporción de loci heterocigotos y la pertenencia de sus padres a una de las siguientes categorías: ambos no migrantes, no migrante-migrante de corta distancia/migrante de larga distancia, ambos migrantes de larga distancia, migrante de corta distancia-migrante de larga distancia. Los grupos sanguíneos presentan mayor variabilidad en el Valle que en la Puna, de acuerdo a lo esperado por el grado de aislamiento y diferencias significativas en los promedios de heterocigosisi por individuo en ambas zonas. Por el contrario, los STRs mantienen valores constantes por lo que los análisis a partir de grupos sanguíneos reflejarían mejor las condiciones de aislamiento de las diferentes poblaciones. No se observó asociación entre las categorías definidas según la procedencia de los padres y la proporción de loci heterocigotos en los individuos.

  3. Epidemiology of brucellosis in domestic animals caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Aparicio, E

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a disease that causes severe economic losses for livestock farms worldwide. Brucella melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, which are transmitted between animals both vertically and horizontally, cause abortion and infertility in their primary natural hosts - goats and sheep (B. melitensis), cows (B. abortus) and sows (B. suis). Brucella spp. infect not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, which in turn can act as reservoirs of the disease for other animal species and humans. Brucellosis is therefore considered to be a major zoonosis transmitted by direct contact with animals and/or their secretions, or by consuming milk and dairy products.

  4. Identification of Brucella ovis exclusive genes in field isolates from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lucía Paula; García-Effrón, Guillermo; Robles, Carlos Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is one of the most important infectious diseases of sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of genes both inside and outside the specific B. ovis pathogenicity island 1 (BOPI-1) in a large collection of field isolates of B. ovis and other Brucella spp. from Argentina. The BOV_A0500 gene from B. ovis BOPI-1 was identified in all 104 B. ovis isolates studied. The BOPI-1 complete sequence was found to be conserved in 10 B. ovis strains from the collection, for which whole genome sequencing was performed. The BOV_0198 gene, which is outside BOPI-1 and considered exclusive to B. ovis, showed 90-100% identity with genomic regions of B. ovis, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. canis, B. suis, B. microti, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis. The results demonstrate that BOPI-1 is the only exclusive genetic region of B. ovis and marine Brucella spp. and that it is highly conserved in B. ovis field isolates from Argentina.

  5. Toxocara canis y asma bronquial Toxocara canis and bronchial asthma

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    María de los Ángeles López

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar la relación entre la infección por Toxocara canis y los síntomas del asma bronquial en niños de una región subtropical con alta prevalencia de toxocariosis, se estudiaron 47 niños con asma y 53 sin asma como grupo control. Se efectuó el examen físico completo, registrándose datos clínicos y epidemiológicos. En los niños con asma se categorizó el patrón de presentación, frecuencia y gravedad de los síntomas con una escala de I a IV. Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Toxocara canis en ambos grupos mediante el método de ELISA en fase sólida, empleando antígeno de excreción/secreción y se efectuó dosaje de Ig E total. Los resultados muestran una seropositividad del 55% en el total de los niños, del 57.4% en los niños con asma y del 52.8% en los controles. En los niños con sintomatología más grave (grado II, III y IV hubo un 67.7% de seropositivos, mientras que en los niños con síntomas de grado I la seropositividad fue de 37.5% (p = 0.0470. La infección por T. canis actuaría como un co-factor agravante de los síntomas del asma bronquial.In order to evaluate the association between the infection by Toxocara canis and the symptoms of asthma in children from a subtropical region with high prevalence of toxocariasis, 47 asthmatic children and 53 non-asthmatics as a control group were studied. A complete physical examination was performed and clinical and epidemiological data were registered. In asthmatic children the frequency and severity of symptoms were classified in grades I to IV. The presence of anti-Toxocara canis antibodies in both groups was evaluated employing a solid phase ELISA method with excretion/secretion antigens, and total Ig E was also measured. Results showed a total seropositivity of 55%, 57.4% in children with asthma and 52.8% in the control group. Among asthmatics with severe symptoms (grade II, III and IV, there was a 67.7% of seropositivity while in children with

  6. Intrinsic and selected resistance to antibiotics binding the ribosome: analyses of Brucella 23S rrn, L4, L22, EF-Tu1, EF-Tu2, efflux and phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Allen E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella spp. are highly similar, having identical 16S RNA. However, they have important phenotypic differences such as differential susceptibility to antibiotics binding the ribosome. Neither the differential susceptibility nor its basis has been rigorously studied. Differences found among other conserved ribosomal loci could further define the relationships among the classical Brucella spp. Results Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of Brucella reference strains and three marine isolates to antibiotics binding the ribosome ranged from 0.032 to >256 μg/ml for the macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin and 2 to >256 μg/ml for the lincosamide, clindamycin. Though sequence polymorphisms were identified among ribosome associated loci 23S rrn, rplV, tuf-1 and tuf-2 but not rplD, they did not correlate with antibiotic resistance phenotypes. When spontaneous erythromycin resistant (eryR mutants were examined, mutation of the peptidyl transferase center (A2058G Ec correlated with increased resistance to both erythromycin and clindamycin. Brucella efflux was examined as an alternative antibiotic resistance mechanism by use of the inhibitor L-phenylalanine-L-arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN. Erythromycin MIC values of reference and all eryR strains, except the B. suis eryR mutants, were lowered variably by PAβN. A phylogenetic tree based on concatenated ribosomal associated loci supported separate evolutionary paths for B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis/B. canis, clustering marine Brucella and B. neotomae with B. melitensis. Though Brucella ovis was clustered with B. abortus, the bootstrap value was low. Conclusion Polymorphisms among ribosomal loci from the reference Brucella do not correlate with their highly differential susceptibility to erythromycin. Efflux plays an important role in Brucella sensitivity to erythromycin. Polymorphisms identified among ribosome associated loci construct a

  7. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucella Abortus Vaccine. 113.65... Bacterial Vaccines § 113.65 Brucella Abortus Vaccine. Brucella Abortus Vaccine shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine from smooth colonial forms of the Brucella abortus...

  8. Molecular characterisation of Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, H C; Vergnaud, G

    2013-04-01

    The genus Brucella (Mayer and Shaw, 1920) currently consists often species with validly published names. Within most species further differentiation into biovars exists. Genetically, all Brucella species are highly related to each other, exhibiting sequence similarity values of 98% to 100% in aligned regions (core genome). The population structure is clonal. Despite this close genetic relatedness, the various species can be clearly distinguished from each other by application of high-resolution molecular typing tools, in addition to assessment of phenotype and host preference. Accurate species delineation can be achieved by conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The last is also suitable for phylogenetic reconstructions, owing to the highly clonal evolution of the different species. Highly discriminatory multilocus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) allows both species delineation and differentiation of individual isolates and thus represents a perfect first-line toolfor molecular epidemiological studies within outbreak investigations. More recently,whole genome sequencing (WGS)and the resulting global genome-wide SNP analysis have become available. These novel approaches should help in further understanding the evolution, host specificity and pathogenicity of the genus Brucella.

  9. Fagotipificación de aislamientos de Salmonella enteritidis obtenidos de aves en México

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Mancera Martínez; Jesús Vázquez Navarrete; Assad Heneidi Zeckua

    2004-01-01

    Estudios previos en México han demostrado la presencia de Salmonella enteritidis (SE) en la avicultura comercial. Una de las principales vías de infección del hombre con SE, es por medio del consumo de huevo crudo o subproductos no cocidos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue fagotipificar aislamientos de SE obtenidos de aves en México. Se utilizaron 73 aislamientos confirmados por serotipificación. Catorce aislamientos se identificaron como fagotipo 4, mientras que 29 pertenecieron al fagotipo 8...

  10. Characterization of ribonuclease III from Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Xian; Xu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a highly conserved endonuclease, which plays pivotal roles in RNA maturation and decay pathways by cleaving double-stranded structure of RNAs. Here we cloned rncS gene from the genomic DNA of Brucella melitensis, and analyzed the cleavage properties of RNase III from Brucella. We identified Brucella-encoding small RNA (sRNA) by high-throughput sequencing and northern blot, and found that sRNA of Brucella and Homo miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) can be bound and cleaved by B.melitensis ribonuclease III (Bm-RNase III). Cleavage activity of Bm-RNase III is bivalent metal cations- and alkaline buffer-dependent. We constructed several point mutations in Bm-RNase III, whose cleavage activity indicated that the 133th Glutamic acid residue was required for catalytic activity. Western blot revealed that Bm-RNase III was differently expressed in Brucella virulence strain 027 and vaccine strain M5-90. Collectively, our data suggest that Brucella RNase III can efficiently bind and cleave stem-loop structure of small RNA, and might participate in regulation of virulence in Brucella.

  11. Internal affairs: investigating the Brucella intracellular lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bargen, Kristine; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Salcedo, Suzana P

    2012-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella are Gram-negative pathogens of several animal species that cause a zoonotic disease in humans known as brucellosis or Malta fever. Within their hosts, brucellae reside within different cell types where they establish a replicative niche and remain protected from the immune response. The aim of this article is to discuss recent advances in the field in the specific context of the Brucella intracellular 'lifestyle'. We initially discuss the different host cell targets and their relevance during infection. As it represents the key to intracellular replication, the focus is then set on the maturation of the Brucella phagosome, with particular emphasis on the Brucella factors that are directly implicated in intracellular trafficking and modulation of host cell signalling pathways. Recent data on the role of the type IV secretion system are discussed, novel effector molecules identified and how some of them impact on trafficking events. Current knowledge on Brucella gene regulation and control of host cell death are summarized, as they directly affect intracellular persistence. Understanding how Brucella molecules interplay with their host cell targets to modulate cellular functions and establish the intracellular niche will help unravel how this pathogen causes disease.

  12. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of omp31 Genes of Brucella Strain Isolated from Inner Mongolia%布鲁氏菌内蒙古分离株omp31基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆静; 关平原; 乌日罕; 特木尔巴根; 马立峰; 菊花

    2009-01-01

    对三株布鲁氏菌内蒙古分离株的omp31基因进行克隆与序列分析.参照GenBank中布鲁氏菌的omp31基因序列,设计一对特异性引物,用PCR方法扩增布鲁氏菌omp31基因,对PCR产物进行克隆、测序,将测定序列拼接后与GenBank中获得的参考毒株omp31基因序列进行了比较.结果显示,三株布鲁氏菌分离株的omp31基因开放阅读框核苷酸序列同源性均为100.0%;与Brucella ceti B14/94、Brucella neotomae 5K33、Brucella suis 1330三个参考毒株omp31基因核苷酸序列同源性最高,为100.0%;与Brucella canis RM6/66、Brucella melitensis 183、Brucella melitensis 16M三个参考毒株omp31基因核苷酸序列同源性为99.9%;与Brucella melitensis Rev1参考毒株omp31基因核苷酸序列同源性为99.6%;与Brucella ovis ATCC 25840参考毒株omp31基因核苷酸序列同源性最低,为98.8%.

  13. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CEPAS DE Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoania Ríos Rocafull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus es un microorganismo endófito que presenta, dentro de sus características, mecanismos directos e indirectos de estimulación del crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de sus grandes perspectivas para constituir el principio activo de un bioproducto de uso agrícola, en Cuba no existe ninguno elaborado a partir de esta especie bacteriana. El aislamiento de cepas del microorganismo y su caracterización constituyen pasos importantes para la obtención de un biopreparado, pues permiten la selección inicial de cepas que tengan características adecuadas para la estimulación del crecimiento. En la presente investigación se purificaron 85 aislados de microorganismos endófitos, a partir de los diferentes órganos de 24 especies vegetales. Cuatro de ellos fueron identificados como Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, al comparar sus características con las de cepas patrones de la especie bacteriana. Los microorganismos seleccionados provenían de frutos de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. y mango (Mangifera indica L., así como de tallos de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. y remolacha (Beta vulgaris L.. Se destacó la presencia del microorganismo en los dos primeros cultivos para Cuba y el aislamiento en la guayaba a nivel internacional. Las cuatro cepas mostraron diferencias en su capacidad de solubilizar fósforo, producir ácido indol acético y en su actividad antagonista frente a Fusarium moniliforme y Fusarium incarnatum. Al agruparse las cepas por sus características, se diferenciaron los microorganismos provenientes de mango y remolacha, los que se consideran promisorios para realizar estudios en condiciones in vivo del efecto de su interacción con otros cultivos.

  14. Brucella spp. Virulence Factors and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byndloss, Mariana X; Tsolis, Renee M

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is an important zoonotic infection that causes reproductive disease in domestic animals and chronic debilitating disease in humans. An intriguing aspect of Brucella infection is the ability of these bacteria to evade the host immune response, leading to pathogen persistence. Conversely, in the reproductive tract of infected animals, this stealthy pathogen is able to cause an acute severe inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss the different mechanisms used by Brucella to cause disease, with emphasis on its virulence factors and the dichotomy between chronic persistence and reproductive disease.

  15. Immunization with Brucella VirB proteins reduces organ colonization in mice through a Th1-type immune response and elicits a similar immune response in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Cora N; Wanke, María Magdalena; Estein, Silvia M; Delpino, M Victoria; Monachesi, Norma E; Comercio, Elida A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-03-01

    VirB proteins from Brucella spp. constitute the type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor mediating the intracellular survival of these bacteria. Here, we assessed whether a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins may protect mice from Brucella infection and whether this response can be induced in the dog, a natural host for Brucella. Splenocytes from mice immunized with VirB7 or VirB9 responded to their respective antigens with significant and specific production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was not detected. Thirty days after an intraperitoneal challenge with live Brucella abortus, the spleen load of bacteria was almost 1 log lower in mice immunized with VirB proteins than in unvaccinated animals. As colonization reduction seemed to correlate with a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins, we decided to assess whether such a response could be elicited in the dog. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs immunized with VirB proteins (three subcutaneous doses in QuilA adjuvant) produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than cells from control animals upon in vitro stimulation with VirB proteins. A skin test to assess specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was positive in 4 out of 5 dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9. As both proteins are predicted to locate in the outer membrane of Brucella organisms, the ability of anti-VirB antibodies to mediate complement-dependent bacteriolysis of B. canis was assessed in vitro. Sera from dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9, but not from those receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), produced significant bacteriolysis. These results suggest that VirB-specific responses that reduce organ colonization by Brucella in mice can be also elicited in dogs.

  16. Neurological complications of brucella spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, A M; Bahar, R H; Araj, G F; Koshy, T S; Muhtaseb, S A; al-Mudallal, D S; Marafie, A A

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with brucella spondylitis and neurobrucellosis were studied during a 2-year period. The diagnosis was based on history of exposure, compatible signs and symptoms, high antibody titre and/or positive culture of a clinical specimen(s). Spondylitis was confirmed by plain radiographs, bone scan, CT and in some cases by histology. Neurobrucellosis was confirmed by CSF examination and culture, myelography, NCV, EMG and CT head. The spondylitis was early in 4 cases, chronic active in 12, smouldering "partially healed" in 3 and healed in 3 cases. Of these, 15 patients (68%) had neurological complications of various types. Plain radiographs were not a good index of activity of spondylitis. Tc99 bone scan was not specific and it remained positive long after the completion of therapy. CT was superior in revealing details of bone destruction, soft tissue swelling and entrapment of nerve roots and cord. The 3 modalities were complementary. Spondylitis is commonly associated with neurobrucellosis and symptoms of one may over shadow those of the other and in some cases neurobrucellosis may be subclinical. In all cases of spondylitis, a thorough search for neurobrucellosis should be made and vice versa. Prolonged treatment with a combination of 3 anti-brucella drugs is recommended and prolonged follow-up is necessary.

  17. Aspectos económicos del aislamiento acústico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarilla, Beatriz C.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to analyze the soundproofing/cost ratio with different building alternatives for interior walls and floors. This technical-economic study was divided into three parts: — Dividing walls (environmental noises — Floors (impact noises — Special Solutions (double walls, floating floors, etcetera The results show that in developing countries the most costly solutions are not always the best for housing, as far as soundproofing is concerned. A good knowledge of the economic aspects related to this matter allows obtaining a good quality at a moderate cost, which is a priority in this type of country.

    El objetivo general de este trabajo fue el de analizar el comportamiento de la relación costo-aislamiento acústico en soluciones constructivas alternativas para muros interiores y entrepisos. Este estudio técnico-económico comprende tres partes: * Muros divisorios (ruidos aéreos. * Entrepisos (ruidos de impacto. * Soluciones especiales (muros de doble hoja, pisos flotantes, etc. Se llega a la conclusión que, en los países en desarrollo, no siempre las mejores soluciones para la vivienda, desde el punto de vista acústico, son las de mayor costo. Conocer en profundidad los aspectos económicos de esta cuestión significa poder lograr una buena calidad con costos moderados, lo cual constituye una prioridad en este tipo de países.

  18. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B

    2013-06-28

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36.

  19. 固有免疫应答在抗布鲁菌感染过程中的作用%The role of innate immune response during infection of Brucella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高微; 王梦; 曹志然

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria, which includes Brucella. abortus(cattle), B.melitensis(goats), B.suis (swine), B.canis(dogs) and Brucella infected by marine mammals, et al. B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B.canis, et al can invade into humans and animals through a variety of ways and cause Brucellosis that is a severe zoonotic desease. The innate immune system is the ifrst line of defensing against the infection of pathogen for our organism, which plays a key role during the infection of Brucella. This paper overviews the role of innate immune response during the infection of Brucella.%布鲁菌是革兰氏阴性兼性胞内寄生菌,包括牛布鲁菌、羊布鲁菌、猪布鲁菌、犬布鲁菌和海洋哺乳动物感染的布鲁菌等,其中羊布鲁菌、牛布鲁菌、猪布鲁菌和犬布鲁菌等可以通过多种途径侵入人和动物体内,其引起的布鲁菌病是一种严重的人畜共患病。固有免疫系统是机体抵抗病原体感染的第一道防线,因此在布鲁菌感染过程中发挥重要作用。现综述布鲁菌感染过程中宿主固有免疫应答发挥的作用。

  20. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  1. Brucella as a potential agent of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Gizem D; Doganay, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Perception on bioterrorism has changed after the deliberate release of anthrax by the postal system in the United States of America in 2001. Potential bioterrorism agents have been reclassified based on their dissemination, expected rate of mortality, availability, stability, and ability to lead a public panic. Brucella species can be easily cultured from infected animals and human materials. Also, it can be transferred, stored and disseminated easily. An intentional contamination of food with Brucella species could pose a threat with low mortality rate. Brucella spp. is highly infectious through aerosol route, making it an attractive pathogen to be used as a potential agent for biological warfare purposes. Recently, many studies have been concentrated on appropriate sampling of Brucella spp. from environment including finding ways for its early detection and development of new decontamination procedures such as new drugs and vaccines. There are many ongoing vaccine development studies; some of which recently received patents for detection and therapy of Brucella spp. However, there is still no available vaccine for humans. In this paper, recent developments and recent patents on brucellosis are reviewed and discussed.

  2. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  3. Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Izzi, Salah; Martin, Donald S; Chan, Roxanne Y Y; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2013-12-01

    A 12-month-old male neutered mixed breed dog was presented with a history of diarrhea, lethargy, emaciation, polydypsia, and sniffling. Physical examination findings included pale mucous membranes, increased heart and respiratory rates, and normal rectal temperature (38°C). Hematologic abnormalities included anemia and thrombocytopenia. Biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated ALP and ALT activities. A SNAP 4Dx test result was positive for Ehrlichia canis. Babesia canis vogeli organisms were found in the peripheral blood films, while morulae of E canis were not seen. Real-time polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed the presence of both B c vogeli and E canis organisms, and also was positive for Anaplasma platys infection. The dog recovered following treatment with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate, with normal hematology and biochemical profiles.

  4. Necesidad del aislamiento térmico en la edificación actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamán, A.

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to clear up a few ideas on this subject, as not everyone knows enough about its correct use: what is meant by thermal insulation and thermal conductivity, essential requirements with respect to material, lightweight and heavy insulation, justification of insulation for reasons of building evolution, comfort, economy and to avoid condensation, as well as the influence of openings in outside walls.El autor trata de aclarar algunos conceptos sobre esta materia, ya que, en realidad, no todos conocen adecuadamente su correcto empleo: qué se entiende por aislamiento térmico y por conductividad térmica, condiciones que deben exigirse a los materiales, aislamientos ligeros y pesados, justificación del aislamiento por razones de evolución de la construcción, de confort, de economía y para evitar condensaciones, así como la influencia de los huecos en las fachadas.

  5. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  6. Inversores bidireccionales con aislamiento en alta frecuencia para aplicaciones de energías renovables

    OpenAIRE

    Beristáin Jiménez, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    En esta tesis se realiza el análisis y la síntesis de inversores bidireccionales con aislamiento en alta frecuencia. Entre las aplicaciones que se contemplan podemos destacar: sistemas de alimentación fotovoltaicos, sistemas de alimentación utilizando celdas de combustible, mini-generadores eólicos y compensación armónica. Hay dos grandes requerimientos para varias de estas aplicaciones. En primer lugar, es necesario proporcionar aislamiento eléctrico entre la fuente de corriente continua y l...

  7. Caracterización de integrones de clase I en aislamientos hospitalarios de acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Gáfaro Montejo, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Se analizaron 129 aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii obtenidos de hospitales colombianos de tercer nivel con el objetivo de detectar y caracterizar integrones de tipo I (elementos genéticos importantes por la capacidad de adquirir determinantes genéticos de resistencia a los antibióticos) y su relación con el fenotipo de resistencia antibiótica. De los aislamientos estudiados el 24% fueron positivos para la presencia del integrón de tipo I. La caracterización de estos últimos demostró...

  8. Aislamiento del virus herpes bovino tipo 1 en bovinos del departamento de Córdoba - Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Vera A; César Betancur H.

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Realizar el aislamiento del virus herpes bovino tipo 1 (BHV-1) en ganado bovino con antecedentes de infertilidad. Materiales y métodos. A partir de 85 animales, provenientes de diferentes áreas rurales del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, sin antecedentes de vacunación y con titulos neutralizantes contra la enfermedad de la rinotraqueitis bovina infecciosa (IBR) por seroneutralización, se escogieron dos toros y una vaca para hacer aislamiento de HVB-1. Los animales fueron inmun...

  9. Evaluation of the ability of two multiplex PCR assays (Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder) to distinguish six Brucella species and Brucella suis at the biovar level%应用多重PCR鉴别布鲁氏菌种及猪种5个生物型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 崔步云; 赵鸿雁; 朴东日; 姜海; 邰新平; 田国忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of two types of multiplex PCR assays (Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder) to distinguish six Brucella species and five biovars of Brucella suis. Methods A Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay was performed using 8 pairs of primers to distinguish six Brucella species. A Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assay was performed using 4 pairs of primers to distinguish five biovars of B. suis. The tested strains, which consisted of 27 reference strains of six Brucella species and 239 Brucella isolates, were examined using PCR assays and methods of biological identification. Results The Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay differentiated six Brucella species, including Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis , Brucella suis , Brucella canis , Brucella ovis , and Brucella neotomae , in a single step. The Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assay differentiated five biovars of B. suis in a single step. The electrophoresis patterns of the vaccine strain S2 and biovar 1 of B. suis were identical. The total rate of concordance between methods of biological identification and multiplex PCR assays was 100%. Conclusion The Bruce-ladder and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR assays are rapid and specific methods of respectively identifying Brucella species and B. suis at the biovar level.%目的 应用布鲁氏菌种多重PCR和猪种多重PCR对布鲁氏菌进行鉴定. 方法 对两套多重PCR方法进行条件优化,应用布鲁氏菌参考菌株、疫苗株和临床分离菌株进行评价,并与生物学分型方法进行比较. 结果 布鲁氏菌种多重PCR扩增(包括牛种布鲁氏菌8个生物型,猪种5个生物型,羊种3个生物型,以及绵羊附睾、犬和沙漠森林野鼠种各1个生物型)可获得152~1 682 bp的8个DNA片段,但种间DNA片段数不一.猪种多重PCR扩增猪种5个生物型菌株得到197~774 bp的7个DNA片段,不同生物型的DNA扩增图谱不同;猪种疫苗株S2扩增图谱与猪种生物1型相同,多重PCR分型方法与生物学

  10. Identification and characterization of Brucella effector proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Brucella-bacteriën gebruiken de eiwitten VceB en VceC om het immuunsysteem van humane gastheercellen te omzeilen, blijkt uit het promotieonderzoek van Maarten de Jong. Dit biedt nieuwe aanknopingspunten voor de bestrijding van deze gevaarlijke bacterie. Brucellose is een wereldwijd voorkomende ziekt

  11. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mojgan; Lim, Sue Yee; Watanabe, Mahira; Sharma, Reuben S K; Cheng, Nadzariah A B Y; Watanabe, Malaika

    2013-01-01

    An epidemiological study of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out using molecular detection techniques. A total of 500 canine blood samples were collected from veterinary clinics and dog shelters. Molecular screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using genus-specific primers followed by PCR using E. canis species-specific primers. Ten out of 500 dogs were positive for E. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of the E. canis Malaysia strain showed that it was grouped tightly with other E. canis strains from different geographic regions. The present study revealed for the first time, the presence of genetically confirmed E. canis with a prevalence rate of 2.0% in naturally infected dogs in Malaysia.

  12. Migración irregular y aislamiento social. Los jornaleros tamaulipecos indocumentados en los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izcara-Palacios, Simón Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available “Social isolation” is a concept poorly developed in the analysis of poverty. “Social exclusion” and “marginality” are concepts more frequently used. “Social isolation” refers to an erosion of the relational sphere of the individual (i.e.: it is a lack of familial support and/or social networks, and an absence of social activity and recreational interaction. Moreover, “social isolation” is associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. This paper analyses the situation of “social isolation” of Tamaulipas’ undocumented farm workers employed in the United Stated.

    El concepto de “aislamiento social” ha sido insuficientemente utilizado en el análisis de la pobreza. “Exclusión social” y “marginalidad” son dos conceptos más desarrollados. El “aislamiento social” hace referencia a una erosión de las esferas relacionales del individuo (esto es, a una falta de soporte familiar y/o redes sociales, y a una ausencia de actividad social e interacción recreacional. Más aún, el “aislamiento social” está asociado a síntomas de ansiedad y depresión. Este artículo analiza la situación de aislamiento social de los jornaleros indocumentados tamaulipecos empleados en los Estados Unidos.

  13. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) and Domestic Animals from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Gennari, Solange Maria; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira spp. and modified agglutination test for T. gondii. Cattle populations from all sites (9.88%) were exposed to smooth Brucella, but only one jaguar from Cerrado was exposed to this agent. Jaguars captured in the Cerrado (60.0%) and in the Pantanal (45.5%) were seropositive for different serovars of Leptospira spp., cattle (72.18%) and domestic dogs (13.1%) from the three sites and one domestic cat from Pantanal were also seropositive for the agent. The most prevalent serotype of Leptospira spp. identified in jaguars from the Cerrado (Grippotyphosa) and the Pantanal (Pomona) biomes were distinct from those found in the domestic animals sampled. Jaguars (100%), domestic dogs (38.28%) and domestic cats (82.76%) from the three areas were exposed to T. gondii. Our results show that brucellosis and leptospirosis could have been transmitted to jaguars by domestic animals; and jaguars probably play an important role in the maintenance of T. gondii in nature.

  14. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca and Domestic Animals from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Malzoni Furtado

    Full Text Available This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca, 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus, 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira spp. and modified agglutination test for T. gondii. Cattle populations from all sites (9.88% were exposed to smooth Brucella, but only one jaguar from Cerrado was exposed to this agent. Jaguars captured in the Cerrado (60.0% and in the Pantanal (45.5% were seropositive for different serovars of Leptospira spp., cattle (72.18% and domestic dogs (13.1% from the three sites and one domestic cat from Pantanal were also seropositive for the agent. The most prevalent serotype of Leptospira spp. identified in jaguars from the Cerrado (Grippotyphosa and the Pantanal (Pomona biomes were distinct from those found in the domestic animals sampled. Jaguars (100%, domestic dogs (38.28% and domestic cats (82.76% from the three areas were exposed to T. gondii. Our results show that brucellosis and leptospirosis could have been transmitted to jaguars by domestic animals; and jaguars probably play an important role in the maintenance of T. gondii in nature.

  15. A Spectroscopic Study of HL Canis Majoris

    OpenAIRE

    Sheets, H. A.; Thorstensen, John R.

    2005-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of the dwarf nova HL Canis Majoris over a span of four years. The observations were made during standstill, outburst, and quiescence. We determine an orbital period of 0.2167867 +/- 0.0000017 days, based on radial velocities determined from H-alpha, H-beta, and He I 5876 emission. We also present equivalent widths of the spectral features in outburst and in quiescence.

  16. Molecular typing of Brucella species isolates from livestock and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalingam, Mohandoss; Shome, Rajeswari; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; NarayanaRao, Krishnamsetty; Vivekananda; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty

    2012-01-01

    Although host specificity has been observed in different species of Brucella, crossing the animal host boundary is likely to occur at any time. In this study, Bruce ladder PCR and abortus-melitensis-ovis-suis (AMOS) PCR assays were used to characterize 47 Brucella isolates from Indian origin in order to know exact species for understanding epidemiology of brucellosis. Out of them, 28, 14, and 5 isolates were found to be Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella suis, respectively. Further analysis by AMOS PCR has identified that all the B. abortus isolates belong to any one of the biovar 1, 2, or 4; of the five B. suis isolates, three belong to biovar 1 and two belong to any one of the biovar 2, 3, 4, or 5. Although this multiplex Bruce ladder PCR is useful in differentiating all Brucella species, elaborate study is required to further characterize the isolates at exact biovar level.

  17. Canine vector-borne co-infections: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in the same host monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon; Gal, Arnon; Aroch, Itamar

    2015-02-28

    The protozoon Hepatozoon canis and the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which cause canine hepatozoonosis and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Co-infection of the same host monocytes with H. canis and E. canis confirmed by molecular characterization of the infecting agents and quantitative assessment of co-infected cells is described for the first time in three naturally-infected dogs. Blood smear evaluation indicated that at least 50% of the leukocytes infected with H. canis gamonts contained E. canis morulae. Co-infection of the same host cell demonstrated in this report suggests that infection with one pathogen may permit or enhance invasion or prolonged cellular survival of the other.

  18. Case report 469: Spondylitis (lumbar spine) due to Brucella abortus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaster, B.J.

    1988-03-01

    The current case is interesting in that, although the plain radiographs were diagnostic of infection and the patient's work history suggested brucellosis, both the negative serum antibody titers to brucella and the CT appearance of large calcified psoas abscesses made the diagnosis of tuberculous spondylitis most probable. Open biopsy with tissue culture proved brucella. From this experience it appears that the presence of large calcified psoas abscesses should not eliminate the diagnosis of brucella spondylitis in the proper clinical setting.

  19. Investigation of Brucella Infection in Milk Collected from Burdur Province

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRÜTOĞLU, Hülya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the regional profile of bovine and ovine Brucellosis in Burdur by isolating Brucella spp. in milk and by detecting antibodies to Brucellae in milk samples. For this purpose, 404 milk samples from 101 cows and 226 milk samples from 113 ewes located in 14 different areas of Burdur were collected. The samples were examined by bacteriological and serological methods. Brucella spp. were not isolated from the milk samples. Positive results by the milk ring te...

  20. The transmission of Babesia canis to the wild dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerden, J

    1980-06-01

    Babesia canis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to 3 wild dogs Lycaon pictus and 4 black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas. Both wild dogs and black-backed jackals showed no clinical signs or clinical pathological evidence of disease. Trophozoites of Babesia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from both black-backed jackals and wild dogs to the domestic dog.

  1. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these microorganisms. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is...

  2. Host response to Brucella infection: review and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfaki, Mohamed G; Alaidan, Alwaleed Abdullah; Al-Hokail, Abdullah Abdulrahman

    2015-07-30

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic and contagious infectious disease caused by infection with Brucella species. The infecting brucellae are capable of causing a devastating multi-organ disease in humans with serious health complications. The pathogenesis of Brucella infection is influenced largely by host factors, Brucella species/strain, and the ability of invading brucellae to survive and replicate within mononuclear phagocytic cells, preferentially macrophages (Mf). Consequently, the course of human infection may appear as an acute fatal or progress into chronic debilitating infection with periodical episodes that leads to bacteremia and death. The existence of brucellae inside Mf represents one of the strategies used by Brucella to evade the host immune response and is responsible for treatment failure in certain human populations treated with anti-Brucella drugs. Moreover, the persistence of brucellae inside Mf complicates the diagnosis and may affect the host cell signaling pathways with consequent alterations in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to pursue the development of novel drugs and/or vaccine targets against human brucellosis using high throughput technologies in genomics, proteomics, and immunology.

  3. Simultaneous detection and differentiates of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis by combinatorial PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Reza Hosseini Doust; Reza Kachuei; Seied Mojtaba Mortazavi; Mehdi Khoobdel; Ali Ahamadi

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate simultaneous detection and differentiates of Brucella abortus(B. abortus) and Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) through the combinatorial PCR method. Methods:This study was designed using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate two major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Identification and differentiation of each species using the size of the PCR product were determined. To determine the specificity of the method, bacteria close to the genus Brucella were used. Finally, to confirm PCR products, In addition to the products sequence, RFLP was performed on PCR products using restriction enzymes. Results:The method of optimized combinatorial PCR in this study could simultaneously detect and differentiate B. abortus and B. melitensis with high specificity and sensitivity in clinical samples. Differentiation of species is based on the resulting bands;therefore, the band 494 bp for B. abortus and 733 bp for B. melitensis were obtained. RFLP and sequencing results confirmed PCR results. Conclusions:The results of this study shows that without routine diagnostic methods such as culture and serology tests, using the molecular method of combinatorial PCR, important species of Brucella can be simultaneously identified and differentiated in clinical samples.

  4. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  5. Brucella Dissociation Is Essential for Macrophage Egress and Bacterial Dissemination

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    Thomas A Ficht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been observed that smooth Brucella can dissociate into rough mutants that are cytotoxic to macrophages. However, the in vivo biological significance and/or mechanistic de-tails of Brucella dissociation and cytotoxicity remain incomplete. In the current report, a plaque assay was developed using Brucella strains exhibiting varying degrees of cytotoxicity. Infected monolayers were observed daily using phase contrast microscopy for plaque formation while Brucella uptake and replication were monitored using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Vis-ible plaques were detected at 4-5 days post infection (p.i. with cytotoxic Brucella 16M∆manBA at an MOI of 0.1. IFA staining demonstrated that the plaques consisted of macrophages with replicating Brucella. Visible plaques were not detected in monolayers infected with non-cytotoxic 16M∆manBA∆virB2 at an MOI of 0.1. However, IFA staining did reveal small groups of macrophages (foci with replicating Brucella in the monolayers infected with 16M∆manBA∆virB2. The size of the foci observed in macrophage monolayers infected with rough Brucella correlated directly with cytotoxicity measured in liquid culture, suggesting that cytotoxicity was essential for Brucella egress and dissemination. In monolayers infected with 16M, small and large foci were observed. Double antibody staining revealed spontaneous rough mutants within the large, but not the small foci in 16M infected monolayers. Furthermore, plaque formation was observed in the large foci derived from 16M infections. Finally, the addi-tion of gentamicin to the culture medium inhibited plaque formation, suggesting that the cell-to-cell spreading occurred only following release of the organisms from the cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Brucella induced cytotoxicity is critical for Brucella egress and dissemination.

  6. Brucella dissociation is essential for macrophage egress and bacterial dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jianwu; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa; Ficht, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that smooth Brucella can dissociate into rough mutants that are cytotoxic to macrophages. However, the in vivo biological significance and/or mechanistic details of Brucella dissociation and cytotoxicity remain incomplete. In the current report, a plaque assay was developed using Brucella strains exhibiting varying degrees of cytotoxicity. Infected monolayers were observed daily using phase contrast microscopy for plaque formation while Brucella uptake and replication were monitored using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Visible plaques were detected at 4-5 days post infection (p.i.) with cytotoxic Brucella 16MΔmanBA at an MOI of 0.1. IFA staining demonstrated that the plaques consisted of macrophages with replicating Brucella. Visible plaques were not detected in monolayers infected with non-cytotoxic 16MΔmanBAΔvirB2 at an MOI of 0.1. However, IFA staining did reveal small groups of macrophages (foci) with replicating Brucella in the monolayers infected with 16MΔmanBAΔvirB2. The size of the foci observed in macrophage monolayers infected with rough Brucella correlated directly with cytotoxicity measured in liquid culture, suggesting that cytotoxicity was essential for Brucella egress and dissemination. In monolayers infected with 16M, small and large foci were observed. Double antibody staining revealed spontaneous rough mutants within the large, but not the small foci in 16M infected monolayers. Furthermore, plaque formation was observed in the large foci derived from 16M infections. Finally, the addition of gentamicin to the culture medium inhibited plaque formation, suggesting that cell-to-cell spread occurred only following release of the organisms from the cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Brucella-induced cytotoxicity is critical for Brucella egress and dissemination.

  7. [The prevalence of Babesia canis canis in marsh ticks (Dermacentor reticulatus) in the Saarland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelitz, Pamela; Schumacher, Stefan; Marholdt, Fritz; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    An accumulation of autochthonous cases of canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis has been registered in a small animal clinic in the Saarland since the beginning of 2006, some cases with fatal outcome. This study aims to contribute to the explanation of strong focal occurrence of infections with B. canis in this region.Therefore, patient owners who had presented their dogs in the years 2006 and 2007 because of babesiosis and who had claimed not having left the Saarland with their dogs at least six months before the outbreak of Babesiosis, were asked for their dog walking habits. Accordingly, a selection often tick collection sites of various landscape structures was made.Tick sampling by flagging the vegetation took place every month from March to December 2008. The collected ticks were identified morphologically. In eight of ten collecting sites a total of 397 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected from March to December with the highest frequencies during the months of May, October and November. All collected specimens were examined by genus-specific conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia-DNA. In positive samples, the PCR-products were differentiated by sequencing. ten D. reticulatus (2.5%) ticks examined were found positive for DNA of B. canis canis originating from three out of eight collection sites. Consequently, an endemic distribution of D. reticulatus was confirmed and a natural

  8. Helicobacter canis bacteremia in a renal transplant patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vusse, M. L.; van Son, W. J.; Ott, A.; Manson, W.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from high fever and bacteremia due to Helicobacter canis, 11months after kidney transplantation. Identification of H.canis was achieved by 16s rDNA sequence analysis of a positive blood culture. The patient was restored fully to health a

  9. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  10. Brucella suis strain 2 vaccine is safe and protective against heterologous Brucella spp. infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangquan; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Nan; Ding, Jiabo; Suo, Xun

    2016-01-12

    Brucellosis is a wide spread zoonotic disease that causes abortion and infertility in mammals and leads to debilitating, febrile illness in humans. Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis are the major pathogenic species to humans. Vaccination with live attenuated B. suis strain 2 (S2) vaccine is an essential and critical component in the control of brucellosis in China. The S2 vaccine is very effective in preventing brucellosis in goats, sheep, cattle and swine. However, there are still debates outside of China whether the S2 vaccine is able to provide protection against heterologous virulent Brucella species. We investigated the residual virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the S2 vaccine in BALB/c mice by determining bacteria persistence in spleen, serum antibody response, cellular immune response and protection against a heterologous virulent challenge. The S2 vaccine was of low virulence as there were no bacteria recovered in spleen four weeks post vaccination. The vaccinated mice developed Brucella-specific IgG in 2-3 weeks, and a burst production of IFN-γ at one week as well as a two-fold increase in TNF-α production. The S2 vaccine protected mice from a virulent challenge by B. melitensis M28, B. abortus 2308 and B. suis S1330, and the S2 vaccinated mice did not develop any clinical signs or tissue damage. Our study demonstrated that the S2 vaccine is of low virulence, stimulates good humoral and cellular immunity and protects animals against infection by heterologous, virulent Brucella species.

  11. Recent advances in Brucella abortus vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dorneles, Elaine Maria S.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Andrey P. Lage

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susceptible species ...

  12. Apyrexic Brucella melitensis aortic valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Mudallal, D S; Mousa, A R; Marafie, A A

    1989-10-01

    The case of a young shepherd with Brucella melitensis aortic valve endocarditis is presented. His illness ran an afebrile course and was also complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), nephritis, hepatitis and peritonitis, all of which responded well to supportive measures and a combination of tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and amikacin sulphate. The fact that even the most severe case of brucellosis can present without fever is stressed.

  13. Human to Human Transmission of Brucella Melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Vigeant

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is acquired mainly through contact with infected animal tissues, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or infected aerosols. Person to person transmission is still considered uncertain. The case of a woman diagnosed with proven brucellosis after her husband suffered a relapse of bacteremia with Brucella melitensis biotype 3, which was originally acquired abroad by eating goat cheese, is described. It was postulated that person to person spread of brucellosis is a likely mode of transmission in this case.

  14. Human to Human Transmission of Brucella Melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Vigeant; Jack Mendelson; Miller, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Human brucellosis is acquired mainly through contact with infected animal tissues, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or infected aerosols. Person to person transmission is still considered uncertain. The case of a woman diagnosed with proven brucellosis after her husband suffered a relapse of bacteremia with Brucella melitensis biotype 3, which was originally acquired abroad by eating goat cheese, is described. It was postulated that person to person spread of brucellosis is a likely ...

  15. Brucella Infection Associated with Complete Atrioventricular Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Yılmazer, Murat Muhtar; Bozkurt, Fatma; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The clinical spectrum of Brucella infection is quite diverse and characterized by multi-system involvement. Patients present with myocarditis, endocarditis, or pericarditis. Infective endocarditis is the most common cardiovascular complication in patients with brucellosis. Although conduction abnormalities are seen in cases with endocarditis, they are reported very rarely in the setting of cardiac Brucella infection. Case Report: An eight and a half-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic due to inadequate response to cotrimaxazole plus streptomycin treatment at the 15th day of admission. Although local hospital records on the patient showed a heart rate of 80 bpm, we determined a heart rate of 46 bpm. The electrocardiogram showed complete atrioventricular (AV) block. The average heart rate was determined as 48 bpm with 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. The echocardiographic examination showed normal-sized heart chambers and the absence of valvular involvement. An agglutination test for brucellosis was found to be positive with a titer of 1/320. High fever, arthralgia, and splenomegaly regressed following doxycycline plus rifampicin therapy, but there was no improvement in the AV block. A permanent pacemaker was implanted because of the detection of an average heart rate of 48 bpm. Conclusion: Because cardiac failure and rhythm abnormalities are reported in the course of Brucella infection and may be associated with significant outcomes, cases with brucellosis should be evaluated carefully in terms of cardiac involvement. This report aims to draw attention to complete AV block as an extremely rare complication of Brucella infection. PMID:27761286

  16. Recent advances in Brucella abortus vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susce...

  17. Aislamiento y caracterización de Streptococcus bovis y estudio inicial para el aislamiento de su bacteriófago

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue obtener un cultivo puro de la bacteria ruminal Streptococcus bovis a partir de líquido ruminal de ovinos alimentados con una dieta alta en sorgo (70 % en base seca). Además, se analizó su actividad fermentativa (producción de AGV y lactato) y el proceso de liofilizado como método de conservación, y se realizaron ensayos para expresar su bacteriófago. Para el aislamiento se usó un medio comercial para Streptococcus spp. (Merck) preparado...

  18. Knowledge of Brucella as a food-borne pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although Brucella spp. are known for causing reproductive losses in domestic livestock, they are also capable of infecting humans and causing clinical disease. Human infection with Brucella is almost exclusively a result of direct contact with infected animals or consumption of products made from un...

  19. Antibody response to Hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, G; Shkap, V; Samish, M; Pipano, E; Savitsky, I

    1998-01-31

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan Hepatozoon canis. Five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with H. canis, and all became infected with H. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. Antibodies reactive with H. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA), with IgM detected initially in all dogs 16 to 39 days post infection (PI) and IgG 22 to 43 days PI. The presence of gametocytes was first observed within peripheral blood neutrophils in Giemsa-stained blood smears between days 28 and 43 PI. Gametocyte-reactive antibodies were detected before the appearance of blood gametocytes in three of the four parasitemic dogs and also in a dog with no observed parasitemia. The detection of serum antibodies prior to the detection of blood gametocytes, or without apparent parasitemia, suggests that antibodies reactive with gametocytes may be formed against earlier forms of the parasite developing in the parenchymal tissues. Sera of dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis, Babesia gibsoni and Ehrlichia canis exhibited no reactivity when tested with H. canis antigen. Additionally, sera positive for H. canis were not reactive with antigens of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania donovani and E. canis. In conclusion, incoculation of dogs with ticks infected with H. canis results in production of antibodies reactive with peripheral blood gametocytes. Detection of IgG titres would be beneficial for the diagnosis of progressive infections with undetectable parasitemia, for seroprevalence studies, and as an adjunct to IgM titres in early infections.

  20. Multiplex real-time qPCR for the detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis vogeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; Inbar, Jacob; Harrus, Shimon

    2010-10-29

    Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis vogeli are two tick-borne canine pathogens with a worldwide importance. Both pathogens are transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, which has an increasing global distribution. A multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the tick-borne pathogens E. canis and B. canis vogeli was developed using dual-labeled probes. The target genes were the 16S rRNA of E. canis and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) of B. canis vogeli. The canine beta actin (ACTB) gene was used as an internal control gene. The assay was conducted without using any pre-amplification steps such as nested reactions. The sensitivity of each reaction in the multiplex qPCR assay was tested in the presence of high template concentrations of the other amplified genes in the same tube and in the presence of canine DNA. The detection threshold of the multiplex assay was 1-10 copies/μl in all channels and the amplifications of the B. canis hsp70 and ACTB were not affected by the other simultaneous reactions, while minor interference was observed in the amplification of the E. canis 16S rRNA gene. This assay would be useful for diagnostic laboratories and may save time, labor and costs.

  1. AISLAMIENTO DEL VIRUS HERPES BOVINO TIPO 1 EN BOVINOS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CÓRDOBA - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vera A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Realizar el aislamiento del virus herpes bovino tipo 1 (BHV-1 en ganado bovino con antecedentes de infertilidad. Materiales y métodos. A partir de 85 animales, provenientes de diferentes áreas rurales del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, sin antecedentes de vacunación y con titulos neutralizantes contra la enfermedad de la rinotraqueitis bovina infecciosa (IBR por seroneutralización, se escogieron dos toros y una vaca para hacer aislamiento de HVB-1. Los animales fueron inmunosuprimidos con Dexametasona, y se obtuvieron muestras con hisopos nasales, oculares y de lavado prepucial en los toros y vaginales en la vaca respectivamente. Resultados. Se observó un efecto citopático a las 3 horas después de la inoculación de las células MDBK con el lavado genital de la vaca y a las 24 horas en los toros, con exposición del efecto en “racimo” a las 48 horas. El aislamiento en ambos tipos de muestras, sugiere que la reactivación viral fue seguida por una fase de viremia y excreción del virus en las secreciones naturales. Conclusiones. El aislamiento del virus HVB-1 en los reproductores aparentemente sanos pero con títulos a la prueba de seroneutralización, establece la presencia de latencia viral en éstos animales, importante factor epidemiológico en la difusión de la enfermedad a nivel de campo. Se deben iniciar los estudios necesarios para establecer el subtipo de virus actuante en el campo, para conocer sus características antigénicas y su correspondencia con las cepas vacunales.

  2. Medidor de aislamiento en enfermedades transmisibles dentro del ámbito hospitalario

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva Rábano, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    En el ámbito hospitalario, son un problema frecuente las infecciones nosocomiales, causadas por las enfermedades transmisibles que pasan de unos pacientes a otros. Estas infecciones son potencialmente prevenibles, a través de medidas de aislamiento llevadas a cabo por el personal sanitario y no sanitario encargado de atender al paciente. En este aspecto, el papel del personal de enfermería es de fundamental importancia dado que mantienen un estrecho contacto con el paciente como cuidadores pr...

  3. AISLAMIENTO Y EVALUACIÓN IN VITRO DE ANTAGONISTAS DE Botrytis cinerea EN MORA

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    Jos\\u00E9 Alonso Calvo-Araya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la capacidad antagónica de hongos a Botrytis cinerea en el cultivo de la mora en Costa Rica. Durante el primer semestre del 2009 se aislaron 35 hongos filamentosos habitantes del carpoplano de frutos de mora, de los cuales seis cepas de Trichoderma fueron seleccionadas para su evaluación in vitro contra B. cinerea por medio de la técnica de cultivos duales. En la evaluación se determinó la competencia por sustrato y el efecto antibiótico. Para evaluar la competencia por sustrato se utilizó la escala de Bell y en el caso del efecto antibiótico se calculó el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento. Todas las cepas evaluadas compitieron eficientemente por sustrato contra B. cinerea, destacaron los aislamientos Lu13 y Lu15, que alcanzaron el grado I en la escala usada, donde el antagonista sobrepasó y creció sobre el patógeno cubriendo el 100% del medio de cultivo. Los restantes aislamientos de Trichoderma alcanzaron el grado II de antagonismo. En cuanto al efecto antibiótico, todos los aislamientos inhibieron el crecimiento micelial de B. cinerea, cuatro de ellos alcanzaron un valor mayor al 80% al ser evaluados en condiciones in vitro.

  4. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  5. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

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    Mauricio Grecco Zaia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA. We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism.

  6. New localities of Dermacentor reticulatus tick (vector of Babesia canis canis) in central and eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, W; Górski, P; Wedrychowicz, H

    2009-01-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus tick is a vector and final host of Babesia canis canis, protozoan parasite of the dog. In Poland and other European countries, endemic regions for canine babesiosis caused by B. canis canis are the same as endemic regions for D. reticulatus. In many of these regions, canine babesiosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in dogs. In Europe, increasing range of geographical distribution of D. reticulatus is observed. A consequence of this fact may be increasing range of canine babesiosis. D. reticulatus is one of the most common ticks occurring in Poland, however, it occurs mainly in the north-eastern and eastern part of the country, and there are many areas in which this species has not been reported yet. In this study, D. reticulatus ticks were collected from March 2007 to November 2008 in central and eastern Mazowsze region, and in some localities in Białystok and Lublin regions. Twenty four new sites for D. reticulatus, mainly in central and eastern regions of Mazowsze Province have been found. 18 localities are placed on banks of the fishing ponds or in river valleys and 6 are forests borders or barren lands and meadows, not situated near rivers or other water reservoirs. All tick-rich sites are localized in river valleys or on pond banks. However, statistical analysis showed that there were no differences in the density of ticks between groups of areas. These results show that the occurrence of D. reticulatus in newly detected areas has became endemic. Probably woodless, unregulated river valleys are important migration tracts for this species of tick and enable them to penetrate new territories. It seems likely that geographical range of D. reticulatus is widening from east to west of Poland what can induce an increase in the number of canine babesiosis cases in areas non-endemic for B. canis canis and its vector. Climate change may be also partially responsible for earlier beginning of tick's seasonal activity as well as for

  7. Nucleotide sequences specific to Brucella and methods for the detection of Brucella

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, Paula M.; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Thomas R.; Kuczmarski, Thomas A.

    2009-02-24

    Nucleotide sequences specific to Brucella that serves as a marker or signature for identification of this bacterium were identified. In addition, forward and reverse primers and hybridization probes derived from these nucleotide sequences that are used in nucleotide detection methods to detect the presence of the bacterium are disclosed.

  8. Genetic characterization of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus geographical clusters in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massis, Fabrizio; Garofolo, Giuliano; Cammà, Cesare; Ippoliti, Carla; Candeloro, Luca; Ancora, Massimo; Calistri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains isolated in 199 cattle and sheep from 156 brucellosis outbreaks which occurred in 8 regions of Southern Italy in 2011, was determined using a Multiple-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis approach. The existence of possible genetic clusters was verified through a hierarchical cluster analysis based on 'single link', which is closely related to the minimum spanning tree. The Hamming weighted distance matrix was adopted in the analysis. All calculations were performed using R and the additional libraries phangorn and Cluster. For a number of clusters, ranging from 2 to 15, the average silhouette width was calculated. The number of clusters adopted was identified according to the maximum average silhouette width. For B. abortus and B. melitensis, 6 and 11 genetic clusters were identified, respectively. Three out of 6 B. abortus clusters included the 96.7% of all B. abortus isolates. Clusters were clearly geographically separated, and this highlighted the known epidemiological links among them. Brucella melitensis genotypes resulted more heterogeneous; the 3 more representative genetic clusters included 79.7% of all B. melitensis isolates. A clear geographical clusterization of genotypes is recognizable only for 1 cluster, whereas the others are more widespread across Southern Italy. The genetic characterization of Brucella strains isolated from animals may be a useful tool to better understand the epidemiology and dissemination patterns of this pathogen through host populations.

  9. Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Gomez, José; Marié, Jean-Lou; Davoust, Bernard; Guigal, Pierre-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis is distributed globally, but its prevalence in Africa is poorly known. In the study reported herein, 27% of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from watchdogs in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, were positive for E. canis using quantitative real-time PCR. A new molecular strategy is proposed that can be used not only for epidemiological study, but also for the diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Our findings show for the first time the presence of E. canis using molecular tools in the Ivory Coast, providing direct evidence for the presence of this pathogen.

  10. Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, Shimon; Waner, Trevor

    2011-03-01

    Canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution. Diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its different phases and multiple clinical manifestations. CME should be suspected when a compatible history (living in or traveling to an endemic region, previous tick exposure), typical clinical signs and characteristic hematological and biochemical abnormalities are present. Traditional diagnostic techniques including hematology, cytology, serology and isolation are valuable diagnostic tools for CME, however a definitive diagnosis of E. canis infection requires molecular techniques. This article reviews the current literature covering the diagnosis of infection caused by E. canis.

  11. Infecção em cão por Brucella abortus: relato de caso Brucella abortus infection in dog: case report

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    J. Megid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus infection is reported in a dog from a rural area that presented at clinical evaluation left testicular enlargement and right testicular decrease. Serum resulted negative to rapid agglutination test and agar gel immunodifusion with Brucella ovis antigen but positive to buffered plate agglutination test, tube agglutination test and 2- Mercapthoetanol with B. abortus antigen. Brucella isolation was negative in blood, testicular material, semen and urine. Brucella DNA was detected in PCR from urine and blood.

  12. Two Unusual Presentations of Childhood Brucella Cases

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    Tolga Altuğ Şen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellozis is still a common infectious disease in our country and sometimes it may be presented with uncommon clinical manifestations.Case 1: A ten years old male was presented to our clinic with complaints of malaise, weight loss, petechia, and bleeding of gums. On physical examination cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly had been detected and in complete blood count pancytopenia was found.admitted to our clinic. In bone marrow aspiration hypocellular bone marrow was seen. His Brucella agglutination test was positive at 1:1280 titer and the blood culture was positive for Brucella mellitensis. The pancytopenia was resolved after the antibiotherapy. Case 2: A nine-year-old female was referred to our clinic with tachycardia, who had the cardiac rate of 136/min. The electrocardiography showed sinusal tachycardia and echocardiography was normal, no endocarditis or pericarditis was present. She had complaints of fatigue and lassitude for the last month. Her brucella agglutination test was positive at 1:1280 titer and blood culture was negative. After antibiotherapy her symptoms regressed, cardiac rate decreased to 80-100/min. Isolated tachycardia may be the early manifestaion of brucellosis in children which has not been reported previously. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a rare cause of pancytopenia, it should be considered in differential diagnosis with pancytopenia of children. Brucellosis was known to be involved cardiovascular system, but tachycardia which was not due to fever as the only sign of disease has not been reported previously made our case very interesting. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 39-43

  13. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival.

  14. Brucella contamination in raw milk by polymerase chain reaction

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    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a significant public health problem in many middle east countries including Iran. Brucella organisms, which are small aerobic, facultative intracellular coccobacilli, localize in the reproductive organs of host animals, causing abortions and sterility. They are shed in large numbers in the animal’s urine, milk, placental fluid, and other fluids. Dairy product from raw milk are a potential threat to public health in endemic developing countries. The gold standard for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation of Brucella species. However, isolation Brucella species is time consuming and needed to level 3 biocontainment facilities and highly skilled technical personnel to handle samples and live bacteria for eventual identification. Handling Brucella species increase risk of laboratory infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with high sensitivity and specifity overcomed to these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to detect Brucella species in milk from dairy cattle farms in Kerman province, Iran by PCR technique. Methods: Forty and eight bulk tank milk (BTM were collected from October 2015 to March 2016 from 48 dairy cattle farm including 4200 cows. DNA of milk samples extracted by lysis buffer and proteinase K method. All milk samples were examined by PCR to detect Brucella-specific DNA targeting IS 711. Positive samples must be showed 317 bp amplified, corresponding to the expected size of the IS 711 genome region in all Brucella species. Results: Using IS711 primer were detected in 4 samples (8.3% Brucella spp. from 48 BTM samples in this area. Conclusion: The results indicate that brucellosis by Brucella species is endemic in the Kerman province dairy farms. Consumption of raw milk dairy products by individual farmers operating under poor hygienic conditions represents an high risk to public health. The need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on zoonotic transmission of

  15. Whole-genome analyses of speciation events in pathogenic Brucellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Comerci, Diego J. [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Tolmasky, Marcelo E. [California State University; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Vergez, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Aguero, Fernan [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Ugalde, Rodolfo A. [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Garcia, Emilio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2005-12-01

    Despite their high DNA identity and a proposal to group classical Brucella species as biovars of Brucella melitensis, the commonly recognized Brucella species can be distinguished by distinct biochemical and fatty acid characters, as well as by a marked host range (e.g., Brucella suis for swine, B. melitensis for sheep and goats, and Brucella abortus for cattle). Here we present the genome of B. abortus 2308, the virulent prototype biovar 1 strain, and its comparison to the two other human pathogenic Brucella species and to B. abortus field isolate 9-941. The global distribution of pseudogenes, deletions, and insertions supports previous indications that B. abortus and B. melitensis share a common ancestor that diverged from B. suis. With the exception of a dozen genes, the genetic complements of both B. abortus strains are identical, whereas the three species differ in gene content and pseudogenes. The pattern of species-specific gene inactivations affecting transcriptional regulators and outer membrane proteins suggests that these inactivations may play an important role in the establishment of host specificity and may have been a primary driver of speciation in the genus Brucella. Despite being nonmotile, the brucellae contain flagellum gene clusters and display species-specific flagellar gene inactivations, which lead to the putative generation of different versions of flagellum-derived structures and may contribute to differences in host specificity and virulence. Metabolic changes such as the lack of complete metabolic pathways for the synthesis of numerous compounds (e.g., glycogen, biotin, NAD, and choline) are consistent with adaptation of brucellae to an intracellular life-style.

  16. Brucella meningoencephalitis with hydrocephalus masquerading as tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwanath Sathyanarayanan; Bekur Ragini; Abdul Razak; M Mukhya prana Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    Neurobrucellosis is a rare form of localized brucellosis usually with no systemic manifestations. We report a rare case of brucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis associated with hydrocephalus. This patient had a lymphocytic predominantCSF and was initially treated with empirical anti tubercular therapy and steroids.A week later, when hisCSF culture grew Brucella species, the treatment was changed to a combination of streptomycin, doxycycline and rifampicin and the patient improved with this therapy. This case illustrates the need to consider neurobrucellosis as a close differential diagnosis of neurotuberculosis in endemic areas when the patient presents with meningo encephalitis with lymphocyticCSF.

  17. An Uncommon Presentation of Brucella Endocarditis Masquerading as Neurobrucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neha; Mathew, Thomas; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Kudaravalli, Pujitha

    2017-01-01

    Brucella endocarditis is a rare but a severe complication of brucellosis, observed in less than 2% of cases. It is the main cause responsible for up to 80% of deaths in brucellosis. Herein, we present a case of brucella endocarditis that developed on a native aortic valve, but presented to us with fever for several months and acute neurological symptoms. This case report signifies the importance of considering brucella endocarditis as one of the differentials in patients presenting with Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) and Central Nervous System (CNS) manifestations.

  18. Brucella papionis sp. nov., isolated from baboons (Papio spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M; Davison, Nicholas; Cloeckaert, Axel; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Zygmunt, Michel S; Brew, Simon D; Perrett, Lorraine L; Koylass, Mark S; Vergnaud, Gilles; Quance, Christine; Scholz, Holger C; Dick, Edward J; Hubbard, Gene; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E

    2014-12-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccoid bacteria (strains F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61) isolated from clinical specimens obtained from baboons (Papio spp.) that had delivered stillborn offspring were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, both strains, which possessed identical sequences, were assigned to the genus Brucella. This placement was confirmed by extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), where both strains possessed identical sequences, and whole-genome sequencing of a representative isolate. All of the above analyses suggested that the two strains represent a novel lineage within the genus Brucella. The strains also possessed a unique profile when subjected to the phenotyping approach classically used to separate species of the genus Brucella, reacting only with Brucella A monospecific antiserum, being sensitive to the dyes thionin and fuchsin, being lysed by bacteriophage Wb, Bk2 and Fi phage at routine test dilution (RTD) but only partially sensitive to bacteriophage Tb, and with no requirement for CO2 and no production of H2S but strong urease activity. Biochemical profiling revealed a pattern of enzyme activity and metabolic capabilities distinct from existing species of the genus Brucella. Molecular analysis of the omp2 locus genes showed that both strains had a novel combination of two highly similar omp2b gene copies. The two strains shared a unique fingerprint profile of the multiple-copy Brucella-specific element IS711. Like MLSA, a multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the isolates clustered together very closely, but represent a distinct group within the genus Brucella. Isolates F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61 could be distinguished clearly from all known species of the genus Brucella and their biovars by both phenotypic and molecular properties. Therefore, by applying the species concept for the genus Brucella suggested by the ICSP

  19. Research progress in live attenuated Brucella vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Qingmin

    2013-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, which is a globally occurring zoonotic disease that is characterized by abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever, arthritis, endocarditis, and meningitis in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines against brucellosis for human use, and only a few licensed live Brucella vaccines are available for use in animals. However, the available animal vaccines may cause abortion and are associated with lower protection rates in animals and higher virulence in humans. Much research has been performed recently to develop novel Brucella vaccines for the prevention and control of animal brucellosis. This article discusses the approaches and strategies for novel live attenuated vaccine development.

  20. Infections with Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Tsachev Ilia; Simeonov R.; Petrov Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A clinical case of Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in a 5year-old male German Shepherd is described. Clinical, serological, necropsy and histopathological examinations supporting the diagnosis have been performed.

  1. Infections with Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsachev Ilia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in a 5year-old male German Shepherd is described. Clinical, serological, necropsy and histopathological examinations supporting the diagnosis have been performed.

  2. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin;

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives...

  3. Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, F; Kunstýr, I; Mörstedt, R; Farouq, H; Wullenweber, M; Damsch, S

    1991-01-01

    This is the first description of a pathologic condition--arthritis in cats affecting mainly one joint, i.e. monarthritis--caused by Streptococcus canis (S. canis), of the Lancefield serologic group G. Six cases were recorded in a closed cat breeding colony during a 6 month period in 1988, and one additional case in 1990. Therapy with penicillin and streptomycin led to full recovery in four of six cases. The bacterium had been detected from different purulent processes sporadically--including one case of purulent arthritis in 1982--as a nosocomial infection since 1980, the year the breeding colony was established. A possible genetic predisposition (high inbreeding) may have contributed to the accumulation of the six cases in 1988. Although S. canis was isolated in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog, cat and man seem to be more frequently affected. There are some similarities between S. canis-arthritis in cat and man.

  4. TROMBOCITOPENIA IMMUNOMEDIATA SECONDARIA IN CANI NATURALMENTE INFETTI DA LEISHMANIA INFANTUM

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Lo studio si prefigge di indagare, mediante immunofluorescenza indiretta e citometria a flusso, se la presenza di anticorpi anti-piastrine può essere associata all’occorrenza di trombocitopenia immunomediata in cani naturalmente infetti da Leishmania infantum.

  5. A Brucella spp. Isolate from a Pac-Man Frog (Ceratophrys ornata Reveals Characteristics Departing from Classical Brucellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Franscico Soler Llorens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucella are highly infectious bacterial pathogens responsible for brucellosis, a frequent worldwide zoonosis. The Brucella genus has recently expanded from 6 to 11 species, all of which were associated with mammals; The natural host range recently expanded to amphibians after some reports of atypical strains from frogs. Here we describe the first in depth phenotypic and genetic characterization of a Brucella strains isolated from a frog. Strain B13-0095 was isolated from a Pac-Man frog (Ceratophyrus ornate at a veterinary hospital in Texas and was initially misidentified as Ochrobactrum anthropi. We found that B13-0095 belongs to a group of early-diverging brucellae that includes Brucella inopinata strain BO1 and the B. inopinata-like strain BO2, with traits that depart significantly from those of the ‘classical’ Brucella spp. Analysis of B13-0095 genome sequence revealed several specific features that suggest that this isolate represents an intermediate between a soil associated ancestor and the host adapted ‘classical’ species. Like strain BO2, B13-0095 does not possess the genes required to produce the perosamine based LPS found in classical Brucella, but has a set of genes that could encode a rhamnose based O-antigen. Despite this, B13-0095 has a very fast intracellular replication rate in both epithelial cells and macrophages. Finally, another major finding in this study is the bacterial motility observed for strains B13-0095, BO1 and BO2, which is remarkable for this bacterial genus.This study thus highlights several novel characteristics in strains belonging to an emerging group within the Brucella genus. Accurate identification tools for such atypical Brucella isolates and careful evaluation of their zoonotic potential, are urgently required.

  6. A Brucella spp. Isolate from a Pac-Man Frog (Ceratophrys ornata) Reveals Characteristics Departing from Classical Brucellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Lloréns, Pedro F.; Quance, Chris R.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Stuber, Tod P.; Edwards, John F.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; O'Callaghan, David; Keriel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Brucella are highly infectious bacterial pathogens responsible for brucellosis, a frequent worldwide zoonosis. The Brucella genus has recently expanded from 6 to 11 species, all of which were associated with mammals; The natural host range recently expanded to amphibians after some reports of atypical strains from frogs. Here we describe the first in depth phenotypic and genetic characterization of a Brucella strains isolated from a frog. Strain B13-0095 was isolated from a Pac-Man frog (Ceratophyrus ornate) at a veterinary hospital in Texas and was initially misidentified as Ochrobactrum anthropi. We found that B13-0095 belongs to a group of early-diverging brucellae that includes Brucella inopinata strain BO1 and the B. inopinata-like strain BO2, with traits that depart significantly from those of the “classical” Brucella spp. Analysis of B13-0095 genome sequence revealed several specific features that suggest that this isolate represents an intermediate between a soil associated ancestor and the host adapted “classical” species. Like strain BO2, B13-0095 does not possess the genes required to produce the perosamine based LPS found in classical Brucella, but has a set of genes that could encode a rhamnose based O-antigen. Despite this, B13-0095 has a very fast intracellular replication rate in both epithelial cells and macrophages. Finally, another major finding in this study is the bacterial motility observed for strains B13-0095, BO1, and BO2, which is remarkable for this bacterial genus. This study thus highlights several novel characteristics in strains belonging to an emerging group within the Brucella genus. Accurate identification tools for such atypical Brucella isolates and careful evaluation of their zoonotic potential, are urgently required. PMID:27734009

  7. Molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis infecting dogs, Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; Gury Dohmen, Federico E

    2016-07-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E. canis from canine samples of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We studied 223 blood samples of dogs submitted to our institute for CME diagnoses. The samples were initially screened for Anaplasmataceae family by PCR, resulting in 30 positive dogs (13.4%). Subsequently, positive DNAs were analyzed by nested PCR 16S rRNA specific for E. canis or Anaplasma platys, resulting in 15 (6.7%) and 16 (7.2%) positive dogs, respectively. For molecular characterization, samples positive for E. canis were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the dsb and p28 genes. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the dsb fragment resulted in 100% identity with others E. canis found in dogs from different regions of worldwide. The nucleotide sequences obtained for p28 gene resulted in 100% of identity with each other and closely with E. canis str. Jaboticabal (Brazil). Identity with others sequences of E. canis ranged from 76.9 to 79.7%. The occurrence of canine cases molecularly confirmed in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires highlights the need for more studies in order to understand epidemiological factors associated with CME, especially the disease transmission dynamic in South America given the existence of two lineages of R. sanguineus sensu lato with different vectorial capacity for transmission of E. canis.

  8. Observations on brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPINK, W W

    1953-01-01

    A special study was made of the problem of brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis in visits to Mexico City in 1948, to the FAO/WHO Brucellosis Centres at Montpellier (France), Florence (Italy), and Rijeka (Yugoslavia) in 1951, and to Spain in 1952. Br. melitensis infection in human beings causes more severe illness than Br. abortus infection. It develops primarily in rural communities living in close contact with goats and sheep; cattle and swine may also harbour the infection.In diagnosis, the agglutination test has proved the most satisfactory procedure; testing would be more uniformly reliable if a single antigen were used. Lack of funds and technical assistance have in many instances limited the bacteriological studies upon which a more definitive diagnosis of brucellosis depends.Antibiotics, Brucella vaccines, and colloidal preparations of gold and silver-used separately and in combination-have proved of varying therapeutic value, although response to antibiotics is less favourable than in cases of Br. abortus infection.While the drastic measures-involving the slaughter of about 10,000 sheep-taken in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, in the late 1940's, against an outbreak of brucellosis, is an inspiring example of how the disease can be eradicated, the removal of all diseased animals is rarely feasible economically. It is hoped that future research will reveal a practicable alternative in the immunization of sheep and goats against the disease.

  9. Brucella abortus S19 vaccine protects dairy cattle against natural infection with Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straten, Michael; Bardenstein, Svetlana; Keningswald, Gaby; Banai, Menachem

    2016-11-21

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that can cause severe illness in humans and considerable economic loss in the livestock industry. Although small ruminants are the preferential host for Brucella melitensis, this pathogen has emerged as a cause for Brucella outbreaks in cattle. S19 vaccination is implemented in many countries where B. abortus is endemic but its effectiveness against B. melitensis has not been validated. Here we show that vaccine effectiveness in preventing disease transmission between vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, as determined by seroconversion, was 87.2% (95% CI 69.5-94.6%). Furthermore, vaccination was associated with a reduced risk for abortion. Together, our data emphasize the role S19 vaccination could play in preventing B. melitensis outbreaks in areas where this pathogen is prevalent in small ruminant populations.

  10. The changing nature of the Brucella-containing vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Jean

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella are intracellular vacuolar pathogens of mammals that cause the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, and reside within phagocytes of infected hosts to promote their survival, persistence and proliferation. These traits are essential to the bacterium's ability to cause disease and have been the subject of much investigation to gain an understanding of Brucella pathogenic mechanisms. Although the endoplasmic reticulum-derived nature of the Brucella replicative niche has been long known, major strides have recently been made in deciphering the molecular mechanisms of its biogenesis, including the identification of bacterial determinants and host cellular pathways involved in this process. Here I will review and discuss the most recent advances in our knowledge of Brucella intracellular pathogenesis, with an emphasis on bacterial exploitation of the host endoplasmic reticulum-associated functions, and how autophagy-related processes contribute to the bacterium's intracellular cycle.

  11. Brucella T4SS: the VIP pass inside host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Thais Lourdes Santos; Salcedo, Suzana Pinto; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    For many Gram-negative bacteria, like Brucella, the type IV secretion system (T4SS) has a critical role in bacterial virulence. In Brucella, the VirB T4SS permits the injection of bacterial effectors inside host cells, leading to subversion of signaling pathways and favoring bacterial growth and pathogenesis. The virB operon promoter is tightly regulated by a combination of transcriptional activators and repressors that are expressed according to the environmental conditions encountered by Brucella. Recent advances have shed light on the Brucella T4SS regulatory mechanisms and also its substrates. Characterization of the targets and functions of these translocated effectors is underway and will help understand the role of the T4SS in the establishment of a replication niche inside host cells.

  12. Progress in the evolution and taxonomy of Brucella%布鲁菌进化和分类学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志军; 杜昕颖; 彭广能; 黄克和; 陈泽良; 于爽; 徐杰; 王玉飞; 白耀霞; 陈燕芬; 付思美; 王同坤; 汪舟佳

    2011-01-01

    Brucellae are Gram-negative,facultative intracellular bacteria that can infect many species of animals and man.Six species are currently recognized within the genus Brucella:B.melitensis,B.abortus,B.suis,B.neotomae,B.ovis,and B.canis.This classification is mainly based on differences in pathogenicity and in host preferences.Although the six species can be differentiated by conventional phenotypic tests,these species display a high degree of DNA homology in DNA-DNA hybridization assays(90% identity).Therefore it has been proposed that the Brucella genus should comprise only one species i.e.B.melitensis and that the other species should be considered as biovars.However,several molecular genotyping methods have shown of significant DNA polymorphism Brucella species allowing the species to be correctly differentiated.This is also true for the recent marine mammal Brucella isolates,which two new species names have been proposed,i.e.B.pinnipediae and B.cetaceae,according to the classical criteria of host preferentialism(pinnipeds and cetaceans respectively) and specific molecular markers.This article reviews the evolution and taxonomy of Brucella.%布鲁菌属革兰氏阴性兼性胞内寄生菌,能感染多种宿主动物和人。该属可分为6个典型种,包括羊种、牛种、猪种、沙林鼠种、绵羊附睾种以及犬种布鲁菌等。此分类是基于其致病性以及宿主偏好性的差异划分。尽管6个种通过传统表型试验能区分,但布鲁菌种内采用DNA-DNA杂交证明DNA同源性高度一致(相似性大于90%)。因此有人提议布鲁菌由单一种组成,即布鲁菌属中只有羊种布鲁菌,其他种都是羊种菌的生物亚型之一。然而基于其他分子技术的基因分型表明其DNA多态性表现明显,说明目前对这个种的分型还是比较准确。而最近分离的海洋种布鲁氏

  13. Genetic diversity of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in Kazakhstan using MLVA-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Alexandr; Ramanculov, Erlan; Shevtsova, Elena; Kairzhanova, Alma; Tarlykov, Pavel; Filipenko, Maxim; Dymova, Maya; Abisheva, Gulzada; Jailbekova, Aygul; Kamalova, Dinara; Chsherbakov, Andrei; Tulegenov, Samat; Akhmetova, Assel; Sytnik, Igor; Karibaev, Talgat; Mukanov, Kasim

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Central Asia characterized by high infection rates in humans and animals. Currently, little is known about the genetic diversity of Brucella spp. circulating in the region, despite the high prevalence of brucellosis. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains circulating in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We genotyped 128 B. melitensis and 124 B. abortus strains collected in regions with the highest prevalence of brucellosis. Genotyping was performed using multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Analysis of a subset of 8 loci (MLVA-8) of 128 B. melitensis strains identified genotypes 42 (n=108), 43 (n=2), and 63 (n=19) related to the 'East Mediterranean' group. An MLVA-16 assay sorted 128 B. melitensis strains into 25 different genotypes. Excluding one variable locus, MLVA-15 of B. melitensis was distinct from strains originating in the Mediterranean region; however, 77% of them were identical to strains isolated in China. A minimum spanning tree for B. melitensis using MLVA-15 analysis clustered the local strains together with strains previously collected in China. MLVA-8 analysis of 124 B. abortus strains identified them as genotype 36, suggesting Eurasian distribution of this lineage. Complete MLVA-16 assay analysis clustered the strains into five genotypes, revealing little diversity of B. abortus when compared on the global scale. A minimum spanning tree for B. abortus obtained using MLVA-15 analysis clustered the 2 most prevalent genotypes (n=117) together with strains previously collected in China. Thus, MLVA analysis was used to characterize 252 strains of Brucella collected in Kazakhstan. The analysis revealed genetic homogeneity among the strains. Interestingly, identical MLVA-15 profiles were found in seemingly unrelated outbreaks in China, Turkey, and Kazakhstan. Further analysis is needed for better understanding of the epidemiology of

  14. Relación entre superantigenicidad, resistencia antimicrobiana y origen de aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Moncayo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción:Staphylococcus aureus, es un patógeno que causa intoxicación alimentaria e infecciones hospitalarias y comunitarias.Objetivo:Establecer el perfil de genes de superantígenos en aislamientos hospitalarios correlacionándolos con el tipo de muestra clínica, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y origen hospitalario o comunitario.Métodos:Se analizaron 81 aislamientos de S. aureus de pacientes de un hospital colombiano. Fueron clasificadas por susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, tipo de muestra clínica y origen hospitalario o comunitario. Se detectó por PCR individual y múltiple 22 genes de superantígenos (18 enterotoxinas, una toxina del choque tóxico-1 y tres toxinas exfoliativas.Resultados:El 95.1% albergaban uno o más genes de superantígenos con un promedio de 5.6 genes. La prevalencia individual fue variable y el gen con mayor prevalencia fue seg (51.9%. Se obtuvieron 39 genotipos, y el genotipo gimnou (cluster egc completo fue el de mayor frecuencia (16.0% y asociado con otros genes (13.6%. La correlación de superantígenos frente a tipo de muestra clínica y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana no mostró diferencia estadística significativa, pero hubo diferencia significativa con el tipo de aislamiento hospitalario o comunitario (p= 0.049.Conclusiones:Los resultados muestran la diversidad genética en los aislados hospitalarios respecto a la presencia de superantígenos y no muestra una relación concluyente con el tipo de muestra clínica y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana pero sí con origen de los aislamientos comunitarios y hospitalarios. Un análisis de la interrelación entre la virulencia, epidemicidad y resistencia antimicrobiana de las poblaciones bacterianas es necesario para predecir el futuro de las enfermedades infecciosas.

  15. Aislamiento y reciblaje para reducir el consumo energético de las viviendas en Andalucia.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Se han realizado dentro del proyecto de investigación Aislamiento y Reciclaje para Reducir el Consumo Energético de las Viviendas en Andalucía (ARCEVA) diversos trabajos relacionados con la solución de fachadas. Se identifican cuatro trabajos principales: desarrollo de materiales de construcción reciclados que incluyen paneles de yeso y placas de hormigón, evaluación del consumo energético de las nuevas fachadas y finalmente evaluación de los impactos, técnico, ambiental, económico y social, ...

  16. Estimación de la incertidumbre en ensayos de aislamiento acústico.

    OpenAIRE

    Arribas del Olmo, Ángel M.

    2013-01-01

    En general la calidad de los resultados de una medición la establece su incertidumbre, que si está bien calculada y es suficientemente pequeña se puede decir que la medición es de buena calidad. Sin embargo, en medidas acústicas no existe un método estandarizado para la estimación de la incertidumbre. En este trabajo se comparan los valores de la incertidumbre del aislamiento acústico (en 1/3 de octavas y para la magnitud global) obtenidos por distintos métodos considerando el mayor número d...

  17. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  18. Different presentation types of primary Brucella epididimo-orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Huseyin; Budak, Gokcen; Budak, Salih; Celik, Orcun; Yalbuzdag, Okan; Keles, Ibrahim

    2015-07-07

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that involved genitourinary system in 2-20% and most commonly cause single sided epididymo-orchitis. In our country Brucella is an endemic disease and causes serious and different diagnosis of acute scrotum and epididymo-orchitis. In this paper six cases of epididymo-orchitis cases which were resistant to classical treatment were discussed according to clinical and laboratory findings. We describe different types of presentation of Brucella epididymo-orchitis with diagnosis and treatment modalities.

  19. A History of the Development of Brucella Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Daniel Avila-Calderón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis affecting animal and human health. In the last several decades, much research has been performed to develop safer Brucella vaccines to control the disease mainly in animals. Till now, no effective human vaccine is available. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the importance of methodologies used to develop Brucella vaccines in pursuing this challenge.

  20. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma platys, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Babesia canis vogeli in ticks from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, S; Perlman-Avrahami, A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Morick, D; Eyal, O; Baneth, G

    2011-03-01

    : Ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. Therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of Israel. Non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. A total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of Rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ten ticks per pool)-were included in this study. In addition, 13 single free-roaming Hyalomma spp. ticks were collected. Screening by molecular techniques revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma bovis and Babesia canis vogeli DNA in R. turanicus ticks. E. canis, A. bovis, B. canis vogeli and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA sequences were detected in R. sanguineus ticks. Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA was also detected in Hyalomma spp. ticks. Neither Hepatozoon spp. nor Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in any of the ticks examined. This study describes the first detection of E. canis in the tick R. turanicus, which may serve as a vector of this canine pathogen; E. canis was the most common pathogen detected in the collected questing ticks. It also describes the first detection of A. bovis and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in Israel. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report describing the detection of DNA of the latter two pathogens in R. sanguineus, and of A. bovis in R. turanicus.

  1. Relaciones serológicas entre aislamientos bacterianos de los géneros Erwinia, Pectobacterium Y Pantoea

    OpenAIRE

    Yonis Hernández; Gustavo Trujillo

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio fue realizado con el propósito de conocer las relaciones serológicas entre aislamientos pertenecientes a diferentes generos y especies de bacterias. Se utilizaron ocho aislamientos, tres de Pectobacterium chrysanthemi obtenidos de maíz (Zea mays), papa (Solanum tuberosum) y batata (Ipomoea batatas); tres de P. carotovora subsp. carotovora, provenientes uno de cafecito de jardín (Aglaonema commutatum ´María‘) y dos de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum), con diferencias en el comport...

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae: vigilancia molecular de aislamientos invasivos resistentes a penicilina recuperados de julio 2003 a junio 2004 en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Jaime

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones neumocócicas afectan principalmente a niños y ancianos. Además, por el incremento de aislamientos resistentes a penicilina, S. pneumoniae es considerado como uno de los principales problemas de salud pública. El objetivo fue determinar las relaciones genéticas de los aislamientos
    invasores de S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a penicilina (SDP recuperados de julio-2003 a junio-2004. Se estudiaron 66 aislamientos utilizando la técnica de electroforesis de campo pulsado (PFGE, los patrones electroforéticos se compararon según los criterios de
    Tenover y se analizaron con el programa Fingerprinting TMII 3.0. En 12 aislamientos se identificaron los perfiles PBP, con la técnica del polimorfismo en la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP de los genes pbp 2b, 2x y 1a, los cuales se interpretaron según lo establecido por el laboratorio. Las relaciones entre los grupos clonales y las características demográficas de los pacientes se analizaron con los programas EpiInfo 6.04 y MVSP 3.1. La mayoría de los aislamientos (71%
    presentaron el patrón PFGE B relacionado con el clon 3-España9V, seguido por los patrones C (6% agrupado con el clon 26-Colombia23F, D (4% con el clon 2-España6B y A (2% con el clon 1-España23F, los aislamientos restantes se distribuyeron en diez patrones no relacionados con clones internacionales. En los aislamientos relacionados con los clones 1, 2, y 26 se identificó el mismo perfil PBP del clon y los relacionados con el clon 3 presentaron una variante del perfil
    PBP del clon 3. En Colombia la prevalencia de aislamientos invasores resistentes a penicilina se debe a la circulación de los clones internacionales 1-España23F, 2-España6B, 3-España9V y
    26-Colombia23F.

  3. Caracterización molecular de aislamientos invasores colombianos de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 5, recuperados entre 1994 y 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal C. Aura Lucía

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 5 es una causa importante de enfermedad invasiva en Colombia. Estudios preliminares han demostrado la circulación de un clon reconocido por la red de epidemiología molecular de neumococo (PMEN como clon 19-Colombia5, susceptible a penicilina pero asociado con resistencia a tetraciclina y cloranfenicol. Con el objetivo de establecer las relaciones genéticas de aislamientos invasores de S. pneumoniae serotipo 5 recuperados en Colombia entre 1994 y 2004, con el clon 19-Colombia5, se estudiaron
    83 aislamientos, que tenían datos de susceptibilidad a penicilina, vancomicina, ceftriaxona, eritromicina, trimetoprim sulfametoxazol, cloranfenicol y tetraciclina, de los cuales, 29 fueron recuperados de niños menores de cinco años. Se les determinó el patrón de restricción por electroforesis de campo pulsado (PFGE, usando la enzima Sma I. La similitud genética entre los aislamientos y el clon se estableció según los criterios de Tenover utilizando el programa Fingerprinting‰ II para la generación de dendrogramas. Todos los aislamientos se agruparon en el patrón electroforético A, del cual se derivaron 18 subtipos, todos relacionados con el clon 19-Colombia5. El patrón A se estableció en 32 aislamientos (38,6%, el subtipo A8 en 18 (21,7% y el A5 en 10 (12%, los patrones restantes agruparon los otros 23 aislamientos. Los 34 aislamientos
    resistentes a tetraciclina y cloranfenicol, estuvieron relacionados con el patrón electroforético A (n=32 y los subtipos A16 (n=1 y A28 (n=1, caracterizados por presentar una banda de 340 Kb, al igual que el clon. Estos resultados muestran la prevalencia y circulación continua de aislamientos de S. pneumoniae serotipo 5, los cuales están genéticamente relacionados con el clon 19-Colombia.

  4. Variabilidad en aislamientos de sclerotium cepivorum Berk. y su relación con arn de cadena doble

    OpenAIRE

    Noel Reyes Pérez; Nahum Marbán Mendoza; Felipe Delgadillo Sánchez; Rodolfo de la Torre Almaráz

    2003-01-01

    Se evaluó la variabilidad de la virulencia de 15 aislamientos de Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., agente causal de la pudrición blanca, en ajo y cebolla procedentes de Guanajuato, México, midiendo componentes de patogenicidad: días a producción de esclerocios (DPE), número de esclerocios (NE), diámetro de colonia (DC) y virulencia (VIR), expresada como la pérdida de peso en bulbos infectados con el hongo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (p=0.05, Tukey) entre todos los aislamientos para l...

  5. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  6. Type IV Secretion System of Brucella spp. and its Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua eKe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. cause brucellosis in domestic and wild animals. They are intracellular bacterial pathogens and used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we will discuss roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and in more detail of all 15 identified effectors, which may be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells, suggesting that it plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. So, we listed some key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating functions of the effectors secreted will be crucial to clarifying mechanism of T4SS during infection. Studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms by which the bacteria hijack the host signaling pathways, which help us to develop better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  7. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-06-03

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  8. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  9. Small GTPases and Brucella entry into the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bolle, Xavier; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    A key determinant for intracellular pathogenic bacteria to ensure their virulence within host cells is their ability to bypass the endocytic pathway and to reach a safe niche of replication. In the case of Brucella, the bacterium targets the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) to create a replicating niche called the BCV (Brucella-containing vacuole). The ER is a suitable strategic place for pathogenic Brucella. Indeed, bacteria can be hidden from host cell defences to persist within the host, and they can take advantage of the membrane reservoir delivered by the ER to replicate. Interaction with the ER leads to the presence on the BCV of the GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and the small GTPase Rab2 known to be located on secretory vesicles that traffic between the ER and the Golgi apparatus. GAPDH and the small GTPase Rab2 controls Brucella replication at late times post-infection. A specific interaction between the human small GTPase Rab2 and a Brucella spp. protein named RicA was identified. Altered kinetics of intracellular trafficking and faster proliferation of the Brucella abortus ΔricA mutant was observed compared with the wild-type strain. RicA is the first reported effector with a proposed function for B. abortus.

  10. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation.

  11. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  12. Detection of Brucella abortus in Chiredzi district in Zimbabwe

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    Calvin Gomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Zimbabwe caused by the genus Brucella. Brucella seroprevalence was recently reported to be high in the wildlife-livestock interface in the Chiredzi district and the neighbouring Gonarezhou National Park (GNP in Zimbabwe, and higher amongst communal cattle with an abortion history and access to grazing in GNP than amongst communal cattle with no abortion history or access to grazing in GNP. The aim of this study was to investigate Brucella species in brucellosis seropositive cattle in the Chiredzi district with access to GNP using isolation and identification. Isolation of Brucella species from whole blood (n = 18 and milk samples (n = 10 from seropositive animals with an abortion history was based on the rose Bengal test (RBT and enzyme-linked immunoassays (enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]; indirect ELISA and complement ELISA, using microbiology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Brucella abortus was cultured and identified from blood and milk collected from seropositive cows in both communal areas. The Brucella-specific 16-23S intergenic spacer (ITS PCR and multiplex AMOS-PCR assays verified the identification of the cultures. Our results confirmed that B. abortus is present in cattle on communal farms in the Chiredzi district in Zimbabwe and might cause cattle abortions. The need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on zoonotic transmission of brucellosis are recommended.

  13. Validación operacional de un ELISA comercial para Brucella ovis, Chile Operational validation of a commercial ELISA for Brucella ovis, Chile

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    J F Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica se estiman para una población de referencia, estas difieren de la interpretación operacional o de terreno. El objetivo del presente trabajo es validar operacionalmente un ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay comercial para Brucella ovis en la población ovina de Magallanes. Se emplearon 82 sueros de carneros con aislamiento de B. ovis en semen y 421 sueros de animales con cultivo microbiológico de semen negativo e inmunodifusión en agar gel con resultado negativo. Se estableció un punto de corte de 58,15% de densidad óptica, estimado con el método receiver-operating characteristic; se estimó una sensibilidad de 82,9% y una especificidad de 91,4%; la baja sensibilidad obtenida indica la incapacidad del ELISA para detectar un número considerable de positivos, por lo que en erradicación se deberá utilizar una técnica diagnóstica adicional; el bajo valor predictivo positivo fue influenciado en su mayoría por la baja prevalencia. Los parámetros estimados deberán utilizarse en la interpretación de los futuros análisis diagnósticos y se deberá realizar una validación operacional cuando se adopte una nueva técnica diagnóstica, estableciendo los parámetros con los cuales trabajará el laboratorio y de esta forma minimizar los errores de diagnósticoSensitivity and specificity are usually estimated for a reference population, and these differ from the operational interpretation. The aim of this study was to carry out an operational validation of a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for Brucella ovis in the sheep population of Magallanes Region. The assay was validated using sera from 82 rams with bacterial isolation and 421 sera from rams with culture-negative semen and not reacting to agar gel immunodiffusion test. The cut-off point was 58.15% optical density, estimated by using the receiver-operating characteristic method; with 82.9% of sensibility and 91.4% of

  14. Antibody Reactivity to Omp31 from Brucella melitensis in Human and Animal Infections by Smooth and Rough Brucellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassataro, Juliana; Pasquevich, Karina; Bruno, Laura; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    2004-01-01

    Group 3 of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Brucella includes Omp25 and Omp31, which share 34% identity. Omp25 is highly conserved in Brucella species, and Omp31 is present in all Brucella species, except Brucella abortus. Antibodies to Brucella melitensis Omp31 have been sought only in infected sheep, and Western blotting of sera from infected sheep did not reveal anti-Omp31 reactivity. We obtained recombinant purified Omp31 (B. melitensis) and tested its recognition by sera from humans and animals suffering from brucellosis by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum samples from 74 patients, 57 sheep, and 47 dogs were analyzed; brucellosis was confirmed by bacteriological isolation in all ovine and canine cases and 31 human cases of brucellosis. Thirty-five patients (47%) were positive for antibodies to Omp31, including seven cases of Brucella suis infection, two cases of B. abortus infection, and three cases of B. melitensis infection. Of 39 sheep naturally infected with B. melitensis (biovars 1 and 3), 23 (59%) were positive for antibodies to Omp31. Anti-Omp31 antibodies were also detected in 12 of 18 rams (67%) in which Brucella ovis was isolated from semen. Antibodies to Omp31 were also found in 41 (87%) of the 47 dogs, including 13 with recent infection. These results suggest that an indirect ELISA using recombinant purified Omp31 from B. melitensis would be of limited value for the diagnosis of human and animal brucellosis. Nevertheless, the potential usefulness of this antigen in combination with other recombinant proteins from Brucella should not be dismissed.   PMID:14715555

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Field Isolate Brucella melitensis Strain Bm IND1 from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sashi Bhushan; Gupta, Vivek K; Kumar, Mukesh; Hegde, Nagendra R; Splitter, Gary A; Reddanna, Pallu; Radhakrishnan, Girish K

    2014-05-29

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens causing the zoonotic disease brucellosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brucella melitensis strain from India designated Bm IND1, isolated from stomach contents of an aborted goat fetus.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Field Isolate Brucella melitensis Strain Bm IND1 from India

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Sashi Bhushan; Gupta, Vivek K.; Kumar, Mukesh; Hegde, Nagendra R; Splitter, Gary A.; Reddanna, Pallu; Radhakrishnan, Girish K.

    2014-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens causing the zoonotic disease brucellosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brucella melitensis strain from India designated Bm IND1, isolated from stomach contents of an aborted goat fetus.

  17. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE RIZOBIOS DE Crotalariasp. EN EL SUR DE ECUADOR

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    Francisco Guamán Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivos aislar y caracterizar cepas nativas de bacterias diazotróficas y evaluar su efecto en la nodulación y el crecimiento de Crotalaria sp. Para el aislamiento se tomaron muestras de plantas de Crotalaria con presencia de nódulos en sus raíces, en diferentes condiciones agroclimáticas de la provincia de Loja, Ecuador. Se realizó una caracterización morfo-cultural, bioquímica y fisiológica de los aislados y se evaluó el efecto de cada uno de los aislados sobre las variables de nodulación, crecimiento y biomasa de Crotalaria en condiciones de invernadero. De los aislamientos realizados se obtuvieron 10 cepas con características correspondientes al orden Rhizobiales. Todos los aislados evidenciaron la capacidad de nodular la planta hospedante. Se destacaron los resultados en tres de los aislados por su mayor capacidad de nodulación y eficiencia en la inoculación de las plantas. Estos resultados constituyen un punto de partida en la obtención de inoculantes y su posible efecto sobre plantas de Crotalaria, utilizadas como fijadoras de N2 en condiciones de campo.

  18. Caracterización molecular de un aislamiento cubano de parvovirus canino

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    Anniet Fresneda-Disotuar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El parvovirus canino tipo 2 (VPC-2 es el agente causal de una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa que produce gastroenteritis aguda hemorrágica que afecta a caninos jóvenes. El VPC-2 es un virus con genoma ADN, pequeño, desnudo y muy resistente a las condiciones ambientales que emergió y se expandió rápidamente a fines de la década de los años 70. En los años 80 surgieron consecutivamente dos variantes antigénicas, denominadas VPC-2a y VPC-2b. En el 2000 se detectó una nueva variante antigénica llamada VPC-2c, reportándose con frecuencia en comunidades caninas de varios países del mundo. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en caracterizar un aislamiento cubano de parvovirus canino, atenuado y adaptado a cultivo celular. El material genético fue amplificado por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y secuenciado posteriormente. Las secuencias obtenidas fueron analizadas y comparadas con secuencias de aislados y cepas conocidas depositadas en las bases de datos, donde se evidenció que el aislamiento cubano era del tipo VPC-2.

  19. AISLAMIENTO DE Bacillus SOLUBILIZADORES DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADOS AL CULTIVO DEL ARROZ

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    Berto Tejera-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad de bacterias del género Bacillus pro- venientes del cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa L. en solubilizar fosfatos. Los aislamientos se obtuvieron utilizando el modelo Microcosmos de los cultivares Iacuba 30 y Perla, en el año 2008 en Bauta, La Habana, Cuba. Hubo 58 aislados, tanto rizosféricos como endófitos de la raíz y de la parte aérea, que presentaban características distintivas del género Bacillus, como respuesta positiva a la tinción de Gram, forma bacilar y formación de endospora. Se realizó la detección cualitativa en cuanto a la capacidad de solubilización de fosfatos. Solo 19 aislamientos mostraron solubilización en medio sólido NBRIP y en algunos casos cambiaron la coloración del medio de azul a amarillo, lo que indica la producción de ácidos. Se seleccionaron los positivos para la cuantificación en medio líquido. Las cepas mostraron un comportamiento diferente cuando se midió el fosfato solubilizado a distintos tiempos, variando el máximo de solubilización.

  20. MICROSPORUM CANIS RINGWORM EPIDEMIC IN TEHRAN

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    M.Emami

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Patients, a family, their neighbors, and friends; with lesions suspicious of Ringworm infection, were referred to us within a period of 80 days. The Source of infection was found to be 3 persian Cats (a mother and two kittens living with the family. The cats had multiple lesions around their nose and on abdomen which reveales the Prevalence of cutaneous fungi both on direct microscopic examination and culture. Sixteen of the 20 pateints examined 80% were positive both in Microscopic examination and culture. The rest were negative because they have used topical and systemic antifungal drugs. Of these positives 12(75% had Tinea corporis and 4(25% had Tinea capitis. The ege range of the patients with Tinea corporis was 2-9 years and for those with Tinea corpois was 5- 48 years. The causative agent in this epidemic was Microsporum canis which was most probably transmitted from the cats to this family, their friends and neighbors.

  1. Recent advances in Brucella abortus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-07-08

    Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susceptible species of animals. In this paper, we present a review of the main aspects of the vaccines that have been used in the brucellosis control over the years and the current research advances in the development of new B. abortus vaccines.

  2. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  3. Toxocara canis y Síndrome Larva Migrans Visceralis (Toxocara canis and Syndrome Larva Migrans Visceralis

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    Dr. MV Pedro De la Fé Rodríguez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN.- Se abordaron las principales características biológicas y ecológicas de Toxocara canis, resaltando su clasificación taxonómica, morfología y relación con el medio ambiente. Sobre la interacción de este parásito con los hospedadores definitivos (cánidos y parténicos (humanos se consideraron su ciclo biológico, patogenia, características clínicas, diagnóstico, epidemiología, control y pronóstico. ABSTRACT.- In the present article was broached the main biological and ecological characteristics of Toxocara canis, taking in consideration its taxonomic classification, morphology and relationship with the environment. On the aspect concerning to the interaction of this parasite with the definitive host (canids and the paratenic host (humans they were considered its biological cycle, pathogeny, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, control and prognosis.

  4. Angiostrongylus vasorum in 20 cani della provincia di Chieti, Italia

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    Daniela Morelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A seguito di un caso di Angiostrongylus vasorum, diagnosticato all’inizio del 2008 nella provincia di Chieti, è stata organizzata una ricerca parassitologica al fine di indagare la presenza del parassita nei cani nella stessa area. Da gennaio a settembre 2008 sono stati esaminati 178 cani, 56 carcasse e 122 campioni di feci. Nelle carcasse sono stati ricercati i parassiti adulti nel ventricolo destro e nell’arteria polmonare e le forme larvali in tessuti di organi interni e cervello. Nelle feci è stata ricercata la forma larvale L1 con tre metodiche diagnostiche utilizzate correntemente per la ricerca di endoparassiti e larve di strongili broncopolmonari. Sono stati diagnosticati 20 casi (8,9% con identificazione di parassiti adulti in 5 cani e larve L1 in altri 15 soggetti. L’esame anatomopatologico delle carcasse dei cani con nematodi adulti ha evidenziato polmonite, pleurite, schiuma rossastra in trachea, versamento di liquido sieroemorragico in cavità toracica e ingrossamento di linfonodi medinici e meseraici. L’esame istologico dei tessuti ha evidenziato quadri gravi e sovrapponibili con lesioni da localizzazione dei parassiti in reni, linfonodi e cervello. Il numero cospicuo di casi riscontrati ha reso indispensabile considerare l’angiostrongilosi nelle diagnosi differenziali degli esami clinici e autoptici di cani della provincia di Chieti (Italia e dei territori confinanti.

  5. Brucella infection with pancytopenia after pediatric liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, K Y; Tosun, M S; Ertekin, V; Aydinli, B; Emre, S

    2012-06-01

    Brucellosis is considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world. It has been reported that the prevalence of seropositivity among the Turkish population varies from 3% to 14%. We present a case of brucellosis after pediatric liver transplantation. A 15-year-old boy with the diagnosis of neuro Wilson's disease underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation. The postoperative immunosuppressive protocol consisted of steroids and tacrolimus. Two months after the operation the patient experienced fever to 40°C. The patient complained of poor appetite, headache, and diarrhea. He had had pancytopenia. Despite administration of appropriate antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal agents, fever persisted for > 1 month. Multiple blood, urine, stool, and sputum cultures were negative. Bone marrow aspirate revealed hypocellularity. Liver biopsy was performed, but rejection was not observed on biopsy specimen. Brucella serology was positive and Brucella agglutination titer was 1:320. Bone marrow culture was positive for Brucella but blood culture was negative. The patient was then treated with oral doxycycline and rifampin for 8 weeks. No previous case report about Brucella infection after liver transplantation has appeared in the literature, to our knowledge; our case is presented as the first. Bone marrow hypoplasia is a rare feature of Brucella infection. Our patient with brucellosis and pancytopenia had had hypocellular bone marrow. The clinical and hematologic findings resolved with treatment of the infection. Brucella infection should be suspected in liver transplanted recipients with fever of unknown origin, especially in a recipient who has lived in an endemic area. Brucella also should be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients with pancytopenia.

  6. Metalo-ß-lactamasas en aislamientos clínicos de pseudomonas aeruginosa en Lima, Perú

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    Edgar Gonzales-Escalante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de detectar y caracterizar molecularmente las metalo-ß-lactamasas (MßL en aislamientos clínicos de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, se realizó un estudio trasversal en seis hospitales de referencia de Lima (Perú en agosto de 2011. Se evaluó 51 aislamientos de P. aeruginosa, resistentes a ceftazidima y con sensibilidad reducida a carbapenémicos. El ensayo fenotípico se realizó con el método de aproximación de discos con sustratos (ceftazidima, imipenem y meropenem y con ácido etilendiaminotetraacético (EDTA. La detección de genes MßL se realizó mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de polimerasa multiplex. A través del método fenotípico se detectaron MßL en el 15,7% de los aislamientos, en todos ellos la detección de genes mostró la presencia del gen blaIMP. La descripción del primer reporte de MßL en aislamientos de P. aeruginosa en el Perú debería alertar a los equipos de vigilancia epidemiológica intrahospitalaria para promover su control y prevenir su diseminación.

  7. Nuevo método para el aislamiento y la cuantificación de insectos del orden Collembola

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    Kalyanne Fernández

    2000-01-01

    significativamente el tiempo de aislamiento de los individuos (cinco minutos vs cinco días, sino también porque permite cuantificar mayor cantidad de éstos, inclusive vivos y por tanto con mayor calidad biológica

  8. Prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens in dogs from the Stretto di Messina area (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Maria-Grazia; Caprì, Alessandra; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Lombardo, Gabriella; Torina, Alessandra; Masucci, Marisa

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence for Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia canis in outdoor-kennelled dogs (n=249) from the Stretto di Messina (Italy) and to compare seroprevalence in 2 public shelters and 4 privately-owned kennels where different tick-preventive measures were implemented in order to focus on the specific sanitary risk posed by public shelters in southern Italy for tick-borne pathogens. R. conorii (72%) and B. canis (70%) were the most prevalent infections when compared to E. canis (46%) and A. phagocytophilum (38%). Seroprevalence for R. conorii, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher in public shelters than in private kennels. However, B. canis seropositivity was similar in both types of kennels. In addition, in private kennels where a regular ectocide treatment was carried out by means of spot-on devices, dogs did not present E. canis and A. phagocytophilum antibodies. One hundred fifty-one dogs out of 249 (61%) were seropositive to more than one pathogen with R. conorii and B. canis the most common ones. Coinfections were more frequently found in public-shelter dogs. This study demonstrated high seroprevalences against R. conorii, B. canis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in kennelled dogs from both coastal sites of the Stretto di Messina and the importance of regular tick-bite prevention by means of individual spot-on devices.

  9. Partial characterization of proteolytic enzymes of Microsporum canis and Microsporum cookei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanya, M F; Baxter, M

    1996-01-01

    Characterization by proteinase inhibitors of the enzymes produced by Microsporum spp. revealed that Microsporum canis and Microsporum cookei produce serine proteinase(s), but only M. canis expresses aspartic and cysteine proteinases and probably a metalloproteinase. Both M. canis and M. cookei expressed metalloelastinolytic proteinases. All the proteinase types have been implicated in the pathogenicity of a wide range of microorganisms.

  10. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  11. Stability of CaNi5Hx stored at temperatures between 20 and 150 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Møller, T.S.; Bjerrum, Niels

    2002-01-01

    The stability of CaNi5Hx stored at different temperatures was studied as a function of time. In general AB(5) metal hydrides are known to be metastable with a tendency to disproportionate at elevated temperatures. In the present study samples of CaNi5 were stored in the hydrided state (as CaNi5...

  12. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  13. Caracterización de aislamientos clínicos de Leptospira para su uso en vacunas veterinarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaritza Cuba-Romero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los criterios más importantes para el desarrollo de inmunógenos de Leptospira es contar con cepas bien caracterizadas por su virulencia y representativa de los serogrupos circulantes desde el punto de vista clínico y veterinario. Todo lo cual permite garantizar inmunógenos capaces de proteger contra los serovares presente en la formulación y que afectan a los animales en riesgo. Este trabajo se realizó a partir de aislamientos del agente causal de cinco casos clínicos autóctonos de Leptospira en la provincia de Holguín, Cuba, mediante métodos convencionales: crecimiento a 13ºC, medio suplementado con 8-azaguanina y en presencia de cloruro de sodio. Además, los aislamientos se clasificaron hasta nivel de serogrupo mediante la técnica de microaglutinación. A partir de estos aislamientos fue seleccionada y caracterizada una cepa del serogrupo Ballum como candidato vacunal. Los aislamientos no mostraron crecimiento a 13ºC, ni cuando se le añadió al medio 8-azaguanina (2,25 mg/mL, mientras que todas las cepas mostraron conversión a forma esférica en presencia de cloruro de sodio (1M. La clasificación de los aislamientos permitió disponer de dos cepas pertenecientes al serogrupo Ballum y dos a Pomona. La cepa seleccionada mostró alta virulencia y patogenicidad en el biomodelo Hámster Sirio, además de buena estabilidad en los medios de cultivos. Su clasificación hasta el nivel de serovar mediante el uso de anticuerpos monoclonales determinó su pertenencia al serovar Ballum. El presente trabajo, por primera vez, sienta las bases para formulaciones vacunales novedosas en animales, conteniendo el serogrupo Ballum.

  14. MLVA16 typing of Portuguese human and animal Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Chambel, Lélia; Tenreiro, Tania; Cardoso, Regina; Flor, Lídia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Pacheco, Teresa; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno; Le Flèche, Philippe; Vergnaud, Gilles; Tenreiro, Rogério; de Sá, Maria Inácia Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological relationship of isolates from different Portuguese geographical regions and to assess the diversity among isolates, the MLVA16(Orsay) assay (panels 1, 2A and 2B) was performed with a collection of 126 Brucella melitensis (46 human and 80 animal isolates) and 157 B. abortus field isolates, seven vaccine strains and the representative reference strains of each species. The MLVA16(Orsay) showed a similar high discriminatory power (HGDI 0.972 and 0.902) for both species but panel 1 and 2A markers displayed higher diversity (HGDI 0.693) in B. abortus compared to B. melitensis isolates (HGDI 0.342). The B. melitensis population belong to the "Americas" (17%) and "East Mediterranean" (83%) groups. No isolate belonged to the "West Mediterranean" group. Eighty-five percent of the human isolates (39 in 46) fit in the "East-Mediterranean" group where a single lineage known as MLVA11 genotype 116 is responsible for the vast majority of Brucella infections in humans. B. abortus isolates formed a consistent group with bv1 and bv3 isolates in different clusters. Four MLVA11 genotypes were observed for the first time in isolates from S. Jorge and Terceira islands from Azores. From the collection of isolates analysed in this study we conclude that MLVA16(Orsay) provided a clear view of Brucella spp. population, confirming epidemiological linkage in outbreak investigations. In particular, it suggests recent and ongoing colonisation of Portugal with one B. melitensis lineage usually associated with East Mediterranean countries.

  15. MLVA16 typing of Portuguese human and animal Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ferreira

    Full Text Available To investigate the epidemiological relationship of isolates from different Portuguese geographical regions and to assess the diversity among isolates, the MLVA16(Orsay assay (panels 1, 2A and 2B was performed with a collection of 126 Brucella melitensis (46 human and 80 animal isolates and 157 B. abortus field isolates, seven vaccine strains and the representative reference strains of each species. The MLVA16(Orsay showed a similar high discriminatory power (HGDI 0.972 and 0.902 for both species but panel 1 and 2A markers displayed higher diversity (HGDI 0.693 in B. abortus compared to B. melitensis isolates (HGDI 0.342. The B. melitensis population belong to the "Americas" (17% and "East Mediterranean" (83% groups. No isolate belonged to the "West Mediterranean" group. Eighty-five percent of the human isolates (39 in 46 fit in the "East-Mediterranean" group where a single lineage known as MLVA11 genotype 116 is responsible for the vast majority of Brucella infections in humans. B. abortus isolates formed a consistent group with bv1 and bv3 isolates in different clusters. Four MLVA11 genotypes were observed for the first time in isolates from S. Jorge and Terceira islands from Azores. From the collection of isolates analysed in this study we conclude that MLVA16(Orsay provided a clear view of Brucella spp. population, confirming epidemiological linkage in outbreak investigations. In particular, it suggests recent and ongoing colonisation of Portugal with one B. melitensis lineage usually associated with East Mediterranean countries.

  16. Book review, Amati cani, José Jorge Letria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con Amati cani ci discostiamo per una volta dalle pubblicazioni a carattere scientifico, per dare il giusto risalto ad un’interessante raccolta di narrativa che esplora il rapporto tra l'uomo e il suo miglior amico. José Jorge Latria, noto soprattutto per essere un esponente di spicco della canzone politica portoghese e per le sue opere poetiche, teatrali e di letteratura per ragazzi, nello scrivere questo libro compie un vero e proprio atto d’amore verso i cani, con il preciso intento di costringere i lettori ad eliminare dal proprio vocabolario il gratuito modo di dire ‘mondo cane’. L’Autore delinea brevi ritratti di cani che, da Argo in poi, hanno accompagnato da amici veri i loro celebri padroni nella buona e nella cattiva sorte: racconta cioè la storia di quei cani che non sono sprofondati nella voragine dell’oblio perchè i loro padroni hanno raggiunto la celebrità nel mondo della letteratura, della politica, del cinema, delle scienze o della musica. Con a fianco un amico fedele come un cane, la vita ha avuto un sapore diverso per Ernest Hemingway, Isaac Newton, Sigmund Freud, Buster Keaton, Marilyn Monroe, Pablo Picasso, John Steinbeck, Lord Byron, Tim Burton e altri ancora, tutti personaggi che sono presenti in questo libro grazie ai cani che hanno condiviso con loro la vita e le memorie. La lettura di Amati cani dà piacere poichè in ognuno di questi racconti batte, affettuoso e delicato, il cuore di un cane; ma dà anche un pò da pensare in quanto celebra in maniera molto tenera l’amore, la fedeltà e la solidarietà tra l’uomo e il suo speciale amico a quattro zampe.

  17. In vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis isolates to eleven antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukaides Feidias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease present in many countries worldwide, but it is rare in Europe and North America. Nevertheless brucella is included in the bacteria potentially used for bioterrorism. The aim of this study was the investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of brucella isolates from areas of the eastern Mediterranean where it has been endemic. Methods The susceptibilities of 74 Brucella melitensis isolates derived from clinical samples (57 and animal products (17 were tested in vitro. The strains originate from Crete (59, Cyprus (10, and Syria (5. MICs of tetracycline, rifampicin, streptomycin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and erythromycin were detected by E-test method. The NCCLS criteria for slow growing bacteria were considered to interpret the results. Results All the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin. Two isolates presented reduced susceptibility to rifampicin (MIC value: 1.5 mg/l and eight to SXT (MIC values: 0.75–1.5 mg/l. Erythromycin had the highest (4 mg/l MIC90value and both norfloxacin and erythromycin the highest (1.5 mg/l MIC50 value. Conclusion Brucella isolates remain susceptible in vitro to most antibiotics used for treatment of brucellosis. The establishment of a standardized antibiotic susceptibility method for Brucella spp would be useful for resistance determination in these bacteria and possible evaluation of bioterorism risks.

  18. Erythritol triggers expression of virulence traits in Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Erik; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Eskra, Linda; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar preferentially utilized by Brucella spp. The presence of erythritol in the placentas of goats, cows, and pigs has been used to explain the localization of Brucella to these sites and the subsequent accumulation of large amounts of bacteria, eventually leading to abortion. Here we show that Brucella melitensis will also localize to an artificial site of erythritol within a mouse, providing a potential model system to study the pathogenesis of Brucella abortion. Immunohistological staining of the sites of erythritol within infected mice indicated a higher than expected proportion of extracellular bacteria. Ensuing experiments suggested intracellular B. melitensis was unable to replicate within macrophages in the presence of erythritol and that erythritol was able to reach the site of intracellular bacteria. The intracellular inhibition of growth was found to encourage the bacteria to replicate extracellularly rather than intracellularly, a particularly interesting development in Brucella pathogenesis. To determine the effect of erythritol on expression of B. melitensis genes, bacteria grown either with or without erythritol were analyzed by microarray. Two major virulence pathways were up-regulated in response to exposure to erythritol (the type IV secretion system VirB and flagellar proteins), suggesting a role for erythritol in virulence.

  19. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarmela, M. L.; Arambarri, A. M.; Basualdo, J. A.; Minvielle, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated a...

  20. Systematic B-metal substitution in CaNi5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to study the effect of B metal substitutions in CaNi5 (AB(5)) which is known to suffer from poor cycling stability as a hydride electrode material. Systematic monosubstitutions of nickel with the most common other B metals (i.e. Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Sn...... be concluded that CaNi5 is much less tolerant towards B-metal substitution than LaNi5. This fact makes it less possible that the problem with cycling stability of Ca-based hydride electrodes can be solved by substitutions. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  1. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-09-17

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast.

  2. Importance of Lipopolysaccharide and Cyclic β-1,2-Glucans in Brucella-Mammalian Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucella species are the causative agents of one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases: brucellosis. Infections by Brucella species cause major economic losses in agriculture, leading to abortions in infected animals and resulting in a severe, although rarely lethal, debilitating disease in humans. Brucella species persist as intracellular pathogens that manage to effectively evade recognition by the host's immune system. Sugar-modified components in the Brucella cell envelope play an important role in their host interaction. Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS, unlike Escherichia coli LPS, does not trigger the host's innate immune system. Brucella produces cyclic β-1,2-glucans, which are important for targeting them to their replicative niche in the endoplasmic reticulum within the host cell. This paper will focus on the role of LPS and cyclic β-1,2-glucans in Brucella-mammalian infections and discuss the use of mutants, within the biosynthesis pathway of these cell envelope structures, in vaccine development.

  3. Brucella infection inhibits macrophages apoptosis via Nedd4-dependent degradation of calpain2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guimei; Wei, Pan; Zhao, Yuxi; Guan, Zhenhong; Yang, Li; Sun, Wanchun; Wang, Shuangxi; Peng, Qisheng

    2014-11-07

    The calcium-dependent protease calpain2 is involved in macrophages apoptosis. Brucella infection-induced up-regulation of intracellular calcium level is an essential factor for the intracellular survival of Brucella within macrophages. Here, we hypothesize that calcium-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 ubiquitinates calpain2 and inhibits Brucella infection-induced macrophage apoptosis via degradation of calpain2.Our results reveal that Brucella infection induces increases in Nedd4 activity in an intracellular calcium dependent manner. Furthermore, Brucella infection-induced degradation of calpain2 is mediated by Nedd4 ubiquitination of calpain2. Brucella infection-induced calpain2 degradation inhibited macrophages apoptosis. Treatment of Brucella infected macrophages with calcium chelator BAPTA or Nedd4 knock-down decreased Nedd4 activity, prevented calpain2 degradation, and resulted in macrophages apoptosis.

  4. El Aislamiento de las Venas Pulmonares como Tratamiento de la Fibrilación Auricular Refractaria

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Scazzuso; Rivera Santiago; Gómez, Luis A.; Victoria Sammartino; Albina Gastón; Rubén Laiño; Alberto Giniger

    2011-01-01

    Introducción. La fibrilación auricular (FA) es la arritmia sostenida más común. En pacientes seleccionados, se realiza ablación por catéter a nivel de las venas pulmonares, en donde se genera actividad ectópica que la produce. Se presenta la experiencia en el tratamiento de la FA mediante el aislamiento de venas pulmonares en 152 casos consecutivos. Materiales y métodos. La población estuvo constituida por 152 pacientes (122 hombres), edad promedio de 55.58 años. El 81.9% de la población no p...

  5. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella.

  6. Optimization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular typing of Brucella using Xba Ⅰ%布鲁杆菌XbaⅠ酶切脉冲场凝胶电泳基因分型方法的条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鸿雁; 田国忠; 王衡; 姜海; 李兰玉; 杜小莉; 崔晶花; 朴东日

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the protocol of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE) to evaluate the applicability for molecular typing of Brucella using Xba].Methods Factors that influence PFGE including selecting restriction endonuclease from different manufacturers and pulse time were optimized.The bands were marked with their molecular weight and then analyzed with BioNumerics (Version 4.0,Applied Maths BVBA,Belgium) software.Results The Xba I from Promega Ltd was selected due to its better digestion effect.The best pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed in two phases for 21 h which included 16 h for pulse time of 0.5-8.0 s and 5 h for pulse time of 10.0-56.0 s; the angle of 120°,gradient of 6.0 V/cm,temperature of 14 ℃.The 6 Brucella species and 19 reference biovar strains were tested by optimized conditions of PFGE using Xba Ⅰ.The strains from four Brucella species which included Brucella abortus,Brucella melitensis,Brucella suis and Brucella ovis were clustered into four groups.But Brucella canis was classified in Brucella suis group.The Brucella neotomae was classified in Brucella abortus group.The results of clustering analysis by PFGE were similar to that of biotyping methods.Conclusions PFGE genotyping method using Xba I has good discriminatory power for molecular typing for Brucella.The optimized PFGE protocol is worthy of application.%目的 优化布鲁杆菌XbaⅠ酶切脉冲场凝胶电泳基因分型方法.方法 通过测试不同厂家生产的Xba I限制性内切酶,优化脉冲场凝胶电泳条件和脉冲时间,所得凝胶电泳图谱用BioNumerics V 4.0软件和UPGMA方法进行聚类分析,获得脉冲场凝胶电泳分型结果.结果 优化后的条件为:XbaI限制性内切酶为美国Promega公司产品;脉冲时间为21 h,包括第一脉冲时间0.5~8.0 s,16h,第二脉冲时间10.0~56.0 s,5h;电压为6.0 V/cm;电场夹角120°;电泳温度为14℃.利用优化后的脉冲场凝胶电泳条件对布鲁杆菌6个菌种19

  7. A Study of Brucella Infection in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is the most usual zoonotic disease around the world especially in the Middle East, Mediterranean and Indian sub-continent areas. This bacterium has ten species that Brucella melitensis among them recognized as the most important cause of human brucellosis. This infection transfer ways to human include of wounds, bacteria inhalation and consumption of septic dairy such as raw milk, cream and butter. Brucellosis as a systemic disease can involve more organs of patients that have symptoms such as fever, night sweating, and backache. This infection can be divided as acute, sub-acute and chronic forms according to the manner of clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: This research is a review study and conducted by reviewing of the literature, which is related to this issue and also visiting, PubMed, and other linked websites. Results: In human brucellosis domestic animals are the main natural reservoir of infection. Whenever incidence rate of this infection in domestic and wild animals is reduced on the other hand incidence rate in human also will reduce. Conclusion: Blood cultures, serological tests and molecular tests are common laboratory methods of this infection. Diminution of relapse and therapeutic failure rates are as most important aim, which is researcher’s regards.

  8. Brucella ceti and brucellosis in cetaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo eMoreno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the first case of brucellosis detected in a dolphin aborted fetus, an increasing number of Brucella ceti isolates has been reported in members of the two suborders of cetaceans: Mysticeti and Odontoceti. Serological surveys have shown that cetacean brucellosis may be distributed worldwide in the oceans. Although all B. ceti isolates have been included within the same species, three different groups have been recognized according to their preferred host, bacteriological properties and distinct genetic traits: B. ceti dolphin type, B. ceti porpoise type and B. ceti human type. It seems that B. ceti porpoise type is more closely related to B. ceti human isolates and B. pinnipedialis group, while B. ceti dolphin type seems ancestral to them. Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, it is feasible that the B. ceti ancestor radiated in a terrestrial artiodactyl host close to the Raoellidae family about 58 million years ago. The more likely mode of transmission of B. ceti seems to be through sexual intercourse, maternal feeding, aborted fetuses, placental tissues, vertical transmission from mother to the fetus or through fish or helminth reservoirs. The B. ceti dolphin and porpoise types seem to display variable virulence in land animal models and low infectivity for humans. However, brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises has been demonstrated to be a severe chronic disease, displaying significant clinical and pathological signs related to abortions, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings and death.

  9. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyarara, Rutendo; Tubbesing, Ulf; Soni, Minty; Noden, Bruce H

    2015-06-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories). The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6%) compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6%) (P = 0.00). Location of habitation was significant (P canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  10. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutendo Manyarara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories. The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6% compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6% (P = 0.00. Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017, with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  11. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho, E-mail: leeinho1974@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, 33 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 301-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae, E-mail: st7.kim@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dae Kun, E-mail: odk6464@nate.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin, E-mail: hyungkim@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha, E-mail: somatom@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Pyoung, E-mail: drpjeon@gmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik, E-mail: byun5474@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  12. Detection of Brucella by loop-mediated isothermal amplification%布鲁杆菌环介导等温扩增快速检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锴

    2013-01-01

    Objective A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)assay was developed for rapid detection of Brucella.Methods Using Primer 4.0,we designed four specific primers at brookings coli outer membrane protein (OMP31) gene conservative area,under the action of Bst polymerase larger pieces to realize the step-like isothermal amplification of DNA.In this method,on the basis of optimal amplification conditions,the specificity and sensitivity of this method was compared with conventional PCR,and LAMP visualization experiment was conducted.Results The detection results of Brucella abortus (B.abortus) strain 544,B.abortus strain 104M,Brucella melitensis (B.melitensis) strain Rev-1,B.melitensis strain 16M,Brucella suis (B.suis) strain S2,B.suis strainand 1330S,Brucella canis (B.canis) strain RM6/66,Brucellá ovis (B.ovis) strain 63/290,and Brucella neotomae.(B.neotomae) strain 5K33 were positive,and Yersinia enterocolitica (Y.enterocolitica) O ∶ 9,Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157 ∶H7,and (Salmonella typhimurium,S.typhimurium) 47729 were negative.The minimum detection limit was 8.5 × 10-8 mg/L.LAMP was more sensitive than PCR.The results can be determined by electrophoresis or through visual judgment.Conclusions LAMP is a simple,specific and sensitive method.LAMP assay is a useful tool for rapid detection of Brucella.%目的 建立一种环介导等温扩增(LAMP)快速检测动物布鲁杆菌的方法.方法 使用Primer 4.0,针对布鲁杆菌外膜蛋白(OMP31)基因保守区设计4条特异引物,在Bst大片段聚合酶的作用下,实现DNA的梯状等温扩增,并在此方法最适扩增条件优化的基础上,对其特异性、灵敏度进行实验,同时与普通PCR灵敏度进行比较,以及进行LAMP可视化实验.结果 本研究建立的检测方法对牛种布鲁杆菌(Brucella abortus,B.abortus)544A和104M、羊种布鲁杆菌(Brucella melitensis,B.melitensis)Rev-1和16M、猪种布鲁杆菌(Brucella suis,B.suis)S2和1330S

  13. Aislamiento de Salmonella en canales de aves y evaluación de la efectividad de diferentes medios de enriquecimiento y selectivos

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la frecuencia de salmonela en canales de aves y la efectividad de su aislamiento en diferentes medios de cultivo de enriquecimiento y selectivos. Noventa y un canales de pollos fueron tomadas directamente de la cadena de procesamiento de dos plantas beneficiadoras (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Para el aislamiento, fueron usados medios de enriquecimiento y selectivos. Los medios de enriquecimiento incluyeron: Caldo Selenito Cistina (CS) y Caldo Tetrationato (CT). Los medios selectivos i...

  14. Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.

  15. ASSOCIATION OF MEAN PLATELET VOLUME AND THE MONOCYTE/LYMPHOCYTE RATIO WITH BRUCELLA-CAUSED EPIDIDYMO-ORCHITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Emsal; Karadag, Mert Ali; Cecen, Kursat; Cigsar, Gulsen; Aydin, Sergulen; Demir, Aslan; Bagcioglu, Murat; Tekdogan, Umit Yener

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the association between the mean platelet volume (MPV) and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) with brucella-caused epididymo-orchitis to determine if they could be used to differentiate between brucella and non-brucella epididymo-orchitis. The charts of 88 patients with non-brucella and 14 patients with brucella epididymo-orchitis were retrospectively reviewed. Brucellosis was diagnosed by isolating Brucella spp from a blood culture or from a serum agglutination titer ≥ 1:160 along with accompanying clinical findings. The patients with brucella epididymo-orchitis were significantly more likely to have a lower MPV and a higher MLR than those with non-brucella epididymo-orchitis. Using a MPV cut-off level of less than 9.25 fl to differentiate brucella from non-brucella epididymo-orchitis gives a sensitivity of 78.6%, a specifity of 78.4%, a positive predictive value of 36.7% and a negative predictive value of 95.8%. Using a MLR cut-off level of greater than 0.265 to differentiate brucella from non-brucella epididymo-orchitis gives a sensitivity of 71.4%, a specifity of 65.9%, a positive predictive value of 25% and a negative predictive value of 93.5.%. MPV and MLR values may assist in differentiating between brucella and non-brucella epididymo-orchitis.

  16. La situación sociolaboral de los migrantes internacionales en la agricultura: irregularidad laboral y aislamiento social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los jornaleros inmigrantes constituyen uno de los grupos sociales más pobres de las comarcas agrarias de Estados Unidos y España. Los trabajadores agrarios migratorios viven en áreas remotas y sufren de malnutrición, salarios bajos, alta movilidad laboral, condiciones laborales precarias y ambientes laborales inadecuados. Por una parte, el sector agrario, que constituye un refugio laboral para los trabajadores ilegales, opera fuera del mercado laboral formal; por otra parte, los jornaleros padecen un grave problema de "aislamiento social", esto ha sido señalado como una de las principales causas de falta de bienestar de éstos. El artículo analiza, de modo comparativo, la situación de irregularidad laboral y aislamiento social de los jornaleros tamaulipecos empleados en la agricultura estadounidense y los trabajadores marroquíes empleados en el sector agrario andaluz.

  17. El aislamiento social de los trabajadores con visas H-2A. El ejemplo de los jornaleros tamaulipecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La proximidad de Tamaulipas a la frontera estadounidense abarata los costos de transporte, y esto hace que en el estado se otorgue un número elevado de visas H-2A a trabajadores agrarios temporales. Sin embargo, los programas de trabajadores huéspedes empujan a la mano de obra al abuso y la explotación. El aislamiento social, que hace referencia a una erosión de la esfera relacional del individuo, constituye uno de los principales problemas sufridos por los trabajadores tamaulipecos con visa H-2A; aquí se analiza la situación de aislamiento social de éstos, en específico la de los empleados en el sector agrario estadounidense.

  18. Detection of genotype-specific Ehrlichia canis exposure in Brazilian dogs by TRP36 peptide ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Braga, Isis A; Taques, Isis I G G; McBride, Jere W

    2016-02-01

    We recently characterized a novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis based on the tandem repeat (TR) sequence of the TRP36 gene in Brazil. The TR amino acid sequence of the Brazilian (Br) genotype (ASVVPEAE) was divergent from the previously described US genotype (TEDSVSAPA) of E. canis. In this study, we developed an ELISA based on TRP36 TR synthetic peptides from both Br and US E. canis TRP36 genotypes to serologically detect and distinguish infections caused by these genotypes. Sera from 30 Brazilian dogs naturally infected with E. canis, sera from dogs experimentally infected E. canis (Jake and Cuiabá #1 strains) and E. chaffeensis (Arkansas strain) and 12 seronegative E. canis dogs were evaluated. Fifteen naturally infected Brazilian dogs had antibodies that reacted with the US TRP36 (n=9) or Br TRP36 (n=6) only, and 13 dogs had antibodies that reacted with both TPR36 peptides suggesting that these dogs were exposed to both genotypes. Most dogs (n=28) had antibodies that reacted with the highly conserved E. canis TRP19 peptide; however, two dogs had antibodies to E. canis TRP19, but did not have TRP36 antibodies, raising the possibility that another novel TRP36 genotype is circulating in Brazil. Our results demonstrate that synthetic peptides based on the TR region of E. canis TRP36 can be used to serologically distinguish infections or identify coinfections by different genotypes, and to determine the seroprevalence of various E. canis genotypes in Brazil.

  19. Caracterización parcial de aislamientos de Trichomonas vaginalis:estudios relacionados con la virulencia y la patogenicidad

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rivero, Lázara

    2005-01-01

    La trichomonosis vaginal es la principal enfermedad de transmisiónn sexual de etiologí­a parasitaria. Es producida por un protozoo flagelado denominado Trichomonas vaginalis. Los mecanismos de patogenidad y los factores de virulencia relacionados con la enfermedad no están totalmente esclarecidos. En el presente trabajo se reportan los resultados de la caracterización parcial de 40 aislamientos de Trichomonas vaginalis obtenidos a partir de muestras de exudado vaginal de pacientes adolescente...

  20. Advancement of knowledge of Brucella over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty years ago, bacteria in the genus Brucella were known to cause infertility and reproductive losses. The genus was considered to contain only three species, B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis. Since the early 1960’s, at least seven new species have been identified as belonging to the Brucell...

  1. MLVA genotyping of human Brucella isolates from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Smits; B. Espinosa; R. Castillo; E. Hall; A. Guillen; M. Zevaleta; R.H. Gilman; P. Melendez; C. Guerra; A. Draeger; A. Broglia; K. Nöckler

    2009-01-01

    Recent human Brucella melitensis isolates from Peru were genotyped by multiple locus variable number repeat analysis. All 24 isolates originated from hospitalized patients living in the central part of Peru and consisted of six genomic groups comprising two to four isolates and nine unique genotypes

  2. 9 CFR 113.32 - Detection of Brucella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Brucella contamination. 113.32 Section 113.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... tissue used as the source of cells or 1 ml of the extract of the tissue prior to the addition...

  3. Brucella bacteremia in patients with acute leukemia: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Anazi Khalid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis may cause serious infections in healthy individuals living in countries that are endemic for the infection. However, reports of brucella infections in immunocompromised hosts are relatively rare. Case Presentations Reported here are two patients with acute leukemia who developed Brucella melitensis bacteremia during their follow up at the Armed Forces Hospital in Riyadh. The first patient developed B. melitensis bacteremia during the transformation of his myelodysplasia into acute myeloid leukemia. The second patient developed B. melitensis bacteremia while his acute lymphoblastic leukemia was under control. Interestingly, he presented with acute cholecystitis during the brucella sepsis. Both brucella infections were associated with a marked reduction in the hematological parameters in addition to other complications. The bacteremic episodes were successfully treated with netilmicin, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Brucellosis can cause systemic infections, complicated bacteremia and serious morbidity in patients with acute leukemia living in endemic areas. These infections may occur at the presentation of the leukemia or even when the leukemia is in remission. Nevertheless, the early diagnosis of brucellosis and the administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for sufficient duration usually improves the outcome in these immunocompromised patients.

  4. DETECCIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN POR MÉTODOS MOLECULARES DE AISLAMIENTOS COLOMBIANOS DE Herpesvirus bovino TIPO 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available La Rinotraqueitis Infecciosa Bovina (RIB es una enfermedad, altamente contagiosa, de distribución mundial, de origen viral, causada por el Herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BoHV-1. Produce alteraciones en el sistema respiratorio y reproductivo, lo que la convierte en una enfermedad con un gran impacto económico para los sistemas de producción ganadera. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar, mediante técnicas de biología molecular, tres aislamientos colombianos del BoHV-1 (dos de la sabana de Bogotá y uno de los Llanos Orientales. Los aislamientos fueron analizados con las enzimas de restricción Bam HI, Bst EII, Eco RI Pst I y Hind III. En este estudio también se implementó una rápida, sensitiva y específica prueba de PCR para la detección de tres glicoproteínas de superficie del Herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BoHV-1, cuyos fragmentos fueron secuenciados, lo que permitió encontrar homologías del 100% comparadas con los reportes del Gene Bank. Por medio del análisis con la enzima de restricción Hind III se clasificaron los aislamientos de la sabana de Bogotá como subtipo BoHV-1.2a y el de los Llanos Orientales como subtipo BoHV-1.1.

  5. DETECCIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN POR MÉTODOS MOLECULARES DE AISLAMIENTOS COLOMBIANOS DE HERPESVIRUS BOVINO TIPO 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piedrahita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rinotraqueitis Infecciosa Bovina (RIB es una enfermedad, altamente contagiosa, de distribución mundial, de origen viral, causada por el Herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BoHV-1. Produce alteraciones en el sistema respiratorio y reproductivo, lo que la convierte en una enfermedad con un gran impacto económico para los sistemas de producción ganadera. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar, mediante técnicas de biología molecular, tres aislamientos colombianos del BoHV-1 (dos de la sabana de Bogotá y uno de los Llanos Orientales. Los aislamientos fueron analizados con las enzimas de restricción Bam HI, Bst EII, Eco RI Pst I y Hind III. En este estudio también se implementó una rápida, sensitiva y específica prueba de PCR para la detección de tres glicoproteínas de superficie del Herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BoHV-1, cuyos fragmentos fueron secuenciados, lo que permitió encontrar homologías del 100% comparadas con los reportes del Gene Bank. Por medio del análisis con la enzima de restricción Hind III se clasificaron los aislamientos de la sabana de Bogotá como subtipo BoHV-1.2a y el de los Llanos Orientales como subtipo BoHV-1.1.

  6. Deteccion de citomegalovirus mediante la tecnica de inmunoperoxidasa y aislamiento viral Cytomegalovirus detection by Immunoperoxidase assay and viral isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Alvarez

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se comparó la técnica de inmunoperoxidasa para la detección de citomegalovirus (IPCMV utilizando anticuerpos monoclonales que reconocen proteínas precoces virales con el método convencional de aislamiento viral en fibroblastos humanos. Un total de 150 muestras de orina fueron examinadas encontrando una sensibilidad de un 89.8% y una especificidad de 91.3% de la técnica de IPCMV comparada con el aislamiento viral. Una de las ventajas que presentó la IPCMV fue la rapidez con que fueron obtenidos los resultados (48 horas mientras que el aislamiento viral fue como promedio 14 días.An Immunoperoxidase assay was applied to detect early antigens of Cytomegalovirus (CMV in 150 urine samples from immunocompromised patients, using the commercial available monoclonal antibody against CMV El3. The detection of early antigen by IP (IPCMV is compared to the conventional cell culture isolation regarding specificity and sensitivity in order to evaluate is usefulness in the diagnostic of CMV infections. The IPCMV showed a sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 91.3% when compared to the isolation method. The great advantage of the IPCMV is based on the shorter time results are achieved, since 48-72 Hs can be enough to provide evidence of CMV infection, while in the isolation technique cytopatho-genic effect was present around 14 days after sample inoculation.

  7. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R Brucella abortus Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la válvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un reemplazo valvular aórtico; 4 meses después ingresó con dolor torácico que se atribuyó a una oclusión de la arteria descendente anterior, demostrada angiográficamente, por posible embolismo. En la actualidad cursa clínicamente estable con manejo médico para su cardiopatía, sin recaída infecciosa.The case of a 36-year-old patient from a rural area is presented. He came with an 8 month history of fever, myalgias, arthralgias, weight loss and lower back pain; who also had an aortic insufficiency murmur detected. The diagnosis of aortic valve endocarditis was made by echocardiography, and had 4 positive blood cultures for Brucella abortus biotype 3, and negative serologic test for brucellosis. He was started on antibiotics and later on underwent aortic valve replacement, with a late coronary cardioembolism as a complication.

  8. Aislamiento en pacientes psiquiátricos Seclusion of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Escobar Córdoba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es aportar pautas para la evaluación y tratamiento de pacientes agresivos mediante el uso del aislamiento. A esos efectos, se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, basada en la búsqueda mediante la combinación de las palabras "seclusion" y/o "patient seclusion" y/o "Restraint, Physical" y/o "Mentally Ill Persons", en las bases de datos MEDLINE, Ovid, SciELO, HINARI, LILACS, IMBIOMED y Latindex. Se seleccionaron 12 de 8.418 artículos de mayor relevancia para su aplicación en nuestro medio, teniendo como límites de la búsqueda revisiones, metanálisis, estudios controlados aleatorizados y estudios clínicos, adultos, ambos géneros, humanos, idioma inglés y español, de los años 2002 a 2007. Se halló un conocimiento amplio en el tratamiento del paciente agresivo. Las indicaciones del aislamiento no difieren con respecto a las de restricción, siendo importantes los riesgos de hetero o autoagresividad y de daño al entorno físico. Las contraindicaciones y consideraciones éticas, médicas y legales son claras y se deben implementar para una adecuada práctica clínica. El uso adecuado del aislamiento por parte del personal de salud debe formar parte de un plan terapéutico adecuado y tener en cuenta las recomendaciones para su uso en el contexto local.The objective of the present study is to contribute rules for the evaluation and treatment of an aggressive patient by means of seclusion. We searched the literature in the MEDLINE, Ovid, SciELO, HINARI, LILACS, IMBIOMED and Latindex databases, using the combination of the following words: "seclusion" and/or "patient seclusion" and/or "restraint, physical" and/or "mentally ill persons". Twelve out of 8,418 articles were selected for their application in Colombia according to the following limits of the search: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, review of the literature, adults, both genders, published between 2002 and

  9. Genotyping of Brucella species using clade specific SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Jeffrey T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a worldwide disease of mammals caused by Alphaproteobacteria in the genus Brucella. The genus is genetically monomorphic, requiring extensive genotyping to differentiate isolates. We utilized two different genotyping strategies to characterize isolates. First, we developed a microarray-based assay based on 1000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were identified from whole genome comparisons of two B. abortus isolates , one B. melitensis, and one B. suis. We then genotyped a diverse collection of 85 Brucella strains at these SNP loci and generated a phylogenetic tree of relationships. Second, we developed a selective primer-extension assay system using capillary electrophoresis that targeted 17 high value SNPs across 8 major branches of the phylogeny and determined their genotypes in a large collection ( n = 340 of diverse isolates. Results Our 1000 SNP microarray readily distinguished B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis, differentiating B. melitensis and B. suis into two clades each. Brucella abortus was divided into four major clades. Our capillary-based SNP genotyping confirmed all major branches from the microarray assay and assigned all samples to defined lineages. Isolates from these lineages and closely related isolates, among the most commonly encountered lineages worldwide, can now be quickly and easily identified and genetically characterized. Conclusions We have identified clade-specific SNPs in Brucella that can be used for rapid assignment into major groups below the species level in the three main Brucella species. Our assays represent SNP genotyping approaches that can reliably determine the evolutionary relationships of bacterial isolates without the need for whole genome sequencing of all isolates.

  10. [A meningitis case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsen, Hasan; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasim; Irmak, Hasan; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2008-10-01

    Turkey is located at an endemic area for brusellosis and tuberculosis which are both important public health problems. Meningitis caused by Brucella and Mycobacterium spp. may be confused since the clinical and laboratory findings are similar. In this report, a meningitis case with Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection has been presented. A 19-years-old woman was admitted to our clinic with severe headache, fever, vomiting, meningeal irritation symptoms, confusion and diplopia. The patient was initially diagnosed as Brucella meningitis based on her history (stockbreeding, consuming raw milk products, clinical symptoms concordant to brucellosis lasting for 4-5 months), physical examination and laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/80 titer in CSF and at 1/640 titer in serum, whereas no growth of Brucella spp. was detected in CSF and blood cultures. Antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone, rifampicin and doxycyclin was started, however, there was no clinical improvement and agitation and confusion of the patient continued by the end of second day of treatment. Repeated CSF examination yielded acid-fast bacteria. The patient was then diagnosed as meningitis with double etiology and the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone, streptomycin, morphozinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid for thirty days. Tuberculosis meningitis was confirmed with the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the 14th day of cultivation (BACTEC, Becton Dickinson, USA) of the CSF sample. On the 30th day of treatment she was discharged on anti-tuberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin for 12 months. The follow-up of the patient on the first and third months of treatment revealed clinical and laboratory improvement. Since this was a rare case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection, this report emphasizes that such co-infections should be kept in mind especially in the endemic areas for tuberculosis and brucellosis.

  11. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

  12. A duplex PCR for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella spp. in human blood samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Mozafar mohamadi; Vahbeh Piranfar; Seied Mojtaba Mortazavi; Reza Kachuei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To design a duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella species. in human blood samples. Methods: Fifty-two peripheral bloods samples were collected from suspicious patients with brucellosis. Following DNA extraction, PCR assay were performed, using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate three major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Results: Of the 52 peripheral bloods samples tested, 25 sample (48%) showed positive reactions in PCR. Twelve samples were positive for Brucella abortus (B. abortus) (23%), 13 for Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) (25%) and 0 for Brucella ovis (B. ovis) (0%). Conclusions: This work de=monstrates that in case where specific primers were utilized, duplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for simultaneous detection of important species of Brucella in clinical samples.

  13. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended.

  14. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of erythritol on gene expression in Brucella abortus

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella have the unusual capability to catabolize erythritol and this property has been associated with their virulence mainly because of the presence of erythritol in bovine foetal tissues and because the attenuated S19 vaccine strain is the only Brucella strain unable to oxydize erythritol. In this work we have analyzed the transcriptional changes produced in Brucella by erythritol by means of two high throughput approaches: RNA hybridization against a microarray cont...

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Erythritol on Gene Expression in Brucella abortus

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella have the unusual capability to catabolize erythritol and this property has been associated with their virulence mainly because of the presence of erythritol in bovine foetal tissues and because the attenuated S19 vaccine strain is the only Brucella strain unable to oxydize erythritol. In this work we have analyzed the transcriptional changes produced in Brucella by erythritol by means of two high throughput approaches: RNA hybridization against a microarray cont...

  17. Divergence of the TRP36 protein (gp36) in Ehrlichia canis strains found in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Melo, Andreia L T

    2015-03-01

    The molecular characterization of 16S rRNA gene and immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis usually provide little information about the overall diversity of this organism. On the other hand, distinct sequences of the Tandem Repeat Protein 36 (TRP36/gp36) gene of E. canis have been reported, indicating substantial degree of diversity. The present letter aims to update and discuss the molecular divergence of the TRP36 protein between strains of E. canis isolated in different countries including Brazil.

  18. Detection of Antibodies Reactive with Ehrlichia canis in a Kennel in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tsachev, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study on Ehrlichia canis infection was performed in 16 dogs in a kennel in the region of Plovdiv in Bulgaria. For this purpose, anti-E. canis antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. The results showed that 75% of the dogs examined were positive to E. canis. The antibody titres 1:100, 1:200 and 1:400 were detected.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Romero Núñez; Germán David Mendoza Martínez; Selene Yañez Arteaga; Martha Ponce Macotela; Patricia Bustamante Montes; Ninfa Ramírez Durán

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis sero...

  20. A new star-forming region in Canis Major

    CERN Document Server

    Magakian, T Yu; Bally, J

    2016-01-01

    A new southern star-formation region, located at an estimated distance of ~1.5 kpc in the Lynds 1664 dark cloud in Canis Major, is described. Lynds 1664 contains several compact star clusters, small stellar groups, and young stars associated with reflection nebulae. Narrow-band H{\\alpha} and [SII] images obtained with 4-m CTIO telescope reveal more than 20 new Herbig-Haro objects associated with several protostellar outflows.

  1. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P.; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm-positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis, respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis. The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of Brucella melitensis from seropositive goats in Peninsula Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaiyi, P H; Hassan, L; Khairani-Bejo, S; Zainal Abidin, M; Ramlan, M; Krishnan, N; Adzhar, A; Abdullah, N; Hamidah N, H M; Norsuhanna, M M; Hashim, S N

    2012-12-01

    A study was carried out to isolate Brucella melitensis using established bacteriological and PCR techniques in Brucella seropositive goats in farms in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Pulau Pinang. Brucella melitensis was isolated from 7 of 134 reactors with the highest isolation from the vaginal swabs (57.14%) followed by the spleen (28.57%), uterine fluid (14.29%). No Brucella was isolated from the lymph nodes. PCR confirmed all the seven isolates as B. melitensis and isolates were phylogenetically related to other isolates from India, Iran, and Israel but most closely related to isolates from Singapore.

  3. Molecular cloning, purification and immunogenicity of recombinant Brucella abortus 544 malate dehydrogenase protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Kim, Suk

    2016-03-01

    The Brucella mdh gene was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant malate dehydrogenase protein (rMDH) was reactive to Brucella-positive bovine serum in the early stage, but not reactive in the middle or late stage, and was reactive to Brucella-positive mouse serum in the late stage, but not in the early or middle stage of infection. In addition, rMDH did not react with Brucella-negative bovine or mouse sera. These results suggest that rMDH has the potential for use as a specific antigen in serological diagnosis for early detection of bovine brucellosis.

  4. In Vitro Brucella suis Infection Prevents the Programmed Cell Death of Human Monocytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Antoine; Terraza, Annie; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Dornand, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    During the complex interaction between an infectious agent and a host organism, the pathogen can interfere with the host cell's programmed death to its own benefit. Induction or prevention of host cell apoptosis appears to be a critical step for determining the infection outcome. Members of the gram-negative bacterial genus Brucella are intracellular pathogens which preferentially invade monocytic cells and develop within these cells. We investigated the effect of Brucella suis infection on apoptosis of human monocytic phagocytes. The present study provides evidence that Brucella infection inhibited spontaneously occurring apoptosis in human monocytes. Prevention of monocyte apoptosis was not mediated by Brucella lipopolysaccharide and required bacterial survival within infected cells. Both invaded and noninvaded cells were protected, indicating that soluble mediators released during infection were involved in the phenomenon. Analysis of Brucella-infected monocytes revealed specific overexpression of the A1 gene, a member of the bcl-2 family implicated in the survival of hematopoietic cells. Brucella infection also rendered macrophage-like cells resistant to Fas ligand- or gamma interferon-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Brucella infection protected host cells from several cytotoxic processes occurring at different steps of the immune response. The present data clearly show that Brucella suis modulated the monocyte/macrophage's apoptotic response to the advantage of the pathogen, thus preventing host cell elimination. This might represent a strategy for Brucella development in infected hosts. PMID:10603407

  5. Stellar populations in the Canis Major over-density

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Vazquez, Ruben A

    2008-01-01

    We performed a photometric multicolor survey of the core of the Canis Major over-density at l 244, -8.0, reaching V = 22 and covering 0.3 x 1 degree. The main aim is to unravel the complex mixture of stellar populations toward this Galactic direction, where in the recent past important signatures of an accretion event have been claimed to be detected. While our previous investigations were based on disjointed pointings aimed at revealing the large scale structure of the third Galactic Quadrant, we now focus on a complete coverage of a smaller field centered on the Canis Major over-density. A large wave-length baseline, in the UBVRI bands, allows us to build up a suite of colour colour and colour magnitude diagrams, providing a much better diagnostic tool to disentangle the stellar populations of the region. In fact, the simple use of one colour magnitude diagram, widely employed in all the previous studies defending the existence of the Canis Major galaxy, does not allow one to separate the effects of the dif...

  6. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis infection in stray dogs from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bogićević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50. Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

  7. Studies on the control of Toxocara canis in breeding kennels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M A; Jacobs, D E; Hutchinson, M J; Dick, I G

    1994-10-01

    The control of Toxocara canis was investigated in naturally infected unweaned puppies. Anthelmintic treatments were administered to three litters of pups at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. When either a new combination anthelmintic containing febantel, pyrantel embonate and praziquantel or fenbendazole was used, the faecal egg output over the first 7 weeks of life was reduced by more than 80% and worm burdens by over 90%. In contrast, piperazine adipate had no appreciable effect on T. canis egg output, even though worm burdens were reduced by 86% by 7 weeks of age. In a further trial using three litters, the worm burden of pups treated with the combination anthelmintic was profiled before and after the 2 week dose and after the 4 week dose. Although worm numbers were substantially reduced by treatment, there was evidence of significant reinfection taking place throughout the control programme. It is concluded that more potent anthelmintics can provide longer term benefits by reducing the numbers of T. canis eggs shed into the environment, but that multiple dosing remains essential for this purpose.

  8. Vertical transmission of Toxocara canis in successive generations of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Roselaine Schoenardie

    Full Text Available Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis caused byToxocara canis larvae in unusual hosts. In dogs, the definitive host, the infection occurs mainly through transplacental and transcolostral transmission. Studies on experimental models have shown that vertical transmission may result from acute infections. Considering that toxocariasis is characterized as a chronic infection, with possible reactivation of larvae present in the brain, this study evaluated the presence of larvae in the brain of female BALB/c mice and their offspring with chronic infection during three successive pregnancies. ELISA-TES was used to evaluate the antibody levels. T. canis larvae were detected in the brain tissue of the mice during the three successive generations evaluated. The offspring's IgG level gradually decreased, and mean absorbance (ABS above the cutoff point (0.070 was observed only at 30 (0.229 and 50 (0.096 days of age, while IgM was not detected. The infections in the offspring confirmed that vertical transmission of T. canis larvae occurred during chronic toxocariasis in three successive generations of mice.

  9. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciarmela, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated and scored according to Lỳsek’s ovicidal effect classification. These procedures were repeated three times which each fungal species. Chrysosporium merdarium and F. oxysporum showed very high ovicidal activity, F. sulphureum high ovicidal activity, F. moniliforme intermediate ovicidal activity and T. harzianum did not affect the viability of T. canis eggs. Taking into account the effects on human and animal health and the environment, the species with better prospects for studying its potential use as biological control was F. sulphureum.

  10. Acute Brucella Hepatitis in an Urban Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man was referred to our center because of low grade fever, vomiting, yellow sclera, and tenderness in the upper-right quadrant of his abdomen. Laboratory tests showed a white blood cell (WBC of 7100/µL, a platelet of 184,000/µL, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR of 4 mm/h, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT of 525 U/L, an aspartate aminotransferase AST of 142 U/L, a total bilirubin level of 4.23 mg/dL, and a direct bilirubin level of 3.16 mg/dL. Viral hepatitis markers, immunoglobuline M antibody to cytomegalovirus (anti-CMV IgM, Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV IgM, and immunologic markers of autoimmune hepatitis were negative. The patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis. Alkaline phosphatase was in the normal range throughout the course of the disease. Because of the patient's occupation as a butcher and his history of eating semi-cooked sheep testes, serologic tests of brucellosis were conducted; the tests came out positive. We were concerned about the hepatotoxicity of standard regimens; therefore, we started treatment with streptomycin and ciprofloxacin regimens. Although liver enzyme had fallen and fever discontinued, the total and direct bilirubin concentrations in the patient's serum both increased in spite of using 2 weeks of the abovementioned drug regimen. The elevation of bilirubin could have been due to drug hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, a regimen containing ciprofloxacin may have not have been efficient enough and may have had effects on the direct bilirubin concentration. Fortunately, within 8 weeks, progressive recovery was noticed. Brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever and hepatitis for those who live in endemic areas, especially if his/her job was at high risk for acquiring brucellosis. We recommend taking a careful occupational and behavioral history for patients with acute hepatitis syndrome. We assumed that ciprofloxacin was not suitable for brucella hepatitis treatment and

  11. Estudio sobre las relaciones filogenéticas entre diversos aislamientos del hongo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan McEwen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque es poco lo que se conoce acerca de la biología evolutiva
    del hongo P. brasiliensis, varios estudios moleculares han demostrado que existen variaciones en secuencias de ADN entre sus aislamientos, las que se correlacionan con el origen geográfico de las mismas y con diferencias en su virulencia para modelos murinos (1,2. Se desconoce si estas variaciones son el resultado final de un proceso de especiación alopátrica que daría origen a especies aisladas genéticamente provistas de características fenotípicas (patogenicidad, inmunogenicidad y genotípicas diferentes, las que podrían ser usadas como una alternativa para mejorar e innovar los métodos actuales de diagnóstico. Por lo tanto, proponemos como objetivo general estudiar un aspecto fundamental de la biología evolutiva del hongo patógeno humano P. brasiliensis como es la especiación.

  12. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, G; André, M R; Faria, J L M; Munhoz, T D; Hernandez-Rodriguez, M; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2012-05-25

    Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The present work aimed to detect the presence of E. canis and Babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in Colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. We also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Colombia. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies to E. canis and Babesia vogeli were found in 75 (82.4%) and 47 (51.6%) sampled dogs, respectively. Thirty-seven (40.6%) and 5 (5.5%) dogs were positive in PCR for E. canis and Babesia sp., respectively. After sequencing, amplicons showed 99% of identity with isolates of E. canis and B. vogeli. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA-Anaplasmataceae sequences and 18S rRNA-piroplasmid sequences supported the identity of the found E. canis and B. vogeli DNAs, respectively. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs in Colombia.

  13. [Molecular identification of Ehrlichia canis in a dog from Arica, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Mundaca, M Isabel; Caballero, Carla; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    We report a molecular confirmed case of canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis. A 10-year old female crossbred Siberian from the city of Arica, which was infested by ticks, presented hemorrhagic manifestations (hematomas and snout bleeding) and prostration. Blood cell count revealed thrombocytopenia (30,000 platelets/ mm³). Immunochromatographic rapid testing for E. canis IgG was positive. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gen from a blood sample showed 100% homology with E. canis from Perú. This is the first report of E. canis in Chile, an agent with known zoonotic potential.

  14. Selección de aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. con potencial biocontrolador de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn en papa bajo condiciones de casa de malla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés de Granada Emira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El hongo fitopatógeno Rhizoctonia solani afecta raíces, tallos y tubérculos de papa, logrando reducir los rendimientos del cultivo hasta en un 50%. Con el propósito de ofrecer una alternativa biológica para el manejo de este problema, se evaluaron diez cepas nativas del hongo biocontrolador
    Trichoderma spp. Inicialmente se evaluó la actividad patogénica de dos aislamientos de R. solani (Rh005 y Rh006 inoculando suelo en proporciones del 2,5 y 10% peso a peso (p/p donde posteriormente fueron transplantadas plántulas de papa producidas in vitro, encontrando con ambos aislamientos 100% de incidencia de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, fue seleccionado el aislamiento Rh005 ya que presentó mayor porcentaje de daño expresado como volcamiento de las plantas. Como prueba preliminar de antagonismo, en recipientes con suelo se enterraron bolsas de muselina que contenían esclerocios de este último aislamiento y se trataron
    individualmente con suspensiones de los diferentes  aislamientos de Trichoderma spp.ajustadas a una concentración de 107conidios.ml-1, estableciéndose que los aislamientos de Trichoderma Th002, Th003, Th007, Th034 y Th181 parasitaron y degradaron más del 50% de los esclerocios. En el ensayo de protección al evaluar estos últimos aislamientos en casa de malla en donde se inoculó suelo con Rh005 (2% p/p se seleccionaron los aislamientos Th003 y Th034 por presentar diferencias con respecto a mayores pesos de biomasa fresca y seca en comparación con los restantes biocontroladores y los tratamientos químico, patógeno y testigo. Aunque no se logró disminuir la incidencia de la enfermedad, los aislamientos de Trichoderma seleccionados permitieron reducir el daño en las plantas observando mayor vigor, tallos normales con abundante follaje y mejor crecimiento radical.

  15. Effects of Opsonization and Gamma Interferon on Growth of Brucella Melitensis 16M in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    SUBTITLE Effects of Opsonization and Gamma Interferon on Growth of Brucella , melitensis 16M in Mouse Peritoneal Microphages rom In Vitro 3. REPORT...with Brucella melitensis 16M treated with complement- and/or antibody-rich serum. Mouse serum rich in antibody against Brucella lipopolysaccnaride...pathogens of humans and livestock. Brucella meli- tensis usually infects sheep, goats , and camels and is the most pathogenic species for humans (1). Like

  16. Inhibición in vitro de aislamientos nativos de Trichoderma en presencia de la cepa comercial T22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hernández – Ramírez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: In vitro inhibition from native isolates of Trichoderma against commercial strain T22.  Título corto: Inhibición in vitro de aislamientos nativos Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar 14 aislamientos nativos del género Trichoderma (Tn obtenidos de la rizósfera del cultivo de caña de azúcar de acuerdo con su efecto de inhibición In vitro en cultivos duales contra la cepa comercial de Trichoderma harzianum (T22. Los aislamientos nativos con mayor índice de inhibición fueron los denominados Palma (T12 y Hubero (T11, con un valor de 2, mientras que T01, T04, T05 y T08 presentaron un valor de 1. Además, el mayor porcentaje de inhibición fue causado por el aislamiento T03, con una media de 92.32 ± 2.64%, sin diferencias estadísticas con los nativos T07, con un valor inhibición de 88.99 ± 1.46%, T01 87.93 ± 2.28%, y T12; 87.71 ± 3.16. En este caso, los aislamientos T07 y T12 mostraron capacidad inhibitoria con mayores atributos para su selección como agentes de control biológico. Al evaluar la tolerancia In vitro de los aislamientos nativos de Trichoderma a la actividad del agua (aw, se observó efecto significativo sobre el desarrollo micelial de los aislamientos de Trichoderma nativo evaluados. Los aislamientos T03 (7919.3 ± 932.53 y T12 (6388.2 ± 623.40 presentaron el mejor desarrollo radial. Estos resultados sugieren que los aislamientos T03 y T12 podrían desarrollarse mejor bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico. Por lo anterior, concluimos que los aislamientos T07 y T12, son los mejores candidatos como agentes inhibidores y se sugiere evaluarlos In vitro o invernadero contra el agente causal de la enfermedad del muermo rojo en caña de azúcar (Colletotrichum falcatum. Palabras clave: Control Biológico; tolerancia;  ompetencia; estrés hídrico; actividad de agua. Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate 14 native e Trichoderma genus isolates (Tn obtained from the rhyzosphere of

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13 Isolated from Placenta of Aborted Cattle in Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H. C.; Chandel, B. S.; Patel, Kirit B.; Patel, A. C.; Shrimali, M. D.; Patel, S. S.; Bhagat, A. G.; Rajgor, Manish; Patel, Mitul A.; Patel, Maulik; Kala, Jitendra; Patel, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is generally known to cause brucellosis in cattle and buffalo. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13, isolated from aborted cattle placenta in the area of Gujarat, India, providing precious resources for comparative genomic analyses of Brucella field strains. PMID:27789633

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13 Isolated from Placenta of Aborted Cattle in Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is generally known to cause brucellosis in cattle and buffalo. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13, isolated from aborted cattle placenta in the area of Gujarat, India, providing precious resources for comparative genomic analyses of Brucella field strains.

  19. A survey for infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Babesia canis in feral and client-owned dogs in the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Brent; McEwen, Beverly; Peregrine, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of infection with Dirofilaria immitis and Babesia canis and seropositivity to Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi in feral and client-owned dogs was determined. Feral dogs were 14.8 and 11.2 times more likely to be seropositive to D. immitis and E. canis, respectively, than were client-owned dogs. None of the dogs tested positive for B. burgdorferi or B. canis.

  20. BRUCELLA ENDOCARDITIS IN IRANIAN PATIENTS: COMBINED MEDICAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nematipour

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella endocarditis is a Tare but serious complication ofbrucellosis and is the main cause of death reuuedto thisdisease: Itis not rare in the endemic areas and aaualiy accounts for up to 8~lO% ofendocarditis infections: We report seven adult cases of brucella endocarditis in lmam-Khorneini Hospual: Contrary to previous independent reports, female patients were not rare in this study and accountedfor three out ofseven. Four patients were cared for by combined medical and surgical treatment and were recovered Three of the patients that did not receive the combined theraPl could not he saved This report confirms the necessity of prompt combined medical and surgical treatment ofbrucella endocarditis.

  1. Brucella abortus Cell Cycle and Infection Are Coordinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Xavier; Crosson, Sean; Matroule, Jean-Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens. The recent development of methods and genetically engineered strains allowed the description of cell-cycle progression of Brucella abortus, including unipolar growth and the ordered initiation of chromosomal replication. B. abortus cell-cycle progression is coordinated with intracellular trafficking in the endosomal compartments. Bacteria are first blocked at the G1 stage, growth and chromosome replication being resumed shortly before reaching the intracellular proliferation compartment. The control mechanisms of cell cycle are similar to those reported for the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, and they are crucial for survival in the host cell. The development of single-cell analyses could also be applied to other bacterial pathogens to investigate their cell-cycle progression during infection.

  2. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Differentiate the Antibody Responses of Animals Infected with Brucella Species from Those of Animals Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9

    OpenAIRE

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate the antibody responses of animals infected with Brucella species from those of animals infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-07-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  4. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Casalinuovo; Lucia Ciambrone; Antonio Cacia; Paola Rippa

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the ly...

  5. Intraspecies biodiversity of the genetically homologous species Brucella microti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hofer, Erwin; Tomaso, Herbert; Vergnaud, Gilles; Le Flèche, Philippe; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Nöckler, Karsten; Scholz, Holger C

    2012-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major bacterial zoonoses worldwide. In the past decade, an increasing number of atypical Brucella strains and species have been described. Brucella microti in particular has attracted attention, because this species not only infects mammalian hosts but also persists in soil. An environmental reservoir may pose a new public health risk, leading to the reemergence of brucellosis. In a polyphasic approach, comprising conventional microbiological techniques and extensive biochemical and molecular techniques, all currently available Brucella microti strains were characterized. While differing in their natural habitats and host preferences, B. microti isolates were found to possess identical 16S rRNA, recA, omp2a, and omp2b gene sequences and identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) profiles at 21 different genomic loci. Only highly variable microsatellite markers of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) showed intraspecies discriminatory power. In contrast, biotyping demonstrated striking differences within the genetically homologous species. The majority of the mammalian isolates agglutinated only with monospecific anti-M serum, whereas soil isolates agglutinated with anti-A, anti-M, and anti-R sera. Bacteria isolated from animal sources were lysed by phages F1, F25, Tb, BK2, Iz, and Wb, whereas soil isolates usually were not. Rough strains of environmental origin were lysed only by phage R/C. B. microti exhibited high metabolic activities similar to those of closely related soil organisms, such as Ochrobactrum spp. Each strain was tested with 93 different substrates and showed an individual metabolic profile. In summary, the adaptation of Brucella microti to a specific habitat or host seems to be a matter of gene regulation rather than a matter of gene configuration.

  6. Brucella arthritis of the sacro-iliac joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, S; Shapiro, M

    1984-01-01

    We are reporting a case of culture-proven brucella sacro-iliitis. The treatment included surgical drainage and curettage together with tetracycline and streptomycin. A five-year follow-up showed complete cure: the patient was free of symptoms, the sacro-iliac joint was normal and a serologic test negative. The diagnostic difficulties, the differential diagnosis and the appropriate treatment are also discussed in this paper.

  7. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results and Discussion: In this study, i...

  8. Asymptomatic Brucella bacteraemia and isolation of Brucella melitensis biovar 3 from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Güven; Külah, Canan; Kiliç, Selçuk; Ustündağ, Gonca

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and virtually all infections derived from exposure to animals or ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis among family members has been reported. However, screening household members of an index case of acute brucellosis is not a routine procedure. A 10-y-old boy was diagnosed with acute brucellosis. Unpasteurized goat cheese commonly consumed within the family was thought to be the possible source of the bacteria. The family (parents, sister and brother) was screened with physical examination, serum tube agglutination test, blood cultures and routine laboratory tests. Three additional cases (parents and sister) of serological and culture proven brucellosis were detected. Two of them (mother and sister) were asymptomatic and had no clinical findings. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was isolated from breast milk culture and from all blood cultures of 4 brucellosis cases. In conclusion, brucellosis, even with bacteraemia, can be completely asymptomatic. Consumption of raw milk products by household members is a common risk factor for brucellosis outbreak among family members. Thus, screening household members of an index case of brucellosis can expose new brucellosis cases.

  9. The comparison of Brucella gel agglutination test with other Brucella tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mine Turhanoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the sensitivity of diagnostic tests in patients with a preliminary diagnosis of brucellosis. Methods: We have compared the serological methods, standard tube agglutination test (STA, Coombs Test (CT, Rose Bengal (RBT, and the gel centrifugation test. In patients with a preliminary diagnosis of brucellosis, subjects with a positive test result of RBT has been included in the research and other diagnostic tests STA, CT and Coombs Gel centrifugation tests were performed within the range of same titration. Results: Total 132 patient’s serums were studied. In RBT positive 92 patients’ serums, negative test results were found in 11 with STA, in 9 with CT and in 6 with gel test. While 35 patients were identified to be positive by using Brucella gel test at 1/5120 titer, no positive test results were seen with STA and CT at the same titer. Generally, CT results were one titration below the gel centrifugation test results. Conclusion: In conclusion, RBT and STA were not always adequate to determine the diagnosis of brucellosis. Low titer STA results should be supported by tests such as CT or gel centrifugation and the seroconversion must be monitored. Due to giving fast results, gel centrifugation test can be preferred in diagnosis of Brucellosis.

  10. ELISA for brucellosis detection based on three Brucella recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsuriyanont, Pikun; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Chanket, Panita; Tunyong, Wittawat; Kalambaheti, Thareerat

    2014-01-01

    Control of brucellosis among farm animals, wildlife and humans require reliable diagnosis. Rose Bengal serological test (RBT) is based on lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella, which may cross react with other gram-negative bacteria and produce false positive result. Immunoreactive proteins, such as outer-membrane protein BP26, ribosome recycling factor protein CP24 and Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS), previously reported to be recognized by infected sheep sera, were selected for production of recombinant proteins for use in an ELISA in order to investigate immune response among goats and cows, in comparison with commercial RBT. Cut-off value for ELISA was based on the immune response of in vitro fertilized goats and cows. Goats positive for Brucella culture or by RBT were ELISA positive for either IgG or IgM against at least one recombinant protein. For animals with negative RBT, animals with positive ELISA could be detected, and 61.6% possessed ELISA values as high as in infected animals. Thus, this ELISA procedure is proposed as an alternative to RBT for screening of brucellosis in farm animals.

  11. The changing Brucella ecology: novel reservoirs, new threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgios

    2010-11-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that preceded humans but continues to cause significant medical, veterinary and socioeconomic problems, mainly because its overall burden remains underestimated and neglected. Its ecology, or what we know of it, has evolved rapidly in recent years. Two novel species, Brucella ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with the potential for causing human disease have been isolated from marine mammals. Another novel species, B. microti, has been isolated from wildlife animals, whilst B. inopinata has been isolated from a human case. An active spillover of Brucella between domestic animals and wildlife is also being recognised, with elk transmitting B. abortus to cattle, and freshwater fish becoming infected with B. melitensis from waste meat. In recent years the global epidemiology of the disease has not altered drastically, apart from increased awareness of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa and a rapid expansion of disease endemicity in the Balkan Peninsula. Isolated stories and events underline that Brucella knows no borders. The modern world has offered the pathogen the ability to travel and manifest itself anywhere and has also offered scientists the ability to track these manifestations better than ever before. This may allow the disease to be neglected no longer, or at least to be recognised as neglected.

  12. Validation of the multiplex PCR for identification of Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Lima Orzil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A multiplex PCR technique for detection of Brucella spp. in samples of bacterial suspension was validated as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of the disease. This technique allows the characterization of the agent without performing biochemical tests, which greatly reduces the time for a final diagnosis, and provides more security for the analyst by reducing the time of exposure to microorganisms. The validation was performed in accordance with the Manual of Diagnostic Tests from OIE (2008 and following the requirements present in the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The mPCR validated in this study identified the different species of Brucella ( Brucella abortus , B. suis , B. ovis e B. melitensis of bacterial suspension obtained from the slaughterhouse samples, as well as distinguished the biovars (1, 2 e 4; 3b, 5, 6 e 9 of B. abortus in grouped form and differentiated the field strains from vaccine strains, as a quick, useful and less expensive technique in diagnosis of brucellosis in Brazil.

  13. Aislamiento y caracterización de micromicetos biodegradadores de polietileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. Méndez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La biodegradación del polietileno por microorganismos es una solución para la reducción de la contaminación por plásticos. En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados del aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de hongos capaces de degradar el polietileno, así como la determinación de las condiciones de pH y temperatura en las que se logran la mayor actividad. Los hongos fueron aislados de productos elaborados con polietileno obtenidos de relleno sanitario, la identificación taxonómica en base a características macroscópicas del crecimiento en placa petri y el estudio microscópico empleando la técnica de microcultivo en lámina. La actividad biodegradadora se determinó con la técnica de Kavelman y Kendrick, a temperaturas entre 20 y 30 °C y a pH 4,5 – 8,0. Veinte cepas de micromicetos fueron aisladas e identificadas, en 5 (25% se evidencio la capacidad de biodegradar el polietileno a 20 °C, siendo el pH 6,5 el óptimo, la cepa de mayor rendimiento pertenece a la especie de Aspergillus flavus. A temperatura de 30 °C, 6 (30% cepas evidenciaron actividad degradadora, siendo pH 6,5 el óptimo, la cepa de mayor rendimiento fue la misma del caso anterior.

  14. Aislamiento y serotipificación de Salmonella sp. en estanques con Crocodylus intermedius y testudines cautivos en Villavicencio - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pachón C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de microorganismos del género Salmonella sp. en el ambiente acuático de los ejemplares Crocodylus intermedius y testudines en la Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco (EBTRF. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio se utilizó la metodología estándar para aislar e identificar microorganismos del género Salmonella sp., a partir de muestras de agua y sedimento de 52 estanques (nEstanques Crocodylus=25; nEstanques testudines=27; se procedió a serotipificar los aislamientos por el método convencional de Kaufmann-White y se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos por la técnica de Kirby Bauer. Resultados. Se determinó la presencia de Salmonella sp., en un 33% del total de estanques muestreados. El 29% de los aislamientos de Salmonella sp. serotipificados, correspondió al serogrupo B; los serogrupos C, C1, C2 y D1 presentaron menores porcentajes. Con las pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos se determinó que el 100% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a norfloxacina. Conclusiones. La ocurrencia de Salmonella sp., en los estanques de la EBTRF fue del 33%, con la mayor presencia del serogrupo B, donde se encuentran especies con características ampliamente zoonóticas. Con los resultados obtenidos es necesario el seguimiento de las normas de bioseguridad establecidas en la estación para el manejo de las poblaciones allí mantenidas y evitar de esa manera la ocurrencia de cuadros zoonóticos.

  15. Role of catalase in the virulence of Brucella melitensis in pregnant goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jason M; Kovach, Michael E; Grippe, Vanessa K; Hagius, Sue; Walker, Joel V; Elzer, Philip H; Roop, R Martin

    2004-08-19

    An isogenic katE mutant derived from virulent Brucella melitensis 16M displays hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide in disk sensitivity assays but retains the capacity to colonize pregnant goats and induce abortion. These experimental findings indicate that although the sole periplasmic catalase of Brucella melitensis functions as an antioxidant, this enzyme does not play a critical role in virulence in the natural host.

  16. A potential novel Brucella species isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Erwin; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Riehm, Julia M; Nöckler, Karsten; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Tomaso, Herbert; Scholz, Holger C

    2012-02-24

    The wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a known indicator species for natural foci of brucellosis. Here, we describe phenotypic and molecular characteristics of two atypical Brucella strains isolated from two foxes hunted 2008 in Eastern Austria. Both strains agglutinated with monospecific anti-Brucella A serum and were positive in ELISA with monoclonal antibodies directed against various Brucella lipopolysaccharide epitopes. However, negative nitrate reductase- and negative oxidase-reaction were atypical traits. Affiliation to the genus Brucella was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by detection of the Brucella specific insertion element IS711 and gene bcsp31 using real-time PCR. Both fox strains showed identical IS711 Southern blot profiles but were distinct from known brucellae. The number of IS711 copies detected was as high as found in B. ovis or marine mammal Brucella strains. Molecular analyses of the recA and omp2a/b genes suggest that both strains possibly represent a novel Brucella species.

  17. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH tes

  18. Pathogenesis and immunobiology of brucellosis: review of Brucella-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Paul; Ficht, Thomas A; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Rossetti, Carlos A; Adams, L Garry

    2015-06-01

    This review of Brucella-host interactions and immunobiology discusses recent discoveries as the basis for pathogenesis-informed rationales to prevent or treat brucellosis. Brucella spp., as animal pathogens, cause human brucellosis, a zoonosis that results in worldwide economic losses, human morbidity, and poverty. Although Brucella spp. infect humans as an incidental host, 500,000 new human infections occur annually, and no patient-friendly treatments or approved human vaccines are reported. Brucellae display strong tissue tropism for lymphoreticular and reproductive systems with an intracellular lifestyle that limits exposure to innate and adaptive immune responses, sequesters the organism from the effects of antibiotics, and drives clinical disease manifestations and pathology. Stealthy brucellae exploit strategies to establish infection, including i) evasion of intracellular destruction by restricting fusion of type IV secretion system-dependent Brucella-containing vacuoles with lysosomal compartments, ii) inhibition of apoptosis of infected mononuclear cells, and iii) prevention of dendritic cell maturation, antigen presentation, and activation of naive T cells, pathogenesis lessons that may be informative for other intracellular pathogens. Data sets of next-generation sequences of Brucella and host time-series global expression fused with proteomics and metabolomics data from in vitro and in vivo experiments now inform interactive cellular pathways and gene regulatory networks enabling full-scale systems biology analysis. The newly identified effector proteins of Brucella may represent targets for improved, safer brucellosis vaccines and therapeutics.

  19. Analysis of pan-genome to identify the core genes and essential genes of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaowen; Li, Yajie; Zang, Juan; Li, Yexia; Bie, Pengfei; Lu, Yanli; Wu, Qingmin

    2016-04-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens, that cause a contagious zoonotic disease, that can result in such outcomes as abortion or sterility in susceptible animal hosts and grave, debilitating illness in humans. For deciphering the survival mechanism of Brucella spp. in vivo, 42 Brucella complete genomes from NCBI were analyzed for the pan-genome and core genome by identification of their composition and function of Brucella genomes. The results showed that the total 132,143 protein-coding genes in these genomes were divided into 5369 clusters. Among these, 1710 clusters were associated with the core genome, 1182 clusters with strain-specific genes and 2477 clusters with dispensable genomes. COG analysis indicated that 44 % of the core genes were devoted to metabolism, which were mainly responsible for energy production and conversion (COG category C), and amino acid transport and metabolism (COG category E). Meanwhile, approximately 35 % of the core genes were in positive selection. In addition, 1252 potential essential genes were predicted in the core genome by comparison with a prokaryote database of essential genes. The results suggested that the core genes in Brucella genomes are relatively conservation, and the energy and amino acid metabolism play a more important role in the process of growth and reproduction in Brucella spp. This study might help us to better understand the mechanisms of Brucella persistent infection and provide some clues for further exploring the gene modules of the intracellular survival in Brucella spp.

  20. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus... availability of the Mexican Wolf Conservation Assessment (assessment). The assessment provides scientific information relevant to the conservation of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and New...

  1. A critical reflection on current control of Toxocara canis in household dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a roundworm that is common worldwide and also in Dutch household dogs. Adult stages of T. canis can be present in the small intestines of dogs where they produce large numbers of eggs that are shed in the environment (patent infection). Because very young dogs and humans can develo

  2. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western...-AX57 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus... Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to conform to current statutory and policy...

  3. Nuevo método para el aislamiento y la cuantificación de insectos del orden Collembola

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanne Fernández; F. Fernández; Pérez, E.

    2000-01-01

    Recientemente, se ha informado que algunos integrantes del orden Collembola se alimentan de las hifas externas y de los cuerpos de fructificación de los HMA, originando principalmente efectos negativos sobre el desarrollo de la simbiosis. Con el objetivo de obtener un método optimizado y eficiente que posibilite el aislamiento de colémbolos en suelos, se diseñaron dos experimentos: el primero estableció una comparación entre la metodología comúnmente empleada para aislar los animales (embudos...

  4. Aislamiento y caracterización de Mycoplasma sp.de pulmones de cerdos provenientes de mataderos

    OpenAIRE

    Copes, Julio; Nievas, Fabián; Cerdá, Raúl Oscar; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    1995-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio microbiológico de 100 pulmones obtenidos al azar provenientes de capones y hembras sin servicio faenados en diferentes mataderos. Estos fueron clasificados macroscópicamente en pulmones con lesiones neumónicas (CLN) (43) y sin lesiones neumónicas (SLN) (57). Las muestras fueron procesadas para realizar el aislamiento y caracterización de microorganismos perteneciente al género Mycoplasma, en particular Mycoplasma hyorhinis y Mycoplasma hyosynoviae. De casos seleccionados...

  5. Diseño de un sistema de aislamiento de vibraciones para un robot cuadrúpedo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El proyecto trata de analizar las vibraciones producidas por un robot y en concreto se pretende aislar las vibraciones producidas por el motor de un robot cuadrúpedo llamado “HyQ”. Los objetivos principales son: 1) Modelado mediante el uso de un programa de diseño en 3D del robot “HyQ”. 2) Realización de simulaciones dinámicas en diferentes modos de funcionamiento en los que puede operar el robot “HyQ”. 3) Diseño y cálculo de un sistema de aislamiento de las vibraciones producidas po...

  6. Aislamiento de microorganismos productores de biosurfactantes y lipasas a partir de efluentes residuales de camales y suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos

    OpenAIRE

    Lizzie Karen Becerra Gutiérrez; María Valeria Horna Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Los biosurfactantes son moléculas anfipáticas que reducen la tensión en la interfase, incrementando así la solubilidad en agua y disponibilidad de compuestos orgánicos, son producidos por bacterias, hongos, y levaduras. Para el aislamiento de bacterias productoras de biosurfactante y lipasas, se sembró en medios inductores 10% de efluentes residuales procedentes de camales y suelos de grifos contaminados con hidrocarburos de la Provincia de Trujillo - Perú. Los cultivos aislados se sembraron ...

  7. Resistencia a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Escherichia coli de origen animal Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el perfil de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de 100 aislamientos de E.coli provenientes de diversas patologías en bovinos, equinos, caninos y felinos, siguiendo metodología del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute y detectando la aparición de aislamientos multiresistentes. El panel de antibióticos ensayados incluyó amicacina, ampicilina/sulbactama, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol, colistina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, nitrofurantoína, tetraciclina, trimetoprima/ sulfametoxazol. El mayor porcentaje de resistencia (R se detectó frente a tetraciclina en aislamientos de todas las especies animales (entre 34% en los de origen felino y 75% de origen equino. En las cepas de origen canino y felino se encontraron porcentajes considerables frente ampicilina/ sulbactama (27% de caninos y 53% de felinos y ante ciprofloxacina (30% y 67% respectivamente. En estos aislamientos también, se detectó el mayor porcentaje de multiresistencia (29% en caninos y 67% en felinos. La presión selectiva originada por la aplicación inadecuada de antibióticos puede resultar un factor, aunque no el único, responsable de la aparición de R. Además existe la posibilidad de que E.coli pueda constituirse en un eslabón de transmisión de genes de R a antimicrobianos, aunque no se conoce hasta el momento, el origen de ellos, humano o animal y, su permanencia en el tiempo.Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were determined in 100 isolates of E.coli from differents patologies in cattle, horses, dogs and cats, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Multiresistance isolates were detected in this assay. The antibiotics selected were amikacin, ampicillin /sulbactam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, colistin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The antibiotic with the highest resistance was tetracycline (34% in cats and 75% in dogs. In isolated strains from dogs

  8. Caracterización molecular de aislamientos invasores de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a la penicilina recuperados de pacientes adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Moreno; Elizabeth Castañeda

    2003-01-01

    La resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a la penicilina está asociada con la dispersión deciertos clones internacionales. En Colombia, se ha establecido en la población infantil la presenciay circulación de los clones 1-España23F, 2-España6B, 3-España9V y 25-Colombia23F. El objetivode este trabajo fue evaluar las relaciones clonales entre 80 aislamientos invasores de S.pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina recuperados de pacientes adultos.El análisis genotípico incluyó ...

  9. El aislamiento social de los trabajadores con visas H-2A. El ejemplo de los jornaleros tamaulipecos

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2012-01-01

    La proximidad de Tamaulipas a la frontera estadounidense abarata los costos de transporte, y esto hace que en el estado se otorgue un número elevado de visas H-2A a trabajadores agrarios temporales. Sin embargo, los programas de trabajadores huéspedes empujan a la mano de obra al abuso y la explotación. El aislamiento social, que hace referencia a una erosión de la esfera relacional del individuo, constituye uno de los principales problemas sufridos por los trabajadores tamaulipecos con visa ...

  10. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal Wareth; Murat Eravci; Christoph Weise; Uwe Roesler; Falk Melzer; Sprague, Lisa D.; Heinrich Neubauer; Jayaseelan Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with ...

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of Brucella melitensis antigens in cases of naturally occurring abortions in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Fatma; Yener, Zabit

    2008-11-01

    Brucella melitensis, a worldwide zoonotic pathogen, is a significant cause of abortion in sheep and goats in some countries. The present study was carried out to determine, by immunohistochemistry, the presence of B. melitensis antigens in 110 naturally occurring aborted sheep fetuses. Sections of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen of each fetus were stained with immunoperoxidase to detect Brucella antigens. Brucella melitensis antigens were detected in 33 of 110 fetuses (30%). In the 33 positive cases, Brucella antigens were found in lung (25 [22.7%]), liver (21 [19%]), spleen (13 [11.8%]), and kidney (6 [5.4%]). Microscopic studies demonstrated that Brucella antigens were mainly located in the cytoplasm of macrophages and neutrophils of the lung, and in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the portal infiltrates and Kupffer cells of the liver. It was concluded that immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is a useful tool for the diagnosis of spontaneous ovine abortion caused by B. melitensis.

  12. Subcutaneous immunization with a novel immunogenic candidate (urease) confers protection against Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Morteza; Amani, Jafar; Sahebghadam Lotfi, Abbas; Nikbakht Brujeni, Gholamreza; Alamian, Saeed; Kamali, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is a world prevalent endemic illness that is transmitted from domestic animals to humans. Brucella spp. exploits urease for survival in the harsh conditions of stomach during the gastrointestinal infection. In this study, we examined the immune response and the protection elicited by using recombinant Brucella urease (rUrease) vaccination in BALB/c mice. The urease gene was cloned in pET28a and the resulting recombinant protein was employed as subunit vaccine. Recombinant protein was administered subcutaneously and intraperitoneally. Dosage reduction was observed with subcutaneous (SC) vaccination when compared with intraperitoneal (IP) vaccination. rUrease induced mixed Th1-Th2 immune responses with high titers of specific IgG1 and IgG2a. In lymphocyte proliferation assay, splenocytes from IP and SC-vaccinated mice displayed a strong recall proliferative response with high amounts of IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ production. Vaccinated mice were challenged with virulent Brucella melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis. The SC vaccination route exhibited a higher degree of protection than IP vaccination (p value ≤ 0.05). Altogether, our results indicated that rUrease could be a useful antigen candidate for the development of subunit vaccines against brucellosis.

  13. Descripción de una grahamella del perro, Grahamella canis n. sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Herrer

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available En tres perros, de un total de 75 que fueron sometidos a hemocultivos, se ha recogido una grahamella que se describe con el nombre de Grahamella canis n. sp. La infección natural del perro parece ser imperceptible por medio de frotis de sangre. La G. canis se aisla fácilmente en cultivo en el medio semisólido de Noguchi y el agar sangre, consiguiéndose resiembras con regularidad solamente en este último. Los hemocultivos desarrollan tanto a 28º como a 37ºC. y son infectantes para su huésped. Tanto perros normales como esplenectomizados se pueden infectar experimentalmente con cultivos, obteniéndose mayor parasitismo en los esplenectomizados. Al mismo tiempo es posible obtener infecciones mixtas de Grahamella canis y Bartonella canis. La G. canis desarrolla in vitro en sangre citratada.

  14. Diseño de un sistema de tamizado semicontinuo para el aislamiento de almidón de plátano macho (musa paradisiaca l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Cortes, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    El plátano macho (Musa paradisiaca L.) es un fruto climatérico que se recolecta en un estado de madurez fisiológica. En esta etapa posee un alto contenido de almidón, por lo cual es una importante fuente alterna para el aislamiento del polisacárido. Hasta ahora, los procesos reportados para su aislamiento, son llevados a cabo en lotes, y durante la operación de tamizado, se emplean grandes cantidades de agua para producir la liberación de los gránulos de almidón. El objetivo de este trabajo f...

  15. Variabilidad genética de aislamientos de Salmonella typhimurium (grupo B) obtenidos de hígados de pollo destinados para consumo humano

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Talavera Rojas; Nydia Edith Reyes Rodríguez; Salvador Lagunas Bernabé; Pomposo Fernández Rosas; Vladimir Morales Erasto; Edgardo Soriano Vargas E.

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la frecuencia de aislamientos de Salmonella spp en hígados de pollo para venta, en cuatro mercados del área metropolitana de la ciudad de Toluca, México. El aislamiento bacteriológico se realizó de acuerdo a la norma NOM-114-SSA1- 1994 para la determinación de Salmonella en alimentos. Se realizó la prueba de ERIC-PCR para determinar la variedad genética de las cepas de Salmonella aisladas. De un total de 520 muestras incluidas en el estudio, 7 (1.34 %) resultaron positivas a Salm...

  16. Serological cross-reactivity of Trypanosoma cruzi, Ehrlichia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Babesia canis to Leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Franco Zanette; Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima; Márcia Dalastra Laurenti; Claudio Nazaretian Rossi; Juliana Peloi Vides; Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira; Alexander Welker Biondo; Mary Marcondes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens. Methods: Positive serum samples for Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma cruzi were tested using three serological methods enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and Kalazar Detect™, for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Results: Of the 57 dog samples tes...

  17. Systematic status of wild Canis in North-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Skulls of wild Canis collected 2003–2004 in north-central Texas are morphometrically similar to a series taken there and in nearby areas in 1964–1971, which was considered to represent a population of Coyotes (C. latrans) modified through introgression from Red Wolves (C. rufus). A few of the new specimens closely resemble small examples of Red Wolves. Such affinity is supported by authoritative examination of living and videotaped animals. The persistence of influence of Red Wolves, long after presumed extirpation through hybridization and human persecution, may be relevant to wolf conservation.

  18. Evaluation of PCR methods for detection of Brucella strains from culture and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftci, Alper; İça, Tuba; Savaşan, Serap; Sareyyüpoğlu, Barış; Akan, Mehmet; Diker, Kadir Serdar

    2017-03-03

    The genus Brucella causes significant economic losses due to infertility, abortion, stillbirth or weak calves, and neonatal mortality in livestock. Brucellosis is still a zoonosis of public health importance worldwide. The study was aimed to optimize and evaluate PCR assays used for the diagnosis of Brucella infections. For this aim, several primers and PCR protocols were performed and compared with Brucella cultures and biological material inoculated with Brucella. In PCR assays, genus- or species-specific oligonucleotide primers derived from 16S rRNA sequences (F4/R2, Ba148/928, IS711, BruP6-P7) and OMPs (JPF/JPR, 31ter/sd) of Brucella were used. All primers except for BruP6-P7 detected the DNA from reference Brucella strains and field isolates. In spiked blood, milk, and semen samples, F4-R2 primer-oriented PCR assays detected minimal numbers of Brucella. In spiked serum and fetal stomach content, Ba148/928 primer-oriented PCR assays detected minimal numbers of Brucella. Field samples collected from sheep and cattle were examined by bacteriological methods and optimized PCR assays. Overall, sensitivity of PCR assays was found superior to conventional bacteriological isolation. Brucella DNA was detected in 35.1, 1.1, 24.8, 5.0, and 8.0% of aborted fetus, blood, milk, semen, and serum samples by PCR assays, respectively. In conclusion, PCR assay in optimized conditions was found to be valuable in sensitive and specific detection of Brucella infections of animals.

  19. High throughput pyrosequencing technology for molecular differential detection of Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in canine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Kongklieng, Amornmas; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-06-01

    Canine babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by different hemopathogens. These diseases are causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The classic method for parasite detection and differentiation is based on microscopic observation of blood smears. The limitations of the microscopic method are that its performance requires a specially qualified person with professional competence, and it is ineffective in differentiating closely related species. This study applied PCR amplification with high throughput pyrosequencing for molecular differential detection of the following 4 hemoparasites common to tropical areas in dog blood samples: Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. PCR was initially used to amplify specific target regions of the ribosomal RNA genes of each parasite using 2 primer pairs that included 18S rRNA for protozoa (B. vogeli and H. canis) and 16S rRNA for rickettsia (E. canis and A. platys). Babesia vogeli and H. canis were discriminated using 9 nucleotide positions out of 30 base pairs, whereas E. canis and A. platys were differentiated using 15 nucleotide positions out of 34 base pairs that were determined from regions adjacent to 3' ends of the sequencing primers. This method provides a challenging alternative for a rapid diagnosis and surveillance of these tick-borne diseases in canines.

  20. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  1. Differences in two-component signal transduction proteins among the genus Brucella: implications for host preference and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binnewies, Tim Terence; Ussery, David; Lavín, JL

    2010-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are the predominant bacterial signal transduction mechanisms. Species of the genus Brucella are genetically highly related and differ mainly in mammalian host adaptation and pathogenesis. In this study, TCS proteins encoded in the available genome sequences of Brucella...... species have been identified using bioinformatic methods. All the Brucella species share an identical set of TCS proteins, and the number of TCS proteins in the closely related opportunistic human pathogen Ochrobactrum anthropi was higher than in Brucella species as expected from its lifestyle. O....... anthropi lacks orthologs of the Brucella TCSs NodVW, TceSR and TcfSR, suggesting that these TCS proteins could be necessary for the adaptation of Brucella as an intracellular pathogen. This genomic analysis revealed the presence of a differential distribution of TCS pseudogenes among Brucella species...

  2. Sistemas de conntrol pasivos y activos de aislamiento de base para edificios sometidos a acciones sísmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Molinares Amaya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este arUculo se examina la eficacia de los sistemas de control de aislamiento de base, tanto pasivos como activos, y se propone uno híbrido que aplica una fuerza sobre la base. La componente pasiva del sistema propuesto está constituida por un aparato de apoyo que puede ser de tipo histerético, friccional o una combinación de ambos. La fuerza de control activo tiene como objetivo la reducción del desplazamiento de la base y se calcula mediante una ley de control que garantiza un comportamiento estable del sistema estructura - aislamiento de base frente a una amplia clase de incertidumbres tanto del modelo dinámico como de la excitación s{smica. Mediante un amplio estudio numérico se muestra que el sistema propuesto mejora el comportamiento global del edificio, especialmente para excitaciones con frecuencias predominantes, para las cuales la respuesta de la estructura con control pasivo es máxima.

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Seminested PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian Genotype) and B. canis DNA in Canine Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Birkenheuer, Adam J.; Levy, Michael G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2003-01-01

    Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an ∼340-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA genes from B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. rossi, and B. canis subsp. ...

  4. Toxocara canis: una zoonosis frecuente a nivel mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Rojas-Salamanca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La toxocariasis, causada principalmente por Toxocara canis, es una de las zoonosis más comunes a nivel mundial; se presenta con mayor frecuencia en niños, asociada a condiciones desfavorables de higiene, hacinamiento, convivencia con perros parasitados, el nivel socioeconómico, la ubicación geográfica y los entornos en los cuales los animales depositan sus heces, lo que se convierte en un gran foco de contaminación para los humanos. El Toxocara canis ingresa al ser humano por contacto directo con heces de perro o por contaminación de alimentos. La carga parasitaria es de vital importancia, ya que está relacionada directamente con la gravedad de la enfermedad, con los diferentes síndromes que se producen y con la respuesta inmune desencadenada por el organismo, teniendo en cuenta el ciclo de vida que se lleva a cabo en el organismo humano. Para esta enfermedad no se puede realizar un diagnóstico por técnicas coproparasitológicas, por lo cual es necesario utilizar otros métodos, como el aumento de leucocitos con presencia de eosinofilia, la prueba de ELISA y, en algunos casos, por medio de biopsias.

  5. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P  0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.

  6. ESCUELAS-ISLA: UN AISLAMIENTO INSTITUCIONAL (SCHOOLS- ISLAND: AN INSTITUTIONAL ISOLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Reyes, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo trata acerca de un tipo de escuela en la realidad educativa chilena, denominada “escuela-isla”, caracterizada por su aislamiento institucional del entorno social, económico, político, religioso y cultural. El concepto nace de una serie de reflexiones bajo el marco formativo de las prácticas pedagógicas tempranas, a partir de un conjunto de experiencias que configuran al centro de enseñanza y que resultan clave para la comprensión de la naturaleza del término. El documento hace una caracterización de este tipo de escuela, reconociendo cualidades que no son propias de una institución social. Asimismo, se propone y justifica la necesidad de un tipo de “alianza simbiótica” entre la organización educativa y el resto de organizaciones de la comunidad (red de enlace para complementar y potenciar su función educativa (formativa. Por último, se destaca la importancia de la interacción de la escuela con otras instituciones de la sociedad, y que tales vínculos constituyen una estrategia educativa para el desarrollo social y comunitario.Abstract: This work is about a type of school the Chilean educational reality, to known as school-island, mainly by institutional isolation from the social, economic, political, religious and cultural. The concept stems from a series of reflections within the framework formative early teaching practices, based on a set of experiences that shape the educational unit and are keys to understanding the nature of the term. The document provides a characterization of this type of school, recognizing qualities that are not characteristic of a social institution. It also proposes and justifies the need for a kind of "symbiotic partnership" between the educational organization and other community organizations (network link to complement and enhance its educational. Finally, it highlights the importance of interaction between the school and other institutions of society and that such links

  7. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential.

  8. Rapid detection of Brucella spp. using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shouyi; Li, Xunde; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic disease of brucellosis worldwide. Livestock that are most vulnerable to brucellosis include cattle, goats, and pigs. Brucella spp. cause serious health problems to humans and animals and economic losses to the livestock industry. Traditional methods for detection of Brucella spp. take 48-72 h (Kumar et al., J Commun Dis 29:131-137, 1997; Barrouin-Melo et al., Res Vet Sci 83:340-346, 2007) that do not meet the food industry's need of rapid detection. Therefore, there is an urgent need of fast, specific, sensitive, and inexpensive method for diagnosing of Brucella spp. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a method to amplify nucleic acid at constant temperatures. Amplification can be detected by visual detection, fluorescent stain, turbidity, and electrophoresis. We targeted at the Brucella-specific gene omp25 and designed LAMP primers for detection of Brucella spp. Amplification of DNA with Bst DNA polymerase can be completed at 65 °C in 60 min. Amplified products can be detected by SYBR Green I stain and 2.0% agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP method is feasible for detection of Brucella spp. from blood and milk samples.

  9. Evaluation of Different Primers for Detection of Brucella by Using PCR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulana, Zahra; Roushan, Mohammad Reza Hasanjani; Marashi, Seyed Mahmoud Amin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis and a significant cause of loss of health in humans and animals. Traditionally, classic diagnosis is carried out by isolation of Brucella, which is time-consuming, technically challenging and potentially dangerous. The aim of this study was to expand a molecular test that would be used for the develop detection of Brucella in a single reaction with high sensitivity and specificity, by targeting IS711element. Methods This study was carried out from 2015 to 2016 at the Ayatolla Rohani hospital in Babol, Iran. The present study was designed to develop PCR assay, based on IS711 gene for rapid diagnosis of Brucella spp. and immediate detection of Brucella, with high sensitivity and specificity. Four pairs of oligo-nucleotide primers with sizes of 547, 403, 291 and 127bp respectively, were planned to exclusively amplify the targeted genes of Brucella species. Results Our results show that, five PCR primers set up, would be helpful in amplifying the DNAs from the genus Brucella with high specificity and sensitivity so it can be 12 fg, for Brucella species to provide a valuable tool for diagnosis. Conclusion This method can be more useful than serological and biochemical tests and in addition, this reduces the number of required tests more rapidly and economically. PMID:28070255

  10. Brucella antibody seroprevalence in Antarctic seals (Arctocephalus gazella, Leptonychotes weddellii and Mirounga leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Silje-Kristin; Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Forcada, Jaume; Hall, Ailsa; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-09-03

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella, and Brucella infections in marine mammals were first reported in 1994. A serosurvey investigating the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in 3 Antarctic pinniped species was undertaken with a protein A/G indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and the Rose Bengal test (RBT). Serum samples from 33 Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddelli were analysed, and antibodies were detected in 8 individuals (24.2%) with the iELISA and in 21 (65.6%) with the RBT. We tested 48 southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina sera and detected antibodies in 2 animals (4.7%) with both the iELISA and the RBT. None of the 21 Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella was found positive. This is the first report of anti-Brucella antibodies in southern elephant seals. The potential impact of Brucella infection in pinnipeds in Antarctica is not known, but Brucella spp. are known to cause abortion in terrestrial species and cetaceans. Our findings suggest that Brucella infection in pinnipeds is present in the Antarctic, but to date B. pinnipedialis has not been isolated from any Antarctic pinniped species, leaving the confirmation of infection pending.

  11. Construction of pTM series plasmids for gene expression in Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingxing; Qu, Jing; Bao, Yanqing; Gao, Jianpeng; Liu, Jiameng; Wang, Shaohui; Sun, Yingjie; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, the most common widespread zoonotic disease, is caused by Brucella spp., which are facultative, intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria. With the development of molecular biology techniques, more and more virulence-associated factors have been identified in Brucella spp. A suitable plasmid system is an important tool to study virulence genes in Brucella. In this study, we constructed three constitutive replication plasmids (pTM1-Cm, pTM2-Amp, and pTM3-Km) using the replication origin (rep) region derived from the pBBR1-MCS vector. Also, a DNA fragment containing multiple cloning sites (MCSs) and a terminator sequence derived from the pCold vector were produced for complementation of the deleted genes. Besides pGH-6×His, a plasmid containing the groE promoter of Brucella spp. was constructed to express exogenous proteins in Brucella with high efficiency. Furthermore, we constructed the inducible expression plasmid pZT-6×His, containing the tetracycline-inducible promoter pzt1, which can induce expression by the addition of tetracycline in the Brucella culture medium. The constructed pTM series plasmids will play an important role in the functional investigation of Brucella spp.

  12. Isolation and identification of bovine Brucella isolates from Pakistan by biochemical tests and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Ali, Qurban; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Jamal, Syed M

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is endemic in bovines in Pakistan. The Brucella species and biovars involved, however, are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to isolate and characterize brucellae from seropositive milk samples, aborted fetuses, and vaginal swabs of cattle and buffaloes which had recently aborted. The seropositive milk samples, aborted fetuses, and vaginal swabs of cattle and buffaloes were collected from the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan. Isolation of brucellae was done on modified Farrell's serum dextrose agar. Isolates were characterized by conventional biotyping methods, while molecular typing was done by genus (B4/B5) and species-specific (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella ovis, and Brucella suis) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 30 isolates were recovered from milk (n = 5), aborted fetuses (n = 13), and vaginal swabs (n = 12). Most isolates were from cattle (56.7 %). All of them were identified as B. abortus biovar 1 based on conventional biotyping methods and genus and species-specific PCR. This preliminary study provides the first report on the prevalence of B. abortus biovar 1 in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan.

  13. Brucella Intracellular Life Relies on the Transmembrane Protein CD98 Heavy Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keriel, Anne; Botella, Eric; Estrach, Soline; Bragagnolo, Gabriel; Vergunst, Annette C; Feral, Chloe C; O'Callaghan, David

    2015-06-01

    Brucella are intracellular bacterial pathogens that use a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to escape host defenses and create a niche in which they can multiply. Although the importance of Brucella T4SS is clear, little is known about its interactions with host cell structures. In this study, we identified the eukaryotic protein CD98hc as a partner for Brucella T4SS subunit VirB2. This transmembrane glycoprotein is involved in amino acid transport, modulation of integrin signaling, and cell-to-cell fusion. Knockdown of CD98hc expression in HeLa cells demonstrated that it is essential for Brucella infection. Using knockout dermal fibroblasts, we confirmed its role for Brucella but found that it is not required for Salmonella infection. CD98hc transiently accumulates around the bacteria during the early phases of infection and is required for both optimal bacterial uptake and intracellular multiplication of Brucella. These results provide new insights into the complex interplay between Brucella and its host.

  14. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  15. The role of TREM-2 in internalization and intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pan; Lu, Qiang; Cui, Guimei; Guan, Zhenhong; Yang, Li; Sun, Changjiang; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-02-15

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) is a cell surface receptor primarily expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. TREM-2 functions as a phagocytic receptor for bacteria as well as an inhibitor of Toll like receptors (TLR) induced inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of TREM-2 in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. To investigate whether TREM-2 is involved in Brucella intracellular survival, we chose bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), in which TREM-2 is stably expressed, as cell model. Colony formation Units (CFUs) assay suggests that TREM-2 is involved in the internalization of Brucella abortus (B. abortus) by macrophages, while silencing of TREM-2 decreases intracellular survival of B. abortus. To further study the underlying mechanisms of TREM-2-mediated bacterial intracellular survival, we examined the activation of B. abortus-infected macrophages through determining the kinetics of activation of the three MAPKs, including ERK, JNK and p38, and measuring TNFα production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella (BrLPS) or B. abortus stimulation. Our data show that TREM-2 deficiency promotes activation of Brucella-infected macrophages. Moreover, our data also demonstrate that macrophage activation promotes killing of Brucella by enhancing nitric oxygen (NO), but not reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, macrophage apoptosis or cellular death. Taken together, these findings provide a novel interpretation of Brucella intracellular growth through inhibition of NO production produced by TREM-2-mediated activated macrophages.

  16. Caracterización molecular de 15 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana asociados con Cosmopolites y Metamasius en plátano y banano en tres regiones de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron picudos de Cosmopolites y Metamasius en municipios del Valle del Cauca, Caldas y Quindío. Se obtuvieron cultivos monospóricos con diluciones de 10-10 y 10-11. Los aislamientos fueron almacenados a -80°C con glicerol al 10% y el ADN a –20°C. Los marcadores moleculares RAM generaron 82 fragmentos de los cuales 67% fueron polimórficos con una heterocigocidad de 0.24, que indica diversidad media a alta. A un índice de similitud 0.84 se formaron 5 grupos: uno con 11 aislamientos y 4 con un solo aislamiento. En el gran grupo se detectó un duplicado y se encontró diversidad del hongo en los sitios muestreados. No se encontró relación entre aislamientos sobre Cosmopolites y Metamasius o zona geográfica en la formación de grupos genéticos.

  17. Inhibitory effect of interferon gamma on frequency of Ehrlichia canis-infected cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Tomoko; Wada, Makoto

    2013-12-15

    Ehrlichia canis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects the macrophage-monocyte cells of dogs, causing canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), along with other cytokines, mediates the immune response to such intracellular bacterial invasions. To determine the role of IFN-γ in the immunity of dogs to E. canis infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and white blood cells (WBC) were collected from E. canis-infected dogs and added to a culture of E. canis in DH82 cells. The number of E. canis inclusion-positive cells was significantly reduced in cultures containing PBMC and WBC from E. canis-infected dogs compared to uninfected dogs. However, this resistance was inhibited by the addition of an anti-dog IFN-γ antibody. Resistance was also observed when PBMC were added to the Cell Culture Inserts, which prohibited contact of PBMC to DH82 cells, while allowed the diffusion of soluble cell products. The results of this study indicate that resistance was not dependent on cell to cell contact, but was associated with soluble cell products, such as IFN-γ. The addition of recombinant canine IFN-γ to the E. canis culture also reduced the number of infected cells. A commercial recombinant canine IFN-γ, which is sold in Japan, was also effective at reducing E. canis-infected cell number. These results indicate that IFN-γ has an inhibitory effect on the frequency of E. canis-infected cells in vitro and that contact between effector and target cells is not necessary for the resistance.

  18. Use of an automated system for detection of canine serum antibodies against Ehrlichia canis glycoprotein 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroff, Scott; Sokolchik, Irene; Woodring, Todd; Woodruff, Colby; Atkinson, Brett; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the most common cause of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs around the world. The purpose of the present study was to validate a new automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4™ BioCD system; Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York) to detect antibodies against the E. canis immunodominant glycoprotein 36 (gp36). Sera and blood samples (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) were collected from mixed sex beagles ( n = 8) on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, and 98 after intravenous inoculation with culture-derived E. canis. Sera were assayed using the Accuplex4 BioCD system (Accuplex4), an E. canis indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and a commercially available kit. A complete blood cell count and a proprietary E. canis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on each blood sample. On the day thrombocytopenia was first detected for each dog, E. canis DNA was amplified from blood of all dogs. At those times, E. canis antibodies were detected in 7 of 8 dogs by the Accuplex4, 1 of 8 dogs by the commercial kit, and 4 of 8 dogs by IFAT. Ehrlichia canis DNA was amplified from blood before seroconversion in any antibody assay for 6 dogs. Antibodies against gp36 were detected by Accuplex4 within 3 days of PCR-positive test results and were detected up to 25 days sooner than the commercial kit. After starting doxycycline treatment, E. canis DNA was no longer amplified by PCR assay, but serum antibodies remained detectable by all assays.

  19. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico.

  20. Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak Selek, Mehmet; Baylan, Orhan; Kutlu, Ali; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis), a parasite which subsists in dog's intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU) to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis. In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB) WB test. We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13) of patients (n=73) with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109). Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa) were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity 12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day) increases seropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found 17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals. Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canis seropositivity in patients with CU.

  1. Brucella and Osteoarticular Cell Activation: Partners in Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Arriola Benitez, Paula C.; Delpino, M. Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most common presentation of human active disease although its prevalence varies widely. The three most common forms of osteoarticular involvement are sacroiliitis, spondylitis, and peripheral arthritis. The molecular mechanisms implicated in bone damage have been recently elucidated. B. abortus induces bone damage through diverse mechanisms in which TNF-α and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-the natural modulator of bone homeostasis are involved. These processes are driven by inflammatory cells, like monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, Th17 CD4+ T, and B cells. In addition, Brucella abortus has a direct effect on osteoarticular cells and tilts homeostatic bone remodeling. These bacteria inhibit bone matrix deposition by osteoblasts (the only bone cells involved in bone deposition), and modify the phenotype of these cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokine secretion, contributing to bone matrix degradation. B. abortus also affects osteoclasts (cells naturally involved in bone resorption) by inducing an increase in osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation; thus, increasing mineral and organic bone matrix resorption, contributing to bone damage. Given that the pathology induced by Brucella species involved joint tissue, experiments conducted on synoviocytes revealed that besides inducing the activation of these cells to secrete chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines and MMPS, the infection also inhibits synoviocyte apoptosis. Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that replicates preferentially in the endoplasmic reticulum of macrophages. The analysis of B. abortus-infected synoviocytes indicated that bacteria also replicate in their reticulum suggesting that they could use this cell type for intracellular replication during the osteoarticular localization of the disease. Finally, the molecular mechanisms of osteoarticular brucellosis discovered recently shed light on how the

  2. Brucella and Osteoarticular Cell Activation: Partners in Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Arriola Benitez, Paula C; Delpino, M Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most common presentation of human active disease although its prevalence varies widely. The three most common forms of osteoarticular involvement are sacroiliitis, spondylitis, and peripheral arthritis. The molecular mechanisms implicated in bone damage have been recently elucidated. B. abortus induces bone damage through diverse mechanisms in which TNF-α and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-the natural modulator of bone homeostasis are involved. These processes are driven by inflammatory cells, like monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, Th17 CD4(+) T, and B cells. In addition, Brucella abortus has a direct effect on osteoarticular cells and tilts homeostatic bone remodeling. These bacteria inhibit bone matrix deposition by osteoblasts (the only bone cells involved in bone deposition), and modify the phenotype of these cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokine secretion, contributing to bone matrix degradation. B. abortus also affects osteoclasts (cells naturally involved in bone resorption) by inducing an increase in osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation; thus, increasing mineral and organic bone matrix resorption, contributing to bone damage. Given that the pathology induced by Brucella species involved joint tissue, experiments conducted on synoviocytes revealed that besides inducing the activation of these cells to secrete chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines and MMPS, the infection also inhibits synoviocyte apoptosis. Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that replicates preferentially in the endoplasmic reticulum of macrophages. The analysis of B. abortus-infected synoviocytes indicated that bacteria also replicate in their reticulum suggesting that they could use this cell type for intracellular replication during the osteoarticular localization of the disease. Finally, the molecular mechanisms of osteoarticular brucellosis discovered recently shed light on how the

  3. Bison PRNP genotyping and potential association with Brucella spp. seroprevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, C.M.; Halbert, N.D.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Templeton, J.W.; Derr, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The implication that host cellular prion protein (PrPC) may function as a cell surface receptor and/or portal protein for Brucella abortus in mice prompted an evaluation of nucleotide and amino acid variation within exon 3 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) for six US bison populations. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (T50C), resulting in the predicted amino acid replacement M17T (Met ??? Thr), was identified in each population. To date, no variation (T50: Met) has been detected at the corresponding exon 3 nucleotide and/or amino acid position for domestic cattle. Notably, 80% (20 of 25) of the Yellowstone National Park bison possessing the C/C genotype were Brucella spp. seropositive, representing a significant (P = 0.021) association between seropositivity and the C/C genotypic class. Moreover, significant differences in the distribution of PRNP exon 3 alleles and genotypes were detected between Yellowstone National Park bison and three bison populations that were either founded from seronegative stock or previously subjected to test-and-slaughter management to eradicate brucellosis. Unlike domestic cattle, no indel polymorphisms were detected within the corresponding regions of the putative bison PRNP promoter, intron 1, octapeptide repeat region or 3???-untranslated region for any population examined. This study provides the first evidence of a potential association between nucleotide variation within PRNP exon 3 and the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bison, implicating PrPC in the natural resistance of bison to brucellosis infection. ?? 2005 International Society for Animal Genetics.

  4. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H.; Arias, Maykel A.; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea. PMID:26959235

  5. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Arias, Maykel A; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea.

  6. 快速检测牛羊猪种布鲁杆菌多重PCR的建立%Differentiation of Brucella abortus , Brucella melitensis , and Brucella suis by multiple primers PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锴; 王兴龙; 马鸣萧; 翟丽鹃

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for rapidly identifying Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis by multiple primers PCR. Methods According to Brncella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis IS711 insertion sequences, a public primer and three specific primers(544A, 16M, 1330S) were designed to set up multiplex PCR detection method. Yersinia O : 9, Escherichia coli O157 : HT, Salmonella typhimurium 47729 were selected to undergo multiple PCR reactions to detect the specificity. The sensitivity of multiple primers PCR of Brucella abortus was detected using multiple proportion dilution method. Results The amplified fragment size of Brucella abortus was 485 bp, that of Brucella melitensis 731 bp, and that of Brucella suis 248 bp, but PCR for the DNA of Yersinia O : 9, Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella typhimurium 47729 was negative. A sensitivity of the multiple primers PCR with Brucella abortus DNA using multiple proportional dilution quantitative method was 0.0967 pg. Conclusions Multiple PCR amplification method for rapidly detecting Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis has been successfully established, resulting in good specificity and sensitivity.%目的 建立一种能同时快速检测并能鉴别牛、羊、猪种布鲁杆菌的多重PCR方法.方法 根据IS711插入序列设计1条公共引物和3条牛、羊、猪种布鲁杆菌(544A、16M、1330S)特有序列引物,进行多重PCR反应;选择耶尔森菌O:9、大肠埃希菌O157:H7、鼠伤寒沙门菌47729进行多重PCR反应的特异性检测;倍比稀释定量法观察牛种布鲁杆菌多重PCR反应的敏感性.结果 牛、羊、猪种布鲁杆菌多重PCR反应扩增片段产物长度分别为485、731、248 bp;耶尔森菌O:9、大肠埃希菌O157:H7、鼠伤寒沙门菌47729加入布鲁杆菌中进行多重PCR反应.扩增结果呈阴性;牛种布鲁杆菌多重PCR反应敏感性为0.0967 Pg.结论 成功建立快速检测牛、羊、猪种布鲁

  7. [A case of Brucella spondylodiscitis after a visit to Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2012-02-13

    Brucellosis is a widespread endemic zoonotic infection affecting more than 500,000 people per year. The disease is very uncommon in Denmark and almost always imported. We present a case of a 57 year-old male with blood culture and magnetic resonance imaging verified brucella spondylodiscitis. Prior to debut of symptoms the patient had visited Lebanon where he had ingested unpasteurized goat milk. The patient was initially treated with an antimicrobial chemotherapy regimen for 12 weeks, which was prolonged due to inadequate radiological response.

  8. Brucella endocarditis – A series of five case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, I. Tammi; Solanki, Rachana; Patnaik, A.N.; Barik, R.C.; Kumari, N.R.; Gulati, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Endocarditis due to brucellosis is considered a rare occurrence involving native, congenital and prosthetic valves. The diagnosis needs high degree of suspicion in culture negative endocarditis especially in those with history of exposure to farm animals. A positive culture in a susceptible patient confirms the diagnosis with 91% sensitivity. An early diagnosis and prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics can restore the valve structural integrity with minimal damage. Here we present a series of five cases of culture proven Brucella endocarditis (four native valves, one prosthetic valve) and this report discusses the diagnostic and management issues involved. PMID:23438616

  9. Brucella and Coxiella; if you don't look, you don't find.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambourne, Jonathan R; Brooks, Tim

    2015-02-01

    Brucella and Coxiella are similar; both are obligate intracellular, zoonotic pathogens with a broad geographic distribution. Infection in animals is usually asymptomatic, but causes fetal loss and therefore has significant economic impact. Human infection may be asymptomatic or give rise to either organ-specific or multi-system disease. Organism culture is challenging for Coxiella and can lack sensitivity for Brucella. Therefore, infection is most commonly diagnosed by serology, but this may be negative in early infection and serology results may be challenging to interpret. Both Brucella and Coxiella are typically susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobials, but long courses may be needed.

  10. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Salmonella enterica PROVENIENTES DE PISOS, EQUIPOS, UTENSILIOS Y PRODUCTO TERMINADO EN PLANTAS DE BENEFICIO PORCINO EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Bermúdez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La diseminación de Salmonella spp. resistente a antimicrobianos en las cadenas productivas de alimentos de origen animal es una preocupación de salud pública de carácter mundial. Este estudio describe los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 283 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica procedentes de plantas de beneficio porcino en Colombia. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana frente a diez antimicrobianos mediante el método de difusión en disco: amoxacilina-ácido clavulánico (30 ug, ampicilina (10 ug, ceftiofur (30 ug, ciprofloxacina (5 ug, cloranfenicol (30 ug, florfenicol (30 ug, gentamicina (10 ug, sulfadiazina/trimetroprim (25 ug, tetraciclina (30 ug y tilmicosina (15 ug. Los resultados evidenciaron la presencia de 279 aislamientos multirresistentes de Salmonella enterica de origen porcino provenientes del ambiente y del producto terminado en las plantas de beneficio evaluadas (46,64% n: 132. Se detectaron 52 patrones de multiresistencia: el más común fue ceftiofur-tetraciclina-tilmicosina en el 9,89% (n: 28 de los aislamientos. Con referencia a estos antimicrobianos, 96,82% (n: 274 de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a tetraciclina, 73,14% (n: 207 a tilmicosina y 28,27% (n: 80 a ceftiofur. De especial interés fue la alta proporción de aislamientos resistentes a ceftiofur, debido a una posible resistencia cruzada con ceftriaxona. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la necesidad de promover el diseño e implementación de un Programa oficial Integrado de Vigilancia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana, además de sistemas de monitoreo voluntario en cada eslabón de la cadena productiva porcina, para contribuir a la prevención y control de la transmisión de microorganismos resistentes de origen alimentario en el marco del sistema de gestión de inocuidad alimentaria en Colombia.

  11. Classification of Babesia canis strains in Europe based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene from the Babesia canis Bc28 multigene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P

    2015-07-30

    The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28 kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of

  12. Identificación por PCR-SSCP de genes de cefotaximasas en aislamientos hospitalarios de Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Mantilla Anaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Las cefotaximasas (CTX-M son las beta-lactamasas de espectro extendido más ampliamente diseminadas entre especies de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, y son la causa principal de resistencia en aislamientos causantes de infección intrahospitalaria. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar variantes de cefotaximasas del grupo CTX-M-1 mediante el análisis del polimorfismo conformacional de cadena sencilla (SSCP de frag-mentos de restricción provenientes de los productos de la amplificación por PCR de los genes blaCTX-M. Con el procedimiento PCR-SSCP estandarizado, en este trabajo se analizaron 49 aislamientos de enterobacterias recolectados en 8 hospitales de Bogotá, D.C., adscritos a la Secretaría Distrital de Salud. Se detectaron las variantes CTX-M-12, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-12a, y CTX-M-1 y una nueva variante denominada CTX-M-60. Todas las variantes fueron detectadas tanto en aislamientos intrahospitalarios como de la comunidad, lo que indica posible movilidad de estos genes desde y hacia los centros hospitalarios. Esta publicación constituye el primer reporte en Colombia de la variante CTXM-12a y la nueva variante evolutiva CTX-M-60. Palabras clave: resistencia microbiana; cefotaximasas (CTX-M; polimorfismo conformacional de cadena sencilla (SSCP; beta-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE; infección hospitalaria. Abstract CTX-M cefotaximases are the most widely distributed extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae and they are an important cause of microbial resistance in nosocomial infection-causing isolates. The object of this work was to identify group 1 CTX-M cefotaximase variants from PCR amplified blaCTX-M genes by single-stranded conformational polymorphism of restriction fragments (RF-SSCP. We analysed 49 Enterobacteria isolates using the RF-SSCP procedure standardised in this work; isolates were collected from eight hospitals attached to the Bogota Health Secretariat (Secretaría Distrital de Salud. CTX-M-12

  13. Probable Pulmonary Blastomycosis in a Wild Coyote (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rodríguez-Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A female coyote (Canis latrans was fatally injured by a vehicle on a road in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Because of deteriorating clinical signs, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination of the lungs showed numerous small multifocal white nodules (0.5–1 cm diameter disseminated throughout. Histopathologic examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas with abundant macrophages, numerous neutrophils, fibroblasts, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Abundant intracellular and extracellular thick-walled, refractile, spherical yeasts (10–15 μm were observed within the granulomas. The yeasts were intensely PAS-positive, with granular protoplasm. Broad-based single budding yeasts were occasionally present. Based on the microscopic findings of the pulmonary lesions and the morphological features of the organism, a diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was made. To our knowledge, the case described herein is the first report of pulmonary blastomycosis in a wild coyote.

  14. Anthelmintic tests on Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P E; Clarkson, M J; Kerslake, M

    1981-04-04

    One hundred and forty mice were infected orally with 1000 embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. Groups of 10 mice were then treated with high doses of piperazine, mebendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole, fenbendazole and diethylcarbamazine for four days, either immediately after infection or three weeks after infection. The mice were killed three to six weeks after treatment and the number of larvae in the brains and muscles estimated and compared with those in untreated mice. Few larvae were recovered from the muscles of any of the mice, including the untreated controls, despite the use of a variety of recognised techniques. Large numbers of live larvae were recovered from the brains of the mice and there was no significant difference between the treated and untreated mice.

  15. Searching for RR Lyrae stars in the Canis Major Overdensity

    CERN Document Server

    Mateu, Cecilia; Zinn, Robert; Miller, Lissa; .,; 10.1017/S1743921307008459

    2009-01-01

    The Canis Major overdensity (CMa) was initially proposed to be the remnant of a tidally disrupting dSph galaxy. Since its nature is still subject of debate, the goal of the present work was to conduct a large-scale RR Lyrae survey in CMa, in order to see if there is an overdensity of these stars. The survey spans a total area of ~34 sq. deg. with observations in V and R filters, made with the 1.0m Jurgen Stock Schmidt telescope at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. Current results in a subregion, including spectroscopic observations, show that the small number of RR Lyrae stars found can be accounted for by the halo and thick disk components of our Galaxy.

  16. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor in a female wolf (Canis lupus lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIRAKI, Ayako; YOSHIDA, Toshinori; KAWASHIMA, Masahi; MURAYAMA, Hirotada; NAGAHARA, Rei; ITO, Nanao; SHIBUTANI, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    A 17-year-old female wolf (Canis lupus lupus) had a right lung mass that was adhered to the thoracic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass consisted of sheets, cord or ribbon-like structures of monotonous, small, cuboidal cells with round, oval or short-spindle nuclei and scant clear cytoplasm, demarcated by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Focal necrosis, congestion and thrombi were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells diffusely expressed cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and some expressed chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) and thyroid transcription factor-1. The number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive tumor cells was low. A diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor was based on the resemblance to carcinoids. PMID:28190820

  17. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  18. Caracterización de cristales de calcita bioprecipitada por un aislamiento nativo de Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montoya

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis es una bacteria útil en algunas aplicaciones biotecnológicas por poseer enzimas como las amilasas, las cuales desempeñan un papel importante en diferentes procesos industriales. Una de sus propiedades, poco estudiada, ha sido su capacidad de inducir bioprecipitación química de carbonato de calcio (Ca2+ + HCO3 3> CaCO3 + H+ mediante un mecanismo similar al observado en la formación de rocas, suelos y estructuras biológicas como huesos, conchas y dientes. En esta investigación se estudiaron los cristales producidos por un aislamiento nativo de B. subtilis, tomado de una mina de oro situada en Segovia (Antioquia. Se determinó su capacidad calcificante utilizando el medio de cultivo B4. La caracterización del cristal producido se realizó con lupa binocular, microscopio petrográfico de luz plana polarizada (MOLP en su modo de luz transmitida, microscopio electrónico de barrido con analizador de estado sólido (ESEM/EDX y espectroscopía infrarroja con transformada de Fourier (FTIR. A partir de los resultados obtenidos por medio de la caracterización utilizando la combinación de las técnicas analíticas que se mencionaron, fue posible determinar que el aislado nativo de B. subtilis generó y por ende es productor de cristales de carbonato de calcio (CaCO3 en su forma polimórfica de baja temperatura (calcite.Palabras clave: Bacillus subtilis, calcita, bioprecipitación, mineralogía aplicada, biomineralogía.ABSTRACTBacillus subtilis, a bacterium useful in some biotechnology applications, contains enzymes such as amylases, which play an important role in several industrial processes. One of its properties, not very well studied, is its capacity to induce the chemical bioprecipitation of CaCO3 (Ca2+ + HCO3 —> CaCO3 + H+, a similar mechanism commonly observed in the formation of rocks, soils and biological structures like bones, shells and teeth. In this work we have studied carbonate crystals produced by a B

  19. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology.

  20. First isolation and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis in Costa Rica, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L E; Meneses, A I; Salazar, L; Jiménez, M; Romero, J J; Aguiar, D M; Labruna, M B; Dolz, G

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated Ehrlichia species in blood samples from dogs suspected of clinical ehrlichiosis, using molecular and isolation techniques in cell culture. From a total of 310 canine blood samples analyzed by 16S rRNA nested PCR, 148 (47.7%) were positive for Ehrlichia canis. DNA from Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii was not detected in any sample using species-specific primers in separated reactions. Leukocytes from five PCR-positive dogs were inoculated into DH82 cells; successful isolation of E. canis was obtained in four samples. Partial sequence of the dsb gene of eight canine blood samples (including the five samples for in vitro isolation) was obtained by PCR and their analyses through BLAST showed 100% of identity with the corresponding sequence of E. canis in GenBank. This study represents the first molecular diagnosis, isolation, and molecular characterization of E. canis in dogs from Costa Rica.

  1. First molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks from dogs in Cebu, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Perez, Zandro O; Gabotero, Shirleny R; Yandug, Ryan T; Kotaro, Matsumoto; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    Ehrlichia canis infection of dogs in the Philippines has been detected by serological and peripheral blood smear examination methods, but not by molecular means. Anaplasma platys infection in dogs has not yet been officially reported, although it is suspected to occur in the country. Thus, sensitive and specific molecular techniques were used in this study to demonstrate the presence of both E. canis and A. platys in the Philippines. A total of 164 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was collected from 36 dogs. Seven tick samples were found positive with E. canis and one sample with A. platys. To further characterize these pathogens, molecular analyses based on citrate synthase and heat-shock operon genes were also performed. Philippine strains were found to be not divergent from strains from other countries. The present results are the first molecular detection and analyses of E. canis and A. platys in ticks from dogs in the Philippines.

  2. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives...

  3. The thermal insulating materials and its coatings for underground piping; Los aislamientos termicos y sus recubrimientos para tuberias subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcido Lopez, Salvador [Aislantes Minerales, S. A. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Energy Saving through the adequate selection and application of the thermal insulating materials, as well as its coatings for underground piping conducting fluids, both at high and at low temperature. The benefits are outlined at economical level for the investor as well as at ecological level (of vital importance today) and are observed as practical examples in industrial and commercial processes. [Espanol] Ahorro de energeticos mediante la adecuada seleccion y aplicacion de los aislamientos termicos, asi como de sus recubrimientos para tuberias subterraneas que conducen fluidos tanto en alta como en baja temperatura. Los beneficios son destacados tanto a nivel economico para el inversionista, como a nivel ecologico (de vital importancia en la actualidad), y son observados con ejemplos practicos en procesos industriales y comerciales.

  4. Brucella abortus is Prevalent in Both Humans and Animals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A K M A; Saegerman, C; Berkvens, D; Melzer, F; Neubauer, H; Fretin, D; Abatih, E; Dhand, N; Ward, M P

    2017-01-09

    To determine the role of different Brucella (B.) spp. in Bangladesh, 62 animal samples and 500 human sera were tested. Animal samples from cattle, goats and sheep (including milk, bull semen, vaginal swabs and placentas) were cultured for Brucella spp. Three test-positive human sera and all animal samples were screened by Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and positive samples were then tested by IS711 RT-PCR to detect B. abortus and B. melitensis DNA. Only B. abortus DNA was amplified from 13 human and six animal samples. This is the first report describing B. abortus as the aetiological agent of brucellosis in occupationally exposed humans in Bangladesh. Of note is failure to detect B. melitensis DNA, the species most often associated with human brucellosis worldwide. Further studies are required to explore the occurrence of Brucella melitensis in Bangladesh.

  5. Important biology events and pathways in Brucella infection and implications for novel antibiotic drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangjun; Xu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella spp. is a common zoonosis in many parts of the world. Humans are infected through contact with infected animals or their dirty products. Many mechanisms are needed for this successful infection, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Host immune response and some signaling molecules play an important role in the infection event. Bacterial pathogens operate by attacking crucial intracellular pathways or some important molecules in each of these pathways for survival in their hosts. The crucial components (molecules) of immunity or pathway play a critical role in the whole process of Brucella infection. Here we summarize the findings of the Brucella-host interactions' immune system and signaling molecular cascades involved in the TLR-initiated immune response to Brucella spp. infection. The paper serves to deepen our understanding of this complex process and to provide some clues regarding the discovery of drug targets for prevention and control.

  6. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  7. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    OpenAIRE

    MATA-SANTOS, Taís; PINTO, Nitza França; Hilton Antônio MATA-SANTOS; DE MOURA, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; CARVALHO, Tatiane dos Santos; DEL RIO, Karina Pena; PINTO, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; MARTINS, Lourdes Rodrigues; Juliana Montelli FENALTI; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubate...

  8. Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak-Selek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis, a parasite which subsists in dog’s intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis.In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB WB test.We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13 of patients (n=73 with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109. Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day increasesseropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals.Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canisseropositivity in patients with CU. 

  9. SEROLOGIC DETECTION OF EHRLICHIA CANIS AND EHRLICHIA CHAFFENSIS IN STAFF OF VETERINARY CLINICS IN LIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Paulino R., Analí; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Li E., Olga; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Hoyos S., Luis; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Suárez A., Francisco; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Díaz C., Diego; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect seropositivity against Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in staff of veterinary clinics and in persons that had contact with dogs affected by canine ehrlichosis using the indirect immunofluorescence test. Ninety serum samples were used, 55 men and 35 women. Results indicated 23.3% of seropositivity to E. canis and 20.0% to E. chaffeensis, without statistical differences due to gender. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la pres...

  10. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  11. Immunization of Mice with Recombinant Brucella abortus Organic Hydroperoxide Resistance (Ohr) Protein Protects Against a Virulent Brucella abortus 544 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Brucella abortus ohr gene coding for an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) was cloned into a maltose fusion protein expression system (pMAL), inserted into Escherichia coli, and purified, and its immunogenicity was evaluated by western blot analysis using Brucella-positive mouse sera. The purified recombinant Ohr (rOhr) was treated with adjuvant and injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. A protective immune response analysis revealed that rOhr induced a significant increase in both the IgG1 and IgG2a titers, and IgG2a reached a higher level than IgG1 after the second and third immunizations. Additionally, immunization with rOhr induced high production of IFN-γ as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, MCP-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6, but a lesser amount of IL-10, suggesting that rOhr predominantly elicited a cell-mediated immune response. In addition, immunization with rOhr caused a significantly higher degree of protection against a virulent B. abortus infection compared with a positive control group consisting of mice immunized with maltose-binding protein. These findings showed that B. abortus rOhr was able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice, which suggested that this recombinant protein could be a potential vaccine candidate for animal brucellosis.

  12. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P canis infection is present in both dogs and the brown dog ticks R. sanguineus in Yucatan, Mexico.

  13. Ehrlichial infection in Cameroonian canines by Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia ewingii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndip, L M; Ndip, R N; Esemu, S N; Dickmu, V L; Fokam, E B; Walker, D H; McBride, J W

    2005-11-30

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii are agents of emerging human ehrlichioses in North America and are transmitted primarily by Amblyomma americanum ticks, while Ehrlichia canis is the globally distributed cause of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and is transmitted by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Although E. canis and Ehrlichia ruminantium are endemic in Africa, the presence of ehrlichial agents in dogs and ticks in Cameroon has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ehrlichial infections in Cameronian dogs using a combination of serologic and molecular methods. Peripheral blood was collected, clinical signs and the presence or absence of ticks on dogs (n=104) presenting for various reasons at local veterinary clinics around the Mount Cameroon region were noted. IFA identified 33 dogs (32%) with antibodies reactive with E. canis, and reactivity of these sera with all major E. canis antigens (200, 140, 95, 75, 47, 36, 28, and 19-kDa) was confirmed by immunoblotting. Multicolor real-time PCR detected ehrlichial DNA (E. canis (15) and E. ewingii (2)) in 17 dogs (16.3%), all of which had attached ticks at time of presentation. The dsb amplicons (378 bp) from E. canis and E. ewingii were identical to gene sequences from North American isolates. This study identifies canine ehrlichiosis as a prevalent unrecognized cause of disease in Cameroonian canines.

  14. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasta, Camila Serina; dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Messick, Joanne Belle; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Dalmolin, Magnus Larruscaim; González, Félix Hilario Diaz

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil; and to investigate their association with hematological abnormalities. Serum samples from 196 dogs were first tested using dot-ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia canis. Peripheral blood samples from 199 dogs were subjected to 16S rRNA nested PCR (nPCR) for A. platys and E. canis, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. A total of 19/196 samples (9.69%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. using ELISA and 28/199 (14.07%) samples were positive for A. platys by nested PCR. All the dog samples were negative for E. canis, both in anti-E. canis antibody tests and in nested PCR. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between A. platys-PCR positive and negative dogs and Anaplasma spp. serologically positive dogs, except for basophil counts, which were higher in nPCR-positive dogs. This is the first report showing A. platys presence in dogs in Southern Brazil. In conclusion, hematological parameters may not be sufficient to diagnose A. platys infection in dogs in Southern Brazil, probably due either to low pathogenicity or to chronic infection. On the other hand, E. canis may either have very low occurrence or be absent in dogs in Porto Alegre.

  15. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America.

  16. The occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophium in dogs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z; Yu, D; Mao, J; Zhang, Z; Yu, J

    2012-06-01

    A survey of the occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophium in dogs was undertaken in the People's Republic of China between October 2008 and October 2009. A total of 600 blood samples were taken from dogs in four cities in China: 300 in Beijing, 150 in Shenzhen, 30 in Shanghai and 120 in Zhengzhou. All samples were tested for the heartworm antigen and antibodies of canine B. burgdorferi, E. canis and A. phagocytophium by using the canine SNAP® 4Dx® test kit. The occurrence of D. immitis, B. burgdorferi, E. canis and A. phagocytophium was 1.17% (7/600), 0.17% (1/600), 2.17% (13/600) and 0.5% (3/600), respectively. In Shenzhen city 2% (3/150), 8.67% (13/150) and 2% (3/150) of samples were positive for D. immitis, E. canis and A. phagocytophium, respectively. The occurrence of heartworm antigen was 0.33% (1/300) in Beijing, 2.00% (3/150) in Shenzhen, 3.33% (1/30) in Shanghai and 1.67% (2/120) in Zhengzhou. We found E. canis and A. phagocytophium only at one site, Shenzhen, while the only occurrence of B. burgdorferi was at Beijing. In conclusion, the dog population in China is at potential risk for D. immitis, B. burgdorferi, E. canis and A. phagocytophium infection, the risk being especially high in southern China.

  17. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the gp200 protein of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Chia; Hsieh, Yu-Chen; Tsang, Chau-Loong; Chung, Yang-Tsung

    2010-12-01

    Ehrlichia (E.) canis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Currently, the genetic diversity of E. canis strains worldwide is poorly defined. In the present study, sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rDNA (1,620 bp) and the complete coding region (4,269 bp) of the gp200 gene, which encodes the largest major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, from 17 Taiwanese samples was conducted. The resultant 16S rDNA sequences were found to be identical to each other and have very high homology (99.4~100%) with previously reported E. canis sequences. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of gp200 demonstrated that the E. canis Taiwanese genotype was genetically distinct from other reported isolates obtained from the United States, Brazil, and Israel, and that it formed a separate clade. Remarkable variations unique to the Taiwanese genotype were found throughout the deduced amino acid sequence of gp200, including 15 substitutions occurring in two of five known species-specific epitopes. The gp200 amino acid sequences of the Taiwanese genotype bore 94.4~94.6 identities with those of the isolates from the United States and Brazil, and 93.7% homology with that of the Israeli isolate. Taken together, these results suggest that the Taiwanese genotype represents a novel strain of E. canis that has not yet been characterized.

  18. Occurrence of different strains of Babesia canis in dogs in eastern Poland

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    Łyp Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to carry out a genetic analysis of Babesia canis isolates detected in dogs in eastern Poland and to study the correlation of the protozoa variant with a specific geographical region. Material and Methods: PCR was used to identify strains of B. canis from naturally infected animals (240 dogs from four provinces: Mazowieckie, Lublin, Podlasie, and Podkarpacie by amplifying and sequencing a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Results: Sequencing the PCR products led to the identification of four variants of B. canis. Two previously described protozoa variants (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B were observed in all provinces. Additionally, in the Mazowieckie and Lublin provinces a B. canis variant which contributed to the development of acute or atypical babesiosis was observed. The fourth variant of B. canis was detected only in dogs from the Lublin province, and the course of the disease was subclinical in all dogs infected with this variant. Conclusion: These results indicate the appearance of a new fourth B. canis genotype in Poland and confirm that it is still necessary to study the relationships between the genetic structure of protozoa, geographical distribution of the parasites, and clinical course of the disease.

  19. Identification and characterization of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzmann, A; Bergmann, S; Rohde, M; Chhatwal, G S; Fulde, M

    2013-02-22

    Although Streptococcus (S.) canis is known to cause severe infections in dogs and cats and harbors a clear zoonotic potential, knowledge about physiology and pathogenesis is mostly elusive. The arginine deiminase system (ADS) has been described in certain streptococcal species and its role in the establishment of infection has been suggested. In this study we focused on the identification and characterization of the ADS in S. canis. Using genome sequencing and subsequent in silico analysis we identified the ADS of S. canis as a gene cluster composed of seven genes. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the ADS of S. canis is transcribed in four transcriptional units, comprising three monocistronical mRNAs and one operon structure. As a secondary metabolic pathway, the ADS of S. canis is strictly regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and arginine as demonstrated on transcriptional, translational, and enzymatical level, respectively. Furthermore, growth kinetics with a chemically defined medium clearly showed that arginine, the substrate of the ADS, is essential for the biological fitness of S. canis. Using Immuno-electron microscopy analysis, we observed a surface-exposed localization of the ADS enzymes arginine deiminase (ArcA), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB), and carbamate kinase (ArcC), respectively, which might suggest the contribution of the ADS to the development of streptococcal infections.

  20. "EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BRUCELLOSIS IN ISFAHAN (SEASONAL VARIATION IN MILK CONTAMINATION WITH BRUCELLA"

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    A. Owrang

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were collected once every two weeks from 69 milk distribution centers for a period of one year. The samples were examined for Brucella infection by means of a ring test. It was shown that the infection of milk has no relation to any special season. Cattle, sheep and goat milk were all found infected. Some of the positive milk specimens were cultured and Brucella was isolated.

  1. Identification and effect decomposition of risk factors for Brucella contamination of raw whole milk in china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of clear risk factor identification is the main reason for the persistence of brucellosis infection in the Chinese population, and there has been little assessment of the factors contributing to Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting Brucella contamination of raw milk, and to evaluate effective measures for disease reduction in order to determine preventive strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nationwide survey was conducted and samples were obtained from 5211 cows corresponding to 25 sampling locations throughout 15 provinces in China. The prevalence of Brucella in the raw milk samples averaged 1.07% over the 15 Chinese provinces, while the prevalence of positive areas within these regions ranged from 0.23-3.84% among the nine provinces with positive samples. The survey examined factors that supposedly influence Brucella contamination of raw whole milk, such as management style, herd size, abortion rate, hygiene and disease control practices. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the association between risk factors for Brucella and contamination of milk samples. Furthermore, a relative effect decomposition study was conducted to determine effective strategies for reducing the risk of Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. Our data indicate that disease prevention and control measures, abortion rate, and animal polyculture are the most important risk factors. Meanwhile, culling after quarantine was identified as an effective protective measure in the current Chinese dairy situation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, although there is a low risk of contamination of milk with Brucella nationwide in China, there are individual regions where contamination is a significant problem. Controlling three factors-culling after quarantine, maintaining a low abortion rate, and avoiding mixing groups of cattle and small ruminants

  2. Identification at Biovar Level of Brucella Isolates Causing Abortion in Small Ruminants of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah; Ramin Bagheri Nejad; Karim Amiri; Ali Reza Bahonar

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results show...

  3. Brucella vulpis sp. nov., isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hammerl, Jens A; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Vergnaud, Gilles; Witte, Angela; Aistleitner, Karin; Hofer, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Two slow-growing, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains F60T and F965), isolated in Austria from mandibular lymph nodes of two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. In a recent study, both isolates were assigned to the genus Brucella but could not be attributed to any of the existing species. Hence, we have analysed both strains in further detail to determine their exact taxonomic position and genetic relatedness to other members of the genus Brucella. The genome sizes of F60T and F965 were 3 236 779 and 3 237 765 bp, respectively. Each genome consisted of two chromosomes, with a DNA G+C content of 57.2 %. A genome-to-genome distance of >80 %, an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 97 % and an average amino acid identity (AAI) of 98 % compared with the type species Brucella melitensis confirmed affiliation to the genus. Remarkably, 5 % of the entire genetic information of both strains was of non-Brucella origin, including as-yet uncharacterized bacteriophages and insertion sequences as well as ABC transporters and other genes of metabolic function from various soil-living bacteria. Core-genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions placed the novel species well separated from all hitherto-described species of the genus Brucella, forming a long-branched sister clade to the classical species of Brucella. In summary, based on phenotypic and molecular data, we conclude that strains F60T and F965 are members of a novel species of the genus Brucella, for which the name Brucella vulpis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain F60T ( = BCCN 09-2T = DSM 101715T).

  4. Ontology-based representation and analysis of host-Brucella interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical ontologies are representations of classes of entities in the biomedical domain and how these classes are related in computer- and human-interpretable formats. Ontologies support data standardization and exchange and provide a basis for computer-assisted automated reasoning. IDOBRU is an ontology in the domain of Brucella and brucellosis. Brucella is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes brucellosis, the most common zoonotic disease in the world. In this stu...

  5. Brucella discriminates between mouse dendritic cell subsets upon in vitro infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Alexia; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Degos, Clara; de Chastellier, Chantal; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide re-emerging zoonosis. Brucella has been shown to infect and replicate within Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) in vitro grown bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). In this cell model, Brucella can efficiently control BMDC maturation. However, it has been shown that Brucella infection in vivo induces spleen dendritic cells (DC) migration and maturation. As DCs form a complex network composed by several subpopulations, differences observed may be due to different interactions between Brucella and DC subsets. Here, we compare Brucella interaction with several in vitro BMDC models. The present study shows that Brucella is capable of replicating in all the BMDC models tested with a high infection rate at early time points in GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs. GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs are more activated than the other studied DC models and consequently intracellular bacteria are not efficiently targeted to the ER replicative niche. Interestingly, GMCSF-DC and GMCSF-Flt3l DC response to infection is comparable. However, the key difference between these 2 models concerns IL10 secretion by GMCSF DCs observed at 48 h post-infection. IL10 secretion can explain the weak secretion of IL12p70 and TNFα in the GMCSF-DC model and the low level of maturation observed when compared to GMCSF-IL15 DCs and Flt3l DCs. These models provide good tools to understand how Brucella induce DC maturation in vivo and may lead to new therapeutic design using DCs as cellular vaccines capable of enhancing immune response against pathogens.

  6. MEDICAL vs. MEDICAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR BRUCELLA ENDOCARDITIS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Marzieh; Hossain, Mian; Sajadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This review was undertaken to determine the role of surgery in the treatment of brucella endocarditis. All English and French articles reporting brucella endocarditis (1966–2011) in Pubmed, Google and Scopus were reviewed. 308 cases were identified and Linear and Logistic regression was performed. Surgery improved outcomes by decreasing mortality from 32.7% in the medical treatment only group to 6.7% in the combined surgical and medical treatment group (p

  7. The Antibacterial Activity of Selected Labiatae (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils against Brucella melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Al-Mariri; Mazen Safi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. The major cause of brucellosis worldwide is brucella melitensis. Medicinal plants are considered as new antibacterial sources that could replace conventional antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of some native plants, alone and in combination with some antibiotics, in the treatment of brucellosis. Methods: The present experi...

  8. Pyruvate kinase is necessary for Brucella abortus full virulence in BALB/c mouse

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBrucellosis, caused by a facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella, is one of the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. Host infection relies on several uncanonical virulence factors. A recent research hotpot is the links between carbon metabolism and bacterial virulence. In this study, we found that a carbon metabolism-related pyruvate kinase (Pyk) encoded by pyk gene (locus tag BAB_RS24320) was associated with Brucella virulence. Determination of bacterial gro...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Brucella abortus Strains Isolated from Cattle and Pig

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Brucella abortus strains LMN1 and LMN2 isolated from cattle and pig. The LMN1 and LMN2 have the genome size of 3,395,952 bp and 3,334,792 bp, respectively. In addition to the conserved genes of Brucella, few novel regions showing similarity to the phages were identified in both strains.

  10. Characterization of the Urease Operon of Brucella abortus and Assessment of Its Role in Virulence of the Bacterium▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sangari, Félix J; Seoane, Asunción; Rodríguez, María Cruz; Agüero, Jesús; García Lobo, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    Most members of the genus Brucella show strong urease activity. However, the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of Brucella infections is poorly understood. We isolated several Tn5 insertion mutants deficient in urease activity from Brucella abortus strain 2308. The mutations of most of these mutants mapped to a 5.7-kbp DNA region essential for urease activity. Sequencing of this region, designated ure1, revealed the presence of seven open reading frames corresponding to the urease struc...

  11. Glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in Brucella spp.: distribution and contribution to fitness under extremely acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel; De Biase, Daniela; Occhialini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative.

  12. The Change of a Medically Important Genus: Worldwide Occurrence of Genetically Diverse Novel Brucella Species in Exotic Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C.; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Shilton, Cathy; Benedict, Suresh; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Blom, Jochen; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The genus Brucella comprises various species of both veterinary and human medical importance. All species are genetically highly related to each other, sharing intra-species average nucleotide identities (ANI) of > 99%. Infections occur among various warm-blooded animal species, marine mammals, and humans. Until recently, amphibians had not been recognized as a host for Brucella. In this study, however, we show that novel Brucella species are distributed among exotic frogs worldwide. Comparative recA gene analysis of 36 frog isolates from various continents and different frog species revealed an unexpected high genetic diversity, not observed among classical Brucella species. In phylogenetic reconstructions the isolates consequently formed various clusters and grouped together with atypical more distantly related brucellae, like B. inopinata, strain BO2, and Australian isolates from rodents, some of which were isolated as human pathogens. Of one frog isolate (10RB9215) the genome sequence was determined. Comparative genome analysis of this isolate and the classical Brucella species revealed additional genetic material, absent from classical Brucella species but present in Ochrobactrum, the closest genetic neighbor of Brucella, and in other soil associated genera of the Alphaproteobacteria. The presence of gene clusters encoding for additional metabolic functions, flanked by tRNAs and mobile genetic elements, as well as by bacteriophages is suggestive for a different ecology compared to classical Brucella species. Furthermore it suggests that amphibian isolates may represent a link between free living soil saprophytes and the pathogenic Brucella with a preferred intracellular habitat. We therefore assume that brucellae from frogs have a reservoir in soil and, in contrast to classical brucellae, undergo extensive horizontal gene transfer. PMID:28036367

  13. Brucella abortus uses a stealthy strategy to avoid activation of the innate immune system during the onset of infection.

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    Elías Barquero-Calvo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To unravel the strategy by which Brucella abortus establishes chronic infections, we explored its early interaction with innate immunity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brucella did not induce proinflammatory responses as demonstrated by the absence of leukocyte recruitment, humoral or cellular blood changes in mice. Brucella hampered neutrophil (PMN function and PMN depletion did not influence the course of infection. Brucella barely induced proinflammatory cytokines and consumed complement, and was strongly resistant to bactericidal peptides, PMN extracts and serum. Brucella LPS (BrLPS, NH-polysaccharides, cyclic glucans, outer membrane fragments or disrupted bacterial cells displayed low biological activity in mice and cells. The lack of proinflammatory responses was not due to conspicuous inhibitory mechanisms mediated by the invading Brucella or its products. When activated 24 h post-infection macrophages did not kill Brucella, indicating that the replication niche was not fusiogenic with lysosomes. Brucella intracellular replication did not interrupt the cell cycle or caused cytotoxicity in WT, TLR4 and TLR2 knockout cells. TNF-alpha-induction was TLR4- and TLR2-dependent for live but not for killed B. abortus. However, intracellular replication in TLR4, TLR2 and TLR4/2 knockout cells was not altered and the infection course and anti-Brucella immunity development upon BrLPS injection was unaffected in TLR4 mutant mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that Brucella has developed a stealth strategy through PAMPs reduction, modification and hiding, ensuring by this manner low stimulatory activity and toxicity for cells. This strategy allows Brucella to reach its replication niche before activation of antimicrobial mechanisms by adaptive immunity. This model is consistent with clinical profiles observed in humans and natural hosts at the onset of infection and could be valid for those intracellular pathogens phylogenetically

  14. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid diagnosis of Babesia canis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Aysul, N; Liu, Z; Salih, D A; Karagenc, T; Beyer, D; Kullmann, B; Ahmed, J S; Seitzer, U

    2010-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are rising in interest due to global warming, which is believed to impact on the distribution of vectors into new areas thus influencing the occurrence and epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens. Babesia canis belongs to the Piroplasmidae and there are three described subspecies, namely B. canis canis, B. canis rossi and B. canis vogeli. They are each transmitted by a different tick-species, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. There are also differences in the geographical distribution and pathogenicity to dogs of each subspecies. In this study, we aimed to establish a rapid and easy to perform DNA-based test using loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect all three Babesia canis subspecies in one assay.

  15. Detection of Brucella species in the milk of infected cattle, sheep, goats and camels by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Mahmoud E R; Amin, A S

    2002-05-01

    One hundred and three milk samples were collected from 52 cows, 21 ewes, 18 goats and 12 camels. The animals tested positive to at least one of the following: (1) standard tube agglutination test (SAT); (2) Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT); (3) milk ring test (MRT). All milk samples were examined by culture and single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for detection of Brucella species. The PCR assay amplified Brucella-DNA from 29 bovine milk samples, 10 from sheep, 13 from goats and one from a camel. The direct culture method detected Brucella organisms from 24 samples of cows' milk, 12 from sheep, 10 from goats and failed to detect any Brucella organisms from camels' milk. PCR detected up to 100 colony forming units (CFU) of B. abortus per millilitre of milk in 100% of diluted milk samples, and 1000 CFU of B. melitensis from 70% of milk samples. Although the overall sensitivity of the PCR was higher than the culture method, it should be possible to increase the sensitivity to detect lower numbers of Brucella organisms in field samples. The speed and sensitivity of the PCR assay suggest that this technique could be useful for detection of Brucella organisms in bovine milk, as well as in sheep, goat, and camels milk.

  16. Brucella spp noncanonical LPS: structure, biosynthesis, and interaction with host immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sergio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that have the ability to survive and multiply in professional and non-professional phagocytes, and cause abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. Several species are recognized within the genus Brucella and this classification is mainly based on the difference in pathogenicity and in host preference. Brucella strains may occur as either smooth or rough, expressing smooth LPS (S-LPS or rough LPS (R-LPS as major surface antigen. This bacterium possesses an unconventional non-endotoxic lipopolysaccharide that confers resistance to anti-microbial attacks and modulates the host immune response. The strains that are pathogenic for humans (B. abortus, B. suis, B. melitensis carry a smooth LPS involved in the virulence of these bacteria. The LPS O-chain protects the bacteria from cellular cationic peptides, oxygen metabolites and complement-mediated lysis and it is a key molecule for Brucella survival and replication in the host. Here, we review i Brucella LPS structure; ii Brucella genome, iii genes involved in LPS biosynthesis; iv the interaction between LPS and innate immunity.

  17. Brucella suis-Impaired Specific Recognition of Phagosomes by Lysosomes due to Phagosomal Membrane Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroeni, Aroem; Jouy, Nicolas; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Porte, Françoise

    2001-01-01

    Brucella species are gram-negative, facultatively intracellular bacteria that infect humans and animals. These organisms can survive and replicate within a membrane-bound compartment in phagocytic and nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion has been proposed as a mechanism for intracellular survival in both types of cells. However, the biochemical mechanisms and microbial factors implicated in Brucella maturation are still completely unknown. We developed two different approaches in an attempt to gain further insight into these mechanisms: (i) a fluorescence microscopy analysis of general intracellular trafficking on whole cells in the presence of Brucella and (ii) a flow cytometry analysis of in vitro reconstitution assays showing the interaction between Brucella suis-containing phagosomes and lysosomes. The fluorescence microscopy results revealed that fusion properties of latex bead-containing phagosomes with lysosomes were not modified in the presence of live Brucella suis in the cells. We concluded that fusion inhibition was restricted to the pathogen phagosome and that the host cell fusion machinery was not altered by the presence of live Brucella in the cell. By in vitro reconstitution experiments, we observed a specific association between killed B. suis-containing phagosomes and lysosomes, which was dependent on exogenously supplied cytosol, energy, and temperature. This association was observed with killed bacteria but not with live bacteria. Hence, this specific recognition inhibition seemed to be restricted to the pathogen phagosomal membrane, as noted in the in vivo experiments. PMID:11119541

  18. Ensayo de aislamiento acústico a ruido aéreo de los cerramientos exteriores y particiones realizados con paneles de madera

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    Pacios Álvarez, Antonia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The house prototype of the Provisional Emergency House System uses wood and its derivatives for the facades, floor structure, roofing and partitions.  The extensive use of wooden panels for the construction and the lack of data, in Spain, about their acoustic behavior bring up the necessity to make in situ measurements of the acoustic isolation to airborne sound. Panels used for facades and partitions are built with a wooden framework and membrane of oriented strand board in both sides, for the facades, and of laminated plaster boards for the inner partitions. With the objective of verifying the sound insulation of the facades according to Spanish Standard UNE EN ISO 140-5, in situ measurements of airborne sound insulation of facade elements and facades have been made; according to Spanish Standard UNE EN ISO 140-4, in situ measurements of airborne sound insulation between rooms for internal walls have also been made. The procedure of the global insulation has been followed to measure the acoustic insulation of complete facades without making distinction between the elements that form it.El prototipo de vivienda del Sistema de Vivienda Provisional de Emergencia utiliza principalmente la madera y sus derivados tanto en los cerramientos y particiones como en el forjado y la cubierta. El empleo de soluciones constructivas ligeras y la falta de datos en España acerca del comportamiento acústico de los mismos plantea la necesidad de realizar mediciones in situ del aislamiento acústico a ruido aéreo. El panel base de cerramiento y particiones se construye partiendo de un entramado de montantes de madera con membrana en ambas caras de tableros de virutas de madera orientadas, para el caso de los cerramientos exteriores, y de tableros laminados de yeso para las particiones interiores. Con el objeto de comprobar el aislamiento acústico de dichos cerramiento se han realizado ensayos siguiendo la Norma UNE EN ISO 140-5 para la medición in situ del

  19. Resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos en 103 aislamientos clínicos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001) Resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials in 103 clinical isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001)

    OpenAIRE

    J.J. García-Irure; A. Navascués; I. Martín; C. Gastesi

    2003-01-01

    Fundamentos. Conocer en nuestro hospital la sensibilidad a penicilina de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como analizar la asociación de resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos y la actividad de cefotaxima y cefepima en cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a penicilina. Métodos. Se determinó la sensibilidad de 103 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, procedentes de muestras clínicas durante los años 2000-2001, a penicilina, eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetr...

  20. Brucella abortus: inmunidad, vacunas y estrategias de prevención basadas en ácidos nucleicos Brucella abortus: immunity, vaccines and prevention strategies based on nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rivers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucelosis, enfermedad causada por la bacteria intracelular facultativa Brucella abortus, es una zoonosis ampliamente distribuida a nivel mundial que afecta principalmente al ganado bovino, causando esterilidad en machos y abortos en hembras en gestación. La resistencia depende del desarrollo de una inmunidad mediada por células, con la participación de células T CD4+ de tipo Th1, que secreten interferón gama (-INF, citosina que estimula la actividad bactericida por macrófagos y la actividad citotóxica de linfocitos T CD8+, que son capaces de matar células infectadas con Brucella. Brucella posee como componentes antigénicos importantes el lipopolisacárido (LPS y las proteínas, entre las que se destaca por su demostrada capacidad inmune la superóxido dismutasa (SOD. La prevención de la diseminación de la brucelosis se fundamenta en el desarrollo de vacunas eficientes contra B. abortus, utilizándose cepas atenuadas de Brucella abortus como la cepa 19, cepa 45/20 y la cepa RB51; vacunas subcelulares en base a antígenos que forman parte de la estructura de la bacteria y vacunas basadas en moléculas de ácidos nucleicos, como las vacunas ADN y las vacunas ARN. En la presente revisión se pretende dar una visión actualizada sobre la brucelosis, su patogenia y cuadro clínico. Se hace un análisis de las características genéticas, antigénicas e inmunológicas de Brucella. Luego, una exposición de las vacunas actualmente en uso para su prevención y los estudios con vacunas subcelulares para finalizar con las nuevas tendencias en la generación de vacunas, como las vacunas ADN y ARN para Brucella.Brucellosis, a disease caused by the intracellular facultative bacteria Brucella abortus, is a widely distributed zoonosis throughout the world, affecting mainly cattle and causing sterility in males and abortion in pregnant females. Protection against B. abortus relies on the activation of cellular immunity involving lymphocytes T CD4

  1. Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huánuco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán. Huánuco, Perú.; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo; Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán. Huánuco, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Bloodsamples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogswere randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographicimmunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with thepresence of Ehrlich...

  2. IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  3. IgG Antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites

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    Susana A. Zevallos Lescano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii. Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.. Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES, obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  4. Enzymatic, immunological and phylogenetic characterization of Brucella suis urease

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    Sriranganathan Nammalwar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequenced genomes of the Brucella spp. have two urease operons, ure-1 and ure-2, but there is evidence that only one is responsible for encoding an active urease. The present work describes the purification and the enzymatic and phylogenomic characterization of urease from Brucella suis strain 1330. Additionally, the urease reactivity of sera from patients diagnosed with brucellosis was examined. Results Urease encoded by the ure-1 operon of Brucella suis strain 1330 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The urease was purified 51-fold with a recovery of 12% of the enzyme activity and 0.24% of the total protein. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5, and showed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 28–35°C. The purified enzyme exhibited a Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics with a Km of 5.60 ± 0.69 mM. Hydroxyurea and thiourea are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki of 1.04 ± 0.31 mM and 26.12 ± 2.30 mM, respectively. Acetohydroxamic acid also inhibits the enzyme in a competitive way. The molecular weight estimated for the native enzyme was between 130–135 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 157 ± 7 kDa using 5–10% polyacrylamide gradient non-denaturing gel. Only three subunits in SDS-PAGE were identified: two small subunits of 14,000 Da and 15,500 Da, and a major subunit of 66,000 Da. The amino terminal sequence of the purified large subunit corresponded to the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by ureC1. The UreC1 subunit was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. By phylogenetic and cluster structure analyses, ureC1 was related to the ureC typically present in the Rhizobiales; in contrast, the ureC2 encoded in the ure-2 operon is more related to distant species. Conclusion We have for the first time purified and characterized an active urease from B. suis. The enzyme was characterized at the kinetic

  5. Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-11-08

    A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72 h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis.

  6. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos no município de Uberlândia, MG

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    S.R.S. Salaberry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The first epidemiologic inquiry to Brucella abortus (B. abortus and Brucella ovis (B. ovis was carried out in sheep from Uberlândia county, MG. A total of 334 blood serum samples of sheep from both sexes and different ages and breeds were collected in 12 farms. An epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm. Tests for B. abortus and B. ovis antibodies were Buffered Acidified Antigen and Complement Fixation, respectively. None of the sheep was reactive to B. abortus and B. ovis; however, the adoption of sanitary measures is important to avoid the introduction of infections caused by these bacteria.

  7. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  8. A Pediatric Case of Concomitant Leishmania and Brucella Infection

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    Perihan Yasemen Canöz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania Genus, and Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease infecting human host by infective animals. A sixteen year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaints of fatigue, myalgia, pallor, stomach ache, leg swelling, and diffuse body rash. Physical examination revealed findings of elevated body temperature, splenomegaly, upper and lower extremity edema, and diffuse erythema. Patients’ brucella agglutination test was positive at titers 1: 640. Since the treatment of Brucellosis was unsuccessful, other disease processes were investigated and extracellular and intracellular amastigots were detected in the bone marrow aspirate preparations. Kala-azar dipstick (rk-39 was also positive. We present a 16 year-old girl who was diagnosed with Kala-azar and Brucellosis together infection and successfully treated.

  9. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  10. Recovery of a Medieval Brucella melitensis Genome Using Shotgun Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gemma L.; Sergeant, Martin J.; Giuffra, Valentina; Bandiera, Pasquale; Milanese, Marco; Bramanti, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shotgun metagenomics provides a powerful assumption-free approach to the recovery of pathogen genomes from contemporary and historical material. We sequenced the metagenome of a calcified nodule from the skeleton of a 14th-century middle-aged male excavated from the medieval Sardinian settlement of Geridu. We obtained 6.5-fold coverage of a Brucella melitensis genome. Sequence reads from this genome showed signatures typical of ancient or aged DNA. Despite the relatively low coverage, we were able to use information from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to place the medieval pathogen genome within a clade of B. melitensis strains that included the well-studied Ether strain and two other recent Italian isolates. We confirmed this placement using information from deletions and IS711 insertions. We conclude that metagenomics stands ready to document past and present infections, shedding light on the emergence, evolution, and spread of microbial pathogens. PMID:25028426

  11. Bartonella and Brucella--weapons and strategies for stealth attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Tekaya, Houchaima; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    Bartonella spp. and Brucella spp. are closely related α-proteobacterial pathogens that by distinct stealth-attack strategies cause chronic infections in mammals including humans. Human infections manifest by a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from mild to fatal disease. Both pathogens establish intracellular replication niches and subvert diverse pathways of the host's immune system. Several virulence factors allow them to adhere to, invade, proliferate, and persist within various host-cell types. In particular, type IV secretion systems (T4SS) represent essential virulence factors that transfer effector proteins tailored to recruit host components and modulate cellular processes to the benefit of the bacterial intruders. This article puts the remarkable features of these two pathogens into perspective, highlighting the mechanisms they use to hijack signaling and trafficking pathways of the host as the basis for their stealthy infection strategies.

  12. Skeletal Involvement of Brucella melitensis in Children: A Systematic Review

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    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a protean disease and should be excluded in any febrile child with a constellation of symptoms such as fever, malaise, sweating, arthralgia, and joint swelling in endemic areas. Skeletal system involvement is the most common source of complaints in brucellosis. The frequency of skeletal involvement in children is 6.4% to 73.5%. There are some controversies regarding the most common sites of involvement: sacroiliac versus peripheral joints. In the vast majority of cases, peripheral joint involvement in pediatric brucellosis has a monoarticular pattern, although there is no agreement about the most commonly involved peripheral joint. In this systematic review, published articles that describe the bone involvement of Brucella melitensis, as the most prevalent kind of the microorganism in the region, in children are evaluated.

  13. Brucella abortus-infected B cells induce osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Delpino, María Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that establishes lifelong infections in livestock and humans although the mechanisms of its chronicity are poorly understood. Activated B cells have long lifespan and B. abortus infection activates B cells. Our results indicate that the direct infection of B cells with B. abortus induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), receptor activator for NF κB ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. In addition, supernatants from B. abortus-infected B cells induced bone marrow-derived monocytes to undergo osteoclastogenesis. Using osteoprotegerin, RANKL's decoy receptor, we determined that RANKL is involved in osteoclastogenesis induced by supernatants from B. abortus-infected B cells. The results presented here shed light on how the interactions of B. abortus with B cells may have a role in the pathogenesis of brucellar osteoarticular disease.

  14. Immune response triggered by Brucella abortus following infection or vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S S; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-07-17

    Brucella abortus live vaccines have been used successfully to control bovine brucellosis worldwide for decades. However, due to some limitations of these live vaccines, efforts are being made for the development of new safer and more effective vaccines that could also be used in other susceptible species. In this context, understanding the protective immune responses triggered by B. abortus is critical for the development of new vaccines. Such understandings will enhance our knowledge of the host/pathogen interactions and enable to develop methods to evaluate potential vaccines and innovative treatments for animals or humans. At present, almost all the knowledge regarding B. abortus specific immunological responses comes from studies in mice. Active participation of macrophages, dendritic cells, IFN-γ producing CD4(+) T-cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells are vital to overcome the infection. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of the immune responses triggered by vaccination versus infection by B. abortus, in different hosts.

  15. Recovery of a medieval Brucella melitensis genome using shotgun metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gemma L; Sergeant, Martin J; Giuffra, Valentina; Bandiera, Pasquale; Milanese, Marco; Bramanti, Barbara; Bianucci, Raffaella; Pallen, Mark J

    2014-07-15

    Shotgun metagenomics provides a powerful assumption-free approach to the recovery of pathogen genomes from contemporary and historical material. We sequenced the metagenome of a calcified nodule from the skeleton of a 14th-century middle-aged male excavated from the medieval Sardinian settlement of Geridu. We obtained 6.5-fold coverage of a Brucella melitensis genome. Sequence reads from this genome showed signatures typical of ancient or aged DNA. Despite the relatively low coverage, we were able to use information from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to place the medieval pathogen genome within a clade of B. melitensis strains that included the well-studied Ether strain and two other recent Italian isolates. We confirmed this placement using information from deletions and IS711 insertions. We conclude that metagenomics stands ready to document past and present infections, shedding light on the emergence, evolution, and spread of microbial pathogens. Importance: Infectious diseases have shaped human populations and societies throughout history. The recovery of pathogen DNA sequences from human remains provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the causes of individual and epidemic infections. By sequencing DNA extracted from medieval human remains through shotgun metagenomics, without target-specific capture or amplification, we have obtained a draft genome sequence of an ~700-year-old Brucella melitensis strain. Using a variety of bioinformatic approaches, we have shown that this historical strain is most closely related to recent strains isolated from Italy, confirming the continuity of this zoonotic infection, and even a specific lineage, in the Mediterranean region over the centuries.

  16. First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships.

  17. Digital gene expression analysis of Microsporum canis exposed to berberine chloride.

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    Chen-Wen Xiao

    Full Text Available Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illumina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05 in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson's disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis.

  18. Babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Rodo, Anna; Siński, Edward; Bajer, Anna

    2009-12-23

    Vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. In the period 2006-2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in Central Poland. The prevalence of four vector-borne infections (Babesia canis, Bartonella sp., Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR for diagnosis and the same methods were used to identify the vector-borne pathogens in 26 dogs presenting at veterinary clinics with symptoms of vector-borne diseases. None of four studied vector-borne pathogens was detected in samples originating from veterinary clinics. Among the remaining 82 dogs B. canis infections were confirmed in three dogs undergoing treatment for babesiosis. The DNA of tick-borne pathogens was also found among 22 (27.8%) of the 79 apparently healthy dogs, including 20 cases of B. canis infection (25.3%), one case of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection and one case of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. No evidence of Bartonella spp. and Ehrlichia canis infections were found in this set of samples. Sequencing of a Babesia fragment of 18S rDNA amplified from acute (n=5) and asymptomatic (n=5) cases revealed that all isolates were identical to the Babesia canis canis sequence, originally isolated from Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Poland. A range of factors was shown to affect the distribution of babesiosis in sled dogs. The data are also discussed in respect to the health risk factors generated by asymptomatic B. canis infections and the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis measures taken by sled dog owners.

  19. Critical analysis of vector-borne infections in dogs: Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Lachhman Das; Sumbria, Deepak; Mandhotra, Ajay; Bal, M S; Kaur, Paramjit

    2016-12-01

    There are few published studies on various vector borne diseases of dogs in India and most depict clinical infection in dogs, diagnosed by observation of the haemopathogens in stained blood smears. This study provides the first report regarding molecular confirmation and ancestral relationship analysis of blood smears positive cases of assorted haemopathogens in Punjab province of India. On blood smear examination, haemopathogens were observed in 124 out of 778 (15.95%, 95% CI: 13.53- 18.68) blood smears. Further polymerase chain reactions (PCR) was used on bloods smear positive cases to validate the results. Out of 778 blood samples, Babesia gibsoni was most common parasite infecting dogs (15.04%, 95% CI: 12.7-17.72), followed by Ehrlichia canis (0.39%, 95% CI: 0.0-1.13), infection of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis was same (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9). Among various risk factors studied (age, sex, season), prevalence of infection was non-significantly higher in 1-2 year of age group (19.88%, 95% CI: 14.45-26.71), regarding sex same prevalence was recorded (15.94%), and chances of infection was highest in pre-monsoon i.e. summer (18.26%, 95% CI: 14.49-22.76). Phylogenetic analysis revealed ancestral background of Ludhiana isolates of B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis with the isolates of Philippines, Mongolia and Tunisia.

  20. Aislamiento y caracterización molecular de bacteriófagos de bacterias enteropatógenas para biocontrol de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA)

    OpenAIRE

    Dini, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos de la tesis: - Aislamiento de fagos de Escherichia coli enterohemorrágica (EHEC). - Caracterización de los fagos aislados. - Desarrollo de matrices de encapsulamiento de fagos y estudio in vitro de la capacidad protectora frente a la acidez para el suministro de bacteriófagos a bovinos por vía oral. - Determinación de las condiciones óptimas de conservación de los fagos. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas

  1. Haemophilus influenzae : Caracterización de aislamientos recuperados de enfermedades invasivas en Cuba durante el período 2008-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Toraño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar los aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae, responsables de enfermedades invasivas en Cuba, en la etapa posterior a la vacunación se estudió el total de los recuperados durante el período 2008-2011, remitidos al Instituto "Pedro Kourí" desde diferentes provincias del país. La confirmación de especie y determinación de serotipos se realizó atendiendo al requerimiento de los factores V y X y empleando el método de aglutinación en lámina, respectivamente. Se definieron los biotipos a través de las pruebas de indol, urea y ornitina; se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI mediante la prueba del elipsómetro para la ampicilina, la ceftriaxona, el cloranfenicol y la rifampicina. Para 23 aislamientos se corroboró la identificación como H. influenzae : 21 fueron serotipables y 2 no tipables (HNT. El 90,4% de los serotipables fueron serotipo b y se detectaron dos serotipos a. Nueve aislamientos de H. influenzae b pertenecieron al biotipo I y los aislamientos, serotipo a y HNT, al biotipo II. En una cepa se demostró producción de la enzima ß-lactamasa y resistencia para la ampicilina y el cloranfenicol, con valores de CMI= 8 y 12 µg/mL, respectivamente. Se puso en evidencia que a pesar de la disminución de la incidencia de la enfermedad invasiva por Hib, este serotipo aún constituye el más frecuente y se alerta sobre la necesidad de una vigilancia sostenida que permita detectar fallos vacunales. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana demostrada para este período pudiera considerarse como un beneficio adicional de la introducción de la vacunación en Cuba.

  2. Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris

    CERN Document Server

    Scicluna, P; Wesson, R; Blommaert, J A D L; Kasper, M; Voshchinnikov, N V; Wolf, S

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars live short lives, losing large amounts of mass through their stellar wind. Their mass is a key factor determining how and when they explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements and dust. During the red supergiant phase, mass-loss rates increase prodigiously, but the driving mechanism has proven elusive. Here we present high-contrast optical polarimetric-imaging observations of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and its clumpy, dusty, mass-loss envelope, using the new extreme-adaptive-optics instrument SPHERE at the VLT. These observations allow us to make the first direct and unambiguous detection of submicron dust grains in the ejecta; we derive an average grain radius $\\sim$ 0.5 $\\mu$m, 50 times larger than in the diffuse ISM, large enough to receive significant radiation pressure by photon scattering. We find evidence for varying grain sizes throughout the ejecta, highlighting the dynamical nature of the envelope. Grains with 0.5 $\\mu$m sizes are likel...

  3. Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

    2012-04-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n = 81 scats) and prey remains (n = 31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains.

  4. Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeski, Kristin E; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Waits, Lisette P; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-09-01

    In natural populations, the expression and severity of inbreeding depression can vary widely across taxa. Describing processes that influence the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression aid in our understanding of the evolutionary history of mating systems such as cooperative breeding and nonrandom mate selection. Such findings also help shape wildlife conservation theory because inbreeding depression reduces the viability of small populations. We evaluated the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression in a small, re-introduced population of red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina. Since red wolves were first re-introduced in 1987, pedigree inbreeding coefficients (f) increased considerably and almost every wild born wolf was inbred (average f = 0.154 and max f = 0.383). The large inbreeding coefficients were due to both background relatedness associated with few founders and numerous close relative matings. Inbreeding depression was most evident for adult body size and generally absent for direct fitness measures such as reproductive success and survival; no lethal equivalents (LE = 0.00) were detected in juvenile survival. The lack of strong inbreeding depression in direct measures of fitness could be due to a founder effect or because there were no outbred individuals for comparison. Our results highlight the variable expression of inbreeding depression across traits and the need to measure a number of different traits when evaluating inbreeding depression in a wild population.

  5. Medical management of pyometra in three red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Wolf, Karen N

    2013-12-01

    Pyometra is a serious, life-threatening disease of both domestic and non-domestic species often requiring ovariohysterectomy to preserve the life of the animal. Medical management of pyometra has been successful in domestic and non-domestic species, and the consideration of such treatment is of marked importance in a critically endangered species. Of the canids, the red wolf (Canis rufus) is second only to African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus) in terms of the prevalence of both cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. In this report, three red wolves were medically managed for pyometra. Aside from vaginal discharge, none of the wolves exhibited clinical signs, nor were there reflective inflammatory changes in the laboratory findings. All wolves received standard treatment for pyometra, including prostaglandin F2alpha and antibiotic therapy, while one wolf was more aggressively managed with uterine lavage. Pyometra recurred in two of the treated wolves, while the most aggressively managed wolf continues to show ultrasonographic resolution 2 yr posttreatment. Aggressive medical management of pyometra should be considered a treatment option in certain red wolf females, as it may preserve the animal's reproductive potential.

  6. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity in the atypical group of novel emerging Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmunt, Michel S; Jacques, Isabelle; Bernardet, Nelly; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Recently, novel Brucella strains with phenotypic characteristics that were atypical for strains belonging to the genus Brucella have been reported. Phenotypically many of these strains were initially misidentified as Ochrobactrum spp. Two novel species have been described so far for these strains, i.e., B. microti and B. inopinata, and other strains genetically related to B. inopinata may constitute other novel species as well. In this study, we analyzed the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (smooth LPS [S-LPS] and rough LPS [R-LPS]) of these atypical strains using different methods and a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against several epitopes of the Brucella O-polysaccharide (O-PS) and R-LPS. Among the most striking results, Brucella sp. strain BO2, isolated from a patient with chronic destructive pneumonia, showed a completely distinct S-LPS profile in silver stain gels that looked more similar to that of enterobacterial S-LPS. This strain also failed to react with MAbs against Brucella O-PS epitopes and showed weak reactivity with anti-R-LPS MAbs. B. inopinata reference strain BO1 displayed an M-dominant S-LPS type with some heterogeneity relative to the classical M-dominant Brucella S-LPS type. Australian wild rodent strains belonging also to the B. inopinata group showed a classical A-dominant S-LPS but lacked the O-PS common (C) epitopes, as previously reported for B. suis biovar 2 strains. Interestingly, some strains also failed to react with anti-R-LPS MAbs, such as the B. microti reference strain and B. inopinata BO1, suggesting modifications in the core-lipid A moieties of these strains. These results have several implications for serological typing and serological diagnosis and underline the need for novel tools for detection and correct identification of such novel emerging Brucella spp.

  8. Raman spectroscopy as a potential tool for detection of Brucella spp. in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Susann; Stöckel, Stephan; Elschner, Mandy; Melzer, Falk; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Detection of Brucella, causing brucellosis, is very challenging, since the applied techniques are mostly time-demanding and not standardized. While the common detection system relies on the cultivation of the bacteria, further classical typing up to the biotype level is mostly based on phenotypic or genotypic characteristics. The results of genotyping do not always fit the existing taxonomy, and misidentifications between genetically closely related genera cannot be avoided. This situation gets even worse, when detection from complex matrices, such as milk, is necessary. For these reasons, the availability of a method that allows early and reliable identification of possible Brucella isolates for both clinical and epidemiological reasons would be extremely useful. We evaluated micro-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis to identify Brucella from agar plates and directly from milk: prior to these studies, the samples were inactivated via formaldehyde treatment to ensure a higher working safety. The single-cell Raman spectra of different Brucella, Escherichia, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, and Yersinia spp. were measured to create two independent databases for detection in media and milk. Identification accuracies of 92% for Brucella from medium and 94% for Brucella from milk were obtained while analyzing the single-cell Raman spectra via support vector machine. Even the identification of the other genera yielded sufficient results, with accuracies of >90%. In summary, micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising alternative for detecting Brucella. The measurements we performed at the single-cell level thus allow fast identification within a few hours without a demanding process for sample preparation.

  9. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control.

  10. Retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings in hunting dogs with serologic reactions to tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Ricketsia conorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Kosić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of tick-borne infections in endemic areas could be high. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia conorii in hunting dogs, naturally infected with one or more pathogens. Serological test results of the investigated animals were compared to those from clinical examination, as well as from haematological and biochemical analyses. A total of 74.14% dogs were seropositive (R.conorii 44.83%, B. canis 32.76%, B. burgdorferi 25.86%, E. canis 13.79%, A. phagocytophilum 8.47%, with 25.86% of dogs seropositive to two pathogens, 15.52% seropositive to three pathogens, and 1.72% of dogs seropositive to four pathogens. Among all registered clinical signs, only pyrexia (p<0.05 and arrhythmia (p<0.05 were significant in seropositive dogs. There was no significant difference between seropositive and seronegative dogs regarding the majority of haematological and biochemical parameters. Statistically significant difference was registered for particular haematological (number of red blood cells and seroreactivity to B. burgdorferi and biochemical parameters (albumin concentration and seroreactivity to E. canis, and AST and seroreactivity to R. conorii but these values were not clinically significant. The high exposure to tick-borne pathogens suggests that ectoparasitic profilactic treatment is not adequate in examined population of hunting dogs. Clinical finding of pyrexia need to be further investigated and explained etiologically, which means that molecular diagnosis should be used in order to identify larger number of pathogens because of the possibility of coinfection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31084

  11. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Wareth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B. species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  12. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-04-30

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  13. Frecuencia de Aislamientos de Staphylococcus spp Meticilina Resistente en el Hospital Pediátrico "William Soler".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes (SMR son importantes patógenos causantes de morbi-mortalidad en todo el mundo. Esta resistencia es mediada por la producción de una proteína de unión a penicilina alterada (PBP 2a, la cual tiene baja afinidad por los antibióticos beta-lactámicos y esta codificada por el gen mecA. Unos pocos antimicrobianos están disponibles para el tratamiento de estas infecciones, hoy en día la mayoría de los aislados permanecen sensibles vancomicina, única opción terapéutica en nuestro país, para el tratamiento de infecciones causadas por SMR. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de aislamientos de SMR en el hospital pediátrico "William Soler". Fueron estudiados 128 aislados de Staphylococcus spp provenientes de muestras clínicas (32 Staphylococcus aureus y 96 Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos. La identificación de las especies se determino por el sistema Rapi Stha (Biomeriux. Los valores de concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI, el crecimiento en placas de oxacilina y los patrones de resistencia de SMR a otros antimicrobianos, se realizaron siguiendo las recomendaciones de las guías NCCLS. Para la detección del gen mecA, se utilizo la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. El 15% de los S. aureus y el 43% de los Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos fueron intrínsecamente resistentes a meticilina, CMI > 2 ¿g/mL y presentaban el gen mecA. Los SMR poseen resistencia cruzada a otras familias de antibióticos, especialmente macrolidos, no se encontró resistencia a vancomicina. Nosotros recomendados que se apliquen medidas de aislamientos a pacientes con infecciones por SMR, para evitar la diseminación de estos microorganismos.

  14. Primer informe sobre el aislamiento de Helicobacter pylori asociado a enfermedades digestivas en Ciudad de La Habana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutiérrez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Helicobacter pylori desempeña un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de diversas enfermedades digestivas. Actualmente se acepta que este microorganismo está relacionado con la gastritis crónica activa, la úlcera péptica (tanto gástrica como duodenal, el adenocarcinoma gástrico y el linfoma gástrico de células B del tejido linfoide asociado a mucosa (Linfoma MALT. Se estudiaron 121 pacientes, 53 con diagnóstico endoscópico de gastritis, 21 con úlcera péptica, 20 úlceras duodenales, 3 adenocarcinomas del antro gástrico, 5 neoplasias de esófago y 19 panendoscopias normales (dispépticos. A todos los pacientes se les practicó una gastroscopia y se tomaron cuatro fragmentos de biopsias distribuidas entre las regiones de antro y cuerpo gástrico. Para el diagnóstico y aislamiento de H. pylori se empleó la prueba de la ureasa rápida, la tinción de gram, y el cultivo en agar cerebro corazón con suero de caballo 10%, extracto de levadura 0,25% más suplemento Dent (OXOID SR 147 durante 7 días a 37 ºC en jarra en atmósfera de microaerofilia. También se evaluó la presencia de catalasa y oxidasa. Se observó una prevalencia de la infección del 79,2% en la gastritis crónica, un 100% en los pacientes con úlcera duodenal y un 90,4% en relación con la úlcera gástrica, lo que coincide con lo reportado por otros autores. En el 100% de los casos de adenocarcinoma gástrico y en el 60% de los casos de neoplasias de esófago se aisló el microorganismo. El aislamiento de H. pylori en el 78,9% de endoscopias realizadas e informadas como normales es una alerta de la prevalencia en pacientes dispépticos.

  15. Synovial fluid cytology in experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Petanides, Theodoros; Tsafas, Konstantinos; Harrus, Shimon; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2015-05-15

    Evidence-based information of a cause-and-effect relationship between Ehrlichia canis infection and polyarthritis in naturally- or experimentally-infected dogs is currently lacking. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether synovial fluid cytological evidence of arthritis could be documented in dogs with acute monocytic ehrlichiosis. Direct synovial fluid cytology smears from eight Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were examined prior to, and on 21, 35 and 63 days post-inoculation. The cytological variables assessed included cellularity, percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, macrophage reactivity and evidence of E. canis morulae. The median cellularity and percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils prior to inoculation did not differ when compared to post-inoculation cytological evaluation. Increased cellularity, E. canis morulae or cytological evidence of arthritis or macrophage reactivity were not observed throughout the course of the study. In the present study, no cytological evidence of arthritis was found in dogs with experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, suggesting that E. canis infection should be considered a rather uncommon cause of arthritis in dogs.

  16. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gislaine Cristina Ferreira; Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Girotto, Aline; Taroda, Alessandra; Vidotto, Marilda Carlos; Garcia, João Luis; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Arlington, Selwyn Headley; Vidotto, Odilon

    2012-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256) and 19.4% (49/256), respectively; while 5.47% (14/256) of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection). Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.

  17. First record of autochthonous canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Doru; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Imre, Mirela; Ilie, Marius Stelian; Imre, Kálmán

    2015-06-01

    This case study describes the first genetically confirmed and clinically manifested autochthonous Ehrlichia canis infection in a 9-year-old female mixed-breed dog from Romania. Health screening of the dog included clinical examination, evaluation of stained peripheral blood smear and hematologic variables, as well as serologic testing and molecular analysis. Clinical signs included fever, apathy, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, and weakness. The microscopic examination of the blood smear and immunologic assays for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and E canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen yielded negative results. Hematologic abnormalities included moderate nonregenerative anemia, leucopenia with neutropenia, and moderate thrombocytopenia. The biochemical abnormalities identified were hypoalbuminemia, and mildly increased serum enzyme activities of AST and ALT. In addition, increased urea and creatinine levels associated with low urine specific gravity and proteinuria were also present. Nested PCR amplification of the partial E canis 16S rRNA gene demonstrated the presence of this rickettsial pathogen in the dog's blood, which subsequently was confirmed through sequencing based on the 100% homology with GenBank deposited E canis isolates. After specific treatment with doxycycline (10 mg/kg, orally, SID) for one month, the proteinuria, and hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities with the exception of mild azotemia resolved. This report supports the geographical expansion of canine ehrlichiosis caused by E canis in nonendemic regions of Europe.

  18. Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-09-01

    Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.

  19. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  20. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs.

  1. Brucella melitensis global gene expression study provides novel information on growth phase-specific gene regulation with potential insights for understanding Brucella:host initial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garner Harold R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella spp. are the etiological agents of brucellosis, a zoonotic infectious disease that causes abortion in animals and chronic debilitating illness in humans. Natural Brucella infections occur primarily through an incompletely defined mechanism of adhesion to and penetration of mucosal epithelium. In this study, we characterized changes in genome-wide transcript abundance of the most and the least invasive growth phases of B. melitensis cultures to HeLa cells, as a preliminary approach for identifying candidate pathogen genes involved in invasion of epithelial cells. Results B. melitensis at the late logarithmic phase of growth are more invasive to HeLa cells than mid-logarithmic or stationary growth phases. Microarray analysis of B. melitensis gene expression identified 414 up- and 40 down-regulated genes in late-log growth phase (the most invasive culture compared to the stationary growth phase (the least invasive culture. As expected, the majority of up-regulated genes in late-log phase cultures were those associated with growth, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, intermediate metabolism, energy production and conversion, membrane transport, and biogenesis of the cell envelope and outer membrane; while the down-regulated genes were distributed among several functional categories. Conclusion This Brucella global expression profile study provides novel information on growth phase-specific gene expression. Further characterization of some genes found differentially expressed in the most invasive culture will likely bring new insights into the initial molecular interactions between Brucella and its host.

  2. Improved performance of Brucella melitensis native hapten over Brucella abortus OPS tracer on goat antibody detection by the fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pfeiffer, C; Díaz-Aparicio, E; Rodríguez-Padilla, C; Morales-Loredo, A; Alvarez-Ojeda, G; Gomez-Flores, R

    2008-06-15

    The current method for goat brucellosis diagnosis is based on the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) using the screening card test (CT), with antigen at 8% (CT8) or 3% (CT3) of cell concentrations, and the confirmatory complement fixation test (CFT). However, these tests do not differentiate antibodies induced by vaccination from those derived from field infections by Brucella species or other bacterial agents; in places like Mexico, where the prevalence of brucellosis and the vaccination rates are high, there is a considerable percentage of false positive reactions that causes significant unnecessary slaughter of animals. Furthermore, results of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using the Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide (OPS) tracer in goats are poorer than those with cattle. The present study was undertaken to investigate a tracer prepared from the native hapten (NH) of the Rev. 1 strain of Brucella melitensis to improve FPA performance on goat brucellosis diagnosis. Evaluation of 48 positive samples and 96 negative samples showed that the NH tracer was more accurate (pgoat sera samples selected by test series approved by the OIE (card test 3% and CFT). We demonstrated a new application for the NH lipopolysaccharide on detecting antibodies against Brucella using the FPA, which may yield faster results (minutes vs. 24-72h) than the immunodiagnosis assays frequently used in bovine brucellosis. In addition, NH tracer produces similar or better performance results than the conventional OPS tracer, using the FPA in goat sera samples.

  3. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  4. Characterization of some psorosis and concave gum isolates from northwestern Argentina Caracterización de aislamientos de psorosis y concave gum del noroeste argentino

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    Julia Figueroa

    Full Text Available The Citrus Sanitation Center of the Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres in Tucumán, Argentina, has developed a virus bank of various graft-transmissible citrus pathogens found in northwestern Argentina. In this bank, several psorosis and concave gum isolates are maintained in Pineapple sweet orange seedlings. In order to characterize these pathogens, 11 isolates were indexed to seedlings of Pineapple sweet orange, Dweet tangor, Eureka lemon plus Etrog citron budded on rough lemon seedlings. Cross protection was applied for identifying psorosis-A. Symptoms obtained were variable and ranged from mild to very severe. A clear effect of temperature on symptom expression, and distinct differences in the reactions between psorosis-A and concave gum viruses were detected.El Centro de Saneamiento de Citrus de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, de Tucumán, Argentina, ha constituido un banco de virus de cítricos con material recolectado en la región noroeste del país. El mismo cuenta con varios aislamientos de psorosis y concave gum que se mantienen en plantas de naranjo dulce Pineapple. Con el objetivo de caracterizar biológicamente 11 de estos aislamientos, se inocularon plantines de naranjo dulce Pineapple, Dweet tangor, limonero Eureka y plantas injertadas de cidro Etrog en limoneros rugoso. Las pruebas con Pineapple se realizaron por duplicado bajo dos condiciones de temperatura: frías y calientes. La confirmación de psorosis A se realizó mediante prueba de protección cruzada con un aislamiento de psorosis B. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una amplia diversidad biológica entre los aislamientos, con expresión de síntomas que variaron desde suaves a muy severos. Se confirmó la presencia de psorosis A y se encontró que los aislamientos de "concave gum" del banco de virus no estaban en mezcla con psorosis. El efecto de la temperatura en la manifestación de los síntomas fue significativo y se

  5. Evidencia de orígenes filogenéticos diferentes de dos aislamientos mexicanos del virus del mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Rojas Luz Yineth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El análisis molecular del cistron, (ue codica para la proteina de la cubierta del virus del mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV reportado en la base de datos del banco de genes (GenBank, reveló la pre- sencia de 65 nucleotidos adicionales (ue codican para (uince aminoãcidos, en la region amino de la secuencia de la proteina de la cubierta del aislamiento mexicano identicado con el nümero de acceso GU474635. El análisis BLAST indicó que esta característica particular también está presente en el aislamiento DDDF6F, reportado en 1FF1 en Estados Unidos. El anãlisis logenHtico de 1I5  secuen- cias de la proteína de la cubierta de SCMV reportadas de Asia, África, Brasil y Argentina, entro otros, sugiere diJerentes origenes logeogrãcos de los aislamientos mexicanos. El aislamiento mexicano GU6N6OP5 es filogeneticamente mãs cercano a aislamientos de QCWV de Brasil X de EE.UU., mien- tras que secuencias de la proteína de la cubierta del virus SCMV reportadas en China y Alemania son

    logenHticamente mãs cercanas al aislamiento mexicano EUDF1DN5. Las caracteristicas particulares que comparten aislamientos virales de tres países del continente americano, a saber, EE.UU., México X Brasil, sugieren un baYo control tosanitario en el intercambio de material vegetal.

  6. Evidencia de orígenes filogenéticos diferentes de dos aislamientos mexicanos del virus del mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves-Bedoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis molecular del cistrón, que codifica para la proteína de la cubierta del virus del mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV reportado en la base de datos del banco de genes (GenBank, reveló la presencia de 45 nucleótidos adicionales que codifican para quince aminoácidos, en la región amino de la secuencia de la proteína de la cubierta del aislamiento mexicano identificado con el número de acceso GU474635. El análisis BLAST indicó que esta característica particular también está presente en el aislamiento D00949, reportado en 1991 en Estados Unidos. El análisis filogenético de 185 secuencias de la proteína de la cubierta de SCMV reportadas de Asia, áfrica, Brasil y Argentina, entro otros, sugiere diferentes orígenes filogeográficos de los aislamientos mexicanos. El aislamiento mexicano GU474635 es filogenéticamente más cercano a aislamientos de SCMV de Brasil y de EE.UU., mientras que secuencias de la proteína de la cubierta del virus SCMV reportadas en China y Alemania son filogenéticamente más cercanas al aislamiento mexicano EU091075. Las características particulares que comparten aislamientos virales de tres países del continente americano, a saber, EE.UU., México y Brasil, sugieren un bajo control fitosanitario en el intercambio de material vegetal.

  7. The efficacy of Advantix® to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus Johannes; Luus, Herman Gerhardus; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of a topical combination of imidacloprid and permethrin (Advantix(®)) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of six dogs. One group served as controls, whereas the other group was treated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and Day 28 post acaricidal treatment. The adult R. sanguineus ticks were released into the individual kennels of the dogs to simulate natural tick exposure. In situ tick counts were conducted on Day 9, 16 and 23 and any remaining ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of the acaricidal treatment against R. sanguineus ranged between 96.1% and 98.9% at 48 h post-application and lasted up to 4 weeks. Four out of six control dogs became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by the presence of specific E. canis antibodies and the detection by PCR of E. canis DNA in blood samples. These dogs became thrombocytopenic and displayed fever and were consecutively rescue-treated by doxycycline. None of the six treated dogs became infected with E. canis, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of E. canis DNA in blood samples. Advantix(®) prevented transmission of E. canis and provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiosis for 4 weeks post acaricidal treatment.

  8. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY00 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we...

  9. 78 FR 35663 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi ) by Listing It as Endangered; Proposed Revision to the Nonessential Experimental Population of the...

  10. Chromosome analysis in the Kruger National Park - the chromosomes of the saddle-backed jackal Canis Mesomelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wallace

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the present-day members of the Canidae family are included the dogs and foxes (Wurster and Benirschke 1968. The genus Canis is represented in Africa by four species of jackal (Bigaike 1972. This paper presents the chromosome Findings in a male saddle-backed jackal Canis mesomelas studied in the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa.

  11. Characterization of some Brucella species from Zimbabwe by biochemical profiling and AMOS-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skjerve Eystein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is endemic in most large commercial and smallholder cattle farms of Zimbabwe, while brucellosis in other domestic animals is rare. The diagnosis of brucellosis is mainly accomplished using serological tests. However, some Brucella spp. have been isolated from clinical cases in the field and kept in culture collection but their biochemical profiles were not documented. We report biochemical profiling and AMOS-PCR characterization of some of these field isolates of Brucella originating from both commercial and smallholder cattle farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Findings Fourteen isolates of Brucella from culture collection were typed using biochemical profiles, agglutination by monospecific antisera, susceptibility to Brucella-specific bacteriophages and by AMOS-PCR that amplifies species- specific IS711. The results of the biochemical profiles for B. abortus biovar 1 (11 isolates and biovar 2 (2 isolates were consistent with those of reference strains. A single isolate from a goat originating from a smallholder mixed animal farm was identified as B. melitensis biovar 1. The AMOS-PCR produced DNA products of sizes 498 bp and 731 bp for B. abortus (biovar 1 and 2 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Conclusion We concluded that the biochemical profiles and AMOS-PCR characterization were consistent with their respective species and biovars. B. abortus biovar 1 is likely to be the predominant cause of brucellosis in both commercial and smallholder cattle farms in Zimbabwe.

  12. In vitro drug resistance of clinical isolated Brucella against antimicrobial agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Li Xu; Xiao Chen; Pei-Hong Yang; Jia-Yun Liu; Xiao-Ke Hao

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antibiotic resistance of Brucella melitensisand instruct rational use of antimicrobial agents in clinical treatment ofBrucella infection.Methods:Bacteria were cultured and identified byBACTEC9120 andVITEKⅡ automicrobic system.E-test was used to detect the minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of antimicrobial agents in the drug susceptivity experiment.Results:A total of19 brucella strains(allBrucella melitensis) wereisolated from19 patients, who had fever betweenJanuary2010 andJune2012, and17 samples were blood, one was bone marrow, the other sample was cerebrospinal fluid.TheMIC range of ceftazidime was2.0-8.0 mg/L, rifampicin was0.06-2.0 mg/L, amikacin was4.0-12.0 mg/L, levofloxacin was2.0-8.0 mg/L, doxycycline was8.0-32.0 mg/L, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was4.0-16.0 mg/L, ampicillin was1.5-2.0 mg/L and gentamicin was0.50-0.75 mg/L.Conclusions:The drugs used in this experiment cover common drugs for treatingBrcella.Meanwhile, the results are consistent with clinical efficacy.It is suggested personalized regimen according to patients’ status in treatment of Brucella.

  13. Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2014-12-01

    This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia.

  14. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  15. Genome degradation in Brucella ovis corresponds with narrowing of its host range and tissue tropism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee M Tsolis

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis is a veterinary pathogen associated with epididymitis in sheep. Despite its genetic similarity to the zoonotic pathogens B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis, B. ovis does not cause zoonotic disease. Genomic analysis of the type strain ATCC25840 revealed a high percentage of pseudogenes and increased numbers of transposable elements compared to the zoonotic Brucella species, suggesting that genome degradation has occurred concomitant with narrowing of the host range of B. ovis. The absence of genomic island 2, encoding functions required for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, as well as inactivation of genes encoding urease, nutrient uptake and utilization, and outer membrane proteins may be factors contributing to the avirulence of B. ovis for humans. A 26.5 kb region of B. ovis ATCC25840 Chromosome II was absent from all the sequenced human pathogenic Brucella genomes, but was present in all of 17 B. ovis isolates tested and in three B. ceti isolates, suggesting that this DNA region may be of use for differentiating B. ovis from other Brucella spp. This is the first genomic analysis of a non-zoonotic Brucella species. The results suggest that inactivation of genes involved in nutrient acquisition and utilization, cell envelope structure and urease may have played a role in narrowing of the tissue tropism and host range of B. ovis.

  16. Molecular strain typing of Brucella abortus isolates from Italy by two VNTR allele sizing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Riccardo; Ancora, Massimo; De Massis, Fabrizio; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Zilli, Katiuscia; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Pittiglio, Valentina; Fillo, Silvia; Lista, Florigio

    2013-10-01

    Brucellosis, one of the most important re-emerging zoonoses in many countries, is caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella. Furthermore these bacteria represent potential biological warfare agents and the identification of species and biovars of field strains may be crucial for tracing back source of infection, allowing to discriminate naturally occurring outbreaks instead of bioterrorist events. In the last years, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) has been proposed as complement of the classical biotyping methods and it has been applied for genotyping large collections of Brucella spp. At present, the MLVA band profiles may be resolved by automated or manual procedures. The Lab on a chip technology represents a valid alternative to standard genotyping techniques (as agarose gel electrophoresis) and it has been previously used for Brucella genotyping. Recently, a new high-throughput genotyping analysis system based on capillary gel electrophoresis, the QIAxcel, has been described. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of two DNA sizing equipments, the QIAxcel System and the Lab chip GX, to correctly call alleles at the sixteen loci including one frequently used MLVA assay for Brucella genotyping. The results confirmed that these technologies represent a meaningful advancement in high-throughput Brucella genotyping. Considering the accuracy required to confidently resolve loci discrimination, QIAxcel shows a better ability to measure VNTR allele sizes compared to LabChip GX.

  17. N-Formyl-Perosamine Surface Homopolysaccharides Hinder the Recognition of Brucella abortus by Mouse Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Cristina; Gurdián-Murillo, Stephany; Lomonte, Bruno; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Moreno, Edgardo

    2016-06-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and placental trophoblasts. This bacterium causes a chronic disease in bovines and in humans. In these hosts, the bacterium also invades neutrophils; however, it fails to replicate and just resists the killing action of these leukocytes without inducing significant activation or neutrophilia. Moreover, B. abortus causes the premature cell death of human neutrophils. In the murine model, the bacterium is found within macrophages and dendritic cells at early times of infection but seldom in neutrophils. Based on this observation, we explored the interaction of mouse neutrophils with B. abortus In contrast to human, dog, and bovine neutrophils, naive mouse neutrophils fail to recognize smooth B. abortus bacteria at early stages of infection. Murine normal serum components do not opsonize smooth Brucella strains, and neutrophil phagocytosis is achieved only after the appearance of antibodies. Alternatively, mouse normal serum is capable of opsonizing rough Brucella mutants. Despite this, neutrophils still fail to kill Brucella, and the bacterium induces cell death of murine leukocytes. In addition, mouse serum does not opsonize Yersinia enterocolitica O:9, a bacterium displaying the same surface polysaccharide antigen as smooth B. abortus Therefore, the lack of murine serum opsonization and absence of murine neutrophil recognition are specific, and the molecules responsible for the Brucella camouflage are N-formyl-perosamine surface homopolysaccharides. Although the mouse is a valuable model for understanding the immunobiology of brucellosis, direct extrapolation from one animal system to another has to be undertaken with caution.

  18. Evidence of exposure to Brucella sp. in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, A S; Koopman, H N; Westgate, A J; Nielsen, K; Leighton, F A

    2008-04-01

    Novel strains of Brucella recently have been discovered in marine mammals. To investigate Brucella exposure and infection in a general population of cetaceans, blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed from wild harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) incidentally caught in fishing gear in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Two of 170 (1.2%) animals had detectable antibodies against Brucella, but no organisms were isolated from genital swabs or tissues from 22 and 8 porpoises, respectively. Genetic analysis of inflamed testes from 20 animals yielded no amplification of Brucella DNA. This is the first evidence of exposure to Brucella in porpoises from the western North Atlantic, and the prevalence is much lower than documented for conspecifics from the eastern North Atlantic.

  19. Babesia canis and Babesia rossi co-infection in an untraveled Nigerian dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Sannusi, Abdulrahim; Dogo, A Goni; Tanko, James T; Egwu, Kinsley O; Tafarki, Agbadu E; Ogo, Isaac N; Kemza, Sarah; Onovoh, Emmanuel; Shamaki, David; Lombin, Lami H; Catto, Victoria; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2010-10-29

    A sexually intact 6-month-old female Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Clinic of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, for the following complaints: anorexia, hemoglobinuria, fever, tick infestation and general malaise. Microscopy revealed piroplasms with a wide range of sizes (1-5 μm in length) in red blood cells, raising a suspicion of a co-infection with two or more Babesia species. Specific PCR assays for canine Babesia spp. and DNA sequencing revealed the presence of Babesia canis and Babesia rossi co-infection. This study constitutes the first report of co-infection with B. canis and B. rossi in the West African sub-region and the first report of autochthonous B. canis on the African continent. Practitioners should be aware of potential changes in the species/sub-species of Babesia causing canine babesiosis in this region.

  20. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples......; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product...... was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient...

  1. Isozyme variation of Microsporum canis and M. cookei from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanya, M F; Jarvis, B D; Baxter, M

    1998-10-01

    Fifty-four isolates of Microsporum canis (Arthroderma otae) from humans, cats and dogs obtained from Auckland, Palmerston North and Wellington, New Zealand and 18 M. cookei and two Diheterospori spp. from soils were examined for variation using eight isozyme loci. M. canis isolates were from infected and non-infected cases. Isozyme analysis separated the three species which were further subdivided into electrophoretic types (ETs). Clustering analysis using normalized percentage disagreement (PTC) average linkage method revealed two clusters for M. cookei with two subclusters in cluster 2. M. canis had three main divisions (clusters 3, 4 and 5) and Diheterospora formed a separate division. The presence of isolates from different sources in the same clusters and lack of statistical significance as measured by confidence intervals suggests the existence of isolates with common lineage.

  2. Effect of fenbendazole on Toxocara canis larvae in tissues of infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P

    1979-05-01

    The effect of fenbendazole therapy was studied in six dogs fed 10,000 embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. At 47 days after they were fed T canis, four dogs were given fenbendazole in two divided doses totaling 50 mg/kg of body weight each day for 14 days. Two infected dogs were not given fenbendazole. All dogs were necropsied at the end of treatment and the foci were counted in the lungs; their skeletal muscles were digested in 1% trypsin for the recovery of larvae. The T canis larvae were not recovered from the skeletal muscle of the four infected dogs treated with fenbendazole; 15 and 42 larvae/100 g of skeletal muscle were recovered from the two nonmedicated infeected dogs. The number of grossly visible foci on surfaces of lungs in treated dogs was markedly less than in the nonmedicated infected dogs. The results indicate that fenbendazole might be effective in preventing prenatal infection in dogs.

  3. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal.

  4. Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

    2009-10-01

    This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada.

  5. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host.

  6. Systems biology analysis of Brucella infected Peyer's patch reveals rapid invasion with modest transient perturbations of the host transcriptome.

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    Carlos A Rossetti

    Full Text Available Brucella melitensis causes the most severe and acute symptoms of all Brucella species in human beings and infects hosts primarily through the oral route. The epithelium covering domed villi of jejunal-ileal Peyer's patches is an important site of entry for several pathogens, including Brucella. Here, we use the calf ligated ileal loop model to study temporal in vivo Brucella-infected host molecular and morphological responses. Our results document Brucella bacteremia occurring within 30 min after intraluminal inoculation of the ileum without histopathologic traces of lesions. Based on a system biology Dynamic Bayesian Network modeling approach (DBN of microarray data, a very early transient perturbation of the host enteric transcriptome was associated with the initial host response to Brucella contact that is rapidly averted allowing invasion and dissemination. A detailed analysis revealed active expression of Syndecan 2, Integrin alpha L and Integrin beta 2 genes, which may favor initial Brucella adhesion. Also, two intestinal barrier-related pathways (Tight Junction and Trefoil Factors Initiated Mucosal Healing were significantly repressed in the early stage of infection, suggesting subversion of mucosal epithelial barrier function to facilitate Brucella transepithelial migration. Simultaneously, the strong activation of the innate immune response pathways would suggest that the host mounts an appropriate protective immune response; however, the expression of the two key genes that encode innate immunity anti-Brucella cytokines such as TNF-α and IL12p40 were not significantly changed throughout the study. Furthermore, the defective expression of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling pathways may partially explain the lack of proinflammatory cytokine production and consequently the absence of morphologically detectable inflammation at the site of infection. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the in vivo pathogenesis of the early infectious process

  7. Aislamiento e identificación de Bacillus cereus a partir de dos variantes de arroz comercial (Oryza sativa L.

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    Irasema Pérez-Portuondo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus es una bacteria habitante común del suelo, de importancia tanto para la salud pública como para la Biotecnología. Con el objetivo de aislar ejemplares de esta bacteria para su utilización en estudios posteriores, así como de evaluar su permanencia en el arroz cocido, se desarrolló el protocolo propuesto por Kramer y cols. (1982. Con este fin, se tomaron muestras de arroz en grano con cáscara y de arroz cocido y se buscaron bacterias con propiedades hemolíticas y lecitinasa positiva. La identificación de los aislados se realizó mediante pruebas morfológicas y bioquímicas. Se obtuvieron 14 aislados, ocho de los cuales reunían las características distintivas de B. cereus, comparados con B. cereus ATCC 11778, incluida la resistencia a antibióticos. No se observó presencia de cuerpos parasporales típica de B. thuringiensis. Se comprobó que en el arroz cocido, transcurridas ocho horas de la cocción, pueden aislarse bacterias hemolíticas y lecitinasa positivas, en mayor número si este es conservado a temperatura ambiente, lo que convierte este alimento en potencialmente peligroso para su consumo. Estos resultados sugieren también la posibilidad de emplear al arroz como fuente para aislamiento de B. cereus.

  8. Técnicas de aislamiento y concentración de volátiles de aceites vegetales

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    Morales, M. T.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods for food flavor evaluation is the analysis of volatile components. First step in this kind of analysis Is the isolation and concentration of volatiles. A review is carried out about different techniques applied in foods and especially in vegetable oils. Very different methods have been used, an explication of each one with its different cases are presented. Likewise the applications carried out in vegetable oils during last years are discussed.

    Uno de los métodos de evaluación del flavor de los alimentos consiste en la determinación de sus componentes volátiles. La primera etapa necesaria para realizar este tipo de análisis es el aislamiento y concentración de los mismos. Se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica sobre las diferentes técnicas utilizadas para este fin en diferentes alimentos y especialmente en aceites vegetales. Los métodos utilizados son muy diversos, se ofrece una explicación de cada uno de ellos considerando las diferentes variantes existentes. Asimismo se detallan las aplicaciones realizadas en aceites vegetales durante los últimos años.

  9. The High Amplitude delta Scuti Star AD Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, R. A.; Napier-Munn, T.

    2016-12-01

    The high amplitude delta Scuti star AD Canis Minoris was studied by photoelectric photometry (PEP) during one night in in February 2011 and by digital single lens reflex (DSLR) photometry during seven nights in January and February 2016. Nine light curve peaks were captured, eight of them by DSLR photometry. A review of the literature enabled us to tabulate 109 times of maximum since 1959, to which we added 9 times of maximum from our data, thus creating the largest dataset to date for this star. Assuming a linear ephemeris, the period of AD CMi was calculated to be 0.122974511 (+/- 0.000000004) d, almost identical to that quoted in earlier literature. We constructed an observed minus computed (O-C) diagram which exhibited a quasi-sinusoidal shape, and fitted a weighted model characterised by combined quadratic and trigonometric functions. The fit indicates that the shape of the O-C diagram is attributable to the effects of a slow increase in the pulsation period of AD CMi at a constant rate, and the light time effect of a binary pair, confirming the results from previous authors, and updating most of the coefficients of the equation for the fitted model. The values of all of the coefficients in the function are statistically significant. The rate of increase in the pulsation period of AD CMi was calculated from the entire dataset to be dP/dt = 6.17 (+/- 0.75) x 10-9 d yr-1 or dP/Pdt = 5.01 (+/- 0.61) x 10-8 yr-1.

  10. Research progress of laboratory diagnostic techniques for Brucella%布鲁杆菌实验室诊断技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梅

    2012-01-01

    布鲁菌病是一种人畜共患传染病,生物种型较多,感染主范围广泛,传播途径多样.对人类致病的主要有羊、牛、猪、犬等4种,呈急性或慢性感染,临床表现为败血、发热性疾病或骨组织、器官系统的局部感染.布鲁菌病的诊断主要以流行病学史、临床表现以及实验检查为依据.因布鲁菌病的临床表现复杂,必须通过实验室分析来确证,诊断可直接进行血培养或通过间接免疫反应对微生物抗原进行检测.布鲁菌病临床表现不一,无症状感染形成抗体常是其特点,因此,当不能直接进行血培养时,血清学检查常发挥重要作用.布鲁杆菌常规细菌培养分离及鉴定耗时,操作杂,存在操作人员面临被布鲁杆菌感染及病菌从实验室扩散的风险.近年来出现的新型免疫学方法和聚合酶链反应(PCR)具有较高的敏感性和特异性.作者将布鲁杆菌实验室诊断检测技术进展做一综述.%Brucellosis is an important zoonosis. There are numerous species of Brucella, which can infect the hosts in various routes of transmission. Brucellosis in humans can be caused by any of the 4 main species (B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis and B. ca-nis). This is a disease presenting as acute or chronic infection in humans, and manifesting as a septicaemia febrile illness or localized infection of bone, tissue, or organ systems. Brucellosis diagnosis is primarily based on epidemiological history, clinical manifestations and laboratory examinations. Since the disease presents with a great variety of clinical manifestations the diagnosis must be confirmed by laboratory analyses. The diagnosis can be done directly by isolation of Brucellae from blood cultures, or indirectly by the detection of the immune response against the microbe's antigens. Asymptomatic infection is frequently characterized by antibody formation in people with no history of symptoms consistent with brucellosis. Hence, serological

  11. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  12. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy D S Nair

    Full Text Available Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological

  13. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  14. Serological evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Central Italian healthy domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina V; Bertelloni, Fabrizio

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present survey was to estimate the seroprevalences of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Central Italian feline population. Serum samples of 560 healthy domestic cats were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT), considering an antibody titre of 1:40 as cut-off. Seroprevalences of 6.4% and 4.5% were found for E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. Adult, mixed breed cats showed seroprevalences higher than younger and purebred subjects, whereas no differences were observed in relation to gender and living conditions.

  15. Serology, molecular detection and risk factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-González, Alexander V; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana E; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study combining different serological and molecular techniques for the detection of Ehrlichia species in dogs and their ticks was carried out with data from all regions of Costa Rica. A seroprevalence of 32.1% (131/408), and infection with E. canis of 3.2% (13/407) was found, whereas 6.9% (9/130) of ticks attached to the dogs were PCR positive to E. canis. Higher prevalences were found outside the Greater Metropolitan Area (GMA). Risk factors associated with E. canis seropositivity were age, between 2 and 7 years (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) and 8-15 years (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), number of dogs/total of households [Dogs per Household Ratio (DHR) ≥3.1 (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4-3.0)], number of dogs infested with at least one tick/total of dogs sampled [Tick Infestation Prevalence (TIP)≥31% (RR: 2.1; 95% CI:1.3-3.3)] and living outside the GMA (RR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4) and being a mixed-breed dog (RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). Risk factors for E. canis PCR positive dogs were a depressive attitude (OR: 11.2; 95% CI: 1.1-115.9), fever (OR:4.8; 95% CI:1.2-19.3), DHR≥3.1 (OR: 5.7; 95% CI:1.7-19.2)], number of ticks/total of dogs sampled [Tick Distribution Ratio (TDR) ≥2.1 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.3-31.8)], and TIP≥40% (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-19.2). This paper describes E. canis seroprevalence, PCR prevalence and tick analysis in dogs from Costa Rica, with associated clinical signs and owner perceptions. In summary, most of the E. canis infections in dogs in our country seemed to pass unnoticed by owners. Since most of the seropositive dogs (97.7%, 131/134) were negative for E. canis DNA in their blood, it is important to determine in future studies if these dogs recovered from the E. canis infection without any medication, or are persistently infected, and will develop chronic disease.

  16. Ehrlichia canis infection in a dog with no history of travel outside the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H E; Mugford, A R; Humm, K R; Kellett-Gregory, L M

    2013-08-01

    A two-year-old female neutered Tibetan terrier was referred following a one-month history of lethargy, inappetence and pancytopenia, which had been poorly responsive to immunosuppressive and fluoroquinolone treatment. The dog was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia and was found to be positive for Ehrlichia canis by both antibody titre measurement and polymerase chain reaction. The dog lived in London and had not travelled outside the UK. The dog was treated with doxycycline, prednisolone and ciclosporin, but died as a result of gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first reported case of Ehrlichia canis in a dog in the UK with no previous travel history.

  17. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs by IFA Test and Dot-ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    ERDEĞER, Jale

    2003-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). The aim of this study was to detect E. canis antibodies in dogs by the IFA and dot-ELISA techniques. Blood sera from 239 dogs were collected as material. IFA test and dot-ELISA were performed with commercially available test kits. The IFA test was applied according to the procedure in the IFA kit. The Immunocomb test system was used in dot-ELISA. Agreement between these techniques was analysed by the kappa (K) tes...

  18. [Helminths of wolves (Canis lupus) from south Mazurian Lakeland, a coprological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bajer, Anna

    2003-01-01

    52 wolf scats collected during winter 2001/2002 in Puszcza Piska and Napiwodzko-Ramuckic forests were examined using Fulleborn's method. The overall helminth prevalence was 28.8%. Six helminth species were recorded, the most frequent species were Uncinaria stenocepmhala/Ancylostoma caninmu (treated together; found in 6 samples), Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis (both identified in 4 samples). The mean intensity of egg expulsion was 2.0 eggs/g feces, the most intense infection was this with Toxocara canis (average 23.0 eggs/g feces). There were observed differences in prevalence of parasite' species between packs. Present paper is first such an investigation in northeastern Poland.

  19. Prevalence of rare Eimeria canis from the non descript dogs of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Vikrant Sudan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of parasites particularly helminths, arthropods and protozoans affect dogs but when it comes to intestinal coccidians, their number is scanty.  Eimeria canis is perhaps the most under reported parasite of dogs. The present paper deals with the prevalence of E.canis in dogs with no possible history of deworming from Mathura region, India.  Finally, the morphology of the parasite, present scenario, reasons for under reporting vis-à-vis future projections are being described.

  20. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

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    Paula de Lima Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts.

  1. A case of unusual septic knee arthritis with Brucella abortus after arthroscopic meniscus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Hwa; Kang, Hyunseong; Kim, Taejung; Choi, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    We present a 51-year-old male patient with Brucella abortus septic arthritis in the right knee following arthroscopic meniscus surgery. He had eaten a traditional dish of raw minced cattle conceptus (bovine fetus) that was prepared after the cow was slaughtered. Despite treatment with empirical antibiotics and debridement of the postoperative surgical wound, the infection persisted without improvement. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing identified Brucella abortus from tissue samples obtained from the patient. After confirmation of the diagnosis of brucellar infection, antibiotics were replaced with doxycycline and rifampin, which were used for 4 months. In patients with a non-specific arthralgia who eat raw meat or live close to animals, it is important to consider the possibility of septic arthritis due to infection with Brucella spp.

  2. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Brucella Isolates in Cattle Milk in Uganda

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    Denis Rwabiita Mugizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is endemic in livestock and humans in Uganda and its transmission involves a multitude of risk factors like consumption of milk from infected cattle. To shed new light on the epidemiology of brucellosis in Uganda the present study used phenotypic and molecular approaches to delineate the Brucella species, biovars, and genotypes shed in cattle milk. Brucella abortus without a biovar designation was isolated from eleven out of 207 milk samples from cattle in Uganda. These isolates had a genomic monomorphism at 16 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR loci and showed in turn high levels of genetic variation when compared with other African strains or other B. abortus biovars from other parts of the world. This study further highlights the usefulness of MLVA as an epidemiological tool for investigation of Brucella infections.

  3. Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2012-12-01

    The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria.

  4. BtpB, a novel Brucella TIR-containing effector protein with immune modulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Suzana P; Marchesini, María I; Degos, Clara; Terwagne, Matthieu; Von Bargen, Kristine; Lepidi, Hubert; Herrmann, Claudia K; Santos Lacerda, Thais L; Imbert, Paul R C; Pierre, Philippe; Alexopoulou, Lena; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Comerci, Diego J; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Several bacterial pathogens have TIR domain-containing proteins that contribute to their pathogenesis. We identified a second TIR-containing protein in Brucella spp. that we have designated BtpB. We show it is a potent inhibitor of TLR signaling, probably via MyD88. BtpB is a novel Brucella effector that is translocated into host cells and interferes with activation of dendritic cells. In vivo mouse studies revealed that BtpB is contributing to virulence and control of local inflammatory responses with relevance in the establishment of chronic brucellosis. Together, our results show that BtpB is a novel Brucella effector that plays a major role in the modulation of host innate immune response during infection.

  5. Infection of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with terrestrial Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Téllez, Rosalía; Ramírez-Pfeiffer, Carlos; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Sánchez-Domínguez, Carlos; Zavala-Norzagaray, Alan; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Aguirre, A Alonso; Aurioles-Gamboa, David

    2014-10-01

    Infections with Brucella ceti and pinnipedialis are prevalent in marine mammals worldwide. A total of 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were examined to determine their exposure to Brucella spp. at San Esteban Island in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in June and July 2011. Although samples of blood, vaginal mucus and milk cultured negative for these bacteria, the application of rose Bengal, agar gel immunodiffusion, PCR and modified fluorescence polarization assays found that five animals (22.7%) had evidence of exposure to Brucella strains. The data also suggested that in two of these five sea lions the strains involved were of terrestrial origin, a novel finding in marine mammals. Further work will be required to validate and determine the epidemiological significance of this finding.

  6. Molecular detection and characterization of Brucella species in raw informally marketed milk from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Tove; Rock, Kim; Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Lindahl-Rajala, Elisabeth; Erume, Joseph; Magnusson, Ulf; Lundkvist, Åke; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study identified and characterized Brucella species in the informal milk chain in Uganda. A total of 324 cattle bulk milk samples were screened for the genus Brucella by real-time PCR with primers targeting the bcsp31 gene and further characterized by the omp25 gene. Of the samples tested, 6.5% were positive for Brucella species. In the omp25 phylogeny, the study sequences were found to form a separate clade within the branch containing B. abortus sequences. The study shows that informally marketed cattle milk in Uganda is a likely risk factor for human brucellosis and confirms that B. abortus is present in the cattle population. This information is important for potential future control measures, such as vaccination of cattle. PMID:27839533

  7. Expression, purification and immunochemical characterization of recombinant OMP28 protein of Brucella species

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    Y. Manat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the lion’s share of infectious disease of animals and it has a particular socio-economic importance for the Republic of Kazakhstan. Sixty percent of epizootic outbreaks of brucellosis identified in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS originated from Kazakhstan in recent years. Definitive diagnosis of brucellosis remains a difficult task. Precisely for this reason, we evaluated a purified recombinant out membrane protein 28 (rOMP28 of Brucella species (Brucella spp. produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli as a diagnostic antigen in an Indirect ELISA (I-ELISA for bovine brucellosis. The gene encoding OMP28 was synthesized using a two-round PCR procedure. In order to produce the rOMP28, the de novo synthesized DNA was cloned into the expression vector pET-22b(+. Then, the rOMP28 was expressed in E. coli system and characterized in the present study. We further estimated the diagnostic potential of purified rOMP28 of Brucella spp. for screening bovine sera. To determine if rOMP28 has a valuable benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rOMP28-based I-ELISA was performed. Brucella spp. positive (n=62 and Brucella spp. negative (n=28 samples from tube agglutination test (TAT were positive (n=59 and negative (n=27 by I-ELISA, respectively. These findings show that the rOMP28 of Brucella spp. could be a good candidate for improving serological diagnostic methods for bovine brucellosis.

  8. Reliable identification at the species level of Brucella isolates with MALDI-TOF-MS

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    Lista Florigio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Brucella contains highly infectious species that are classified as biological threat agents. The timely detection and identification of the microorganism involved is essential for an effective response not only to biological warfare attacks but also to natural outbreaks. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS is a rapid method for the analysis of biological samples. The advantages of this method, compared to conventional techniques, are rapidity, cost-effectiveness, accuracy and suitability for the high-throughput identification of bacteria. Discrepancies between taxonomy and genetic relatedness on the species and biovar level complicate the development of detection and identification assays. Results In this study, the accurate identification of Brucella species using MALDI-TOF-MS was achieved by constructing a Brucella reference library based on multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA data. By comparing MS-spectra from Brucella species against a custom-made MALDI-TOF-MS reference library, MALDI-TOF-MS could be used as a rapid identification method for Brucella species. In this way, 99.3% of the 152 isolates tested were identified at the species level, and B. suis biovar 1 and 2 were identified at the level of their biovar. This result demonstrates that for Brucella, even minimal genomic differences between these serovars translate to specific proteomic differences. Conclusions MALDI-TOF-MS can be developed into a fast and reliable identification method for genetically highly related species when potential taxonomic and genetic inconsistencies are taken into consideration during the generation of the reference library.

  9. Lab on a chip genotyping for Brucella spp. based on 15-loci multi locus VNTR analysis

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    Marianelli Cinzia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an important zoonosis caused by the genus Brucella. In addition Brucella represents potential biological warfare agents due to the high contagious rates for humans and animals. Therefore, the strain typing epidemiological tool may be crucial for tracing back source of infection in outbreaks and discriminating naturally occurring outbreaks versus bioterroristic event. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 15 polymorphic markers was previously described. The obtained MLVA band profiles may be resolved by techniques ranging from low cost manual agarose gels to the more expensive capillary electrophoresis sequencing. In this paper a rapid, accurate and reproducible system, based on the Lab on a chip technology was set up for Brucella spp. genotyping. Results Seventeen DNA samples of Brucella strains isolated in Sicily, previously genotyped, and twelve DNA samples, provided by MLVA Brucella VNTR ring trial, were analyzed by MLVA-15 on Agilent 2100. The DNA fragment sizes produced by Agilent, compared with those expected, showed discrepancies; therefore, in order to assign the correct alleles to the Agilent DNA fragment sizes, a conversion table was produced. In order to validate the system twelve unknown DNA samples were analyzed by this method obtaining a full concordance with the VNTR ring trial results. Conclusion In this paper we described a rapid and specific detection method for the characterization of Brucella isolates. The comparison of the MLVA typing data produced by Agilent system with the data obtained by standard sequencing or ethidium bromide slab gel electrophoresis showed a general concordance of the results. Therefore this platform represents a fair compromise among costs, speed and specificity compared to any conventional molecular typing technique.

  10. Molecular detection of Brucella species in patients suspicious of Brucellosis from Zanjan, Iran

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    Maryam Garshasbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella is an intracellular pathogen capable of infecting animals and humans. The aim of this study was to identify Brucella spp in sera of high risk individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based method. A total of 180 patients suspected to have Brucellosis were examined by serological tests. To establish a PCR protocol for diagnosis of active brucellosis, DNA was extracted from the serum samples by using a commercial kit. PCR amplification was done for detection of Brocella DNA using BCSP31 target gene and IS711 locus. The PCR assay showed that an amplicon of 223 bp was obtained in 73.8% (133/180 of the tested sera using primers (B4/B5 derived from a gene encoding the 31-kDa Brucella abortus antigen. In another PCR, an amplicon of 498 bp was obtained in 63.8% (115/180 of the samples using Brucella abortus-specific primers derived from a locus adjacent to the 3'-end of IS711, and also an amplicon of 731 bp was produced in 4.4% (8/180 of the tested samples using Brucella melitensis-specific primers. When the Wright method was used as a gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR technique for genus identification were found to be 96 and 80.7%, respectively. However, the sensitivity value obtained with the species-specific PCR method was 82%, and specificity was similar to that previous reported. This is the first report of a high frequency of Brucella abortus in patients suspicious of Brucellosis from the Zanjan province.

  11. The role of NLRP3 and AIM2 in inflammasome activation during Brucella abortus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Tulio R.; Miraglia, Maria Cruz; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is essential for detection and elimination of bacterial pathogens. Upon inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to their mature forms IL-1β and IL-18, respectively, and the cell undergoes inflammatory death termed pyroptosis. Here we reviewed recent findings demonstrating that Brucella abortus ligands activate NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes which leads to control of infection. This protective effect is due to inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than cell death. Brucella DNA is sensed by AIM2 and bacteria induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is detected by NLRP3. However, deregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production can lead to immunopathology. Nervous system invasion by bacteria of the genus Brucella results in an inflammatory disorder termed neurobrucellosis. Herein we discuss the mechanism of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in glial cells infected with B. abortus. Our results demonstrate that the ASC inflammasome is indispensable for inducing the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β upon infection of astrocytes and microglia with Brucella. Moreover, our results demonstrate that secretion of IL-1β by Brucella-infected glial cells depends on NLRP3 and AIM2 and leads to neurobrucellosis. Further, the inhibition of the host cell inflammasome as an immune evasion strategy has been described for bacterial pathogens. We discuss here that the bacterial type IV secretion system VirB is required for inflammasome activation in host cells during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes mainly NLRP3 and AIM2 that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response. PMID:27405866

  12. Whole-genome analyses of the speciation events in the pathogenic Brucellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, P; Comerci, D; Tolmasky, M; Larimer, F; Malfatti, S; Vergez, L; Aguero, F; Land, M; Ugalde, R; Garcia, E

    2005-07-14

    Despite their high DNA identity and a proposal to group classical Brucella species as biovars of B. melitensis, the commonly recognized Brucella species can be distinguished by distinct biochemical and fatty acid characters as well as by a marked host range (e.g. B. suis for swine, B. melitensis for sheep and goats, B. abortus for cattle). Here we present the genome of B. abortus 2308, the virulent prototype biovar 1 strain, and its comparison to the two other human pathogenic Brucellae species and to the B. abortus field isolate 9-941. The global distribution of pseudogenes, deletions and insertions support previous indications that B. abortus and B. melitensis share a common ancestor that diverged from B. suis. With the exception of a dozen genes, the genetic complement of both B. abortus strains is identical, whereas the three species differ in gene content and pseudogenes. The pattern of species-specific gene inactivations affecting transcriptional regulators and outer membrane proteins suggest that these inactivations may play an important role in the establishment of host-specificity and may have been a primary driver of speciation in the Brucellae. Despite being non-motile, the Brucellae contain flagellum gene clusters and display species-specific flagellar gene inactivations, which lead to the putative generation of different versions of flagellum-derived structures, and may contribute to differences in host-specificity and virulence. Metabolic changes such as the lack of complete metabolic pathways for the synthesis of numerous compounds (e.g. glycogen, biotin, NAD, and choline) are consistent with adaptation of Brucellae to an intracellular lifestyle.

  13. Serological cross-reactivity of Trypanosoma cruzi, Ehrlichia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Babesia canis to Leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs

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    Maurício Franco Zanette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens. Methods: Positive serum samples for Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma cruzi were tested using three serological methods enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and Kalazar Detect™, for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Results: Of the 57 dog samples tested, 24 (42.1% tested positive using one of the three serological methods: 10/57 (17.5% for ELISA, 11/57 (19.3% for IFAT and 3/57 (5.3% for Kalazar Detect™. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the presence of other infectious agents may lead to cross-reactivity on leishmaniasis serological tests.

  14. Isolation of Brucella melitensis from a human case of chronic additive polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahota, R; Dattal, A; Thakur, S D; Sharma, M

    2015-01-01

    Brucellar arthritis remains under diagnosed owing to non-specific clinical manifestations. Here, we report isolation of Brucella melitensis from synovial fluid of 5th metatarsophalangeal joint of a 39-year-old lady having unusually chronic asymmetric, additive, peripheral polyarthritis. This isolation was confirmed by Bruce-Ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient had a history of contact with an aborted goat. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (SAT) were positive for Brucella-specific antibodies both for patient and in contact with sheep and goats. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampicin for 16 weeks and was recovered fully.

  15. Isolation of Brucella melitensis from a human case of chronic additive polyarthritis

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    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellar arthritis remains under diagnosed owing to non-specific clinical manifestations. Here, we report isolation of Brucella melitensis from synovial fluid of 5 th metatarsophalangeal joint of a 39-year-old lady having unusually chronic asymmetric, additive, peripheral polyarthritis. This isolation was confirmed by Bruce-Ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The patient had a history of contact with an aborted goat. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (SAT were positive for Brucella-specific antibodies both for patient and in contact with sheep and goats. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampicin for 16 weeks and was recovered fully.

  16. Genomic comparisons of Brucella spp. and closely related bacteria using base compositional and proteome based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, Jon; Snipen, Lars; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2010-01-01

    , genomic codon and amino acid frequencies based comparisons) and proteomes (all-against-all BLAST protein comparisons and pan-genomic analyses). RESULTS: We found that the oligonucleotide based methods gave different results compared to that of the proteome based methods. Differences were also found...... than proteome comparisons between species in genus Brucella and genus Ochrobactrum. Pan-genomic analyses indicated that uptake of DNA from outside genus Brucella appears to be limited. CONCLUSIONS: While both the proteome based methods and the Markov chain based genomic signatures were able to reflect...

  17. Rapid identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis by chip-based continuous flow PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, Michael; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    To combat the threat of biological agents like Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis in bioterroristic scenarios requires fast, easy-to-use and safe identification systems. In this study we describe a system for rapid amplification of specific genetic markers for the identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis. Using chip based PCR and continuous flow technology we were able to amplify the targets simultaneously with a 2-step reaction profile within 20 minutes. The subsequent analysis of amplified fragments by standard gel electrophoresis requires another 45 minutes. We were able to detect both pathogens within 75 minutes being much faster than most other nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  18. MEDICAL vs. MEDICAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR BRUCELLA ENDOCARDITIS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Marzieh; Hossain, Mian; Sajadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This review was undertaken to determine the role of surgery in the treatment of brucella endocarditis. All English and French articles reporting brucella endocarditis (1966–2011) in Pubmed, Google and Scopus were reviewed. 308 cases were identified and Linear and Logistic regression was performed. Surgery improved outcomes by decreasing mortality from 32.7% in the medical treatment only group to 6.7% in the combined surgical and medical treatment group (p<.001). This association was still significant while controlling for other contributing factors. In the absence of a controlled trial, we recommend the utmost vigilance and consideration of surgical management in treating such patients. PMID:23102495

  19. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; McGill, J L; Sacco, R E; Hennager, S G

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 10(10) CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P abortus strain 2308. The incidences of abortion and infection were greater (P Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against brucellosis in bison.

  20. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

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    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.

  1. The first International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGiven, J; Taylor, A; Duncombe, L; Sayers, R; Albert, D; Banai, M; Blasco, J M; Elena, S; Fretin, D; Garin-Bastuji, B; Melzer, F; Muñoz, P M; Nielsen, K; Nicola, A; Scacchia, M; Tittarelli, M; Dias, I Travassos; Walravens, K; Stack, J

    2011-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) requested an International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum (ISaBmS) to standardise diagnostic tests and reagents for sheep and goats. The agreed criteria were the highest dilution (in negative serum) of the standard which must give a positive result and the lowest dilution (in negative serum) which must simultaneously give a negative result. The two dilutions for each assay were, respectively: indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) 1/64 and 1/750, competitive ELISA (cELISA) 1/8 and 1/300, fluorescent polarisation assay (FPA) 1/16 and 1/200, Rose Bengal test (RBT) 1/16 and 1/200. The OIE International Standard Serum (OIEISS) will remain the primary standard for the RBT; the ISaBmS is an additional standard. It was impossible to set criteria for the complement fixation test, therefore the OIEISS will remain the primary standard. The ISaBmS can be used to standardise iELISA, cELISA and FPA to diagnose sheep and goat brucellosis. This standard should facilitate harmonisation of tests used for brucellosis surveillance and international trade in these species.

  2. Brucella abortus: pathogenicity and gene regulation of virulence

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    Olga Rivas-Solano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus is a zoonotic intracellular facultative pathogen belonging to the subdivision α2 of class Proteobacteria. It causes a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease called brucellosis. The main symptoms are abortion and sterility in cattle, as well as an undulant febrile condition in humans. In endemic regions like Central America, brucellosis has a high socioeconomic impact. A basic research project was recently conducted at the ITCR with the purpose of studying gene regulation of virulence, structure and immunogenicity in B. abortus. The present review was written as part of this project. B. abortus virulence seems to be determined by its ability to invade, survive and replicate inside professional and non-professional phagocytes. It reaches its intracellular replicative niche without the activation of host antimicrobial mechanisms of innate immunity. It also has gene regulation mechanisms for a rapid adaptation to an intracellular environment such as the two-component signal transduction system BvrR/BvrS and the quorum sensing regulator called Vjbr, as well as other transcription factors. All of them integrate a complex gene regulation network.

  3. Brucella abortus RB51 in milk of vaccinated adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Resende, Thiago Magalhães; Vaz, Adil Knackfuss; Ferraz, Sandra Maria; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shedding of Brucella abortus in the milk of cows vaccinated with a full dose of RB51 during lactation. Eighteen cows, nine previously vaccinated with S19 as calves and nine non-vaccinated, were immunized subcutaneously with 1.3×10(10)CFU of B. abortus RB51, 30-60days after parturition. Milk samples from all animals were collected daily until day 7, and at weekly interval for the next 9 weeks after vaccination. To evaluate the shedding of B. abortus, milk samples were submitted for culture and PCR. No B. abortus was isolated from any sample tested. Only one sample, collected on first day after vaccination from a cow previously vaccinated, was faintly positive in the PCR. In conclusion, the public health hazard associated with milk consumption from cows vaccinated with RB51 in post-partum is very low, despite vaccination with the full dose and regardless of previous S19 vaccination.

  4. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island.

  5. Brucella ovis: invasion, traffic, virulence factors and immune responseBrucella ovis: invasão, tráfego, fatores de virulência e resposta imune

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    João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis remains an economic problem in animals and public health. Worldwide ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is considered a major cause of infertility in sheep. The factors responsible for persistence of the agent in these locations are not known, as well as the mechanisms involved in immune defense and possibly the persistence of the agent. Brucella spp. induces moderate inflammatory response. The nature of the intracellular agent stimulates immune response of the type 1 helper T lymphocytes. Studies of the pathogenesis of ovine brucellosis are scarce. Recent developments have shown that the inflammatory response induced by moderate brucelas represent probably the result of an attempt to escape the immune response and suppression of host immune response. Were reviewed by the mechanisms described by brucelas and Brucella ovis for penetration into the host, escape of the immune response and the immune response generated by the infection. A brucelose permanece como problema econômico em animais e de saúde pública. Em todo o mundo a brucelose ovina ocasionada pela Brucella ovis é considerada uma das principais causas de infertilidade em ovinos. Os fatores responsáveis pela persistência do agente nestes locais não são conhecidos, bem como os mecanismos imunes envolvidos na defesa e eventualmente na persistência do agente. Brucella spp. induz resposta inflamatória moderada. A natureza intracelular do agente estimula resposta imune celular do tipo linfócito T helper 1. Os estudos de patogenia da brucelose ovina são escassos. Recentes avanços demonstraram que a resposta inflamatória moderada induzida pelas brucelas representam provavelmente o resultado de tentativa de escape da resposta imune e supressão da resposta imune hospedeira. Foram revisados os mecanismos descritos pelas brucelas e pela Brucella ovis para penetração no hospedeiro, escape da resposta imune, bem como a resposta imunológica gerada pela infecção.

  6. Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I

  7. Characterization and evaluation of an arbitrary primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) product for the specific detection of Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Jafar A; AlMomin, Sabah; Al-Mouqati, Salwa A; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory detection of Brucella is based largely on bacterial isolation and phenotypic characterization. These methods are lengthy and labor-intensive and have been associated with a heightened risk of laboratory-acquired infection. Antibody based indirect detection methods also suffer from limitations in proper diagnosis of the organism. To overcome these problems, nucleic acid amplification has been explored for rapid detection and confirmation of the presence of Brucella spp. PCR-based diagnostics is useful for screening large populations of livestock to identify infected individuals and confirms the presence of the pathogen. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed and identified a 1.3 kb PCR fragment specifically amplifiable from DNA isolated from Brucella. A BLAST search revealed no significant homology with the reported sequences from species other than the members of Brucella. The isolated fragment seems to be a part of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase gene in Brucella sp. Translational BLAST revealed certain degree of homology of this sequence with orthologs of this gene reported from other microbial species at the deduced amino acid level. The sequence information was used to develop PCR based assays to detect Brucella sp. from various samples. The minimum detection limit of Brucella from blood and milk samples spiked with Brucella DNA was found to be 1 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the PCR based detection protocol was successfully used for the detection of Brucella from various organs and spiked samples of diseased sheep. Diagnosis of Brucellosis by PCR based method reported in this study is relatively rapid, specific and simple.

  8. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaïa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections.

  9. First phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in dogs and ticks from Mexico. Preliminary study

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    Carolina G. Sosa-Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Phylogenetic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in dogs naturally infected and ticks, diagnosed by PCR and sequencing of 16SrRNA gene; compare different isolates found in American countries. Materials and methods. Were collected Blood samples from 139 dogs with suggestive clinical manifestations of this disease and they were infested with ticks; part of 16SrRNA gene was sequenced and aligned, with 17 sequences reported in American countries. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method, and Maximum parsimony. Results. They were positive to E. canis 25/139 (18.0% dogs and 29/139 (20.9% ticks. The clinical manifestations presented were fever, fatigue, depression and vomiting. Rhipicephalus sanguineus Dermacentor variabilis and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks were positive for E. canis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences of dogs and ticks in Mexico form a third group diverging of sequences from South America and USA. Conclusions. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of E. canis in Mexico. There are differences in the sequences of Mexico with those reported in South America and USA. This research lays the foundation for further study of genetic variability.

  10. Detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys DNA using multiplex PCR.

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    Rufino, Claudia Pinheiro; Moraes, Pablo Henrique Gonçalves; Reis, Thais; Campos, Ruan; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; McCulloch, John Anthony; Meneses, Andre Marcelo Conceição; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2013-12-01

    We hereby propose a novel sensitive, specific, and cost-efficient method to detect Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys DNA from canine whole blood samples by multiplex PCR. Blood samples from hemoparasited dogs attending the Veterinary Hospital at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia-UFRA, Belém, Brazil, were collected in tubes containing EDTA. Amplification of E. canis and A. platys 16S rDNA by nested (n) PCR was successfully achieved by using primers specific to the Anaplasmataceae in the first round of PCR, followed by a second round of PCR using E. canis-specific primers in conjunction with A. platys-specific primers. The amplicons obtained were cloned and sequenced, yielding sequences of 478 and 473 bp (including primers) pertaining to regions of the 16S rDNA of E. canis and A. platys, respectively. The protocol we here propose may help to measure the prevalence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrompocytopenia, not only in northern Brazil, where there is no data available, but also elsewhere.

  11. First description of natural Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infections in dogs from Argentina.

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    Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, María Belén; Vezzani, Darío; Eyal, Osnat; Baneth, Gad

    2013-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family are vector transmitted agents that affect a variety of vertebrate hosts including the tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys, which cause canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively. These two infections, typically reported from tropical and sub-tropical regions, have not been previously reported in dogs from Argentina. A total of 86 blood samples from dogs with suspected rickettsial disease and 28 non-suspected dogs were studied. Analysis included evaluation of hematological findings, PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and sequencing of the positive PCR products. E. canis was detected in the blood of six dogs and A. platys in eighteen. All the dogs categorized as non-suspected were negative by PCR. Co-infection with Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli was documented. This first report of E. canis and A. platys infections in dogs from Argentina indicates that these tick-borne infections have a considerably broader range than previously recognized in South America.

  12. Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.

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    Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs.

  13. BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii

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    Flávia Motta Corrêa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice.

  14. Serological survey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

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    We tested serologic samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007–2013 for exposure to 8 canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota’s wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups...

  15. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

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    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  16. Killing of a muskox, Ovibus moschatus, by two wolves, Canis lupis, and subsequent caching

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    Mech, L.D.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed

  17. Antibodies reactive with Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the communal lands of Zimbabwe

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    P.J. Kelly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis were determined in sera from 228 dogs in 5 communal lands of Zimbabwe, areas where traditional subsistence agro-pastoralism is practised. The sera were collected from apparently healthy dogs during routine rabies vaccination programmes and tested with indirect fluorescent antibody assays using B. henselae (Houston-I and E. canis (Oklahoma as antigens. We found reactive antibodies (>1:80 against B. henselae in 14 % of the dogs tested. Seropositive animals were found in Bikita (41 %; 17/42, Omay (13 %; 6/48, Chinamora (5 %; 2/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. No seropositive dogs were found in Chiredzi (0 %; 0/52. Antibodies reactive with E. canis (>1:80 were found in 34%of the dogs tested, from Bikita (88 %; 37/42, Chiredzi (31 %; 16/52, Omay (17 %; 8/48, Chinamora (26 %; 10/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. Our survey shows dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are frequently exposed to E. canis and B. henselae or closely related species. Further studies are indicated to determine the pathogenicity of the organisms infecting these dogs and their clinical significance.

  18. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

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    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

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    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  20. Toxocara canis: impact of preweaning nutritional deprivation on the pathogenesis of pneumonia in the mouse.

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    Moreira, Daniela S; Rocha, Gutemberg M

    2005-08-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand the immure response to Toxocara canis pneumonia in mice with preweaning nutritional deprivation. Breast-fed Swiss mice, undernourished due to large litter size (up to 15 pups) and paired controls with only 5-8 pups were used. At 21 days old, both groups were infected with T. canis larvae. Liver retinol, retinyl palmitate, and inflammatory infiltrate in lungs were compared in both groups. Significantly lower levels of retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver tissue confirmed the hypovitaminosis A (P nutritionally deprived animals. Histological analysis showed similar eosinophilic infiltration in both groups at day 3 but was significantly more severe in undernourished mice at day 20 post-infection (P = 0.01). The present findings indicate that preweaning undernourishment is associated with a more severe inflammation in response to T. canis pneumonia. It suggests that vitamin A deficiency that persists after nutritional rehabilitation, may contribute to the severity of T. canis infection. The authors suggest that nutritional status should be carefully investigated in patients with more severe clinical findings.